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Sample records for acao da radiacao

  1. Conhecendo as estrategias de acao e interacao utilizadas pelos clientes para o enfrentamento da dialise peritoneal

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    Felipe Kaezer dos Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo teve por objetivo apresentar as principais estratégias de ação e interação utilizadas pelos clientes portadores de doença renal crônica para o enfrentamento da diálise peritoneal. O referencial teórico utilizado foi o Interacionismo Simbólico, por ser um arcabouço que valoriza o significado da interação como determinante do comportamento humano. A Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados foi utilizada como referencial metodológico. Após a sua obtenção, realizada por meio de um roteiro de entrevista semi-estruturado, os dados foram gravados, transcritos, codificados e organizados para compor a teoria explicativa sobre o fenômeno estudado. Durante a análise foram identificados vários recursos utilizados pelos clientes, como a necessidade de obter informações sobre a diálise peritoneal, o refúgio na espiritualidade e a falsa ilusão da cura. Destaca-se também a importância da rede de apoio, em que o enfermeiro poderá atuar como facilitador do processo de enfrentamento, em prol da adaptação dos clientes à nova realidade.

  2. Effect of ionizing radiation on the morphology, physiology and growth of Leishmania ssp; Acao da radiacao ionizante sobre a morfologia, fisiologia e crescimento da Leishmania spp

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    Bonetti, Franco C.; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Junior A, Heitor F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Medicina Tropical

    2000-07-01

    The Leishmania spp is a pathogenic protozoan, which cause different diseases in man. The human diseases, in America, caused by this group of protozoa are divided in cutaneous or tegumentar and visceral, known as kala-azar. In this work, our principal study object was the specie that causes tegumentar leishmaniasis, in Brazil. Metabolic studies of cellular respiration and proteins and nucleic acids synthesis were accomplished using radiation as a form of sterilizing the parasites without however affecting their immunogenic capacity The promastigotes forms of irradiated Leishmania spp were totally sterilized with the dose of 1500 Gy, with their reproductive and nucleic acids, as well as protein synthesis capacity blocked. (author)

  3. Effects of cobalt-60 ionizing radiation on human erythrocyte and its membrane proteins; Acao da radiacao ionizante sobre hemacias humanas e suas proteinas de membrana

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    Amancio, Francisco Fernandes

    1998-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has several uses, as sterilization and radiotherapy, by its effects on living beings. recently, it has been used, at relatively lower doses (25 Gy), on blood for transfusions, mainly to eliminate undesirable graft host reactions, for use in multi transfused or immunocompromised patients. Here, we study the effect of larger doses of cobalt-60 ionizing radiation (25-1600 Gy) on human erythrocytes, by cytometric, physiologic, biochemical and immunological methods, looking for its effects and its detection. The red cells presented a clear dose-dependent increase in this volume, when irradiated in doses higher than 200 Gy, more significant in stored blood, but without hemolysis. Osmotic fragility was increased only after irradiation of more than 400 Gy. By ektacytometry, there was a lower deformability of irradiated red cells, at low stress (0.3 Pa), similar to capillary flow, but without alteration in higher stress (3 Pa), found in cardiac chambers. By SDS-PAGE, it was demonstrated that irradiated isolated erythrocyte membranes had aggregation of spectrin molecules, and decay of bands with lower molecular mass. This effect could be attributed to the radiation-induced hydroxyl radical, by specific scavenger studies. Those modifications were both antigenic and immunogenic in experimental animals, and the induced antibodies recognizes, by ELISA and immunoblot, both native or irradiated membrane proteins. They recognize rather irradiated whole erythrocyte than native ones, by hemagglutination, indirect immunofluorescence or flow cytometry assays. Our data suggests that human red cells could be irradiated at higher doses than those usually employed, with possible effect on other contaminant pathogens, without loss of viability of its use in transfusions. After improvements, irradiation induced epitopes detection could be a new tool in biological dosimetry. (author)

  4. Action of gamma radiation in the physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of minimally processed cassava (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ);Acao da radiacao gama nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas e sensoriais da mandioca (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ) minimamente processada

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    Simioni, Karime Raya

    2001-07-01

    Nowadays irradiation has been the most studied method of food conservation. The publication of thousand of papers, not just scientific but also technological, economical and social, have proved the technical validity of the irradiation method and showed the ways of how to introduce it in commercial facilities in ali countries of the modem world. Cassava is cultivated almost ali over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starving in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. Cassava is a quite perishable root, characterized by fast post harvest deterioration. Because of the lack of researches about the effects of radiations in this root, the objective of the present work was to examine the gamma radiation coming from {sup 60}Cobalt as a treatment to prolong the shelflife of the root after harvesting, aiming to increase its period of commercialization and to conserve its sensorial characteristics for a longer period. Samples were washed, peeled, cleaned and diced cassava roots packed in polyethylene bags. The treatments were: control; freezing and storage at 18 deg C for 21 days; and irradiation with the doses of 8 and 10 kGy. The control and the irradiated samples were stored under ambient temperature during 21 days. All samples were analyzed at each 7 days for alterations in the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 8 kGy was that less affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava and scored the highest notes in the sensorial analysis during the period of storage. It was concluded that the minimally processed cassava may be irradiated with the dose of 8 kGy and conserved under ambient temperature up to 21 days of storage without alterations in its characteristics. (author)

  5. Study of the combined action of gamma radiation and static electric fields in human cells; Estudo da acao combinada de radiacao gama e campo eletrico estatico em celulas humanas

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    Moron, Michelle Mendes

    2008-07-01

    The basic principle of radiotherapy is the one of maximizing damage to the tumor, while minimizing it in neighboring health tissues. Several strategies have been worked out aiming at increasing cellular radiosensitivity, and among them is the use of exogenous fields. Our goal in this work is the study in human cells of the effect resulting from the association of irradiation with exposure to exogenous static electric fields. The T47D cell line of breast cancer cells was irradiated with gammas in the 0 - 8 Gy doses range. The corresponding survival curve provided information on the radiosensitivity of this cell line. The rate of cell deaths per Gray in the 0 - 8 Gy range exhibited a maximum at 2 Gy, which corresponds to the most efficient irradiation dose. The viability of this T47D cells exposed to both gamma radiation and 1.250 V/cm static electric field (SEF) was about 12% lower than when only irradiated. The sole exposure of the cells to SEF by 24 and 72 hours didn't induce toxicity. Immunofluorescence runs carried out in irradiated normal MRC5 cell line of human lung fibroblast, without and with exposition to a SEF, have quantified the expression of the y- H2AX histone. The amount of phosphorylated histones was approximately 40% higher after irradiation with 2 Gy plus exposure to a SEF by 1 hour, showing that the electric field negatively interfered in the repairing process of the DNA double strand breaks. The flow cytometry analysis with FACS allowed the investigation of a possible interference of radiation and SEF in the cell distributions among the cellular cycle phases. It was found that in T47D cells treated with 1 and 2 Gy by 24 hours the SEF also negatively interfered in the DNA repairing process, as evidenced by the higher accumulation of cells in the S phase. Therefore, it would be possible to conclude that static and exogenous electric fields are able of negatively interfering in the cellular repair and, presumably, in DNA repair. (author)

  6. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao moluscicida de extratos de cajueiro em Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2013-08-15

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO{sub 3}) and negative (H{sub 2}O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  7. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao antioxidante de extratos brutos de folhas de Anacardium occidentale Linn.

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    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2014-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC{sub 50} of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants.

  8. Effect of the combined action of gamma radiation and static fields in human cells;Efeito da acao combinada de radiacao gama e campo eletrico estatico em celulas humanas

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    Moron, Michelle Mendes

    2008-07-01

    Our goal is the study in human cells of the effect resulting from the association of irradiation with exposure to exogenous static electric fields. The T47D cell line of breast cancer cells was irradiated with gammas in the 0 8 Gy doses range. The viability of this T47D cells exposed to both gamma radiation and 1.250 V/cm static electric field (SEF) was about 12% lower than when only irradiated. The sole exposure of the cells to SEF by 24 and 72 hours did not induce toxicity. Immunofluorescence runs carried out in irradiated normal MRC5 cell line of human lung fibroblast have quantified the expression of the g-H2AX histone. The amount of phosphorylated histones was approximately 40% higher after irradiation with 2 Gy plus exposure to a SEF by 1 hour, showing that the electric field negatively interfered in the repairing process of the DNA double strand breaks. The flow cytometry analysis with FACS showed that in T47D cells treated with 1 and 2 Gy by 24 hours the SEF also negatively interfered in the DNA repairing process, as evidenced by the higher accumulation of cells in the S phase. (author)

  9. Study of uptake and endocytosis of gamma rays-irradiated crotoxin by mice peritoneal macrophages; Avaliacao do mecanismo de captacao e endocitose de crotoxina submetida a acao da radiacao, por macrofagos peritoneais de camundongos

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    Cardi, Bruno Andrade

    1999-07-01

    The purpose was to investigate the uptake and endocytosis of 2000 Gy {sup 60}Co irradiated crotoxin through mouse peritoneal macrophages, correlating with native one and another non related protein, the ovalbumin. Native (CTXN) or 2000 Gy {sup 60} Co {gamma}-rays (dose rate 540 Gy/hour) irradiated crotoxin (CTXI) or ovalbumin processed of same manner (OVAN - OVAI) were offered to mouse peritoneal macrophages and their uptake was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative in situ ELISA. The involvement of scavenger receptors (ScvR) was evaluated by using blockers drugs (Probuco-PBC or Dextran Sulfate - SD) or with nonspecific blocking using fetal calf serum (FBS). The morphology and viability of macrophages were preserved during the experiments. CTXI showed irradiation-induced aggregates and formation of oxidative changing were observed on this protein after gamma rays treatment. By immunohistochemistry we could observe heavy stained phagocytic vacuole on macrophages incubated with CTXI, as compared with CTXN. Quantitatively by in situ ELISA, the sema pattern was observed, displaying a 2-fold CTXI incorporation. In presence of PBC or SD we could find a significant decrease of CTXI uptake but not of CTXN. However the CTXN uptake was depressed by FBS, not observed with CTXI. OVA, after gamma rays treatment, underwent a high degradation suffering a potent incorporation and metabolism by macrophages, with a major uptake of OVAI in longer incubation (120 minutes). Gamma rays ({sup 60} Co) produced oxidative changes on CTX molecule, leading to a uptake by ScvR-mice peritoneal macrophages, suggesting that the relation antigen-presenting cells and gamma rays-modified proteins are responsible for the better immune response presented by irradiated antigens. (author)

  10. Study of the action of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango pulp; Estudo da acao da radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co sobre Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli e Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris em polpa de manga congelada

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    Pereira, Marco Antonio dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    The application of non-thermal treatments has proven effective in inhibiting bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Mango is a fruit of national consumption with a great exportation potential. Meanwhile, outbreaks of food borne disease related to mango consumption caused mistrust on the degree of food security offered by the product. The objective of this work was to establish the radioresistance of bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Poona and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris on the mango pulp by the calculation of the D10 values and to know the radiation effect on the sensory characteristics of the fruit pulp. The microbiological profile of frozen mango pulp available at the local market was also established using conventional methods of plating and Most Probable Number (MPN). The pulps experimentally inoculated with the bacteria listed above were irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5kGy in a {sup 60}Co source. The sensory analysis was performed using a dose of 5 kGy, using the triangular test and the test of acceptance with hedonic scale. The results of this study show that the quality of mango pulp sell in the local market is not satisfactory in accordance with the standards established by the Brazilian law and the literature, showing the need of using other tools to achieve acceptable levels of quality. The D10 values obtained are in the range of 1.01 and 1.09kGy for E. coli ATCC 8739, 0.60 and 0.98kGy for S. poona and 0.72 e 0.88kGy for A. acidoterrestris respectively. The triangular test showed that a 5kGy radiation dose changed the sensory characteristics of mango pulp. Nevertheless, sensory analysis of a food product prepared with the irradiated pulp obtained good acceptance in the attributes of global appearance, flavor and aroma. (author)

  11. Study of the action of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango pulp;Estudo da acao da radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co sobre Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris em polpa de manga congelada

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    Pereira, Marco Antonio dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    The application of non-thermal treatments has proven effective in inhibiting bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Mango is a fruit of national consumption with a great exportation potential. Meanwhile, outbreaks of foodborne disease related to mango consumption caused mistrust on the degree of food security offered by the product. The objective of this work was to establish the radioresistance of bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Poona and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris on the mango pulp by the calculation of the D10 values and to know the radiation effect on the sensory characteristics of the fruit pulp. The microbiological profile of frozen mango pulp available at the local market was also established using conventional methods of plating and Most Probable Number (MPN). The pulps experimentally inoculated with the bacteria listed above were irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kGy in a {sup 60}Co source. The sensory analysis was performed using a dose of 5 kGy, using the triangular test and the test of acceptance with hedonic scale. The results of this study show that the quality of mango pulp sell in the local market is not satisfactory in accordance with the standards established by the Brazilian law and the literature, showing the need of using other tools to achieve acceptable levels of quality. The D10 values obtained are in the range of 1.01 and 1.09 kGy for E. coli ATCC 8739, 0.60 and 0.98 kGy for S. poona and 0.72 and 0.88 kGy for A. acidoterrestris respectively. The triangular test showed that a 5 kGy radiation dose changed the sensory characteristics of mango pulp. Nevertheless, sensory analysis of a food product prepared with the irradiated pulp obtained good acceptance in the attributes of global appearance, flavor and aroma. (author)

  12. The action of ionizing radiation on the morphology, physiology and growth of Leishmania Amazonensis, with evaluation of their immunogenic power in experimental models; Acao da radiacao ionizante sobre a morfologia, fisiologia e crescimento da Leishmania amazonensis, com avaliacao de seu poder imunogenico em modelos experimentais

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    Bonetti, Franco Claudio

    2002-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a disease which affects thousands of people in the Tropical regions around the world, is caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania spp., with urban and wild mammals acting as reservoirs. In the mammal host, the amastigote form of the parasite infects and multiplies into macrophages. Treatments for leishmaniasis have a high cost and are long lasting, frequently resulting in therapy interruption. This procedure culminates with a selection of resistant parasite strains, inducing tolerance to the therapy. Either the control of vectors or the mammal host are difficult due the social and economic implications. Thus, the search for alternatives treatments against these protozoans have been stimulated. The gamma radiation ({sup 60}CO) shown to be an efficient toll to kill these parasites maintaining their immunogenicity. Cellular viability, Electronically microscopy and Multiplex-PCR techniques showed that, after irradiation, the parasites had their growth inhibited by cytoplasmatic and nucleic material disorganisation, appointing the gamma radiation as important in terms of immunogens improvement. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the effect of low intensity laser radiation on the osseointegration of titanium implants inserted in rabbits' tibia; Avaliacao biomecanica da acao da radiacao laser em baixa intensidade no processo de osseointegracao de implantes de titanio inseridos em tibia de coelhos

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    Castilho Filho, Thyrso

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of low intensity laser irradiation on bone repair process after titanium implant surgeries performed in rabbits' tibia. Thirty three Norfolk rabbits were divided into three different groups according to the implant removal period (14, 21 and 42 days). Two titanium-pure implants were inserted one in each tibia and one side was randomly chosen to be irradiated. Irradiations were performed employing a GaAlAs laser ({lambda}=780 nm) during 10 seconds, with an energy density of 7.5 J/cm{sup 2} on 4 spots: above, bellow, on the right and on the left side of the implants with an interval between irradiations of 48 hours during 14 days. Animals were sacrificed according to the observation times, tibias were removed and the strength removal values recorded. Results showed that, for the 21 and 42 days sacrifices periods, the irradiated side presented a statistically higher implant strength removal values when compared to the non-irradiated side. (author)

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation of the {sup 60} Co on antimicrobial action of plant extracts of bark and leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi; Efeitos da radiacao gama do {sup 60} Co sobre a acao antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais de cascas e folhas de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

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    Silva, Edvane Borges da; Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Lima, Jeniffer Maiza de Souza [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (CAV/UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Xisto, Kesia; Araujo, Rosilma de Oliveira [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (DA/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential for antimicrobial activity in vitro of extracts of bark and leaves of S. terebinthifolius treated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. 5,0 doses were used; 7.5 and 10 kGy, being held non-irradiated controls. To determine the antimicrobial activity was applied to the disc diffusion technique to evaluate the diameter of the inhibition zones against Gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, alcohol-acid-resistant and yeast. Antimicrobial activity was considered significant for halos ≥ 15 mm. The results indicate an intensification of antimicrobial action of bark extracts, the 5.0 kGy, against S. aureus. Was held the micro dilution in broth to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of peels extracts, compared to eight clinical isolates of S. aureus. The MBC values showed that ionizing radiation did not produce the increased of anti bacteriostatic action of S. terebinthifolius, but the results indicated that S. terebinthifolius bark extracts can be used as an antimicrobial agent and ionizing radiation as an important alternative in this conservation feature.

