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Sample records for acari eriophyidae damage

  1. Oxicenus maxwelli (Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae danificando a cultura da oliveira, Olea europaea L., no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Oxicenus maxwelli (Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae damaging olive tree, Olea europaea L., in Rio Grande do Sul State

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    Marcelo Perrone Ricalde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O micro ácaro da oliveira Oxicenus maxwelli (Keifer, 1939 foi identificado em pomares de oliveira nos municípios de Santana do Livramento, Bagé, Candiota, Pelotas e Rio Grande, RS, nos meses de novembro de 2010 a fevereiro de 2011. A espécie foi encontrada nas faces superior e inferior de folhas jovens, em flores e brotos, onde causa deformações, queda de folhas e flores, diminuição da fotossíntese e superbrotação, prejudicando a produção da planta e a comercialização dos frutos deformados. Este é o primeiro registro da espécie atacando a oliveira no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.The olive bud mite Oxicenus maxwelli (Keifer, 1939 was identified in olive groves in the municipalities of Santana do Livramento, Bagé, Candiota, Pelotas and Rio Grande, RS in November 2010 to February 2011. The specie was found on the upper surface and under surface of young leaves, flowers and buds where it causes deformities, loss of leaves and flowers, decreased photosynthesis and budding, damaging the plant's production and marketing of deformed fruits. This is the first record of the species attacking the olive tree in the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

  2. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants.

  3. SELECTION OF MODELS FOR SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING OF THE TAN-MITE Dichopelmus notus KEIFER (ACARI, ERIOPHYIDAE IN MATE-TEA

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    João Vieira Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research established models for the construction of plans of binomial sequential sampling for the tan-miteDichopelmus notus Keifer (Acari, Eriophyidae in mate-tea orchards. The study was carried out in a ten years old orchard, locatedin Chapecó, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. In three areas of approximately 2,500 m2, 30 plants had been selected randomly. Fortnightly,from January to December, 2004, infestation of D. notus in 18 mature leaves of ten plants in each area were evaluated. Theevaluations were executed directly in the orchard, using lenses (10x and 1 cm2 of fixed field. The lines of the sequential plans wereconstructed using the methodology based on the confidence interval of Iwao (1975, considering the models of Normal Approach withCorrection of Continuity, Normal Approach of Blyth (1986, Approach of Hall (1982 modified by Blyth (1986, Normal Approach ofMolenaar (1973, Normal Approach of Pratt (1968 and Leemis & Trivedi (1996 methodology. The models were evaluatedconsidering amplitude analysis of the confidence intervals. The results had evidenced that the Model of Normal Approach withCorrection of Continuity must preferentiably be used in the elaboration of plans of binomial sequential sampling for the tan-mite inmate-tea orchards.

  4. A new genus and species Mangalaus krishianusandhanus (Acari: Eriophyidae) from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalaus ikrishianusandhanus n. gen., n. sp., (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), collected from erineum on the underside of leaves of Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae) is described and illustrated from specimens collected at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi, India....

  5. Curative and Preventive Control of Aceria aloinis (Acari: Eriophyidae) in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, L E; Bethke, J A; Dahlke, B; Vander Mey, B; Corkidi, L

    2014-12-01

    The aloe mite, Aceria aloinis Keifer, causes physiological and morphological alterations in species of Aloe L. We conducted three trials to evaluate the potential of various miticides for curative and preventive control of damage caused by A. aloinis. In the first trial, the efficacy of nine miticides against aloe mite damage was assessed without the removal of infected tissue in Aloe reitziiae Reynolds. Although significant reductions in the number of mites and eggs were found due to the treatments, miticide application did not reduce the amount of plant area damaged or damage severity. Once the plants are infected, the irreversible damage by aloe mite progresses. The second trial analyzed the effects of seven miticides on aloe mite damage on Aloe 'Goliath' plants in which the damaged tissue was removed. Reduced damage severity and mite number was observed in all treated plants. To determine if aloe mite damage could be prevented, the effects of six miticides with and without surfactant were tested on uninfected plants of Aloe spinosissima A. Berger in a third trial. Except for chlorfenapyr and fenazaquin, all treatments reduced plant damaged area, damage severity, and the number of mites 60 wk following three miticide applications. The severity index in the second and third trials suggested that all treated plants would be marketable. Our study demonstrated that there were miticides that were effective by contact (carbaryl), translaminar (spiromesifen), and systemic (spirotetramat) action, which can be used to cure and to prevent aloe mite plant damage alone or in combination with cultural practices. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  6. Dinâmica populacional de Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa (Acari: eriophyidae em cultivares de videira na região da campanha do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Paulo Ricardo Ebert Siqueira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Na Região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul, o ácaro-da-ferrugem-da-videira, Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa (Acari: Eriophyidae, é encontrado com frequência em vinhedos de cultivares europeias, desde a safra de 2004/2005, causando bronzeamento nas folhas. A dinâmica populacional de C. vitis nas cultivares Chardonnay e Merlot foi avaliada em vinhedo comercial localizado no município de Dom Pedrito, na região da Campanha, durante os anos agrícolas de 2005/2006 e 2006/2007, por meio de amostragem realizada em folhas das posições basal, intermediária e apical de ramos de produção. O pico populacional de C. vitis ocorre entre o final de fevereiro e o início de março, sendo seguido de forte declínio populacional. A infestação variou de intensidade entre as cultivares de acordo com o ano, sendo a cultivar Chardonnay mais infestada no primeiro ano, e Merlot, no segundo. Folhas na posição basal, mediana e apical apresentam níveis similares de infestação. Uma correlação positiva foi encontrada entre o número de C. vitis na face abaxial das folhas e o percentual de folhas com infestação.

  7. Dinâmica populacional de ácaros fitófagos (Acari, Eriophyidae, Tenuipalpidae em seis clones de seringueira no sul do Estado de Mato Grosso Population dynamics of phytophagous mites (Acari, Eriophyidae, Tenuipalpidae on six rubber trees clones in southern Mato Grosso State

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    Rodrigo Damasco Daud

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a dinâmica populacional de Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992, Phyllocoptruta seringueirae Feres, 1998 (Eriophyidae e Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae em seis clones de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., com o intuito de conhecer a sazonalidade e as possíveis diferenças nos níveis de infestação dessas espécies sobre os diferentes clones, em seringal localizado no sul do Estado de Mato Grosso. Para isso, no período de março de 2004 a março de 2005, foram realizadas coletas num intervalo médio de catorze dias em seis parcelas clonais. Em cada amostragem, foram analisados 100 folíolos de cada parcela, registrando-se o número total de ácaros encontrados em ambas as faces. Os níveis de infestação das espécies variaram entre os diferentes clones. O clone RRIM 600 apresentou maior abundância de T. heveae, enquanto que PB 235 e PB 260 de P. seringueira e C. heveae, respectivamente. Por outro lado, esse último clone apresentou menor número de indivíduos de T. heveae e P. seringueirae, e PB 235 de C. heveae. O primeiro semestre foi o período crítico de infestação, porém a duração da ocorrência e o pico de abundância dos fitófagos variaram nos diferentes clones.The population dynamics of Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992, Phyllocoptruta seringueirae Feres, 1998 (Eriophyidae and Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae was studied on six rubber tree clones (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. in south of Mato Grosso State, Brazil, in order to verify the seasonality and the possible differences on the infestation levels of these mites. The samplings were made from March 2004 to March 2005, with an average interval of fourteen days between each sampling. In each sampling, 100 leaflets were taken from each clone crop, and the total number of mites found in both leaf surfaces was registered. The infestation levels of mites differed among the clones. The clone RRIM 600 showed the highest number of T

  8. Pode Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predar Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) em coqueiro?

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    MELO, José W da S; DOMINGOS, Cleiton A; GONDIM JR, Manoel G C; de Moraes, Gilberto J.

    2009-01-01

    Ácaros do gênero Euseius são geralmente considerados especialistas na alimentação de pólen. Euseius alatus DeLeon é uma das seis espécies de ácaros fitoseídeos mais comumente encontrados em plantas de coqueiro no Nordeste do Brasil, associado com Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Apesar de a morfologia de E. alatus não favorecer a exploração da área meristemática do fruto habitada por A. guerreronis, o predador pode ter algum papel no controle do eriofídeo durante o processo de dispersão. O objetivo...

  9. Eriophyoid mites from Eastern India: description of three new species (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Pranab; Karmakar, Krishna

    2016-01-11

    Three new eriophyoid mite species, namely Dichopelmus puncti n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from cogan grass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae); Calacarus kalyaniensis n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and Neorhynacus bidhanae n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae) from Croton caudatus (Euphorbiaceae), are described and illustrated from West Bengal, India. The new species are vagrants on the leaves of their respective host plants with no visible damage observed. Keys to the known species of Dichopelmus and Neorhynacus are provided along with a checklist of eriophyoid mites species present in West Bengal.

  10. Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?; Pode Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predar Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) em coqueiro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Jose W. da S.; Domingos, Cleiton A.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia. Area de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: mguedes@depa.ufrpe.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field. (author)

  11. Morphometric analyses reveal synonymy of two monotypic genera, Huangiella and Tumoris (Acari, Eriophyoidea, Eriophyidae

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    Kun-Wei Huang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation of Huangiella lanyuensis (Huang, 2001 and Tumoris sanasaii Huang, 2001 from Taiwan was analyzed using multivariate statistical methods. We show that these species are the same and propose to use the name Tumoris sanasaii. No significant differences between populations from Lanyu and Green Island (type localities for H. lanyuensis and T. sanasaii, respectively were found; however, mites from Yangmingshan (northern Taiwan differed substantially from these two groups. Synonymy resulted from our study is as follows: Huangiella Kammerer, 2006 is a junior synonym of Tumoris Huang, 2001; Absentia lanyuensis Huang, 2001 is a junior synonym of Tumoris sanasaii Huang, 2001. We also study the sexual variation of populations from Green Island. The result showed the females significantly larger than the males at 17 variables.

  12. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Turkey: description of five new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrowicz, Agnieszka; Denizhan, Evsel; Bromberek, Klaudia; Szydło, Wiktoria; Skoracka, Anna

    2016-01-15

    Five new eriophyoid mite species (Eriophyidae) from Turkey are described and illustrated in this paper: Aceria vanensis n. sp., Aceria onosmae n. sp., Aculus lydii n. sp., Aculus gebeliae n. sp. and Aculus spectabilis n. sp.. The descriptions are based on the morphology of females collected from weedy plants, respectively: Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae), Onosma isauricum Boiss. et Heldr. (Boraginaceae), Hypericum lydium Boiss. (Hypericaceae), Lotus gebelia Vent. (Fabaceae) and Stachys spectabilis Choisy ex DC. (Lamiaceae). The new species were found to be vagrant on their host plants with no visible damage symptoms observed.

  13. Acari in archaeology.

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    Baker, Anne S

    2009-10-01

    Mites and ticks (Acari) have been found in a variety of archaeological situations. Their identification has enabled data on habitat and dietary preferences to be obtained, and these have been used to interpret study sites. Despite this, Acari are not routinely considered in analyses in the way that other environmental components are. Like forensic science, archaeology draws on biological material to rebuild past human activity, and acarology has the potential to provide a much greater amount of evidence to both than is currently the case. As an aid to workers in these fields, an overview is presented of the Acari that have been extracted from archaeological samples, the situations in which they were found and the contribution their presence can make to the interpretation of sites.

  14. ACARI, CIDADE (MAIS) LIMPA

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luiza de Medeiros Galvão

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho tem por objetivo realizar uma breve reflexão acerca da concepção empírica de Acari como a cidade mais limpa do Brasil, assim referenciada na década de 70 do século XX. Como introdução, desenvolvemos considerações iniciais sobre cidade, tendo como recurso metodológico os conhecimentos adquiridos com a disciplina Arquitetura e Cidade no Brasil. Dando sequência ao texto, refletimos conceitualmente sobre cidade, espaço balizador para compreensão de Acari - cidade mais limpa; territó...

  15. Acari uit Ambon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudemans, A.C.

    1927-01-01

    Prof. Dr. E. D. VAN OORT, Directeur van 's Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden, was zoo vriendelijk, het materiaal aan Acari, door den Gouvernements-Arts Dr. PH. F. KOPSTEIN, thans te Weltevreden bij Batavia, gedurende zijn verblijf op Ambon 1922 en 1923 verzameld, mij ter determineering

  16. CONTROL TEST TO MICRO ACARID Aculops lycopersici (Massee, 1937 (ACARI: ERIOPHYIDAE ATTACKING TOMATO PLANT, USING A NEW ACARID-KILLER ENSAIO DE CONTROLE AO MICROÁCARO DO TOMATEIRO Aculops lycopersici (Massee, 1937 (Acari: Eriophyidae COM UM NOVO ACARICIDA

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    Roberto Magno de Castro e Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This experiment was conducted in a tomato culture area in the surroundings of the Agronomy School of UFG with the objective of evaluate the effect of a new acarid-killer named avermectin against Aculops lycopersici (Massee, 1937, the tomato plant micro acarid. The experimental delineation used was random blocks with six treatments and four replicates. Treatments utilized were: Avermectin (Vertimec 18 CE, 50, 75 and 100 ml/100 1 of water; Cyhexatin (Plictran 50 BR 100 g/100 l of water; Sulphur (Kumulus 80% PM, 400g/100 1 of water and control. Pulverizations were made by using a portable costal sprayer, applying 30 ml of solution per plant. Estimations were made at 3, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days after treatments, sampling 10 leaves at random of 10 plants pertaining to 2 central lines of each parcel and counting the number of acarids aiming an area of 0.7 cm2/leaf. The results showed that the product avermectin was superior to other acarid-killers in all estimations realized, presenting a control efficiency close to 95% at smaller dosage, until 21 days. Cybexatin and sulphur reduced its efficiency during the experiment development.

    O experimento foi conduzido numa área de plantação de tomate, nas proximidades da Escola de Agronomia da UFG, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de um novo acaricida denominado avermectin, contra Aculops lycopersici (Massee, 1937, o microácaro do tomateiro. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: Avermectin (Vertimec 18 CE, 50, 75 e 100 ml/l00 1 de água; Cyhexatin (Plictran 50 BR. 100 g/100 1 de água; Enxofre (Kumulus 80% PM. 400 g/100 1 de água e Testemunha. As aplicações foram efetuadas com um pulverizador costal manual jacto, gastando-se 30 ml de calda por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 3, 7, 10, 14 e 21 dias após a aplicação, onde amostrou-se 10 folhas ao acaso, de 10 plantas das duas linhas centrais de cada parcela e contou-se o número de ácaros visando a uma área de 0,7 cm2/folha. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o produto avermectin foi superior aos outros acaricidas, apresentando uma eficiência de controle de aproximadamente 95%, na menor dosagem, até 21 dias. O cyhexatin e o enxofre foram reduzindo sua eficiência ao longo do desenvolvimento do ensaio.

  17. Additional morphological characters and a new host for Aceria gymnoscuta Navia & Flechtmann (Acari, Eriophyidae Caracteres morfológicos adicionais e um novo hospedeiro para Aceria gymnoscuta Navia & Flechtmann (Acari, Eriophyidae

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    Marcos R. Bellini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aceria gymnoscuta Navia & Flechtmann, 2002 was originally described based on specimens collected on Syagrus cocoides Mart. and Syagrus flexuosa (Mart. Becc. (Arecaceae. Slight variations in the dorsal shield pattern and the sternal line, in relation to the original description, and details on male and female genitalia are mentioned in this paper, based on specimens collected on a new host, Syagrus oleracea (Mart. Becc.Aceria gymnoscuta Navia & Flechtmann, 2002 foi originalmente descrita com base em espécimes coletados sobre Syagrus cocoides Mart. e Syagrus flexuosa (Mart. Becc. (Arecaceae. Pequenas variações no padrão do escudo dorsal e na linha esternal em relação à descrição original e detalhes das genitálias do macho e da fêmea são apresentadas neste trabalho, com base em espécimes coletados sobre um novo hospedeiro, Syagrus oleracea (Mart. Becc.

  18. A new species, of Aceria neopaederiae (Acari: Eriophyidae), infesting Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceria paederiae (Nalepa) infesting leaves of Paederia foetida L. (Family Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore is reported for the first time. The mite induces small, round galls on both leaf surfaces. The complete descriptions of both males and females, including line drawings and SEM ...

  19. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  20. Eriophyid-myte (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae as moontlike beheeragente van ongewenste uitheemse plante in Suid-Afrika

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    C. Craemer

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Eriophyid-myte kom waarskynlik op die meeste hoër plante voor en is oor die algemeen baie gasheerspesifiek. Sommiges is skadelik genoeg om oorweeg te word vir biologiese beheerprogramme teen ongewenste plante. Algemene belangstelling in die gebruik van eriophyids vir onkruidbeheer het onlangs ontstaan en vyf spesies is reeds, meestal suksesvol, gebruik vir onkruidbeheer in ander lande. Eriophyid-myte is nog nie as onkruidbeheeragente in Suid-Afrika benut nie. Sewentien spesies wat simptome veroorsaak wat moontlik nuttig kan wees vir die beheer van 12 plantspesies, wat as onkruide in Suid-Afrika beskou word, word gelys en bespreek. Die onkruide is: Acacia saligna (Port Jackson, Acroptilon repens (Russiese dissel, Cardaria draba (peperbos cardaria, Chromolaena odorata (paraffienbos. Convolvulus arvensis (akkerwinde, Cuscuta epithymum (dodder, Hypericum perforatum (St. Janskruid, Lantana camara (lantana, Melia azedarach (sering, Opuntia inermis (doringturksvy, Solanum elaeagnifolium (satansbos, S. mauritianum (luisboom en Spartium junceum (Spaanse besem. Sommige van hierdie eriophyid-spesies kan moontlik suksesvol as onkruidbeheeragente in Suid-Afrika gebruik word en derhalwe is verdere navorsing in hierdie verband geregverdig.

  1. ACARI, CIDADE (MAIS LIMPA

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    Maria Luiza Medeiros Galvão

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo realizar uma breve reflexão acerca da concepção empírica de Acari como a cidade mais limpa do Brasil, assim referenciada na década de 70 do século XX. Como introdução, desenvolvemos considerações iniciais sobre cidade, tendo como recurso metodológico os conhecimentos adquiridos com a disciplina Arquitetura e Cidade no Brasil. Dando sequência ao texto, refletimos conceitualmente sobre cidade, espaço balizador para compreensão de Acari - cidade mais limpa; território, para compreensão da cidade como construção histórica; e o Ambiente, cujo propósito foi associar o tema do trabalho à sustentabilidade socioambiental. Utilizamos dois contextos: o primeiro de crise e divulgação do título cidade mais limpa. O segundo, dizendo respeito à legislação urbanística e códigos de postura elaborados nos períodos imperial e republicano, que ordenaram o território de Acari nos dois últimos séculos, marcando a tradição de asseio, limpeza e higiene urbanas.

  2. Plano de amostragem para Dichopelmus notus (Eriophyidae na cultura da erva-mate Sampling plan for Dichopelmus notus (Eriophyidae on mate-tea orchard

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    Guilherme Bertoldo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a amostragem presença-ausência para Dichopelmus notus Keifer (Eriophyidae na cultura da erva-mate. O trabalho foi realizado em plantação comercial, em Cascavel, PR, entre abril de 1999 e julho de 2000. Procederam-se a coletas quinzenais de 240 folhas em diferentes partes de 10 plantas. A contagem dos ácaros nas folhas foi realizada, em laboratório, com auxílio de microscópio estereoscópico. Foi determinado o padrão de agregação com o modelo da potência de Taylor, e também a proporção de folhas infestadas e o número de amostras requeridas foram estimados por análise de regressão. D. notus apresentou distribuição agregada. A proporção de folhas infestadas estimadas pelo modelo matemático mostrou ser um parâmetro confiável para se estimar a densidade populacional do ácaro, sendo que o número de amostras requeridas foi pequeno, o que viabiliza a aplicação prática do método.The objective of this research was to evaluate presence-absence sampling plan for Dichopelmus notus Keifer (Eriophyidae on mate-tea orchard. This study was conducted in Cascavel, State of Paraná, Brazil, from April 1999 to July 2000, in a mate-tea tree commercial plantation. Biweekly sampling of 240 leaves in different parts of 10 plants was conducted, and the number of mites was registered. The aggregation pattern was determined using the Taylor’s power law model. The proportion of the infested leaves and the number of required samples were estimated by regression analysis. D. notus presented aggregated distribution. The estimated proportion of infested leaves showed to be reliable in order to estimate the population density of mites. The number of sample unities required to estimate infestation density was low, which makes practical application of this sampling method to be feasible.

  3. The gall mites Vasates quadripedes and Cecidophyopsis psilaspis (Acari: Eriophyidae) new to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Soika, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    We report the first records from Denmark of the gall mite species Vasates quadripedes Shimer, 1869 and Cecidophyopsis psilaspis (Nalepa, 1893). V quadripedes is native to North America and forms pouch galls on leaves of some American species of maple. In Europe, it has been found on planted silver...... maple, Acer saccharinum L., only. The species has spread across Europe in recent years. C. psilaspis forms bud galls of species of Taxus in Europe only the native Taxus baccata L. The species is native to Europe and has been introduced to North America....

  4. Atlas van de Nederlandse watermijten (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Hammen, van der H.

    2000-01-01

    Atlas of the Dutch water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) Few biogeographic studies have been published on water mites. Only Lundblad (1962) has published an atlas of the Swedish water mites. So far, there are no complete publications on the distribution of Dutch water mites. Acarologists who worked on D

  5. Cryptic speciation in the Acari: a function of species lifestyles or our ability to separate species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 55,000 described Acari species, accounting for almost half of all known Arachnida species, but total estimated Acari diversity is reckoned to be far greater. One important source of currently hidden Acari diversity is cryptic speciation, which poses challenges to taxonomists ...

  6. Occurrence and seasonal prevalence of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis (Eriophyidae), and associated arthropods in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shanfari, Abdulaziz; Hountondji, Fabien C C; Al-Zawamri, Hamid; Rawas, Hassan; Al-Mashiki, Yussef; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Moore, Dave; Gowen, Simon R

    2013-06-01

    The coconut palm is an important crop in the sub arid coastal plain of Dhofar, Oman, for the high demand for its nut water and its use as ornamental plant. Damage of coconut fruits by the eriophyid mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer was first reported in that region in the late 1980s, but background information about the ecology of the pest in Oman was missing. Four surveys were conducted in different seasons from 2008 to 2009, to assess the distribution and prevalence of the coconut mite and its damage as well as the presence of natural enemies. Infestation by the coconut mite was conspicuous on most (99.7 %) palm trees, with 82.5 % damaged fruits. The average (± SE) density of coconut mites per fruit was 750 ± 56; this level of infestation led to the incidence of over 25 % of surface damage on more than half of the fruits. The mite appeared more abundant at the end of the cold season through the summer. No significant differences were observed between infestation levels on local varieties, hybrids and on dwarf varieties. Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski & Amitai) and Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) were the predatory mites found under the bracts of over 30 % of the coconut fruits and on 68 % of the coconut trees. Considering all sampling dates and all varieties together, average (± SE) phytoseiid density was 1.4 ± 1.19 per fruit. Other mites found in the same habitat as A. guerreronis included the tarsonemids Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon and Nasutitarsonemus omani Lofego & Moraes. The pathogenic fungus Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher was rarely found infecting the coconut mite in Dhofar. Other fungal pathogens, namely Cordyceps sp. and Simplicillium sp., were more prevalent.

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    (Acari: Eriophyidae) by DNA marker in Karnataka, India. Basavaraj Kalmath ... thompsonii by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) revealed that grouping of the isolates .... to achieve informative and reproducible fingerprinting profiles using different ..... Number of monomorphic band .... Molecular cloning: A.

  8. Verified and potential pathogens of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütte, C.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Several species of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae), including species of the genera Amblyseius, Galendromus, Metaseiulus, Neoseiulus, Phytoseiulus and Typhlodromus, are currently reared for biological control of various crop pests and/or as model organisms for the study of predator¿prey inter

  9. First record of Typhlodromus (Anthoseius transvaalensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia CÉDOLA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez de la Argentina a Typhlodromus (Anthoseius transvaalensis Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae sobre Capsicum annuum L. y Lycopersicum esculentum L. (Solanaceae en la localidad de Concordia, Entre Ríos. Se proporcionan datos morfométricos de los ejemplares argentinos.

  10. Complementary description of Colomerus novahebridensis Keifer (Acari, Eriophyidae), with a discussion about the constitution of the genus and its economic importance, and a tentative key to Colomerus Newkirk & Keifer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrapatya, Angsumarn; Konvipasruang, Ploychompoo; Flechtmann, Carlos H W; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2014-01-01

    Colomerus Newkirk & Keifer, 1971 is an eriophyid genus described by Newkirk and Keifer about 43 years ago, that contains species from all continents, except Antarctica. They live mostly on dicotyledonous plants. Colomerus novahebridensis Keifer, 1977 was described from coconut (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae) fruits from Vanuatu. A description of a Thai population of this species is given in this paper. A revised characterization of Colomerus and a dichotomous key for the separation of the species presently considered to belong to this genus are provided, and a consideration about the importance of Colomerus species is presented.

  11. Complementary description of Colomerus novahebridensis Keifer (Acari, Eriophyidae, with a discussion about the constitution of the genus and its economic importance, and a tentative key to Colomerus Newkirk & Keifer species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angsumarn Chandrapatya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Colomerus Newkirk & Keifer, 1971 is an eriophyid genus described by Newkirk and Keifer about 43 years ago, that contains species from all continents, except Antarctica. They live mostly on dicotyledonous plants. Colomerus novahebridensis Keifer, 1977 was described from coconut (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae fruits from Vanuatu. A description of a Thai population of this species is given in this paper. A revised characterization of Colomerus and a dichotomous key for the separation of the species presently considered to belong to this genus are provided, and a consideration about the importance of Colomerus species is presented.

  12. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Chile)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pešić, V.; Smit, H.; Datry, T.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mite species (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Southern Chile) are reported. Four species, Anisitsiellides australis Smit, 2002, Peregrinacarus falklandensis Bartsch, 2001, Lobohalacarus weberi (Romijn & Viets, 1924) and Soldanellonyx monardi Walter, 1919 are

  13. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Malaysia, with descriptions of three new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Malaysia are presented. Three species new to science, Torrenticola haliki, Monatractides cameronensis and Atractides cameronensis are described; first records are given for Monatractides parviventris (K. Viets, 1935) and M. roseus (Lundblad, 1941

  14. Diversity and significance of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea associated with coniferous trees in Poland: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiedrowicz Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the approximately 200 eriophyoid mite species associated with coniferous trees worldwide, 33 species (of the families Eriophyidae and Phytoptidae infest conifers in Poland, and 24 of them can cause visible feeding symptoms. In this paper we discuss the importance of eriophyoid mites to coniferous plants in Poland and their potential impact on the decorative value of ornamental plants. We emphasize the general lack of knowledge about the diversity of eriophyoid mites associated with coniferous trees and its role in the management and control of this economically important mite group.

  15. Myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) associated with Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-11-19

    Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided.

  16. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Arnaiz, Ana; Carrillo, Laura; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide–acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives. PMID:27775606

  17. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martinez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide–acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives.

  18. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Arnaiz, Ana; Carrillo, Laura; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-10-20

    This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide-acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives.

  19. Second contribution to the knowledge of water mites from the Comoros, with the description of one new species (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Pesic, V.; Mary-Sasal, N.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from the Comoros are presented. One species new to science, Africasia comorosensis is described; first records are given for Torrenticola sp. and Atractides thoracatus Koenike, 1898.

  20. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mites (Arachnida: Acari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of mites (Arachnida: Acari) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mite specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clearing, use...

  1. Sexual selection and mating behavior in spider mites of the genus Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.

    2014-01-01

    As sexual selection is a coevolutionary process between males and females, various morphological and behavioral traits have evolved in each sex. In the tetranychid mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and T. kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), males can mate repeatedly, whereas females normally

  2. Investigations of Gamasina mites in natural and man-affected soils in Latvia (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmane, I.

    2003-01-01

    Investigations of Gamasina mites in natural and man-affected soils in Latvia (Acari: Mesostigmata) A short overview is presented on Gamasina material collected in 22 natural and man-disturbed habitats in Latvia. Species diversity, average density and species dominance were investigated. Altogether 1

  3. Role of excreta in predator avoidance by the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae) constructs webs over leaf surfaces and usually lives under these webs. T. kanzawai produces two types of excreta, black and yellow pellets, and uses its webs as a place for excretion. T. kanzawai also uses its webs as a refuge when

  4. Evaluation of four bed bug traps for surveillances of brown dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown dog tick can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acari...

  5. Recovery of some of the missing wrappers of Berlese's Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1986-01-01

    Reproductions are given of the original wrappers of A. Berlese's Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones, fasc. II, IV, VI, VII and XIV. These wrappers (on some of which the first descriptions of new species are published) could not be included in the 1979 reprint edition of the work, as no extant copies of

  6. De corticole fauna van platanen: i. Arachniden (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Berg, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    The corticolous fauna of plane trees: I. Arachnids (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari) From February until September 2000 an inventory was made of the bark-dwelling arthropod fauna of more than 400 plane trees (Platanus hybrida), all over the Netherlands. Arthropods were collected from bar

  7. Water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae) from Australia. Part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Two new water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae), characterized by single or absence of swimming setae on II-L-5, are reported from Australia: Hydrodroma wilesi sp. nov. and H. cooki sp. nov. New information is provided for H. tonapii Cook from I

  8. Sexual selection and mating behavior in spider mites of the genus Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.

    2014-01-01

    As sexual selection is a coevolutionary process between males and females, various morphological and behavioral traits have evolved in each sex. In the tetranychid mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and T. kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), males can mate repeatedly, whereas females normally accep

  9. A new species of the genus Acarothrix (Acari: Halacaridae) from Brunei Darussalam and India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, T.; Marshall, D.J.; Guru, B.C.; Ingole B.S.; Pesic V.

    ) in mangroves of Singapore. I. Description of three species. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 54: 83-92. Proches S. 2002. New species of Copidognathinae (Acari: Halacaridae) from southern Africa. Journal of Natural History, 36: 999-1007. 6    Figure 1...

  10. Effects of radiation (Cobalt-60) on the elimination of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) Cardinum endosymbiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is a polyphagous mite with worldwide distribution and it is also a vector of several plant viruses. In citrus, B. phoenicis transmits Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), the causal agent of leprosis, a disease that costs millions of dollars/year for ...

  11. Size of predatory mites and refuge entrance determine success of biological control of the coconut mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, F.R.; de Moraes, G.J.; Lesna, I.; Sato, Y.; Vasquez, C.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Predators face the challenge of accessing prey that live in sheltered habitats. The coconut mite Aceriaguerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) lives hidden beneath the perianth, which is appressed to the coconut fruit surface, where they feed on the meristematic tissue. Its natural enemy, the predat

  12. New quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Cheyletoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, A V; Fain, A; Skoracki, M

    2004-02-01

    Five new species and two new genera belonging to the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Cheyletoidea) are described from birds that died in the Antwerp Zoo during their quarantine: Charadriaulobia vanelli n. g., n. sp. from Vanellus chilensis (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) in Brazil; Fritschisyringophilus lonchurae n. g., n. sp. from Lonchura punctulata (Passeriformes: Estrildidae) in India; Mironovia coturnae n. sp. from Coturnix coturnix (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in Europe; Syringophiloidus daberti n. sp. from Passerina ciris (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) in Mexico; and S. serini n. sp. from Serinus mozambicus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Central Africa. Charadriaulobia n. g. differs from the closely related Aulobia Kethley, 1970, in both sexes, by the divergent epimeres I; in females, by the absence of protuberances on the hypostomal apex and by the situation of the bases of setae l4 distinctly anterior the bases of setae d4. Fritschisyringophilus n. g. differs from the closely related Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1972, in both sexes, by the presence of setae vs ' on legs II, the absence of setae dT on legs III and IV; in females, by the presence of median hypostomal protuberances and by short setae l1, l2 and l3. The relationships between the Syringophilidae and their hosts are briefly discussed. A list of all known syringophilid genera and their distribution on bird families is provided.

  13. New Wolbachia supergroups detected in quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowska, Eliza; Dragun-Damian, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Gerth, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Wolbachia is the most abundant intracellular bacterial genus infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia have evolved parasitic, mutualistic and commensal relationships with their hosts but in arthropods generally act as reproductive parasites, inducing a wide range of phenotypic effects such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and male-killing. Up to now, the genus has been divided into 14 supergroups successively named A-O. Here, we describe two new Wolbachia supergroups from syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea). These obligatory ectoparasites of birds inhabit the quills of feathers in many avian groups. The species of this family reproduce in a haplodiploid mode sensu arrhenotoky and are usually strongly female-biased. Based on the sequences of four protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA and groEL and coxA) and the 16S rRNA we identified strains of three Wolbachia supergroups (F and two distinct, yet undescribed ones) in five quill mite species. Our results suggest that in some cases the distribution of the bacteria can be better correlated with the mite's bird host rather than with mite taxonomy as such. The discovery of two new Wolbachia supergroups not only broadens the knowledge of the diversity of this bacterium but also raises questions about potential effects induced in quill mites and transmission mechanisms of the endosymbionts in this peculiar bacteria-quill mite-bird system.

  14. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) BITING A HUMAN BEING IN PORTOALEGRE CITY, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329

  15. A large parasitengonid mite (Acari, Erythraeoidea from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A new large, fossil mite (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., is described from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian Crato Formation from Ceará State, Brazil. It is assigned to the Cohort Parasitengona and the superfamily Erythraeoidea, some extant members of which can reach up to seven millimetres in body length. Given that doubts have been raised about the identity of putative Crato feather mite eggs, this new fossil represents the first unequivocal record of Acari from the Crato Formation, the first non-amber record of an erythraeoid mite and the oldest named example of this superfamily. Fossil erythraeoids from Mesozoic and Tertiary ambers are briefly reviewed – including a widely overlooked Late Cretaceous species – with comments on Mesozoic mites in general. Thirteen Baltic amber erythraeoids have been formally described, but much unstudied material from various amber sources remains. Ein neues großes Milbenfossil (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., wird aus der Crato Formation (Unterkreide, Aptium des Ceará Gebietes in Brasilien beschrieben. Es wird der Kohorte Parasitengona und der Überfamilie Erythraeoidea zugeordnet; die modernen Vertreter erreichen eine Körperlänge bis zu sieben mm. Weil die Identität von Federmilbeneiern aus der Crato Formation in Frage gestellt wurde, ist dieser Neufund der erste klare Hinweis von Acari aus der Crato Formation. Es ist die erste erythraeoide Milbe, die nicht aus dem Bernstein stammt sowie das älteste genannte Beispiel dieser Überfamilie. Fossile erythraeoide Milben aus dem Bernstein des Mesozoikum und des Tertiärs werden kurz zusammengefasst – u. a. eine weitgehend übersehene Art aus der Oberkreide – mit allgemeinen Anmerkungen zu den mesozoischen Milben. Dreizehn erythraeoide Milbenarten sind aus dem baltischen Bernstein genannt und beschrieben worden, aber weiteres unbearbeitetes Material von verschiedenen Bernstein-Fundpunkten liegt noch vor

  16. De corticole fauna van platanen: i. Arachniden (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari)

    OpenAIRE

    Noordijk, J.; Berg, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    The corticolous fauna of plane trees: I. Arachnids (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari) From February until September 2000 an inventory was made of the bark-dwelling arthropod fauna of more than 400 plane trees (Platanus hybrida), all over the Netherlands. Arthropods were collected from bark and under the ‘loose’ bark fragments at a height of 160-175 cm from the ground. Algae, mosses and fungi are important resources for the corticolous fauna. Crevices in the tree trunk and loose bar...

  17. Acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) populations from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Vassilis A; Kitsis, Pavlos

    2013-08-01

    Five field and greenhouse populations of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), were collected from five different districts across the island of Cyprus, both in field and greenhouse crops, and tested to determine levels of resistance. Standard leaf-disk spray application bioassay procedures were used to determine the LC50s for five chemicals: abamectin, acrinathrin, fenazaquin, pirimiphos methyl, and bifenazate. Selection of these compounds was based on the widespread use by farmers as well as on the frequent control failures against T. urticae reported in the past. Resistance of T. urticae was detected to abamectin, acrinathrin, fenazaquin, and pirimiphos methyl. The resistance ratios were calculated relative to the German susceptible reference strain. The highest resistance ratios at LC50 value were recorded for abamectin in a greenhouse rose population (RR = 3822), followed by a field bean (RR = 1356) and field tomato population (RR = 1320). Significantly high resistance levels were also found for acrinathrin where the highest resistance ratios at LC50 were recorded in a field bean T. urticae population (RR = 903). For fenazaquin, the highest resistance levels were recorded in a field tomato population (RR = 310). Lower resistance levels were found for pirimiphos methyl (13.3 < RR < 77.4) in all populations. Low susceptibility of T. urticae was observed for bifenazate (2.7 < RR < 24.4) in all populations. These results suggest that at least the use of abamectin and acrinathrin should be avoided or minimized for the control of T. urticae populations in indoor and outdoor environments.

  18. Damage Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie

    2001-01-01

    the damage location, the damage sizes and the main particulars of the struck vessel. From the numerical simulation and the analyse of the damage statistics it is found that the current formulation from the IMO SLF 43/3/2 can be used as basis for determination of the p-, r-, and v-factors. Expressions...... and methods of calculation have been discussed. The damage distributions for the different vessels have been compared and analyses regarding relations between damage parameters and main particulars have been performed. The damage statistics collected in work package 1 have been analysed for relations between...... for the distribution of the non-dimensional damage location, the non-dimensional damage length and the non-dimensional penetrations have been derived. These distributions have been used as basis for a proposal for the p- and r-factors. Two proposals for the v-factor have been performed using the damage statistics...

  19. A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae from Ethiopia, with a discussion on the biodiversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pesic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed.

  20. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae Selectivity ofthe pesticides tothe predaceous mite Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli,, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os ácaros predadores das famílias Phytoseiidae e Stigmaeidae constituem-se nos principais inimigos naturais de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes em citros. Este ácaro-praga causa sérios prejuízos na produção, devido à transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros (CiLV. Apesar do grande volume de informações sobre a sensibilidade de ácaros Phytoseiidae a agrotóxicos, praticamente não existem informações sobre o efeito desses compostos em ácaros Stigmaeidae no Brasil. Sendo assim, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae, em condições de laboratório. Arenas de folhas de citros da variedade Pera, contendo 25 fêmeas adultas de A. brasiliensis, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se as mortalidades dos ácaros 72 horas após a aplicação. O efeito dos produtos na reprodução do acarino e a viabilidade dos ovos também foram avaliados. Quanto à seletividade, conforme proposta da "Organização Internacional para o Controle Biológico" (IOBC, os produtos foram classificados como: classe 1 - inócuo (E99%, calda sulfocálcica, cyhexatin, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, óxido de fenbutatin, propargite, pyridaben e spirodiclofen. Estudos conduzidos em condições de campo ainda são necessários para se compreender melhor o efeito desses agrotóxicos sobre o ácaro predador.The predaceous mites of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae are the most important natural enemies of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes on citrus. This mite causes serious damages to the yield due to the transmission of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV. Despite the considerable amount of information on susceptibility of phytoseiids to pesticides, the effect of these compounds is not very known for stigmaeid mites in Brazil. This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of the main pesticides used in

  1. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  2. Limited field establishment of a weed biocontrol agent, Floracarus perrepae (Acariformes: Eriophyidae), against Old World climbing fern in Florida--a possible role of mite resistant plant genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Anthony J; Pemberton, Robert W

    2011-12-01

    The leaflet galling mite Floracarus perrepae Knihinicki & Boczek was released on Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) in 63 plots in Florida from 2008 to 2009. Mites transferred onto field plants in 34 plots, but failed to establish populations in the majority of plots. Leaflet galls were observed in only six plots, and in only two plots did mite populations persist for >12 mo. Rates of mite transfer onto field plants were similar for methods using direct transfer of galls versus approaches using passive transfer of mites from infested plants. Often leaflets on some L. microphyllum plants were heavily galled by F. perrepae, whereas leaflets on intertwined stems of other L. microphyllum plants were ungalled but exhibited a characteristic browning and scorching of the leaflet tips. Living mites were consistently present on the undersurface of scorched leaflet tips on ungalled plants, suggesting that this damage might be caused by mite feeding on L. microphyllum genotypes that did not support induction of leaflet galls. Plant nutritional status did not account for differences in galling response, because there were no differences in leaflet nitrogen between galled and ungalled stems. We review those factors known to affect the colonization of biological control agents, and discuss how they may have contributed to the lower than expected rate of F. perrepae establishment.

  3. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  4. The first record of the watermite Arrenurus beolinensis from the Netherlands, with the first description of the female (Acari: Hydrachnidia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Didderen, K.; Wiggers, R.

    2007-01-01

    De watermijt Arrenurus berolinensis in Nederland, met de eerste beschrijving van het vrouwtje (Acari: Hydrachnidia) De zeer zeldzame watermijt Arrenurus berolinensis is in 2006 voor het eerst in Nederland gevonden, in een petgat in de Wieden (Overijssel). Tot nu toe was deze soort slechts twee keer

  5. Novel bacterial pathogen Acaricomes phytoseiuli causes severe disease symptoms and histopathological changes in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütte, C.; Gols, R.; Kleespies, R.G.; Poitevin, O.J.L.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of a laboratory population show a set of characteristic symptoms, designated as non-responding (NR) syndrome. Mature predators shrink, cease oviposition and die. They show a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced

  6. The presence of webbing affects the oviposition rate of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.; Magalhães, S.; Dicke, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several species of tetranychid mites including Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) construct complicated three-dimensional webs on plant leaves. These webs provide protection against biotic and abiotic stress. As producing web is likely to entail a cost, mites that arrive on a leaf with

  7. New Australian hygrobatids (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Hygrobatidae), with the description of two new genera and three new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.

    2009-01-01

    Two new genera of the water mite family Hygrobatidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) are described from Australia, Ioannibates gen. nov. and Pseudoaustraliobates gen. nov.. In addition, three new species are described, Ioannibates papillosus sp. nov., Pseudoaustraliobates flindersi sp. nov. and the second spe

  8. A rare finding of mites (Arachnida: Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) parasitising a whip spider (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A

    2014-04-01

    Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.

  9. New and little known species of Halolaelaps (Acari: Mesostigmata: Halolaelapidae) from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach, Viacheslav A

    2016-08-23

    A new species of the family Halolaelapidae (Acari: Mesostigmata), Halolaelaps euxinus sp. nov. is described from Black Sea coast. Adult mites were found in seaweed, while deutonymphs were collected from the amphipod Talorchestia deshayesii and from seaweed. The adult female of Halolaelaps saproincisus Hirschmann & Götz, 1968 is recorded in new localities of Ukraine for the first time, in soil and bird faeces in chicken coops, and new morphological information is provided. The adult male (collected from chicken coops) and the deutonymph (collected from chicken coops and on dung-beetles) of H. saproincisus are described for the first time.

  10. Mites (Acari Associated with the Desert Seed Harvester Ant, Messor pergandei (Mayr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin A. Uppstrom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites (Acari associated with the seed harvester ant Messor pergandei were investigated in the Sonoran desert of Arizona. At least seven representatives of the mite genera Armacarus, Lemanniella, Petalomium, Forcellinia, Histiostoma, Unguidispus, and Cosmoglyphus are phoretically associated with M. pergandei. Most of these morphospecies show preference for specific phoretic attachment sites and primarily use female alates rather than male alates for dispersal. Five mite morphospecies were found in low numbers inhabiting the chaff piles: Tydeidae sp., Procaeculus sp., Anystidae sp., Bakerdania sp., and Tetranychidae sp. The phoretic Petalomium sp. was observed consuming fungus growing on a dead queen, but the roles of the other mite species remain mostly unresolved.

  11. Description of Lyrifissella gen. n. and Lyrifissellidae fam. n. (Acari, Oribatei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson D. Paschoal

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyrifissella new genus and Lyrifissellidae new family (Acari, Oribatei are described. The type species, Pedrocortesella latoclava Hammer, 1966, from Milford, New Zealand, is fully redescribed from the holotype. The congeneric species, Pedrocortesella cryptonota Hammer, 1966, Lake Ratoitis, New Zealand, is compared with the type species and transferred to the new genus. Plateremaeus vestitus Tragardh, 1931, the species thought to be very close to Plateremaeus ornatissimus (Berlese, and which was erroneously used to characterize Plateremaeus and Plateremaeidae, causing them to be misunderstood for about five decades, is now placed in Lyrifissella.

  12. Sensibilité à Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari : Tetranychidae de quelques cultivars de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz et incidence des attaques sur le rendement, dans la région des hauts plateaux de l'Ouest Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensibility to Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari : Tetranychidae of some Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Cultivars and Effect of Damage on Yield Loss in the Cameroonian Western High-lands. The study of the sensibility towards the green mite Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar of some cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivars and the assessment of the effect of damage on the yield losses was carried out in the Western highlands of Cameroon. Four cassava cultivars were used : two local (Dschang and Njombe and two improved varieties (IITA 8017 and IITA 82516. The results obtained showed that the density (mites number/cm2 of leaf area was low during the rainy season and high during the dry season, which means that rains reduce the mite population by washing or lead the mites to death. The highest mean density (3.40 mites/cm2 of leaf area was obtained on the local Njombe cultivar which is consequently the most sensitive. On the contrary, the local Dschang cultivar, with the lowest mite density (1.40 mites/cm2 of leaf area was the most resistant followed by the IITA 8017 cultivar (1.74 mites/cm2. The IITA82516 cultivar had a mean density of2.65 mites/cm2. Yield losses ranged from 36.90 % for IITA 8017 (1.74 mites/cm2 and damages level of 2.75 to 58.70 % for local Dschang (3.40 mites/cm2 and damages level of 3.84. Local Dschang cultivar (1.40 mites/cm2 and damage level of 2.96 and IITA 82516 (2.65 mites/cm2 and damage level of 2.96 had a yield losse of38.10 % and 41.80 %. The results showed that higher the mite density and damage level are, higher is the yield loss, unless the cultivar is tolerant.

  13. Phytoseiid mites of the Canary Islands (Acari, Phytoseiidae. II. Tenerife and La Gomera Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferragut, F.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoseiid mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae inhabiting plants in natural ecosystems from Tenerife and La Gomera islands (Canary Islands have been studied. Surveys were conducted from 1997 to 2002. Eleven species were collected, one of them being reported for the first time from the Canary Islands and six of them reported for the first time from Tenerife and La Gomera islands. Euseius machadoi n. sp. collected from woody plants in the Canarian laurisilva is proposed as a new species.

    En muestreos realizados desde 1997 hasta 2002 se ha estudiado la fauna de ácaros fitoseidos (Acari, Phytoseiidae asociada a plantas de ecosistemas naturales de las islas de Tenerife y La Gomera (Islas Canarias. Se han recolectado un total de 11 especies, siendo una de ellas citada por vez primera en las islas Canarias y seis de ellas citadas por primera vez en las islas de Tenerife y La Gomera. Euseius machadoi n. sp., recolectado en plantas leñosas de la laurisilva canaria, se propone como una nueva especie.

  14. Repellent efficacy of DEET, Icaridin, and EBAAP against Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis nymphs (Acari, Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchel, Kerstin; Bendin, Juliane; Gharbi, Amina; Rahlenbeck, Sibylle; Dautel, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Repellent efficacy of 10% EBAAP (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester) and 10% Icaridin ((2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 1-methylpropyl ester)) were evaluated against 20% DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) in human subject trials against ticks. Responses of host-seeking nymphs of the European castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus L.; Acari: Ixodidae) and the North American blacklegged tick (I. scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) were compared. Tests were carried out according to the US-EPA standard protocol with ethanolic solutions of the active ingredients of repellents being applied to the forearm of 10 volunteers. The upward movement of ticks was monitored until repellent failure taking up to 12.5 h. Application of 20% DEET resulted in median complete protection times (CPT; Kaplan-Meier median) between 4 and 4.5 h, while 10% EBAAP yielded CPTs of 3.5-4h. No significant differences were found between the efficacies of two repellents nor between the two species tested. The median of the CPT of a 10% Icaridin solution was 5h in nymphs of I. scapularis, but 8h in those of I. ricinus (Prepellent activity against nymphs of the two Ixodes ticks with Icaridin demonstrating particularly promising results against I. ricinus. Future research should investigate whether similar results occur when adult Ixodes ticks or other tick species are tested.

  15. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Souza-Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro in mean generation time (T, which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ and doubled every 3.7 days (TD.

  16. Beklemishevia hispaniola n. sp., nuevo representante de la Cohorte Palaeosomata (Acari, Oribatei en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Iñigo, C.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of oribatid mite (Acari, Oribatei belonging to the family Ctenacaridae (Cohors Palaeosomata is described; this species was recorded several times in Spain as Beklemishevia galeodula Zachvatkin, 1945. The new species is easily distinguishable from the mentioned one because of the presence of three claws in every leg, a noticeable pigidial neotrichy and the absence of short, almost spiniform, setae on the pygidium.Se describe una nueva especie de oribátido (Acari, Oribatei perteneciente a la familia Ctenacaridae (Cohorte Palaeosomata que habia sido citada varias veces en España como Beklemishevia galeodula Zachvatkin, 1945, y de la que se diferencia por presentar tres uñas en todas las patas, una acentuada neotriquia pigidial y carecer de setas cortas espiniformes en el pigidio.

  17. Prolixus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) newly recorded from New Zealand: A new species from Cyperaceae and its ontogenetic patterns in chaetotaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-12-19

    The genus Prolixus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) was represented by two species from Australian sedges prior to this study. A new species, Prolixus meyerae sp. nov., is here described and illustrated from leaves of Gahnia (Cyperaceae) in Auckland, New Zealand. In this paper, we present the ontogenetic additions in idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy from larva to adult. A key to world species of Prolixus is also proposed.

  18. A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D

    2014-04-29

    A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.

  19. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) transmitted virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Kubo,Karen Sumire; Ferreira,Paulo de Tarso Oliveira; Alcântara,Berenice Kussumoto; Boari,Alessandra de Jesus; Gomes,Renata Takassugi; Freitas-Astua,Juliana; Rezende,Jorge Alberto Marques; Morais,Gilberto José de; Salaroli,Renato Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV). Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hi...

  20. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  1. SELETIVIDADE DE CHLORFENAPYR E FENBUTATIN-OXIDE SOBRE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE ÁCAROS PREDADORES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE) EM CITROS

    OpenAIRE

    REIS PAULO REBELLES; SOUSA ÉLBER OLIVEIRA

    2001-01-01

    Com o uso de bioensaios, verificaram-se os efeitos residual de contato, ovicida e de persistência dos produtos chlorfenapyr e fenbutatin-oxide sobre duas espécies de ácaros predadores, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma e Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae), associados ao ácaro da leprose-dos-citros Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). O efeito total sobre os adultos foi estudado por meio do método residual de contato com pulverização em superfície de vidro, confo...

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae): high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Wei, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2010-10-23

    The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari) includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae), a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs), a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%), which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03). The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp), lacking either the T- or D-arm, as found in P. ulmi

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae: high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks. Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae, a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. Results The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs, a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%, which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03. The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp, lacking

  4. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia and Halacaroidea from Bosnia and Herzegovina, with description of a new species, Aturus gordani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Vladimir M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A presented faunistic catalogue of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia and Halacaroidea from Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina is based on all published data and numerous new records from the investigated area. Twenty two species were identified, 12 of which new to Bosnia and Herzegovina and one species Mideopsis roztoczensis was recorded for the first time in the Balkans. The species Aturus gordani was described as new to science; halacarid mites were recorded (Acari: Halacaroidea for the first time in the fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The ecological significance of the new records was briefly discussed.

  5. Tort Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this Chapter, I provide an overview of Law and Economics literature regarding tort damages. Where necessary, attention is also spent to rules of tort liability. Both types of rules provide behavioral incentives to both injurers and victims, with respect to their level of

  6. Tort Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this Chapter, I provide an overview of Law and Economics literature regarding tort damages. Where necessary, attention is also spent to rules of tort liability. Both types of rules provide behavioral incentives to both injurers and victims, with respect to their level of car

  7. Garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae asociadas a perros en diferentes ambientes de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of dogs in different environments of the Corrientes Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Debárbora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae de perros en ambientes urbanos, periurbanos y rurales de la provincia de Corrientes por medio de colecciones mensuales durante un año en siete sitios diferentes. De los 138 perros examinados, en 87 (63,04% se determinaron tres especies de garrapatas: Amblyomma tigrinum (n=35, Amblyomma ovale (n=2 y Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=523. Las mayores prevalencias para A. tigrinum y R. sanguineus s.l. fueron halladas en ambientes rurales. Especímenes de R. sanguineus s.l. fueron detectados a lo largo de todo el año, con picos de abundancia en primavera y verano, A. tigrinum fue encontrada en otoño, invierno y primavera con un pico en esta última estación, mientras que A. ovale fue colectada sólo en primavera. Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. y A. tigrinum fueron halladas en todos los ambientes muestreados, pero el primer taxón fue siempre el más abundante. Teniendo en cuenta que las especies del complejo R. sanguineus son potenciales vectores de microorganismos patógenos para los perros y humanos, y debido a la alta prevalencia registrada en este estudio, queda en evidencia la relevancia de aplicar métodos para su control en las áreas incluidas en este estudio.Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of dogs in urban, peri-urban and rural areas from the Corrientes Province, Argentina, were studied. They were monthly collected during one year at 7 different sites. A total of 138 dogs were examined, and 87 (63.04% of them were infested; and three species were determined: Amblyomma tigrinum (n=35, Amblyomma ovale (n=2 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=523. Both A. tigrinum and R. sanguineus s.l. had the highest prevalence in rural areas. Specimens of R. sanguineus s.l. were collected in the four seasons, but the peaks of abundance were detected in spring and summer. Amblyomma tigrinum was found in autumn, winter and spring, with the peak of abundance in spring, and the two specimens of A. ovale were

  8. Quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2014-03-01

    The paper contains a review of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Three new species are described: Picobia mentalis Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Picus mentalis Temminck, Neopicobia ea Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Celeus flavus (St. Mueller) (type host), C. elegans (St. Mueller), C. torquatus (Boddaert), and Neopicobia freya Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Dryocopus galeatus (Temminck) (type host) and Piculus rubiginosus (Swainson). Additionally, six new host species for Picobia heeri Haller, 1878 and 12 new host species for Picobia dryobatis (Fritsch, 1956) are reported. A complete list of the picobiines parasitising birds of the family Picidae is presented in the tabular form.

  9. First Report of Raoiella indica (Hirst) (Acari: Tenuipalpide) in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, F T; Silva, J E P; Ventura, M U; Pasini, A; Roggia, S

    2017-06-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica (Hirst) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), was found for the first time in the Paraná State, in southern Brazil. The first observations occurred in September 2015, on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch) leaves, which is not considered a typical host plant of RPM. It is probable that its occurrence on this plant was serendipitous. Visual surveys for RPM were carried out on four typical host plants (banana, coconut, foxtail palm, and real palm), in five cities of the Paraná State (Bela Vista do Paraíso, Londrina, Maringá, Marialva, and Sarandi). RPM was found on each of the four typical host plants, in each of the five cities. Our survey extends RPM occurrence to the southern region of Brazil and indicates that the pest could be widespread in the country.

  10. A review of the natural enemies of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Daniel; Frank, J Howard; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    A review of all the available information about the natural enemies reported in association with the red palm mite, Raoiella indica is presented. Twenty-eight species of predatory arthropods, including mites and insects, have been reported in association with R. indica in Asia, Africa and the Neotropics. In addition, pathogenic fungi associated with R. indica in the Caribbean have been reported. The available literature indicates that each site has a different natural enemy complex with only one predator species, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), present in all the geographical areas. The phytoseiids, Amblyseius caudatus Berlese, Amblyseius channabasavanni Gupta and A. largoensis, were regarded as important natural enemies of R. indica, and their predatory efficiency was studied in some detail. Among the predatory insects the coccinellids Stethorus keralicus Kapur and Telsimia ephippiger Chapin were reported as major predators of R. indica. The known distribution, abundance and relative importance of each species reported in association with R. indica are discussed.

  11. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Sandro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-preguiça" (sloth's giant tick is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae, Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae. Based on the material examined, the states of Rondônia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  12. Javanese species of the mite genus Macrocheles (Arachnida: Acari: Gamasina: Macrochelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartini, Sri; Takaku, Gen

    2003-10-01

    Twelve mite species of the genus Macrocheles (Acari: Macrochelidae) were collected from the body surface of dung beetles in Java, Indonesia. Of these, three species, i.e., Macrocheles jabarensis, M. jonggolensis, and M. sukabumiensis, were described as new to science. Female of M. dispar was redescribed. Two species, i.e., M. baliensis and M. sukaramiensis, were recorded from Java for the first time. The occurrence of five species previously recorded from Java, i.e., M. hallidayi, M. kraepelini, M. limue, M. oigru, and M. merdarius, were reconfirmed. Taxonomic status of M. sp. aff. glaber was not settled in the present study, because we could not obtain the male and immatures which are indispensable for exact identification. In total 15 species of the genus Macrocheles, including 3 species already recorded but not collected in this research (M. crispa, M. krantzi, and M. subbadius), are known from Java up to date.

  13. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho

    2002-12-01

    Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  14. Benefits and risks of the subcutaneous immunotherapy with acari extracts in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma

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    Olimpio Rodríguez-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The records of patients from the Allergology Service in the Previsora Policlinic, Camagüey were revised to evaluate benefits and risks of the subcutaneous immunotherapy (ITSC with extracts of acari. The study was observational, analytic and retrospective of cases and controls in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma. A total of 160 subjects, older than 18 years old, were chosen. Eighty out of them had already received ITSC with dose increase during 13 weeks and maintenance with monthly injections during 18 months. A total of 80 patients who only received prevention measures and medications during the crises were paired. Questionnaires were applied for quality of rhinoconjunctivitis life and asthma, about the consumption of medications and the frequency of the crises. The adverse events were measured, as they were local and systemic to the cutaneous tests, to the ITSC and the different pharmacological treatments. There was a significant increase of the punctuation of life quality questionnaires, (p=0.011. The consumption of medications decreased in both the cases and the controls, without significant differences (p=0.083. The frequency of the rhinitis and asthma crises decrease in the group of ITSC (p=0.029. Slight local and systemic reactions were reported in both groups with Odds ratio (OR=2.029 in the ITSC group, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.114–3.967 (p=0.019. The results show that the subcutaneous immunotherapy with acari offers benefits and few risks to patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma.

  15. Distribuição espacial e plano de amostragem de Calacarus heveae (Acari em seringueira Spatial distribution and sampling plan for Calacarus heveae (Acari on rubber trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 é um eriofídeo descrito de espécimes coletados em plantas de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbiaceae na região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Esse ácaro prefere a face adaxial dos folíolos e pode causar a perda do brilho, amarelecimento, bronzeamento dessa região e a subseqüente queda prematura das folhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a distribuição de C. heveae em seringueira, selecionar a unidade de amostragem mais representativa e desenvolver um plano de amostragem para o estudo de sua flutuação populacional. O trabalho foi conduzido com os clones PB 260 e IAN 873, respectivamente nos municípios de Itiquira e de Pontes e Lacerda, ambos no Mato Grosso. Em Itiquira, diferenças significativas foram observadas em quatro ocasiões em relação ao número médio de ácaros por folha nos diferentes estratos das plantas. Nas amostragens realizadas em Pontes e Lacerda, nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada entre os estratos em relação àquele parâmetro. Apenas em Itiquira, em uma ocasião de amostragem, foi verificada diferença entre os três estratos, em relação à proporção de folhas infestadas. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi verificada em relação ao número médio de ácaros por folha e proporção de folhas infestadas por C. heveae a diferentes distâncias da periferia da copa. Calacarus heveae exibe distribuição agregada no campo. Para estimar a densidade de C. heveae, um plano numérico e um plano binomial de amostragem foram desenvolvidos.Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 (Eriophyidae is a mite described from specimens collected on rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbiaceae in the northwest region of the state of São Paulo. This mite prefers the adaxial face of the folioles which it can turn dry, yellowish and brownish; it can also cause leaf fall. The aim of this work was to analyze the distribution of C. heveae on rubber trees, to select the most

  16. Potential of astigmatid mites (Acari: Astigmatina) as prey for rearing edaphic predatory mites of the families Laelapidae and Rhodacaridae (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Marina F C; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2016-07-01

    Laelapidae and Rhodacaridae are important families of edaphic predatory mites and species of these families have been considered for use in biological control programs of soil pests. Mites of Cohort Astigmatina (Acari: Sarcoptiformes) have been largely used as factitious prey in the mass rearing of various edaphic or plant-inhabiting predatory mites. Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) (widely commercialized for the control of fungus gnats and thrips) and Protogamasellopsis zaheri Abo-Shnaf, Castilho and Moraes (Mesostigmata: Rhodacaridae) (not available commercially but promising for the control of thrips and nematodes) are known to be reared on Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Astigmatina: Acaridae), but the possibility to find a perhaps more efficient prey has not been evaluated. The objective of this paper was to evaluate different astigmatid species as prey for these predators. S. scimitus and P. zaheri oviposited on all evaluated astigmatids and the acarid mites T. putrescentiae and Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Tropeau) were the most suitable prey; to confirm the effect of prey on oviposition rates, pregnant females of the predators were kept under starvation conditions and oviposition was negligible or null. Survivorship was always higher than 78 % and was not influenced by prey species or starvation.

  17. Marine water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pontarachnidae) from Taiwan, Korea and India, with the first description of the male of Pontarachna australis Smit, 2003

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pesic, V.; Chatterjee, T.; Chan, B.K.K.; Ingole, B.S.

    –264. Lohmann, H. (1909) Marine Hydrachnidae und Halacaridae. In: Michaelsen, W. & Hartmeyer, R. (Eds), Die fauna Südwest-Australiens, Gustav Fischer, Jena, 2, 151–154. Smit, H. (2002) Two new species of the water mite family Pontarachnidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia...

  18. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  19. New species and new records of mites of the genus Stigmaeus(Acari: Prostigmata: Stigmaeidae) from Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2014-05-06

    Three new species of the genus Stigmaeus Koch, 1836 (Acari: Stigmaeidae) are described from various habitats in Crimea: Stigmaeus kuznetsovi sp. nov. from nests of Microtus socialis (Rodentia: Cricetidae); S. mitrofanovi sp. nov. from galleries of Pityogenes bistridentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under the bark of Pinus pallasiana, and S. silvestris sp. nov. from rotten log of Pinus pallasiana. Stigmaeus corticeus Kuznetsov and Wainstein, 1977 and S. maraghehiensis Bagheri and Ueckermann, 2012 are recorded for the first time in Crimea. A key to species of the genus Stigmaeus of Crimea is provided.

  20. Primeiro registro de Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden no Brasil First record of Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae on Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a infestação de um ácaro-vermelho em mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, mantidas em casa de vegetação no município de Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. O ácaro foi observado na parte superior das folhas que exibiam sinais de sucção de seiva e bronzeamento. Essas injúrias causaram desenvolvimento anormal e morte de plantas. O ácaro foi identificado como Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, e isso representa o primeiro registro dessa espécie em mudas clonais de E. grandis no Brasil.An infestation of the red spider mite was reported in clone seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden under greenhouse conditions, in the municipality of Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais State. The spider mite was found on the leaf upper faces with signs of sap suction and bronzing. Such injuries caused abnormal development and plant death. The spider mite was identified as Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first record of O. yothersi on E. grandis seedlings in Brazil.

  1. Preliminary assays for efficiency avaliation of neem oil for control of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae / Ensaios preliminares para avaliação da eficiência de óleo de neem no controle de Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Oliveira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a commercial formulation of the neem oil (azadirachtina was evaluated in different stages of the biological cycle of the red mite of the paraguay tea Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae. The formulation was shown efficient in the adults control, as well as it affected the fecundity of the females of the mite, however it didn’t inhabited oviposition, when the leaves were treated with the product.Avaliou-se o efeito de uma formulação comercial a base de neem (azadirachtina em diferentes etapas do ciclo biológico do ácaro vermelho da erva-mate Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae. A formulação mostrou-se eficiente no controle de adultos, bem como afetou a fecundidade das fêmeas do ácaro, contudo não ocasionou inibição na oviposição, quando as folhas foram tratadas com o produto.

  2. Study of Acari and Collembola Populations in Four Cultivation Systems in Dourados - MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilda Mara Mussury

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact four cultivation systems on the soil fauna was studied, using Oribatida and Gamasida acarids as bioindicators and collembolan. The research was carried out in experimental fields, located in EMBRAPA - CPAO in Dourados, Centerwest of Brazil from July 1997 to December 1999. The constant pasture system presented smaller impact on the soil fauna followed by agricultural cattle rotation and a direct plantation system. In the conventional plantation series, the populational density of the mesofauna organisms was low, especially collembolan families.O impacto de quatro sistemas de cultivo sobre a fauna de solo foram estudados, utilizando-se como bioindicadores os acari Oribatida e Gamasida e os Collembola. A pesquisa foi conduzida em campos experimentais, localizados na EMBRAPA - CPAO no município de Dourados, MS, no período de julho de 1997 à dezembro de 1999. O sistema de pastagem contínua apresentou menor impacto sobre a fauna de solo seguido da rotação agricultura pecuária e do sistema de plantio direto. Nas sucessões do plantio convencional, a densidade populacional dos organismos da mesofauna foi baixa, em especial as famílias de colembolos.

  3. Comparing oxalic acid and sucrocide treatments for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) control under desert conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammataro, D; Finley, J; Underwood, R

    2008-08-01

    The effectiveness of oxalic acid (OA) and Sucrocide (S) (AVA Chemical Ventures, L.L.C., Portsmouth, NH) in reducing populations of the varroa mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies was measured under the desert conditions of Arizona, USA. OA and S were applied three times 7 d apart. A 3.2% solution of OA was applied in sugar syrup via a large volume syringe, trickling 5 ml per space between frames in the colony. S was applied at a concentration of 0.625% (mixed with water), according to the label directions, using a compressed air Chapin sprayer at 20 psi to apply 59 ml per frame space. Varroa mites, collected on a sticky board before, during, and after the treatments, were counted to assess the effectiveness of the treatments. This study showed that a desert climate zone did not confer any positive or negative results on the acaricidal properties of OA. Even with brood present in colonies, significant varroa mite mortality occurred in the OA colonies. In contrast, we found that Sucrocide was not effective as a mite control technique. Despite its ability to increase mite mortality in the short-term, varroa mite populations measured posttreatment were not affected any more by Sucrocide than by no treatment at all.

  4. New Records of Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) Parasitizing Avian Hosts in Southeastern Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Erin L; Wright, Chelsea L; Nadolny, Robyn M; Hynes, Wayne L; Gaff, Holly D; Walters, Eric L

    2016-03-01

    Ixodes affinis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) is a hard-bodied tick species distributed throughout much of the southeastern United States. Although I. affinis does not parasitize humans, it is a competent vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative-agent of Lyme disease, and thus contributes to the enzootic maintenance of this pathogen. This study presents evidence of I. affinis parasitizing five new host passerine species. During 2012-2014, 1,888 birds were captured and examined for ticks, and 18 immature I. affinis were collected from 12 birds-six Carolina Wrens (Thyrothorus ludovicianus); two Brown Thrashers (Toxostoma rufum); and one American Robin (Turdus migratorius), Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), and White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis). Of 15 larvae and 3 nymphs collected, one nymph tested positive for B. burgdorferi DNA. I. affinis was found co-feeding on birds with immature Amblyomma americanum (L.), Ixodes brunneus Koch, Ixodes dentatus Marx, Ixodes scapularis Say, and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris Packard. The results of this research provide a better understanding of I. affinis hosts and identify avian taxa that may play a role in the maintenance and dispersal of this tick species.

  5. Multiple resistance and biochemical mechanisms of pyridaben resistance in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joon; Park, Hyung-Man; Cho, Jum-Rae; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2006-06-01

    A field colony of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) resistant to pyridaben was selected with pyridaben successively for 20 generations to produce the PR-20 strain. Resistance and multiple resistance levels of the PR-20 strain to 15 acaricides were determined using a spray bioassay. The PR-20 strain was extremely resistant to pyridaben (resistance ratio [RR] = 240]. The strain exhibited extremely strong resistance to fenpyroximate (RR=373) and acrinathrin (RR=329) and strong resistance to benzoximate (RR=84). An RR = 10-40 was observed with abamectin, fenazaquin, fenbutatin oxide, fenpropathrin, and tebufenpyrad. The PR-20 strain showed low levels of resistance (RR <10) to azocyclotin, bromopropylate, chlorfenapyr, dicofol, milbemectin, and propargite. Synergist experiments with different metabolic inhibitors revealed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a mixed function oxidase (MFO) inhibitor, had the greatest effect on pyridaben resistance. PBO significantly caused pyridaben resistance in the PR-20 strain to drop to the full susceptibility level of the susceptible (S) strain. However, there was no significant difference in MFO activities measured using a model substrate between the S and PR-20 strains. These results suggest that use of certain acaricides with little multiple resistance or PBO will be useful for the management of pyridaben resistance in the field.

  6. Sublethal effects of fenazaquin on life table parameters of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad, Marzieh; Kheradmand, Katayoon; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge of the impact of acaricides on predatory mites is crucial for integrated pest management programs. The present study evaluated the sublethal effect of fenazaquin (Pride(®) 20 % SC, Behavar, Iran) on life table parameters of the subsequent generation of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae), fed on Tetranychus urticae Koch under laboratory conditions [26 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 3 % RH and 16:8 (L:D) h]. The sublethal concentrations including LC10, LC20 and LC30 were determined using a dose-effect assay. The total development time of both sexes enhanced with an increase in concentration. The oviposition period and total fecundity decreased in dose-dependent manner. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) significantly descended with concentration enhancing from LC10 to LC30, compared with the control. The net reproductive rate (R 0) ranged between 2.76 and 7.37 offspring. Overall, the results indicated that fenazaquin had negative effects on development and life table parameters of the subsequent generation of A. swirskii. In conclusion, fenazaquin is not a compatible acaricide with A. swirskii and should not be used with this predatory mite in integrated management of T. urticae.

  7. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani-Samani Amir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer (Acari: Mesostigmata is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is also known to cause itching dermatosis in humans. In this study acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae were studied. Methods: After extracting the essential oil, different concentrations of the plant extract were prepared. Then, acaricidal effect of different concentrations was tested on poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, by dropping 3-4 drops of essential oil on mites. Repellent activity of essential oil was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. After the test, total number of killed and repellent mites reported. Results: Concentration of 1:2 or 50% had more acaricidal effect on mites. Also essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had repellent activity against red mites. Conclusion: This study showed that essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had acaricidal and repellent activities against red mites. Hence it might be used as a herbal acaricide against it to kill and to reduce the chemical resistance in this specie.

  8. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

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    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  9. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of livestock and their seasonal activities, northwest of Iran

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    Zahra Ramezani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of livestock and their seasonal activities, in northwest of Iran, including the combination of two of the geographical regions of Iran (Caspian and mountain plateau where the majority of the domestic ruminants in Iran exist. Methods: Fifteen villages of Meshkin-Shahr County were selected randomly from different areas of the county. The animal dwellings were visited and the whole body of sheep, cows, goats and dogs were examined for their probable infestation. Samples were identified at the level of species according to the standard morphological key. Results: In this study 1 208 specimen were collected and totally nine species (Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentor niveus, Haemaphysalis erinacei, Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were identified in this study. Also 569 host including 40 cows, 450 sheep, 70 goats and 9 dogs were examined for infestation and among them 255 were infested which showed a 44% of infestation among examined livestock. The infestation rate among sheep (46% was higher than other hosts. The infestation rates among the rest of hosts were as: cows (40%, goat (37% and dogs (33%. Conclusions: The results of this study and other studies of the region showed the probability of the establishment and development of the burden of several tick-borne diseases.

  10. Practical sampling plans for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and apiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M

    2010-08-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor.

  11. Desiccation tolerance in diapausing spider mites Tetranychus urticae and T. kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the effects of changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on the survival of diapausing (winter form) and non-diapausing (summer form) spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae). Adult females of both species were kept without food at VPDs of 0.0, 0.4, 0.7, 1.5, 1.9, or 2.7 kPa for 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 days at 25 °C. Diapausing females of both species kept at a VPD of ≥0.4 kPa for ≥6 days clearly tolerated desiccation. Under water-saturated conditions (VPD = 0.0 kPa), in which no desiccation occurred, diapausing females showed high starvation tolerance: 90 % survived for up to 15 days. No interspecific differences in tolerance to desiccation or starvation were observed under most conditions. These results indicate that diapause functions increase tolerance to desiccation and starvation. Such multiple tolerances to harsh environments might support winter survival in spider mites.

  12. Historical review of the genus Dermanyssus Dugès, 1834 (Acari: Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae

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    Roy L.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic review of the historical systematics of Dermanyssus Dugès, 1834 (Acari: Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae is provided. The classification at the specific level in this early genus has not really been clarified during more than a century despite its economic impact, and the history of the genus is complex and includes various stages. Moreover, Dermanyssus currently includes 23 species, whereas the last review took only 18 species into account. Changes in the species status and position in the genus Dermanyssus from 1834 until today are presented. The evolution of the generic definition is explored and compared with other genera of the group. How the discrimination between the different species evolved in the genus is also examined. Some difficulties in the specific definitions are discussed. A current diagnosis of the genus Dermanyssus is given. A table of the species included in this genus since its first description along with their respective current positions, a list of the currently included species in Dermanyssus with their hosts, and a world map presenting their geographic distribution are provided.

  13. Identification of a dieldrin resistance-associated mutation in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Michelle; Menzies, Moira; Kemp, David

    2010-08-01

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae), is a major vector of tick fever organisms affecting cattle in many parts of the world, including Australia, Africa, and South America. Control of the southern cattle tick through acaricide use is an important approach in disease management. Resistance has emerged to many of the acaricides currently and previously used, including the cyclodienes. Although cyclodiene resistance mechanisms have been characterized in many insect species, this report is the first to identify mutations associated with dieldrin resistance in the cattle tick. A novel two base pair mutation in the GABA-gated chloride channel gene has been identified at position 868-9 and causes a codon change from threonine to leucine. Analysis of a small number of field-collected samples resistant to dieldrin shows this mutation has been maintained without selection pressure since the withdrawal of dieldrin in Australia > 20 yr ago. The mutation is not found in other laboratory-maintained strains of R. microplus that were subject to selection pressure with various acaricides.

  14. Two new families (Acari: Alicorhagiidae and Platyhelminthes: Prorhynchidae reported for the Hungarian fauna From leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains

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    Pfliegler, W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new members of the Hungarian fauna are reported, both of them were collected in beech forest leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains, North-East Hungary: Alicorhagia fragilis Berlese, 1910 (Arthropoda: Arachnida: Acari: Sarcoptiformes: Endeostigmata: Alicorhagiidae and Geocentrophora baltica (Kennel, 1883 (Platyhelminthes: Rhabditophora: Trepaxonemata: Amplimatricata: 'Lecithoepitheliata': Prorhynchida: Prorhynchidae. The families Alicorhagiidae and Prorhynchidae both represent new taxa in the fauna of the country.

  15. Secondary structure of expansion segment D1 in LSU rDNA from Arachnida and its phylogenetic application in Eriophyoid mites and in Acari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Hang; Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Yang; Hu, Li; Chen, Yi-Meng

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of researchers have applied secondary-structure based multiple alignments of rDNA genes in phylogeny. These studies mostly depended on a few valuable divergent domains in LSU and SSU rDNA. Yet other divergent domains, e.g. D1, were poorly investigated and rarely used. However, these domains might contain additional evolutionary data and play a vital role in DNA-based phylogenetic study. Here, we investigated all available D1 sequences of Arachnida taxa and predicted corresponding secondary structures to help identify homologous positions in the D1 region. Long insertions were found exclusive to Eriophyoidea and folded into three newly proposed helices. Non-Acari taxa were all GC rich. In Acari, most Trombidiformes and all Mesostigmata (Parasitiformes) taxa were AT rich and Ixodida (Parasitiformes) GC rich; however there was no consistent base bias in Sarcoptiformes sequences. For Eriophyoid mites, genera Cecidophyopsis and Aceria were both well supported in MP, NJ, ME and ML tress based on D1 sequences, and clusters of Cecidophyopsis species were identical with former study. This demonstrated that the D1 region could act as a valuable molecular marker in phylogenetic reconstruction of Eriophyoidea. Additionally, D1 has been proven suitable in phylogenetic analysis at the family and genus level in Acari, but not in Opiliones.

  16. Effects of Insecticides and Fungicides Commonly Used in Tomato Production on Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phtyoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditillo, J L; Kennedy, G G; Walgenbach, J F

    2016-12-01

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of tomatoes in North Carolina. Resident populations of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis have recently been detected on field-grown tomatoes in central North Carolina, and potentially can be a useful biological control agent against T. urticae Laboratory bioassays were used to assess lethal and reproductive effects of 10 insecticides and five fungicides commonly used in commercial tomato production (chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, permethrin, imidacloprid, dimethoate, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, boscalid, cyazofamid, and mancozeb) on P. persimilis adult females and eggs. Insecticides were tested using concentrations equivalent to 1×, 0.5×, and 0.1× of the recommended field rates. Fungicides were tested at the 1× rate only. Dimethoate strongly impacted P. persimilis with high adult mortality, reduced fecundity, and reduced hatch of eggs laid by treated adults, particularly at high concentrations. The pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and fenpropathrin were associated with repellency and reproductive effects at high concentrations. Bifenthrin additionally caused increased mortality at high concentrations. Chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and permethrin did not significantly affect mortality or reproduction. Imidacloprid significantly reduced fecundity and egg viability, but was not lethal to adult P. persimilis Thiamethoxam negatively impacted fecundity at the 1× rate. There were no negative effects associated with fungicide exposure with the exception of mancozeb, which impacted fecundity. Field trials were conducted to explore the in vivo impacts of screened insecticides on P. persimilis populations in the field. Field trials supported the incompatibility of dimethoate with P. persimilis populations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  17. Bacterial diversity in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) with a focus on members of the genus Rickettsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Stephanie R; Elshahed, M S; Little, S E

    2010-03-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae), is commonly reported from people and animals throughout the eastern U.S. and is associated with transmission of a number of emerging diseases. To better define the microbial communities within lone star ticks, 16S rRNA gene based analysis using bacteria-wide primers, followed by sequencing of individual clones (n = 449) was used to identify the most common bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present within colony-reared and wild A. americanum. The colony-reared ticks contained primarily sequence affiliated with members of the genus Coxiella (89%; 81/91), common endosymbionts of ticks, and Brevibacterium (11%; 10/91). Similarly, analysis of clones from unfed wild lone star ticks revealed that 96.7% (89/92) of all the OTUs identified were affiliated with Coxiella-like endosymbionts, as compared with only 5.1-11.7% (5/98-9/77) of those identified from wild lone star ticks after feeding. In contrast, the proportion of OTUs identified as Rickettsia sp. in wild-caught ticks increased from 2.2% (2/92) before feeding to as high as 46.8% (36/77) after feeding, and all Rickettsia spp. sequences recovered were most similar to those described from the spotted fever group Rickettsia, specifically R. amblyommii and R. massiliae. Additional characterization of the Rickettsiales tick community by polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of 17 kDa and gltA genes confirmed these initial findings and suggested that novel Rickettsia spp. are likely present in these ticks. These data provide insight into the overall, as well as the rickettsial community of wild lone star ticks and may ultimately aid in identification of novel pathogens transmitted by A. americanum.

  18. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic (Liliaceae against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari

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    Felix Nchu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (DCM extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98 with increasing concentration (40.03% – 86.96% yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks and 87.5% (female ticks in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  19. Pest management systems affect composition but not abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Árpád; Pénzes, Béla; Sipos, Péter; Hegyi, Tamás; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Markó, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    We examined the faunal composition and abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards under different pest management systems in Hungary. A total of 30 apple orchards were surveyed, including abandoned and organic orchards and orchards where integrated pest management (IPM) or broad spectrum insecticides (conventional pest management) were applied. A total of 18 phytoseiid species were found in the canopy of apple trees. Species richness was greatest in the organic orchards (mean: 3.3 species/400 leaves) and the least in the conventional orchards (1.4), with IPM (2.1) and abandoned (2.7) orchards showing intermediate values. The phytoseiid community's Rényi diversity displayed a similar pattern. However, the total phytoseiid abundance in the orchards with different pest management systems did not differ, with abundance varying between 1.8 and 2.6 phytoseiids/10 leaves. Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, and Typhlodromus pyri were the three most common species. The relative abundance of A. andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards whereas the relative abundance of E. finlandicus decreased. The abundance of T. pyri did not change in the apple orchards under different pest management strategies; regardless of the type of applied treatment, they only displayed greater abundance in five of the orchards. The remaining 15 phytoseiid species only occurred in small numbers, mostly from the abandoned and organic orchards. We identified a negative correlation between the abundance of T. pyri and the other phytoseiids in the abandoned and organic orchards. However, we did not find any similar link between the abundance of A. andersoni and E. finlandicus.

  20. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  1. Effect of Pollen from Different Plant Species on Development of Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae Efecto del Polen de Diferentes Especies Vegetales sobre el Desarrollo de Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae

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    Paulina Bermúdez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae is a phytoseiid mite with a high potential in controlling the false Chilean mite (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different plant species pollen as a complementary food in the development of T. pyri when its prey is in low levels of availability. Mites were individually placed on black plastic boxes with pollen and maintained at a temperature of 26 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity (RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L:D. Postembryonic development of T. pyri was studied in 11 pollen species, as well as in a mixed diet of Hirschfeldia incana (L. and B. chilensis. Results show that H. incana was the only pollen in which there was no mortality (P > 0.05 along with the control (Oxalis pes-caprae L.. Mean duration from egg to adult with H. incana was 8.70 ± 1.66 d, protonymph 3.27 ± 0.21 d, and deutonymph 2.90 ± 1.45 d (P > 0.05. The mix feeding of T. pyri did not show any significant differences neither in the mean time from egg to adult, nor in mortality by feeding only with B. chilensis. Survival curves of T. pyri fed only with H. incana pollen, combined with B. chilensis, and only with B. chilensis are higher in the first 14 d of life. The sex ratio was not significantly affected by being fed only with H. incana pollen, B. chilensis, or by a combination of both.Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae es un ácaro que presenta un alto potencial de uso para el control de la falsa arañita roja de la vid (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del polen de diferentes especies vegetales como alimento complementario para T. pyri cuando escasea su presa. Los parámetros post-embrionarios de T. pyri se estudiaron en 11 especies de polen, en una dieta mixta de polen de Hirschfeldia incana (L. y B. chilensis. Los ácaros se colocaron individualmente sobre

  2. Acari; Tetranychidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    do not specifically target T. urticae in terms of control but use insecticides at high dosages ... leaves were taken from the plants and sprayed with serial dilutions of the ... The LD50 values and slopes were determined using probit analysis and ...

  3. Primer registro del hongo Neozygites sp. (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales, patógeno de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae en la República Argentina First record of Neozygites sp. (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales, pathogen of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae in Argentina

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    Ana C. Scorsetti

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se cita por primera vez para la Argentina la presencia del hongo entomopatógeno Neozygites cf. floridana (Zygomycota: Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales como patógeno de la «arañuela roja», Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae, importante plaga de cultivos hortícolas en la región. Los muestreos fueron realizados en el cinturón hortícola del Gran La Plata sobre cultivos de tomate, pimiento, berenjena, y otras hortalizas. El material de herbario, como preparaciones microscópicas y ácaros infectados fue depositado en el Herbario del Instituto de Botánica C. Spegazzini y en el herbario micológico del CEPAVE. Este trabajo contribuye a ampliar la distribución y el espectro de hospedadores de Neozygites , así como ampliar la información de los hongos entomopatógenos en la Argentina.In this paper, the presence of the fungi Neozygites cf. floridana (Zygomycota: Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales, as pathogen of the mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae, is recorded for first time in Argentina. Samplings were carried out in La Plata , on tomato, pepper, egg-plant, and other horticultural crops. Microscopic slides and mites infected were placed in the Herbarium of the Institute of Botany C. Spegazzini and in the Herbarium of CEPAVE. This work contributes to further expand the distribution and the host range of Neozygites as well as the information of entomopathogenic fungi in Argentina.

  4. SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS A Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM MACIEIRA, NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL AGROCHEMICAL SELECTIVITY TO Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE ON APPLE IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    LINO BITTENCOURT MONTEIRO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Testes para determinar os efeitos de agroquímicos homologados para macieira foram realizados em laboratório sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os indivíduos testados foram coletados de um pomar comercial da Agriflor Ltda, em Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, após várias liberações inoculativas. Os inseticidas utilizados foram os tradicionalmente recomendados para o controle de pragas, principalmente mosca-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. A oviposição e a mortalidade dos ácaros foram avaliadas 12; 24; 48 e 96 horas após a pulverização, cujos produtos foram classificados em quatro classes de toxicidade (IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion provocaram 100% de mortalidade, sendo que dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon foram levemente nocivos (classe 2. Malation foi considerado neutro para esta população.The side-effects of agrochemical to Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae were studied in laboratory. The mites were collected in commercial apple orchard of Agropastoril Rincão das Flores, in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, after successive inoculative releases. The insecticids used were recommended to control of same pest, as Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. The reproduction effect and mortality were evalued 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after pulverization, while the agrochemical were ranked in toxicity classes, according to IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion were harmful with ca. 100% of mortality in 24 hours, dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon were slightly harmful (class 2. Malation was harmless.

  5. TAMBO VIEJO: UN ASENTAMIENTO FORTIFICADO EN EL VALLE DE ACARÍ, PERÚ (Tambo Viejo: A Fortified Settlement in the Acari Valley, Peru

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    Lidio M. Valdez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de los asentamientos fortificados y el origen del conflicto violento son temas poco discutidos en el contexto de la arqueología peruana. Considero que es oportuno investigar y determinar cuándo y por qué surgieron los primeros asentamientos fortificados. El propósito central de este artículo está precisamente orientado a responder tales interrogantes y discutir el tema del conflicto violento en el valle de Acarí y, por extensión, en la costa sur del Perú. Las evidencias arqueológicas disponibles señalan que, durante el periodo Intermedio Temprano, Tambo Viejo fue un asentamiento defendido por varias estructuras perimétricas. Otros sitios contemporáneos de Tambo Viejo en Acarí también fueron fortificados. Además, existe en el mismo valle evidencia tangible de violencia en la forma de prisioneros que posteriormente fueron decapitados. En contraste a la evidencia proveniente de Acarí, no existen asentamientos del periodo Intermedio Temprano identificables como fortificaciones, lo que hace de los sitios de Acarí los primeros asentamientos fortificados de toda la costa sur. ENGLISH: The emergence of violent conflict and of fortified settlements is a subject little studied within Peruvian archaeology. However, I consider it vital to investigate and determine the time and the reasons under which fortified settlements were first established. The central aim of this paper is to discuss when and why fortified settlements emerged first in the Acari Valley and, by extension, in the south coast of Peru. Available archaeological evidence indicates that during the Early Intermediate Period, Tambo Viejo was a fortified settlement protected by several massive walls. Other neighbouring sites in Acari were also fortified. Furthermore, in Acari there is conclusive evidence for violence in the form of decapitated individuals. In contrast to evidence coming from Acari, not a single Early Intermediate Period settlement from other

  6. Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitizing Castor fiber (Rodentia), and other parasitic arthropods associated with Castor spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2016-02-11

    A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp.

  7. Diversidade e flutuação populacional de ácaros (Acari em amora-preta (Rubus fruticosus, Rosaceae no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márla Maria Marchetti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ácaros das famílias Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae e Tetranychidae são citados como de importância econômica na cultura de amora-preta (Rubus fruticosus, Rosaceae, framboesa e outras frutas pequenas. Este estudo foi conduzido de novembro de 2001 a outubro de 2003 nas cultivares Brazos, Caigangue e Tupy no município de Ilópolis, Rio Grande do Sul, com o objetivo de conhecer a acarofauna e sua dinâmica populacional em amora-preta. Foram coletados 36.094 ácaros pertencentes a 11 famílias. A maioria dos ácaros coletados pertence às famílias Diptilomiopidae (80,9% e Tetranychidae (13,9%, compostas por espécies fitófagas. Chakrabartiella sp. (Diptilomiopidae, foi a espécie mais abundante, seguida por Neotetranychus asper Feres & Flechtmann, 2000 (Tetranychidae. Stigmaeidae (2,1% e Phytoseiidae (0,4% foram os ácaros predadores mais comuns, sendo Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira, 2002 (Stigmaeidae e Typhlodromalus aripo DeLeon, 1967 (Phytoseiidae, as espécies de predadores mais abundantes.

  8. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima; Karen Sumire Kubo; Paulo de Tarso de Oliveira Ferreira; Berenice Kussumoto de Alcântara; Alessandra de Jesus Boari; Renata Takassugi Gomes; Juliana Freitas-Astua; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende; Gilberto José de Morais; Renato Barbosa Salaroli

    2008-01-01

    Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV). Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hi...

  9. Comparative residual toxicities of pesticides to the predator Agistemus industani (Acari: Stigmaeidae) on citrus in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, C C; Villanueva, R; Aguilar, H; Chewning, R; Michaud, J P

    2001-01-01

    Residual toxicities of registered and selected experimental pesticides used on citrus against Agistemus industani Gonzalez (Acari: Stigmaeidae) were compared. Pesticides considered highly toxic to A. industani were: abamectin 0.15 EC at 731 ml/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, pyridaben 75 WP at 469 g/ha, ethion 4 EC at 7.01 l/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, propargite 6.55 EC at 3.51 l/ha, chlorfenapyr 2 SC at 1.46 l/ha applied alone or in combination with FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, sulphur 80 DF at 16.81 kg/ha. dicofol 4EC at 7.01 l/ha, fenbutatin oxide 50 WP at 2.24 kg/ha, benomyl 50 WP at 2.24 kg/ha, benomyl 50 WP at 1.68 kg/ha + ferbam 76 GF at 5.60 kg/ha, ferbam 76 GF at 11.21 kg/ha, neem oil 90 EC at 46.8 l/ha, and copper hydroxide DF (40% metallic copper) at 4.48 kg metallic copper/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha. Pesticides that were moderately to slightly toxic included: copper sulphate 98% at 4.48 kg metallic copper/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, fenbuconazole 2 F at 280 ml/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, FC 435-66 petroleum oil applied alone at 46.8 l/ha or 23.41/ha, and diflubenzuron 25 WP at 1.40 kg/ha. Pesticides that were non-toxic included: fenbuconazole 2 F at 585 ml/ha, malathion 57 EC at 5.85 l/ha, FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, carbaryl 80 S at 3.36 kg/ha. chlorpyrifos 4 EC at 4.68 l/ha, and formetanate 92 SP at 1.12 kg/ha. Understanding the toxic effects of field weathered pesticides against key predacious mite species is important for effective IPM. The results of this study provide a comparison of direct and indirect toxic effects of various pesticides to A. industani under field conditions.