  15. Study on the formation of the nanogel and microgels polypropylene modified by gamma radiation and incorporation of silver nanoparticles to biocides activity; Estudo da formacao de nanogeis e microgeis de polipropileno modificado por radiacao gama e incorporacao de nanoparticulas de prata visando a acao biocida

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    Oliani, Washington Luiz

    2013-07-01

    The study consists of the synthesis of HMSPP (polypropylene with high melt strength), also called polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation from iPP (isotactic polypropylene) in presence of acetylene at 110 kPa pressure and irradiated with γ of {sup 60}Co source at doses of 5, 12.5 and 20 kGy. The gel fraction of the samples was determined by extracting in xylene. The soluble portion of the samples was decanted to deposition on glass substrate until complete volatilization of xylene at room temperature of 25 °C. On the soluble portion of 12.5 kGy irradiated sample were added silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in proportions of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 wt%. These gel samples were characterized by: scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM / EDS), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with field emission (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), reduction of colony forming unit (CFU) (%) and cytotoxicity assay. In this study of the morphology, it has been observed the formation of microgels in polypropylene increasing with the dose PP 5 kGy < PP 12.5 kGy < 20 kGy. Nanoscale structures of gels polypropylene (nanogels and nanofibers) were found in samples of PP 12.5 kGy and 20 kGy. The nanogels are formation of crosslinking, branching and entanglement that are nucleated in regions of high energy concentration (spurs) of one irradiated sample. Efficiency in tests of bactericide activity of the gels with AgNPs was observed versus E. coli and S. aureus from 1% AgNPs and non cytotoxicity were characterized in those samples for mammalian cells. In a second stage of this work films of the blend of PP and modified PP (50/50) were produced in a twin screw extruder. AgNPs were added to the extrusion processing in proportions of 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 1.0 PVP; 2.0 and 4.0 wt%. The films obtained were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), reduction of colony forming unit (CFU) (%), antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and cytotoxicity assay. The films analyzed showed agglomeration of silver points and regions with homogeneous distribution of the particles. The bactericide effect with the interaction between silver and E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus was found for PP film 1% NPsAg Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). In the diffusion test for PP 1% AgNPs (PVP) was obtained 100% positive result for those bacteria. The films were not cytotoxic to mammalian cells. (author)

  16. Action of microwave radiation in emulsion of oil demulsification by copolymers of poly (ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide); Acao da radiacao micro-ondas na desemulsificacao de emulsoes de petroleo por copolimeros de poli(oxido de etileno-b-oxido de propileno)

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    Ferreira, Bianca M.S.; Ramalho, Joao B.V.; Guimaraes, Regina C.L.; Guarnieri, Ricardo A. [Petrobras Petroleo Brasileiro - CENPES/TPEP/TPP, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: bmachado@petrobras.com.br; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria do Petroleo,Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    Emulsions of water-in-petroleum are generally formed during crude oil production. The emulsion needs to be destabilized, along the process in the production units, so as to allow the water-oil separation. This process is accomplished by heating and addition of demulsifier, like poly (ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide) which promotes the removal of the natural emulsifier from the water droplets interfaces. Normally, the conventional heating is used, but the microwave radiation has been suggested to heat de emulsions. The results obtained in this work show that microwave radiation can really enhance the demulsification rate of petroleum emulsions by gravitational mechanism. It is also shown that demulsification enhancement is greatly related to the selective and higher heating of the water phase induced by the microwave radiation, which causes the lowering of the interfacial film rigidity and the increase of the film drainage, after the demulsifier is added to the dispersed system. It was also observed that the higher the density, viscosity, acidity and asphaltenes content of the crude oil, the lower the demulsification rate. (author)

  17. ["When the ad is good, the product is sold." The MonitorACAO Project and drug advertising in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jussara Calmon Reis de Souza

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis on drug advertising in Brazil, based on the final report of the MonitorACAO Project, by the group from the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Due to a partnership between the university and the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA), drug advertisements were monitored and analyzed for one year, according to the methodology defined by the Agency. The samples were collected in medical practices and hospitals, drugstores, pharmacies and in scientific magazines. TV and radio programs were monitored, in the case of OTC drugs. 159 advertisements referring to pharmaceuticals were sent to ANVISA,from a total of 263 irregular ads analyzed between October 2004 and August 2005. The main problems found were the poor quality of drug information to health professionals, as well as misleading drug use to lay population. Based on the results of this project and on other studies, the banning of drug advertising in Brazil is proposed. PMID:21936168

  18. Effect of metal complexation to anti-inflammatory over the action against oxidative and free radicals: ketoprofen action; Efeito da complexacao de metais aos antiinflamatorios na acao contra agentes oxidativos e radicais livres: acao do cetoprofeno

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    Manente, Francine Alessandra; Mello, Lucas Rosolen de Almeida; Vellosa, Jose Carlos Rebuglio [UEPG, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Analises Clinicas eToxicologicas, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Khalil, Omar Arafat Kdudsi [IFG, Instituto Federal de Goias, Campus de Formosa, Formosa - GO (Brazil); Carvalho, Claudio Teodoro de [UFGD, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Faculdade de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologias, Dourados-MS (Brazil); Bannach, Gilbert [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Faculdade de Ciencias de Bauru, Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Free radicals are highly reactive species generated in living organisms for the purpose of protection. However, in some circumstances, they are responsible for the occurrence or aggravation of tissue damage. Many anti-inflammatory drugs have a direct effect on free radicals and not radical reactive species, which contributes to its actions against inflammation. Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent that generates free radicals by photo irradiation and has an important hemolytic effect with that. The complexation of metals to different drugs has been used as a strategy to improve the pharmacological action of different molecules and reduce their side effects. This paper presents the results of ketoprofen and their metallic complexes action on erythrocytes and free radicals. It was observed that the cerium enhances the scavenger properties of ketoprofen on free radicals, while copper enhances its action over non-radical oxidants. Copper also reduced the hemolytic effect presented by ketoprofen meanwhile its cerium derivative maintained it. (author)

  19. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  20. Influence of ionizing radiation on Trypanosoma cruzi; Influencia da radiacao ionizante sobre o Trypanosoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szarota, Rosa Maria

    2006-07-01

    Chagas's disease is one of the major public health problems in South America, promoting high prejudice to the local population. Despite the massive efforts to control it, this disease has no cure and presents puzzling unsolved questions. Considering that many researchers have used ionizing radiation to modify protozoans or biomolecules, we investigated the immunological response aspects of susceptible and resistant mice using irradiated parasites. Low radiation doses preserved the reproductive and invasive capacities of the parasite. Both susceptible and resistant animals, after immunization with irradiated parasites produced specific antibodies. After a challenge, the animals presented low parasitaemia, excepting those immunized with the antigen irradiated with higher doses. Using low radiation doses, we were able to selectively isolate trypomastigotes, leading to an improvement in the quality of the immune response, as previously reported when performing complement system assays. These data highlight the importance of selecting trypomastigote forms for immunization against T. cruz; and point towards ionizing radiation as an alternative to achieve this selection, since when this procedure is performed using complement, the subsequent steps are impaired by the difficulties to remove this component from the system. (author)

  1. Regulation of use of radiation for quarantine purposes; Regulamentacao do uso da radiacao para fins quarentenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael Marcio, E-mail: natanael.itepan@unianhanguera.edu.b [Faculdade Anhanguera, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges, E-mail: neivaldo@cena.usp.b, E-mail: gilfurlan@cena.usp.b, E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The main aspects of Instruction No. 9 are: a) the nuclear plant that use ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for quarantine purposes, must be accredited by the agency of the Agriculture, Livestock and Supply Ministry (MAPA) and the licensing by the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) and other regulatory bodies, b) control of the applied dose will follow a standard operating procedure should be performed by independent organization, authorized by the Brazilian ONPF (Phyto sanitary Protection National Organization), c) the unit of radiation treatment should ensure traceability and must maintain records of phyto sanitary treatments, d) there should be bilateral work plan between the ONPF of Brazil and other countries for the established radiation treatment protocol. The ONPF of Brazil is the Sanitary Vegetarian Department. Ionizing radiation (cold pasteurization) is shown in an alternative technology to phyto sanitary control for quarantine purposes. (author)

  2. Fortified foods, new opportunity for irradiation application; Alimentos fortificados. Nova oportunidade para a aplicacao da radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Sabato, Susy F.; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    One of the most important steps, in order to improve the quality of foodstuffs, in the last forty years is represented by fortified foods. The fortification foods means complementary addition of nutrients to content of foodstuffs. The macro-nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) are relativity steady when submitted to irradiation. The micro-nutrients, speciality the vitamins, can be sensible to any method. This work has analysed fortified foods with Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, vitamin A, riboflavine, vitamin C and folic acid , as well as, the perspective of adjusting the food irradiation process with fortification foods.

  3. Models in the estimate of the diffuse solar radiation; Modelos de estimativa da radiacao solar difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recieri, Reinaldo Prandini; Ferruzzi, Yuri; Silva, Suedemio de Lima [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Agricola; Quallio, Silvana [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Biologia; Batista, Vitor Roberto Lourenco [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica

    2004-07-01

    In this work we evaluate, by means of polynomial regression analysis, several models that relate the diffuse fraction of the global radiation (K{sub d}) with the clearness index (K{sub t}). The experiment was conducted in the Solar Radiometry Station of Cascavel/PR from the first of January to the 31st of December, in the year of 2001. The solar radiation components were monitored by the following manufactured instruments: pyranometer (KIPP and ZONEN CM3) and pirheliometer (EPPLEY NIP) connected in a sun tracker (ST-1 model). A datalogger CR10X from the CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC was used in the data acquisition. This datalogger was programmed in the frequency of 1 Hz storing an average of 5 minutes of collected data. Among the equations the best values of RMSE an MBE were find in the fourth and third degrees, respectively. We also find that the fourth degree polynomial equation (K{sub d}=1,172-1,001K{sub t}+3,992K{sub t}{sup 2}-11,742K{sub t}{sup 3}+7,698K{sub t}{sup 4}) generalizes the utilization of equations for diffuse solar radiation estimation. This means that this equation probably can be applied for any place and climatic conditions. (author)

  4. Toxicity attenuation of ophidian venoms by ionizing radiation; Atenuacao da toxicidade de venenos ofidicos por meio da radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogero, Jose Roberto; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radiobiologia

    1997-07-01

    A brief introduction about some species of Brazilian snakes, their habits and the treatment available is presented. A new immunization technique using gamma radiation is studied. Its described that irradiated toxins inoculated in mice does not cause any tissue damage (hemorrhage) at the intake region. It is observed that the irradiation detoxicate the venoms. The study intends to minimize the suffering of the animal which produces the serum as well as to increase the production of serums for use in domestic animals attacked by venomous snakes

  5. Study of the ultrasonic waves action on the preparation of calcium aluminates cements; Estudo da acao das ondas ultrasonicas na sintese de cimentos de aluminatos de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, R.R.; Exposito, C.C.D.; Rodrigues, J.A., E-mail: josear@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/GEMM/UFScar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais. Grupo de Engenharia de Microestrutura de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    Calcium aluminates cements were prepared through a route that uses the sonochemical process. In this process, calcia and alumina in an aqueous suspension are put under an ultrasonic bath during some time. After that, the water is evaporated and the material is heat treated. In this work, the action of ultrasonic waves were studied on initials molar compositions calcia:alumina of 1:1. It was also verified the influence of the water on the reactivity of initial solids. SEM and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the obtained materials. In addition, mechanical strength of the products was evaluated through splitting tensile tests. The X-ray diffractograms showed that the presence of the water was enough to form hydrated compounds. However the material subjected to the sonochemical process presented the highest mechanical strength, indicating the potential of this route of synthesis. (author)

  6. Synergy and lubricant effect of biosurfactant/biodiesel addition in polymeric fluids; Acao lubrificante e sinergia da adicao de biosurfactante/biodiesel em fluidos polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Suzan I.G.; Costa, Marta; Macedo, Sinara P.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The lubricity coefficient (CL) and filtrate volume of the polymeric drilling fluids contained glycerin, paraffin, biodiesel and biosurfactant were investigated to evidence the influence and efficiency when used individually or through associated. All the tested fluids were aged in rotative oven for 16 hours, at 200 deg F. In this study, the association of biodiesel with biosurfactant proved to be promising because it reduced the CL in 87% and the volume of filtered by 22%. Those results become promising when the applicability is approached in perforation of wells, because it means a smaller wear and tear of the drills when we told the lubricity data, and a smaller damage the formation when we provided a smaller invasion of the perforation fluid the formations. To evaluate the effect of the degradation of the products, the fluids were stocked to room temperature by thirty (30) days, being soon afterwards. That time of stockpiling went ideal to the hydration of the molecules, because its viscosity was alters sensibly and influencing positively in the filtrate and in rheologic mediated. (author)

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on the poly(vinyl alcohol); Efeito da radiacao gama no poli(vinil alcool)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence, M.C. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Guedes, S.M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: mterence@usp.br

    2000-07-01

    The poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) is a polymer used as bio material. The PVAL was used as ocular insert and may be used as a drug delivery system (DDS) for pair PVAL/gancyclovir, where the last one is used for treatment of people with retinitis caused by cytomegalovirus. These inserts are crosslinked systems. The crosslink was induced by gamma radiation applied in polymer. The samples of PVAL was irradiated by gamma rays with doses in the range 0 to 100 kGy. On irradiated PVAL samples was observed a low yellowness, attributed to the formation of polymeric radicals that are stable in the structure of the polymer, from radiolysis of PVAL. (author)

  8. Effects of the ionizing radiation in natural food colours; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante em corantes naturais de uso alimenticio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosentino, Helio Morrone

    2005-07-01

    The world's fast growing population and its consequent increase in demand for food has driven mankind into improving technologies which ensure a safer supply of such commodities. Both food radiation processing and its constituents are highlighted as a feasible alternative technique capable of meeting food safety standards. Natural dyes are extensively employed in the food industry thanks to their colour enhancing properties on food products. This paper has aimed at studying the effects of ionizing radiation on three natural dyes: carminic acid and its derivatives (cochineal dyes), bixine and its salts (annatto dyes) and curcumin (turmeric dyes), used in the food and cosmetic industries within dilutions and doses those goods might eventually be processed in. It also envisages clarifying the compatibility of the irradiation technique with the keeping of such relevant sensorial attribute which is the product colour. Spectrophotometry and capillary electrophoresis were the analytic methods employed. All in all, a colour decrease proportional to the increase on the applied gamma radiation (1 to 32 kGy) has been observed. The annatto dyes have proven moderately stable whereas turmeric has shown to be highly sensitive to radiation. Those results shall be taken into account as far as the need to alter the formulae additive amount in the product is concerned whenever undergoing radiation processing. (author)

  9. Effect of gamma radiation in the ripening period of prato cheese; Efeito da radiacao gama na maturacao do queijo prato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Erika Maria Roel

    2001-07-01

    The Prato (cheese washed dough) is one of the must popular cheese of Brazil and must be ripening for 45 to 60 days for to reach characteristics of flavors and texture. The present work studied the effect of gamma radiation in the ripening period of Prato cheese. Two periods of irradiation was studied, in first day and 15{sup th} day of ripening. The cheese was irradiated with doses of 0 (non-irradiated), 1, 2, 3 and 4 kGy at a rate of 0,9696 kGy/h from a cobalto-60 source in the period referred and stored at 10-12 deg C and +- 85% RH for 60 days. The physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics and organoleptic properties were analysed every each 15 days of ripening. Through of the results observed that with the increase of the dose of radiation, decreased the total microbial count and that the irradiation retarded the ripening according to increase of the dose, this probability of the destruction of bacterial lactic. The greatest difference found was in the colour according the increasing of the dose, the cheese was more colorless, less yellow and red. Which the organoleptic properties verified that with the increase of the dose of radiation, there was a lost about the color. The cheese increase the firmness, became dryer and less creamy and tasted flavors less intense, a little more bitter and smoking compared with a control. Even though about these differences there was no refuse of Prato cheese, among the sensorial group for irradiated cheese until 2 kGy. (author)

  10. Characterization of ionizing radiation effects on human skin allografts; Caracterizacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em pele humana para aloenxerto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourroul, Selma Cecilia

    2004-07-01

    The skin has a fundamental role in the viability of the human body. In the cases of extensive wounds, allograft skin provides an alternative to cover temporarily the damaged areas. After donor screening and preservation in glycerol (above 85%), the skin can be stored in the Skin Banks. The glycerol at this concentration has a bacteriostatic effect after certain time of preservation. On the other hand, skin sterilization by ionizing radiation may reduces the quarantine period for transplantation in patients and its safety is considered excellent. The objectives of this work were to establish procedures using two sources of ionizing radiation for sterilization of human skin allograft, and to evaluate the skin after gamma and electron beam irradiation. The analysis of stress-strain intended to verify possible effects of the radiation on the structure of preserved grafts. Skin samples were submitted to doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy in an irradiator of {sup 60}Co and in an electron beam accelerator. Morphology and ultra-structure studies were also accomplished. The samples irradiated with a dose of 25 kGy seemed to maintain the bio mechanic characteristics. The gamma irradiated samples with a dose of 50 kGy and submitted to an electron beam at doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy presented significant differences in the values of the elasticity modulus, in relation to the control. The analysis of the ultramicrographies revealed modifications in the structure and alterations in the pattern of collagen fibrils periodicity of the irradiated samples. (author)

  11. Evaluation of measurement methods for diffuse solar radiation; Avaliacao de metodos de medicao da radiacao solar difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricieri, Reinaldo Prandini; Escobedo, Joao Francisco; Almeida Frisina, Valeria de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais

    1998-07-01

    The evaluation results from measuring methods of the diffuse solar radiation, disc and shadow ring are described compared to the method by difference between the global radiation and the direct radiation projected in a horizontal plane. The disc method is dependent on the diffuse radiation anisotropy, with an average relative deviation around 7.1% with percentages according to the sky cover; 11.56% for open sky days; 4.8% for partly cloudy days and 2.43% for cloudy days. The shadow ring method is also sky cover dependent with an average relative deviation 8.0% ranging from 8.99% for open sky days; 7.70% for partly cloudy and 2.5% for cloudy days. (author)

  12. The unconstitutionality of the environmental compensation: an analyse of the ADIn (Direct Action of Unconstitutionality) 3378; A inconstitucionalidade da compensacao ambiental: uma analise da ADIn (Acao Direta de Inconstitucionalidade) 3378

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Marcio Monteiro; Masseli, Sandro [Siqueira Castro Advogados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor Regulatorio e Ambiental

    2008-07-01

    The following paper aims to analyze the judgment of a specific Direct Action of Unconstitutionality ('ADI') filed by the Brazilian National Industry Confederation regarding the constitutionality of environmental compensation fee as disposed by Law 9.985. Such ADI was also sponsored by the Brazilian Oil, Gas and Biofuels Institute ('IBP') as 'amicus curiae'. In light of this, an environmental compensation timeline will be presented in order to support its charging evolution. By doing this we will be in a position to balance economic development and environment. (author)

  13. Effects of the gamma radiation in the refrigerated bovine meat conservation.; Efeitos da radiacao gama na conservacao da carne bovina refrigerada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Carlos Otavio