  10. Bazı bitkisel kökenli uçucu yağların Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867) (Acari: Tetranychidae) üzerine kontakt ve repellent etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    TOPUZ, Emine; MADANLAR, Nilgün

    2010-01-01

    In this study, contact and repellent effects of 5 different plant essential oils against Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867) (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Essential oils of aerial parts, leaves or seeds of Mentha pulegium Linnaeus (Labiatae), Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Umbellifera), Pistacia terebinthus Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae), Schinus molle Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae) and Vitex agnus-castus Linnaeus (Verbenaceae) plants, grown around Antalya regio...

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF DAMAGED MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P C; Dehaven, M; McClelland, M; Chidester, S; Maienschein, J L

    2006-06-23

    Thermal damage experiments were conducted on LX-04, LX-10, and LX-17 at high temperatures. Both pristine and damaged samples were characterized for their material properties. A pycnometer was used to determine sample true density and porosity. Gas permeability was measured in a newly procured system (diffusion permeameter). Burn rate was measured in the LLNL strand burner. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant. Damaged pressed parts expanded, resulting in a reduction of bulk density by up to 10%. Both gas permeabilities and burn rates of the damaged samples increased by several orders of magnitude due to higher porosity and lower density. Moduli of the damaged materials decreased significantly, an indication that the materials became weaker mechanically. Damaged materials were more sensitive to shock initiation at high temperatures. No significant sensitization was observed when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature.

  12. Detection of two Bartonella tamiae-like sequences in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) using 16S-23S intergenic spacer region-specific primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Sarah A; Miller, Melissa K; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Levy, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    Four hundred and sixty-six questing Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) from Carolina County, VA, and 98 questing A. americanum from Chatham County, NC, were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Two amplicons, approximately 270-280 bp, were detected in two ticks from Virginia. Based upon PCR and sequencing, an adult male and adult female tick harbored DNA sequences closely related to Bartonella tamiae (DQ395180). Bartonella DNA was not detected in A. americanum from North Carolina. Potential transmission of Bartonella spp. by A. americanum should be the focus of future experimental studies.

  13. Avaliação de extratos vegetais no controle de Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917) (Acari: Tetranychidae) em laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Thaiana Mansur Botelho de; EPAMIG-CTSM/EcoCentro; Reis, Paulo Rebelles; EPAMIG-CTSM/EcoCentro; Oliveira, Denilson Ferreira de; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA; Carvalho, Douglas Antônio de; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA

    2008-01-01

    Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917) (Acari: Tetranychidae) já foi referido como a segunda praga em importância para o cafeeiro Conillon, considerado mais sensível ao ácaro que o Arábica. A aplicação de pesticidas sintéticos no seu controle pode provocar impactos negativos ao ambiente e ao homem. Alternativamente ao uso de tais produtos, surgem outros menos impactantes, como por exemplo, extratos de plantas. Com o presente trabalho, teve-se por objetivo avaliar o efeito de extratos de plantas ...

  14. [The first report of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (Acari Ixodidae) on the lizard Tupinambis teguixin (L.) at the Municipality of Glorinha, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João R; Monticelli, Elida C; Onofrio, Valéria C; Barros-Battesti, Darcy M; Doyle, Rovaina L

    2007-01-01

    Amblyomma fuscum known only from Brazil has been described as a rare tick species with few reports of its occurrence in South and Southeast region. This is a new records this tick species (9 females) parasitizing lizard (Tupinambis teguixin) at the Municipality of Glorinha, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The females were deposited in the tick collection of Veterinary Research Institute Desiderio Finamor (7 specimens), Eldorado do Sul, RS and in the Acari collection from Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, State of São Paulo (2 specimens). The finding confirms establishment de A. fuscum in the South of Brazil.

  15. Otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Clarissa Pimentel; Verocai, Guilherme Gomes; de Arruda, Julio Almeida Alencar Matos; Pires, Jeferson Rocha; Takitani, Andréa Yuri; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first description of gross pathological aspects of otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825 (Xenarthra; Bradypodidae) in Brazil. Mites were collected from massive skin crusts seen in both external ear canals and around both eyes of an extremely debilitated advanced-aged female sloth brought to the Wildlife Care Section of Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  16. Oviposição dos ácaros predadores Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, Euseius concordis (Chant e Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker (Acari em resposta a diferentes tipos de alimento Oviposition of the predators Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, Euseius concordis (Chant and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker (Acari in response the different kinds of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoseiidae and Sigmaeidae are the most common predatory mites on rubber tree leaves in the State of Mato Grosso, associated with phytophagous mites of the families Eriophyidae, Tenuipalpidae and Tetranychidae. The aim of this work was to compare the effect of different kinds of food, including different species of mites commonly found on the rubber tree in Mato Grosso, and one kind of pollen, on the oviposition of the predators Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, 1965 (Stigmaeidae, Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959 and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965, both Phytoseiidae. Those predators are common on rubber tree leaves in Mato Grosso. For the tests with A. floridanus, discs of 2 cm in diameter of rubber tree leaves were used as substrate. Food provided to the predators were the mites Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992, Oligonychus gossypii (Zacher, 1921, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904, Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 and Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor, 1950, and pollen of Typha angustifolia L. Agistemus floridanus accepted a larger variety of foodthan other predators. This was the only predator with high oviposition rate when fed C. heveae and T. heveae, the phytophagous mites considered most important on rubber trees. Euseius concordis and A. floridanus had nearly the same oviposition rates when fed pollen of T. angustifolia (ca. one egg per female per day. Neoseiulus anonymus had the highest oviposition rate than other predators when fed O. gossypii and T. mexicanus. Polyphagotarsonemus latus was the least suitable food for the predators studied.

  17. [Morphological adaptations of acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes) to permanent parasitism on mammals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The external morphological adaptations to parasitism in acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes), permanently parasiting mammals, are briefly summated and analyzed. According to several external morphological criteria (structures of gnathosoma, idiosoma, setation, legs and life cycle), the following six morphoecotypes were established: skin mites (i)-- Cheyletidae, Chirorhynchobiidae, Lobalgidae, Myobiidae, Myocoptidae (the most part), Rhyncoptidae, Psoroptidae; fur mites (ii)--Atopomelidae, Clirodiscidae, Listrophoridae, Myocoptidae (Trichoecius only); skin burrowing mites (iii)--Sarcoptidae; intradermal mites (iv) - sorergatidae and Demodicidae; interstitial mites (v) - pimyodicidae; respiratory mites (vi) - reynetidae, Gastronyssidae, Lemurnyssidae, Pneumocoptidae. In the case of prostigmatic mites, the detailed reconstruction of the origin and evolution of "parasitic" morphoecotypes is possible due to the tentative phylogenetic hypotheses, which were proposed for the infraorder Eleutherengon, a, including the most part of the permanent mammalian parasites among prostigmatic mites (Kethley in Norton, 1993; Bochkov, 2002). The parasitism of Speleognathinae (Ereynetidae) in the mammalian respiratory tract arose independently of the other prostigmats. It is quite possible that these mites switched on mammals from birds, because they are more widely represented on these hosts than on mammals. The prostigmatic parasitism on mammalian skin seems to be originated independently in myobiids, in the five cheyletid tribes, Cheyletiellini, Niheliini, and Teinocheylini, Chelonotini, Cheyletini, and, probably, in a cheyletoid ansector of the sister families Psorergatidae-Demodicidae (Bochkov, Fain, 2001; Bochkov, 2002). Demodicids and psorergatids developed adaptations to parasitism in the skin gland ducts and directly in the epithelial level, respectively in the process of the subsequent specialization. Mites of the family Epimyodicidae belong to the phylogenetic line

  18. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  19. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  20. DNA damage and autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely [Redox Biology Center and School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States); Panayiotidis, Mihalis I. [School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Franco, Rodrigo, E-mail: rfrancocruz2@unl.edu [Redox Biology Center and School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States)

    2011-06-03

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  1. Damage Theory Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    This report contains a series of validation examples for the theoretical model implemented in the computer program DAMAGE. note that the validation examples are for assembled structures.......This report contains a series of validation examples for the theoretical model implemented in the computer program DAMAGE. note that the validation examples are for assembled structures....

  2. The international trade in reptiles (Reptilia)--the cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) to Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Magdalena

    2010-05-11

    The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland.

  3. New Miticides for Integrated Pest Management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Honey Bee Colonies on the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervalk, L P; Nasr, M E; Dosdall, L M

    2014-12-01

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000 (Acari: Varroidae) is an ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Honey bee colonies require extensive management to prevent mortality caused by varroa mites and the viruses they vector. New miticides (Thymovar and HopGuard) to manage varroa mites were evaluated during the spring and fall treatment windows of the Canadian prairies to determine their effectiveness as part of an integrated management strategy. Thymovar and HopGuard were evaluated alongside the currently used industry standards: Apivar and formic acid. Results demonstrated that Apivar and formic acid remain effective V. destructor management options under spring and fall conditions. Applications of Thymovar during spring were associated with a reduction in brood area, and therefore should be limited to the fall season. The miticide HopGuard was not effective in managing V. destructor, and alteration of the current delivery system is necessary. This study demonstrates the potential for new effective treatment options to supplement currently used V. destructor integrated pest management systems.

  4. The role of the bacterial community in the nutritional ecology of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zindel, Renate; Ofek, Maya; Minz, Dror; Palevsky, Eric; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Aebi, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    The biology of many arthropods can only be understood when their associated microbiome is considered. The nutritional requirements of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini Claparede (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) in the laboratory have been shown to be very easily satisfied, and in the field the mites prefer fungus-infected over uninfected plants. To test whether symbiotic bacteria facilitate the survival of R. robini on a temporarily nutritionally unbalanced diet, we investigated the composition of its microbiome. Using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments, 3 genera were found to dominate the bacterial community: Myroides (41.4%), Serratia (11.4%), and Alcaligenes (4.5%); the latter 2 are known to include chitinase-producing species. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that mite fecundity is significantly higher (2 times) on fungus than on controls (sterilized potato dextrose agar and filter paper). Also, when mite homogenate was applied to a chitin layer, the halo produced through degradation was clearly visible, while the saline control did not produce a halo. We thus concluded that R. robini utilizes fungal chitin, at least to a certain extent, as a food source with the help of its associated bacteria. This information supports the general concept of multigenome organisms and the involvement of bacteria in the mite's nutritional ecology.

  5. Impact of ectohumus application in birch and pine nurseries on the presence of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.

  6. Development and reproductive potential of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae) on plant-parasitic nematodes and artificial diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou El-Atta, Doaa Abd El-Maksoud; Osman, Mohamed Ali

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated development, reproduction and life table parameters of the astigmatid mold mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acari: Acaridae) feeding on egg-masses or adult females of the nematode Meloidogyne incognita, egg-masses of the nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, ras cheese or yeast at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10 % RH in the dark. Immature developmental times were shorter when the mite was fed females of M. incognita followed by yeast. Different prey/diet types had no significant effect on longevity and lifespan of both males and females. Daily oviposition rate (eggs/female/day) was highest for mites fed yeast (20.8 ± 1.8 eggs) and lowest for mites fed females of M. incognita (6.6 ± 0.5). Intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m) was highest for mites fed yeast compared to other prey/diet; no significant differences in r m were observed among mites fed on non-yeast diets. This result may suggest a role of T. putrescentiae as biocontrol agent of plant-parasitic nematodes and the yeast may be used for mite mass-production purposes.

  7. Relative contribution of biotic and abiotic factors to the population density of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Adriano S; Teodoro, Adenir V; Maciel, Anilde G S; Sarmento, Renato A

    2013-08-01

    The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, is a key pest of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), and it may be kept in check by naturally occurring predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae. In addition to predatory mites, abiotic factors may also contribute to regulate pest mite populations in the field. Here, we evaluated the population densities of both M. tanajoa and the generalist predatory mite Euseius ho DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) over the cultivation cycle (11 months) of cassava in four study sites located around the city of Miranda do Norte, Maranhão, Brazil. The abiotic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were also recorded throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. We determined the relative importance of biotic (density of E. ho) and abiotic (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) factors to the density of M. tanajoa. The density of M. tanajoa increased whereas the density of E. ho remained constant throughout time. A hierarchical partitioning analysis revealed that most of the variance for the density of M. tanajoa was explained by rainfall and relative humidity followed by E. ho density and temperature. We conclude that abiotic factors, especially rainfall, were the main mechanisms driving M. tanajoa densities.

  8. THE EFFECT OF CATTLE LIQUID MANURE FERTILIZATION ON THE SOIL MITES (ACARI OF PERMANENT MEADOW IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADOMIR GRACZYK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different doses of cattle liquid manure, with or without the VIT-TRA agent, on the mites of permanent meadow, with species analysis of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida was investigated. Samples were taken from 13 plots, fertilized with cattle liquid manure in doses 40, 60 and 80 m3· ha-1 and VIT-TRA agent. The dose 40 m3· ha-1 increased the abundance of mites, comparing to the control plot, while doses 60 and 80 m3· ha-1 decreased it. The fungicidal agent, with medium and high dose of fertilizer, signifi cantly decreased the density of Oribatida, Gamasida and Actinedida in relation to small dose of fertilizer with this agent. The mites reacted in a similar way to the bactericidal agent, but acting of virocidal agent was indistinct. The Oribatida dominated among the mites, while the Actinedida and Gamasida were less abundant. Among the Oribatida the most abundant were: Parachipteria bella, Liebstadia humerata, Achipteria coleoptrata and Scheloribates laevigatus. The Oribatida preferred the lower part of grasses, and their density distinctly decreased with the soil depth.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867 (Acari: Tetranychidae, and Its Response to β-Sitosterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunya Bu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae is a worldwide polyphagous agricultural pest that has the title of resistance champion among arthropods. We reported previously the identification of the acaricidal compound β-sitosterol from Mentha piperita and Inula japonica. However, the acaricidal mechanism of β-sitosterol is unclear. Due to the limited genetic research carried out, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of T. cinnabarinus using Illumina sequencing and conducted a differential expression analysis of control and β-sitosterol-treated mites. In total, we obtained >5.4 G high-quality bases for each sample with unprecedented sequencing depth and assembled them into 22,941 unigenes. We identified 617 xenobiotic metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification, binding, and transporting of xenobiotics. A highly expanded xenobiotic metabolic system was found in mites. T. cinnabarinus detoxification genes—including carboxyl/cholinesterase and ABC transporter class C—were upregulated after β-sitosterol treatment. Defense-related proteins, such as Toll-like receptor, legumain, and serine proteases, were also activated. Furthermore, other important genes—such as the chloride channel protein, cytochrome b, carboxypeptidase, peritrophic membrane chitin binding protein, and calphostin—may also play important roles in mites’ response to β-sitosterol. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput-omics tool facilitates identification of xenobiotic metabolism-related genes and illustration of the acaricidal mechanisms of β-sitosterol.

  10. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains.

  11. Effect of Hyalomma Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on Milk Production of Dairy Buffaloes (Bos Bubalus Bubalis of Punjab (Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U. Iqbal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate economic losses in terms of milk production caused by tick infestation in dairy buffaloes (Bos bubalus bubalis of Punjab (Pakistan. To this end, six hundred Nili-Ravi buffaloes infested with Hyalomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae were selected and divided into two equal groups viz; A & B. The animals of group A were treated with various doses of 5% cypermethrine pour-on (Cipermetriven, Ivan Labs, Spain while those of group B were treated with propylene glycol (Propandiol - (1, 2, Merck as a sham treatment. Average milk production (L and butter fat (% was recorded before and after treatment in order to calculate post-treatment increase in these parameters (if any. An average daily increase of 1.15L in milk yield per animal with 1.31% more fat was observed in acaricide- treated animals. A dose-dependent effect of acaricide was found on the number of ticks as well as milk production and fat. The results provided a baseline data for further research on economic impact of tick nuisance to the smallholder dairy farming systems of Pakistan.

  12. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  13. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  14. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  15. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  16. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  17. Bypassing damaged nervous tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Shneider, M N

    2016-01-01

    We show the principal ability of bypassing damaged demyelinated portions of nervous tissue, thereby restoring its normal function for the passage of action potentials. We carry out a theoretical analysis on the basis of the synchronization mechanism of action potential propagation along a bundle of neurons, proposed recently in [1]. And we discuss the feasibility of implement a bypass to restore damaged nervous tissue and creating an artificial neuron network.

  18. Experimental infestation with the immatures of Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae on Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae and Oryctolagus cuniculus Infestação experimental com as fases imaturas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae e Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.T. Freitas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas provenientes de duas fêmeas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, naturalmente ingurgitadas em uma iguana (Iguana iguana e provenientes do Estado do Mato Grosso, foram utilizadas na infestação experimental de lagartos da espécie Tropidurus torquatus e coelhos domésticos. As larvas alimentadas em ambos os hospedeiros realizaram ecdise para ninfas. As ninfas apenas ingurgitaram no lagarto e mudaram para machos e fêmeas. Este é o primeiro registro do parasitismo de larvas e ninfas de A. dissimile em T. torquatus e de larvas em coelhos.

  19. Mites (Arachnida, Acari on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves, twigs and fruits were collected from 12 trees, one per orchard. In total, 3,360 leaves, 672 twigs and 1,344 fruits were sampled from 168 trees. Mites were manually extracted from the fruits, and by the washing method on leaves and twigs. We identified pests with the potential to cause economic loss. Fourteen species of phytophagous and mycophagous mites from Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tetranychidae were recorded. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes 1939 and Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm., 1879, the two commonest phytophagous mites in other Brazilian regions were dominant, showing that local orchards are susceptible to their infestation. Eleven predatory mites were recorded, comprising 10% of the mite population, belonging to Phytoseiidae and Ascidae. Phytoseiidae was the richest family, with ten species. The results are discussed in relation to the temporal variation aspects and habitat use of the most important species. Long-term research encompassing chemical applications followed by evaluations of the mite community are necessary for a better management of the orchards, taking into consideration the seasonal phenology of key pests.Apesar da importância da citricultura no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as populações de ácaros em plantações de citros no norte do país. No município de Manaus, 12 pomares de laranja doce pulverizados foram avaliados a cada duas semanas, durante sete meses, para o registro de ácaros plantícolas e

  20. Assessing Tropical Cyclone Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, J.; Czajkowski, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landfalling tropical cyclones impact large coastal and inland areas causing direct damage due to winds, storm-surge flooding, tornadoes, and precipitation; as well as causing substantial indirect damage such as electrical outages and business interruption. The likely climate change impact of increased tropical cyclone intensity, combined with increases in exposure, bring the possibility of increased damage in the future. A considerable amount of research has focused on modeling economic damage due to tropical cyclones, and a series of indices have been developed to assess damages under climate change. We highlight a number of ways this research can be improved through a series of case study analyses. First, historical loss estimates are revisited to properly account for; time, impacted regions, the source of damage by type, and whether the damage was direct/indirect and insured/uninsured. Second, the drivers of loss from both the socio-economic and physical side are examined. A case is made to move beyond the use of maximum wind speed to more stable metrics and the use of other characteristics of the wind field such as direction, degree of gustiness, and duration is explored. A novel approach presented here is the potential to model losses directly as a function of climate variables such as sea surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols. This work is the first stage in the development of a tropical cyclone loss model to enable projections of losses under scenarios of both socio-economic change (such as population migration or altered policy) and physical change (such as shifts in tropical cyclone activity one from basin to another or within the same basin).

  1. Ocorrência do ácaro fitófago Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae em cultivares de milho Bt Occurrence of the phytophagous mite Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae on Bt corn cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Matiello Fadini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência do microácaro-da-face-inferior-das-folhas-de-milho Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae em cultivares transgênicas de milho, contendo as proteínas Cry1F e Cry 1 A(b e milho não Bt. Durante o período de junho de 2010 a janeiro de 2011, foram coletadas, quinzenalmente, cinco amostras aleatórias de quatro folhas em talhões de milho Bt, contendo a proteína Cry 1F e Cry 1 A(b, e de milho não Bt em áreas experimentais da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, em Sete Lagoas, MG. As amostras de folhas foram vistoriadas por 15 minutos na região da nervura central, em busca de adultos de C. tricholaenae. Foram registrados 2.930 indivíduos de C. tricholaenae, sendo que 1.114 no milho Bt Cry 1F, 753 em Cry 1 A(b e 1063 indivíduos em folhas das cultivares não Bt. As maiores abundâncias populacionais médias ocorreram nos meses de novembro e dezembro. Os fatores estágio fenológico das plantas e precipitação afetaram positivamente a abundância de C. tricholaenae. A abundância média do período de coleta de C. tricholaenae foi reduzida pela cultivar de milho contendo a proteína Cry 1 A(b. Esse é o primeiro registro de ácaros sobre cultivares de milho transgênico no Brasil.The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of "microácaro-da-face-inferior-das-folhas-de-milho" Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae on transgenic cultivars of corn containing proteins Cry1F and Cry 1 A (b and non-Bt corn. During the period from June 2010 to January 2011 were collected, every two weeks, five random samples of four leaves in plots of Bt corn containing the protein Cry 1F and Cry 1 A (b and non-Bt corn in the experimental area of Embrapa Corn and Sorghum, Sete Lagoas, MG. The leaf samples were examined for 15 minutes in the central region of leaf in search of adult C. tricholaenae. We recorded 2930 individuals of C. tricholaenae, 1114 on Bt Cry 1F, 752 on Cry 1 A

  2. Seletividade de agrotóxicos usados na cultura da macieira a Neoseiulus Californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae1 Pesticide selectivity used in apple crops Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine de Andrade Meyer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos secundários dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em macieira sobre adultos e imaturos de Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os testes foram conduzidos em laboratório, utilizando as doses dos produtos recomendadas para a cultura e o método de contato e residual com pulverização em superfície de folha. Foram testados tebufenozida, fosmete, metidationa, clorpirifós, abamectina, fenpiroximato, piridabem, captana, mancozebe (duas dosagens e ditianona. Para o cálculo do efeito total (E% sobre os adultos, avaliaram-se a mortalidade, a oviposição e a viabilidade dos ovos, e para os imaturos, somente a mortalidade. Os resultados do E% foram avaliados 96 horas após a pulverização. Os produtos foram classificados quanto ao efeito total (E% de toxicidade proposta pela IOBC/WPRS. Fosmete, tebufenozida e metidationa foram inócuos; abamectina, fenpiroximato, clorpirifós, captana, mancozebe (nas duas dosagens testadas e ditianona foram levemente nocivos, e piridabem foi moderadamente nocivo aos adultos de N. californicus. O fungicida mancozebe, na maior dosagem (320g,i.a./100L, foi o que mais afetou o ácaro predador. Quanto à seletividade dos agrotóxicos aos imaturos, constatouse que abamectina e piridabem foram moderadamente nocivos, e os demais foram inócuos. Nenhum produto foi classificado como nocivo, evidenciando a tolerância de N. californicus a estes agrotóxicos. Estes resultados permitem uma escolha e manejo mais adequado para os agrotóxicos utilizados nos pomares comerciais de macieira, de forma que a presença deste ácaro predador exerça pressão de controle do ácaro-vermelho.The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of the main pesticides used in adult and immature Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae. The tests were carried out in the laboratory by using the contact and residual spraying method on the leaf surface. It was tested

  3. New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari, Hydrachnidia with descriptions of two new species from Nanshih River system in Taiwan and redescription of Torrenticola ussuriensis (Sokolow, 1940 from the Russian Far East

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    Vladimir Pesic

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available New records of torrenticolid water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Torrenticolidae from Nanshih River, Taiwan, are presented. Two new species are described: Torrenticola nanshihensis and T. taiwanicus; the latter species is compared with T. ussuriensis (Sokolow, 1940, a poorly known species which is re-described based on a new material from the Russian Far East; Monatractides cf. circuloides (Halík, 1930 is reported for the first time for Taiwan.

  4. Indirect identification of damage functions from damage records

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhäuser, J Micha; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess future damage caused by natural disasters, it is desirable to estimate the damage caused by single events. So called damage functions provide -- for a natural disaster of certain magnitude -- a specific damage value. However, in general, the functional form of such damage functions is unknown. We study the distributions of recorded flood damages on extended scales and deduce which damage functions lead to such distributions when the floods obey Generalized Extreme Value statistics and follow Generalized Pareto distributions. Based on the finding of broad damage distributions we investigate two possible functional forms to characterize the data. In the case of Gumbel distributed extreme events, (i) a power-law distribution density with an exponent close to 2 (Zipf's law) implies an exponential damage function; (ii) stretched exponential distribution densities imply power-law damage functions. In the case of Weibull (Frechet) distributed extreme events we find correspondingly steeper (less st...

  5. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  6. Crumpling Damaged Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Giordanelli, I; Andrade,, J S; Gomes, M A F; Herrmann, H J

    2016-01-01

    Through molecular mechanics we find that non-covalent interactions modify the fractality of crumpled damaged graphene. Pristine graphene membranes are damaged by adding random vacancies and carbon-hydrogen bonds. Crumpled membranes exhibit a fractal dimension of $ 2.71 \\pm 0.02$ when all interactions between carbon atoms are considered, and $2.30 \\pm 0.05$ when non-covalent interactions are suppressed. The transition between these two values, obtained by switching on/off the non-covalent interactions of equilibrium configurations, is shown to be reversible and independent on thermalisation. In order to explain this transition, we propose a theoretical model that is compatible with our numerical findings. Finally, we also compare damaged graphene membranes with other crumpled structures, as for instance, polymerised membranes and paper sheets, that share similar scaling properties.

  7. Prevalence and Diversity of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Eastern National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tammi L; Graham, Christine B; Boegler, Karen A; Cherry, Cara C; Maes, Sarah E; Pilgard, Mark A; Hojgaard, Andrias; Buttke, Danielle E; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2016-12-27

    Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of I. scapularis nymphs (DON) and the density of infected nymphs (DIN). We determined the nymphal infection prevalence of I. scapularis with a suite of tick-borne pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti Ixodes scapularis nymphs were found in all national park units; DON ranged from 0.40 to 13.73 nymphs per 100 m(2) Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was found at all sites where I. scapularis was documented; DIN with B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.06 to 5.71 nymphs per 100 m(2) Borrelia miyamotoi and A. phagocytophilum were documented at 60% and 70% of the parks, respectively, while Ba. microti occurred at just 20% of the parks. Ixodes scapularis is well established across much of the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States, and our results are generally consistent with previous studies conducted near the areas we sampled. Newly established I. scapularis populations were documented in two locations: Washington, D.C. (Rock Creek Park) and Greene County, Virginia (Shenandoah National Park). This research demonstrates the potential risk of tick-borne pathogen exposure in national parks and can be used to educate park visitors about the importance of preventative actions to minimize tick exposure.

  8. Phylogeny and species delineation in European species of the genus Steganacarus (Acari, Oribatida) using mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreipe, Victoria; Corral-Hernández, Elena; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina; Maraun, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Species of the genus Steganacarus are soil-living oribatid mites (Acari, Phthiracaridae) with a ptychoid body. The phylogeny and species status of the species of Steganacarus are not resolved, some authors group all ten German species of Steganacarus within the genus Steganacarus whereas others split them into three subgenera, Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus. Additionally, two species, S. magnus and T. carinatus, comprise morphotypes of questionable species status. We investigated the phylogeny and species status of ten European Steganacarus species, i.e. S. applicatus, S. herculeanus, S. magnus forma magna, S. magnus forma anomala, S. spinosus, Tropacarus brevipilus, T. carinatus forma carinata, T. carinatus forma pulcherrima, Atropacarus striculus and Rhacaplacarus ortizi. We used two molecular markers, a 251 bp fragment of the nuclear gene 28S rDNA (D3) and a 477 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI region. The phylogeny based on a combined analysis of D3 and COI separated four subgenera (Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus, Rhacaplacarus) indicating that they form monophyletic groups. The COI region separated all ten species of the genus Steganacarus and showed variation within some species often correlating with the geographic origin of the species. Resolution of the more conserved D3 region was limited, indicating that radiation events are rather recent. Overall, our results indicate that both genes alone cannot be used for phylogeny and barcoding since variation is too low in D3 and too high in COI. However, when used in combination these genes provide reliable insight into the phylogeny, radiation and species status of taxa of the genus Steganacarus.

  9. Distribution, hosts, 16S rDNA sequences and phylogenetic position of the Neotropical tick Amblyomma parvum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, S; Szabó, M P J; Mangold, A J; Guglielmone, A A

    2008-07-01

    The hosts, distribution, intraspecific genetic variation and phylogenetic position of Amblyomma parvum (Acari: Ixodidae) have recently been re-assessed. Data on this tick's hosts and distribution were obtained not only from existing literature but also from unpublished records. Sequences of the ticks' mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used to evaluate genetic variation among specimens of A. parvum from different localities in Argentina and Brazil, and to explore the phylogenetic relationships between this tick and other Amblyomma species. Although several species of domestic and wild mammal act as hosts for adult A. parvum, most collected adults of this species have come from cattle and goats. Caviid rodents of the subfamily Caviinae appear to be the hosts for the immature stages. So far, A. parvum has been detected in 12 Neotropical biogeographical provinces (Chaco, Cerrado, Eastern Central America, Venezuelan Coast, Pantanal, Parana Forest, Caatinga, Chiapas, Venezuelan Llanos, Monte, Western Panamanian Isthmus, and Roraima) but the Chaco province has provided significantly more specimens than any other (P<0.0001). The 16S rDNA sequences showed just 0.0%-1.1% divergence among the Argentinean A. parvum investigated and no more than 0.2% divergence among the Brazilian specimens. The observed divergence between the Argentinean and Brazilian specimens was, however, greater (3.0%-3.7%). Although there is now molecular and morphological evidence to indicate that A. parvum, A. pseudoparvum, A. auricularium and A. pseudoconcolor are members of a natural group, previous subgeneric classifications do not reflect this grouping. The subgeneric status of these tick species therefore needs to be re-evaluated. The 16S-rDNA-based evaluation of divergence indicates that the gene flow between Argentinean and Brazilian 'A. parvum' is very limited and that the Argentinean 'A. parvum' may be a different species to the Brazilian.

  10. A novel spotted fever group Rickettsia infecting Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) in highlands of Argentina and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Marcili, Arlei; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Venzal, José M; Mangold, Atilio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-04-01

    The tick Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) has established populations in Andean and Patagonic environments of South America. For the present study, adults of A. parvitarsum were collected in highland areas (elevation >3500 m) of Argentina and Chile during 2009-2013, and tested by PCR for rickettsial infection in the laboratory, and isolation of rickettsiae in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique. Overall, 51 (62.2%) out of 82 A. parvitarsum adult ticks were infected by spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, which generated DNA sequences 100% identical to each other, and when submitted to BLAST analysis, they were 99.3% identical to corresponding sequence of the ompA gene of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated in Vero cell culture from two ticks, one from Argentina and one from Chile. DNA extracted from the third passage of the isolates of Argentina and Chile were processed by PCR, resulting in partial sequences for three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompB, ompA). These sequences were concatenated and aligned with rickettsial corresponding sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. pavitarsum rickettsial agent grouped under high bootstrap support in a clade composed by the SFG pathogens R. sibirica, R. africae, R. parkeri, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and two unnamed SFG agents of unknown pathogenicty, Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, and Rickettsia sp. strain ApPR. The pathogenic role of this A. parvitarsum rickettsia cannot be discarded, since several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that were considered nonpathogenic for decades are now associated with human infections.

  11. Resistance mechanisms to mitochondrial electron transport inhibitors in a field-collected strain of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pottelberge, S; Van Leeuwen, T; Nauen, R; Tirry, L

    2009-02-01

    A Belgian field strain (MR-VP) of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) exhibits different levels of resistance to four frequently used METI (mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor)-acaricides, i.e. tebufenpyrad, fenpyroximate, pyridaben and fenazaquin. Resistance factors for these compounds were 184, 1547, 5971 and 35, respectively. A 23.5-fold increase in 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin O-deethylation activity suggested that metabolic resistance through elevated levels of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase-activity is a possible resistance mechanism.However, synergism studies with different metabolic inhibitors revealed some contrasting resistance mechanisms between the METI-acaricides. Tebufenpyrad resistance could only be synergized after pre-treatment with the monooxygenase inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO), whereas pyridaben resistance was strongly synergized both by PBO and the esterase inhibitor S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF). Resistance levels to fenpyroximate could neither be suppressed by PBO nor by DEF. Although METI-acaricides are structurally related, these findings probably reflect a different role of esterases and mono-oxygenases in metabolic detoxification between these compounds. The overall lack of synergism by diethylmaleate (DEM) suggests that glutathione-S-transferases are not an important factor in resistance to METIs.Reciprocal crosses between susceptible females and resistant males showed no maternal effect, and resistance to METI-acaricides was inherited generally as a dominant trait. Backcrosses with F1 females revealed striking differences in the mode of inheritance. Although resistance to fenpyroximate and pyridaben was under monogenic control, resistance to tebufenpyrad was under control of more than one gene.

  12. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of a native strain of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immediato, Davide; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2015-09-15

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae) is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of laying hens worldwide. Chemical control of this mite may result in environmental and food contamination, as well as the development of drug resistance. High virulence of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains isolated from naturally infected hosts or from their environment has been demonstrated toward many arthropod species, including ticks. However, a limited number of studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of D. gallinae s.l. and none of them have employed native strains. This study reports the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against nymphs and adults of D. gallinae. Batches of nymph and adult mites (i.e., n=720 for each stage) for treated groups (TGs) were placed on paper soaked with a 0.1% tween 80 suspension of B. bassiana (CIS, 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) conidia/ml), whilst 240 untreated control mites for each stage (CG) were exposed only to 0.1% tween 80. The mites in TG showed a higher mortality at all stages (p<0.01) when compared to CG, depending on the time of exposure and the conidial concentration. A 100% mortality rate was recorded using a CIS of 10(9) conidia/ml 12 days post infection (DPI) in adults and 14 DPI in nymphs. B. bassiana suspension containing 10(9) conidia/ml was highly virulent towards nymph and adult stages of D. gallinae, therefore representing a possible promising natural product to be used in alternative or in combination to other acaricidal compounds currently used for controlling the red mite.

  14. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field populations of varroa mite (Acari: Mesostigmata: Varroidae)in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destuctor is a serious threat to beekeeping and crops that rely on honey bee for pollination. The Varroa mite not only causes significant damage to honey bees by feeding on their haemolymph, but also serves as a vector of disease. In addition, the Varroa mite has develo...

  15. DAMAGE MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Chermant

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how it is possible to characterize and quantify the damages in materials using classical tools of automatic image analysis. Examples presented concern ceramic matrix composites, i.e. high tech materials. It gives important information to support the deformation and rupture mechanism of materials under mechanical solicitations.

  16. Loss and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Saleemul; Roberts, Erin; Fenton, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    Loss and damage is a relative newcomer to the climate change agenda. It has the potential to reinvigorate existing mitigation and adaptation efforts, but this will ultimately require leadership from developed countries and enhanced understanding of several key issues, such as limits to adaptation.

  17. mapDamage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ginolhac, Aurélien; Rasmussen, Morten; Gilbert, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of contaminant DNA molecules, most often originating from environmental microbes, and endogenous fragments exhibiting substantial levels of DNA damage. The latter introduce specific nucleotide misincorporations and DNA fragmentation signatures in sequenci...... of the SAMtools suite and R environment and has been validated on both GNU/Linux and MacOSX operating systems....

  18. Primeiro relato de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (acari: ixodidae parasitando lagarto da espécie Tupinambis teguixin (L., no município de Glorinha, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil The first report of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (acari ixodidae on the lizard Tupinambis teguixin (L. at the municipality of Glorinha, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João R Martins

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma fuscum conhecida somente no Brasil, tem sido descrita como uma espécie rara de carrapato com relatos de sua ocorrência nas regiões sul e sudeste. Este é um novo registro desta espécie (9 fêmeas parasitando lagarto (Tupinambis teguixin, no Município de Glorinha, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As fêmeas foram depositadas na coleção do Instituto de Pesquisas Veterinárias Desidério Finamor (7 espécimes e na coleção de Acari do Instituto Butantan, Estado de São Paulo (2 espécimes. O achado confirma o estabelecimento de A. fuscum no Sul do Brasil.Amblyomma fuscum known only from Brazil has been described as a rare tick species with few reports of its occurrence in South and Southeast region. This is a new records this tick species (9 females parasitizing lizard (Tupinambis teguixin at the Municipality of Glorinha, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The females were deposited in the tick collection of Veterinary Research Institute Desiderio Finamor (7 specimens, Eldorado do Sul, RS and in the Acari collection from Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, State of São Paulo (2 specimens. The finding confirms establishment de A. fuscum in the South of Brazil.

  19. Overwintering survival and postdiapause fecundity in a population of the Kanzawa spider mite Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Orixa japonica (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Katsura

    2011-01-01

    In several adult-diapausing insects and mites, long duration of diapause decreases egg production after diapause termination. However, such nonlethal effects are much less studied than overwintering survival. In this study, lethal and nonlethal effects of different periods of diapause were investigated in an adult-diapausing spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), through field experiments. Diapausing females produced in the laboratory were kept in their natural habitat from October or November to the next April, and survival rate and postdiapause fecundity were compared between the months. The survival rate was lower, but not significantly, in the October treatment. Postdiapause fecundity was also not significantly different between the months. These results suggest that the effects of diapause on survival and reproduction are quite small after October, when diapausing mites are increasing in their natural habitat.

  20. Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila de Lima; Graciolli, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    Acari ectoparasites were collected from bats during 12 months in the Rio Negro farm (19°34'22″S and 56°14'36″W), Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 654 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae were captured. Only 136 bats of nine genera and 11 species were parasitised. Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. The greatest mean intensity was found to Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison on Phyllostomus discolor Wagner (Phyllostomidae) and Periglischrus tonatii Herrin and Tipton associated with Lophostoma silviculum d'Orbigny (Phyllostomidae), which also had the highest prevalence of infestation.

  1. Taxonomic value of morphological and morphometrical characters in the immature stages of four species of Kampimodromus Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Italy and Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnus, Elena; Zandigiacomo, Pietro

    2014-08-28

    The immature stages of four species of Kampimodromus Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Italy and Croatia have been studied and identified both at stage and species level. Larval stages of Kampimodromus corylosus Kolodochka and all immature stages of Kampimodromus ericinus Ragusa di Chiara & Tsolakis and Kampimodromus langei Wainstein & Arutunjan are described for the first time. The relative length of the posterior dorsal setae Z4 make the larvae of Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans) easy to separate from those of the other three species. Nymphs of each species had similar diagnostics to the adults of the respective species. Ontogeny of the idiosomal and leg setation of the Kampimodromus immatures studied in comparison to the available data from immatures of other phytoseiid species is discussed. The length of seta Z4 in the K. aberrans larva, and the number of setae on leg IV of the deutonymphs of the four Kampimodromus species, are proposed as additional taxonomic traits for Phytoseiidae. 

  2. Effects of Ricinus communis oil esters on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Neto, Salvador Claro; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-02-01

    This study showed the interference of esters extracted from Ricinus communis in the secretory cycle of salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, which consequently caused collateral effects on their feeding process. Ticks attached on hosts which were fed with commercial feed containing different concentrations of R. communis oil esters suffered damages such as cytoplasmic changes in their salivary glands, notably in the acinar cells, impairing the functioning of the acini and accelerating the organs degeneration as a whole. It was found that esters interfered with the activity of cellular secretion by changing the glycoprotein of salivary composition especially in acini II cells. It was also shown that the damages caused by esters in the salivary glands cells of these ectoparasites increased in higher concentrations of the product and degenerative glandular changes were more pronounced. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SELETIVIDADE DE CHLORFENAPYR E FENBUTATIN-OXIDE SOBRE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE ÁCAROS PREDADORES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM CITROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIS PAULO REBELLES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o uso de bioensaios, verificaram-se os efeitos residual de contato, ovicida e de persistência dos produtos chlorfenapyr e fenbutatin-oxide sobre duas espécies de ácaros predadores, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma e Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae, associados ao ácaro da leprose-dos-citros Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. O efeito total sobre os adultos foi estudado por meio do método residual de contato com pulverização em superfície de vidro, conforme metodologia da IOBC. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado por meio de pulverização direta sobre os ovos dos ácaros predadores, também em superfície de vidro. A persistência dos produtos foi avaliada em laboratório, em arenas confeccionadas com folhas de laranjeira pulverizadas no campo, aos 0; 5; 15 e 30 dias após a aplicação. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que chlorfenapyr foi nocivo ao I. zuluagai e E. alatus e o fenbutatin-oxide foi levemente nocivo a E. alatus e inócuo a I. zuluagai. Nenhum dos produtos apresentou efeito ovicida. Fenbutatin-oxide apresentou baixa persistência para ambas as espécies de ácaros predadores, e chlorfenapyr, na dosagem de 31,3 ml, foi de baixa persistência, enquanto, na dosagem de 62,5 ml, foi moderadamente persistente. O fenbutatin-oxide apresentou-se inócuo e levemente nocivo aos ácaros predadores I. zuluagai e E. alatus, respectivamente, e de baixa persistência para ambas as espécies

  4. Expression analysis of Drosophila doublesex, transformer-2, intersex, fruitless-like, and vitellogenin homologs in the parahaploid predator Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A

    2015-01-01

    Characterization and expression analyses are essential to gain insight into sex-determination pathways in members of the Acari. Little is known about sex determination at the molecular level in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae), a parahaploid species. In this study, eight genes previously identified as putative homologs to genes involved in the sex-determination pathway in Drosophila melanogaster were evaluated for sex-specific alternative splicing and sex-biased expression using reverse-transcriptase PCR and quantitative real-time PCR techniques, respectively. The homologs evaluated in M. occidentalis included two doublesex-like genes (Moccdsx1 and Moccdsx2), transformer-2 (Mocctra-2), intersex (Moccix), two fruitless-like genes (MoccBTB1 and MoccBTB2), as well as two vitellogenin-like genes (Moccvg1 and Moccvg2). Single transcripts of equal size were detected in males and females for Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2, Mocctra-2, Moccix, and MoccBTB2, suggesting that their pre-mRNAs do not undergo alternative splicing in a sex-specific manner. Three genes, Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2 and MoccBTB2, displayed male-biased expression relative to females. One gene, Moccix, displayed female-biased expression relative to males. Two genes, Mocctra-2 and MoccBTB1, did not display detectable differences in transcript abundance in males and females. Expression of Moccvg1 and Moccvg2 were detected in females only, and transcript levels were up-regulated in mated females relative to unmated females. To our knowledge, this represents the first attempt to elucidate expression patterns of putative sex-determination genes in an acarine. This study is an initial step towards understanding the sex-determination pathway in the parahaploid M. occidentalis.

  5. Three new species of eriophyoid mites (Acari, Eriophyoidea from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of eriophyoid mites from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, are described and illustrated. They are Paracolomerus gonglius sp. n. and Phyllocoptruta beggerianae sp. n. collected on Rosa beggeriana Schrenk ex Fisch. & C. A. Mey. (Rosaceae, and Rhyncaphytoptus fuyuniensis sp. n. collected on Cotoneaster ignavus E. L. Wolf (Rosaceae. All eriophyoid mites described here are vagrants on the undersurface of leaves and any apparent damage was not observed.

  6. Susceptibility of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) to seven ixodicides in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús A. Esparza Rentería; Emily Lizett Esparza Sevilla

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement or a recommendation by the FAUANL for its use Animal husbandry and meat industry in Mexico are one of the principal activities of the agricultural sector of the country, which are threatened by factors that affect the production of meat, skin and milk; among these, the damages caused by Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), the common tick of cattle, and the diseases it transm...

  7. First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, Carlos [Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)]. E-mail: carlosvasquez@ucla.edu.ve; Quiros de G, Magally [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, (Venezuela). Museo de Artropodos; Aponte, Orlando [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Estado Aragua (Venezuela). Inst. de Zoologia Agricola; Sandoval, D. Maria F. [Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Agricultura y Tierras (Venezuela). Servicio Autonomo de Sanidad Agropecuaria

    2008-11-15

    The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst is recorded for the first time in South America. High populations and severe damages caused by this new invasive mite were found on coconut and banana leaves in Sucre (10 deg 27' 47{sup N} and 64 deg 10' 38{sup W}) and Monagas (9 deg 46'60{sup N} and 63 deg 12'0{sup W}) states in northeastern Venezuela. (author)

  8. Radiation damage tolerant nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Beyerlein

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Designing a material from the atomic level to achieve a tailored response in extreme conditions is a grand challenge in materials research. Nanostructured metals and composites provide a path to this goal because they contain interfaces that attract, absorb and annihilate point and line defects. These interfaces recover and control defects produced in materials subjected to extremes of displacement damage, impurity implantation, stress and temperature. Controlling radiation-induced-defects via interfaces is shown to be the key factor in reducing the damage and imparting stability in certain nanomaterials under conditions where bulk materials exhibit void swelling and/or embrittlement. We review the recovery of radiation-induced point defects at free surfaces and grain boundaries and stabilization of helium bubbles at interphase boundaries and present an approach for processing bulk nanocomposites containing interfaces that are stable under irradiation.

  9. Network Using Damage Progression Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Keulen

    2014-01-01

    damage (RAPID technique. Two damage metrics are used with the algorithm and a comparison is made to the more commonly used signal difference coefficient (SDC metric. Best case results show that damage is detected within 12 mm. The algorithm is also run on a more sparse network with no damage detection, therefore indicating that the selected arrangement is the most sparse arrangement with this configuration.

  10. Identification and characterization of microRNAs by deep-sequencing in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jin; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Chen, Ze; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Wang, Hui

    2015-06-15

    Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (H.a. anatolicum) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks are globally distributed ectoparasites with veterinary and medical importance. These ticks not only weaken animals by sucking their blood but also transmit different species of parasitic protozoans. Multiple factors influence these parasitic infections including miRNAs, which are non-coding, small regulatory RNA molecules essential for the complex life cycle of parasites. To identify and characterize miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing, bioinformatics and real-time PCR analysis. Here we report the use of this approach to identify miRNA expression, family distribution, and nucleotide characteristics, and discovered novel miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum. The result showed that miR-1-3p, miR-275-3p, and miR-92a were expressed abundantly. There was a strong bias on miRNA, family members, and nucleotide compositions at certain positions in H.a. anatolicum miRNA. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 6, 16, and 18, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle, and end of conserved miRNAs. Analysis of the conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum were concentrated along three diverse phylogenetic branches of bilaterians, insects and coelomates. Two possible roles for the use of miRNA in H.a. anatolicum could be presumed based on its parasitic life cycle: to maintain a large category of miRNA families of different animals, and/or to preserve stringent conserved seed regions with active changes in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end regions. These might help the parasite to undergo its complex life style in different hosts and adapt more readily to the host changes. The present study represents the first large scale characterization of H.a. anatolicum miRNAs, which could further the understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as initiate miRNA studies

  11. Radiation damage in graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, John Harry Walrond

    1965-01-01

    Nuclear Energy, Volume 102: Radiation Damage in Graphite provides a general account of the effects of irradiation on graphite. This book presents valuable work on the structure of the defects produced in graphite crystals by irradiation. Organized into eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the description of the methods of manufacturing graphite and of its physical properties. This text then presents details of the method of setting up a scale of irradiation dose. Other chapters consider the effect of irradiation at a given temperature on a physical property of graphite. This

  12. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Linguistics) help facilitate a new methodological perspective on the study of problems in interpersonal communication and could such a research contribute to develop a methodology that studied ”howabledness” (a term borrowed from Pirkko Raudaskoski) rather than disabledness? A study on ”inclusion” at a centre......Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...

  13. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...... for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data....

  14. Thoracic damage control surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Roberto; Saad, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery came up with the philosophy of applying essential maneuvers to control bleeding and abdominal contamination in trauma patients who are within the limits of their physiological reserves. This concept was extended to thoracic injuries, where relatively simple maneuvers can shorten operative time of in extremis patients. This article aims to revise the various damage control techniques in thoracic organs that must be known to the surgeon engaged in emergency care. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos surgiu com a filosofia de se aplicar manobras essenciais para controle de sangramento e contaminação abdominal, em doentes traumatizados, nos limites de suas reservas fisiológicas. Este conceito se estendeu para as lesões torácicas, onde manobras relativamente simples, podem abreviar o tempo operatório de doentes in extremis. Este artigo tem como objetivo, revisar as diversas técnicas de controle de dano em órgãos torácicos, que devem ser de conhecimento do cirurgião que atua na emergência.

  15. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for mites of the specie Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter, E-mail: varthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Mineiro, Jeferson L.C. [Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo/APTA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia Economico

    2009-07-01

    In great populations mites of the specie Tyrophagus putrescentiae can cause damages in stored products. The work had as objective to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation of the Cobalt-60 to control the mites of the specie T. putrescentiae. The mites were irradiated with doses of 0 (control), 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 Gy, in a source of Cobalt-60 type Gammacell-220, with a dose rate of 0.718 kGy/hour. Each treatment consisted of four repetitions containing 10 mites each, in a total of approximately 40 mites for treatment. The evaluations were daily, being counted the number of mites died, put eggs and emerged larvae. Based on the obtained results it was concluded that the dose sterilizing for the mites of this specie was of 300 Gy. Already the dose of 600 Gy induced the total mortality of the mites after 11 days of the irradiation process. (author)

  16. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials.

  17. Damage scenarios and an onboard support system for damaged ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although a safety assessment of damaged ships, which considers environmental conditions such as waves and wind, is important in both the design and operation phases of ships, in Korea, rules or guidelines to conduct such assessments are not yet developed. However, NATO and European maritime societies have developed guidelines for a safety assessment. Therefore, it is required to develop rules or guidelines for safety assessments such as the Naval Ship Code (NSC of NATO. Before the safety assessment of a damaged ship can be performed, the available damage scenarios must be developed and the safety assessment criteria must be established. In this paper, the parameters related to damage by accidents are identified and categorized when developing damage scenarios. The need for damage safety assessment criteria is discussed, and an example is presented. In addition, a concept and specifications for the DB-based supporting system, which is used in the operation phases, are proposed.

  18. Aldosterone and vascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprez, D; De Buyzere, M; Rietzschel, E R; Clement, D L

    2000-06-01

    Although the aldosterone escape mechanism is well known, aldosterone has often been neglected in the pathophysiologic consequences of the activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in arterial hypertension and chronic heart failure. There is now evidence for vascular synthesis of aldosterone aside from its secretion by the adrenal cortex. Moreover, aldosterone is involved in vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, as well as in vascular matrix impairment and endothelial dysfunction. The mechanisms of action of aldosterone may be either delayed (genomic) or rapid (nongenomic). Deleterious effects of aldosterone leading to vascular target-organ damage include (besides salt and water retention) decreased arterial and venous compliance, increased peripheral vascular resistance, and impaired autonomic vascular control due to baroreflex dysfunction.

  19. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... failure explanation under fatigue and static load conditions is observed. In the present study small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  20. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...... Linguistics) help facilitate a new methodological perspective on the study of problems in interpersonal communication and could such a research contribute to develop a methodology that studied ”howabledness” (a term borrowed from Pirkko Raudaskoski) rather than disabledness? A study on ”inclusion” at a centre...... for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data....

  1. Emotionalism Following Brain Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Allman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotionalism is an heightened tendency to cry, or more rarely, laugh. It is commonly associated with brain damage and is often distressing to both patients and carers. Emotionalism is easily confused with depression, and when severe it can interfere with treatment. The aetiology is poorly understood but its response to drugs with different modes of action suggests that there is more than one underlying mechanism. When the components of emotionalism are studied separately a wide range is observed and they combine in a more complex and varied way than commonly held stereotyped views suggest. Most patients with emotionalism are helped by simple education and reassurance. Some severe cases respond dramatically to tricyclic antidepressants, levodopa or fluoxetine.

  2. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  3. A multiaxial incremental fatigue damage formulation using nested damage surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Meggiolaro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxial fatigue damage calculations under non-proportional variable amplitude loadings still remains a quite challenging task in practical applications, in part because most fatigue models require cycle identification and counting to single out individual load events before quantifying the damage induced by them. Moreover, to account for the non-proportionality of the load path of each event, semi-empirical methods are required to calculate path-equivalent ranges, e.g. using a convex enclosure or the MOI (Moment Of Inertia method. In this work, a novel Incremental Fatigue Damage methodology is introduced to continuously account for the accumulation of multiaxial fatigue damage under service loads, without requiring rainflow counters or path-equivalent range estimators. The proposed approach is not based on questionable Continuum Damage Mechanics concepts or on the integration of elastoplastic work. Instead, fatigue damage itself is continuously integrated, based on damage parameters adopted by traditional fatigue models well tested in engineering practice. A framework of nested damage surfaces is introduced, allowing the calculation of fatigue damage even for general 6D multiaxial load histories. The proposed approach is validated by non-proportional tensiontorsion experiments on tubular 316L stainless steel specimens.

  4. Measurement of damage in systemic vasculitis: a comparison of the Vasculitis Damage Index with the Combined Damage Assessment Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppiah, Ravi; Flossman, Oliver; Mukhtyar, Chetan;

    2011-01-01

    To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis.......To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis....

  5. Ocorrência de Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese, 1888 (Acari: Macronyssidae em filhotes de Megascops choliba (corujinha-do-mato e Pitangus sulphuratus (bem-te-vi, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Ocurrence of Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese, 1888 (Acari: Macronyssidae on Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl and Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee nestlings in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina S. Mascarenhas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre e Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres da Universidade Federal de Pelotas - RS atendeu dois filhotes de Megascops choliba (corujinha-do-mato (Strigiformes - Strigidae e dois de Pitangus sulphuratus (bem-te-vi (Passeriformes - Tyrannidae intensamente parasitados por ácaros, em maio de 2005 e dezembro de 2006, respectivamente. Os filhotes e o ninho de P. sulphuratus foram recolhidos na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas - RS após forte temporal. Os ácaros foram removidos, colocados em álcool 70% e levados ao laboratório de parasitologia para identificação. Os espécimes foram clarificados em lactofenol, montados em meio de Hoyer e identificados como Ornithonyssus bursa (Acari - Macronyssidae. Registra-se Megascops choliba e Pitangus sulphuratus como hospedeiros de Ornithonyssus bursa, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The Center for Rehabilitation of Wildlife and Center for Selection of Wild Animal of the Federal University of Pelotas has attended two nestlings of Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl (Strigiformes - Strigidae and two of Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee (Passeriformes - Tyrannidae heavily parasitized by mites, in May 2005 and December 2006, respectively. The nestlings and the nest of P. sulphuratus were collected in the Pelotas urban area after severe storms. The mites were removed, clarified in lactofenol, permanently mounted in Hoyer's medium and identified as Ornithonyssus bursa (Acari - Macronyssidae. Megascops choliba and Pitangus sulphuratus are reported as host of Ornithonyssus bursa in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  6. Biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets of three rubber tree clones Ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae em folíolos de três clones de seringueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo José Fazzio Feres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets from three rubber tree clones. The biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, a potential rubber tree pest mite, was studied by the observation of individuals reared on leaflets of the clones GT 1, PB 235 and RRIM 600, in controlled environmental conditions. Three daily observations were done of 60 eggs on leaflets from each clone in order to verify the development of immature stages and the female oviposition. The fertility life table was constructed based in the collected data. Mites reared on PB 235 had faster rate of development, requiring less time in days, to double its population in number (TD, and had the highest values for egg production, female longevity, net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m and finite rate of increase (λ. Lower reproductive values and the longest time necessary to reach adult stage were recorded for the mites on GT 1. In all studied clones, the deutonymphal phase had the highest viability, while the larval phase had the lowest, highlighted by the survivorship curve that indicated high mortality during this life stage. The clone PB 235 allowed the most suitable conditions for the development of T. heveae, followed by RRIM 600, while GT 1 was the less suitable substratum to rear this mite species.O ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, um potencial ácaro-praga da seringueira, foi estudado a partir de indivíduos criados sobre folíolos destacados dos clones GT 1, PB 235 e RRIM 600, em condições controladas. Três observações diárias foram realizadas, acompanhando-se o desenvolvimento de 60 ovos e de sua prole em folíolos de cada um dos clones, para verificação da oviposição das fêmeas e dos estágios de desenvolvimento. A partir dos dados obtidos, foi elaborada uma tabela de vida de fertilidade. Os ácaros criados sobre folíolos de PB 235 apresentaram r

  7. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A. Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository.

  8. [Biology of Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on three species of Annonaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Josilene M; Gondim, Manoel G C; Lofego, Antônio C

    2010-01-01

    The mite Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor) is considered a pest of a variety of plant species in the Americas. Although this mite apparently causes economic damage to Annonaceae, little is known about its biology. Here we studied the biology of T. mexicanus on soursop (Annona muricata), sweetsop (Annona squamosa) and araticum (Annona coriaceae). The first two species are the most important economical Annonaceae species in northeast Brazil; araticum is commonly found in the region, but not commercially explored. The mites were collected in the field from leaves of A. muricata and maintained in the laboratory for six months on detached leaves of A. muricata, A. squamosa and A. coriaceae, respectively, before observations started. Tetranychus mexicanus developed more slowly on A. squamosa than on the two other hosts, but oviposition was considerably lower on A. coriaceae. As indicated by the calculated life table parameters, biotic potential was higher on A. muricata than on the other hosts. Despite the observed differences in the T. mexicanus biology on the different evaluated hosts, development and reproduction were satisfactory in all of the hosts used.

  9. Molecular Effects of Irradiation (Cobalt-60 on the Control of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effective dose of irradiation to control pest mites in quarantine has been studied extensively, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the irradiation on mites are largely unknown. In this study, exposure to 400 Gy of γ rays had significant (p < 0.05 effects on the adult survival, fecundity and egg viability of Panonychus citri. The irradiation caused the degradation of the DNA of P. citri adults and damaged the plasma membrane system of the egg, which led to condensed nucleoli and gathered yolk. Additionally, the transcriptomes and gene expression profiles between irradiated and non-irradiated mites were compared, and three digital gene expression libraries were assembled and analyzed. The differentially expressed genes were putatively involved in apoptosis, cell death and the cell cycle. Finally, the expression profiles of some related genes were studied using quantitative real-time PCR. Our study provides valuable information on the changes in the transcriptome of irradiated P. citri, which will facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cause the sterility induced by irradiation.

  10. Excavation damaged zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulain, S.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Simonoff, M.; Lavielle, B.; Thomas, B.; Gilabert, E. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., I and 2/CNRS and GdR FORPRO 0788, Nuclear Analytical and Bioenvironmental Chemistry 33 - Gradignan (France); Poulain, S.; Altmann, S.; Lenoir, N.; Barnichon, J.D.; Wileveau, Y.; Lebon, P. [ANDRA - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Le Marrec, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., ISTAB, INRA, UMR Oenologie - ISVV, 33 - Talence (France); Vinsot, A.; Dewonck, S.; Wileveau, Y.; Armand, G.; Cruchaudet, P.; Rebours, H.; Morel, J. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Lab. de Souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, 55 - Bure (France); Lanyon, G.W. [Fracture Systems Ltd, Tregurrian, Ayr, St Ives, Cornwall (United Kingdom); Marschall, P.; Vietor, T. [NAGRA - National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Wettingen (Switzerland); Bourdeau, C.; Dedecker, F.; Billaux, D. [ITASCA Consultants, S.A.S., 69 - Ecully (France); Lenoir, N.; Desrues, J.; Viggiani, G.; Besuelle, P. [Laboratoire 3S-R - Sols Solides Structures-Risques, 38 - Grenoble (France); Bornert, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, LMS - Lab. de Mecanique des Solides, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Arson, C.; Gatmiri, B. [CERMES, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, 77 - Marne-la-Vallee (France); Gatmiri, B. [University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bernier, F. [ESV EURIDICE GIE - European Underground Research Infrastructure for Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Clay Environment (Belgium); Nussbaum, C.; Mori, O. [Geotechnical Institute Ltd., Fabrique de Chaux, St-Ursanne (Switzerland); Bossart, P. [Swisstopo - Federal Office of Topography, Wabern (Switzerland); Schuster, K.; Alheid, H.J. [BGR - Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Lavanchy, J.M.; Croise, J.; Schwarz, R. [Colenco Power Engineering AG, Groundwater Protection and Waste Disposal, Baden (Switzerland)] [and others

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 13 articles dealing with: autochthonous and colonizing microorganisms in argillaceous underground environments (S. Poulain, C. Sergeant, C. Le Marrec, M.H. Vesvres, A. Vinsot, S. Dewonck, M. Simonoff, S. Altmann); the discrete fracture network modelling of the Hg-a experiment at the Mont Terri rock Laboratory (G.W. Lanyon, P. Marschall, T. Vietor); the discrete modelling of drift behaviour in the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL, France (C. Bourdeau, F. Dedecker, D. Billaux); the fracturing in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite under triaxial compression studied by X-ray microtomography (N. Lenoir, J. Desrues, G. Viggiani, P. Besuelle, M. Bornert, J.D. Barnichon); a general review of the damage models for the EDZ creation (C. Arson, B. Gatmiri); similarities in the Hydro-Mechanical response of Callovo-Oxfordian clay and Boom clay during gallery excavation (Y. Wileveau, F. Bernier); the different geometries of the EDZ fracture networks in the Mont Terri and Meuse/Haute-Marne rock laboratories: Structural approach (C. Nussbaum, Y. Wileveau, P. Bossart, A. Moeri, G. Armand); the characterisation of the Excavation-Damaged Zone in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (G. Armand, P. Lebon, M. Cruchaudet, H. Rebours, J. Morel, Y. Wileveau); the EDZ characterisation with ultrasonic interval velocity measurements in the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL, performed between depth of 85 m and 504 m (K. Schuster, H.J. Alheid); the clay formation at the Meuse Haute Marne URL: evaluation of the impact of resin filled slots on flow paths characteristics within the EDZ (J.M. Lavanchy, J. Croise, R. Schwarz, G. Armand, M. Cruchaudet); the characterisation and evolution of EDZ by extraction and analyse of noble gases in pore waters in the Meuse/Haute Marne URL site (B. Lavielle, B. Thomas, E. Gilabert); in-situ gas test for the characterisation of Excavation Disturbed Zone at the Meuse/Haute Marne URL (H. Shao, K. Schuster, J. Soennke, V. Braeuer); and the flow and reactive

  11. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the storage mite pest Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acari: Acaridae) and comparative mitogenomic analysis of four acarid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Banghe; Li, Chaopin

    2016-02-01

    Mites of the genus Tyrophagus are economically important polyphagous pest commonly living on stored products and also responsible for allergic reactions to humans. Complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) and the gene features therein are widely used as molecular markers in the study of population genetics, phylogenetics as well as molecular evolution. However, scarcity on the sequence data has greatly impeded the studies in these areas pertaining to the Acari (mites and ticks). Information on the Tyrophagus mitogenomes is quite critical for phylogenetic evaluation and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes within Acariformes. Herein, we reported the complete mitogenome of the allergenic acarid storage mite Tyrophagus longior (Astigmata: Acaridae), an important member of stored food pests, and compared with those of other three acarid mites. The complete mitogenome of T. longior was a circular molecule of 13,271 bp. Unexpectedly, only 19 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) were present, lacking trnF, trnS1 and trnQ. Furthermore, it also contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 2 genes for rRNA (rrnS and rrnL) commonly detected in metazoans. The four mitogenomes displayed similar characteristics with respect to the gene content, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Yet, the gene order of T. longior was different from that in other Acari. The J-strands of the four mitogenomes possessed high A+T content (67.4-70.0%), and exhibited positive GC-skews and negative AT-skews. Most inferred tRNAs of T. longior were extremely truncated, lacking either a D- or T-arm, as found in other acarid mites. In T. longior mitogenome the A+T-rich region was just 50 bp in length and can be folded as a stable stem-loop structure, whereas in the region some structures of microsatellite-like (AT)n and palindromic sequences was not present. Besides, reconstructing of the phylogenetic relationship based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs supported that monophyly of the family

  12. Road Damage Following Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Ground shaking triggered liquefaction in a subsurface layer of water-saturated sand, producing differential lateral and vertical movement in a overlying carapace of unliquified sand and slit, which moved from right to left towards the Pajaro River. This mode of ground failure, termed lateral spreading, is a principal cause of liquefaction-related earthquake damage caused by the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: S.D. Ellen, U.S. Geological Survey

  13. Alternative control of Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) on tomato plants grown in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Alberto; Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Rafael M; Oliveira, Hamilton G; Pallini, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard is an important pest of solanaceous plants, including tomatoes. This mite is characterized by a high reproductive rate, which leads to high population growth in a short period of time causing important economic damage. Control of T. evansi is mainly through synthetic acaricides. In searching for environmentally friendly control measures, we evaluated the efficiency of alternative products to control T. evansi on tomato plants under greenhouse conditions. The products tested were lime sulphur and neem based products. We first estimated the lethal concentration (LC) and instantaneous rate of increase (r i) of T. evansi exposed to different product concentrations in laboratory conditions, and later tested the efficacy of LC95 and the concentrations that restrained mite population growth (r i = 0) in greenhouse conditions. The following treatments were repeated three times: NeemPro (81.0 and 71.6 mg a.i./l), Natuneem (31.1 and 20.4 mg ai/l), Organic Neem (39.1 and 30.4 mg a.i./l), lime sulphur (1.0 and 0.6%) and water (control). For all products, control provided by LC95 was higher than provided for lower concentrations (r i = 0) one day after spraying. However, after five days, for both concentrations, the percentage of T. evansi population reduction was superior to 95% and increased over time. Only plants sprayed with Natuneem (31.1 mg a.i./l) showed symptoms of phytotoxicity. Lime sulphur and neem based products, applied in appropriate concentrations and formulations, bear out as a viable alternative to control T. evansi on tomato plants.

  14. Application of gamma radiation on longevity of some mites species (Acari: Tetranychidade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Andre R., E-mail: rica_machi@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mites are pests agricultural found in various environments accessible to animal life: soil, aerial parts of the plants, host insects. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on longevity of mite pests of the tetranychidae family have been studied. The mites were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, at a dose rate of 0.486 kGy located in the CENA/USP, in the doses of 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy with sixteen replicates per dose. After the irradiation, the mites were placed in petri dishes totalizing 5 treatments in 32 repetitions. The analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the Tukey test, the verification of means. Were evaluated daily the adult mortality and longevity of irradiated mites. After 25 days was observed a mean longevity of mites, for O.ilicis, 100 Gy was equal the control dose (18.3 days), but to T. desertorum and T. urticae the larger longevity was observed in the dose of 200 Gy (19.0 days) being that this dose, obtained the larger longevity in comparison to control dose (18.5 days), in general the longevity decreased in relation to increased doses. Thus, only the dose of 100 Gy and 200 Gy stimulated an increased the longevity in O. ilicis and T. desertorum and T. urticae respectively. The exact mechanism by which the mites are tolerant to avoid damage caused by radicals when exposed to ionizing radiation is not fully understood. (author)

  15. Cyclophosphamide in diffuse lung damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiatowicz, B; Sulkowska, M; Sulik, M; Famulski, W; Dziecioł, J; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Baltaziak, M; Arciuch, L; Rółkowski, R; Jabłońska, E

    1997-01-01

    Some cyclophosphamide toxic effects on lung tissue are presented. Cyclophosphamide metabolism, pathogenesis of lung damage and morphological lung tissue changes caused by that agent were characterized. Attention was focused on BAL evaluation as a useful method in the monitoring of lung tissue damage degree.

  16. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...

  17. Damage growth in aerospace composites

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents novel methods for the simulation of damage evolution in aerospace composites that will assist in predicting damage onset and growth and thus foster less conservative designs which realize the promised economic benefits of composite materials. The presented integrated numerical/experimental methodologies are capable of taking into account the presence of damage and its evolution in composite structures from the early phases of the design (conceptual design) through to the detailed finite element method analysis and verification phase. The book is based on the GARTEUR Research Project AG-32, which ran from 2007 to 2012, and documents the main results of that project. In addition, the state of the art in European projects on damage evolution in composites is reviewed. While the high specific strength and stiffness of composite materials make them suitable for aerospace structures, their sensitivity to damage means that designing with composites is a challenging task. The new approaches describ...

  18. DNA damage in neurodegenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppedè, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.coppede@med.unipi.it; Migliore, Lucia, E-mail: lucia.migliore@med.unipi.it

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in the neurodegenerative process. • The mitochondrial DNA is more vulnerable to oxidative attack than the nuclear DNA. • Cytogenetic damage has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease patients. • The question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of neurodegeneration is still open. • Increasing evidence links DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena. - Abstract: Following the observation of increased oxidative DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA extracted from post-mortem brain regions of patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases, the last years of the previous century and the first decade of the present one have been largely dedicated to the search of markers of DNA damage in neuronal samples and peripheral tissues of patients in early, intermediate or late stages of neurodegeneration. Those studies allowed to demonstrate that oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in neurodegeneration, but also revealed cytogenetic damage in neurodegenerative conditions, such as for example a tendency towards chromosome 21 malsegregation in Alzheimer's disease. As it happens for many neurodegenerative risk factors the question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of the neurodegenerative process is still open, and probably both is true. The research interest in markers of oxidative stress was shifted, in recent years, towards the search of epigenetic biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders, following the accumulating evidence of a substantial contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to learning, memory processes, behavioural disorders and neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence is however linking DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena, thereby opening the way to a very attractive and timely research topic in neurodegenerative diseases. We will address those issues in the context of Alzheimer's disease

  19. 3(omega) Damage: Growth Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, M; Demos, S; Wu, Z-L; Wong, J; Penetrante, B; Hrubesh, L

    2001-02-22

    The design of high power UV laser systems is limited to a large extent by the laser-initiated damage performance of transmissive fused silica optical components. The 3{omega} (i.e., the third harmonic of the primary laser frequency) damage growth mitigation LDRD effort focused on understanding and reducing the rapid growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics. Laser-initiated damage can be discussed in terms of two key issues: damage initiated at some type of precursor and rapid damage growth of the damage due to subsequent laser pulses. The objective of the LDRD effort has been the elucidation of laser-induced damage processes in order to quantify and potentially reduce the risk of damage to fused silica surfaces. The emphasis of the first two years of this effort was the characterization and reduction of damage initiation. In spite of significant reductions in the density of damage sites on polished surfaces, statistically some amount of damage initiation should always be expected. The early effort therefore emphasized the development of testing techniques that quantified the statistical nature of damage initiation on optical surfaces. This work led to the development of an optics lifetime modeling strategy that has been adopted by the NIF project to address damage-risk issues. During FY99 interest shifted to the damage growth issue which was the focus of the final year of this project. The impact of the remaining damage sites on laser performance can be minimized if the damage sites did not continue to grow following subsequent illumination. The objectives of the final year of the LDRD effort were to apply a suite of state-of-the-art characterization tools to elucidate the nature of the initiated damage sites, and to identify a method that effectively mitigates further damage growth. Our specific goal is to understand the cause for the rapid growth of damage sites so that we can develop and apply an effective means to mitigate it. The

  20. Esterases of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), parasitic mite of the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Żołtowska, Krystyna; Frączek, Regina; Lipiński, Zbigniew

    2014-04-01

    Varroa destructor is an ectoparasite that causes serious damage to the population of the honeybee. Increasing resistance of the parasite to acaricides is related, among others, to metabolic adaptations of its esterases to facilitate decomposition of the chemicals used. Esterases are a large heterogeneous group of enzymes that metabolize a number of endogenous and exogenous substrates with ester binding. The aim of the present study was to determine the activity of esterases in the body extracts (BE) and excretion/secretion products (E/SP) of the mite. The enzymes contained in the E/SP should originate mainly from the salivary glands and the alimentary system and they may play a particularly important role in the first line of defence of the mite against acaricides. Activity of cholinesterases (ChEs) [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase], carboxylesterases (CEs) and phosphatases [alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (AcP)] was investigated. The activity of all the enzymes except AChE was higher in the E/SP than in the BE. ChEs from the BE and from the E/SP reacted differently on eserine, a ChE inhibitor. Eserine inhibited both enzymes from the BE, increased decomposition of acetylcholine, but did not influence hydrolysis of butyrylcholine by the E/SP. Activity of the CEs from the BE in relation to the esters of carboxylic acids can be presented in the following series: C10 > C12 > C14 > C8 > C2 > C4 = C16, while activity of the CEs from the E/SP was: C4 > C8 > C2 > C14 > C10 > C12 > C16. The inhibitor of CEs, triphenyl phosphate, reduced the activity of esterases C2–C8 and C14–C16; however, it acted in the opposite way to CEs C10 and C12. The activity of both phosphatases was higher in the E/SP than in the BE (AcP about twofold and AP about 2.6-fold); the activities of AP and AcP in the same material were similar. Given the role of esterases in resistance to pesticides, further studies are necessary to obtain complete biochemical

  1. Molecular characterization and evolutionary insights into potential sex-determination genes in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the process of sex determination at the molecular level in species belonging to the subclass Acari, a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The recent sequencing of the transcriptome and genome of the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis allows investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying the biological processes of sex determination in this predator of phytophagous pest mites. We identified four doublesex-and-mab-3-related transcription factor (dmrt) genes, one transformer-2 gene, one intersex gene, and two fruitless-like genes in M. occidentalis. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted to infer the molecular relationships to sequences from species of arthropods, including insects, crustaceans, acarines, and a centipede, using available genomic data. Comparative analyses revealed high sequence identity within functional domains and confirmed that the architecture for certain sex-determination genes is conserved in arthropods. This study provides a framework for identifying potential target genes that could be implicated in the process of sex determination in M. occidentalis and provides insight into the conservation and change of the molecular components of sex determination in arthropods.

  2. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry.

  3. Syringophilid mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with the rails (Aves: Rallidae) and a key to the species of the genus Rafapicobia Skoracki, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Skorupski, Maciej; Kavetska, Katarzyna

    2014-07-01

    The fauna of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae Lavoipierre, 1953 (Acari: Prostigmata Cheyletoidea) parasitising birds of the family Rallidae Vigors (Gruiformes) is updated. A new species, Rafapicobia melzeri n. sp. (subfamily Picobiinae), is described from four host species: Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus (type-host) from Germany, Pardirallus sanguinolentus (Swainson) from Chile, Porzana porzana (Linnaeus) from France and P. parva (Scopoli) from Kirghizia. The new species is most similar to R. lepidocolaptesi Skoracki & Solarczyk, 2012 but differs in the absence of agenital plates and the length ratios of setae ag2:g1 and vi:ve:si in females and in the punctate ornament on the hysteronotal and the pygidial shields in males. A key to the species of the genus Rafapicobia is proposed. This is the first record of a representative of the subfamily Picobiinae on gruiform birds. Additionally, new rallid hosts are reported for Charadriphilus ralli Skoracki & Bochkov, 2010 (subfamily Syringophilinae): Gallinula melanops (Vieillot) from Chile, Laterallus melanophaius (Vieillot) from Paraguay, and P. parva (Scopoli) from Kirghizia.

  4. Diversity of Quill Mites of the Family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) Parasitizing Owls (Aves: Strigiformes) With Remarks on the Host-Parasite Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena

    2016-07-01

    The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Version of Record, first published online May 24, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 8.1.3.2 ICZN.

  5. Acaricidal activity of Annonaceae fractions against Tetranychus tumidus and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and the metabolite profile of Duguetia lanceolata (Annonaceae using GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejane Santos Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Tetranychus genus feed on plant tissues, which reduces the rate of photosynthesis and can lead to the death of plant tissues. As a result, considerable production losses are caused by these arthropods. Thus, in order to aid in the development of new products for the control of Tetranychus tumidus Banks and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, the initial objective of this study was to select Annonaceae derived fractions that were soluble in dichloromethane and have acaricidal activity. Then, an exploratory analysis of the metabolite profile of the most successful fraction was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the dichloromethane soluble fractions derived from Annona cacans Warm., Annona coriacea Mart., Annona neolaurifolia H. Rainer, Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil., Duguetia lanceolata A.St.-Hil., Guatteria australis A.St.-Hil., Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng., Xylopia emarginata Mart. and Xylopia sericea A.St.-Hil., only the fraction from D. lanceolata stem bark reduced the survival of T. tumidus females. However, ovicidal activity was not detected when D. lanceolata stem bark was evaluated against T. tumidus eggs. Further, we studied the effect of dichloromethane soluble fractions from D. lanceolata leaves, berry fruits and stem bark on T. urticae, and the stem bark was found to be the most active fraction against T. urticae. The metabolite profile analysis of D. lanceolata stem bark by GC-MS, suggested that the main constituents were 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene and trans-asarone.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Kongkaew, Wittaya; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Parsartvit, Anchana; Malainual, Nat; Yong, Hoi-Sen

    2009-03-01

    Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease transmitted by several species of Leptotrombidium chiggers (larvae), is endemic in many areas of Asia. The disease is best prevented by the use of personal protective measures, including repellents. In this study commercially produced aromatic, essential oils of 13 plant species and ethanol (control) were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking chiggers of Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston (Acari: Trombiculidae). A rapid, simple and economic in vitro test method was used by exposing the chigger for up to 5 min. Repellency was based on relative percentages of chiggers attracted to test and control substances. Four of the 13 essential oils showed promise as effective repellent against L. imphalum chiggers. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 5% concentration (dilution with absolute ethanol), whereas Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 40% concentration. Undiluted oils of Zingiber cassamunar (plai) and Eucalyptus globules (blue gum) exhibited 100% repellency. Of the remaining nine essential oils, only 100% Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) exhibited >50% repellency (viz. 57%). Styrax torkinensis (benzoin) oil did not exhibit any repellency. These findings show that several aromatic, essential oils of plants may be useful as chigger repellent for the prevention of scrub typhus. Syzygium aromaticum oil may be safer and more economical to prevent chigger attacks than commercially available synthetic chemicals, such as DEET that may have harmful side effects.

  7. Population structure and dynamics of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar and the predator Euseius ho (DeLeon (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evila C. Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Population structure and dynamics of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa and the predator Euseius ho (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae. Cassava is attacked by several pests, among which the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are major natural enemies of pestmites and are naturally found inhabiting cassava plants in the field. We evaluated the temporal variation of the developmental stages of M. tanajoa and the most abundant predatory mite in cassava fields in the study region, the phytoseiid Euseius ho. Densities of all developmental stages of M. tanajoa were low during the rainy season, increasing over the cultivation cycle of cassava and peaking in the dry season. Overall, the larval stage of M. tanajoa presented the lowest densities throughout time. Densities of all developmental stages of E. ho were low and remained constant throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. The number of eggs, nymphs and adults of M. tanajoa was higher in comparison to the larval stage whereas there were no differences in densities of the stages of E. ho. Densities of all developmental stages of M. tanajoa were negatively correlated with precipitation. Densities of the stages of egg, nymph and adult of M. tanajoa were positively related while the stage of larva was negatively related to temperature. We conclude that it is important to consider the population structure in studies of population dynamics of arthropods as each developmental stage experiences and responds uniquely to the local environment over time.

  8. Incidence and inheritance of resistance to METI-acaricides in European strains of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, G J; Barber, M; Denholm, I

    2001-05-01

    A strain of Tetranychus urticae (Koch; Acari: Tetranychidae), collected from hops (Humulus humuli L; Cannabaceae) in England with a short history of tebufenpyrad use, exhibited resistance to four METI (mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor)-acaricides; tebufenpyrad, pyridaben, fenazaquin and fenpyroximate. Resistance factors for these compounds in a microimmersion assay were 46, 346, 168 and 77 respectively, and corresponded to those exhibited by a Japanese METI-acaricide-resistant reference strain. Levels of resistance remained stable without further selection, and selection with tebufenpyrad did not increase them. The UK strain was also resistant (c 6-fold) to bifenthrin. Crosses of homozygous, diploid females with hemizygous, haploid males showed that, in the UK strain, METI-acaricide resistance was paternally and maternally inherited, and was an incompletely dominant trait. Another tebufenpyrad-resistant strain from the UK, originating from a chrysanthemum nursery (Chrysanthemum foeniculaceum Giseke; Asteraceae) was collected eight months later at a site c 210 km distant from the first. These are the first published incidences of METI-acaricide resistance in Europe and implications for the future use of these compounds are discussed.

  9. Efficiency of the latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E. Br. Ursch & Leandri, Euphorbiaceae, in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeneida T. Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E. Br. Ursch & Leandri, Euphorbiaceae, on the eggs and engorged larvae of Rhipicephalus (B. sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae. Six aqueous concentrations: 25, 50, 100, 125, 250 and 500 μL/L of the latex of this plant were tested. The control group was tested only with distilled water. The latex of E. splendens var. hislopii presented an LD50 of 18.031 μL/L and LD90 of 84.610 μL/L against the eggs of R. (B. sanguineus. The larvae of all the groups treated with the latex presented a low survival rate of 0% at 25 μL/L, 1% at 50 μL/L, 2% at 100 μL/L, 3% at 125 μL/L, 9% at 250 μL/L, 5% at 500 μL/L when compared with the control group (91%. On day 7 and 14 after the application the latex killed more efficiently the treated groups (25, 50, 100, 125, 250 and 500 μL/L. As from day 21 the latex became less effective for all treatments. Our results clearly show that the aqueous concentration of the latex have a strong effect on tick eggs and larvae suggesting that it could become an important acaricide.

  10. Differences between populations of Spinturnix myoti (Acari: Mesostigmata) in breeding and non-breeding colonies of Myotis myotis (Chiroptera) in central Europe: the effect of roost type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawa, Tomasz; Szubert-Kruszyńska, Agnieszka; Ferenc, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    We studied variations in the abundance of parasitic spinturnicid mites in relation to the gender, age and body condition of bats living in different habitats. Populations of Spinturnix myoti Kolenati, 1856 (Acari: Spinturnicidae), an ectoparasite of the bat Myotis myotis (Borkhausen) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), were investigated in two types of roosts differing in microclimatic conditions: caves (low temperature and high humidity) and attics (high temperature and low humidity). Our data suggest that bats from cave nursery colonies harbour more parasites than those from attic colonies, irrespective of host sex or age. In underground colonies, adult females and their young differ in the mean abundance of parasites, whereas no such differences were found in attic colonies. Non-lactating females from underground roosts and lactating females from attic colonies had similar parasite loads, were lower than those of adult lactating females from caves. A negative correlation between the host body condition index and parasite load was found only in the most infected sex/age group of bats. In spite of significant differences in parasite load, the mean abundance of particular life stages of mites seems to be independent of the type of roost occupied by the host, its sex or age. However, in attic colonies the number of female deutonymphs was twice that of male deutonymphs, whereas in cave colonies the proportions of the sexes were similar. We suggest that the microclimate of the host's roosts may influence ectoparasite abundance through pressure on the sex ratio in the nymphal stages of mites.

  11. Secondary structure prediction for complete rDNA sequences (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex folliculorum, and comparison of divergent domains structures across Acari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wang, Zheng-Hang; Xu, Yang; Wu, Li-Ping; Hu, Li

    2013-10-01

    According to base pairing, the rRNA folds into corresponding secondary structures, which contain additional phylogenetic information. On the basis of sequencing for complete rDNA sequences (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and 28S rDNA) of Demodex, we predicted the secondary structure of the complete rDNA sequence (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex folliculorum, which was in concordance with that of the main arthropod lineages in past studies. And together with the sequence data from GenBank, we also predicted the secondary structures of divergent domains in SSU rRNA of 51 species and in LSU rRNA of 43 species from four superfamilies in Acari (Cheyletoidea, Tetranychoidea, Analgoidea and Ixodoidea). The multiple alignment among the four superfamilies in Acari showed that, insertions from Tetranychoidea SSU rRNA formed two newly proposed helixes, and helix c3-2b of LSU rRNA was absent in Demodex (Cheyletoidea) taxa. Generally speaking, LSU rRNA presented more remarkable differences than SSU rRNA did, mainly in D2, D3, D5, D7a, D7b, D8 and D10.

  12. Clinical light damage to the eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains four sections: The Nature of Light and of Light Damage to Biological Tissues; Light Damage to the Eye; Protecting the Eye from Light Damage; and Overview of Light Damage to the Eye. Some of the paper titles are: Ultraviolet-Absorbing Intraocular Lens Implants; Phototoxic Changes in the Retina; Light Damage to the Lens; and Radiation, Light, and Sight.

  13. Laser ablation and optical surface damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, L. L.; Hamza, A. V.; Lee, H. W. H.

    Laser ablation usually accompanies optical surface damage to bare surfaces and coatings. Investigations of optical damage mechanisms by observation of ablation processes at laser fluences very close to the optical damage threshold are described. Several promising surface characterization methods for investigating damage mechanisms are also described. The possible role of laser ablation in initiating or promoting optical surface damage is discussed.

  14. Laser ablation mechanisms and optical surface damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, L. L.; Hamza, A. V.; Lee, H. W. H.

    1991-05-01

    Laser ablation usually accompanies optical surface damage to bare surfaces and coatings. Investigations of optical damage mechanisms by observation of ablation processes at laser fluences very close to the optical damage threshold are described. Several promising surface characterization methods for investigating damage mechanisms are also described. The possible role of laser ablation in initiating or promoting optical surface damage is discussed.

  15. Pain Medicines and Kidney Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Pain Medicine & Kidney Damage Related Topics Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & ... for a Child with Kidney Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Failure Choosing a ...

  16. Probabilistic Fatigue Damage Program (FATIG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Constantine

    2012-01-01

    FATIG computes fatigue damage/fatigue life using the stress rms (root mean square) value, the total number of cycles, and S-N curve parameters. The damage is computed by the following methods: (a) traditional method using Miner s rule with stress cycles determined from a Rayleigh distribution up to 3*sigma; and (b) classical fatigue damage formula involving the Gamma function, which is derived from the integral version of Miner's rule. The integration is carried out over all stress amplitudes. This software solves the problem of probabilistic fatigue damage using the integral form of the Palmgren-Miner rule. The software computes fatigue life using an approach involving all stress amplitudes, up to N*sigma, as specified by the user. It can be used in the design of structural components subjected to random dynamic loading, or by any stress analyst with minimal training for fatigue life estimates of structural components.

  17. Civil Liability for Environmental Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ciochină

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.

  18. BDS thin film damage competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  19. Climate change: Unattributed hurricane damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, Stéphane

    2015-11-01

    In the United States, hurricanes have been causing more and more economic damage. A reanalysis of the disaster database using a statistical method that accounts for improvements in resilience opens the possibility that climate change has played a role.

  20. Radiation Damage of Quartz Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Hagopian, V

    1999-01-01

    Quartz fibers are used in high energy physics experiments as the active medium in high radiation area calorimetry. Quartz fibers are also used in the transmission of optical signals. Even though quartz does not damage by moderate amounts of irradiation, the clad of the fibers and the protective coating ( buffer) do damage reducing light transmission. Various types of quartz fibers have been irradiated and measured for light transmission. The most radiation hard quartz fibers are those with quartz clad and aluminum buffer.

  1. Damage Atlas for Photographic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Van Camp

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La conservation des documents photographiques peut nécessiter des interventions préventives ou curatives. Ce choix est guidé par leur état de conservation. Une meilleure connaissance des détériorations est donc cruciale. Le répertoire présenté ici essaie de les classifier selon des caractéristiques spécifiques et leur niveau de gravité. Les différents types de dégradation sont illustrés et décrits avec une terminologie précise. L’auteur propose en regard de ceux-ci l’intervention qui semble la plus appropriée. Ce répertoire s’adresse à toutes les personnes concernées par la photographie, qu’ils soient dans le milieu de la conservation ou dans le domaine artistique, dans les musées ou dans les archives. In order to rescue a damaged photographic object, preventive or conservative actions are needed. Knowing the specific characteristics of different types of damage is crucial. A damage atlas can provide these characteristics. With this atlas the damage can be recognised and appropriate actions can be taken. This damage atlas offers a first attempt to such a characterisation in the field of photography. The damage atlas contains images and the necessary information about damage on photographic material. The atlas with special annotations about the terminology and the grade of the damage is meant for everybody who works with photographic material, as well in museums as in archives.

  2. How expensive is vole damage?

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, B; Fülling, O.; Malevez, J.; Pelz, H.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Vole species, especially Arvicola terrestris and Microtus arvalis cause significant economical damage in organic pomiculture by gnawing the root system of trees. The importance of voles as pest organisms is well known. Nevertheless, the estimation of financial loss caused by voles is difficult for German fruit growers. We conducted a survey among organic fruit growers to get data on kind and amount of annual damage. Using the available publications and official statistics we calculated econom...