    2004-07-01

    The meat is one of our largest alimentary source of proteins, however it is bad distributed and bad taken advantage by the population in general. Some segments of the society with excess of foods and other with lack, it generated in these last ones the drama of the hunger. Today there are about 800 million people (13% of the world population) malnourished, that they live in more than 30 countries, almost in totality concentrated in Africa and Asia. But that drama also reaches our own country. Make it arrive to this segment of the less favored population, that is usually in difficult access areas, a food with nutritional quality for the consumption is the great challenge of our society. the objective is increase the shelf life of the food, maintaining their nutritional and sensorial characteristics preserved. By this way, it becomes also a challenge to protect the meat of pathogenic microorganisms and eliminate those might have been installed in the animal still alive or during the manipulation in the meat industry before arriving for the consumption. The use of the gamma radiation allowed to guarantee the product quality in the total absence of the studied pathogenic microorganisms in this project, maintaining the initials organoleptics characteristics (sensorial and physiochemical) for a large period that the one specified by the legislation, increasing this way it shelf life. The sensorial analysis indicated that until the dose of 6,0 kGy there is no alteration in the flavor and with the dose of 8,0 kGy the meat acquired a light smoked flavor, but in the appearance, aroma and texture attributes no confirmed any alterations. The color of the irradiated meat in the used doses didn't present color change compared to the no irradiated meat. The microbiological analysis pretended to verify the elimination of the pathogenic microorganisms: Salmonella ssp, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Clostridium sulphite reducers, as specified in the Resolution RDC no. 12, ANVISA 02/01/2001. The necessary dose for the elimination of the Salmonella ssp and the Bacillus cereus was of 4,0 kGy and for the other microorganisms the dose of 2,0 kGy was enough. The storage test involved a maintenance period of the product for 0, 7, 14,21 and 28 days to the temperature of 7 deg C, as specify the Portaria number 304, DIPOA 22/04/1996, being verified the physicochemical characteristics in meat irradiated with the dose of 8,0 kGy in comparison with the fresh no irradiated meat. The alterations were observed in the Acidity that increased in the period in 5,5% and 12% in comparison with the no irradiated meat; Peroxyde were only detected in the irradiated meat and they stayed constant during the period; the Lipids increased significantly in the beginning of the period arriving to 113% above the no irradiated meat, it decreased during the period and at the end it presented an index of 51% below the no irradiated meat. Finally, Creatinine increases significantly in the irradiated meat, but it stayed constant during the period. The sensorial analysis in the storage test of meat samples irradiated with 4,0 kGy and 8,0 kGy was not verified alterations between the stored and the recently irradiated samples. (author)

  14. Gamma radiation use on the aging of sugar cane spirit; Uso da radiacao gama no envelhecimento da aguardente de cana de acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, Julio M. M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia; Spoto, Marta H. F.; Novaes, Fernando V.; Alcarde, Andre R. [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the influence of gamma radiation on the aging of sugarcane spirit. Samples of sugarcane spirit (cachaca ) were irradiated in a Gammabeam Cobalt-60 source with doses between 0 (control) and 300 Gy, with 50 Gy increasing. The irradiated samples were offered to 5 expert judges for sensorial tests using the comparison: irradiated versus control. The chemical volatile components of the irradiated spirit were determined using a gas chromatograph. Sensorial tests elected the dose of 150 Gy as the best for sugarcane spirit irradiation based on its flavour and bouquet. These sensorial characteristics were due to the chemical changes observed in esters, aldehydes and higher alcohol's concentrations. The samples irradiated with 250 and 300 Gy developed a bitter taste and an 'oxidized' flavour. A second experiment was carried out using single and twice-distilled sugarcane spirit, normal aged in oak barrels or not, or added with oak extract. Samples were irradiated with the dose of 150 Gy and scored by the same sensorial analysis methodology. All irradiated samples had their flavour improved. The irradiation of the non-maturated twice-distilled sugarcane spirit produced a flavour compared to spirits maturated during one year of normal aging. (author)

  15. Evaluation of X ray attenuation by means of radiographic images; Avaliacao da atenuacao da radiacao X por meio de imagens radiograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Frieda Saicla, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Paredes, Ramon S.C., E-mail: ramon@ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.co [Faculdade de Tecnologia Camoes (FATEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza, Gabriel Pinto de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper's main goal is to adopt a qualitative methodology to evaluate the attenuation of x-radiation through X-ray images in polymeric materials plus residual lead. To determinate the images it was initially used an experimental setup at the Laboratory for Materials Diagnostics LACTEC. These results correspond to a more qualitative analysis, even with quantitative answers. Through analysis of radiographic images we can measure the intensity of radiation that goes through the plate, making possible to establish a relationship between the attenuation coefficient and the thickness of the material. (author)

  16. Gamma radiation in some microbiological and biochemical parameters of ethanolic fermentation.; Efeito da radiacao gama em alguns parametros microbiologicos e bioquimicos da fermentacao alcoolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation in reducing the bacterial population of the sugar cane must and verify its influence in the ethanolic fermentation. For this purpose, some microbiological and biochemical parameters of the ethanolic fermentation were analyzed, such as bacterial count; viability, replication and living replicates of the yeast; p H, acidity (total and volatile), glycerol and production of organic acids (acetic, lactic and succinic) during the fermentation; and fermentative yield. Bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Lactobacillus are the most common contaminants of the ethanolic fermentation and they might cause a decrease in the fermentative yield. The ionizing radiations may affect the microorganisms altering the DNA of the cells, which lose the ability to reproduce themselves and die. The experimental design was in randomized blocks (three) with one replicate in each block. The must was sugar-cane juice with approximately 5% of total reducing sugar. Bacteria of the following species were tested: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. The experiments were the inoculation of each bacteria separately in the must, the inoculation of the mixture of the four bacteria in the must and the use of natural sugar-cane juice with its own contaminating microorganisms. The contaminated must was irradiated with the doses of 0.0 (control), 2.0,4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation (60-Cobalt) at an average rate of 2.0 kGy/h. After the irradiation, the fermentation of the must was carried out using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fleischmann). It was also accomplished an experiment with the inoculation of the mixture of the four bacteria in the must and, instead of using gamma radiation to decontaminate the must, it was used the antimicrobial Kamoran ID in the concentration of 3 ppm. The effects of the irradiation of the must were: reduction of the bacterial population that contaminated the must decrease of the total acidity, the volatile acidity, the p H drop and the production of the organic acids (acetic, lactic and succinic) during the fermentation; increased of the viability, the replication and the percentage of living replicates of the yeast after fermentation; and increased of the fermentative yield. The treatment of the sugar-cane must with gamma radiation reduced its bacterial population, with consequent improved of the microbiological and biochemical parameters of the ethanolic fermentation, including the fermentative yield. The irradiation of the must was a better treatment than the use of the antimicrobial Kamoran ID in the fermentation because the yeast in the experiment with the antimicrobial presented smaller viability, replication and percentage of living replicates than in the experiment with the irradiated must. (author)

  17. Ionizing radiation effects on volatiles formation in Camellia sinensis (L) teas; Efeito da radiacao ionizante na formacao de volateis em chas da planta Camellia sinensis (L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo Bernardes

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white, green, oolong and black teas. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at {sup 60}Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydro distillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The results show that the volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. The white tea showed less influence of ionizing radiation, as 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all doses of radiation and formed 47.53% of new compounds after irradiation. The green tea was the tea that has the greatest influence of radiation effects, increasing 66.12% of volatiles identified in relation to the control sample and only 21.77% of volatiles found naturally were resistant to all doses of radiation. The oolong tea, despite suffering a partial enzymatic treatment, was the second tea that has least interference of radiation in increasing the formation of new volatile. >From this tea, was able to detect 49.59% of new compounds after irradiation and 30.08% of the compounds found naturally were also found after irradiation. The black tea has the second greatest influence of radiation on formation of new volatile (60.94%) and only 17.97% of all identified compounds were not degraded after radiation. (author)

  18. Evaluation of polymer efficiency on the inhibition of calcium carbonate scale in synthetic brines; Avaliacao da acao de polimeros sobre a inibicao de incrustacoes de carbonato de calcio em salmouras sinteticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Juliana M.; Rodrigues, Jessica S.; Loureiro, Tatiana S.; Lucas, Elizabete F.; Spinelli, Luciana S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: julianamatos@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The inorganic scale results in serious problems for oil production. This scale results from the incompatibility between the chemical compositions of formation water and injection, and the changes of thermodynamic system. These deposits consist mainly of calcium carbonate and barium sulfate. In order to prevent the formation of these deposits, the petroleum industry has made use of chemicals that act as scale inhibitors. The aim of this study was to test the ability of two types of polymeric inhibitors prevent the formation of calcium carbonate from brines of different compositions with high concentrations of calcium. The inhibitors were tested at varying concentrations and at fixed conditions of temperature, pH, pressure and time. The estimated effectiveness of each inhibitor was measured by complexometric titration. The inhibitor carboxylic acid-based (poly (maleic acid)) was more efficient at relatively low concentrations, which is important both economically and environmentally. (author)

  19. Clinical and morphologic evaluation of Er:YAG laser action at the front of cervical dentinal hypersensitivity; Avaliacao clinica e morfologica da acao do laser de Er:YAG frente a hipersensibilidade dentinaria cervical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Dalva Maria

    2001-07-01

    This work was achieved in vivo and in vitro to evaluate the efficiency of Er:YAG laser in the cervical dentinal hypersensitivity treatment (HSDC). The Clinical study was achieved in patients with HSDC. The treatment was realized in five sessions: the first for selection, the second for exams (clinic and X-Ray) and trying to remove the etiologic factors that could cause the HSDC. The third and fourth sessions were subjected to the radiation with that protocol: 60 mJ energy ,2 Hz frequency, 6 mm out of focus, under air cooling, 20 seconds each application which the same was repeated four times with one minute breaks, which scanning movements and without using anaesthetics. The fifth was evaluation. The patients were evaluated and registered in a subject scale of pain 0 to 3, in the beginning and end of each session of irradiation, and one month after the last session. The results showed that for the irradiated group occurs significant differences in the beginning of each session and between. For the control group did not occur significant differences in the beginning and after each session, but did show a difference between the sessions. As the control group as the irradiated group, had reduction of sensibility between the session. For the morphologic study nine teeth were selected, 7 molars and 2 pre-molars from operative dentistry discipline. Half of the surface was irradiated with Er:YAG laser, the same protocol used in vivo, and the other half was used as a control without receiving any laser irradiation. Subsequently, specimens were prepared for SEM examinations. The results showed that laser treated surfaces showed a reduction of dentine tubular diameter with partial or total closure of the dentine tubules. For the control group, it was observed bigger amounts smear layer and open dentine tubular. The results obtained indicated that the Er:YAG laser can contribute to the HSDC treatment. (author)

  20. Experimental study of the uranium mobility due to the weathering action at the uraniferous district of Caetite/Lagoa Real, Bahia, Brazil; Estudo experimental da mobilidade do uranio por acao intemperica, distrito uranifero de Caetite/Lagoa Real, Bahia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scislewski, Alexandro Rocha

    2004-01-15

    In the present research, the proposal was to develop a preliminary study about the geochemical behavior of determined chemical elements, mainly the uranium, during the action of weathering processes in the rocks that bear the uranium mineralizations of the Caetite-Lagoa Real region, State of Bahia, more specifically of the Jazida Cachoeira uranium mine. To reach this purpose were used samples that represent several stages of the milling process of the uranium ore, so selecting representatives of the host rock, the ore and the treated ore (waste from the milling plant) to be used in the laboratory-controlled experiments. The samples were dried, sieved and finally introduced in the reactors, these adapted from the Flow-Through Reactor of Brantley and Chen. In the geochemical point of view, the results of the experiments showed a distinct behavior between the samples. It was observed that the treated ore, in relation to the host rocks of the ore and the own ore, shown a faster and homogeneous interaction with the leaching solution; it was also noted that in the output solution of the treated ore samples existed a significant complexation of the uranium by the sulfate (S0{sub 4}{sup -2}), ), instead of the non treated samples (host rock and ore) that were complexed mainly by the carbonate (C0{sub 3}{sup -2}). These different results are attributed to the alterations imposed to the rock during the milling process, and occur mainly, during the acid attack in the leaching process of the milling plant. The results and conclusions of this research, in spite of been preliminary, are essential to understand the behavior of the geochemical speciation of the effluent solutions; to understand the alterations of a rock matrix, and finally, to understand the migration chemical behavior of the related chemical elements. It is expected that these results contribute, in the future, to a deeper knowledge of the processes that control the chemical composition of the natural waters from this region in the southwest of Bahia, sites of important and strategic mineral exploitation activities. (author)

  1. 'In vitro' study of the efficacy of diode laser and LED irradiation during dental bleaching; Estudo 'in vitro' da acao do LED e laser de diodo no clareamento dental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Marcia Cristina da Silva

    2003-07-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of LED and laser diode irradiation during the dental bleaching procedure, using two bleaching agents (Opalescence X-tra and HP Whiteness). The diode laser and the LED were operated in the continuous mode, with wavelength of 808 nm and 470 nm, respectively. The results of the irradiations were characterized with the CIELAB system calculating the L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *} values for the darkened and the bleached teeth (60 bovine incisors). This is to our knowledge the first time that light sources laser and LED are compared with respect to their whitening capability when applied to different agents. Significant differences in the chroma value are obtained for the two whitening agents and for the different light sources, too. Also, in terms of luminance, the combination of laser/ Whiteness HP showed significantly better results than when the same agent was used alone or in combination with LED. Best overall results are obtained with the combination of Whiteness HP and laser. (author)

  2. The use of HPLC in the control of Neem commercial products quality: reproduction of the insecticide action; Uso de CLAE no controle de qualidade em produtos comerciais de Nim: reprodutibilidade da acao inseticida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forim, Moacir Rossi; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Cass, Quezia Bezerra; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista, E-mail: mrforim@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides. However, the efficiency in field of products like neem oil can be committed because they have not been observed reproductive content of secondary metabolic like azadirachtin. Based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) a new method was developed to permit the rapid quantitative analysis of azadirachtin from seeds, extracts and oil of Neem. In the present study it was evaluated the azadirachtin quantitative variation among various Neem's extracts and seeds showing the importance of quality control for reproduction of the insecticide efficiency, using S. frugiperda as target insect. (author)

  3. Study of crotoxin mechanism of action to mammary carcinomas and evaluation of its potential as a radiopharmaceutical; Estudo do mecanismo de acao da crotoxina em tumores mamarios e avaliacao do seu potenctial radiofarmaceutico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Marina Bicalho

    2010-07-01

    Crotoxin, the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, has been studied since 1938. It is a natural polypeptidic complex with pharmacological potential because of its antitumoral properties which has attracted great interest for diagnosis and therapy of oncological diseases. However, Crotoxin mechanism of action and sites of specific interaction on tumor cells are still misunderstood. Breast cancer is the second most frequent type in the world and the most common cancer in women. About 30 to 60% of mammary tumors overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a transmembrane protein related to cell proliferation. Since literature has reported that Crotoxin antitumoral effect is more potent on cells with EGFR overexpression the objectives of this work were to evaluate Crotoxin cytotoxic effects on mammary tumor cells human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and Ehrlich tumor cells (murine ascitics carcinoma), and to investigate the specific molecular interaction of Crotoxin on Ehrlich tumor cells. Initially, Crotoxin was radiolabelled with iodine-125 ({sup 125}I-Crotoxin) and iodine-131 ({sup 131}I-Crotoxin). Saturation and competition assay were carried out to characterize Crotoxin in vitro interaction; Crotoxin biodistribution studies and singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) of mice bearing Ehrlich tumor have been evaluated to describe in vivo interaction. Our results showed that Crotoxin presented cytotoxic effect against Ehrlich with DL{sub 50} in vitro (concentration of compound which is lethal for 50% of cells) of about one micromolar, but did not present significant effect against MCF-7. Morphological alterations characteristic of apoptosis suggests programmed cell death. {sup 125}I-Crotoxin interaction with Ehrlich tumor cells was saturable with approximately 70% specificity, and presented K{sub d}=24.98 nmol/L and B{sub max}=16,570 sites/cell for low affinity binding sites and K{sub d}=0.06 nmol/L and B{sub max}=210 sites/cell high affinity binding sites; moreover, the radiolabeled polypeptide interaction showed low specificity toward to MCF-7 (37%). EGF reduced 20% of {sup 125}I-Crotoxin specific binding, so specific binding sites of Crotoxin on Ehrlich tumor cells partially overlap to EGFR. Crotoxin biodistribution studies showed significant uptake in the tumor paw (tumor/skeletal muscle ratio= 18.55), three hours after administration. SPECT imaging also showed tumor uptake confirming in vivo interaction with Ehrlich tumor cells. Crotoxin had an antitumoral effect on Ehrlich tumor cells and this action is due, at least partially, to the specific interaction with low and high affinity binding sites. Low affinity binding sites correlate EGFR and high affinity binding sites still need identification. These results confirm Crotoxin as a template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis and as a tool for cancer studies, increasing its biotechnological potential. (author)

  4. Study of resistance of D. radiodurans to the combined action of ionizing radiation with an electric or magnetic fields exogenous; Estudo da resistencia de D. radiodurans a acao combinada de radiacoes ionizantes com campos eletricos ou magneticos exogenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Georgia Reis

    2011-07-01

    The key goal in radiotherapy is to maximize damages in a tumor while minimizing them in nearby health tissues. Several strategies have been worked out toward the enhancement of cellular radiosensitivity, as the use of exogenous fields. It is studied in this work the resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans to the combined action of conventional and non conventional radiations, with external agents (electric and magnetic fields). D. radiodurans is a bacterium having an extraordinary ability to cope with lethal and mutagenic agents harmful to the DNA, particularly ionizing radiations as gammas and UV. Given its high radioresistance and fast growing, D. radiodurans has been used as solid tumors simulators. Peculiarities associated with radioresistance at the exponential and stationary phases were delineated from growing curves. By measuring survival curves information on radiosensitivity was obtained. In gamma irradiation D. radiodurans exhibited repairing shoulders of 2 and 8 kGy at the exponential and stationary phases, respectively. When gamma irradiations were combined with expositions to the electric field the repairing shoulders were reduced to 1 and 4 kGy at the exponential and stationary phases, respectively. Radioresistance was similar in both growing phases when the number of cells were approximately equalized in these two processes. On the other hand, when gamma irradiations were combined with expositions to the magnetic field the repairing shoulders were reduced to 4 and 6 kGy at the exponential and stationary phases, respectively. In irradiations with electron beams the repairing shoulder at the exponential phase was totally depleted, while at the stationary phase it was only 1 kGy. The findings of this work revealed new and important information on the radioresistance of D. radiodurans, while providing hints to the improvement of radiotherapy protocols in association with exogenous physical agents. (author)