  3. Toxicidade diferencial de produtos à base de abamectina ao ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae em citros Differential toxicity of abamectin based products over Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Júnior de Andrade

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis é uma das principais pragas dos citros por ser vetor do "Citrus Leprosis Virus" (CiLV, agente causal da leprose, uma das mais graves doenças da citricultura. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito tóxico de produtos à base de abamectina sobre o ácaro B. phoenicis. Foram realizados um experimento de ação direta e três de ação residual no Laboratório de Acarologia do Departamento de Proteção de Plantas (Fitossanidade da FCAV - UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento adotado nos bioensaios foi o inteiramente casualizado, onde 10 tratamentos foram repetidos 7 vezes, sendo cada repetição composta por um fruto de laranja. Os tratamentos estudados (mL p.c./100 L de água foram: Acaramik a 20; 30; 40 e 50 mL; Vertimec a 30 e 40 mL; Abamectin Nortox a 30 e 40 mL; Tricofol a 77 mL e uma testemunha sem aplicação. Utilizaram-se frutos com presença de verrugose, que foram lavados e parcialmente parafinados, deixando-se uma área sem parafina, que foi circundada com cola entomológica para contenção dos ácaros. Transferiram-se 20 ácaros adultos B. phoenicis para cada fruto. No bioensaio de ação direta, a transferência foi realizada antes das aplicações e, nos bioensaios de ação residual, aos 5; 10 e 15 dias após a aplicação dos produtos. A aplicação dos produtos sobre os frutos foi realizada em Torre de Potter. Os resultados obtidos nos bioensaios evidenciaram que os melhores tratamentos foram: Tricofol a 77 mL, Acaramik a 40 e 50 mL e Vertimec a 40 mL. De forma geral, os produtos testados podem ser utilizados no controle do ácaro B. phoenicis.The mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae is one of the most important pests in Brazil citrus plantation, because it is the virus "Citrus Leprosis Virus" (CiLV vector, one of the most serious citrus plantation diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the toxical effect of abamectin in the mite B. phoenicis. It was performed

  4. Mechanism of DNA damage tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; Bi

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage may compromise genome integrity and lead to cell death. Cells have evolved a variety of processes to respond to DNA damage including damage repair and tolerance mechanisms, as well as damage checkpoints. The DNA damage tolerance(DDT) pathway promotes the bypass of single-stranded DNA lesions encountered by DNA polymerases during DNA replication. This prevents the stalling of DNA replication. Two mechanistically distinct DDT branches have been characterized. One is translesion synthesis(TLS) in which a replicative DNA polymerase is temporarily replaced by a specialized TLS polymerase that has the ability to replicate across DNA lesions. TLS is mechanistically simple and straightforward, but it is intrinsically error-prone. The other is the error-free template switching(TS) mechanism in which the stalled nascent strand switches from the damaged template to the undamaged newly synthesized sister strand for extension past the lesion. Error-free TS is a complex but preferable process for bypassing DNA lesions. However, our current understanding of this pathway is sketchy. An increasing number of factors are being found to participate or regulate this important mechanism, which is the focus of this editorial.

  5. DNA damage in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migliore, Lucia

    2015-06-01

    Following the observation of increased oxidative DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA extracted from post-mortem brain regions of patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases, the last years of the previous century and the first decade of the present one have been largely dedicated to the search of markers of DNA damage in neuronal samples and peripheral tissues of patients in early, intermediate or late stages of neurodegeneration. Those studies allowed to demonstrate that oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in neurodegeneration, but also revealed cytogenetic damage in neurodegenerative conditions, such as for example a tendency towards chromosome 21 malsegregation in Alzheimer's disease. As it happens for many neurodegenerative risk factors the question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of the neurodegenerative process is still open, and probably both is true. The research interest in markers of oxidative stress was shifted, in recent years, towards the search of epigenetic biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders, following the accumulating evidence of a substantial contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to learning, memory processes, behavioural disorders and neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence is however linking DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena, thereby opening the way to a very attractive and timely research topic in neurodegenerative diseases. We will address those issues in the context of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, which represent three of the most common neurodegenerative pathologies in humans.

  6. Neural networks for damage identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, T.L.; Klenke, S.E.

    1997-11-01

    Efforts to optimize the design of mechanical systems for preestablished use environments and to extend the durations of use cycles establish a need for in-service health monitoring. Numerous studies have proposed measures of structural response for the identification of structural damage, but few have suggested systematic techniques to guide the decision as to whether or not damage has occurred based on real data. Such techniques are necessary because in field applications the environments in which systems operate and the measurements that characterize system behavior are random. This paper investigates the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to identify damage in mechanical systems. Two probabilistic neural networks (PNNs) are developed and used to judge whether or not damage has occurred in a specific mechanical system, based on experimental measurements. The first PNN is a classical type that casts Bayesian decision analysis into an ANN framework; it uses exemplars measured from the undamaged and damaged system to establish whether system response measurements of unknown origin come from the former class (undamaged) or the latter class (damaged). The second PNN establishes the character of the undamaged system in terms of a kernel density estimator of measures of system response; when presented with system response measures of unknown origin, it makes a probabilistic judgment whether or not the data come from the undamaged population. The physical system used to carry out the experiments is an aerospace system component, and the environment used to excite the system is a stationary random vibration. The results of damage identification experiments are presented along with conclusions rating the effectiveness of the approaches.

  7. Fatigue damage detection using cyclostationarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boungou, D.; Guillet, F.; Badaoui, M. El; Lyonnet, P.; Rosario, T.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present the second-order of cyclostationarity to detect and diagnose the fatigue damage of the stainless steel 316l subjected to low cycle fatigue (LCF). LCF is defined by repetitive cycling in a low stress and a short period. The vibration response of material subjected to LCF provides information linked to the solicitation and to the fatigue damage. Thus, we considered a cantilever beam with breathing cracks and assumed that under the solicitation, breathing cracks generates non-linearity in the stiffness of the material and this one decreases with the damage. We used the second-order of the cyclostationarity to reveal this non-linearity and showed that the fatigue provide a random component in the signal, which increases with the fatigue damage. Thus, in the specific case of a material subjected to LCF, with a non-linear stiffness, we propose a new methodology to detect and diagnose the fatigue damage using a vibration signal. This methodology is based on the second order of the cyclostationarity.

  8. Autophagy in DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Czarny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage response (DDR involves DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, but autophagy is also suggested to play a role in DDR. Autophagy can be activated in response to DNA-damaging agents, but the exact mechanism underlying this activation is not fully understood, although it is suggested that it involves the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1. mTORC1 represses autophagy via phosphorylation of the ULK1/2–Atg13–FIP200 complex thus preventing maturation of pre-autophagosomal structures. When DNA damage occurs, it is recognized by some proteins or their complexes, such as poly(ADPribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1, Mre11–Rad50–Nbs1 (MRN complex or FOXO3, which activate repressors of mTORC1. SQSTM1/p62 is one of the proteins whose levels are regulated via autophagic degradation. Inhibition of autophagy by knockout of FIP200 results in upregulation of SQSTM1/p62, enhanced DNA damage and less efficient damage repair. Mitophagy, one form of autophagy involved in the selective degradation of mitochondria, may also play role in DDR. It degrades abnormal mitochondria and can either repress or activate apoptosis, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. There is a need to clarify the role of autophagy in DDR, as this process may possess several important biomedical applications, involving also cancer therapy.

  9. Remote detection of forest damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Vogelmann, A. F.; Hoshizaki, T.; Williams, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of remote sensing to discriminate, measure, and map forest damage is evaluated. TM spectal coverage, a helicopter-mounted radiometer, and ground-based surveys were utilized to examine the responses of the spruces and firs of Camels Hump Mountain, Vermont to stresses, such as pollution and trace metals. The basic spectral properties of vegetation are described. Forest damage at the site was estimated as 11.8-76.0 percent for the spruces and 19-43.8 percent for the balsam firs. Shifts in the spectra of the conifers in particular in the near IR region are analyzed, and variations in the mesophyll cell anatomy and pigment content of the spruces and firs are investigated. The relations between canopy moisture and damage is studied. The TM data are compared to aircraft data and found to be well correlated.

  10. System for estimating fatigue damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeMonds, Jeffrey; Guzzo, Judith Ann; Liu, Shaopeng; Dani, Uttara Ashwin

    2017-03-14

    In one aspect, a system for estimating fatigue damage in a riser string is provided. The system includes a plurality of accelerometers which can be deployed along a riser string and a communications link to transmit accelerometer data from the plurality of accelerometers to one or more data processors in real time. With data from a limited number of accelerometers located at sensor locations, the system estimates an optimized current profile along the entire length of the riser including riser locations where no accelerometer is present. The optimized current profile is then used to estimate damage rates to individual riser components and to update a total accumulated damage to individual riser components. The number of sensor locations is small relative to the length of a deepwater riser string, and a riser string several miles long can be reliably monitored along its entire length by fewer than twenty sensor locations.

  11. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Daniell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes.

    Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon.

    Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected, and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured.

    Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto ($214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>$300 billion USD at time of writing, 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product, exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index, and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons.

    This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global

  12. Elenco y biogeografía de los ácaros acuáticos (Acari, Parasitengona, Hydrachnidia de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosso de Ferradás, B.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Checklist and catalog publications demonstrate a clear connection between basic taxonomy and biodiversity issues. According to some estimates, only 10-30% of all global species have been named. As in other fields, catalogs provide an important source of information concerning species diversity in freshwater ecology.

    South America is a continent dominated by freshwater ecosystems. The tremendous habitat diversity created by this landscape supports a high number of arthropods, including water mites, which belong to the hyperdiverse group Acari. South America has a substantial task ahead in cataloging its biodiversity.

    Much has been published on water mites in South America. In fact, according to Besch, water mites were the most studied with the exception of Europe up until the 1960’s. Most of the collections were conducted by two acarologists (Lundblad and Karl Viets during the 1940’s. Today, the collection, identification and description process of water mites is slower. In the 1980’s, the north-american acarologist D. R. Cook produced two lengthy papers about neotropical water mites in four regions of South America. Recently, several Argentine acarologists have published papers on water mites from diverse habitats and regions in South America.

    The catalog presented here includes information regarding 6 superfamilies, including 23 families in 118 genera of true water mites (Hydrachnidia, Parasitengona, Acari. It also includes the references concerning the species, distribution in various regions of South America and –as far as known– habitat.

    At present, there are 916 species from several authors cataloged in 11 countries in South America. The degree of knowledge varies greatly from country to country, with numerous entries for Brazil and none for French Guiana.

    Las publicaciones de catálogos y listados de especies determinan una clara conexión entre taxonomía básica y temas

  13. Site Effects and Damage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Assimaki, Dominic; Ledezma, Christian; Montalva, Gonzalo A.; Tassara,Andrés; Mylonakis, George; Boroschekf, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    A set of observations on site effects and damage patterns from the M_w 8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake is presented, focusing on identification of structural damage variability associated with nonuniform soil conditions and subsurface geology. Observations are reported from: (1) the City of Santiago de Chile (Américo Vespucio Norte Ring Highway, Ciudad Empresarial business park), (2) the Municipality of Viña del Mar, and (3) the City of Concepción, extending over 600 km along the Chilean coast. ...

  14. Sampling method evaluation and empirical model fitting for count data to estimate densities of Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on 'Hass' avocado leaves in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jesús R; Saremi, Naseem T; Castillo, Martin J; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important foliar spider mite pest of 'Hass' avocados in several commercial production areas of the world. In California (USA), O. perseae densities in orchards can exceed more than 100 mites per leaf and this makes enumerative counting prohibitive for field sampling. In this study, partial enumerative mite counts along half a vein on an avocado leaf, an industry recommended practice known as the "half-vein method", was evaluated for accuracy using four data sets with a combined total of more than 485,913 motile O. perseae counted on 3849 leaves. Sampling simulations indicated that the half-vein method underestimated mite densities in a range of 15-60 %. This problem may adversely affect management of this pest in orchards and potentially compromise the results of field research requiring accurate mite density estimation. To address this limitation, four negative binomial regression models were fit to count data in an attempt to rescue the half-vein method for estimating mite densities. These models were incorporated into sampling plans and evaluated for their ability to estimate mite densities on whole leaves within 30-tree blocks of avocados. Model 3, a revised version of the original half-vein model, showed improvement in providing reliable estimates of O. perseae densities for making assessments of general leaf infestation densities across orchards in southern California. The implications of these results for customizing the revised half-vein method as a potential field sampling tool and for experimental research in avocado production in California are discussed.

  15. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  16. 7 CFR 51.2960 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 51.2960 Section 51.2960 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2960 Damage. Damage means any specific defect... considered as damage: (a) Broken shells when the area from which a portion of the shell is missing is...

  17. Reproductive performance of seven strains of the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae) at five temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotoh, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Pallini, A.;

    2010-01-01

    The tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi Baker et Pritchard occurs on solanaceous plants, and causes serious damage to a variety of crops in Africa and Europe. In 2001 this species was also found in Japan, on nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.), and its invasion to solanaceous of agricultural...

  18. Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.

  19. Controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 E Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae em cafeeiro e o impacto sobre ácaros benéficos: I - abamectin e emamectin Control of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 and Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae in coffee plants and the impact on beneficial mites: I - Abamectin and emamectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rebelles Reis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae é importante em cafeeiro (Coffea spp., por ser o vetor do vírus da mancha-anular, responsável por queda de folhas e má qualidade da bebida do café, e o ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tetranychidae, por reduzir a área foliar de fotossíntese. Alguns ácaros da família Phytoseiidae são eficientes predadores associados aos ácaros-praga. Com este trabalho teve-se como objetivo estudar o controle dos ácaros-praga e o impacto do abamectin e emamectin sobre fitoseídeos. Em laboratório, foram estudados os efeitos ovicida, tópico, residual, tópico mais residual aos ácaros-praga e a seletividade fisiológica aos fitoseídeos. Em semicampo, foi estudada a persistência dos produtos no controle dos ácaros-praga. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado em ovos no início e fim de incubação; os efeitos residual, tópico e tópico mais residual foram avaliados pela mortalidade de larvas, ninfas e adultos após 48 horas da aplicação, enquanto a persistência foi avaliada pela mortalidade até 30 dias após a pulverização. A seletividade aos ácaros fitoseídeos foi avaliada pelo efeito total às fêmeas adultas, em teste residual em superfície de vidro. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que abamectin e emamectin não possuem ação ovicida, para ambas as espécies de ácaros-praga estudadas. Considerando o efeito tópico mais residual, o abamectin e emamectin foram altamente eficientes no controle de larvas, ninfas e adultos de B. phoenicis; apenas abamectin foi eficiente no controle de O. ilicis. Abamectin foi levemente a moderadamente nocivo e emamectin mostrou-se inócuo a levemente nocivo aos fitoseídeos. Devido à eficiência de controle e seletividade a fitoseídeos, conclui-se que abamectin e emamectin podem ser utilizados em programas de manejo integrado do ácaro B. phoenicis, e abamectin para o manejo de B. phoenicis e O. ilicis em cafeeiro

  20. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matugina, E. G.; Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; Vusovich, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  1. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    OpenAIRE

    Matyugina, Eleonora Grigorievna; Glyzina, Tatiana Svyatoslavovna; Kolbysheva, Yuliya Vladimirovna; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; O. V. Vusovich

    2015-01-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  2. Shanxi Coalmines Face Damage Claims

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2005-01-01

    In a move designed to improve its environmental reputation, Shanxi Province is to establish a system to compensate against damage made to the environment by coalmines, according to Tian Chengping, the secretary of the Shanxi CPC Provindal Committee, Tian made the point at a conference held in January.

  3. Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Ricard, Yanick

    2014-04-24

    The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth is a critical event in our planet's history. The time lag between the first proto-subduction (about 4 billion years ago) and global tectonics (approximately 3 billion years ago) suggests that plates and plate boundaries became widespread over a period of 1 billion years. The reason for this time lag is unknown but fundamental to understanding the origin of plate tectonics. Here we suggest that when sufficient lithospheric damage (which promotes shear localization and long-lived weak zones) combines with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, it leads to the accumulation of weak plate boundaries and eventually to fully formed tectonic plates driven by subduction alone. We simulate this process using a grain evolution and damage mechanism with a composite rheology (which is compatible with field and laboratory observations of polycrystalline rocks), coupled to an idealized model of pressure-driven lithospheric flow in which a low-pressure zone is equivalent to the suction of convective downwellings. In the simplest case, for Earth-like conditions, a few successive rotations of the driving pressure field yield relic damaged weak zones that are inherited by the lithospheric flow to form a nearly perfect plate, with passive spreading and strike-slip margins that persist and localize further, even though flow is driven only by subduction. But for hotter surface conditions, such as those on Venus, accumulation and inheritance of damage is negligible; hence only subduction zones survive and plate tectonics does not spread, which corresponds to observations. After plates have developed, continued changes in driving forces, combined with inherited damage and weak zones, promote increased tectonic complexity, such as oblique subduction, strike-slip boundaries that are subparallel to plate motion, and spalling of minor plates.

  4. Implementation of an anisotropic damage material model using general second order damage tensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad; Wisselink, Harm; Meinders, Timo; Horn, ten Carel; Mori, K.; Pietrzyk, M.; Kusiak, J.; Majta, J.; Hartley, P.; Lin, J.

    2010-01-01

    Damage in metals is mainly the process of the initiation and growth of voids. With the growing complexity in materials and forming proc-esses, it becomes inevitable to include anisotropy in damage (tensorial damage variable). Most of the anisotropic damage models define the damage tensor in the prin

  5. Primeiro relato de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (acari: ixodidae) parasitando lagarto da espécie Tupinambis teguixin (L.), no município de Glorinha, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    João R Martins; Elida C. Monticelli; Onofrio,Valéria C.; Darcy M. Barros-Battesti; Rovaina L. Doyle

    2007-01-01

    Amblyomma fuscum conhecida somente no Brasil, tem sido descrita como uma espécie rara de carrapato com relatos de sua ocorrência nas regiões sul e sudeste. Este é um novo registro desta espécie (9 fêmeas) parasitando lagarto (Tupinambis teguixin), no Município de Glorinha, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As fêmeas foram depositadas na coleção do Instituto de Pesquisas Veterinárias Desidério Finamor (7 espécimes) e na coleção de Acari do Instituto Butantan, Estado de São Paulo (2 espécimes). O ac...

  6. Laser Damage Inspection Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J T; Brase, J M; Bliss, E S; Carrano, C J; Kegelmeyer, L M; Miller, M G; Orth, C D; Sacks, R A

    2001-02-26

    Large, high-power laser systems are often designed as reimaging multipass cavities to maximize the extraction of energy from the amplifiers. These multipass cavities often have vacuum spatial filters that suppress the growth of beam instability via B-integral effects. These spatial filters also relay images of laser damage, often nearly superimposing these images in common planes. Also, the fluence damage threshold limits the minimum size of the optics. When used as vacuum barriers in the spatial filters, these large optics present a safety hazard from the risk of implosion if the laser damage were sufficiently large. The objective of the project was to develop algorithms and methods for optical detection and characterization of laser-induced damage of optics. The system should detect small defects (about 5% of the critical size), track their growth over multiple laser shots, and characterize the defects accurately so that the optic can be replaced (at 25% of the critical size) and, hence, minimize the risk of implosion. The depth of field must be short enough to isolate the damaged vacuum barrier from other damaged optics in the beamline, and the system should also be capable of inspecting other optics in the beamline, since damage on one optic can subsequently damage subsequent optics. Laser induced damage starts as a small (<<1mm) crater and grows as material is removed on subsequent laser shots. The highly fractured rough surface of the crater scatters light from the illuminating inspection beam. This scattered light is imaged by the inspection system. Other types of defects may occur as well including inclusions in the bulk glass, tooling marks, and surface contamination. This report will discuss the detection and characterization of crater-like surface defects although the general techniques may prove useful for other types of defects. The work described here covers the development of an image processing approach and specific algorithms for defect detection

  7. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties...

  8. Radiation damage in biomolecular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuss, Martina Christina

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity, ionizing radiations have been widely applied in medicine both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The risks associated with radiation exposure and handling led to the parallel development of the field of radiation protection. Pioneering experiments done by Sanche and co-workers in 2000 showed that low-energy secondary electrons, which are abundantly generated along radiation tracks, are primarily responsible for radiation damage through successive interactions with the molecular constituents of the medium. Apart from ionizing processes, which are usually related to radiation damage, below the ionization level low-energy electrons can induce molecular fragmentation via dissociative processes such as internal excitation and electron attachment. This prompted collaborative projects between different research groups from European countries together with other specialists from Canada,  the USA and Australia. This book summarizes the advances achieved by these...

  9. A damage model for fracking

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, J Quinn; Rundle, John B

    2015-01-01

    Injections of large volumes of water into tight shale reservoirs allows the extraction of oil and gas not previously accessible. This large volume "super" fracking induces damage that allows the oil and/or gas to flow to an extraction well. The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for understanding super fracking. We assume that water is injected from a small spherical cavity into a homogeneous elastic medium. The high pressure of the injected water generates hoop stresses that reactivate natural fractures in the tight shales. These fractures migrate outward as water is added creating a spherical shell of damaged rock. The porosity associated with these fractures is equal to the water volume injected. We obtain an analytic expression for this volume. We apply our model to a typical tight shale reservoir and show that the predicted water volumes are in good agreement with the volumes used in super fracking.

  10. Damaging brands through market research:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, C.; Brem, Alexander; Ivens, B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of using the new marketing research tool of prediction markets (PMs), which integrates customers to into the marketing research process. The research questions are: does taking part in PMs influence customers’ brand perception......? Is there a danger of damaging a brand through this tool? Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses a series of five short-term (less than one hour) and five long-term (three weeks) experimental online PMs where customers are integrated into marketing research and apply a series of online-surveys before and after...... taking part as virtual stock market traders. Subjects of research are taken from the sporting goods industry. Findings – The paper shows that PMs can be used by marketing researchers without the danger of damaging the brand of the products that are subject of the PMs, although customers are being...

  11. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Feng; Wen Ting; Lu Tianjian; Seffen Keith

    2008-01-01

    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great problem for burn patients. Thus, it is of great importance to quantify the thermal damage in skin tissue. In this paper, the available models and experimental methods for quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue are discussed.

  12. Continuum damage and fracture mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers readers an introduction to damage and fracture mechanics, equipping them to grasp the basic ideas of the presented approaches to modeling in applied mechanics. In the first part, the book reviews and expands on the classical theory of elastic and elasto-plastic material behavior. A solid understanding of these two topics is the essential prerequisite to advancing to damage and fracture mechanics. Thus, the second part of this course provides an introduction to the treatment of damage and fractures in the context of applied mechanics. Wherever possible, the one-dimensional case is first introduced and then generalized in a following step. This departs somewhat from the more classical approach, where first the most general case is derived and then simplified to special cases. In general, the required mathematics background is kept to a minimum.   Tutorials are included at the end of each chapter, presenting the major steps for the solution and offering valuable tips and tricks. The supplem...

  13. Economic measurement of environment damages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.

    1980-05-01

    The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.

  14. Postoperative gluteal skin damage associated with latent development of gluteal muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yukari; Ikeuchi, Takashi; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Matsugi, Kiyotomo; Minami, Shunsuke; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Zaima, Masazumi; Ishitoya, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Chikako; Onishi, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Junichiro; Kitoh, Koichi; Oshiro, Osamu; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Utani, Atsushi; Hattori, Noboru

    2016-05-01

    Preceding this study, we observed two cases of concurrent postoperative gluteal skin and muscle damage with extremely high serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, both of which were unrelated to pressure-induced tissue injury. However, postoperative gluteal skin damage accompanied by gluteal muscle damage has not been previously reported and the association between gluteal skin damage, gluteal muscle damage and pressure-induced tissue injury has not previously been investigated. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine the postoperative incidence of gluteal skin damage associated with gluteal muscle damage and assess associations with postoperative serum CK levels and pressure-induced tissue injury. We prospectively evaluated postoperative incidence of gluteal skin damage and measured serum CK levels in 929 consecutive patients who underwent abdominal, urological or gynecological surgery at our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis was performed in 67 patients who consented. As a result, two of 929 patients developed postoperative gluteal skin damage accompanied by gluteal muscle damage. Gluteal muscle damage without gluteal skin damage was observed in 23 of the 67 patients who underwent MRI, and volumes of damaged gluteal muscle and postoperative serum CK levels were positively correlated. Both gluteal skin and muscle damage were distinguishable from pressure-induced tissue injury. Based on the results of this study, we could confirm the occurrence of postoperative gluteal skin damage, distinct from pressure sores, accompanied by gluteal muscle damage. We also revealed latent development of postoperative gluteal muscle damage, distinguishable from compression-induced tissue injury, without accompanying gluteal skin damage.

  15. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 文婷; 卢天健; Seffen; Keith

    2008-01-01

    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great...

  16. PHENOMENOLOGICAL DAMAGE MODELS OF ANISOTROPIC STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Bobyr, M.; Khalimon, O.; Bondarets, O.

    2015-01-01

    Damage in metals is mainly the process of the initiation and growth of voids. A formulation for anisotropic damage is established in the framework of the principle of strain equivalence, principle of increment complementary energy equivalence and principle of elastic energy equivalence. This paper presents the development of an anisotropic damage theory. This work is focused on the development of evolution anisotropic damage models which is based on a Young’s modulus/Poisson’s ratio change of...

  17. Procedural Issues Concerning Environmental Damage In Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Bedón Garzón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine, through a deep analysis of different doctrines, the definition of environmental damage; it also seeks to determine the difference between damage to nature and the civil environmental damage, which is damage to individual interests or collective environmental event occasion. To this purpose, we intend to study certain procedural rules and case law concerning Ecuadorian environmental management, also in comparative law considers how countries like Chile, Spain and Argentina regulate compensation and repair environment.

  18. Rapid mapping of hurricane damage to forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik M. Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    The prospects for producing rapid, accurate delineations of the spatial extent of forest wind damage were evaluated using Hurricane Katrina as a test case. A damage map covering the full spatial extent of Katrina?s impact was produced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery using higher resolution training data. Forest damage...

  19. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2966 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2966 Section 51.2966 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2966 Serious damage. Serious damage means any... discoloration covering a smaller area if the appearance is equally objectionable; (b) Perforated shells when...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2128 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 51.2128 Section 51.2128 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2128 Damage. Damage means any defect which... the affected area on an individual kernel aggregates more than the equivalent of a circle...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2655 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 51.2655 Section 51.2655 Agriculture... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2655 Damage. Damage means any specific defect... appearance; (c) Hail injury when deep or not well healed, or when the aggregate area exceeds the area of...

  3. Spatial Damage Distribution over Cube Armoured Roundheads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, Enrique Maciñeira; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    these studies it is observed that damage "moves" around the head keeping the position relative to the wave direction. For the design of the head it is of interest to know, not only the damage development in the defined critical sector, but also the damage in the other parts of the roundhead. This presentation...

  4. Collision Risk and Damage after Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Hansen, Peter Friis; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    1996-01-01

    of the damage risk is calculated by a numerical procedure. These directly calculated distributions for hull damages are subsequently approximated by analytical expressions suited for probabilistic damage stability calculations similar to the procedure described in IMO regulation A.265.Numerical results...

  5. The Research of Liquidated Damages in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Ting

    2014-01-01

    <正>I.Liquidated damages provisions of Anglo-American countries distinguished from that in China Liquidated damages provisions in Anglo-American countries are different from penalty clauses.However,Chinese law does not recognise liquidated damages in the same way as in Anglo-

  6. Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines, and ground cover plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2014-10-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the families Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. Two species of eupalopsellid mites (Exothorhis caudata Summers and Saniosulus harteni (van-Dis and Ueckermann)) were identified from 252 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards of which 249 were E. caudata. Only two E. caudata were collected from ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. Eight species of Stigmaeidae were identified from 5,637 specimens: Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, A. terminalis Gonzalez, Eustigmaeus arcuata (Chandhri), E. sp. near arcuata, E. segnis (Koch), Mediostigmaeus citri (Rakha and McCoy), Stigmaeus seminudus Wood, and Zetzellia languida Gonzalez were collected from within citrus tree canopies from seven orchard sites. Agistemus floridanus was the only species in either family that was abundant with 5,483 collected from within citrus tree canopies compared with only 39 from vine or ground cover plants. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards and one or more eupalopsellids or stigmaeids were collected from 19 of these plants. Richardia brasiliensis (Meg.) Gomez had nine A. floridanus from 5 of 25 samples collected from this plant. Solanum sp. had five A. floridanus from three samples taken. Both eupalopsellid and stigmaeid species numbers represented orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Agistemus floridanus was more abundant in the citrus orchards with on-going or recent herbicide programs compared with orchards having well-developed ground

  7. Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Denmark, Harold A

    2011-08-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, open flowers, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996. Vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards. The two remaining orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Thirty-three species of phytoseiid mites were identified from 35,405 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards, and 8,779 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. The six most abundant phytoseiid species found within citrus tree canopies were: Euseius mesembrinus (Dean) (20,948), Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma) (8,628), Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) (2,632), Typhlodromips dentilis (De Leon) (592), Typhlodromina subtropica Muma and Denmark (519), and Galendromus helveolus (Chant) (315). The six most abundant species found on vines or ground cover plants were: T. peregrinus (6,608), E. mesembrinus (788), T. dentilis (451), I. quadripilis (203), T. subtropica (90), and Proprioseiopsis asetus (Chant) (48). The remaining phytoseiids included: Amblyseius aerialis (Muma), A. herbicolus (Chant), A. largoensis (Chant), A. multidentatus (Chant), A. sp. near multidentatus, A. obtusus (Koch), Chelaseius vicinus (Muma), Euseius hibisci Chant, Galendromus gratus (Chant), Metaseiulus mcgregori (Chant), Neoseiulus mumai (Denmark), N. vagus (Denmark), Phytoscutus sexpilis (Muma), Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks), Proprioseiopsis detritus (Muma), P. dorsatus (Muma), P. macrosetae (Banks), P. rotundus (Muma), P. solens (De Leon), Typhlodromips deleoni (Muma), T. dillus (De Leon), T. dimidiatus (De Leon), T. mastus Denmark and Muma, T. simplicissimus (De Leon), and T. sp

  8. Radiation damage in multiphase ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Danju [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2575 (United States); Patel, Maulik K.; Usov, Igor O. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Toiammou, Moidi; Monnet, Isabelle [CIMAP, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Pivin, Jean Claude [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris Sud, UMR 8609, Bat. 108, 91405 Orsay (France); Porter, John R. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050 (United States); Mecartney, Martha L., E-mail: martham@uci.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2575 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: Four-phase ceramic composites containing 3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} stabilized ZrO{sub 2} (3Y-TZP), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and LaPO{sub 4} were synthesized as model materials representing inert matrix fuel with enhanced thermal conductivity and decreased radiation-induced microstructural damage with respect to single-phase UO{sub 2}. This multi-phase concept, if successful, could be applied to design advanced nuclear fuels which could then be irradiated to higher burn-ups. 3Y-TZP in the composite represents a host (fuel) phase with the lowest thermal conductivity and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the high thermal conductivity phase. The role of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and LaPO{sub 4} was to stabilize the structure under irradiation. The radiation response was evaluated by ion irradiation at 500 °C with 10 MeV Au ions and at 800 °C with 92 MeV Xe ions, to simulate damage due to primary knock-on atoms and fission fragments, respectively. Radiation damage and microstructural changes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and computational modeling. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} stabilized ZrO{sub 2} and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases exhibit high amorphization resistance and remain stable when irradiated with both Au and Xe ions. A monoclinic-to-tetragonal phase transformation, however, is promoted by Xe and Au ion irradiation in 3Y-TZP. The LaPO{sub 4} monazite phase appears to melt, dewet the other phases, and recrystallize under Au irradiation, but does not change under Xe irradiation.

  9. Radiation damage in silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lindström, G

    2003-01-01

    Radiation damage effects in silicon detectors under severe hadron and gamma-irradiation are surveyed, focusing on bulk effects. Both macroscopic detector properties (reverse current, depletion voltage and charge collection) as also the underlying microscopic defect generation are covered. Basic results are taken from the work done in the CERN-RD48 (ROSE) collaboration updated by results of recent work. Preliminary studies on the use of dimerized float zone and Czochralski silicon as detector material show possible benefits. An essential progress in the understanding of the radiation-induced detector deterioration had recently been achieved in gamma irradiation, directly correlating defect analysis data with the macroscopic detector performance.

  10. Radiation damage of structural materials

    CERN Document Server

    Koutsky, Jaroslav

    1994-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of nuclear power plants is critical in the prevention or control of severe accidents. This monograph deals with both basic groups of structural materials used in the design of light-water nuclear reactors, making the primary safety barriers of NPPs. Emphasis is placed on materials used in VVER-type nuclear reactors: Cr-Mo-V and Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel for RPV and Zr-Nb alloys for fuel element cladding. The book is divided into 7 main chapters, with the exception of the opening one and the chapter providing a phenomenological background for the subject of radiation damage. Ch

  11. Towards a canonical elastoplastic damage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Salah El-Din F.; Baluch, Mohammed H.; Al-Gadhib, Ali H.

    1994-05-01

    Fundamental aspects of elastoplastic damage are outlined. Time-independent isotropic damage is considered in order to study material degradation. By splitting the total strain tensor into its components of elastic damage and plastic damage and using recoverable energy equivalence, three distinct modes of behavior are particularized. For each mode of behavior, a suitable damage variable is culled. An in-depth analysis of this formulation reveals a certain incongruity in the assumptions postulated in some of the previously proposed models. The suggested generalized concepts are supported by experimental evidence.

  12. Status of Research on Online Fuel Damage Detection and Core Damage Assessment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Xi-an; JI; Song-tao; GAO; Yong-guang; SHI; Xiao-lei

    2012-01-01

    <正>The technique research on the online fuel element damage detection and reactor core damage assessment is one project in the research program of the technical research for reactor key equipment maintenance and detection. The main research objective is to develop an online fuel damage detection system (FDDS), a core damage assessment system (CDAS) and make the integration of the two systems.

  13. [Liver damage caused by drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeyer, G; Weik, C

    1999-05-01

    The liver has a central role in the metabolism of many drugs, since this organ is the main site of biotransformation of endo- and xenobiotics. Water-soluble drugs have a small volume of distribution and can be eliminated unchanged in the urine. By contrast, lipid-soluble drugs have a larger volume of distribution and require conversion to water-soluble metabolites for their elimination in urine or bile. The liver with its specific receptors, transporters and enzymes is responsible for the uptake, transformation and excretion of the lipophilic drugs. While most of the drugs are transformed into stable metabolites, other drugs form reactive, potentially toxic, metabolites producing liver cell damage. Liver injury caused by drugs may mimic almost any kind of liver disease. Clinical findings are gastrointestinal symptoms with nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, cholestatic liver injury with jaundice and pruritus of severe inflammatory and cirrhotic liver damage with signs of liver failure, encephalopathy and cerebral edema. The morphological changes vary from hepatitis, cholestasis, fatty liver, granulomatous hepatitis, peri-/portal inflammation, to fibrosis with cirrhotic alterations and vascular lesions and tumors. The most commonly used drugs causing severe liver injury are discussed in detail. These are anabolics, oral contraceptives, antituberculous and antifungal agents, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ring substituted amphetamins ("designer drugs"), antiarrhythmics and antibiotics.

  14. Flower damage: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, H.A.

    1965-01-01

    A review of the recorded losses of Cattleya orchid blooms found in the records of 5 Bay Area growers shows a distinct increasing seasonal loss pattern from ethylene. The losses due to ''dried sepal'' were compared with the total daily and monthly production. Daily orchid bloom losses in excess of 90 percent were found, with a least two growers losing over 60 percent of total month's cut. Highest bloom losses were experienced in San Leandro and South San Francisco with lesser losses in Larkspur, Mt. Eden and San Bruno. Qualitative checks of growers in other sites revealed orchid losses to be wide spread. From the record of these latter growers, only Pacific and Mill Valley had no damage at the time of the visits. The ''dried sepal'' damage is attributed to ethylene since it can be produced by exposure to this gas; ethylene has been found to be present on numerous occasions preceding appearance of symptoms, and no other causative agent has been found in sufficient concentrations in ambient air sampling to cause such an effect.

  15. Air pollution and brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Azzarelli, Biagio; Acuna, Hilda; Garcia, Raquel; Gambling, Todd M; Osnaya, Norma; Monroy, Sylvia; DEL Tizapantzi, Maria Rosario; Carson, Johnny L; Villarreal-Calderon, Anna; Rewcastle, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants produces inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Because the nasal cavity is a common portal of entry, respiratory and olfactory epithelia are vulnerable targets for toxicological damage. This study has evaluated, by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kappaB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosae, olfactory bulb, and cortical and subcortical structures from 32 healthy mongrel canine residents in Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), a highly polluted urban region. Findings were compared to those in 8 dogs from Tlaxcala, a less polluted, control city. In SWMMC dogs, expression of nuclear neuronal NF-kappaB and iNOS in cortical endothelial cells occurred at ages 2 and 4 weeks; subsequent damage included alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), degenerating cortical neurons, apoptotic glial white matter cells, deposition of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-positive lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells and pericytes, nonneuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Persistent pulmonary inflammation and deteriorating olfactory and respiratory barriers may play a role in the neuropathology observed in the brains of these highly exposed canines. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's may begin early in life with air pollutants playing a crucial role.

  16. Excitotoxic damage to white matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Carlos; Alberdi, Elena; Domercq, María; Sánchez-Gómez, María-Victoria; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Alfredo; Pérez-Cerdá, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Glutamate kills neurons by excitotoxicity, which is caused by sustained activation of glutamate receptors. In recent years, it has been shown that glutamate can also be toxic to white matter oligodendrocytes and to myelin by this mechanism. In particular, glutamate receptor-mediated injury to these cells can be triggered by activation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid, kainate and N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor types. Thus, these receptor classes, and the intermediaries of the signal cascades they activate, are potential targets for drug development to treat white matter damage in acute and chronic diseases. In addition, alterations of glutamate homeostasis in white matter can determine glutamate injury to oligodendrocytes and myelin. Astrocytes are responsible for most glutamate uptake in synaptic and non-synaptic areas and consequently are the major regulators of glutamate homeostasis. Activated microglia in turn may secrete cytokines and generate radical oxygen species, which impair glutamate uptake and reduce the expression of glutamate transporters. Finally, oligodendrocytes also contribute to glutamate homeostasis. This review aims at summarizing the current knowledge about the mechanisms leading to oligodendrocyte cell death and demyelination as a consequence of alterations in glutamate signalling, and their clinical relevance to disease. In addition, we show evidence that oligodendrocytes can also be killed by ATP acting at P2X receptors. A thorough understanding of how oligodendrocytes and myelin are damaged by excitotoxicity will generate knowledge that can lead to improved therapeutic strategies to protect white matter. PMID:17504270

  17. Malnutrition, liver damage, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, P

    1981-01-01

    There is no clear indication that malnutrition, per se, is a principal cause of cancer in man, but the prevalence of liver cancer in areas where malnutrition exists supports this hypothesis. Liver damage and liver cancer have been induced in laboratory rats by diets consisting of peanut meal and proteins deficient in some essential amino acids. However, liver damage, but not cancer, was produced when the diets contained no peanut meal but consisted of a mixture of amino acids deficient in methionine and cysteine, so that it is possible that aflatoxin, a contaminant of peanut meal, may have been responsible for the malignancies seen in the earlier experiments. Liver cancer developes in a high proportion of mice allowed to feed ad libitum or given a diet containing a high proportion of fat (groundnut oil) or protein (casein). Dietary restriction reduced the incidences of this cancer. This findings lends some support to current thinking that diet may be a factor in the development of cancer in man.

  18. FLOW PATTERNS AND DAMAGE OF DIKE OVERTOPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaiyuth CHINNARASRI; Tawatchai TINGSANCHALI; Sutat WEESAKUL; Somchai WONGWISES

    2003-01-01

    Damage of a dike may result in severe damage and suffering. To reduce downstream damage and loss of life, it is important to study the process of breaching of the damaged dike. It is not possible to understand the damage process without a clear understanding of the flow patterns encountered. In the present study, data obtained from nine experimental runs are analyzed. The flow patterns and progressive damage of dike overtopping are investigated. Two types of phenomena at the dike surface:erosion; and erosion and sliding, are observed during the overtopping event. Four stages of dike damage can be distinguished. The degradation rate of the dike crest is found to be dependent on the downstream slope of the dike. The degradation rate is higher when the downstream slope is steeper.

  19. Flood damage modelling: ambition and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerl, Tina; Kreibich, Heidi; Franco, Guillermo; Marechal, David; Schröter, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Flood damage modelling is of increasing importance for reliable risk assessment and management. Research efforts have improved the understanding of damaging processes and more sophisticated flood damage models have been developed. However, research seems to focus on a limited number of sectors and regions and validation of models still receives too little attention. We present a global inventory of flood damage models which is compiled from a review of scientific papers and research reports on flood damage models. The models are catalogued according to model specifications, geographical characteristics, sectors addressed, input variables used, model validation, transferability and model functions. The inventory is evaluated to position the current state of science and technology in flood damage modelling as well as to derive requirements for benchmarking damage models.

  20. Description of Concrete Durability Damage Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yueshun; WEI Jun; ZHAO Xiaolong

    2006-01-01

    Based on the damage mechanics, the concrete damage grade of relative stable environment in measurable spatial is constructed in this paper, and the concrete damage evolving model and corresponding failure rule is constructed based on the damage grade fore-defined. Therefore, the concrete health status and the residual life-span can be assessed according to the measured damage grade. It is propitious to drive the development of concrete durability assessment and life-span forecast. Its feasibility of concrcte damage process description and health assessment is validated with the example in this paper, in which the damage state is described with the ultrasound velocity attenuation, and the freeze-thaw process is regarded as the concrete durability degradation influencing factor to reflect the concrete durability degradation process.

  1. DNA damage may drive nucleosomal reorganization to facilitate damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGresley, Sarah E.; Wilt, Jamie; Antonik, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    One issue in genome maintenance is how DNA repair proteins find lesions at rates that seem to exceed diffusion-limited search rates. We propose a phenomenon where DNA damage induces nucleosomal rearrangements which move lesions to potential rendezvous points in the chromatin structure. These rendezvous points are the dyad and the linker DNA between histones, positions in the chromatin which are more likely to be accessible by repair proteins engaged in a random search. The feasibility of this mechanism is tested by considering the statistical mechanics of DNA containing a single lesion wrapped onto the nucleosome. We consider lesions which make the DNA either more flexible or more rigid by modeling the lesion as either a decrease or an increase in the bending energy. We include this energy in a partition function model of nucleosome breathing. Our results indicate that the steady state for a breathing nucleosome will most likely position the lesion at the dyad or in the linker, depending on the energy of the lesion. A role for DNA binding proteins and chromatin remodelers is suggested based on their ability to alter the mechanical properties of the DNA and DNA-histone binding, respectively. We speculate that these positions around the nucleosome potentially serve as rendezvous points where DNA lesions may be encountered by repair proteins which may be sterically hindered from searching the rest of the nucleosomal DNA. The strength of the repositioning is strongly dependent on the structural details of the DNA lesion and the wrapping and breathing of the nucleosome. A more sophisticated evaluation of this proposed mechanism will require detailed information about breathing dynamics, the structure of partially wrapped nucleosomes, and the structural properties of damaged DNA.

  2. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae) imbibe bovine blood in vitro by utilizing an artificial feeding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeri, S; Razmi, G R

    2011-08-25

    Hard ticks have great importance because of blood feeding and transmitting dangerous human and animal diseases. Each year, they cause a lot of economical damage to the livestock industry. Control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is a major priority in most parts of the world and many studies have been done in this field. We know that studying haemoparasites and assessing the effect of different compounds on ticks requires a lot of money, support and sometimes it is time consuming. Considering all of these problems, today, in some research laboratories throughout the world, artificial in vitro feeding of ticks has become common. Development and application of such methods provide a cheap and accessible background for investigating haemoparasitic diseases under controlled conditions. For the first time we report successful in vitro feeding of two important ixodid ticks of the genus Hyalomma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. From cuckoos to chickens: a caught-in-the-act case of host shift in feather mites (Arachnida: Acari: Psoroptoididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Mironov, Sergey V

    2014-12-01

    Feather mites are highly specialized permanent ectosymbionts recorded from all recently recognized bird orders. These mites, specialized to live in the plumage of their hosts, rarely cause any visible damage to their specific hosts. Recently described feather mite Allopsoroptoides galli Mironov (Acariformes: Psoroptoididae) was reported to cause severe mange in chickens in Brazil, leading to unprecedented economic losses. Until now, the natural host of A. galli remained unknown. In this paper, we report its true wild host, the Guira cuckoo Guira guira (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae). In addition, a previously unknown heteromorphic form of males is described from the mite population distributed on its natural host. We also speculate a possible scenario by which this mite species could have been horizontally transferred from the wild populations of the natural host to the secondary hosts.

  4. Deltamethrin as inductor agent of precocious ovarian degeneration in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Pereira, Natalia Rubio Claret; da Silva Reis, Camila; de Almeida, Cristiane Regina; Dos Santos Mendes, Douglas Rodrigo; de Araújo, Giselle Bezerra; Postali, Lays; Figueroa, Tober; Ferreira, Allan Roberto Fernandes; Santos, Juan Parente; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa

    2017-06-01

    The cosmopolitan species Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. is one of the most widely distributed ticks all over the world. These ectoparasites are vectors of several pathogens and cause significant direct damage to their hosts. The biological success of these ectoparasites has been attributed to their ovaries and salivary glands, organs that ensure their survival in various environmental conditions. The importance of the ovaries in ticks is that, after mating, the individuals are able to lay approximately three thousand eggs. The present study had the objective to demonstrate the effects of deltamethrin obtained from the product Butox P CE 25(®) (MSD Saúde Animal, São Paulo, Brazil) on the ovarian development of R. sanguineus s.l. females. The chemical was tested in the concentrations of 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm (respectively 80, 40, 20 and 10 times lower than the recommended by the manufacturer). Through the application of histological techniques and HE staining, the results showed that the deltamethrin was potentially able to modify the morphophysiology of the oocytes in all developmental stages, interfering in the vitellogenesis, causing intense vacuolation, cytoplasmic disorganization, and alterations in the chorion secretion. In addition, the chemical affected the germ vesicle of some oocytes, causing damages and hypertrophy, fragmenting the chromatin and forming bodies strongly stained by hematoxylin. Therefore, this study confirmed that the deltamethrin had an important action on the reproductive system of the R. sanguineus s.l. females, causing the precocious structural disorganization of the germ cells, consequently preventing the generation of new individuals.