  5. Effects of the gamma radiation on the molecular structure of the poly(vinyl alcohol); Efeitos da radiacao gama na estrutura molecular do poli(alcool vinilico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence, Mauro C. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais]. E-mail: mterence@usp.br; Guedes, Selma M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes

    2002-07-01

    The poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) is a polymer used as biomaterial. The PVAL was used as ocular insert and may be used as a drug delivery system for pair PVAL/dihidroxipropoxymethyl guanine, where the last one is used for treatment of people with retinite caused by cytomegalovirus. These inserts are crosslinked systems. The crosslink was induced by gamma radiation applied in polymer. The samples of PVAL was irradiated by gamma rays with doses in the range 0 to 200 kGy. On irradiated PVAL samples was observed a low yellowness, attributed to the formation of polymeric radicals that are stable in the structure of the polymer, from radiolysis of PVAL. (author)

  6. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation; Avaliacao bacteriologica da linguica de frango Frescal submetida a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-07-01

    Many developed countries have established a goal of self-sufficiency in food production, while many other obtain their principal foreign exchange through food exports. For these reasons, it is essential to eliminate losses in food products. It is no less important to prevent or combat food-transmitted diseases, principally across poultry and poultry derivatives, which play a major role in certain infections and is the focus of national public health goals in order to increase the international commerce. In tropical countries, perishable products represent the largest markets. The population lives in a constant battle against the deterioration of these foods. Such loss is enormous where the climate favors the proliferation of agents of decomposition and acceleration of putrification. Increasing the useful life of these perishable products will provide producers the option of commercializing them in low harvest season, thus achieving higher prices, and providing sensible growth to the agro-industrial market. Treatment of perishables with gamma radiation presently constitutes one of the most modern, safe, and efficient methods for increasing food preservation. The irradiation of foods can offer various special advantages such as: kill or sterilize pathogenic organisms in food, improving their quality and duration, reducing the level of toxics, slow or stop the aging of roots and tubers, disinfect products of animal and vegetable origin thus slowing their decomposition, increasing their shelf-life, and prolonging their conservation refrigeration. The practice of irradiating foods for the treatment of microorganisms has begun to gain momentum in Brazil, where roughly 25% of all food produced annually is lost to disease and insects activity, increased by lack of adequate storage treatments. Various countries have already adopted the method that, when practiced properly by qualified professionals, does not cause side effects other than the extension of useful life. In light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  7. Gamma radiation effects on the structure and properties of polystyrene; Efeitos da radiacao gama na estrutura e nas propriedades do poliestireno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ivania Soares de

    1996-12-31

    Polystyrene is a linear thermoplastic with a molecular weight ranging from 130,000 to 300,000 g/mole. This polymer has wide industrial applications. In medicine it is used to manufacture medical supplies which can be sterilized by ionizing radiation. The sterilization of medical instruments by ionizing radiation was introduced in the 60`s as an alternative method to the conventional treatment with ethylene oxide gas. Radiosterilization is now worldwide standard procedure, as it is cheaper and cleaner. Some polymers, however, may show some changes in their physical properties following irradiation. These changes are due to the prevailing crosslinking and main chain scission induced by the irradiation of the polymeric system. In the present work, Brazilian-made polystyrene Lustrex was irrigated with {gamma} rays in the presence of air at room temperature. Under these conditions, the analysis of viscosimetric essays showed the prevalence of crosslinking effects at doses up to 25 kGy and of main scission effects at does from 25 to 200 kGy. Observed G values (number of events per 100 eV of absorbed energy) pointed to low degrees of both crosslinking (Gx {approx} 0.15) and main chain scission (Gs {approx} 0.09). Therefore, the minor changes in Lustrex`s molecular structure induced by irradiation have not influenced significantly its mechanical, thermal, and optical properties. As a result, Lustrex can be used in applications involving radiation without the need to introduce radioprotective to the polymeric system. (author) 43 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Gamma radiation effect on allergen protein of laying hen eggs;Efeito da radiacao gama em proteina alergenica de ovos de galinhas poedeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia Nalesso Costa

    2009-07-01

    The egg is the most complete natural food; it has all the necessary nutrients such as vitamins, aminoacids and essential minerals to maintain a life. However, although, has several proteins that promote allergies in considerable part of the world population. To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovo mucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in four New Zealand female rabbits, at 45 days old, immunized with bio conjugated ovo mucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were approved by Institute of Animal Science and Pastures (IZ)'s Committee of Ethical and Animal Experimentation and preceded according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs, from the Genetic Department of Agricultural University Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ/USP. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of {sup 60}Co, type Multipurpose at the Energetically Researches and Nuclear Institute (IPEN), under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10KGy; 20KGy and 30KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA s test we can find the egg allergen ovo mucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovo mucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such rates does not shows changes in that protein, therefore showed some changes in the color and visual viscosity of the egg samples. (author)

  9. Development of capacity for measuring ionizing radiation in aircraft crew; Desenvolvimento da capacitacao para efetuar medicoes de radiacao ionizante em tripulacoes de aeronaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, C.A.; Goncalez, O.L., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: odairl@ieav.cta.b [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA/ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica; Caldas, L.V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper describes the activities performed in a research program of the Institute of Advanced Studies, Brazil, belonging to the Brazilian Air Force, joining to researches from Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, in order to bring to Brazil the capacity and acknowledge necessary to the evaluation of dose from ionizing radiation originated in the cosmic radiation and its by products which fall on aircraft crews

  10. Ionizing radiation effect on different types of flours used in bakery technology; Efeito da radiacao ionizante em diferentes tipos de farinhas utilizadas em tecnologia de panificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Christian Alexandre Heinz Melsheimer

    2011-07-01

    In this work, an evaluation of the changes caused by ionizing radiation in different types and quantities of products rich in starch (wheat flour, cassava, rye, whole wheat, green banana pulp and maize) on rheological, technological, physical and texture characteristics was studied. The samples were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co source with doses up to 10kGy, and dose rate about 2kGy/h. It was studied the force and the extensibility of strong and weak wheat flours and the rheological behavior was observed for one, five and thirty days after irradiation. The technological characteristic studied for up to 1 month after irradiation, was the enzymatic activity of the irradiated, weak and strong flours. The physical characteristics: height, weight and moisture loss and texture of loaves made with a partial replacement (30%) of wheat flour by different irradiated flours was established. The results showed that with the increase of radiation dose there was an increase of enzymatic activity, especially for higher doses (9kGy). These results corroborate for the understanding that there would be no need of addition of enzymatic improvers for the bread confection. The height, weight, and loss of moisture from the products developed with different substitutions of flours used in the formulations, showed different behaviors. With an increasing of the radiation dose applied, there was an increase in the height of the loaves, as well as a reduced loss of moisture on the products developed with substitution of 30% of the wheat flour with irradiated wheat flour and pulp of green banana flour. From a technological standpoint, the enzymatic activity was not adversely affected by radiation. Considering the characteristics studied, the dose of 9kGy would be recommended seeking the production of loaves. Although the irradiation process is generally applied in the preservation of hygienic quality of food products, its use on different kinds of flours used in bread production may induce some beneficial technological characteristics. (author)

  11. Study of the sensitivity of the radiation transport problem in a scattering medium; Estudo da sensibilidade do problema de transporte de radiacao em meio espalhador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Rogerio Chaffin

    2002-03-15

    In this work, the system of differential equations obtained by the angular approach of the two-dimensional transport equation by the discrete ordinates method is solved through the formulation of finite elements with the objective of investigating the sensitivity of the outgoing flux of radiation with the incoming flux and the properties of absorption and scattering of the medium. The variational formulation for the system of differential equations of second order with the generalized boundary conditions of Neumann (third type) allows an easy implementation of the method of the finite elements with triangular mesh and approximation space of first order. The geometry chosen for the simulations is a circle with a non homogeneous circular form in its interior. The mapping of Dirichlet-Neumann is studied through various simulations involving the incoming flux, the outgoing flux and the properties of the medium. (author)

  12. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation for utilization of spent cracking catalysts; Estudo do efeito da radiacao ionizante na utilizacao dos catalisadores desativados de craqueamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Fernando Mantovani

    2014-07-01

    Catalyst is a substance that changes the rate of a reaction. In the petroleum industry the commonly catalysts are used for Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) and Hydrocatalytic Cracking (HCC), which one applied in a specific stage. These catalysts are used to facilitate the molecular chains cracking which will generate a mixture of hydrocarbons. However, the catalyst gradually loses its activity, either by changing its original molecular structure or by its contamination from other petroleum molecules. The application of ionizing radiation (electron beam and gamma rays) over these spent catalysts was studied to contribute with the extraction of metals or rare-earths of high added-value. Tests carried out with FCC catalysts were used the techniques of {sup 60}Co irradiation and electron beam (EB) and had as a subject the extraction of lanthanum (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}), regeneration and utilization of these catalysts. However, the use of ionizing radiation has not contributed in these processes. Meanwhile with HCC catalysts the irradiation used was electron beam and had as a subject the extraction of molybdenum (MoO{sub 3}). In temperature around 750°C, these irradiated catalysts of the lower region have an extraction yield twice higher compared to non-irradiated ones, in other words 57.65% and 26.24% respectively. (author)

  13. Case study on the effect of cosmic radiation in embedded systems in aircraft; Estudo de caso sobre o efeito da radiacao cosmica em sistemas embarcados em aeronaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Adriane C.M.; Pereira, Marlon A., E-mail: adriane.acm@hotmail.com, E-mail: marlon@ieav.cta.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A.; Goncalez, Odair L., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: odairl@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    High-energy neutrons generated from the interaction of cosmic radiation with atoms of the atmosphere, can cause adverse effects on avionics devices. These effects are referred to as 'Single Event Effects' (SEE) and may occur especially in aircraft onboard computers, from change the logic state of memory cells or functional interruptions, which could compromise flight safety. The effects of the SEE must first be evaluated and entered into the safety analysis process in order to determine the susceptibility to failures by SEE devices. SEE rate can be evaluated separately for thermal neutrons and fast neutrons with energy above 10 MeV. This paper presents an exploratory study of susceptibility to radiation to a specific type of SRAM memory, during periods of maximum and minimum solar, in situations of equatorial and polar flight in the typical flight altitude of existing aircraft and, at higher altitudes, near the maximum of Pfotzer. This study was conducted using estimates of particle flows employing the EXPACS QARM codes and evaluating the expected rate of SEE due to thermal neutrons and fast neutrons separately. The distribution in energy and the flow of neutrons inside the airplane are influenced by the total mass of the aircraft and this influence are also discussed.

  14. Handling of the fruit of guava tree by ionizing gamma radiation method; Tratamento do fruto de goiabeira pelo metodo da radiacao ionizante gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Selma F.; Jesus, Edgar F. Oliveira de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Soares, Antonio G. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Agroindustria de Alimentos

    2000-07-01

    Guavas 'in natura' were treated for the method of the ionizing radiation it loves and stored under refrigeration of 12 {+-} 1 deg C, for extension of the shelf life. They were appraised the following parameters: texture, {sup o}brix, vitamin C, sugars, appearance, flavor and aroma. The shelf life in the irradiated fruits had a increase meaning not affecting the quality of the same ones. (author)

  15. Application of electron beam radiation for peat sterilization and suppression of microbe contaminants; Aplicacao da radiacao por feixe de eletrons como agente esterilizante de microorganismos em substrato turfoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, David

    2006-07-01

    Inoculation of root nodule bacteria into legume seeds such as soybean [Glycine max. (L.)], common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and forage pasture has been effective and convenient as this simple procedure may introduce effective strains of Bradyrhizobium/Rhizobium into agricultural soils without a past history of successful cropping systems with the legume hosts. Peat-based substrates previously sterilized have been used for decades as bacteria carrier, protecting them from the prevailing harsh conditions in tropical soils and ensuring their survival with nutrient and protection against the soil antagonists. The Brazilian Government requires that all peat-based substrates must be gamma-sterilized from a cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) source, prior the introduction of the root nodule bacteria into the package. The recommendation is for a dose up to 50 kGy for an effective suppression of pathogens and saprophytes, in order to avoid competition among the substrate microbiota. Recently, the use of the electron beam (EB) accelerator has shown to be a new alternative for peat pre-sterilization, as this technique may promote reactive free-radicals which are efficient to suppress microbial contaminants. This fast technology is considered more environment and ecology friendly-sound than gamma radiation ({gamma}). The disadvantage of not reaching higher depth than gamma rays from {sup 60}Co must be considered, and attempts of optimizing the technique are crucial. This study compared both methods by using increasing rates of radiation by {sup 60}Co by the EB method - O, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 kGy in a commercial peat used for inoculants. Experimental data from days 7, 14, 21 and 28 days (growth period) and 150, 180 and 210 days (storage period) indicated high numbers of the strain Rhizobium tropici CM-01, labelled with gusA{sup +} (Study 1) and celB{sup +} (Study 2) from both eat-sterilizing techniques, reaching values above the minimum of 1x10{sup 8} cells g{sup -1} peat. At high rates, above 40 kGy, and after long incubation periods (ex. after 150 days), EB method was more efficient to suppress actinobacteria, one serious antagonist for rhizobia. Strain CM-01 celB{sup +}, data for the period of bacterial growth confirmed the efficiency of the method even at rates as low as 10 kGy. (author)

  16. Evaluation of radiosensitivity hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to gamma radiation; Avaliacao da radiossensibilidade de hemocitos de Biomphalaria glabrata expostos a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.R.S.; Amaral, A.J., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife-PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Silva, E.B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria; Amancio, F.F.; Melo, A.M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2013-06-15

    The mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata have characteristics that allow them to be identified as an animal model ideal for monitoring areas exposed to chemical agents and physical. This study evaluated the effect of ionizing radiation from Cobalt-60 in haemocytes present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata, with the goal of using these cells as indicators of the presence of radiation in aquatic environments. The mollusks were divided into five groups: one control and four subjected doses of 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of gamma radiation. After 48 hours of irradiation, the clam hemolymph was collected and slides were prepared and stained with Giemsa for analyses under a light microscope. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test, p <0.05. The results showed that the total number of cells after irradiation reduced compared to control except at a dose of 55 Gy. During data analysis, morphological changes were observed in haemocytes of mollusks subjected to doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy. These modifications consisted of nucleus bilobulated and nucleo plasmatic bridges. Another change was exclusively observed in the cellular exposure of 55 Gy, where hemocytes showed misshapen nuclei and cytoplasm vacuolisation, suggestive of apoptosis. It is concluded that hemocytes are sensitive to radiation and can be used as indicators of the presence of high doses of ionizing radiation in aquatic environments. (author)

  17. Study of crosslinking induced by gamma radiation in mixtures of polyacrylamide anionic and water; Estudo da reticulacao induzida por radiacao gama de misturas de poliacrilamida anionica e agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara, M.T.S.; Brant, A.J.C.; Naime, N.; Guadagnin, H.C.; Ponce, P.; Lugao, A.B., E-mail: ablugao@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels are composed of three-dimensional polymeric networks that can absorb and retain body of water hundreds of times the weight of its dry weight. The hydrogels can be crosslinked by chemical or physical. In general, chemical crosslinking is performed in the presence of reactive substances of high toxicity at elevated temperatures, may cause harmful secondary reactions to final product quality. However, ionizing radiation provides the crosslinking in the absence of chemical initiators or crosslinkers, therefore without contamination or toxicity. It also allows the realization of the reaction at low temperatures. These materials find use in several application fields, such as sanitary pads, diapers, controlled release of nutrients to the soil, separation processes, water purification systems and controlled release of drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of gamma radiation in doses of 15 and 25 kGy, in reticulation system of polyacrylamide (PAAm) and water, which were characterized by swelling and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the importance of the amount of water in the reticulation. It was concluded that gamma radiation has excellent potential for the synthesis of hiperabsorbent hydrogels. (author)

  18. Gamma radiation effect on molecular structure of poly(vinyl alcohol); Efeito da radiacao gama na estrutura molecular do poli (alcool vinilico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence, Mauro Cesar [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais]. E-mail: mterence@mackenzie.com.br; Guedes, Selma Matheus Loureiro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes

    2005-07-01

    The poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) is a polymer used as biomaterial. The PVAL was used as intra-ocular implant and can be used as a drug delivery system (DDS) for the pair PVAL/dihydroxy-propoximethyl guanine, where the last one is used for the treatment of people with retinite caused by cytomegalovirus. These implants are crosslinked systems. The crosslink was induced by gamma radiation applied in polymer. The samples of PVAL were irradiated with gamma rays with doses in the range from 0 up to 200 kGy. On irradiated PVAL samples was observed a light yellowness, attributed to the formation of polymeric radicals that are stable in the structure of polymer from radiolysis of PVAL. The tensile strength at break increase up to 200 kGy and the molecular weight increase up to 60 kGy, after that the PVAL is insoluble. The PVAL structural alteration was not observed up to 200 kGy, although crosslink occurred on PVAL. (author)

  19. Modification of Biomphalaria straminea eggs enclose induced by gamma radiation; Modificacoes da eclosao de ovos de Biomphalaria straminea induzidas pela radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, A.M.M.A.; Leal, M.A.M.; Motta, M.A. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    1994-12-31

    A vector of Schistosomiasis, the mollusk Biomphalaria straminea, can procreate by means of sexual - when in colonies - or by hermaphrodite fecundation, if isolated. In order to study its reproductive behavior under gamma radiation, 540 snails kept in colony and 540 maintained isolated in individual aquariums, were irradiated with doses, 0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 80, 160, 320 and 640 Gy of gamma-rays from a {sup 60} Co. source, and were observed during 30 days. Daily, the off spring were collected from the aquariums, its eggs counted and maintained in Petri`s plate, in water. After eight days, the eggs were counted again and the difference with the first count representing the hatched eggs. As a result, the eggs from the snails kept in colony showed a greater number of encloses than those from the isolated snails, ranging from 2,5 to 40 Gy. Beyond this dose the difference between the two observed groups were statistically non significant, leading to suppose a greater resistance of the sexually fecundation to the influence of gamma-rays. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab.

  20. Effect of Cs-137 gamma radiation on fungus in aqueous suspension; Efeito da radiacao gama do {sup 137} Cs sobre fungos em suspensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norberg, Antonio Neres [Instituto de Biologia do Exercito (IBEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, Nicolau Maues da Serra [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia Animal; Maliska, Carmelindo [Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria Plinio Leite, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungus which produces mycotoxins responsible for most of the intoxications illness in humans and animals as a result of eating contaminated food. there is little information on the resistance of A. flavus to radiation. The objective of this research is to determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation for these microorganisms. Seventy six suspensions containing approximately 100.000 spores/ml received a dose of radiation between 0,2 and 2,2 kGy. In one sample they survived, with doses up to 3,0 kGy. The fungi were totally destroyed with a 2,2 kGy dose. An increase in the resistance to lower dose levels of radiation was observed, in relation to the fungi which had not received any irradiation. In conclusion, the Minimum Lethal Dose (MLD) of gamma irradiation for A. flavus is 2,2 kGy; the re-irradiation of the surviving fungi demonstrate the appearance of radio-resistant mutants. (author)

  1. Effect of the ionizing radiation in the sensorial characteristics of the pineapple; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas caracteristicas sensoriais do abacaxi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Josenilda Maria da, E-mail: jmnilda@yahoo.com.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Silva, Juliana Pizarro [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2007-10-15

    The post-harvest quality of the pineapple cultivar Smooth Cayenne was evaluated after the fruit was irradiated with doses of 100 and 150 Gy and stored for 10, 20 and 30 days at 12 deg C ( +-1) and relative humidity of 85% (+- 5). The controls were untreated fruits. Sensorial analyses were made for each storage period to obtain information about the effects of ionizing radiation on the quality of the fruit. The ionizing radiation dosage had little effect on the sensorial characteristics of the pineapple, although the best results were obtained with fruit irradiated with 100 Gy. The 20-day storage period resulted in the highest consumer acceptability, while the 30-day storage period impaired the fruit's external and internal appearance. (author)

  2. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations;Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em materiais utilizados em restauracoes dentarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Mireia Florencio

    2009-07-01

    This work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations (Titanium, Amalgam, Resin Composite and Glass Ionomer) aiming the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, arising when the teeth are restored within in the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to X-ray beams of 6 MV from a linear accelerator, VARIAN 2100C model. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence techniques to compare the chemical composition before and after the irradiation. The sample were submitted to Geiger-Mueller detectors and the ionization chambers in order to verify any residual radiation in the samples. The samples were also analyzed by gamma spectrometry by a Germanium detector. These tests were performed to determine small changes in the composition in the samples due to the radiation interaction. The results of this study may encourage the development of new research for alternative materials in dental restorations that can contribute to improve the quality of life of those patients with tumors of the mouth. (author)

  3. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment alternative for cut flowers; Uso da radiacao gama como alternativa de tratamento quarentenario de flores cortadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikichi, Olivia Kimiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    Methyl bromide is a broad spectrum pesticide to control insects, nematodes, weeds, pathogens and rodents It is effective to commodity treatment designed for exportation/importation, but is also toxic for human being. Besides, it is an ozone layer depleting substance and many countries are interested in finding other less damaging alternatives. The methyl bromide shall be banned until 2015 and one promising alternative is the radiation. It can be effective for some vegetables, like fresh cut flowers. The tolerance to gamma radiation was observed in some cut flowers. Dianthus (Caryophyllaceae), Gypsophyla (Caryophyllaceae), Gomphrena (Amarantaceae), Celosia (Amarantaceae) and Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae) were tolerant to 750 Gy. Heliconia and Strelitzia (Musaceae) were not tolerant, presenting a severe browning of the colored sepals. Anthurium (Araceae) was also sensitive to 750 Gy, presenting browning of the spike, discoloration and black spots on the sepals. The radiation inhibited the bud opening of Hemerocallis (Liliaceae) and Gladiolus (Iridaceae). Gerbera (Compositae) and Callistemon (Myrtaceae) wilted before the control flowers. Helianthus (Compositae) leaves wilted before the flowers because of the radiation. (author) 7 refs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: okikuchi at net.ipen.br

  4. Studies of maturation fig (Ficus carica L.) treated with ionizing radiation; Estudos da maturacao de figo (Ficus carica L.) tratado com radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domarco, Rachel E.; Spotp, Maria H.F.; Blumer, Lucimara; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    The effect of irradiation dose, temperature and periods of storage were analized on figs type Ramy (harvest in post-climateric stage) and type Exportation (harvest on climate stage). The figs were packed in carton boxes and irradiated with 0.0 and 1,5 kGy, a source of Cobalt-60, type Gammabeam-650, was utilized. After the irradiation, the samples were stored at room temperature ({+-} 22{sup 0} C) and under refrigeration {+-}8{sup 0} C). The samples were analised by physic and chemical analysis (soluble solids, pH, titulable acidity and ratio) after 3, 7, 13, 20 and 26 days of storage. The Rami showed higher soluble solids, pH and ratio, of type Exportation. The radiation dose effects caused small variations in all caracteristics. The soluble solids, pH and ratio increased with radiation dose, but titulable acidity decreased for both types of figs. It was observed an increased on soluble solids, titulable acidity and pH for Ramy and Exportation. The color was influenced by type of fig, radiation dose and storage period of storage. There was change in coler with high radiation dose. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1995-12-31

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous thrombosis. (author) 101 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Study of effects gamma radiation linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) injected; Estudo dos efeitos da radiacao gama no polietileno linear de baixa densidade (PEBLD) injetado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia Feitoza de

    2014-09-01

    The use of package sterilization through gamma radiation aim to reduce the microbiological contamination. The linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) can be obtained by a process in solution, suspension or gaseous phase, depending on the type of the catalyzer used, that can be heterogeneous, or homogeneous, or metallocenes Ziegler-Natta. According to the literature, the gamma radiation presents a high penetration at polymeric materials causing the appearing of scissions, reticulation, and degradation when oxygen presence. This paper were irradiated with {sup 60}Co with 2000 kCi of activity, in presence of air, samples of LLDPE injected. Utilized doses of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 kGy, and about 5 kGy.h{sup -1} dose rates, at room temperature. After irradiation, the samples were heated for 60 min at 100 deg C to promote recombination and annihilation of residual radicals. For characterization of PEBLD were used methods; Melt flow index, swelling, gel fraction, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Diffraction (DRX), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), rheological measurements, Scanning Electronic Microscopy and mechanical tests to identify the effects or gamma radiation in polyethylene. (author)

  7. Utilization of ultraviolet radiation in effluent disinfestation of domestic waste treatment systems; Utilizacao da radiacao ultravioleta na desinfeccao de efluentes de sistemas de tratamento de esgotos domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, P.R.R. [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade e Silva, L.G. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Ultraviolet radiation disinfection of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Biodigestor (UASB) and UASB with aerated lagoon pos-treatment effluents is possible to be reached utilizing a single low pressure mercury lamp arc (15 W nominal power) in a shell tube flow through reactor (1.2 L useful volume). Fecal coliforms, total coliforms and colifages were used as microbiological parameters. For fecal coliforms, about 3 logarithmic units (log. un.) was removed from UASB with aerated lagoon pos-treatment effluent and 4 log. un. from UASB effluent with 7 and 30 seconds of hydraulic retention time, respectively. Good empirical correlations were obtained between microbiological parameters and hydraulic retention times. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs.

  8. Impurity-related point defects and gamma-radiation response of massive quartz from the Borborema pegmatite province, in Brazil; Estudo da suscetibilidade ao escurecimento por radiacao gama de quartzo roseo-leitoso da provincia pegmatitica da Borborema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Milena Ribas de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mineral; Gonzaga, Raysa Sthefany Gomes; Guzzo, Pedro Luiz [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Minas; Barreto, Sandra de Brito [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Melgarejo, Joan Carles, E-mail: milaribas@hotmail.com, E-mail: raysagonzaga@hotmail.com, E-mail: pguzzo@ufpe.br, E-mail: sandrabrito@smart.net.br, E-mail: joan.carles.melgarejo.draper@ub.edu [Universidade de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Cristalografia, Mineralogia e Depositos Minerais

    2012-06-15

    This work has investigated the changes induced by {gamma}-radiation on impurity-related point defects in massive rose quartz from one deposit located at The Borborema Pegmatite Province (Northeast Region, in Brazil). Samples extracted from rose and colorless (milky) quartz blocks were irradiated with doses of {sup 60}Co, from 0.5 to 96 kGy. Point defects related to Al, Ge, Li and OH were measured by optical, infrared, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, prior and after irradiation. The contents of Al, Li, Ge, Fe, Ti and other impurities were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry in quartz fragments exhibiting rose, pale-rose, and milky colorations. It was found that [AlO{sub 4}]{sup 0}, [AlO{sub 4}/H]{sup 0} and [GeO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} were generated by the dissociation of [AlO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} and [Li-OH] centers with doses as lower as 0.5 kGy. Above 8 kGy, the electron paramagnetic resonance signal related to [GeO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} decreases due to the intense mobility of Li species throughout the quartz lattice, giving rise to E'{sub 1} centers perturbed by Ge. The increase in [AlO{sub 4}]{sup 0} content with {gamma} doses and the consequent rise in the intensity of smoky color were similar for both rose and colorless quartz. Scanning electron microscopy carried out in insoluble residues obtained after chemical dissolution of each type of quartz revealed the presence of nanometric fibers only in rose specimens. These results suggested that the cause of rose color in massive quartz from Borborema Pegmatite Province is probably related to the presence of dumortierite inclusions. (author)

  9. Toxicity assays applied for evaluation of ionizing radiation and zeolites adsorption as treatment technologies for coloured effluent; Aplicacao de ensaios de toxicidade na avaliacao da eficiencia da radiacao ionizante e da adsorcao em zeolitas para o tratamento de efluentes coloridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Marcela Cantelli

    2008-07-01

    Textile industry is one raising commercial activity in Brazil. This activity has been generating important environmental interferences such as colour and bad biological effects into aquatic environment. Liquid textile effluents are toxic to lived organisms and may present low biological degradability. Although foreseen at federal regulation, the effluent quality is not controlled by toxicity assays in the country. These assays are carried out to determine the potential effects of chemical substances and effluents to cause negative effects to the exposed organisms. The present work aimed whole toxicity evaluation as well as the applicability of two different treatment techniques: ionizing radiation and zeolite adsorption. The efficacy of them were evaluated using eco toxicity bases and real effluents. Two different industries from Sao Paulo State contributed to this project supplying their real effluents. The samples were collected at a Textile Industry and at a Chemical Industry (dying producer) and after the measurement of whole toxicity the samples were submitted to treatments. Toxicity assays were carried out for Daphnia similis and for Vibrio fischeri. Sample irradiations were performed at an Electron Beam Accelerator at CTR/IPEN. Zeolites treatment is an P and D activity from CQMA/IPEN which contributed to this Project. Zeolites v/ere prepared from fly ash previously being used as an adsorber material. Both treatments (electron irradiation and zeolite adsorption) resulted on important toxicity and colour reduction. Concerning irradiation the effluents from chemical industry required higher radiation doses than that from textile activity. The radiation dose to be suggested is 40 kGy (toxicity reduction > 60%) for the chemical effluents and 0.5 kGy for the textile effluents (toxicity reduction > 90%). When zeolite adsorption was evaluated the Z1M6 resulted in 85%o v/hole toxicity reduction and ZC6 resulted in very low efficiency for the effluents of chemical industry. (author)

  10. Electron beam application as pre treatment of sugar cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose;Aplicacao da radiacao de feixe de eletrons com pre-tratamento do bagaco da cana-de-acucar para hidrolise enzimatica da celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Vanessa Miguel

    2008-07-01

    Due to increasing worldwide shortage of food and energy sources, sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, much of which is in a crystalline structure, 40% hemicelluloses, an amorphous polymer usually composed of xylose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and mannose and 20% lignin, which cannot be easily separated into readily usable components due to their recalcitrant nature. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation efficiency as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 10 0 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose in. (author)

  11. Gamma radiation effects on phases of evolutional cycle of Plodia interpunctella (Huebner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) on artificial diet; Efeitos da radiacao gama nas fases do ciclo evolutivo da Plodia interpunctella (Huebner, 1813) (Lepidoptera - Pyralidae) em dieta artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborlin, Maria Julia

    1988-10-01

    The effects of increased gamma radiation ({sup 60} Co) doses on different phases of the evolutional cycle of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner,1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) have bean studied under laboratory conditions in the Laboratory of Radioentomology of the Nuclear Energy for Agriculture Center (CENA) in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. For all treatments with gamma radiation a Cobalt-60 source type Gamma bean-650 has been used and the activity was of approximately 2.93 x 10{sup 14} Bq (7,925 Ci), with a dose rate of 2.80 KGy per hour and the insects were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted to 27 {+-} 2{sup 0} C and a relative humidity of 70 {+-} 10%. The LD{sub 50} and LD{sub 100} of gamma radiation for eggs of in artificial diet were respectively 51 Gy and 125 Gy. The sterilizing doses in adults which were irradiated at immature phases (larvae and pupae) were 160 Gy and 250 Gy respectively. The sterilizing doses for adults females and males were respectively 250 Gy and 300 Gy. The LD{sub 100} for adult males was 4,750 Gy, 4,500 Gy for females and 4,750 Gy for insects at random. (author). 70 refs., 10 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Ionizing radiation effect on teas of Camellia sinensis plant irradiated with different water activities; Efeito da radiacao ionizante em chas da planta Camellia sinensis irradiados com diferentes atividades de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo Bernardes

    2013-07-01

    Tea is the most consumed beverage in the world. Teas from Camellia sinensis plant have high levels of antioxidants, which mean that they may have several beneficial effects on health preservation. For centuries, mankind looks for ways to conserve better and for a longer time the food that they eat. The food irradiation process is a largely technique used worldwide, and is recommended by many health agencies and authorities of several countries. The radiation interacts with the material causing two kinds of effects, the direct and the indirect effect. In the direct effect the radiation interacts with the DNA molecule, breaking it, and then inactivates the cell. In the indirect effect, which represents 70% of the interaction, the radiation breaks the water molecule in a process denominated radiolysis, creating a number of free radicals that will interact with the cellular components, leading to the cell death. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study the effects of gamma radiation on two kinds of tea from Camellia sinensis plant irradiated with different water activities. The green tea and black tea samples had their Aw adjusted to three values (high Aw, medium Aw, and low Aw). The samples were irradiated in {sup 60}Co source at doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kGy. The analyses used were: microbiology by plate count, total phenolic compounds quantification, antioxidant activity by ORAC assay, and identification and quantification of main antioxidants in these beverages. It was noted that the greater the quantity of free water present in the medium, the lower was the dose to achieve microbiological control. The green tea showed to be a little more susceptible to irradiation by high Aw once there was more variation in the amount of flavonoids and phenolics than the black tea, decreasing the amount of these compounds in some doses, but increasing the amount in other ones. However in both teas, these changes can be considered insignificant, since there was no difference in antioxidant activity at doses up to 10 kGy. The dose of 5.0 kGy was the minimum dose that secured the microbiological control and had no changes on the parameters analyzed. (author)

  13. Application of the technique of attenuation of the gamma radiation of the {sup 241}Am in vegetable substratum; Aplicacao da tecnica de atenuacao da radiacao gama do {sup 241}Am em substratos vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Helder de; Mortatti, Jefferson; Bortoletto Junior, Milton J.; Lopes, Renato A. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis]. E-mail: helder@cena.usp.br; Camargo, Fabiana T. de [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: fabianatcamargo@yahoo.com.br

    2005-07-01

    The substratum animal, vegetable, mineral or artificial exercises the function of the soil, supplying to the plant sustain, nutritious, water and oxygen. The constant extraction of the fern-acu (xaxim), it has been taking to the presence in the official list of the threatened Brazilian species of extinction in reason of this intense destined commercial exploration the floriculture and gardening. For this reason the cut is being prohibited in several law of the Brazilian. As attempt of substitution of the exploration of the plant fiber fiber, a new substratum is being marketed at the market, it is the coxim, industrialized product of the coconut fiber (Cocus nucifera). Produced in the Northeast, where the culture of the coconut tree is extensive, the coconut fiber is a natural vegetable material abundant, renewable and very light resulting from the industrial processing of the peels of the coconut. Therefore, considering the substratum as important variable of the productive cycle of plants free from the soil, and for this responsible for the development and growth of the plants, it was had as objective in the present study, to determine density gradients in vegetable substratum of xaxim and coconut fiber in different humidity conditions, for the method of radiation gamma of the {sup 241}Am, seeking your application in the production of roses. (author)

  14. Study of the contribution of the different components of atmospheric cosmic radiation in dose received by the aircraft crew; Avaliacao da contribuicao dos diferentes componentes da radiacao cosmica atmosferica na dose em tripulacoes de aeronaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marlon A.; Prado, Adriane C.M., E-mail: adriane.acm@hotmail.com, E-mail: marlon@ieav.cta.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A.; Goncalez, Odair L., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: odairl@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The crews and aircraft passengers are exposed to atmospheric cosmic radiation. The flow of this radiation is modulated by the solar cycle and space weather, varying with the geomagnetic latitude and altitude. This paper presents a study of the contributions of radiation in total ambient dose equivalent of the crews depending on flight altitude up to 20 km, during maximum and minimum solar and in equatorial and polar regions. The results of calculations of the particle flows generated by the EXPACS and QARM codes are used. The particles evaluated that contributing significantly in the ambient dose equivalent are neutrons, protons, electrons, positrons, alphas, photons, muons and charged pions. This review allows us to characterize the origin of the dose received by crews and also support a project of a dosimetric system suitable for this ionizing radiation field in aircraft and on the ground.