  5. Drilling Damage in Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Miguel P. Durão

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of carbon fibre reinforced laminates have widened their use from aerospace to domestic appliances, and new possibilities for their usage emerge almost daily. In many of the possible applications, the laminates need to be drilled for assembly purposes. It is known that a drilling process that reduces the drill thrust force can decrease the risk of delamination. In this work, damage assessment methods based on data extracted from radiographic images are compared and correlated with mechanical test results—bearing test and delamination onset test—and analytical models. The results demonstrate the importance of an adequate selection of drilling tools and machining parameters to extend the life cycle of these laminates as a consequence of enhanced reliability.

  6. Nanofoams Response to Radiation Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Engang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nastasi, Michael [Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68508; Zepeda-Ruiz, Luis [PLS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551; Bringa, Eduardo M. [CONICET and Inst. Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, 5500 Argentina; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Caro, Jose A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) np-Au foams were successfully synthesized by de-alloying process; (2) np-Au foams remain porous structure after Ne ion irradiation to 1 dpa; (3) SFTs were observed in irradiated np-Au foams with highest and intermediate flux, while no SFTs were observed with lowest flux; (4) SFTs were observed in irradiated np-Au foams at RT, whereas no SFTs were observed at LNT irradiation; (5) The diffusivity of vacancies in Au at RT is high enough so that the vacancies have enough time to agglomerate and thus collapse. As a result, SFTs were formed; (6) The high flux created much more damage/time, vacancies don't have enough time to diffuse or recombine. As a result, SFTs were formed.

  7. Localized versus diffuse damage: A variational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Valeria

    2016-10-01

    A variational model based on incremental energy minimization is proposed to describe the evolution of damage in elastic materials. The model accounts for an elastic energy, depending on the damage variable, and for a damage energy, which has a local and a non-local term. The evolution of the displacement and damage fields, representing the problem unknowns, is determined by an incremental energy minimization problem, which is analytically solved in a special one-dimensional case, and numerically in a two-dimensional setting. By properly assigning the shapes of the elastic and damage energies, two different damage modes are reproduced: localized damage, consisting in a stress-softening process, in which damage forms in thin body portions and coalesces in fracture surfaces, and diffuse damage, which is characterized by a stress-hardening response, with damage spreading in large zones of the body. The former mechanism is typical of quasi-brittle materials, while the latter one is proper for ductile materials. Results of numerical simulations are presented, where the behaviors of both quasi-brittle and ductile materials are reproduced.

  8. Rotor damage detection by using piezoelectric impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y.; Tao, Y.; Mao, Y. F.

    2016-04-01

    Rotor is a core component of rotary machinery. Once the rotor has the damage, it may lead to a major accident. Thus the quantitative rotor damage detection method based on piezoelectric impedance is studied in this paper. With the governing equation of piezoelectric transducer (PZT) in a cylindrical coordinate, the displacement along the radius direction is derived. The charge of PZT is calculated by the electric displacement. Then, by the use of the obtained displacement and charge, an analytic piezoelectric impedance model of the rotor is built. Given the circular boundary condition of a rotor, annular elements are used as the analyzed objects and spectral element method is used to set up the damage detection model. The Electro-Mechanical (E/M) coupled impedance expression of an undamaged rotor is deduced with the application of a low-cost impedance test circuit. A Taylor expansion method is used to obtain the approximate E/M coupled impedance expression for the damaged rotor. After obtaining the difference between the undamaged and damaged rotor impedance, a rotor damage detection method is proposed. This method can directly calculate the change of bending stiffness of the structural elements, it follows that the rotor damage can be effectively detected. Finally, a preset damage configuration is used for the numerical simulation. The result shows that the quantitative damage detection algorithm based on spectral element method and piezoelectric impedance proposed in this paper can identify the location and the severity of the damaged rotor accurately.

  9. COMBINED DAMAGE FRACTURE CRITERIA FOR PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xinhua; Chen Chuanyao; Hu Yuantai; Wang Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical and electrical damages are introduced to study the fracture mechanics of piezoelectric ceramics in this paper. Two kinds of piezoelectric fracture criteria are established using the method of least squares combined with a damage analysis of the well-known piezoelectric fracture experiments of Park and Sun's. One is based on a linear combination of the mechanical and electrical damages and the other on their nonlinear combination. When the combined damage D is up to its critical value Dc, piezoelectric fracture occurs. It is found from the qualitative comparison of the numerical results with the experimental data that the nonlinearly combined damage fracture criterion can give a better prediction of piezoelectric fracture. And it is concluded from the nonlinearly combined damage fracture criterion that a negative electric field impedes fracture whereas the effect of a positive electric field on fracture depends on its magnitude.

  10. The proteomic profile of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R; Flagler, M J; Jones, L; Rufaut, N; Davis, M G

    2012-06-01

    Monilethrix is a congenital hair shaft disorder with associated fragility. Many of the changes seen in monilethrix hair on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are also seen in hair weathering and cosmetic damage to hair. We used monilethrix as a model to investigate the relationship between hair protein structure and hair strength and resistance to cosmetic insult. We applied proteomic techniques to identify novel peptide damage markers for chemical oxidative damage to hair. The findings suggest that specific sites in the protein structure of hair are targeted during oxidative damage from bleaching, a unique insight into how chemical damage compromises the structural integrity of the hair shaft at the molecular level. Applying proteomics to the study of congenital and acquired hair shaft disorders can deliver new insights into hair damage and novel strategies to strengthen hair. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Chromatin structure and DNA damage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinant Christoffel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The integrity of the genome is continuously challenged by both endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. These damaging agents can induce a wide variety of lesions in the DNA, such as double strand breaks, single strand breaks, oxidative lesions and pyrimidine dimers. The cell has evolved intricate DNA damage response mechanisms to counteract the genotoxic effects of these lesions. The two main features of the DNA damage response mechanisms are cell-cycle checkpoint activation and, at the heart of the response, DNA repair. For both damage signalling and repair, chromatin remodelling is most likely a prerequisite. Here, we discuss current knowledge on chromatin remodelling with respect to the cellular response to DNA damage, with emphasis on the response to lesions resolved by nucleotide excision repair. We will discuss the role of histone modifications as well as their displacement or exchange in nucleotide excision repair and make a comparison with their requirement in transcription and double strand break repair.

  12. Damage Tensor Analysis on Regional Seismic Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Jimao; Cheng Wanzheng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we researched the regional seismic status by using theories of the Damage Mechanics. The macroscopic damage status of the earth crust block, which is caused by earthquake fracture, is described with several concepts-the damage degree, the damage rate and the strain rate. In the earthquake process, the average strain rate of the studied block is equal to the sum of all seismic moment tensors of the earthquakes taking place in unit time and physical volume. To describe the anisotropy of microdamage of the crust block, we use the damage tensor that is expressed in the fissure density. By means of the transformation from the focal coordinate system to the observation system, we obtained the external normal vector of the focal fault plane expressed in its observation system and obtained the macrodamage degree of the researched block, which is calculated in dyadic. This provides a new analysis method for recognizing the underground damage status and the stress status.

  13. DNA Damage Signals and Space Radiation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Space radiation is comprised of high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei and protons. The initial DNA damage from HZE nuclei is qualitatively different from X-rays or gamma rays due to the clustering of damage sites which increases their complexity. Clustering of DNA damage occurs on several scales. First there is clustering of single strand breaks (SSB), double strand breaks (DSB), and base damage within a few to several hundred base pairs (bp). A second form of damage clustering occurs on the scale of a few kbp where several DSB?s may be induced by single HZE nuclei. These forms of damage clusters do not occur at low to moderate doses of X-rays or gamma rays thus presenting new challenges to DNA repair systems. We review current knowledge of differences that occur in DNA repair pathways for different types of radiation and possible relationships to mutations, chromosomal aberrations and cancer risks.

  14. Using DNA damage to monitor water environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    DNA damage of aquatic organisms living in polluted environments can be used as a biomarker of the genotoxicity of toxic agents to organisms. This technique has been playing an important role in ecotoxicological study and environmental risk assessment. In this article, main types of DNA damage caused by pollutants in water environments were reviewed; methods of detecting DNA damage were also documented for water environmental monitoring.

  15. The political economy of natural disaster damage

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Neumayer; Thomas Plümper; Fabian Barthel

    2014-01-01

    Economic damage from natural hazards can sometimes be prevented and always mitigated. However, private individuals tend to underinvest in such measures due to problems of collective action, information asymmetry and myopic behavior. Governments, which can in principle correct these market failures, themselves face incentives to underinvest in costly disaster prevention policies and damage mitigation regulations. Yet, disaster damage varies greatly across countries. We argue that rational acto...

  16. Damage modeling in Small Punch Test specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Cuesta, I.I.; Peñuelas, I.

    2016-01-01

    Ductile damage modeling within the Small Punch Test (SPT) is extensively investigated. The capabilities ofthe SPT to reliably estimate fracture and damage properties are thoroughly discussed and emphasis isplaced on the use of notched specimens. First, different notch profiles are analyzed...... and constraint conditionsquantified. The role of the notch shape is comprehensively examined from both triaxiality and notchfabrication perspectives. Afterwards, a methodology is presented to extract the micromechanical-basedductile damage parameters from the load-displacement curve of notched SPT samples...

  17. Damage Model of Brittle Coal-Rock and Damage Energy Index of Rock Burst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹光志; 张东明; 魏作安; 李东伟

    2003-01-01

    Based on the mechanical experiment of brittle coal-rock and the damage mechanical theory, a damage model was established. Coal-Rock damage mechanical characteristic was researched. Furthermore, interior energy transformation mechanism of rock was analyzed from the point of view of damage mechanics and damage energy release rate of brittle coal rock was derived. By analyzing the energy transformation of rock burst, a new conception, damage energy index of rock burst, was put forward. The condition of rock burst was also established.

  18. Laser-induced damage in optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ristau, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated to users and developers of high-powered systems, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials focuses on the research field of laser-induced damage and explores the significant and steady growth of applications for high-power lasers in the academic, industrial, and military arenas. Written by renowned experts in the field, this book concentrates on the major topics of laser-induced damage in optical materials and most specifically addresses research in laser damage that occurs in the bulk and on the surface or the coating of optical components. It considers key issues in the field of hi

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMALLY DAMAGED LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P C

    2007-07-11

    Thermal damage was applied to LX-17 at 190 C for several hours. The damaged LX-17 samples, after cooled down to room temperature, were characterized for their material properties (density, porosity, permeability, moduli), safety, and performance. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant (< 0.1% wt.). The damaged LX-17 samples expanded, resulting in a bulk density reduction of 4.3%. Subsequent detonation measurements (cylinder tests) were conducted on the thermally-damaged LX-17 samples. The results showed that the fractions of damaged LX-17 reacted were slightly lower than those of pristine LX-17. The thermally damaged LX-17 had a detonation velocity of 7.315 mm/{micro}s, lower than that (7.638 mm/{micro}s) of pristine LX-17. Detonation energy density for the damaged LX-17 was 5.08 kJ/cm{sup 3}, about 9.0% lower than the detonation energy density of 5.50 kJ/cm{sup 3} for the pristine LX-17. The break-out curves showed reaction zone lengths for pristine LX-17 and damaged LX-17 were similar but the damaged samples had ragged detonation fronts.

  20. An Empirical, Functional approach to Depth Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehman Will

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compute direct damages to structures and contents, the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE has traditionally relied on relationships that define damage for a given depth. These relationships are described using paired data relationships of depth and damage. Generally, the curves utilized are based on an Elicitation of Experts (EoE. This paper will present an alternative methodology which takes empirical data of damage and depth, stratified by building classifications, and use Non Linear Least Squares Estimation to fit a parameterized function to compute depth-damage estimates. The general function will be described, and the parameters will be discussed. Parameters include foundation height, ground elevation, percent damages below ground, number of stories, height of stories, maximum damage as a percent, and the beginning elevation for damage. The advantages of this approach include the ability to utilize empirical data, and the ability to change parameters based on building practices across the world. Additionally, the paper will illustrate a bootstrapping approach to the empirical data to assist in describing confidence limits around the parameterized functional depth damage relationship. A Figure (Figure 1 is provided to illustrate the output of the process.

  1. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Souza Higa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties located in five different states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Ceará, São Paulo, e Minas Gerais and the Distrito Federal (DF of Brazil. The resistance was found in 47.64% of the repetitions demonstrating an efficacy of less than 90% in various locations throughout the country. The larvae packet test was used to evaluate samples from ten properties in four states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. Spray products belonging to the main classes of acaricides, including combination formulations, were used in both types of test. New cases of resistance were found on properties within the states of Ceará, Espírito Santo and Mato Grosso, where such resistance was not previously reported.

  2. Morphological alterations in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to neem seed oil with known azadirachtin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Sá, I C G; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2016-04-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Damage to historic brick masonry structures. Masonry damage diagnostic system and damage atlas for evaluation of deterioration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, K. van; Binda, L.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Franke, L.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the research on brick masonry degradation supported by the D.G. XII is presented. The project is delivering the following: ► Damage Atlas of ancient brick masonry, a book with a description of the types of damage, and their possible causes, in ancient brick masonry structures; ► Masonry D

  4. Primera aproximacion a la Paleoentomología de los yacimientos de la Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, España: la fauna subfósil de Oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo, J.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Atapuerca Quaternarian sites are of worldwide interest due to the presence of human remains belonging to the last million years. The oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida found in several archaeological samples extracted from the Atapuerca Quaternarian deposits, have been analyzed during the 2003 excavation campaign to study the Palaeoentomology of the site. The oribatid mite fauna consists of 7 individuals, 6 of which were obtained from Gran Dolina site (about 300.000 years old and belong to families Cosmochthoniidae, Scheloribatidae, Oribatulidae and Hemileiidae. Most of the taxa were identified to species level. The results obtained were used as a basis to reconstruct the paleo-environments of the site in correspondence with the biological and ecological preferences of the taxa.

    Los yacimientos cuaternarios de la Sierra de Atapuerca ofrecen interés mundial por haber hospedado varias especies de homínidos que vivieron en el último millón de años. En este contexto, durante la campaña de excavaciones de 2003 se realizó un muestreo puntual en algunos de sus yacimientos para obtener los primeros datos de restos de artrópodos que pudieran conservarse en los mismos. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos de ácaros subfósiles pertenecientes al suborden de los oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida. Después de procesar los sedimentos, se obtuvieron un total de 7 individuos en el conjunto de los yacimientos muestreados, de los cuales 6 aparecieron en Gran Dolina en un nivel con datación en torno a los 300.000 años. Los ejemplares, identificados en su mayoría a nivel taxonómico de especie, pertenecen a las familias Cosmochthoniidae, Scheloribatidae, Oribatulidae y Hemileiidae. Dado el conocimiento que se dispone de la biología de los taxones encontrados, que pertenecen a géneros y especies presentes en la actualidad, se han realizado inferencias sobre los ambientes pretéritos en que los animales vivieron.

  5. Lung Oxidative Damage by Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Araneda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important functions of lungs is to maintain an adequate oxygenation in the organism. This organ can be affected by hypoxia facing both physiological and pathological situations. Exposure to this condition favors the increase of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, as from NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase/reductase, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, as well as establishing an inflammatory process. In lungs, hypoxia also modifies the levels of antioxidant substances causing pulmonary oxidative damage. Imbalance of redox state in lungs induced by hypoxia has been suggested as a participant in the changes observed in lung function in the hypoxic context, such as hypoxic vasoconstriction and pulmonary edema, in addition to vascular remodeling and chronic pulmonary hypertension. In this work, experimental evidence that shows the implied mechanisms in pulmonary redox state by hypoxia is reviewed. Herein, studies of cultures of different lung cells and complete isolated lung and tests conducted in vivo in the different forms of hypoxia, conducted in both animal models and humans, are described.

  6. Genetic Doping and Health Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Fallahi Fallahi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Use of genetic doping or gene transfer technology will be the newest and the lethal method of doping in fu­ture and have some unpleasant consequences for sports, athletes, and outcomes of competitions. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA defines genetic doping as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements, and/or cells that have the capac­ity to enhance athletic performance". The purpose of this review is to consider genetic doping, health damages and risks of new genes if delivered in athletes."nMethods: This review, which is carried out by reviewing relevant publications, is primarily based on the journals available in GOOGLE, ELSEVIER, PUBMED in fields of genetic technology, and health using a combination of keywords (e.g., ge­netic doping, genes, exercise, performance, athletes until July 2010."nConclusion: There are several genes related to sport performance and if they are used, they will have health risks and sever dam­ages such as cancer, autoimmunization, and heart attack.

  7. Lung Oxidative Damage by Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneda, O. F.; Tuesta, M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important functions of lungs is to maintain an adequate oxygenation in the organism. This organ can be affected by hypoxia facing both physiological and pathological situations. Exposure to this condition favors the increase of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, as from NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase/reductase, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, as well as establishing an inflammatory process. In lungs, hypoxia also modifies the levels of antioxidant substances causing pulmonary oxidative damage. Imbalance of redox state in lungs induced by hypoxia has been suggested as a participant in the changes observed in lung function in the hypoxic context, such as hypoxic vasoconstriction and pulmonary edema, in addition to vascular remodeling and chronic pulmonary hypertension. In this work, experimental evidence that shows the implied mechanisms in pulmonary redox state by hypoxia is reviewed. Herein, studies of cultures of different lung cells and complete isolated lung and tests conducted in vivo in the different forms of hypoxia, conducted in both animal models and humans, are described. PMID:22966417

  8. Compensation following bilateral vestibular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill J Yates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that nonlabyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained.

  9. Review article "Assessment of economic flood damage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Damage assessments of natural hazards supply crucial information to decision support and policy development in the fields of natural hazard management and adaptation planning to climate change. Specifically, the estimation of economic flood damage is gaining greater importance as flood risk management is becoming the dominant approach of flood control policies throughout Europe. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and identifies research directions of economic flood damage assessment. Despite the fact that considerable research effort has been spent and progress has been made on damage data collection, data analysis and model development in recent years, there still seems to be a mismatch between the relevance of damage assessments and the quality of the available models and datasets. Often, simple approaches are used, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damage mechanisms. The results of damage assessments depend on many assumptions, e.g. the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries, and there are many pitfalls in economic evaluation, e.g. the choice between replacement costs or depreciated values. Much larger efforts are required for empirical and synthetic data collection and for providing consistent, reliable data to scientists and practitioners. A major shortcoming of damage modelling is that model validation is scarcely performed. Uncertainty analyses and thorough scrutiny of model inputs and assumptions should be mandatory for each damage model development and application, respectively. In our view, flood risk assessments are often not well balanced. Much more attention is given to the hazard assessment part, whereas damage assessment is treated as some kind of appendix within the risk analysis. Advances in flood damage assessment could trigger subsequent methodological improvements in other natural hazard areas with comparable time-space properties.

  10. Review article "Assessment of economic flood damage"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Schwarze, R.; Thieken, A.

    2010-08-01

    Damage assessments of natural hazards supply crucial information to decision support and policy development in the fields of natural hazard management and adaptation planning to climate change. Specifically, the estimation of economic flood damage is gaining greater importance as flood risk management is becoming the dominant approach of flood control policies throughout Europe. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and identifies research directions of economic flood damage assessment. Despite the fact that considerable research effort has been spent and progress has been made on damage data collection, data analysis and model development in recent years, there still seems to be a mismatch between the relevance of damage assessments and the quality of the available models and datasets. Often, simple approaches are used, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damage mechanisms. The results of damage assessments depend on many assumptions, e.g. the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries, and there are many pitfalls in economic evaluation, e.g. the choice between replacement costs or depreciated values. Much larger efforts are required for empirical and synthetic data collection and for providing consistent, reliable data to scientists and practitioners. A major shortcoming of damage modelling is that model validation is scarcely performed. Uncertainty analyses and thorough scrutiny of model inputs and assumptions should be mandatory for each damage model development and application, respectively. In our view, flood risk assessments are often not well balanced. Much more attention is given to the hazard assessment part, whereas damage assessment is treated as some kind of appendix within the risk analysis. Advances in flood damage assessment could trigger subsequent methodological improvements in other natural hazard areas with comparable time-space properties.

  11. Femtosecond damage threshold of multilayer metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wael M. G.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Bonner, Carl E.

    2003-05-01

    With the availability of terawatt laser systems with subpicosecond pulses, laser damage to optical components has become the limiting factor for further increases in the output peak power. Evaluation of different material structures in accordance to their suitability for high-power laser systems is essential. Multi-shot damage experiments, using 110 fs laser pulses at 800 nm, on polycrystalline single layer gold films and multi-layer (gold-vanadium, and gold-titanium) films were conducted. The laser incident fluence was varied, in both cases, from 0.1 to 0.6 J/cm2. No evidence of surface damage was apparent in the gold sample up to a fluence of 0.3 J/cm2. The multilayer sample experienced the onset of surface damage at the lowest fluence value used of 0.1 J/cm2. Damage results are in contrast with the time resolved ultrafast thermoreflectivity measurements that revealed a reduction of the thermoreflectivity signal for the multilayer films. This decrease in the thermoreflectivity signal signifies a reduction in the surface electron temperature that should translate in a lower lattice temperature at the later stage. Hence, one should expect a higher damage threshold for the multilayer samples. Comparison of the experimental results with the predictions of the Two-Temperature Model (TTM) is presented. The damage threshold of the single layer gold film corresponds to the melting threshold predicted by the model. In contrast to the single layer gold film, the multi-layer sample damaged at almost one third the damage threshold predicted by the TTM model. Possible damage mechanisms leading to the early onset of damage for the multilayer films are discussed.

  12. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae infesting humans in Northwestern Córdoba province, Argentina Garrapatas infestando humanos en el noroeste de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Santiago

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ticks infesting humans were collected from September 2004 to August 2005 in Northwestern Córdoba in an area with a southern limit in the locality of Dean Funes (30°25´S 64°20´W and San José de las Salinas (30°00´S 64°37´W in the North. The collections consisted in ticks found attached on man obtained from three sources: 1 specimens fixed on two workers during two successive days per month of field work in the northern part of the area which belongs to Western Chaco district of the phytogeographical Chaco domain, 2 ticks attached to a man working in a farm close to Dean Funes in the Chaco Serrano district of the Chaco domain and, 3 ticks collected from a collaborator visiting daily a suburban property with dogsin the vicinities of Dean Funes. Most ticks collected were larvae, nymphs and adults of Amblyomma neumanni from the Chaco Serrano district where a nymph of Otobius megnini was also found on man. Adults of Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma tigrinum were detected feeding on humans in the Western Chaco district and in the property close to Dean Funes, respectively. Amblyomma neumanni was absent on man from December to April while most specimens of A. parvum and A. tigrinum were collected during summer. Their role as potential vector of ticktransmitted diseases in the area is unknown.Se recolectaron garrapatas (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae infestando humanos entre septiembre de 2004 y agosto de 2005 en un área del noroeste de Córdoba cuyo límite al sur es la localidad Deán Funes (30º25´S 64°20´W y el límite al norte es la localidad de San José de las Salinas (30°00´S 64°37´W. Las colecciones consistieron en garrapatas fijadas a humanos obtenidas de tres fuentes: 1 garrapatas fijadas sobre dos trabajadores durante dos días sucesivos por mes de trabajo de campo en la parte norte del área, la cual pertenece al distrito chaqueño occidental del dominio fitogeográfico del Chaco, 2 garrapatas fijadas a un trabajador en

  13. 60Co-γ Irradiation Affects the Enzymatic Antioxidant System of the Citrus Red Mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Radio-(60Co, which emits γ rays, has been used worldwide in pest control. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of effective-low-power 60Co-γ irradiation on the enzymatic antioxidant system of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri. One day old female adults were exposed to 0.4 kGy 60Co-γ irradiation and on the, 6th h, 1st day, 2nd day, and 5th day post treatment, the mites were euthanized for biochemical analysis. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD, phenoloxidase (PO and acetylocholinesterase (AchE were investigated. POD and CAT activities, as well as SOD were higher in the irradiated mites. We found that exposure to 60Co-γ radiation resulted in increased activities of SOD, CAT, POD and decreased AchE activity. When the recovery time lasted till the 5th day, the activities of POD and PO were significantly lower than the control, whereas the SOD, CAT and AchE activities returned to control levels. Cells possess protein repair pathways to rescue oxidized proteins and restore their functions, but if these repair processes fail, oxidized proteins may become cytotoxic. Our results confirm the hypothesis that low dosages of 60Co-γ irradiation increase the level of oxidative stress in P. citri adults in a short time, causing meanwhile damage and sterility. The results of this study also indicate that stress caused by exposure to irradiation could inhibit the cholinergic system in P. citri.

  14. Kernel and bulk density changes due to moisture content, mechanical damage, and insect damage

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Danping

    2015-01-01

    Corn (Zea Mays), is one of the major grain crops in the world and moisture content, mechanical damage and insect damage are three factors that affect its quality. The primary goal of this thesis was to investigate the effects of moisture content, mechanical damage and insect damage on kernel and bulk density of corn. The study was conducted using two corn hybrids, Pioneer 1352 and Pioneer 1221, that were grown on Purdue Agronomy Farm for Research and Education (ACRE), manually picked and shel...

  15. Research on fire hose couplings damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babut, C.; Ungureanu, N.; Ungureanu, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a part of a research on the damaging of fire hose coupling. These are important components of the hydraulic systems used by firefighters to deliver one or more suppression agents into the fire. The operating regime parameters, working environment and general functioning conditions during fire suppression operations may lead to malfunctions and/or damaging of the couplings.

  16. An Entropy-Based Damage Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amiri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a scientific basis for the description of the causes of damage within an irreversible thermodynamic framework and the effects of damage as observable variables that signify degradation of structural integrity. The approach relies on the fundamentals of irreversible thermodynamics and specifically the notion of entropy generation as a measure of degradation and damage. We first review the state-of-the-art advances in entropic treatment of damage followed by a discussion on generalization of the entropic concept to damage characterization that may offers a better definition of damage metric commonly used for structural integrity assessment. In general, this approach provides the opportunity to described reliability and risk of structures in terms of fundamental science concepts. Over the years, many studies have focused on materials damage assessment by determining physics-based cause and affect relationships, the goal of this paper is to put this work in perspective and encourage future work of materials damage based on the entropy concept.

  17. Probabilistic Damage Stability Calculations for Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide background material for the present probabilistic damage stability rules fro dry cargo ships.The formulas for the damage statistics are derived and shortcomings as well as possible improvements are discussed. The advantage of the definiton of fictitious...

  18. 7 CFR 30.17 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 30.17 Section 30.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1012 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 29.1012 Section 29.1012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1012 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3017 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 29.3017 Section 29.3017 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3514 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 29.3514 Section 29.3514 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3514 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungus or...

  2. Electron beam damage in oxides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes a variety of beam damage phenomena relating to oxides in (scanning) transmission electron microscopes, and underlines the shortcomings of currently popular mechanisms. These phenomena include mass loss, valence state reduction, phase decomposition, precipitation, gas bubble formation, phase transformation, amorphization and crystallization. Moreover, beam damage is also dependent on specimen thickness, specimen orientation, beam voltage, beam current density and beam size. This article incorporates all of these damage phenomena and experimental dependences into a general description, interpreted by a unified mechanism of damage by induced electric field. The induced electric field is produced by positive charges, which are generated from excitation and ionization. The distribution of the induced electric fields inside a specimen is beam-illumination- and specimen-shape- dependent, and associated with the experimental dependence of beam damage. Broadly speaking, the mechanism operates differently in two types of material. In type I, damage increases the resistivity of the irradiated materials, and is thus divergent, resulting in phase separation. In type II, damage reduces the resistivity of the irradiated materials, and is thus convergent, resulting in phase transformation. Damage by this mechanism is dependent on electron-beam current density. The two experimental thresholds are current density and irradiation time. The mechanism comes into effect when these thresholds are exceeded, below which the conventional mechanisms of knock-on and radiolysis still dominate.

  3. Environmental damage in the General Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan K. Lanegra Quispe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at environmental damage definition stipulated by Peruvian General Environmental Law as well as its implications for the environmental policy development. It also outlines complexities involved identifying environmental damage as much as designing and implementing public policies according to Peruvian legislation processing.

  4. A Brain-Damage Advantage for Lefties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, B.

    1985-01-01

    Reports that people who are predominantly left-handed apparently are able to withstand moderate brain damage with relatively few of the motor problems observed in right-handed victims of brain damage. Other brain-related differences between left- and right-handed individuals are also noted. (JN)

  5. The DNA damage response during mitosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Krajewska, Malgorzata; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Cells are equipped with a cell-intrinsic signaling network called the DNA damage response (DDR). This signaling network recognizes DNA lesions and initiates various downstream pathways to coordinate a cell cycle arrest with the repair of the damaged DNA. Alternatively, the DDR can mediate clearance

  6. 7 CFR 51.3159 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.3159 Section 51.3159 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3159 Serious damage. “Serious damage” means any specific...; (3) When there are more than two indentations; (4) When the aggregate area of indentations...

  7. Optimal claim behaviour for vehicle damage insurances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P. Dellaert (Nico); J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); L.P. van Rijsoort

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyse the optimal claim behaviour of a risk sensitive policy holder having a vehicle damage insurance. It is proved that the optimal decision is of the form: to claim for damages only if its amount exceeds a certain limit. Moreover, we also derive the optimal stopping

  8. The DNA damage response during mitosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Krajewska, Malgorzata; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Cells are equipped with a cell-intrinsic signaling network called the DNA damage response (DDR). This signaling network recognizes DNA lesions and initiates various downstream pathways to coordinate a cell cycle arrest with the repair of the damaged DNA. Alternatively, the DDR can mediate clearance

  9. 7 CFR 29.6011 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 29.6011 Section 29.6011 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6011 Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot or other...

  10. Assessment of skin damages in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, E.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Skin damages were assessed at 48 conventional and organic farms with mainly cubicle houses. Scores from 1 – 9 were given depending on type and size of the damaged skin at 9 locations of the cow: outer hock, inner hock, knee and body all left and right hand side and the neck. Only the highest score p

  11. Damage Detection In Laboratory Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the investigation reported in this paper is to clarify to what extent damages in reinforced concrete can be detected by estimating changes in the vibrational properties. A series of damages were introduced by applying static load cycles of increasing magnitude to two concrete beams...

  12. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  13. Updated Vertical Extent of Collision Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagg, R.; Bartzis, P.; Papanikolaou, P.

    2002-01-01

    The probabilistic distribution of the vertical extent of collision damage is an important and somewhat controversial component of the proposed IMO harmonized damage stability regulations for cargo and passenger ships. The only pre-existing vertical distribution, currently used in the international...

  14. DAMAGE FROM CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Ovsepyan S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a problem of identification and assessment of damage from corruption in public procurement. We have presented an analysis of the methodology for the calculation and assessment of accumulated financial and economic damage caused by corruption in public procurement. The conclusion about the need for further development of research on this issue has been made

  15. 7 CFR 51.1583 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1583 Damage. Damage means any injury or defect which... potatoes are badly infected. (h) Wireworm, grass root or similar injury, when any hole on potatoes ranging...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1586 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1586 Serious damage. Serious damage means any injury or... are made by the digger, or by a knife to remove injury when both ends are clipped, or when more than...

  17. Brain Damage in Deaf Vocational Rehabilitation Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Marc; Vernon, McCay

    1986-01-01

    Screening of 54 deaf vocational clients by the Bender-Gestalt and other tests indicated the likely presence of significantly more brain damage than among the hearing population with a particularly high correlation between low IQ and brain damage in the deaf population. (DB)

  18. Damage-mitigating control of mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael S.

    Damage-Mitigating Control is a field of research involving the integration of two distinct disciplines: Systems Sciences and Mechanics of Materials. This dissertation presents a feedback control architecture for mechanical systems to achieve a tradeoff between dynamic performance and structural durability of critical plant components. The proposed damage-mitigating control system has a two-tier structure: (i) A lower-level linear output feedback controller for plant output tracking and stability robustness over a specified operating range; and (ii) An upper-level nonlinear feedback controller which takes advantage of the real-time information generated by a physics-based model of material damage. The advantages and disadvantages of various methods available for the design of linear tracking controllers are discussed. A robust sampled-data Hsbinfty controller is designed for a reusable rocket engine, similar to the Space Shuttle Main Engine, based on a 2-input/2-output, 20-state model. The mu-synthesis technique is used to design a robust sampled-data controller for a commercial-scale fossil-fueled power plant based on a 4-input/4-output, 27-state model. A procedure for the design of damage-mitigating linear tracking controllers is also presented. The concept of fuzzy control is used to synthesize upper-level nonlinear feedback controllers based on real-time damage information. Damage-mitigating controllers are designed for the reusable rocket engine and the fossil-fueled power plant. A major advantage of using the fuzzy method for damage-mitigating controller design is that the controller can be synthesized without directly dealing with the inherent nonlinearities of the damage model. Simulation results for the reusable rocket engine and the fossil-fueled power plant suggest that the fuzzy method of damage mitigation is a practical way to design damage controllers for mechanical systems. The damage controller parameter optimization method is presented as an

  19. Ozone damage detection in cantaloupe plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Thomas, C. E.; Bowen, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Ozone causes up to 90 percent of air pollution injury to vegetation in the United States; excess ozone affects plant growth and development and can cause undetected decrease in yields. Laboratory and field reflectance measurements showed that ozone-damaged cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) leaves had lower water contents and higher reflectance than did nondamaged leaves. Cantaloupe plants which were lightly, severely, and very severely ozone-damaged were distinguishable from nondamaged plants by reflectance measurements in the 1.35- to 2.5 micron near-infrared water absorption waveband. Ozone-damaged leaf areas were detected photographically 16 h before the damage was visible. Sensors are available for use with aircraft and spacecraft that possibly could be used routinely to detect ozone-damaged crops.

  20. Ozone damage detection in cantaloupe plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausman, H.W.; Escobar, D.E.; Rodriguez, R.R.; Thomas, C.E.; Bowen, R.L.

    1978-04-01

    Ozone causes up to 90 percent of air pollution injury to vegetation in the United States; excess ozone affects plant growth and development and can cause undetected decrease in yields. Laboratory and field reflectance measurements showed that ozone-damaged cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) leaves had lower water contents and higher reflectance than did nondamaged leaves. Cantaloupe plants which were lightly, severely, and very severely ozone-damaged were distinguishable from nondamaged plants by reflectance measurements in the 1.35 to 2.5-..mu..m near-infrared water absorption waveband. Ozone-damaged leaf areas were detected photographically 16 h before the damage was visible. Sensors are available for use with aircraft and spacecraft that possibly could be used routinely to detect ozone-damaged crops. 21 references, 3 figures.

  1. Cavitation damage in blood clots under HIFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hope; Ahadi, Golnaz; Hoelscher, Thilo; Szeri, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to accelerate thrombolysis, the dissolution of blood clots, in vitro and in vivo, for treatment of ischemic stroke. Cavitation in sonothrombolysis is thought to play an important role, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. The damage to a blood clot associated with bubble collapses in a HIFU field is studied. The region of damage caused by a bubble collapse on the fibrin network of the blood clot exposed to HIFU is estimated, and compared with experimental assessment of the damage. The mechanical damage to the network caused by a bubble is probed using two independent approaches, a strain based method and an energy based method. Immunoflourescent fibrin staining is used to assess the region of damage experimentally.

  2. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  3. Hurricane damaged fixed platforms and wellhead structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuttleworth, E.P.; Frieze, P.A.

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study was to review data on damages to offshore platforms with a view to determining their suitability for further exploitation and analysis through a preliminary assessment of trends in the data when viewed from a risk standpoint. To realise this objective, a database on hurricane and other storm related damages was generated and past design practice, particularly concerning environmental load levels, was established. Information was gathered on extreme wave heights, damages, platform details, pushover analyses and structural frame load tests. The information was obtained through: a literature survey of journals, conference proceedings, design codes and guidelines; approaches to organisations in the offshore industry with significant experience of hurricanes, storm-damaged structures and pushover analyses; and interrogation of three major databases on offshore storm and other damages - PMB, MMS and WOAD. (author)

  4. Remote Intelligent Identification System of Structural Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Wenbi; ZHANG Xiang; Bostrm Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to build the damage identify system, which performs "system identification" to detect the positions and extents of structural damages.The identification of structural damage can be characterized as a nonlinear process which linear prediction models such as linear regression are not suitable.However, neural network techniques may provide an effective tool for system identification.The method of damage identification using the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is presented in this paper.Using this method, a simple reinforced concrete structure has been tested both in the absence and presence of noise.The results show that the RBFNN identification technology can be used with related success for the solution of dynamic damage identification problems, even in the presence of a noisy identify data.Furthermore, a remote identification system based on that is set up with Java Technologies.

  5. Percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper B

    2005-01-01

    Guidelines for experimental studies of percutaneous penetration prescribe optimal barrier integrity of the skin. The barrier integrity of the skin exposed in occupational or household situations is, however, not always ideal, and skin problems are among the most dominant reasons for absence from...... work. We have therefore evaluated an experimental model for percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin. The influence of a slight damage to the skin was evaluated using five pesticides covering a wide range of solubilities. We used an experimental model with static diffusion cells mounted...... with human skin. A slight damage to the barrier integrity was induced by pre-treatment of the skin with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) before pesticide exposure. The experimental model with 3 h pre-treatment with SLS (0.1% or 0.3%) assured a significant but controlled damage to the barrier integrity, a damage...

  6. Building damage in Dujiangyan during Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Minzheng; Jin Yingjie

    2008-01-01

    A field damage survey of 1,005 buildings damaged by the Wenchuan Earthquake in Dujiangyan City was carried out and the resulting data was analyzed using the statistical method. It is shown that buildings that were seismically designed achieved the desired seismic fortification target; they sustained less damage than the non-seismically designed buildings. Among the seismically designed buildings investigated, RC frame buildings performed the best in terms of seismic resistance. Masonry buildings with a ground story of RC frame structure were the second best, and masonry buildings performed the worst. Considering building height, multistory buildings sustained more severe damage than high-rise buildings and 2-and 3-story buildings. Compared to residential buildings, public buildings, such as schools and hospitals, suffered more severe damage.

  7. Local wavefield velocity imaging for damage evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chen Ciang; Gan, Chia Sheng; Mustapha, F.

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging or Acoustic Wavefield Imaging has been widely used to evaluate structural damages and internal features. Inspecting complete wavefield time history for damage identification is tedious and error-prone. A more effective way is by extracting damage-related information into a single image. A wavefield velocity imaging method that maps the local estimates of group or phase velocity is proposed. Actual velocity values rather than arbitrarily-scaled intensities are mapped, enabling damage sizing without the need of supervised training or inspecting wavefield propagation video. Performance of the proposed method was tested by inspecting a 100 mm by 100 mm area of a 2 mm thick stainless steel specimen. Local phase velocity maps of A0 mode showed a half-thickness hole of 2 mm diameter as significant change in local phase velocity from the nominal 2 m/ms. Full width at half maximum of relevant velocity profiles proved the accuracy and consistency of the damage sizing.

  8. Phenotypic and genetic consequences of protein damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Krisko

    Full Text Available Although the genome contains all the information necessary for maintenance and perpetuation of life, it is the proteome that repairs, duplicates and expresses the genome and actually performs most cellular functions. Here we reveal strong phenotypes of physiological oxidative proteome damage at the functional and genomic levels. Genome-wide mutations rates and biosynthetic capacity were monitored in real time, in single Escherichia coli cells with identical levels of reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage, but with different levels of irreversible oxidative proteome damage (carbonylation. Increased protein carbonylation correlates with a mutator phenotype, whereas reducing it below wild type level produces an anti-mutator phenotype identifying proteome damage as the leading cause of spontaneous mutations. Proteome oxidation elevates also UV-light induced mutagenesis and impairs cellular biosynthesis. In conclusion, protein damage reduces the efficacy and precision of vital cellular processes resulting in high mutation rates and functional degeneracy akin to cellular aging.

  9. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing...... trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods...... that occurred in the same area. In analogy to ’Paired catchment studies’ - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow – we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events. One...

  10. The DNA damage response in mammalian oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eCarroll

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is one of the most common insults that challenge all cells. To cope, an elaborate molecular and cellular response has evolved to sense, respond to and correct the damage. This allows the maintenance of DNA fidelity essential for normal cell viability and the prevention of genomic instability that can lead to tumour formation. In the context of oocytes, the impact of DNA damage is not one of tumour formation but of the maintenance of fertility. Mammalian oocytes are particularly vulnerable to DNA damage because physiologically they may lie dormant in the ovary for many years (>40 in humans until they receive the stimulus to grow and acquire the competence to become fertilized. The implication of this is that in some organisms, such as humans, oocytes face the danger of cumulative genetic damage for decades. Thus, the ability to detect and repair DNA damage is essential to maintain the supply of oocytes necessary for reproduction. Therefore, failure to confront DNA damage in oocytes could cause serious anomalies in the embryo that may be propagated in the form of mutations to the next generation allowing the appearance of hereditary disease. Despite the potential impact of DNA damage on reproductive capacity and genetic fidelity of embryos, the mechanisms available to the oocyte for monitoring and repairing such insults have remained largely unexplored until recently. Here, we review the different aspects of the response to DNA damage in mammalian oocytes. Specifically, we address the oocyte DNA damage response from embryonic life to adulthood and throughout oocyte development.

  11. Influence de l'âge de la feuille sur les paramètres biologiques et les populations de l'acarien vert du manioc Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari: tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Leaf Age on the Cassava Green Mite Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae Biological Parameters and Population Growth Rates. The study of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz leaf age effect on Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar biological parameters and population growth rates was studied in laboratory (T= 24-26 °C; RH= 70-90%. The local Dschang cultivar was used and the study concerned the 15, 40, 65, 90 and 115 days old leaves. The results obtained show that the egg incubation duration was the longest (6.4 days and that of the deutonymph stage the shortest one (1.9 days. The hatching rate was very high (98%. There was no significant difference (p= 0.05 between the developmental stages of M. tanajoa reared on the leaves of different ages. On the contrary fecundity whatever it is daily or total was high on young leaves and small on the old ones. The correlation coefficient between the leaf age and the intrinsic rate of increase (rm was -0.896 and that obtained between the net reproduction rate (Ro and the leaf age -0.966. These coefficients are negative and in absolute value near to one; which shows that the more the leaf is old, the more the M. tanajoa population growth is little. The M. tanajoa population growth is therefore fast on young leaves and slow on the old ones.

  12. (4E)-dehydrocitrals [(2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E )-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienals] from acarid mite Histiogaster sp. A096 (Acari: Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, H; Mori, N; Nishida, R; Kuwahara, Y

    2001-12-01

    A mixture of two monoterpenes was obtained as the opisthonotal gland secretion from unidentified Histiogaster sp. A096 (Acari: Acaridae), and their structures were elucidated to be (4E)-dehydrocitrals [(2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienals] by GC/MS, GC/FT-IR, UV and 1H-NMR spectra. Both isomers of (4E)-dehydrocitral prepared by syntheses in 4 steps from 3-methyl-2-butenal with 34.2% yields (based on the ylide) were separated by column chromatography into the (2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal. Mass spectra together with GC retention times of the purified natural (4E)-dehydrocitrals were identical with those of synthetic (2E,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal. The geometry at the 2-C position of both synthetic (4E)-dehydrocitrals was confirmed by NOESY analyses. This is the first identification of (4E)-dehydrocitrals from the animal kingdom.

  13. Sequencing for complete rDNA sequences (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex and phylogenetic analysis of Acari based on 18S and 28S rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping; Hu, Li; Xu, Yang; Wang, Zheng-Hang; Liu, Wen-Yan

    2012-11-01

    Due to the difficulty of DNA extraction for Demodex, few studies dealt with the identification and the phyletic evolution of Demodex at molecular level. In this study, we amplified, sequenced, and analyzed a complete (Demodex folliculorum) and an almost complete (D12 missing) (Demodex brevis) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence and also analyzed the primary sequences of divergent domains in small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of 51 species and in large-subunit rRNA of 43 species from four superfamilies in Acari (Cheyletoidea, Tetranychoidea, Analgoidea, and Ixodoidea). The results revealed that 18S rDNA sequence was relatively conserved in rDNA-coding regions and was not evolving as rapidly as 28S rDNA sequence. The evolutionary rates of transcribed spacer regions were much higher than those of the coding regions. The maximum parsimony trees of 18S and 28S rDNA appeared to be almost identical, consistent with their morphological classification. Based on the fact that the resolution capability of sequence length and the divergence of the 13 segments (D1-D6, D7a, D7b, and D8-D12) of 28S rDNA were stronger than that of the nine variable regions (V1-V9) of 18S rDNA, we were able to identify Demodex (Cheyletoidea) by the indels occurring in D2, D6, and D8.

  14. Differentiating between genuine damage and falsified damage to a garment following an alleged sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Graham; Haider, Imran

    2012-11-01

    An allegation of sexual assault was made in which a bra was torn off by the assailant causing extensive damage; however, it was observed that the hook and eye fastening was still intact. It was felt that it was not possible for a garment to receive such damage without damage to the hook and eye fastening, thus indicating that the complainant caused the damage to the bra herself to support a false allegation. Reconstruction experiments were conducted in which the conditions of the allegation were simulated utilizing a range of similar bras. Following the infliction of damage, the hook and eye fastenings were examined. In eight of nine experiments, the hook and eye fastening were intact, despite the application of enough force to cause separation of the bra cups in five of the experiments. This shows that bras may suffer extensive damage without damage to the hook and eye fastening.