  15. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on properties of polyamide 6 with fibreglass reinforcement; Estudo do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre as propriedades da poliamida 6 com reforco de fibra de vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Clovis

    2007-07-01

    It is each time more common the use of polymers reinforced with fibreglass in the domestic market. Between them it is used polyamide 6 that it presents good tension resistance, to the impact and the humidity absorption compared with non-reinforced, being also at the present time used in the automobile industry in parts underneath the hood, especially in the radiator frames. The aim of this work is to study the effect of ionizing radiation on properties of polyamide 6 with fibreglass reinforcement, undergone to different radiation doses. Samples were prepared and irradiated on JOB 188 accelerator with an electron beam energy of 1.5 MeV in air with different doses (100 to 600 kGy) and a dose rate of 22.61 kGy/h. Afterward the irradiation, the properties of the samples of irradiated polyamide 6 with fibreglass reinforcement were evaluated and compared with the samples non-irradiated. It evidenced that the mechanical properties flexural resistance and tension resistance increased and the resistance to the impact decreased. Regarding the thermal properties of the temperature of fusing decreased of 224,4 deg C for 212,5 deg C but the loss of mass ahead of the constant increase of the temperature also decreased. In the property of resistance to the glow wire the polyamide 6 with fibreglass reinforcement had a good performance. The images caught for Scanning Electronic Microscopy show that the irradiation provoked a good integration enters the fibreglass and polymer what was responsible for the good performance in the property of resistance to the glow wire. (author)

  16. Evaluation exposure to the ionizing radiation of workers during the operation of first Brazilian uranium mine; Avaliacao da exposicao de trabalhadores a radiacao ionizante durante a operacao da primeira mina de uranio do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Oliveira, Sergio Q. de; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Silva, Ana Claudia A.; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios. Servico de Radioprotecao

    2011-10-26

    The production of uranium in Brazil initiated, in industrial scale, in the year of 1982, in the Miner-Industrial Complex at Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This paper analysed the data of 13410 individual historic of dose, registered along the years of work, bay the radioprotection service of installation. Descriptive statistics and frequency histograms based on dose historic, and the annual distribution doses and the accumulated doses were evaluated during the functioning period of the CIPC, and his adequacy to the in force legislation at the time of it operation

  17. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of stems of broccoli significant difference on the yellowing during storage. It is concluded that the processing of collard greens and broccoli butter by gamma radiation may be a viable alternative to the industry, since there was a reduction of the population of microorganisms, without changes in the sensory qualities and with minimum changes in the characteristics that confer antioxidant power. (author)

  18. Capture and utilization of solar radiation by the soybean and common bean crops and by weeds; Captacao e aproveitamento da radiacao solar pelas culturas da soja e do feijao e por plantas daninhas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Barbosa dos; Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Silva, Antonio Alberto da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). FItotecnia; Costa, Luiz Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), 36571-000, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2003-07-01

    Aiming to develop techniques for the establishment of a Weed Integrated Management Program, the performance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) and of weeds Bidens pilosa L., Euphorbia heterophylla L. (two biotypes), sensitive and resistant to ALS inhibitor - herbicides and [ Desmodium tortuosum (SW.) DC.], was evaluated in relation to their efficiency in capturing and utilizing solar radiation.The following indices were calculated: total dry biomass production rate (Ct), leaf dry biomass production rate (Cf), radiation efficient use (x), net assimilation rate (EA), specific leaf area (SA), leaf area index (L), leaf matter ratio (FW) and leaf area ratio (FA). No difference was observed for all characteristics evaluated among E. heterophylla biotypes. Soybean showed the highest rate of total dry biomass production along its cycle and also the highest leaf area index, indicating its greater capacity in capturing light and providing shade to competitive plants. Especially after flowering, common bean was the most efficient in draining its photoassimilates for leaf formation. Soybean showed greater efficiency in converting radiation intercepted in the biomass. (author)

  19. Research of the influence of radiation of light from emitting diodes in Fricke solution doped with photosensibilizers of low cost; Averiguacao da influencia da radiacao de diodos emissores de luz na solucao Fricke dopada com fotossensibilizadores de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Mayara G.O. de; Lima, Vanessa L. de; Nascimento, Rizia K. do; Santos, Patricia N.C. dos; Souza, Vivianne L.B. de, E-mail: mayaradgf@hotmail.com, E-mail: lemos.nessa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: riziakeila@hotmail.com, E-mail: patty_fofa007@hotmail.com, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to verify the behavior of FAM dosimeters (Fricke solution doped with methylene blue), FVM (Fricke solution doped with malachite green) and FAT (Fricke solution doped with toluidine blue) after irradiation with LED. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), the newest form of treatment for some types of cancer, is the association of a photosensitizing agent to a light source, in order to induce cancer cell death. PDT does not have a dosimetry and is usually performed with lasers, and photosensitizers imported and expensive. The red and blue were chosen for the experiments. The solution was prepared and Fricke Fricke doped solutions were prepared by adding 100 {mu}g/mL of the photosensitizers. Subsequently, ethanol was added to the dosimeters yielding the FATA , FAME and FVMA. Doped solutions were transferred to test tubes and irradiated in acrylic phantoms. The solutions were irradiated their optical densities measured in a UV - VIS spectrophotometer. Thus, it was found that after irradiation, the dosimeters showed linear behavior showing good correlation coefficients for the samples irradiated with LEDs. The FAME when irradiated with blue light, also showed a linear correlation. However , for FVMA behavior was presented an equation of 2nd degree. Concluding that the LED irradiated dosimeters have shown sensitivity to light so that they can be used for dosimetry in PDT, and the results also show that PDT can be realized with LED photosensitizers and low cost.

  20. Calibration method for a in vivo measurement system using mathematical simulation of the radiation source and the detector; Metodo de calibracao de um sistema de medida in vivo atraves da simulacao matematica da fonte de radiacao e do detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John

    1998-12-31

    A Monte Carlo program which uses a voxel phantom has been developed to simulate in vivo measurement systems for calibration purposes. The calibration method presented here employs a mathematical phantom, produced in the form of volume elements (voxels), obtained through Magnetic Resonance Images of the human body. The calibration method uses the Monte Carlo technique to simulate the tissue contamination, the transport of the photons through the tissues and the detection of the radiation. The program simulates the transport and detection of photons between 0.035 and 2 MeV and uses, for the body representation, a voxel phantom with a format of 871 slices each of 277 x 148 picture elements. The Monte Carlo code was applied to the calibration of in vivo systems and to estimate differences in counting efficiencies between homogeneous and non-homogeneous radionuclide distributions in the lung. Calculations show a factor of 20 between deposition of {sup 241} Am at the back compared with the front of the lung. The program was also used to estimate the {sup 137} Cs body burden of an internally contaminated individual, counted with an 8 x 4 Nal (TI) detector and an {sup 241} Am body burden of an internally contaminated individual, who was counted using a planar germanium detector. (author) 24 refs., 38 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. Synthesis of a gamma irradiation grafted polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) based olefinic copolymer; Estudo da sintese de copolimero olefinico a base de politetrafluoroetileno (PTFE) por meio da enxertia induzida por radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreto, Helio Fernando Rodrigues

    2006-07-01

    The extrusion of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) is limited by a process related defect known as 'melt fracture' or 'sharkskin', which is a surface defect of the extruded polymer. This defect results in a product with a rough surface that lacks luster and in alterations of specific surface properties. The aim of this study was to obtain a recycled polytetrafluoroethylene polymer with an olefin that could improve the extrudability of the LLDPE. The copolymer was obtained by irradiating recycled PTFE in an inert atmosphere followed by the addition of an olefinic monomer to graft the latter in the polymeric matrix (PTFE). After a certain time of contact, the copolymer was heat treated to permit recombination and elimination of the radicals, both in a reactive and/or inert atmosphere. Three olefinic monomers were used, namely; acetylene, ethylene and 1,3-butadiene. The 1,3-butadiene monomer was found to be more effective with respect to grafting. The specimens were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). 0.2-2.0 wt% of the copolymer that was obtained was mixed with LLDPE. The rheological properties of the mixture were determined with a torque rheometer. The results indicated that the process used rendered a copolymer which when added to LLDPE, improved the extrusion process and eliminated the defect 'melt fracture'. (author)

  2. Comparative study on imaging quality in PET acquisition modes: validation of a protocol for reducing the radiation dose; Estudo comparativo da qualidade de imagem dos modos de aquisicao da PET: validacao de um protocolo para reduzir a dose de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Solange Amorim; Wagner, Jairo; Yamaga, Lilian Yuri; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Medicina Nuclear; Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imagem], e-mail: solange@einstein.br

    2009-03-15

    The present study is aimed at validating a 3D acquisition protocol for positron emission tomography as a replacement for the 2D mode, to reduce the radiation dose delivered to patients, without any loss in the quality of images. Materials and methods: The study comprised 27 simulations in a Discovery ST equipment with four-minute 2D acquisitions, and two-minute and four-minute 3D acquisitions, utilizing a chest phantom according to the National Electrical Manufacturers Association protocol. Six spheres with different diameters were inserted into this phantom as a means for determining the images quality. The images were blindly reviewed by three experienced nuclear physicians who did not know the acquisition modes. Each observer attributed a score 1 when one of the spheres was not identified, or 2 for visible spheres. Results: The qualitative analysis based on generalized kappa coefficient demonstrated that the frequency of visible spheres was higher with four-minute 3D acquisitions (85%), with an also higher interobserver agreement (88.9%), generalized kappa = 0.725 [0.507;0.942]. Conclusion: The protocol with four-minute 3D acquisition with lower {sup 18}F-FDG activity can be utilized for patients with a biotype similar to the phantom, without any loss in the imaging quality. (author)

  3. Appraisal of the biocide activity of products for the control of microorganisms associated with corrosive processes in the Bacia de Campos pipelines; Avaliacao da acao biocida de produtos para o controle de microrganismos associados a processos corrosivos em oledutos da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Monica de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Biotecnologia e Ecossistemas]. E-mail: mpena@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Andrade, Cynthia de Azevedo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Tecnologia de Materiais, Equipamentos e Corrosao]. E-mail: cynthiaandrade@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Nascimento, Juliana Rangel do; Silva, Edilson Domingos da; Souza, Leonardo Suhett de [Fundacao GORCEIX, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: julianarn@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; edilson@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; suhett@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2001-12-01

    The possible effect of corrosion inhibitors on bacteria has significant interest for the oil and gas industry since, in addition to presenting lower operational costs than biocides due to the low concentrations used, they allow a simultaneous activity on the inhibition of corrosion and adhesion of sulfate reducing-bacteria. In the case of pipes with low BSW oil fluid low, the benefit of using corrosion inhibitors in microorganism combat is even more significant in view of their dispersing characteristics during the oil phase. Herein presented are the laboratorial analysis results of the biocidal effects of six commercial products, four of which having corrosion inhibition function and two with biocidal quality. During this analysis, an oil sample collected from a Petrobras pipeline and a mixed culture of sulfate-reducing mesophilic bacteria (m-BRS) obtained from this sample were used. The study was divided in two phases: the first phase performed in semi-static conditions and, the second phase performed in dynamic conditions (loop). Compositions were analyzed according to their activities regarding the growth control of sulfate-reducing planktonic bacteria, according to their time reducing performance regarding microbial growth (activity) detection and regarding sessile bacteria (pre-adhered bacteria). Results showed that the two biocidal products had the best performance in the presence of oil and that the tetra kishidroximethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) at 75% was the most effective. Of the four corrosion inhibitors tested for efficiency regarding BRS growth in solution, three were slightly stimulating and the fourth was intensely stimulating. (author)

  4. Clinical evaluation of the low intensity laser antialgic action of GaAlAs ({lambda}=785 nm) in the treatment of the temporomandibular disorders; Avaliacao clinica da acao antialgica do laser em baixa intensidade de arseneto de galio e aluminio ({lambda}=785 nm) no tratamento das disfuncoes da articulacao temporo-mandibular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanseverino, Nelly Tichauer Maluf

    2001-07-01

    The therapy with laser emitting low intensity has been currently used in the most diverse fields of medicine as therapeutic conduct for pain. It is a non invasive, painless, non-thermal and aseptic type therapy, without any collateral effects, having a good cost/benefit relationship. However, for the therapy with low-intensity laser to result in positive effects, a correct diagnosis is fundamental, as well as a protocol of adequate application. n odontology, the majority of patients diagnosed with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), present pain and limitations in the movements of the jaw. In this work, a GaAlAs laser emitting low intensity, was used, {lambda}=785 nm, in patients having a dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint with a complaint of pain. Twenty patients were divided into two groups. The group treated received laser therapy in the temporomandibular articulations and in the muscles affected. The dose applied was 45 J/cm{sup 2}, while the ten patients in the control group received 0 J/cm{sup 2}, in a total of nine applications, carried out three times a week, during three weeks. he evaluation of the patients was made through clinical examinations of manual palpation of the masseter, temporal, cervical, posterior neck and sternocleidomastoid muscles, and measurements of opening and laterality of the mouth. The results obtained showed a diminishing of the pain and an increase of the mandibular mobility in the patients treated, when compared to the control group. These results point to this therapy as being an important tool in the treatment of pain in patients with a dysfunction in the TMJ, indicating this therapeutic modality as a co-adjuvant in these treatments. (author)

  5. The importance of multidisciplinary action for the environmental licensing process in the PETROBRAS/UN-RIO (Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Rio de Janeiro); A importancia da acao multidisciplinar em processos de licenciamento ambiental na Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Rio de Janeiro - UN-RIO, da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Aline W.L.; Vidal, Roseane D.M.; Rocha, Valmir G. da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the workings of the so-called Environmental Licensing Group from PETROBRAS's UN-RIO's SMS division (Safety, Health and the Environment Division). It emphasizes the importance of multidisciplinary action in the environmental licensing process of activities related to the transference and production of oil and gas, especially in a company the size and importance like PETROBRAS. The effectiveness of the system adopted by UN-RIO is verified by the results already achieved by the group, with the successful licensing of its activities. For a company like PETROBRAS, with a great number of activities simultaneously being licensed, it is extremely important that there exists a control, not only of the information that is being sent to the Environmental Agency as a follow-up of the several licensing processes, so that Licenses can be obtained in time and without complications. (author)

  6. Comparative study of the action of two different types of bleaching agents activated by two different types of irradiation fonts: xenon plasma arc lamp and 960 nm diode laser; Avaliacao da cor e estudo comparativo da acao de dois tipos diferentes de agentes clareadores ativados pelo laser de diodo e lampada xenonio plasmatica, na superficie do esmalte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walverde, Debora Ayala

    2001-07-01

    This in vitro study compares two different types of tooth bleaching agents stimulated with two different irradiation fonts. These fonts accelerate the action of the bleaching agents upon the enamel surface by heating up the materials. We used the xenon plasma arc lamp and a 960 nm fiber-coupled diode laser to irradiate the two materials containing 35% of hydrogen peroxide (Opus White and Opalescence extra). The color of the teeth was measured with a spectrophotometer using the CIELAB color system that gives the numeric values of L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *}. (author)

  7. Evaluate the action of polymeric additives in protect and recover water and bentonite clay based drilling fluids contaminated by degradation agents; Analise da acao de aditivos polimericos na protecao e recuperacao de fluidos de perfuracao base agua e bentonita contaminados por sais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, L.F.A.; Ferreira, H.S.; Amorim, L.V.; Franca, K.B.; Ferreira, H.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this paper is study influences of electrolytes and cellulose polymers on rheological and water loss properties of dispersions of bentonite compositions. Evaluate the action of degradation additives CaSO{sub 4}, MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} and polymeric additives to protect and recover water and clay based. The results show a negative effect of degradation additives the rheological and water loss properties of drilling fluids. The cellulose polymers can be successfully applied to protect and recover of the rheological properties and water loss of the dispersions contaminated. (author)

  8. Comparative study of smear layer removal by different etching modalities and Er:YAG laser irradiation on the root surface: a scanning electron microscopy study; Estudo comparativo, atraves de microscopia eletronica de varredura, da acao de diferentes substancias quimicas e do laser de Er:YAG, na remocao de smear layer, em superficies radiculares submetidas a raspagem e aplainamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodoro, Leticia Helena

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of citric acid, EDTA, citric acid with tetracycline, and Er:YAG laser to smear layer removal on the root surface after scaling with manual instruments by SEM. Thirty specimens (n=30) of root surface before scaling were divided into 6 groups (n=5). The Control Group (G1) was not treated; Group 2 (G2) was conditioned with citric acid gel 24%, pH1, during 2 minutes; Group 3 (G3) was conditioned with EDTA gel 24%, pH 7, during 2 minutes; Group 4 (G4) was conditioned with citric acid and tetracycline gel 50%, pH1 during 2 minutes; Group 5 (G5) was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (2.94 {mu}m), 47 mJ/10 Hz, focused, under water spray during 15 seconds and fluence of 0.58 J/cm{sup 2}; Group 6 (G6) was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (2.94{mu}m), 83 mJ/10 Hz, focused, under water spray during 15 seconds and fluence of 1.03 J/cm{sup 2}. The micrographic were analyzed by scores and following the statistical analysis with Kruskal Wallis (p<0.05) H=20,31. The G1 was significantly different of all groups (28.0); the G2 (13.4), G3 (11.7), and G4 (13.6) showed no difference in relation to G5 (20.3) and G6 (6.0), but the G6 was significantly different from G5. From the results, it can be conclude that: 1) there was intensity smear layer after scaling and root planing; 2) all treatments were effective to smear layer remove with significantly difference to G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6; G2, G3 and G4 were not statistically different from G5 and G6; 3) G6 was more effective in the smear layer remotion in relation to G5 and both presented irregular root surface. (author)

  9. Nd:YAG laser irradiation on temporary teeth carious tissue using 12% diamine silver fluoride as a photo-absorber - a morphological study; Estudo comparativo morfologico da acao do laser de Nd:YAG em dentina cariada de dentes deciduos in vitro, condicionados com diamino fluoreto de prata a 12% e carvao mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmon, Andrea de Avillez

    2001-07-01

    Since Nd:YAG laser radiation was first introduced in Dentistry various photo-absorbers were employed with the intent of improving its efficacy when used on dental carious tissue. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of this radiation using Scanning and Optical microscopy over carious tissue of primary teeth using two photo-absorbers. 15 primary human teeth were used and, in each one, 3 cavity preparations were performed. Specimens were then submitted to an in vitro demineralizing environment during 18 days. Two of the cavities of each specimen were laser irradiated using the Nd:YAG laser with 60 mJ of energy per pulse, 10 Hz and average power of 0,6 W. The 12% diamine silver fluoride or the mineral coal were used as photo-absorbers. The third cavity of the specimens was used as a control and received no laser irradiation. Samples were transversally cut and the section analyzed by SEM and OM. Results showed that the 12% diamine silver fluoride is an efficient photo-absorber and, when used it the Nd:YAG laser, leading to melting and resolidification of the carious tissue. It can be concluded that the 12% diammine silver fluoride presents advantages over the mineral coal as a photo absorber when used in primary teeth as it promotes and improves the efficacy of laser irradiation. This substance also works as a barrier on the carie progression in deeper areas such as the infected and necrotic zones. (author)

  10. Use of corrective action based on risk - RBCA - in the cases of soil and underground water contamination by gasoline in Brazil; Uso da acao corretiva baseada no risco - RBCA - nos casos de contaminacao de solos e aguas subterraneas por gasolina no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues; Corseuil, Henry Xavier [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental]. E-mail: corseuil@ens.ufsc.br

    1997-07-01

    This work search evaluate the behaviour of a model used for risk based corrective action for selection of levels in presence of gasoline with ethanol mixtures. A study on mathematical models used as its source and behaviour during simulations for to evaluate the utilization of RBCA for gasoline and ethanol contamination is described.

  11. 何谓DaF,DaZ,DaM?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秀芳

    2004-01-01

    DaF(Deutsch als Fremdsprache)“对外德语” 这是一个在德语界耳熟能详的术语,人们首先想到的也许是德语培训班。实际上,DaF发展到今天,已成了一个广义的概念(Oberbegriff)。它由两大部分组成:除了人们已熟悉的为母语非德语人士开设的德语语言培训,即语言教学实践(DaF-Lehrgebiet)部分外,还包括学科专业(DaF-Studiengang)部分。

  12. Dose rate range extension of the calibration of dosemeters at LNMRI, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Expansao da faixa de taxas de dose para a calibracao de instrumentos de medir radiacao no LNMRI, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, T.S.; Carlos, M.T.; Ramos, M.M.O., E-mail: tschirn@ird.gov.b, E-mail: marcia@ird.gov.b, E-mail: mmoramos@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work has an objective the implantation of a experimental arrange for application of essays of instrument calibration for measurement of low dose rate, which measure rate less than 10 {mu}Sv/h

  13. Evaluation of occupational radiation dose in nuclear medicine: radiopharmaceutical administration to scintiscanning exams of myocardial perfusion; Avaliacao da dose de radiacao ocupacional em medicina nuclear: administracao de radiofarmacos em exames de cintilografria de perfusao miocardica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Cassio V., E-mail: cassiok@yahoo.com [Medicina Nuclear do Triangulo (MNT), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Michelin, Charlie A.; Jakubiak, Rosangela R., E-mail: charlie@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: requi@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lemes, Alyne O.; Silva, Juliana L.M., E-mail: alyne275@gmail.com, E-mail: jujumontesdocinho@gmail.com [Faculdade do Trabalho (FATRA), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    In nuclear medicine, workers directly involved in exams are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation. The procedure for administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the patient is one of the most critical times of exposure. In tests of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) administration of radiopharmaceutical repeats the steps of rest and cardiac stress. In this study, we used a Geiger -Mueller detector for measuring occupational radiation doses for during the administration of technetium- {sup 99m}- sestamibi in MPS tests. In the evaluation, discriminated the stages of examination and related professional experience time to doses measures at home. It were followed 110 procedures at home (55 conducted by professionals with over 5 years experience and 55 conducted by professionals with less than 1 year of experience) and 55 effort procedures. The results showed that the rest of the procedure time and dose are related to the experience of the worker. More experienced workers were faster (mean: 43 {+-} 16 vs 67 {+-} 25 seconds / procedure), and therefore received lower doses (mean 0.57 {+-} 0.16 versus 0.80 {+-} 0.24 {mu}Sv / procedure), both with statistical significance (p <0.001). In step effort, there were procedures lasting longer (mean: 19 {+-} 2 minutes / procedure), which resulted in higher doses (mean 3.0 {+-} 0.6 {mu}Sv / procedure)

  14. Gamma radiation effect on tocopherol content in natural and industrialized products and sensory evaluation; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre o conteudo de tocoferois em produtos naturais e industrializados e avaliacao sensorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigallia

    2009-07-01

    Vitamin E content, the percentage of activity retention and the sensory characteristics were analyzed in samples of vitamin E rich foods: pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and a fortified powder formula irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. For the vitamin E determination (as -tocopherol equivalents) three different samples lots were employed using the colorimetric method standardized by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz of Sao Paulo. For sensory analysis, the Multiple Comparison or Control Difference Test was used for all products, comparing the irradiated samples to the non-irradiated controls and measuring the difference rate in total terms, concerning appearance, odor, texture and flavor, in a category scale of 9 points, ranging from 1 = no difference to 9 = extreme difference to the control. The experimental outline employed was that of randomized complete blocks design, in two consecutive sessions. The obtained data were submitted to variance analysis, ANOVA, and means comparison by Dunnett test, at 5% significance. The results show that there was no E vitamin loss in the pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and powder food samples, irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy doses. With regard to the sensory analysis, the 3 kGy gamma irradiation produced significant changes in the sensory properties of pecan nuts for the attributes: appearance, odor, texture and flavor. The 1 kGy dose did not cause a significant difference for these attributes. Concerning the sensory analysis of whole grain cookies and fortified powder food, significant differences were observed in all the irradiated products, although the difference grades were significantly low, compared to those of the non-irradiated samples, especially when 1 kGy dose was applied. (author)

  15. Effects of the low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. A clinical trial; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao laser de emissao vermelha em baixa intensidade na incorporacao de fluor no esmalte. Estudo clinico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasone, Regina Keiko

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride has been the most important preventive method on development of the caries. This in vivo study evaluated the effects of low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. Ten healthy participants were recruited for this study. The two maxillary central incisors of each volunteer to be biopsied were used and divided into 4 groups: group G{sub C} (control, which was untreated; group G{sub F} (fluoride), which received topical acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1,23% treatment for 4 minutes; group G{sub LF} (laser + fluoride), which was irradiated with a low-intensity diode laser ({lambda}= 660 nm and dose= 6 J/cm{sup 2}) with APF application after irradiation and group G{sub FL} (fluoride + laser), which received APF before irradiation using the same parameters as G{sub LF}. The determination of fluoride was performed using a fluoride ion electrode after an acid-etch enamel biopsy. The results show a significant increase of the fluoride uptake in enamel for groups G{sub F}, G{sub LF} and G{sub FL} when compared to control group. Although a percentage increase of 57% was observed for G{sub LF} with respect to G{sub F}, there were no statistical differences among treated groups. These findings suggest that low-intensity laser radiation used before APF could be employed in the clinical practice to prevent dental caries. (author)

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation over the structure, metabolism and infectivity of a pathogenic protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante sobre a estrutura, metabolismo e infectividade de um protozoario patogenico, Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole and Manceau, 1908)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi

    1998-07-01

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa), has as definitive host domestic and wild felines and as intermediate hosts most species of mammals and birds, Including man. The infection in man is usually asymptomatic, but can become a severe and lethal illness in some special groups like the fetus of primoinfected pregnant woman, or in AIDS and transplanted patients. The transmission is due to ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts from cat feces as well as raw or rare cooked cyst containing meet. There is no available vaccine against toxoplasmosis, with some reports of the use ionizing radiation in order to attenuate or suppress the parasite. These studies are promising, but more research is needed to optimize the radiation process and to clarify those alterations caused on T gondii.Using a increasing doses of {sup 60} Co irradiation on T.gondii tachyzoites, we studied many parameters such as morphology, both at optical and electron microscopy level, detection of DNA fragmentation, metabolism alterations (cellular oxidative burst, protein, nucleic acids and DNA synthesis), determination of the parasite survival both in in vivo and in vitro models, antigenicity and immunogenicity after the process, cellular invasion and irradiated tachyzoite induced protection. After definition of 200 Gy of {sup 60} Co irradiation as the lower radiation dose that suppress parasite growth in vitro and in vivo, we found no detectable changes in parasite viability, its cell invasion capacity or in its structural proteins. DNA fragmentation like apoptosis or alterations of the parasite metabolism were similarly not affected by radiation. Mice infection with irradiated parasites induce partial protection when these animals were re-inoculated with non irradiated virulent parasites, inducing greater specific IgG levels as well as a longer survival. Irradiated T.gondii maintains its the ability of invasion, even under radiation effects. Based on our results we conclude that ionizing radiation can be considered as a possible tool in vaccine production due to similar viability, invasivity and metabolism and absence of reproductive capacity, of irradiated tachyzoites. (author)

  17. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: intestinal immunity induced in C57bl/6j mice by irradiated tachyzoites; Toxoplasma gondii vs radiacao ionizante: estudo da imunidade intestinal em camundongos C57Bl/6j experimentalmente vacinados com taquizoitos irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez. E-mail: galisteo@usp.br

    2004-07-01

    We study the oral route for the development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using parasites irradiated with 60 Cobalt, as an alternative for vaccine development to this worldwide parasitic infection. We evaluated the development of immunity at serum or mucosal levels, and their efficiency in protect the mice against challenge with oral cysts of the Me-49 strain. C57Bl/6j isogenic mice were immunized by oral route with 107 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites from RH strain, at several protocols using milk as anti-peptic adjuvant and alum hydroxide as antacid. The preparations of irradiated tachyzoites induced production of serum IgG and IgA in immunized mice, as determined by ELISA, with IgG2a as the dominant subclass, similar to chronic infection. Their use with adjuvant allowed the excretion of significant amounts of IgA in stools also IgG, despite a lesser extent. There are suggestion of tolerance induction at mucosal level, with lower antigen induced proliferation and lower in vitro antibody production by spleen and gut lymphocytes, with the latter doses, specially when milk was used as adjuvant. All oral preparations induced some quantitative protection against challenge, which was similar to the parenteral route only isolated alum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. All these data support the possibility of the development of an oral vaccine against toxoplasmosis, using irradiated tachyzoites, which would be possible tool in near future for use in field baits, for immunizing either domestic or wild felines. (author)

  18. Gamma radiation and thermal treatment effects on the conservation of natural apple (Malus domestica) juice, cv. gala; Efeito da radiacao gama e do tratamento termico na conservacao do suco natural de maca (Malus domestica), cv. gala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Lucimara

    1995-12-01

    This work studies the apple juice preservation without chemicals. The samples were exposed to the following treatments: heating (control, 60{sup 0} C/20 min and 80{sup 0} C/20 min); irradiation (control; 2, 4 and 6 kGy); heating plus irradiation. The quality control was carried out by physical and chemical analyses (soluble solids; titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and color), microbiological and sensorial analyses. The samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 {+-} 3{sup 0} C) for 180 days. The results showed few variations in the soluble solids, acidity, pH and ascorbic acid for all treatments. However, the 6 kGy dose kept the chemical characteristics of the juice, providing a clear juice, with better appearance and microorganisms free. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Energy efficiency of photovoltaic modules mono and polycrystalline in function of global solar radiation; Eficiencia energetica de modulos fotovoltaicos mono e poli-cristalinos em funcao da radiacao solar global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], e-mail: seraphim@fca.unesp.br; Siqueira, Jair Antonio Cruz [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: jairsiqueira@fca.unesp.br; Silva, Carliane Diniz e [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Fiorentino, Jair de Jesus [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mail: jairfiorentino@terra.com.br; Araujo, Joao Alberto Borges de [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Botucatu (FATEC), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao

    2004-07-01

    This research proposes a methodology to evaluate the acting of the solar energy conversion in electric energy, generated by photovoltaic modules installed under field conditions, constituted monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon cells. The modules were appraised with relationship to energy efficiency for different marks and potency levels, in function of the readiness of solar radiation, being used loads sized for the nominal potency level of each module. The energy efficiency values calculated with the data obtained in field, didn't agree with the technical information presented by the makers of the modules monocrystalline, as being more efficient than the polycrystalline. Was ended, therefore, that the modules of the appraised marks presented inferior medium efficiency at 50% of the values supplied by the makers (author)

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation in the viscosity of gelatin and pectin solutions used in food industry; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a viscosidade de solucoes de gelatina e pectina utilizadas na industria de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Yoko

    2008-07-01

    Pectin is a polysaccharide substance of plant origin that may be used as gelling agent, stabilizer in jams, in yogurt drinks and lactic acid beverages. Gelatin, a protein from bovine origin, in this case, is mainly used as gelling agent due to hydrogel formation during cooling. The {sup 60} Co-irradiation process may cause various modifications in macromolecules, some with industrial application, as reticulation. The dynamic response of viscoelastic materials can be used in order to give information about the structural aspect of a system at molecular level. In the present work samples of pectin with different degree of methoxylation, gelatin and the mixture of both were employed to study the radiation sensitivity by means of viscosity measurements. Solutions prepared with citric pectin with high methoxylation content (ATM) 1 por cent, pectin with low content (BTM) 1 por cent, gelatin 0.5 por cent, 1 por cent and 2 por cent, and the mixture 1 por cent and 2 por cent were irradiated with gamma rays at different doses, up to 15 kGy with dose rate about 2 kGy/h. After irradiation the viscosity was measured within a period of 48 h. The viscosity of ATM and BTM pectin solutions decreased sharply with the radiation dose. However, the gelatin sample presented a great radiation resistance. When pectin and gelatin solutions were mixed a predominance of pectin behavior was found. (author)

  1. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields; Caracterizacao de uma camara de extrapolacao e filmes radiocromicos para verificacao da coerencia metrologica entre campos padroes de radiacao beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Jhonny Antonio Benavente

    2011-07-01

    The metrological coherence among standard systems is a requirement for assuring the reliability of dosimetric quantities measurements in ionizing radiation field. Scientific and technologic improvements happened in beta radiation metrology with the installment of the new beta secondary standard BSS2 in Brazil and with the adoption of the internationally recommended beta reference radiations. The Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of the Development Center for Nuclear Technology (LCD/CDTN), in Belo Horizonte, implemented the BSS2 and methodologies are investigated for characterizing the beta radiation fields by determining the field homogeneity, the accuracy and uncertainties in the absorbed dose in air measurements. In this work, a methodology to be used for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields in standard systems was investigated; an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films were used and measurements were done in terms of absorbed dose in air. The reliability of both the extrapolation chamber and the radiochromic film was confirmed and their calibrations were done in the LCD/CDTN in {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 85}Kr and {sup 147}Pm beta radiation fields. The angular coefficients of the extrapolation curves were determined with the chamber; the field mapping and homogeneity were obtained from dose profiles and isodose with the radiochromic films. A preliminary comparison between the LCD/CDTN and the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute / Sao Paulo (LCI/IPEN) was carried out. Results with the extrapolation chamber measurements showed in terms of absorbed dose in air rates showed differences between both laboratories up to de -I % e 3%, for {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 85}Kr and {sup 147}Pm beta radiation fields, respectively. Results with the EBT radiochromic films for 0.1, 0.3 and 0.15 Gy absorbed dose in air, for the same beta radiation fields, showed differences up to 3%, -9% and -53%. The beta radiation field mappings with radiochromic films in both BSS2 showed that some of them were not geometrically aligned. (author)

  2. Study on ionizing radiation effects in diesel and crude oil: organic compounds, hydrocarbon, sulfur and nitrogen; Estudo do efeito da radiacao ionizante em compostos organicos do diesel e do petroleo: hidrocarbonetos, sulfurados e nitrogenados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Luana dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Petroleum is the most important energy and pollution source in the world, nowadays. New technologies in petrochemical industry aim to minimize energy spending at the process and to reduce pollution products. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds generate environmental problems; the most relevant is air pollution that affects the population health directly. The nuclear technology has been used in environmental protection through pollutants removal by free radicals produced at action of the radiation in water molecule. The objective of this study is to evaluate the radiation effects on oil and diesel, mainly in the hydrocarbons, organic sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. It was studied a molecule model of sulfur, named benzothiophene, diesel and crude oil samples. The samples were irradiated using a Co-60 source, Gammacell type. The total sulfur concentration in the samples was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study of molecular model showed that 95% was degraded at 20 kGy dose rate. Irradiation at 15 kGy of absorbed dose showed some cracking in petrol hydrocarbons, however with higher doses it was observed polymerization and low efficiency of cracking. It was observed that the sulfur compounds from diesel and petroleum was efficiently reduced. The applied doses of 15 kGy and 30 kGy were the most efficient on desulfurization of petroleum, and for diesel the highest variation was observed with 30 kGy and 50 kGy of absorbed dose. The distillation and chromatographic separation using an open column with palladium chloride as stationary phase showed a preferential separation of organic sulfur compounds in petroleum. (author)

  3. Study on the energy dependence of gamma radiation detectors for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co; Estudo da dependencia energetica de detectores de radiacao gama para {sup 137}Cs e {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda B.C.; Diniz, Raphael E.; Carvalho, Valdir S.; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: fbnonato@ipen.b, E-mail: rediniz@ipen.b, E-mail: vcsouza@ipen.b, E-mail: vivolo@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    38 Geiger-Mueller radiation detectors and 9 ionization chambers were calibrated, viewing to study the energy dependence of the monitor response for gamma radiation fields ({sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co). The results were considered satisfactory only for ionization chambers and for some Geiger-Mueller detectors