  15. Damage pattern and damage progression on breakwater roundheads under multidirectional waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comola, F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Martinelli, L.;

    2014-01-01

    characteristics. The damage progression is observed dependent on significant wave height and peak wave period, but not on the directional spreading and the spectral width of the incident waves. Combining the results of both damage pattern and damage progression, a stability formula for the distribution of damage......An experimental model test study is carried out to investigate damage pattern and progression on a rock armoured breakwater roundhead subjected to multidirectional waves. Concerning damage pattern, the most critical sector is observed to shift leeward with increasing wave period. Taking angles...... relative to mean wave direction, the critical sector is observed in the sector 10°–55° for short waves and in the sector 100°–145° for long waves. A probabilistic approach is developed to predict for one typical roundhead geometry the damage distribution depending on the incomingwaves and structural...

  16. A continuum damage model for piezoelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming Fu; Xianqiao Wang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a constitutive model is proposed for piezoelectric material solids containing distributed cracks.The model is formulated in a framework of continuum damage mechanics using second rank tensors as internal variables. The Helmhotlz free energy of piezoelectric mate-rials with damage is then expressed as a polynomial including the transformed strains, the electric field vector and the ten-sorial damage variables by using the integrity bases restricted by the initial orthotropic symmetry of the material. By using the Talreja's tensor valued internal state damage variables as well as the Helmhotlz free energy of the piezoelectric mate-rial, the constitutive relations of piezoelectric materials with damage are derived. The model is applied to a special case of piezoelectric plate with transverse matrix cracks. With theKirchhoff hypothesis of plate, the free vibration equationsof the piezoelectric rectangular plate considering damage isestablished. By using Galerkin method, the equations are sol-ved. Numerical results show the effect of the damage on the free vibration of the piezoelectric plate under the close-circuit condition, and the present results are compared with those of the three-dimensional theory.

  17. Tangible and Intangible Flood damage evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frongia Sara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding and flash floods that cause significant economic and social damage have been widely studied in the last few decades. The European Commission Flood Directive 2007/60 Flood Risk Management Plans require the assessment of potential damage to give an appreciation of the magnitude of the consequences of a flood event and so help stakeholders to use a cost benefit approach to planning flood mitigation measures. This paper evaluates the direct tangible flood damage applying the JRC water depth-damage functions for the European territory to estimate the potential economic damage. Intangible damage is evaluated with the Life Safety Model (LSM to study the dynamic interactions among people, vehicles, buildings and the flood wave. LSM assesses potential flood damage and allows the development of a Flood Evacuation Plan in case of an emergency, underlining the evacuation routes adopted by people and vehicles. This enables emergency managers to avoid evacuation bottleneck problems and identify areas of potential high mortality. The impact of changes such as road network improvements, the location of safe havens and timing of flood warnings can be assessed in terms of potential loss of life. The developed methodology has been applied on the Sardinian Flood Risk Management Plan pilot basin, the Coghinas river lowland basin.

  18. Muscle damage induced by electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosaka, Kazunori; Aldayel, Abdulaziz; Jubeau, Marc; Chen, Trevor C

    2011-10-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) induces muscle damage that is characterised by histological alterations of muscle fibres and connective tissue, increases in circulating creatine kinase (CK) activity, decreases in muscle strength and development of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Muscle damage is induced not only by eccentric contractions with ES but also by isometric contractions evoked by ES. Muscle damage profile following 40 isometric contractions of the knee extensors is similar between pulsed current (75 Hz, 400 μs) and alternating current (2.5 kHz delivered at 75 Hz, 400 μs) ES for similar force output. When comparing maximal voluntary and ES-evoked (75 Hz, 200 μs) 50 isometric contractions of the elbow flexors, ES results in greater decreases in maximal voluntary contraction strength, increases in plasma CK activity and DOMS. It appears that the magnitude of muscle damage induced by ES-evoked isometric contractions is comparable to that induced by maximal voluntary eccentric contractions, although the volume of affected muscles in ES is not as large as that of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. It seems likely that the muscle damage in ES is associated with high mechanical stress on the activated muscle fibres due to the specificity of motor unit recruitment (i.e., non-selective, synchronous and spatially fixed manner). The magnitude of muscle damage induced by ES is significantly reduced when the second ES bout is performed 2-4 weeks later. It is possible to attenuate the magnitude of muscle damage by "pre-conditioning" muscles, so that muscle damage should not limit the use of ES in training and rehabilitation.

  19. Tissue damage thresholds during therapeutic electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Ludwig, Kip A.; Welle, Cristin G.; Takmakov, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Recent initiatives in bioelectronic modulation of the nervous system by the NIH (SPARC), DARPA (ElectRx, SUBNETS) and the GlaxoSmithKline Bioelectronic Medicines effort are ushering in a new era of therapeutic electrical stimulation. These novel therapies are prompting a re-evaluation of established electrical thresholds for stimulation-induced tissue damage. Approach. In this review, we explore what is known and unknown in published literature regarding tissue damage from electrical stimulation. Main results. For macroelectrodes, the potential for tissue damage is often assessed by comparing the intensity of stimulation, characterized by the charge density and charge per phase of a stimulus pulse, with a damage threshold identified through histological evidence from in vivo experiments as described by the Shannon equation. While the Shannon equation has proved useful in assessing the likely occurrence of tissue damage, the analysis is limited by the experimental parameters of the original studies. Tissue damage is influenced by factors not explicitly incorporated into the Shannon equation, including pulse frequency, duty cycle, current density, and electrode size. Microelectrodes in particular do not follow the charge per phase and charge density co-dependence reflected in the Shannon equation. The relevance of these factors to tissue damage is framed in the context of available reports from modeling and in vivo studies. Significance. It is apparent that emerging applications, especially with microelectrodes, will require clinical charge densities that exceed traditional damage thresholds. Experimental data show that stimulation at higher charge densities can be achieved without causing tissue damage, suggesting that safety parameters for microelectrodes might be distinct from those defined for macroelectrodes. However, these increased charge densities may need to be justified by bench, non-clinical or clinical testing to provide evidence of device

  20. Hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayduk, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Severe structural damage can occur when aircraft collide with hailstones. Consequently, methods of predicting hail damage to airplane surfaces are needed by the aircraft designer. This paper describes an analytical method of predicting the dent depth and final deformed shape for simple structural components impacted by hailstones. The solution was accomplished by adapting the DEPROSS computer program to the problem of normal impact of hail on flat metallic sheets and spherical metallic caps. Experimental data and analytical predictions are presented for hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces along with a description of the hail gun and hail simulation technique used in the experimental study.

  1. mapDamage2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hákon; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Schubert, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    of aDNA generally faces two major issues. Firstly, sequences consist of a mixture of endogenous and various exogenous backgrounds, mostly microbial. Secondly, high nucleotide misincorporation rates can be observed as a result of severe post-mortem DNA damage. Such misincorporation patterns...... are instrumental to authenticate ancient sequences versus modern contaminants. We recently developed the user-friendly mapDamage package that identifies such patterns from next-generation sequencing (NGS) sequence datasets. The absence of formal statistical modeling of the DNA damage process, however, precluded...

  2. Carbon Fiber Damage in Accelerator Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Guerrero, A; Koopman, J; Métral, E

    2009-01-01

    Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in Beam Wire Scanners. Because of their thermomechanical properties they are very resistant to particle beams. Their strength deteriorates with time due to radiation damage and low-cycle thermal fatigue. In case of high intensity beams this process can accelerate and in extreme cases the fiber is damaged during a single scan. In this work a model describing the fiber temperature, thermionic emission and sublimation is discussed. Results are compared with fiber damage test performed on SPS beam in November 2008. In conclusions the limits of Wire Scanner operation on high intensity beams are drawn.

  3. A Plant Damage State Early Warning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chih Yao; Chou, Hwai Pwu [National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2014-08-15

    In case of a severe accident, operators need to follow the emergency operating procedures (EOPS) to limit the damage. In order to assist operators to face a lot of Plant Damage States (PDS) suddenly, we try to predict and identify the Plant Damage State (PDS) for early warning and decision making. In this study, Containment Event Tree (CET) is used in this event-oriented approach to help severe accident management. The Taipower Lungmen nuclear power station (LNPS), an advanced boiling water reactor, is chosen for case study. The LNPS full scope engineering simulator is used to generate the testing data for method development.

  4. Ductile Damage Evolution and Strain Path Dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasan, C. C.; Hoefnagels, J. M. P.; Peerlings, R. H. J.; Geers, M. G. D.; ten Horn, C. H. L. J.; Vegter, H.

    2007-04-01

    Forming limit diagrams are commonly used in sheet metal industry to define the safe forming regions. These diagrams are built to define the necking strains of sheet metals. However, with the rise in the popularity of advance high strength steels, ductile fracture through damage evolution has also emerged as an important parameter in the determination of limit strains. In this work, damage evolution in two different steels used in the automotive industry is examined to observe the relationship between damage evolution and the strain path that is followed during the forming operation.

  5. CFD Script for Rapid TPS Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This grid generation script creates unstructured CFD grids for rapid thermal protection system (TPS) damage aeroheating assessments. The existing manual solution is cumbersome, open to errors, and slow. The invention takes a large-scale geometry grid and its large-scale CFD solution, and creates a unstructured patch grid that models the TPS damage. The flow field boundary condition for the patch grid is then interpolated from the large-scale CFD solution. It speeds up the generation of CFD grids and solutions in the modeling of TPS damages and their aeroheating assessment. This process was successfully utilized during STS-134.

  6. Simulation Analysis of Indoor Gas Explosion Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱新明; 陈林顺; 冯长根

    2003-01-01

    The influence factors and process of indoor gas explosion are studied with AutoReaGas explosion simulator. The result shows that venting pressure has great influence on the indoor gas explosion damage. The higher the venting pressure is, the more serious the hazard consequence will be. The ignition location has also evident effect on the gas explosion damage. The explosion static overpressure would not cause major injury to person and serious damage to structure in the case of low venting pressure (lower than 2 kPa). The high temperature combustion after the explosion is the major factor to person injury in indoor gas explosion accidents.

  7. Damage Assessment of a Steel Lattice Mast under Natural Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of detecting and locating damages in a 20 m high steel lattice mast subjected to natural excitation has been investigated. For the damaged mast seven different damage states were considered. In these damage states a damage was assumed in one of the lower diagonals...

  8. Experimental study of oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, S; Deng, Xiaohong; Tuo, J

    1998-01-01

    compounds have been studied in animal experiments mainly in rats and mice, and generally with measurement of 8-oxodG with HPLC-EC. A large number of well-known carcinogens induce 8-oxodG formation in liver and/or kidneys. Moreover several animal studies have shown a close relationship between induction...... of the use of 2-nitropropane as a model for oxidative DNA damage relate particularly to formation of 8-aminoguanine derivatives that may interfere with HPLC-EC assays and have unknown consequences. Other model compounds for induction of oxidative DNA damage, such as ferric nitriloacetate, iron dextran......, potassium bromate and paraquat, are less potent and/or more organ specific. Inflammation and activation of an inflammatory response by phorbol esters or E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce oxidative DNA damage in many target cells and enhance benzene-induced DNA damage in mouse bone marrow. Experimental...

  9. Brittle dynamic damage due to earthquake rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Harsha; Thomas, Marion

    2016-04-01

    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis, 1990, and generalized by Deshpande and Evans 2008 has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an experimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evolution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. Incorporating this feature produces additional strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive response. The model is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over wide range of strain rates. We then implement this constitutive response to understand the role of dynamic brittle off-fault damage on earthquake ruptures. We show that off-fault damage plays an important role in asymmetry of rupture propagation and is a source of high-frequency ground motion in the near source region.

  10. Sandy Damage Estimates by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A FEMA housing inspection for renters is used to assess personal property loss and for owners to assess damage to their home as well as personal property. This...

  11. Thermodynamical Framework for Ductile Damage and Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    César de Sá, José M. A.; Andrade, Filipe X. C.; Andrade Pires, Francisco M.

    2010-05-01

    Many models employed for the prediction of plastic deformation rely exclusively on elastoplastic theories, disregarding significant effects of internal degradation [1]. Constitutive models based on the Continuum Damage Mechanics theory provide more realistic predictions since damage is taken into account as an internal variable. In the present contribution, Lemaire's model for ductile damage [2] is questioned under the assumption of the principle of maximum inelastic dissipation [3]. The model is enhanced with a nonlocal formulation where the damage variable is spatially averaged by means of an integral operator [4]. Thermodynamical admissibility of the nonlocal model is checked by applying the global version of the Clausius-Duhem inequality [5]. Results from numerical analysis show that the constitutive model is insensitive to spatial discretization.

  12. 7 CFR 51.3210 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States...) Mechanical when any cut extends deeper than two fleshy scales, or when cuts seriously damage the appearance...

  13. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  14. Laser Damage Precursors in Fused Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P; Suratwala, T; Bude, J; Laurence, T A; Shen, N; Steele, W A; Feit, M; Menapace, J; Wong, L

    2009-11-11

    There is a longstanding, and largely unexplained, correlation between the laser damage susceptibility of optical components and both the surface quality of the optics, and the presence of near surface fractures in an optic. In the present work, a combination of acid leaching, acid etching, and confocal time resolved photoluminescence (CTP) microscopy has been used to study laser damage initiation at indentation sites. The combination of localized polishing and variations in indentation loads allows one to isolate and characterize the laser damage susceptibility of densified, plastically flowed and fractured fused silica. The present results suggest that: (1) laser damage initiation and growth are strongly correlated with fracture surfaces, while densified and plastically flowed material is relatively benign, and (2) fracture events result in the formation of an electronically defective rich surface layer which promotes energy transfer from the optical beam to the glass matrix.

  15. Equivalent damage of loads on pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prozzi, JA

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available This report describes a new methodology for the determination of Equivalent Damage Factors (EDFs) of vehicles with multiple axle and wheel configurations on pavements. The basic premise of this new procedure is that "equivalent pavement response...

  16. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT DAMAGE TO APPLE FRUITS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Auchi ... An impact damage assessment of fresh apple fruits was carried out to ascertain the effects of ... mestic and inter-state transportation Berardinelli et.

  17. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  18. Damage modelling in plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, E. [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5801 (CNRS-SPS-CEA-UB1), Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux, F-33600 Pessac (France)], E-mail: martin@lcts.u-bordeaux1.fr; Camus, G. [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5801 (CNRS-SPS-CEA-UB1), Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux, F-33600 Pessac (France); Schlosser, J.; Chevet, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, St. Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2009-04-30

    The plasma facing components of controlled fusion devices are submitted to high heat fluxes in operating conditions (from 10 to 20 MW/m{sup 2}). These components are made of a carbon/carbon composite tile bonded to a copper alloy heat sink. Due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the composite and the copper alloy, significant stresses may develop during fabrication and under heat load inducing damage in the composite material as well as at the copper/composite interface. The present study describes a modelling approach aimed at predicting damage development in plasma facing components. For this purpose, damage laws related to the non-linear behaviour of both the composite material and the copper/composite joint have been identified. These constitutive laws were then introduced in a numerical model representative of a plasma facing component. Results show the development of damage within the assembly submitted to a heat load.

  19. 7 CFR 51.2739 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... detracts from the edible quality of the peanut. The following specific defects shall be considered as damage: (a) Rancidity or decay; (b) Mold; (c) Insects, worm cuts, web or frass; (d) Freezing...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2657 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the edible or marketing quality of the fruit. The following specific defects shall be considered as serious damage: (a) Decay; (b) Insect larvae or holes caused by them; (c) Skin breaks which are not...

  1. Equivalent damage validation by variable cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Carlo; Ferlito, Rachele; Zucconi, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of this work is to perform a clustering analysis on the damage relieved in the old center of L'Aquila after the earthquake occurred on April 6, 2009 and to validate an Indicator of Equivalent Damage ED that summarizes the information reported on the AeDES card regarding the level of damage and their extension on the surface of the buildings. In particular we used a sample of 13442 masonry buildings located in an area characterized by a Macroseismic Intensity equal to 8 [1]. The aim is to ensure the coherence between the clusters and its hierarchy identified in the data of damage detected and in the data of the ED elaborated.

  2. Modeling Propagation of Gas Path Damage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes how damage propagation can be tracked and modeled for a range of fault modes in some modules of commercial high bypass aircraft engines. To that...

  3. Repairing Damaged Power-Cable Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    Simple method saves time, money, and material. In new method cable remains in place while new insulation is applied to damaged portion. Method results in new terminations with safety factor equal to that of any portion of cable.

  4. Rupture by Damage Accumulation in Rocks

    CERN Document Server

    Amitrano, David

    2006-01-01

    The deformation of rocks is associated with microcracks nucleation and propagation, i.e. damage. The accumulation of damage and its spatial localization lead to the creation of a macroscale discontinuity, so-called "fault" in geological terms, and to the failure of the material, i.e. a dramatic decrease of the mechanical properties as strength and modulus. The damage process can be studied both statically by direct observation of thin sections and dynamically by recording acoustic waves emitted by crack propagation (acoustic emission). Here we first review such observations concerning geological objects over scales ranging from the laboratory sample scale (dm) to seismically active faults (km), including cliffs and rock masses (Dm, hm). These observations reveal complex patterns in both space (fractal properties of damage structures as roughness and gouge), time (clustering, particular trends when the failure approaches) and energy domains (power-law distributions of energy release bursts). We use a numerical...

  5. Damage Detection in an Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Palle

    1995-01-01

    The structural integrity of a multi-pile offshore platform is investigated by using a vibration based damage detection scheme. Changes in structural integrity are assumed to be reflected in the modal parameters estimated from only output data using an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model....... By use of the estimates of the modal parameters and their corresponding variances a probability based damage indicator is formulated. This approach indicates, that since the construction of the platform, minor structural changes have taken place....

  6. Damage Detection in an Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.

    The structural integrity of a multi-pile offshore platform is investigated by using a vibration based damage detection scheme. Changes in structural integrity are assumed to be reflected in the modal parameters estimated from only output data using an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model....... By use of the estimates of the modal parameters and their corresponding variances a probability based damage indicator is formulated. This approach indicates, that since the construction of the platform, minor structural changes have taken place....

  7. The DNA damage response during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Krajewska, Małgorzata; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2013-10-01

    Cells are equipped with a cell-intrinsic signaling network called the DNA damage response (DDR). This signaling network recognizes DNA lesions and initiates various downstream pathways to coordinate a cell cycle arrest with the repair of the damaged DNA. Alternatively, the DDR can mediate clearance of affected cells that are beyond repair through apoptosis or senescence. The DDR can be activated in response to DNA damage throughout the cell cycle, although the extent of DDR signaling is different in each cell cycle phase. Especially in response to DNA double strand breaks, only a very marginal response was observed during mitosis. Early on it was recognized that cells which are irradiated during mitosis continued division without repairing broken chromosomes. Although these initial observations indicated diminished DNA repair and lack of an acute DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest, insight into the mechanistic re-wiring of DDR signaling during mitosis was only recently provided. Different mechanisms appear to be at play to inactivate specific signaling axes of the DDR network in mitosis. Importantly, mitotic cells not simply inactivate the entire DDR, but appear to mark their DNA damage for repair after mitotic exit. Since the treatment of cancer frequently involves agents that induce DNA damage as well as agents that block mitotic progression, it is clinically relevant to obtain a better understanding of how cancer cells deal with DNA damage during interphase versus mitosis. In this review, the molecular details concerning DDR signaling during mitosis as well as the consequences of encountering DNA damage during mitosis for cellular fate are discussed.

  8. The DNA damage response during mitosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Krajewska, Małgorzata; Vugt, Marcel A.T.M. van, E-mail: m.vugt@umcg.nl

    2013-10-15

    Cells are equipped with a cell-intrinsic signaling network called the DNA damage response (DDR). This signaling network recognizes DNA lesions and initiates various downstream pathways to coordinate a cell cycle arrest with the repair of the damaged DNA. Alternatively, the DDR can mediate clearance of affected cells that are beyond repair through apoptosis or senescence. The DDR can be activated in response to DNA damage throughout the cell cycle, although the extent of DDR signaling is different in each cell cycle phase. Especially in response to DNA double strand breaks, only a very marginal response was observed during mitosis. Early on it was recognized that cells which are irradiated during mitosis continued division without repairing broken chromosomes. Although these initial observations indicated diminished DNA repair and lack of an acute DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest, insight into the mechanistic re-wiring of DDR signaling during mitosis was only recently provided. Different mechanisms appear to be at play to inactivate specific signaling axes of the DDR network in mitosis. Importantly, mitotic cells not simply inactivate the entire DDR, but appear to mark their DNA damage for repair after mitotic exit. Since the treatment of cancer frequently involves agents that induce DNA damage as well as agents that block mitotic progression, it is clinically relevant to obtain a better understanding of how cancer cells deal with DNA damage during interphase versus mitosis. In this review, the molecular details concerning DDR signaling during mitosis as well as the consequences of encountering DNA damage during mitosis for cellular fate are discussed.

  9. Creep of frozen soil by damage mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗天德; 魏雪霞; 张长庆

    1995-01-01

    A microstructure damage theory for creep of frozen soil under the frame of damage mechan-ics is presented.Based on the test study and microscope observation,several internal variables are chosen tocharacterize the microstructure changes and the evolution equations of these internal variables are developed.The theory can describe both the "hardening" and "softening" behavior in the creep process.A detailed analysis hasbeen made for the uniaxial compressure and compared with the test data.

  10. Confronting uncertainty in flood damage predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Vogel, Kristin; Merz, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Reliable flood damage models are a prerequisite for the practical usefulness of the model results. Oftentimes, traditional uni-variate damage models as for instance depth-damage curves fail to reproduce the variability of observed flood damage. Innovative multi-variate probabilistic modelling approaches are promising to capture and quantify the uncertainty involved and thus to improve the basis for decision making. In this study we compare the predictive capability of two probabilistic modelling approaches, namely Bagging Decision Trees and Bayesian Networks. For model evaluation we use empirical damage data which are available from computer aided telephone interviews that were respectively compiled after the floods in 2002, 2005 and 2006, in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. We carry out a split sample test by sub-setting the damage records. One sub-set is used to derive the models and the remaining records are used to evaluate the predictive performance of the model. Further we stratify the sample according to catchments which allows studying model performance in a spatial transfer context. Flood damage estimation is carried out on the scale of the individual buildings in terms of relative damage. The predictive performance of the models is assessed in terms of systematic deviations (mean bias), precision (mean absolute error) as well as in terms of reliability which is represented by the proportion of the number of observations that fall within the 95-quantile and 5-quantile predictive interval. The reliability of the probabilistic predictions within validation runs decreases only slightly and achieves a very good coverage of observations within the predictive interval. Probabilistic models provide quantitative information about prediction uncertainty which is crucial to assess the reliability of model predictions and improves the usefulness of model results.

  11. Civil liability for ecologic damage and repairing

    OpenAIRE

    Basílio, Patrícia Droeber; Faculdades de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses how civil liability takes position regarding situations connected to damages caused to the environment, defined ways in our legislation reprimanding damages caused and existent ways of prevention and repairing. The text contemplates how law disciplines such issue, looking for efficient and effective solutions and also checking evolution and modification from law which are relevant to the environment, the environmental law, whereas we observe it is a serious issue that ha...

  12. Oxygen Reperfusion Damage in an Insect

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The deleterious effects of anoxia followed by reperfusion with oxygen in higher animals including mammals are well known. A convenient and genetically well characterized small-animal model that exhibits reproducible, quantifiable oxygen reperfusion damage is currently lacking. Here we describe the dynamics of whole-organism metabolic recovery from anoxia in an insect, Drosophila melanogaster, and report that damage caused by oxygen reperfusion can be quantified in a novel but straightforward ...

  13. Apoptosis and DNA damage in human spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R John Aitken; Adam J Koppers

    2011-01-01

    DNA damage is frequently encountered in spermatozoa of subfertile males and is correlated with a range of adverse clinical outcomes including impaired fertilization, disrupted preimplantation embryonic development, increased rates of miscarriage and an enhanced risk of disease in the progeny. The etiology of DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa is closely correlated with the appearance of oxidative base adducts and evidence of impaired spermiogenesis. We hypothesize that oxidative stress impedes spermiogenesis,resulting in the generation of spermatozoa with poorly remodelled chromatin. These defective cells have a tendency to default to an apoptotic pathway associated with motility loss, caspase activation, phosphatidylserine exteriorization and the activation of free radical generation by the mitochondria. The latter induces lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage, which then leads to DNA fragmentation and cell death. The physical architecture of spermatozoa prevents any nucleases activated as a result of this apoptotic process from gaining access to the nuclear DNA and inducing its fragmentation. It is for this reason that a majority of the DNA damage encountered in human spermatozoa seems to be oxidative. Given the important role that oxidative stress seems to have in the etiology of DNA damage, there should be an important role for antioxidants in the treatment of this condition. If oxidative DNA damage in spermatozoa is providing a sensitive readout of systemic oxidative stress, the implications of these findings could stretch beyond our immediate goal of trying to minimize DNA damage in spermatozoa as a prelude to assisted conception therapy.

  14. Electron beam damage in high temperature polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. (Dayton Univ., OH (USA). Research Inst.); Adams, W.W. (Air Force Materials Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Electron microscopic studies of polymers are limited due to beam damage. Two concerns are the damage mechanism in a particular material, and the maximum dose for a material before damage effects are observed. From the knowledge of the dose required for damage to the polymer structure, optimum parameters for electron microscopy imaging can be determined. In the present study, electron beam damage of polymers has been quantified by monitoring changes in the diffraction intensity as a function of electron dose. The beam damage characteristics of the following polymers were studied: poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBZT); poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO); poly(benzoxazole) (ABPBO); poly(benzimidazole) (ABPBI); poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA); and poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK). Previously published literature results on polyethylene (PE), polyoxymethylene (POM), nylon-6, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), PBZT, PPTA, PPX, iPS, poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), and poly(phenylene sulphide) (PPS) were reviewed. This study demonstrates the strong dependence of the electron beam resistivity of a polymer on its thermal stability/melt temperature. (author).

  15. Chromosome tips damaged in anaphase inhibit cytokinesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman M Baker

    Full Text Available Genome maintenance is ensured by a variety of biochemical sensors and pathways that repair accumulated damage. During mitosis, the mechanisms that sense and resolve DNA damage remain elusive. Studies have demonstrated that damage accumulated on lagging chromosomes can activate the spindle assembly checkpoint. However, there is little known regarding damage to DNA after anaphase onset. In this study, we demonstrate that laser-induced damage to chromosome tips (presumptive telomeres in anaphase of Potorous tridactylis cells (PtK2 inhibits cytokinesis. In contrast, equivalent irradiation of non-telomeric chromosome regions or control irradiations in either the adjacent cytoplasm or adjacent to chromosome tips near the spindle midzone during anaphase caused no change in the eventual completion of cytokinesis. Damage to only one chromosome tip caused either complete absence of furrow formation, a prolonged delay in furrow formation, or furrow regression. When multiple chromosome tips were irradiated in the same cell, the cytokinesis defects increased, suggesting a potential dose-dependent mechanism. These results suggest a mechanism in which dysfunctional telomeres inhibit mitotic exit.

  16. R-damage cassette (incorporated brass sleeve)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-07

    The R-Damage series of ten experiments is part of a long-term collaboration with RFNC/VNIIEF in pulsed power technology. These experiments use a cylindrical configuration to study spallation damage, which allows for a natural recollection of the damaged material under proper driving conditions and post-shot collection of the damaged target material for subsequent metallographic analysis. Dynamic in-situ experimental velocimetry diagnostics are also employed. LANL is responsible for the design of the experimental load and velocimetry system. VNIIEF is responsible for the design and construction of the driving explosive magnetic generator. Eight of the experiments in the planned series have been completed. Thus far, data has been collected about failure initiation of a well-characterized material (aluminum) in a cylindrical geometry, the behavior of material recollected after damage from pressures in the damage initiation regime, and the behavior of material recollected after complete failure. The final two experiments will continue the study of material recollected after complete failure. The load assembly shown is similar to that employed in the previous two experiments, with some modiflications for easier assembly.

  17. Effect of propolis consumption on hepatotoxicity and brain damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... coefficient was followed at 480 nm in a Spectrophotometer. Plasma concentrations of total ... CPF caused functional and structural damage of liver tissue. This damage .... al., (2007). When the liver cell membrane is damaged,.

  18. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; establish an administrative process for making... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; and establish the adjudication process...

  19. Basal ganglia plus insula damage yields stronger disruption of smoking addiction than basal ganglia damage alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaznick, Natassia; Tranel, Daniel; McNutt, Ashton; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of the basal ganglia (BG) and insula (INS) for nicotine addiction and smoking behavior. We used a lesion study examining the effects of BG and INS damage on changes in smoking behavior and nicotine dependence over time in a prospective manner. We studied whether combined BG and INS damage yields more substantial disruption of smoking and nicotine dependence than damage to the BG alone and compared with damage to other brain regions outside the BG and INS (brain-damaged comparison [BDC] group). We obtained neuroanatomical and behavioral data for 63 neurological patients with stroke at 1 month after onset and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. All patients were smokers at lesion onset. The BG and BG + INS groups had significantly higher and more sustained rates of smoking cessation than patients with damage elsewhere. By 12 months after onset, only 14.3% of the patients in the BDC group were classified as nonsmokers. In the BG group, 37% were not smoking by the 12-month follow-up, and in the BG + INS group, smoking cessation was even more pronounced, as 75% of this group was not smoking at the 12-month epoch. The findings show that damage to the BG alone can cause disruption of smoking addiction, and when BG damage is combined with INS damage, the disruption increases. The latter finding is consistent with the proposal that the INS has a key role in smoking addiction.

  20. A new anisotropic damage model for brittle solids based on the effective damage concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, S. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The presence of microdefects within the structure of a brittle solid plays a dominant role on the manner in which the material responds to externally applied stresses. When a loading state involves a confining pressure of a sufficient magnitude such that nucleation of new microdefects and the propagation of existing ones are inhibited, brittle solids display a ductile response. However, when the same materials are stressed in a low pressure regime, responses become very brittle with little or no ductility. During the process of damage, material bonds are severed, leading to the alteration of elastic properties. It is, therefore, plausible to employ the changes in compliance or stiffness as measures of damage as they relate directly to the physics of the problem. The paper starts with a review of the fundamental concepts based on the laws of thermodynamics, considers anisotropic damage formulation, including both elastic and inelastic damage processes, and proposes new damage response tensors to allow for the rotation of principal stress axis. Damage is recorded in the material compliance tensor involving an effective damage parameter whose increment is obtained from the consistency condition of a damage potential known as {open_quotes}damage surface.{close_quotes} Finally, the paper illustrates the model for a cementitious material in different loading paths.

  1. VIBRATION ANALYSIS ON A COMPOSITE BEAM TO IDENTIFY DAMAGE AND DAMAGE SEVERITY USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V.V.Ramanamurthy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a damage detection method in a composite cantilever beam with an edge crack has been studied using finite element method. A number of analytical, numerical andexperimental techniques are available for the study of damage identification in beams. Studies were carried out for three different types of analysis on a composite cantilever beam with an edge crack as damage. The material used in this analysis is glass-epoxy composite material. The finite element formulation was carried out in the analysis section of the package, known as ANSYS. The types of vibration analysis studied on a composite beam are Modal, Harmonic andTransient analysis. The crack is modeled such that the cantilever beam is replaced with two intact beams with the crack as additional boundary condition. Damage algorithms are used to identify and locate the damage. Damage index method is also used to find the severity of the damage. The results obtained from modal analysis were compared with the transient analysis results.The vibration-based damage detection methods are based on the fact that changes of physical properties (stiffness, mass and damping due to damage will manifest themselves as changes in the structural modal parameters (natural frequencies, mode shapes and modal damping. The task is then to monitor the selected indicators derived from modal parameters to distinguish between undamaged and damaged states. However, the quantitative changes of global modal parameters are not sufficiently sensitive to a local damage. The proposed approach, on the other hand, interprets the dynamic changes caused by damage in a different way. Although the basis for vibration-based damage detection appears intuitive, the implementation in real structures may encounter many significant challenges. The most fundamental issue is the fact that damage typically is a local phenomenon and may not dramatically influence the global dynamic response of a

  2. Citrus rootstocks influence the population densities of pest mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rocha da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are attacked by pest mites such as the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead (Acari: Eriophyidae and the spider mite Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. However, little is known on citrus rootstocks influencing pest mites. We aimed to evaluate the influence of rootstocks on population densities of pest mites on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' throughout time. Adults of both mite species were monthly counted during 19 months from June 2011 to February 2013. Rootstocks influenced the populations of pest mites, since lower densities of P. oleivora were found on 'Pera CNPMF D-6' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid TSKC × CTTR - 002 and on 'Swingle' citrumelo in comparison with the hybrid LVK × LCR - 010, 'Red' rough lime and 'Santa Cruz' rangpur lime as rootstocks. Similarly, lower densities of T. mexicanus were found on 'Valencia Tuxpan' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid HTR-051 in comparison to 'Indio' citrandarin, 'Sunki Tropical' mandarin and LVK × LCR - 010 as rootstocks. We concluded that densities of the mites P. oleivora and T. mexicanus on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' were affected in some periods of the year by some rootstocks, suggesting influence of some genotypes on these pests.

  3. Bioinsecticide-predator interactions: azadirachtin behavioral and reproductive impairment of the coconut mite predator Neoseiulus baraki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Debora B; Melo, José Wagner S; Guedes, Nelsa Maria P; Gontijo, Lessando M; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Gondim, Manoel Guedes C

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic pesticide use has been the dominant form of pest control since the 1940s. However, biopesticides are emerging as sustainable pest control alternatives, with prevailing use in organic agricultural production systems. Foremost among botanical biopesticides is the limonoid azadirachtin, whose perceived environmental safety has come under debate and scrutiny in recent years. Coconut production, particularly organic coconut production, is one of the agricultural systems in which azadirachtin is used as a primary method of pest control for the management of the invasive coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae). The management of this mite species also greatly benefits from predation by Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Here, we assessed the potential behavioral impacts of azadirachtin on the coconut mite predator, N. baraki. We explored the effects of this biopesticide on overall predator activity, female searching time, and mating behavior and fecundity. Azadirachtin impairs the overall activity of the predator, reducing it to nearly half; however, female searching was not affected. In contrast, mating behavior was compromised by azadirachtin exposure particularly when male predators were exposed to the biopesticide. Consequently, predator fecundity was also compromised by azadirachtin, furthering doubts about its environmental safety and selectivity towards biological control agents.

  4. Bioinsecticide-predator interactions: azadirachtin behavioral and reproductive impairment of the coconut mite predator Neoseiulus baraki.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora B Lima

    Full Text Available Synthetic pesticide use has been the dominant form of pest control since the 1940s. However, biopesticides are emerging as sustainable pest control alternatives, with prevailing use in organic agricultural production systems. Foremost among botanical biopesticides is the limonoid azadirachtin, whose perceived environmental safety has come under debate and scrutiny in recent years. Coconut production, particularly organic coconut production, is one of the agricultural systems in which azadirachtin is used as a primary method of pest control for the management of the invasive coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae. The management of this mite species also greatly benefits from predation by Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Here, we assessed the potential behavioral impacts of azadirachtin on the coconut mite predator, N. baraki. We explored the effects of this biopesticide on overall predator activity, female searching time, and mating behavior and fecundity. Azadirachtin impairs the overall activity of the predator, reducing it to nearly half; however, female searching was not affected. In contrast, mating behavior was compromised by azadirachtin exposure particularly when male predators were exposed to the biopesticide. Consequently, predator fecundity was also compromised by azadirachtin, furthering doubts about its environmental safety and selectivity towards biological control agents.

  5. DNA damage in plant herbarium tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Staats

    Full Text Available Dried plant herbarium specimens are potentially a valuable source of DNA. Efforts to obtain genetic information from this source are often hindered by an inability to obtain amplifiable DNA as herbarium DNA is typically highly degraded. DNA post-mortem damage may not only reduce the number of amplifiable template molecules, but may also lead to the generation of erroneous sequence information. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of DNA post-mortem damage is essential to determine the accuracy of molecular data from herbarium specimens. In this study we present an assessment of DNA damage as miscoding lesions in herbarium specimens using 454-sequencing of amplicons derived from plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA. In addition, we assess DNA degradation as a result of strand breaks and other types of polymerase non-bypassable damage by quantitative real-time PCR. Comparing four pairs of fresh and herbarium specimens of the same individuals we quantitatively assess post-mortem DNA damage, directly after specimen preparation, as well as after long-term herbarium storage. After specimen preparation we estimate the proportion of gene copy numbers of plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA to be 2.4-3.8% of fresh control DNA and 1.0-1.3% after long-term herbarium storage, indicating that nearly all DNA damage occurs on specimen preparation. In addition, there is no evidence of preferential degradation of organelle versus nuclear genomes. Increased levels of C→T/G→A transitions were observed in old herbarium plastid DNA, representing 21.8% of observed miscoding lesions. We interpret this type of post-mortem DNA damage-derived modification to have arisen from the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine during long-term herbarium storage. Our results suggest that reliable sequence data can be obtained from herbarium specimens.

  6. DNA Damage in Plant Herbarium Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Martijn; Cuenca, Argelia; Richardson, James E.; Vrielink-van Ginkel, Ria; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Bakker, Freek T.

    2011-01-01

    Dried plant herbarium specimens are potentially a valuable source of DNA. Efforts to obtain genetic information from this source are often hindered by an inability to obtain amplifiable DNA as herbarium DNA is typically highly degraded. DNA post-mortem damage may not only reduce the number of amplifiable template molecules, but may also lead to the generation of erroneous sequence information. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of DNA post-mortem damage is essential to determine the accuracy of molecular data from herbarium specimens. In this study we present an assessment of DNA damage as miscoding lesions in herbarium specimens using 454-sequencing of amplicons derived from plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA. In addition, we assess DNA degradation as a result of strand breaks and other types of polymerase non-bypassable damage by quantitative real-time PCR. Comparing four pairs of fresh and herbarium specimens of the same individuals we quantitatively assess post-mortem DNA damage, directly after specimen preparation, as well as after long-term herbarium storage. After specimen preparation we estimate the proportion of gene copy numbers of plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA to be 2.4–3.8% of fresh control DNA and 1.0–1.3% after long-term herbarium storage, indicating that nearly all DNA damage occurs on specimen preparation. In addition, there is no evidence of preferential degradation of organelle versus nuclear genomes. Increased levels of C→T/G→A transitions were observed in old herbarium plastid DNA, representing 21.8% of observed miscoding lesions. We interpret this type of post-mortem DNA damage-derived modification to have arisen from the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine during long-term herbarium storage. Our results suggest that reliable sequence data can be obtained from herbarium specimens. PMID:22163018

  7. Calculation of Radiation Damage in SLAC Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, B D; Monasterio, P; Stein, W

    2008-04-03

    Ti-6Al-4V alloys are being considered as a positron producing target in the Next Linear Collider, with an incident photon beam and operating temperatures between room temperature and 300 C. Calculations of displacement damage in Ti-6Al-4V alloys have been performed by combining high-energy particle FLUKA simulations with SPECTER calculations of the displacement cross section from the resulting energy-dependent neutron flux plus the displacements calculated from the Lindhard model from the resulting energy-dependent ion flux. The radiation damage calculations have investigated two cases, namely the damage produced in a Ti-6Al-4V SLAC positron target where the irradiation source is a photon beam with energies between 5 and 11 MeV. As well, the radiation damage dose in displacements per atom, dpa, has been calculated for a mono-energetic 196 MeV proton irradiation experiment performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BLIP experiment). The calculated damage rate is 0.8 dpa/year for the Ti-6Al-4V SLAC photon irradiation target, and a total damage exposure of 0.06 dpa in the BLIP irradiation experiment. In both cases, the displacements are predominantly ({approx}80%) produced by recoiling ions (atomic nuclei) from photo-nuclear collisions or proton-nuclear collisions, respectively. Approximately 25% of the displacement damage results from the neutrons in both cases. Irradiation effects studies in titanium alloys have shown substantial increases in the yield and ultimate strength of up to 500 MPa and a corresponding decrease in uniform ductility for neutron and high energy proton irradiation at temperatures between 40 and 300 C. Although the data is limited, there is an indication that the strength increases will saturate by doses on the order of a few dpa. Microstructural investigations indicate that the dominant features responsible for the strength increases were dense precipitation of a {beta} (body-centered cubic) phase precipitate along with a high number density

  8. Flood damage curves for consistent global risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moel, Hans; Huizinga, Jan; Szewczyk, Wojtek

    2016-04-01

    Assessing potential damage of flood events is an important component in flood risk management. Determining direct flood damage is commonly done using depth-damage curves, which denote the flood damage that would occur at specific water depths per asset or land-use class. Many countries around the world have developed flood damage models using such curves which are based on analysis of past flood events and/or on expert judgement. However, such damage curves are not available for all regions, which hampers damage assessments in those regions. Moreover, due to different methodologies employed for various damage models in different countries, damage assessments cannot be directly compared with each other, obstructing also supra-national flood damage assessments. To address these problems, a globally consistent dataset of depth-damage curves has been developed. This dataset contains damage curves depicting percent of damage as a function of water depth as well as maximum damage values for a variety of assets and land use classes (i.e. residential, commercial, agriculture). Based on an extensive literature survey concave damage curves have been developed for each continent, while differentiation in flood damage between countries is established by determining maximum damage values at the country scale. These maximum damage values are based on construction cost surveys from multinational construction companies, which provide a coherent set of detailed building cost data across dozens of countries. A consistent set of maximum flood damage values for all countries was computed using statistical regressions with socio-economic World Development Indicators from the World Bank. Further, based on insights from the literature survey, guidance is also given on how the damage curves and maximum damage values can be adjusted for specific local circumstances, such as urban vs. rural locations, use of specific building material, etc. This dataset can be used for consistent supra

  9. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods that occurred in the same area. In analogy to 'Paired catchment studies' - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow - we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events. One example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number of resulting dyke breaches. Additionally, exposure hotspots like the city of Dresden at the Elbe river as well as some smaller municipalities at the river Mulde (e.g. Grimma, Eilenburg, Bitterfeld, Dessau) were severely impacted. However, affected parties and authorities learned from the extreme flood in 2002, and many governmental flood risk programs and initiatives were launched. Considerable improvements since 2002 occurred on many levels that deal with flood risk reduction and disaster response, in particular in 1) increased flood prevention by improved spatial planning, 2) an increased number of property-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their

  10. Damage, DNA Repair, Aging, and Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Scott; Fang, Evandro Fei; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Croteau, Deborah L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2017-01-01

    Aging in mammals is accompanied by a progressive atrophy of tissues and organs, and stochastic damage accumulation to the macromolecules DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. The sequence of the human genome represents our genetic blueprint, and accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may causally contribute to aging. Distinct evidence for a role of imperfect DNA repair in aging is that several premature aging syndromes have underlying genetic DNA repair defects. Accumulation of DNA damage may be particularly prevalent in the central nervous system owing to the low DNA repair capacity in postmitotic brain tissue. It is generally believed that the cumulative effects of the deleterious changes that occur in aging, mostly after the reproductive phase, contribute to species-specific rates of aging. In addition to nuclear DNA damage contributions to aging, there is also abundant evidence for a causative link between mitochondrial DNA damage and the major phenotypes associated with aging. Understanding the mechanistic basis for the association of DNA damage and DNA repair with aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration, would give insight into contravening age-related diseases and promoting a healthy life span. PMID:26385091

  11. Radiation damage in rat kidney microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A C; Shah-Yukich, A; Babayan, R

    1984-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with a specialized polymer injection casting technique permits the analysis of radiation induced damage in rat kidney glomeruli. A lead shielding device is constructed to enable the irradiation of the living rat left kidney, while the remainder of the animal is shielded from the dose, the right kidney serves as a control. The source of radiation is 137Cs which produces 0.66 MeV gamma-rays to achieve a kidney dose of 100 rad and 5000 rad in these experiments. Radiation damage to kidney glomeruli is assessed at intervals of 0, 1, 3 and 7 days post-irradiation at the two dose levels. It is found that radiation damage to kidney glomeruli is expressed morphologically at 7 days post-irradiation at the 100 rad dose level, while glomerular damage is apparent as early as 3 days post-irradiation at the 5000 rad dose level. Moreover, by 7 days post-irradiation with a 5000 rad dose, the kidney glomerulus thoroughly degenerates to a leaky fused mass of vessels. From a morphological viewpoint, kidney glomeruli are significantly more sensitive to radiation than surrounding vasculature. The methods developed here for assessment of radiation damage are highly repeatable and could serve as a standard technique in radiobiology.

  12. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  13. Foam-on-Tile Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.

  14. Method for Reducing Pumping Damage to Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Robert J. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for minimizing damage to blood in a blood pump wherein the blood pump comprises a plurality of pump components that may affect blood damage such as clearance between pump blades and housing, number of impeller blades, rounded or flat blade edges, variations in entrance angles of blades, impeller length, and the like. The process comprises selecting a plurality of pump components believed to affect blood damage such as those listed herein before. Construction variations for each of the plurality of pump components are then selected. The pump components and variations are preferably listed in a matrix for easy visual comparison of test results. Blood is circulated through a pump configuration to test each variation of each pump component. After each test, total blood damage is determined for the blood pump. Preferably each pump component variation is tested at least three times to provide statistical results and check consistency of results. The least hemolytic variation for each pump component is preferably selected as an optimized component. If no statistical difference as to blood damage is produced for a variation of a pump component, then the variation that provides preferred hydrodynamic performance is selected. To compare the variation of pump components such as impeller and stator blade geometries, the preferred embodiment of the invention uses a stereolithography technique for realizing complex shapes within a short time period.

  15. Damage identification with probabilistic neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenke, S.E.; Paez, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    This paper investigates the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to identify damage in mechanical systems. Two probabilistic neural networks (PNNs) are developed and used to judge whether or not damage has occurred in a specific mechanical system, based on experimental measurements. The first PNN is a classical type that casts Bayesian decision analysis into an ANN framework, it uses exemplars measured from the undamaged and damaged system to establish whether system response measurements of unknown origin come from the former class (undamaged) or the latter class (damaged). The second PNN establishes the character of the undamaged system in terms of a kernel density estimator of measures of system response; when presented with system response measures of unknown origin, it makes a probabilistic judgment whether or not the data come from the undamaged population. The physical system used to carry out the experiments is an aerospace system component, and the environment used to excite the system is a stationary random vibration. The results of damage identification experiments are presented along with conclusions rating the effectiveness of the approaches.

  16. GENERAL EXPRESSIONS OF CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ISOTROPIC ELASTIC DAMAGED MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪松; 蒋持平; 郑健龙

    2001-01-01

    The general expressions of constitutive equations for isotropic elastic damaged materials were derived directly from the basic law of irreversible thermodynamics. The limitations of the classical damage constitutive equation based on the well-known strain equivalence hypothesis were overcome. The relationships between the two elastic isotropic damage models(i. e. single and double scalar damage models)were revealed. When a single scalar damage variable defined according to the microscopic geometry of a damaged material is used to describle the isotropic damage state, the constitutive equations contain two "damage effect functions", which describe the different influences of damage on the two independent elastic constants. The classical damage constitutive equation based on the strain equivalence hypothesis is only the first-order approximation of the general expression.It may be unduly simplified and may fail to describe satisfactorily the damage phenomena of practical materials.

  17. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido

  18. Damage modeling and damage detection for structures using a perturbation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Akash

    This thesis is about using structural-dynamics based methods to address the existing challenges in the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). Particularly, new structural-dynamics based methods are presented, to model areas of damage, to do damage diagnosis and to estimate and predict the sensitivity of structural vibration properties like natural frequencies to the presence of damage. Towards these objectives, a general analytical procedure, which yields nth-order expressions governing mode shapes and natural frequencies and for damaged elastic structures such as rods, beams, plates and shells of any shape is presented. Features of the procedure include the following: 1. Rather than modeling the damage as a fictitious elastic element or localized or global change in constitutive properties, it is modeled in a mathematically rigorous manner as a geometric discontinuity. 2. The inertia effect (kinetic energy), which, unlike the stiffness effect (strain energy), of the damage has been neglected by researchers, is included in it. 3. The framework is generic and is applicable to wide variety of engineering structures of different shapes with arbitrary boundary conditions which constitute self adjoint systems and also to a wide variety of damage profiles and even multiple areas of damage. To illustrate the ability of the procedure to effectively model the damage, it is applied to beams using Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko theories and to plates using Kirchhoff's theory, supported on different types of boundary conditions. Analytical results are compared with experiments using piezoelectric actuators and non-contact Laser-Doppler Vibrometer sensors. To illustrate the ability of the procedure to effectively model the damage, it is applied to beams using Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko theories and to plates using Kirchhoff's theory, supported on different types of boundary conditions. Analytical results are compared with experiments using piezoelectric actuators and

  19. Damage detection using modal frequency curve and squared residual wavelet coefficients-based damage indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Oyadiji, S. Olutunde

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the frequency-based damage detection method has been presented in this paper. Based on the eigenvalue problem and perturbation assumption of defect in modal response, the theoretical basis of the modal frequency curve method is established. The extraction of defect characteristics from the modal frequency curve via discrete wavelet transform is illustrated. The above background leads to the development of a new multiple-mode damage indicator for damage localisation and a damage estimator for size prediction. Then, the proposed method has been applied to aluminium samples with pre-defined damage sections. Finite element modelling and experimental testing results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the method. Additionally, detectability with respect to the various mass ratios is investigated to support the ability of the method in real applications. The numerical and experimental results suggest that the use of the damage indicator provides a more robust and unambiguous damage identification than the sole use of the wavelet coefficients of the modes investigated. In addition, the damage estimator predicts the defect size to a satisfactory level.

  20. Flood damage, vulnerability and risk perception - challenges for flood damage research

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in flood damage analysis mainly focuses on the economic evaluation of tangible flood effects. It is contended in this discussion paper that important economic, social and ecological aspects of flood-related vulnerabilities are neglected. It is a challenge for flood research to develop a wider perspective for flood damage evaluation.

  1. Damage detection of flexural structural systems using damage index method – Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef Eraky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of structural health monitoring, continuous dynamic records are essential for good judgment of structures. Overall degradation of structures can be obtained with reasonable accuracy using various system identification techniques. It is however, challenging to obtain precisely the position and size of local damages. The current research focuses on Damage Index Method (DIM as a tool for determining local damages occurred in flexural structural elements. The DIM technique depends on comparing modal strain energies of structures at different degradation stages. Self-made computer module was developed to encounter DIM for damage detection. First, the method was verified experimentally. Simply supported steel beam of 1500 mm (length, 50 mm (width and 6 mm (thickness, in addition to steel plate of area 930 × 910 mm and 3 mm (thickness was implemented in the experimental program. Both the beam and plate were subjected to different damage configurations. Collected acceleration time history was processed and used to verify the adequacy of DIM in identifying damages in the used physical models. Numerical parametric study was also conducted on a variety of beams and plates with various damage degrees and locations. It was noticed that both the experimental and numerical results showed good agreement in identifying damages in flexural structural elements.

  2. Exogenous glycosaminoglycans coat damaged bladder surfaces in experimentally damaged mouse bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurst Robert E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstital cystitis is often treated with exogenous glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, chondroitin sulphate (Uracyst, hyaluronate (Cystistat or the semi-synthetic pentosan polysulphate (Elmiron. The mechanism of action is presumed to be due to a coating of the bladder surface to replace the normally present chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate lost as a result of the disease. This study used fluorescent labelled chondroitin sulphate to track the distribution of glycosaminoglycans administered intravesically to mouse bladder that had been damaged on the surface. Methods The surfaces of mouse bladders were damaged by 3 mechanisms – trypsin, 10 mM HCl, and protamine sulphate. Texas Red-labeled chondroitin sulphate was instilled into the bladders of animals with damaged bladders and controls instilled only with saline. Bladders were harvested, frozen, and sectioned for examination by fluorescence. Results The normal mouse bladder bound a very thin layer of the labelled chondroitin sulphate on the luminal surface. Trypsin- and HCl-damaged bladders bound the labelled chondroitin sulphate extensively on the surface with little penetration into the bladder muscle. Protamine produced less overt damage, and much less labelling was seen, presumably due to loss of the label as it complexed with the protamine intercalated into the bladder surface. Conclusion Glycosaminoglycan administered intravesically does bind to damaged bladder. Given that the changes seen following bladder damage resemble those seen naturally in interstitial cystitis, the mechanisms proposed for the action of these agents is consistent with a coating of damaged bladder.

  3. Advanced concept for damage control : A framework to simulate fire propagation and damage control effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillis, M.P.W.; Keijer, W.; Smit, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Current damage control procedures are developed on the basis of a long-standing experience. However there are reasons to believe that these procedures do not account for major weapon-induced calamities. Fire fighting after substantial blast and fragmentation damage, due to a weaponhit, is quite beyo

  4. Advanced concept for damage control : A framework to simulate fire propagation and damage control effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillis, M.P.W.; Keijer, W.; Smit, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Current damage control procedures are developed on the basis of a long-standing experience. However there are reasons to believe that these procedures do not account for major weapon-induced calamities. Fire fighting after substantial blast and fragmentation damage, due to a weaponhit, is quite

  5. Exploring the potential of multivariate depth-damage and rainfall-damage models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ootegem, Luc; van Herck, K.; Creten, T.

    2017-01-01

    In Europe, floods are among the natural catastrophes that cause the largest economic damage. This article explores the potential of two distinct types of multivariate flood damage models: ‘depth-damage’ models and ‘rainfall-damage’ models. We use survey data of 346 Flemish households that were vi...

  6. Maternal diabetes triggers DNA damage and DNA damage response in neurulation stage embryos through oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Daoyin; Yu, Jingwen; Wu, Yanqing; Fu, Noah; Villela, Natalia Arias; Yang, Peixin

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage and DNA damage response (DDR) in neurulation stage embryos under maternal diabetes conditions are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal diabetes and high glucose in vitro induce DNA damage and DDR in the developing embryo through oxidative stress. In vivo experiments were conducted by mating superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) transgenic male mice with wild-type (WT) female mice with or without diabetes. Embryonic day 8.75 (E8.75) embryos were tested for the DNA damage markers, phosphorylated histone H2A.X (p-H2A.X) and DDR signaling intermediates, including phosphorylated checkpoint 1 (p-Chk1), phosphorylated checkpoint 2 (p-Chk2), and p53. Levels of the same DNA damage markers and DDR signaling intermediates were also determined in the mouse C17.2 neural stem cell line. Maternal diabetes and high glucose in vitro significantly increased the levels of p-H2A.X. Levels of p-Chk1, p-Chk2, and p53, were elevated under both maternal diabetic and high glucose conditions. SOD1 overexpression blocked maternal diabetes-induced DNA damage and DDR in vivo. Tempol, a SOD1 mimetic, diminished high glucose-induced DNA damage and DDR in vitro. In conclusion, maternal diabetes and high glucose in vitro induce DNA damage and activates DDR through oxidative stress, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes-associated embryopathy. PMID:26427872

  7. Chemomechanics of Damage Accumulation and Damage-Recovery Healing in Bituminous Asphalt Binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauli, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    As a contribution to the development of mutli-scale multi-physics approaches to modelling pavement performance, the present thesis considers the topic of damage accumulation accompanied by damage recover self-healing of the bituminous asphalt phase of pavement systems. It is found insightful that b

  8. Chemomechanics of Damage Accumulation and Damage-Recovery Healing in Bituminous Asphalt Binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauli, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    As a contribution to the development of mutli-scale multi-physics approaches to modelling pavement performance, the present thesis considers the topic of damage accumulation accompanied by damage recover self-healing of the bituminous asphalt phase of pavement systems. It is found insightful that

  9. Structural damage identification using multifunctional Bragg grating sensors: II. Damage detection results and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Daniel C.; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Thursby, Graham; Culshaw, Brian

    2006-10-01

    Damage detection is an important issue in structural health monitoring. Lamb waves are the most widely used acousto-ultrasonic guided waves for damage detection. This paper gives the results of experiments carried out to study the identification of damage using Bragg grating sensors as ultrasonic receivers of Lamb waves. The experiments involve a rectangular aluminium plate. Damage was introduced into the plate by drilling a hole into the centre of the plate. In order to obtain different severity of damage, the hole diameter was increased step by step. Several signal processing tools are presented and then applied to the Lamb wave signals in order to find a parameter that corresponds to the severity of damage. The parameter that serves as the damage index has to have small cross-sensitivity to other physical parameters, e.g. temperature. Therefore, additional experiments have been carried out to study the temperature dependence of the Lamb wave signals. In order to determine the influence of the temperature on the damage detection results, the cross-sensitivity is studied within this paper.

  10. Damage control resuscitation for massive hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osaree Akaraborworn

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhage is the second most common cause of death among trauma patients and almost half of the deaths occur within 24 hours after arrival.Damage control resuscitation is a new paradigm for patients with massive bleeding.It consists of permissive hypotension,hemostatic resuscitation and transfusion strategies,and damage control surgery.Permissive hypotension seems to have better results before the bleeding is controlled.The strategy of fluid resuscitation is minimizing crystalloid infusion and increasing early transfusion with a high ratio of fresh frozen plasma to packed red cells.Damage control surgery is done when the patient's condition is unfit for definitive surgery.Hemorrhage and contamination control with temporary abdominal closure is performed before transferring the patients to intensive care unit and the operating room for a permanent laparotomy.

  11. Creep fatigue damage under multiaxial conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobitz, D.W.; Nickell, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    When structural components are subjected to severe cyclic loading conditions with intermittent periods of sustained loading at elevated temperature, the designer must guard against a failure mode caused by the interaction of time-dependent and time-independent deformation. This phenomena is referred to as creep-fatigue interaction. The most elementary form of interaction theory (called linear damage summation) is now embodied in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In recent years, a competitor for the linear damage summation theory has emerged, called strainrange partitioning. This procedure is based upon the visualization of the cyclic strain in a uniaxial creep-fatigue test as a hysteresis loop, with the inelastic strains in the loop counter-balanced in one of two ways. The two theories are compared and contrasted in terms of ease of use, possible inconsistencies, and component life prediction. Future work to further test the damage theories is recommended. (TFD)

  12. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  13. SIRT participates at DNA damage response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi Yong; Joeng, Jae Min; Lee, Kee Ho [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Gil Hong [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Sir2 maintains genomic stability in multiple ways in yeast. As a NAD{sup +}-dependent histone deacetylase, Sir2 has been reported to control chromatin silencing. In both budding yeast and Drosophila, overexpression of Sir2 extends life span. Previous reports have also demonstrated that Sir2 participate at DNA damage repair. A protein complex containing Sir2 has been reported to translocate to DNA double-strand breaks. Following DNA damage response, SIRT1 deacetylates p53 protein and attenuates its ability as a transcription factor. Consequently, SIRT1 over-expression increases cell survival under DNA damage inducing conditions. These previous observations mean a possibility that signals generated during the process of DNA repair are delivered through SIRT1 to acetylated p53. We present herein functional evidence for the involvement of SIRT1 in DNA repair response to radiation. In addition, this modulation of DNA repair activity may be connected to deacetylation of MRN proteins.

  14. The expected radiation damage of CSNS target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, W.; Yu, Q. Z.; Lu, Y. L.; Wang, S. L.; Tong, J. F.; Liang, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    The radiation damage to the tungsten target and its SS316 vessel for Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) has been estimated with a Monte-Carlo simulation code MCNPX2.5.0. We compare the effects on the radiation damage due to two different proton beam profiles: a uniform distribution and a Gaussian distribution. We also discuss the dependence of the radiation damage estimation on different physics models. The results show the peak displacement productions in vessel and the fourth target plate are 2.5 and 5.5 dpa/y, respectively, under a Gaussian proton beam. The peak helium productions in the vessel and the fourth target are 305 and 353 appm/y, respectively, under the same proton beam. Based on these results and the allowable dpa values we have estimated the lifetime of the tungsten target and its vessel.

  15. Progressive Damage Modeling of Notched Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitharaju, Venkat; Aashat, Satvir; Kia, Hamid; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip

    2016-01-01

    There is an increased interest in using non-crimp fabric reinforced composites for primary and secondary structural weight savings in high performance automobile applications. However, one of the main challenges in implementing these composites is the lack of understanding of damage progression under a wide variety of loading conditions for general configurations. Towards that end, researchers at GM and NASA are developing new damage models to predict accurately the progressive failure of these composites. In this investigation, the developed progressive failure analysis model was applied to study damage progression in center-notched and open-hole tension specimens for various laminate schemes. The results of a detailed study with respect to the effect of element size on the analysis outcome are presented.

  16. Low amplitude impact of damaged PBX 9501

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idar, Deanne J.; Straight, James W.; Osborn, Michael A.; Coulter, William L.; Buntain, Gregory A.

    2000-04-01

    Low amplitude impact tests on pristine and damaged, `baseline' and `aged' PBX 9501 specimens were performed to determine the critical impact-velocity threshold for violent reactions. HE damage was achieved by a single impact ranging in velocity from 36.9 to 54.4 m/s. External blast gauge and ballistic pendulum data were used to evaluate reaction violence relative to a steady-state detonation. Strain gage data were used to evaluate the response of the explosive to impact and characterize subsequent reaction profiles. Test results show that the damaged threshold 1) is lower than the pristine threshold and 2) is invariant to PBX 9501 lot-to-lot and age variables.

  17. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and neurodegenerative diseases****

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyan Guo; Li Sun; Xueping Chen; Danshen Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Oxidative stress is characterized by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which can induce mitochondrial DNA mutations, damage the mitochondrial respiratory chain, alter membrane permeability, and influence Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial defense systems. Al these changes are implicated in the development of these neurodegenerative diseases, mediating or amplifying neuronal dysfunction and triggering neurodegeneration. This paper summarizes the contribution of oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage to the onset of neurodegenerative eases and discusses strategies to modify mitochondrial dysfunction that may be attractive thera-peutic interventions for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Recent trends in fracture and damage mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zybell, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of topics in fracture and damage mechanics. It presents historical perspectives as well as recent innovative developments, presented by peer reviewed contributions from internationally acknowledged authors.  The volume deals with the modeling of fracture and damage in smart materials, current industrial applications of fracture mechanics, and it explores advances in fracture testing methods. In addition, readers will discover trends in the field of local approach to fracture and approaches using analytical mechanics. Scholars in the fields of materials science, engineering and computational science will value this volume which is dedicated to Meinhard Kuna on the occasion of his 65th birthday in 2015. This book incorporates the proceedings of an international symposium that was organized to honor Meinhard Kuna’s contributions to the field of theoretical and applied fracture and damage mechanics.

  19. Thermal Damage Characterization of Energetic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P C; DeHaven, M R; Springer, H K; Maienschein, J L

    2009-08-14

    We conducted thermal damage experiments at 180?C on PBXN-9 and characterized its material properties. Volume expansion at high temperatures was very significant which led to a reduction in material density. 2.6% of weight loss was observed, which was higher than other HMX-based formulations. Porosity of PBXN-9 increased to 16% after thermal exposure. Small-scale safety tests (impact, friction, and spark) showed no significant sensitization when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature. Gas permeation measurements showed that gas permeability in damaged materials was several orders of magnitude higher than that in pristine materials. In-situ measurements of gas permeability and density were proved to be possible at higher temperatures.

  20. Damage identity in fatigue assessment of structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Petinov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The modified strain criterion-based method for fatigue assessment of structures is discussed. The damage is estimated based on the specified parameters of the criterion and the damage summation procedure by employing the finite-element method. With a reasonably fine mesh of the finiteelement model of the ‘critical location’ structure, the condition of the identity of damage in the material of the test specimen and the structure is provided and, respectively, the effect of uncertainty on the fatigue life assessment of the structure is reduced. The implementation of this version of the method is using the example of the fatigue life evaluation of a ship hull and superstructure detail at expansion joint. For comparison, the fatigue life of the detail is estimated using the standard S-N approach. The results are in approximate agreement; however, reducing the computational uncertainties with the help of the deformation criterion shows more physically reasonable fatigue properties of the detail.

  1. Residual strength of damaged marine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Dhruba J.; Nappi, Natale S.; Wiernicki, Christopher J.

    1994-09-01

    Traditionally assessment of ship's longitudinal strength has been made by comparing the elastic stresses at the deck or bottom shell to fractions of the material yield strength. This results in high reserve capacity due to inherent redundancies in ship structures. Residual strength, which is defined as the strength of the structure after damage, has rarely been considered either during design or at the time of repair. In this report, key elements required to undertake an engineering analysis to evaluate the residual strength have been identified. Emphasis has been placed on assessing the residual strength of marine structures damaged due to normal operating loads. Methods available to industry for evaluation of damage such as, fracture and ultimate strength have been summarized. An example problem, illustrating the application of an integrated approach to residual strength assessment on a particular ship type, is presented.

  2. Stochastic damage evolution in textile laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzenis, Yuris A.; Bogdanovich, Alexander E.; Pastore, Christopher M.

    1993-01-01

    A probabilistic model utilizing random material characteristics to predict damage evolution in textile laminates is presented. Model is based on a division of each ply into two sublaminas consisting of cells. The probability of cell failure is calculated using stochastic function theory and maximal strain failure criterion. Three modes of failure, i.e. fiber breakage, matrix failure in transverse direction, as well as matrix or interface shear cracking, are taken into account. Computed failure probabilities are utilized in reducing cell stiffness based on the mesovolume concept. A numerical algorithm is developed predicting the damage evolution and deformation history of textile laminates. Effect of scatter of fiber orientation on cell properties is discussed. Weave influence on damage accumulation is illustrated with the help of an example of a Kevlar/epoxy laminate.

  3. The RNA Splicing Response to DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Chabot, Benoit

    2015-10-29

    The number of factors known to participate in the DNA damage response (DDR) has expanded considerably in recent years to include splicing and alternative splicing factors. While the binding of splicing proteins and ribonucleoprotein complexes to nascent transcripts prevents genomic instability by deterring the formation of RNA/DNA duplexes, splicing factors are also recruited to, or removed from, sites of DNA damage. The first steps of the DDR promote the post-translational modification of splicing factors to affect their localization and activity, while more downstream DDR events alter their expression. Although descriptions of molecular mechanisms remain limited, an emerging trend is that DNA damage disrupts the coupling of constitutive and alternative splicing with the transcription of genes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle control and apoptosis. A better understanding of how changes in splice site selection are integrated into the DDR may provide new avenues to combat cancer and delay aging.

  4. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  5. [Liability in Anaesthesiology: theory of disproportionate damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán Gutiérrez, J C; Galán Cortés, J C

    2013-10-01

    An analysis is made of the controversial application of the theory of disproportionate damage in the anaesthetic act, due to the high inherent risk, and regardless of the seriousness and importance of the surgery being performed. The existence of a disproportionate damage, that is, damage not foreseen nor accountable within the framework of the professional performance of the anaesthetist, does not by itself determine the existence of liability on the part of the anaesthetist, but the demand from the professionals themselves for a coherent explanation of the serious disagreement between the initial risk implied by their actions and the final consequence produced. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. The study of past damaging hydrogeological events for damage susceptibility zonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Damaging Hydrogeological Events are defined as periods during which phenomena, such as landslides, floods and secondary floods, cause damage to people and the environment.

    A Damaging Hydrogeological Event which heavily damaged Calabria (Southern Italy between December 1972, and January 1973, has been used to test a procedure to be utilised in the zonation of a province according to damage susceptibility during DHEs. In particular, we analyzed the province of Catanzaro (2391 km2, an administrative district composed of 80 municipalities, with about 370 000 inhabitants.

    Damage, defined in relation to the reimbursement requests sent to the Department of Public Works, has been quantified using a procedure based on a Local Damage Index. The latter, representing classified losses, has been obtained by multiplying the value of the damaged element and the percentage of damage affecting it.

    Rainfall has been described by the Maximum Return Period of cumulative rainfall, for both short (1, 3, 5, 7, 10 consecutive days and long duration (30, 60, 90, 180 consecutive days, recorded during the event.

    Damage index and population density, presumed to represent the location of vulnerable elements, have been referred to Thiessen polygons associated to rain gauges working at the time of the event.

    The procedure allowed us to carry out a preliminary classification of the polygons composing the province according to their susceptibility to damage during DHEs. In high susceptibility polygons, severe damage occurs during rainfall characterised by low return periods; in medium susceptibility polygons maximum return period rainfall and induced damage show equal levels of exceptionality; in low susceptibility polygons, high return period rainfall induces a low level of damage.

    The east and west sectors of the province show the highest susceptibility, while polygons of the N-NE sector show the lowest

  7. DNA damage response in adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insinga, Alessandra; Cicalese, Angelo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    This review discusses the processes of DNA-damage-response and DNA-damage repair in stem and progenitor cells of several tissues. The long life-span of stem cells suggests that they may respond differently to DNA damage than their downstream progeny and, indeed, studies have begun to elucidate the unique stem cell response mechanisms to DNA damage. Because the DNA damage responses in stem cells and progenitor cells are distinctly different, stem and progenitor cells should be considered as two different entities from this point of view. Hematopoietic and mammary stem cells display a unique DNA-damage response, which involves active inhibition of apoptosis, entry into the cell-cycle, symmetric division, partial DNA repair and maintenance of self-renewal. Each of these biological events depends on the up-regulation of the cell-cycle inhibitor p21. Moreover, inhibition of apoptosis and symmetric stem cell division are the consequence of the down-regulation of the tumor suppressor p53, as a direct result of p21 up-regulation. A deeper understanding of these processes is required before these findings can be translated into human anti-aging and anti-cancer therapies. One needs to clarify and dissect the pathways that control p21 regulation in normal and cancer stem cells and define (a) how p21 blocks p53 functions in stem cells and (b) how p21 promotes DNA repair in stem cells. Is this effect dependent on p21s ability to inhibit p53? Such molecular knowledge may pave the way to methods for maintaining short-term tissue reconstitution while retaining long-term cellular and genomic integrity.

  8. Continuum Damage Mechanics A Continuum Mechanics Approach to the Analysis of Damage and Fracture

    CERN Document Server

    Murakami, Sumio

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in engineering and technology have brought about serious and enlarged demands for reliability, safety and economy in wide range of fields such as aeronautics, nuclear engineering, civil and structural engineering, automotive and production industry.  This, in turn, has caused more interest in continuum damage mechanics and its engineering applications.   This book aims to give a concise overview of the current state of damage mechanics, and then to show the fascinating possibility of this promising branch of mechanics, and to provide researchers, engineers and graduate students with an intelligible and self-contained textbook.   The book consists of two parts and an appendix.  Part I  is concerned with the foundation of continuum damage mechanics.  Basic concepts of material damage and the mechanical representation of damage state of various kinds are described in Chapters 1 and 2.  In Chapters 3-5, irreversible thermodynamics, thermodynamic constitutive theory and its application ...

  9. Nonlinear active control of damaged piezoelectric smart laminated plates and damage detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yi-ming; RUAN Jian-li

    2008-01-01

    Considering mass and stiffness of piezoelectric layers and damage effects of composite layers,nonlinear dynamic equations of damaged piezoelectric smart laminated plates are derived.The derivation is based on the Hamilton's principle,the higherorder shear deformation plate theory, von Karman type geometrically nonlinear straindisplacement relations,and the strain energy equivalence theory.A negative velocity feedback control algorithm coupling the direct and converse piezoelectric effects is used to realize the active control and damage detection with a closed control loop. Simply supported rectangular laminated plates with immovable edges are used in numerical computation.Influence of the piezoelectric layers'location on the vibration control is investigated.In addition,effects of the degree and location of damage on the sensor output voltage are discussed.A method for damage detection is introduced.

  10. Characterization of mechanical damage in granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Phong Luong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to illustrate the use of infrared thermography as a non-destructive and non-contact technique to observe the phenomenological manifestation of damage in granite under unconfined compression. It allows records and observations in real time of heat patterns produced by the dissipation of energy generated by plasticity. The experimental results show that this technique, which couples mechanical and thermal energy, can be used for illustrating the onset of damage mechanism by stress concentration in weakness zones.

  11. Thermal styling: efficacy, convenience, damage tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Don; Qi, Jia Catherine; Kaplan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a simple method to explore the efficacy of thermal styling, By using a temperature gradient curling iron we rapidly explore a range of thermal treatment conditions. The thermodynamic literature on the glass transition in keratin fibers explains the surprisingly limited role of elevated temperature in improvements in the efficacy of holding the styled curvature of the fibers. The onset of damage, however, is strongly temperature dependent. This combination of measurements of damage and efficacy shows the range of conditions over which thermal protection products must be functional.

  12. Failure and damage analysis of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Sadowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The papers in this volume present basic concepts and new developments in failure and damage analysis with focus on advanced materials such as composites, laminates, sandwiches and foams, and also new metallic materials. Starting from some mathematical foundations (limit surfaces, symmetry considerations, invariants) new experimental results and their analysis are shown. Finally, new concepts for failure prediction and analysis will be introduced and discussed as well as new methods of failure and damage prediction for advanced metallic and non-metallic materials. Based on experimental results the traditional methods will be revised.

  13. Laser-Induced Thermal Damage of Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    As with the eye model, ther- mal damage is predicted using Henriques damage integral (11). This criterion involves integrating temperature- dependent...epide•: mal layers are much larger than the coefficients for the entire skin presented in Figure 5. This observation suggests there should be twd...EXPOI"’ES INVOLVJINS MUMtPLE PULSES OTOODYCIZO 010OTO OJO SI tNGLE PUL.$LSE 19(M."ft 7.13NP#R5 xxsLlimft p DO 3 ?V 36 Ep(MgiSNPRCL) *~To so 36

  14. [A Handling Qualities Metric for Damaged Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce; Hayes, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    In recent flight tests of F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS), software simulated aircraft control surface failures were inserted to evaluate the IFCS adaptive systems. The failure commanded the left stabilator to a fixed position. The adaptive system uses a neural network that is designed to change control law gains, in the event of damage (real or simulated), that allows the aircraft to fly as it had before the damage. The performance of the adaptive system was assessed in terms of its ability to re-establish good onboard model tracking and its ability to decouple roll and pitch response.

  15. Photothermal damage prediction of laser interstitial thermotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxia Li; Shifu Fan; Youquan Zhao

    2006-01-01

    An improved scattering optical model was developed under cylindrical coordinate to simulate the thermaleffect of diffusing applicator in laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). The thermal damage was calculatedby finite element method (FEM) using Pennes bio-heat transfer equation and Arrhenius injury integralformula. The numerical results showed that the scattering can considerably influence the evaluation of thelesion area, and the relationship between application powers or time and resulting tissue thermal damagewas nonlinear. Although usually applying relatively low power can avoid tissue charring, rather higherpower is recommended because it is indispensable to achieve necessary damage threshold and the therapytime can be shortened.

  16. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Larchar, Steven W.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Problem Introduction: 1. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Space Shuttle. 1a. The number of cold plate problems had increased from an average of 16.5 per/year between 1990 through 2000, to an average of 39.6 per year between 2001through 2005. 1b. Each complete set of 80 cold plates cost approximately $29 million, an average of $362,500 per cold plate. 1c It takes four months to produce a single cold plate. 2. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Future Space Vehicles.

  17. Tissue damage and oxidant/antioxidant balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisaoglu, Abdullah; Borekci, Bunyamin; Yapca, O Erkan; Bilen, Habib; Suleyman, Halis

    2013-02-01

    The oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy tissues is maintained with a predominance of antioxidants. Various factors that can lead to tissue damage disrupt the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants. In this study, disruptions of the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants were found to be a consequence of the over-consumption of antioxidants. For this reason, antioxidants are considered to be of importance in the prevention and treatment of various types of tissue damage that are aggravated by stress.

  18. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Corrosion damage to a nuclear power plant containment structure can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. For the low-carbon, low- strength steels used in containments, the effect of corrosion on material properties is discussed. Strain-to-failure tests, in uniaxial tension, have been performed on corroded material samples. Results were used to select strain-based failure criteria for corroded steel. Using the ABAQUS finite element analysis code, the capacity of a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment with corrosion damage has been studied. Multiple analyses were performed with the locations of the corrosion the containment, and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis.

  19. Understanding three-dimensional damage envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, John; Harland, Sophie; Meredith, Philip; Healy, David; Mitchell, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Microcrack damage leading to failure in rocks evolves in response to differential loading. This loading is often visualized in a two-dimensional stress space through the use of Mohr-Coulomb diagrams. The vast majority of experimental studies investigate damage evolution and rock failure using conventional triaxial stress states (σ1 > σ2 = σ3) in which the results can be easily represented in a Mohr-Coulomb plot. However, in nature the stress state is in general truly triaxial (σ1 > σ2 > σ3) and as such comprises a 3D stress state potentially leading to more complexity. By monitoring acoustic wave velocities and acoustic emissions we have shown that damage is generated in multiple orientations depending on the loading directions and hence principal stress directions. Furthermore, crack growth is shown to be a function of differential stress regardless of the mean stress. As such, new cracks can form due to a decrease in the minimum principal stress, which reduces mean stress but increases the differential stress. Although the size of individual cracks is not affected by the intermediate principal stress it has been shown that the σ2 plays a key role in suppressing the total amount of crack growth and concentrates this damage in a single plane. Hence, the differential stress at which rocks fail (i.e. the rock strength) will be significantly increased under true triaxial stress conditions than under the much more commonly applied condition of conventional triaxial stress. Through a series of cyclic loading tests we investigated the Kaiser effect, we show that while individual stress states are important, the stress path by which this stress state is reached is equally important. Whether or not a stress state has been 'visited' before is also vitally important in determining and understanding damage envelopes. Finally, we show that damage evolution can be anisotropic and must be considered as a three-dimensional problem. It is unclear how damage envelopes

  20. Proposal for Modified Damage Probability Distribution Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1996-01-01

    Immidiately following the Estonia disaster, the Nordic countries establishe a project entitled "Safety of Passenger/RoRo Vessels" As part of this project the present proposal for modified damage stability probability distribution functions has been developed. and submitted to "Sub-committee on st......Immidiately following the Estonia disaster, the Nordic countries establishe a project entitled "Safety of Passenger/RoRo Vessels" As part of this project the present proposal for modified damage stability probability distribution functions has been developed. and submitted to "Sub...

  1. Nouvelle technique d'élevage de l'acarien phyllophage Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychidae et son application à l'étude de l'efficacité de quelques acaricides sur pomme de terre (Solarium tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A New Rearing Technique of Phytophagous Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychida and its Application in the Study of the Efficacy of some Acaricides on Potato [Solanum tuberosum L.. A 5 cm diameter leaf disc of potato or another host plant (or four on 2.5 cm diameter was used in a Petri dish of 9 cm diameter for the rearing technique. This leaf disc, pierced in its centre, slides along a rustproof pin and floats on a 1 mm thick lamina of demineralized fresh water. Water is a "strong barrier" which confines the tetranychid mites on the leaf disc, even if this one does not corne from a host plant (tetranychid mites deprived of food. This rearing technique was used as a bioassay to test the effectiveness of acaricides (pyrimiphos-methyl, bromopropylate, fenpropathrin, dienochlor on the developmental stages of Tetranychus urticae. The ovicidal activity against the eggs of one, three, seven days old (the eggs incubation duration being 8.1 ±0.15 days was also studied. The results obtained show that bromopropylate, fenpropathrin and dienochlor have an ovicidal activity against the eggs of the different ages, but dienochlor has the highest efficiency (90 % mortality. Pyrimiphos-methyl is only active against the seven-day old eggs and bromopropylate has a high efficiency only on the one-day old eggs. Concerning the other developmental stages such as chrysalis (protochrysalis, deu-tochrysalis, teleiochrysalis and mobile stages (larva, protonymph, deutonymph and adult female, pyrimiphos-methyl has de highest efficiency (90 % mortality ; dienochlor also, except mobile stages. Bromopropylate has no activity against the chrysalis and mobile stages and fenpropathrin has a remarkable repulsive effect.

  2. Evolution journalière du sex-ratio dans une population de Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae en laboratoire, paramètres de la dynamique des populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex-ratio Daily Evolution in a Population of Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae in the Laboratory, Population Dynamics Parameters. The sex-ratio (100.males/females of offsprings laid by fertilized female parents of Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar and its daily evolution was studied in the laboratory. The highest sex-ratio value 900 (90.0% male offsprings was obtained on the first day of the oviposition and the lowest value 7.2 (6.7% male offsprings on the 16th day of the oviposition period which lasted 38.1 ± 4.9 days (mean ± standard deviation. From a total number of 118.0 ± 10.9 offsprings, 94.0 ± 10.5 (on the average 79.7% were ''laid'' during the first half of the oviposition period. The results also show that from a total number of 88.0 ± 8.3 female offsprings, 74.0 ± 8.0 (84.1% were ''laid'' during the first half of the oviposition period whereas from a total number of 30.0 ± 2.7 male offsprings, 20.0 ± 2.5 (66.7% were ''laid'' within the same period. The sex-ratio of each fertilized female parent was 31.9 ± 1.7 (24.2% ± 1.0% male offsprings and the sex-ratio within the population was 34.0 ± 0.0 (25.4% ± 0.1% male offsprings. The intrinsic rate of increase, and the rate of multiplication in one generation were 0.1380 and 79.23 respectively.

  3. In vitro activity of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis and ecdysis of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodriguez

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis, as a larvicide and on ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). On the oogenesis' test, 48 engorged females were divided into three groups, evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Half of the females were treated with 0.01% 3β-O-tigloylmelianol diluted in distilled water and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), while the other half (controls) were exposed to distilled water and 5% DMSO. After treatment, the ovaries were weighed in order to measure the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and were also subjected to standard histological technical tests. On the larvicide and ecdysis' tests, 3β-O-tigloylmelianol was tested at concentrations of 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.00125%. Compared with the controls, there was a reduction of GSI of approximately 50% on the treated group, which started at 48 h post treatment. Overall, the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol has caused a significant reduction in the number of oocytes. It has also caused alteration of the cytoplasmic and germinal vesicle diameters. Morphological changes, such as vacuolization, chorion irregularity which has modified the oocytes' morphology as well as alterations on the yolk's granules were also observed. The compound was not larvicide, however, interfered in the ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs. This study shows that the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from G. kunthiana acts on oogenesis and ecdysis of R. (B.) microplus, but not as larvicide, indicating that it acts on the endocrine system of the tick.

  4. 47 CFR 64.1 - Traffic damage claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Traffic damage claims. 64.1 Section 64.1... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Traffic Damage Claims § 64.1 Traffic damage claims. (a) Each carrier... files for each damage claim of a traffic nature filed with the carrier, showing the name, address, and...

  5. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Hungary: a new species on Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae) and new record on Convolvulus arvensis (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Géza

    2014-12-22

    A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aculus castriferrei n. sp., associated with Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae) is described and illustrated from Hungary. Morphological differences distinguishing this vagrant species from other rosaceous inhabiting congeners are discussed. Aceria malherbae Nuzzaci is a new record for the eriophyoid fauna of Hungary after it was found causing severe damage symptoms to Convolvulus arvensis L. (Convolvulaceae).

  6. Observaçoes sobre o parasitismo de Gallilichus hiregoudari D'souza & Jagannath (Acari: Syringobiidae em Gallus gallus (L. em infestações naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Horacio Faccini

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurence of Gallilichus hiregoudari D'Souza e Jagannath in Gallus gallus (L. is widespread in Brazil. All life stages of the mite can be found within the quills of primaries and secondaries of the flight feathers. Nymphal heteromorphism, imbalanced sex ratio toward females and thanatochresis are common features. Damage of the pulp caps and raquis are common pathological findings.

  7. Feral burro populations: Distribution and damage assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report was prepared to document (1) regional use of the National Training Center (NTC), Fort Irwin, CA, by burros, (2)influence of available water sources for burro use, (3) burro-related damage at several NTC sensitive habitat areas, and (4) management recommendations. All work described in this report was conducted in 1996 and 1997. Roadside transects were conducted and mapped using Geographical Positioning Systems/Geographical Information Systems (GPS/GIS) to indirectly measure relative abundance of feral burros (scat per mile) and to examine the spatial relationship of burro use to permanent or semi-permanent water sources that exist on the NTC. The authors also surveyed several permanent springs for burro-related damage and mapped the impact areas using GPS/GIS to quantify the extent of damage and to provide guidance on size and extent of burro exclosures in those areas. Photographs of the spring sites were also archived and permanent photo points were established for long-term monitoring of feral burro damage areas. In addition, aquatic invertebrate data collected during another spring site study were summarized and discussed in relation to burro-related impacts on the NTC`s sensitive habitats. Several water-quality parameters were also obtained from each spring, including temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and total dissolved solids.

  8. Liver damage in the hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhijn, A; Donckerwolcke, R A; Kuijten, R H; van der Heiden, C

    1977-06-01

    During the recovery stage of the hemolytic uremic syndrome in 2 cases an increase of serum levels of GOT, GPT, LDH, gammaGT, 5'ND and AP was noticed, without signs of a recurrence of the disease. In one patient also jaundice and hepatomegaly were found. The observations suggest a parenchymal damage of the liver.

  9. Soft tissue damage after minimally invasive THA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oldenrijk, J.; Hoogland, P.V.J.M.; Tuijthof, G.J.M.; Corveleijn, R.; Noordenbos, T.W.H.; Schafroth, M.U.

    2010-01-01

    Methods 5 surgeons each performed a total hip arthroplasty on 5 fresh frozen cadaver hips, using either a MIS anterior, MIS anterolateral, MIS 2-incision, MIS posterior, or lateral transgluteal approach. Postoperatively, the hips were dissected and muscle damage color-stained. We measured proportion

  10. Damage resistance of dispersed-ply laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardar Abadi, P.M.; Jeliazkov, M.; Sebaey, T.A.; Lopes, C.S.; Abdalla, M.M.; Peeters, D.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design procedure of a quasi-isotropic (QI) laminate employing dispersion of ply orientations. The goal is to improve damage resistance of a laminate under low velocity impact (LVI). The LVI is treated as a quasi-static loading and instead of a plate a laminated beam is

  11. DNA damage in plant herbarium tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, M.; Cuenca, A.; Richardson, J.E.; Ginkel, R.V.; Petersen, G.; Seberg, O.; Bakker, F.T.

    2011-01-01

    Dried plant herbarium specimens are potentially a valuable source of DNA. Efforts to obtain genetic information from this source are often hindered by an inability to obtain amplifiable DNA as herbarium DNA is typically highly degraded. DNA post-mortem damage may not only reduce the number of amplif

  12. Radiation damage of polymers in ultrasonic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbalagan, Poornnima

    2008-07-01

    Radiation damage has always been a topic of great interest in various fields of sciences. In this work, an attempt is made to probe into the effect of subthreshold ultrasonic waves on the radiation damage created by irradiation of deuterons in polymer samples wherein the polymer samples act as model systems. Two equal volumes of radiation damage were produced in a single polymer sample wherein a standing wave of ultrasound was introduced into one. Three polymers namely, Polycarbonate, Polymethylmethacrylate and Polyvinyl chloride were used in this work. Four independent techniques were used to analyze the irradiated samples and visualize the radiation damage. Interferometric measurements give a measure of the refractive index modulation in the irradiated sample. Polymers, being transparent, do not absorb in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy shows absorption peaks in the visible region in irradiated polymer samples. Ion irradiation causes coloration of polymers. The light microscope is used to measure the absorption of white light by the irradiated polymers. Positron annihilation spectroscopy is used to obtain a measure of the open volume created by irradiation in polymers. A comparison between the irradiated region and the region exposed to ultrasonic waves simultaneously with irradiation in a polymer sample shows the polymer specific influence of the ultrasonic standing wave. (orig.)

  13. The structural strength of glass: hidden damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss “hidden damage” of glass by the rolling process, which results in heterogeneous distribution of microcracks on the edge surface of glass element, which are the fracture source deteriorating glass element strength. It is shown that removal of this damage on the edges of glass elements

  14. Frost damage of concrete subject to confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2016-01-01

    When internal frost damage is observed in real concrete structures, the usual pattern is cracks with a preferred orientation parallel to the exposed surface. When exposing concrete with poor frost resistance to a standardised freeze/thaw test in the laboratory, the orientations of the resulting...

  15. Combat Damage Control Resuscitation: Today and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    blood components to optimize hemostasis, the concept of permissive hypotension is used to decrease the bleeding from uncontrolled bleeding points, the...physiologic deterioration. The future of damage control resuscitation will most likely involve the refinement and customization of blood components for the

  16. 7 CFR 51.901 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following shall be considered as damage to stems: (1) Active powdery mildew or any other disease when...; (4) Almeria Spot when any spot is distinctly sunken or dark in color; (5) Mildew when active powdery mildew is present; (6) Freezing when the berry is frozen or when the flesh of the berry is affected...

  17. Hypochlorite-induced damage to nucleosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Stimulated monocytes and neutrophils generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of the enzyme myeloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide. HOCl is a key bactericidal agent, but can also damage host tissue. As there is a strong link between chronic inflammation and some cancers, we have investigated...

  18. Modelling of settlement induced building damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardina, G.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the modelling of settlement induced damage to masonry buildings. In densely populated areas, the need for new space is nowadays producing a rapid increment of underground excavations. Due to the construction of new metro lines, tunnelling activity in urban areas is growing.

  19. Damage spreading on networks: Clustering effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Z Z Guo; Xiao-Wei Wu; Chun-An Wang

    2007-04-01

    The damage spreading of the Ising model on three kinds of networks is studied with Glauber dynamics. One of the networks is generated by evolving the hexagonal lattice with the star-triangle transformation. Another kind of network is constructed by connecting the midpoints of the edges of the topological hexagonal lattice. With the evolution of these structures, damage spreading transition temperature increases and a general explanation for this phenomenon is presented from the view of the network. The relationship between the transition temperature and the network measure-clustering coefficient is set up and it is shown that the increase of damage spreading transition temperature is the result of more and more clustering of the network. We construct the third kind of network-random graphs with Poisson degree distributions by changing the average degree of the network. We show that the increase in the average degree is equivalent to the clustering of nodes and this leads to the increase in damage spreading transition temperature.

  20. Can Exercise Offset Alcohol's Damaging Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160853.html Can Exercise Offset Alcohol's Damaging Effects? Even gardening, brisk walking may reduce your risk ...