  4. Quantification of micronuclei in blood lymphocytes of patients exposed to gamma radiation for dose absorbed assessment; Quantificacao de micronucleos em linfocitos de pacientes expostas a radiacao gama para a avaliacao da dose absorvida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Isvania Maria Serafim da Silva

    2003-02-15

    Dose assessment in an important step to evaluate biological effects as a result of individual exposure to ionizing radiation. The use of cytogenetic dosimetry based on the quantification of micronuclei in lymphocytes is very important to complement physical dosimetry, since the measurement of absorbed dose cannot be always performed. In this research, the quantification of micronuclei was carried out in order to evaluate absorbed dose as a result of radiotherapy with {sup 60}Co, using peripheral blood samples from 5 patients with cervical uterine cancer. For this purpose, an aliquot of whole blood from the individual patients was added in culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with fetal calf serum and phytohaemagglutinin. The culture was incubated for 44 hours. Henceforth, cytochalasin B was added to block the dividing lymphocytes in cytokinesis. The culture was returned to the incubator for further of 28 hours. Thus, cells were harvested, processed and analyzed. Values obtained considering micronuclei frequency after pelvis irradiation with absorption of 0,08 Gy and 1,8 Gy were, respectively, 0,0021 and 0,052. These results are in agreement with some recent researches that provided some standard values related to micronuclei frequency induced by gamma radiation exposure in different exposed areas for the human body. The results presented in this report emphasizes biological dosimetry as an important tool for dose assessment of either total or partial-body exposure to ionizing radiation, mainly in retrospective dose investigation. (author)

  5. Effects of gamma radiation in the water absorption and the cooking time on the soybean cultivars; Efeito da radiacao gama na absorcao de agua e no tempo de coccao em cultivares de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Tais Carolina Franqueira de [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao. Curso de Mestrado em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Piedade, Sonia Maria de Stefano [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: piedade@esalq.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The soybean is one of the most important legume cultivated in the world. Its high protein amount is attractive in the animal feeding and human, beyond its by-products. Although Brazil has great production of soybean, have many losses due the occurrence of alterations in the physico-chemical characteristics, resulting in product that has high resistance to cooking. Some methods can be used to minimize this effect, and the ionizing radiation with Cobalto-60 constitutes a safe and efficient method for the increase in the time of useful life of foods. Due to commercial importance of the soybean, possible alterations promoted for treatment of irradiation must be studied. The present work aimed at the evaluation of the alterations in the capacity of hydratation and the time of cooking of the varieties of soybean BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, submitted 231 BRS and E48 to the doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy of radiation gamma. The amount of water absorbed for the grains varied of 14.00 and 16.66 mL, and the time of cooking of 119.67 and 291.33 minutes. The irradiation caused increase of the hydratation speed, but not on the amount of absorbed water. The cooking time decreased with the increased of the irradiated dose. (author)

  6. Hourly model to estimate solar global radiation for all months of the year for Botucatu, Sao Paulo State; Modelos horarios para estimativa da radiacao solar global para todos os meses do ano para Botucatu-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laperuta Filho, Jayme; Lunardi, Dalva M. Cury [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this work was establish and daily models for estimate of solar global radiation for the months of the year, in Botucatu-SP 22 deg C 52`S,48 deg C 26`W Grw). The obtention of these models showed be viable high degree of reliability considering that they are specific for hours and months that originated them. The coefficients a and b presented monthly and hourly variations, taking into account that b showed higher relative variability than a. In all months studied, the linear adjustment was not appropriate before 7 a.m and after 5 p.m. (author) 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. Radiation effects evaluation for electrons sheaf in packages resistance in a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella and Sitophilus zeamais; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao por feixe de eletrons na resistencia de embalagens a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella e Sitophilus zeamais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2011-07-01

    The plagues of stored products consist of a man problem, depreciating products and causing economical damages. Among these curses we have Lasioderma serricorne (F. 1792), Sitophilus zeamais (M. 1855) and Plodia interpunctella (H. 1813) known by infesting stored products as: grains, brans, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits and spices. These curses perforate and penetrate the packages, ovipositing over the substratum. In this context the package plays a fundamental part, preventing the contact and curses' proliferation in the packed product. So, to protect the packed product and to prolong its shelf life, the package should have good mechanical resistance to tension and perforation, good sealing, good barrier properties and should not transfer odors nor strange flavors to the packed product. The ionizing radiation can cause structural changes in polymer packages, these changes are caused by the scission processes and reticulation of the polymers chains. These are concurrent processes and the predominance of one over the other depends on the chemical structure of the polymer, the irradiation conditions and specific factors of the material that will absorb the energy. This work had the objective to evaluate the changes in mechanical properties of package structures used to store granola, cereal bar and pasta, as well as its resistance to perforation by L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and S. zeamais, when submitted to electrons sheaf radiation. In this methodology were used five structures of commercially utilized packages to store granola, cereal bar and pasta composed by (Polypropylene bi-oriented metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - BOPPmet/BOPP 50 {mu}m), (Polypropylene bi-oriented/Polypropylene - BOPP/PP 50 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - PETmet/BOPP 32 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) /Polypropylene - PET/PP1 72 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate)/Polypropylene - PET/PP2 32 {mu}m). The structures of packaging were submitted to radiation doses between 0, 10, 20 and 60 kGy, in one electron accelerator of 1,5 M and V, 25 mA and 37,5 kW, dose tax of 11,22 kGy / s, room temperature and air presence . Eight days, Two and Six months after irradiations, mechanical resistance experiment were accomplished to tension and elongating in rupture, sealing resistance and perforation resistance, all based in respective ASTM norms. The perforation experiment by insects were realized in an acclimatized room, where irradiated samples in doses of 0, 10, 20 and 60 kGy were sealed containing 40 g of granola, 40 g of pasta and cereal bar in number of nine by experiment, and equally divided in three plastic screened boxes by studied dose. In each box 20 adults of each insect were added in for 60 days, when the packages were evaluated to verify possible perforations. The differences between the sample results were statistically evaluated by ANOVA (p<0.05). The results showed that concerning the perforation resistance by L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and S. zeamais the polymeric structures evaluated showed low resistance by insects perforation before and after the treatment. BOPPmet/BOPP (50 {mu}m), PETmet/BOPP (32 {mu}m), PET/PP1 (72 {mu}m) and PET/PP2 (32 {mu}m) structures showed significant losses in mechanical properties studied. The BOPP/PP (50 {mu}m) showed the best set of answers in mechanical properties to the radiation treatment with electrons sheaf up to 10 kGy doses. Among the mechanical properties evaluated, sealing was the most affected by ionizing radiation, has shown, in general, increasing losses with radiation dose. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects in microbiology, physical and chemical and sensory aspects of ice cream; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante nos aspectos microbiologicos, fisico-quimicos e sensoriais de sorvetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir Dias

    2015-06-01

    The ice cream is defined as an emulsion of fats and proteins or a mixture of water and sugar, other ingredients may be added provided since they do not affect the product. It is considered a food of high nutritional value, providing lipids, carbohydrates, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E and K), and it is considered one of the most important products and higher interest to the dairy industry due to great demand by the consumers. The diseases related to food consumption are considered one of the most significant problems. Several outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of ice cream have been reported in recent decades in Asia, Europe and America. It is believed that the ice cream, as a frozen food, presents no risk to the population health. However, it is considered an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms due to its composition, pH close to neutrality and long storage period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, sensory and physicochemical aspects of ice cream. The ice cream samples were irradiated with gamma rays (60Co) with the doses of LOkGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy. The samples intended for the inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) and Salmonella abaetetuba (ATCC 35640) have been irradiated with doses of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0kGy. It can be concluded that the dose of 3.0kGy was adequate to reduce most of the studied microorganisms to undetected levels. The use of gamma radiation affected the texture and the parameters of the colorimetric analyses of the ice cream. The results of the sensorial analyses showed that the better accepted dose was 3.0kGy. (author)

  9. Effect of ionizing radiation on the oxidation of cholesterol in frozen chicken and beef hamburgers;Efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a oxidacao do colesterol em hamburgueres de frango e bovino congelados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Andrea Figueiredo Procopio de

    2004-07-01

    Several technologies have been developed to assure food quality. Among these technological processes, ionizing radiation has been described as a feasible alternative for food conservation, mainly for meat products, since it keeps their natural properties. In hamburgers, the use of irradiation has been studied due to the frequent implication of such products in outbreaks of food-borne diseases. Some of the outbreaks, which even killed consumers, were caused by E. coli O157:H7. But the use of ionizing radiation in hamburgers may form free radicals able to trigger lipid oxidation in the muscle tissue. As a component of the cell membrane lipids, cholesterol may also undergo oxidation and form biologically active compounds, with atherogenic, mutagenic, cytotoxic and cancerous properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of cholesterol oxidation products in chicken hamburgers and beef hamburgers submitted to irradiation and stored frozen, aerobically and under vacuum. The results showed that irradiation caused an increase of around 11% in the concentration of cholesterol oxides in frozen hamburgers. In chicken hamburgers, an increase in the levels of cholesterol oxides was observed ali over the storage period, while in beef hamburgers it was observed only in the final part of the storage period. Packaging itself did not have a significant effect on the concentrations of cholesterol oxides in either of the types of hamburgers studied. However, it showed a significant interaction with irradiation, that is, vacuum packaging prevented the formation of cholesterol oxides in irradiated beef hamburgers. (author)

  10. Effect of gamma radiation and storage on cholesterol oxidative stability of raw and processed eggs;Efeito da radiacao ionizante e do armazenamento sobre a estabilidade oxidativa do colesterol em ovos crus e processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Marliz Klaumann Julca

    2005-07-01

    The egg have being studied due its nutritional wealth, for show industrial interest as a raw material, e due its higher cholesterol content. At the same time, due its susceptibility to contamination mainly with salmonella, it is being proposed the ionizing radiation as a hygienic measure. Cholesterol is subject to oxidation, that it is facilitated by several factors, among them ionizing radiation. Formed cholesterol oxides, by its turn, show harmful biological properties to human health, as atherogenicity, cytotoxicity, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity, among others. The objectives of this work were evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation over pH, viscosity and color, besides the oxidative stability of cholesterol, in stored and processed crude eggs. With the increase of used doses (1, 2 and 3 KGy), there was an reduction in the viscosity of the egg white and in the color yolk egg, besides the increase in lipidic oxidation, measured through tiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Specifications as humidity, total lipids and egg yolk cholesterol were not influenced. In the subject of humidity and of cholesterol, there was an meaningful alteration due storage (30 days in 4 deg C). The sum of the analyzed oxides didn't variate with the irradiation, only individually, although it did vary with storage. The thermal processing caused an meaningful increase of TBARS, but despite this, the oxides sum didn't differed between treatments. (author)

  11. Radiation exposure evaluation of the professional working interventionist procedures in a hemodynamics service; Avaliacao da exposicao a radiacao dos profissionais que executam procedimentos intervencionistas em um servico de hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Leonardo Peres

    2004-07-01

    An evaluation of the dose distribution received by all the workers involved on coronary angioplasty, arteriography, coronary angiography and mitral valvuloplasty procedures has been made in this work. For the measurements, LiF:Mg, Ti TLD(TLD 100) was used, located in seven different points on the worker's body: hands, knees, neck, forehead and thorax, inside and outside lead apron.) The measurements have been done for each hemo dynamical procedure, and the TLD calibrated in personal dose equivalent (H{sub p}(d)) operational quantity for 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm depth. Nurses and auxiliary doctors did not receive expressive dose values, indicating that the adopted radioprotection procedures seem to be appropriate and sufficient for them. However, the same is not true for the doctors direct in charge of the procedure. The results show the importance of the use of thyroid protections in these cases. This work discusses the main factors that cause occupational dose increase. From all interventionist hemo dynamical procedures analyzed, the dose values received by the doctors on coronary angioplasty procedures and coronary angiography were higher than the ones found on arteriography and mitral valvuloplasty. The higher dose values has been found for coronary angiography procedures in X-ray tools, that work with fluoroscopy on continuous mode and have been executed with brachial way, even in the eyes, hands, knees and thyroid, with or without shield. Multiplying these high dose values, measured in one procedure by the mean number of annual procedures made at the studied hospital by each doctor, the individual dose annual limits can be surpassed. Based on these estimations, some optimizations suggestions have been made and one discussion about the need of additional monitoring points is presented. Different algorithms have been used in order to estimate the effective dose, including a new proposal. The obtained results using the actual Radiodiagnostic Brazilian regulation underestimate the dose, in the major part of the measured cases. The proposed algorithm seem sto offer a better estimation for the occupational effective dose for Interventional Radiology. (author)

  12. Application of gamma radiation on disinfestation feed grain based food for domestic animals; Aplicacao da radiacao gama na desinfestacao de racoes a base de graos para alimentacao de animais domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Amanda Cristina Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to realize a survey to identify the associated insects to feed the city Sao Paulo / SP and also to assess the effect of gamma radiation on food ration for domestic animals infested by pests. Samples of 20 stores, 'Pet Shop' in different regions in Sao Paulo / SP were subjected to trials of 1 and 45 days for collection of insects with the aid of plastic tray and screens of different sizes. The species Sitophilus zeamais, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Lasioderma serricorne and Oryzaephilus sp. showed a higher frequency. In assessing the effects of gamma radiation we used samples of maize, sunflower seeds and mix for rodents infested with adults of the species Sitophilus zeamais, Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, after the period of 7 to 10 days the insects were removed and samples subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation. The species Sitophilus zeamais and Lasioderma serricorne subjected doses from 0,25 to 1,50 kGy and species Plodia interpunctella doses from 0,10 to 2,0 kGy. After 40 days of irradiation was evaluated the number of insects emerged. The results of bioassays with Sitophilus zeamais and with Lasioderma serricorne demonstrated that doses starting at 0,5 kGy was sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and newly emerged larvae. The results with Plodia interpunctella from the 1,5 kGy, hasn't emerged adult insects, concluding that these doses were sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and larvae. (author)

  13. Effects of ionizing radiation on glycerolated amniotic membranes as a substract for cultured human epithelium; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante em membranas amnioticas gliceroladas empregadas como substrato ao cultivo de epitelio humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paggiaro, Andre Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is a biomaterial with biological properties that are beneficial to tissue repair. It has been used as a temporary coverage to threat burns and chronic wounds. Recently, it has been served as a substrate for keratinocytes culture to construct a living skin equivalent. However, MA is a biological material, and its transplantation could cause infectious disease for receptors. So, it must be preserved and sterilized before clinical use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation effects on glycerol-preserved MA, considering its compatibility to support human keratinocytes culture. Four MA were stored in high concentrations of glycerol (> 85%) and half of them were radio sterilized with a dose of 25 kGy. Then, we established two groups: nonirradiated MA (MA-ni) and irradiated MA (MA-i). Both groups was deepithelialized by a standardized protocol and was investigated morphologically, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural. Subsequently human keratinocytes were cultivated immersed and in air-liquid interface on denuded surface of MA-i and MA-ni. The results were compared at 14 and 21 days of culture by light and electron microscopy. After epithelial denudation, analyses demonstrated the continuity of the basement membrane in MA-ni group, whereas in the irradiated group, there was no indication of the basement membrane’s presence on the surface of MA. The cell cultures showed that in the non-irradiated group, there was growth of a multi-layered and differentiated epithelium, with a stratum corneum’s formation in air-liquid interface. In the irradiated group, the epithelium had only two or three layer, little cell differentiation, with the same results immersed or air-liquid interface system. Glycerol-preserved MA was biocompatible with the growth of a cultivated epithelium, showing its potential as a skin substitute. Irradiation at 25 kGy cause structural damage to the tissue, making changes in basement membrane, that facilitates its loss when exposed to the de-epithelialized protocol. The basement membrane’s loss may explain the difference between the keratinocytes cultivation on MA-I and MA-ni. (author)

  14. Study about the sensibility in vitro of different strains of Vibrio cholera 01 exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation; Estudo da sensibilidade in vitro de diferentes cepas de Vibio cholerae 01 a radiacao gama de 60Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ivany Rodrigues de [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servicos de Saude; Gelli, Dilma Scala; Jakabi, Miyoko [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Microbiologia; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nlmastro@net.ipen.br

    1998-07-01

    The presence of some microorganisms in food, or the metabolites originated during their own multiplication may bring several diseases to humans: intoxications and food borne infections. Among the agents that may cause those diseases, we find Vibrio cholerae 01. In this experiment, the studies are focused on the radiosensibility in vitro of four strains of V. cholerae 01, exposed to different doses of ionizing radiation of {sup 60} Co. The results are compared with other data related to bacterial food borne diseases, including water. (author)

  15. Study of the effect of gamma radiation on the molecule of tetracycline concerning its behavior as complexing and extracting agent; Estudo do efeito da radiacao gama sobre a molecula de tetraciclina relativamente ao seu comportamento como agente complexante e extrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade e Silva, Leonardo Gondim de

    1982-07-01

    Both solvent extraction and spectrophotometric techniques were used to show the alterations that gamma radiation causes in the behavior of tetracycline molecule as far as its extracting and complexing power are concerned. The effect of gamma radiation on the solid tetracycline molecule, benzyl alcohol and on the solution of both was examined in solvent extraction systems whose aqueous phases were made up by {sup 152} Eu-{sup 154}Eu radioactive tracer solutions and whose organic phases were constituted by tetracycline-benzyl alcohol solutions. Experiments were performed in order to determine whether or not the water used for the pre-saturation of benzyl alcohol would influence the radiolysis of tetracycline. Solvent extraction and spectrophotometry were the techniques used to obtain the necessary data. Absorption spectra of irradiated tetracycline benzyl alcohol solutions submitted to several gamma radiation doses were examined and the alterations shown by these spectra were examined. The effect of gamma radiation on the tetracycline molecule was also studied when tetracycline-benzyl alcohol solutions were irradiated under several gaseous atmospheres, namely: O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, SF{sub 6} and N{sub 2}O. The variation on the concentration of the tetracycline-benzyl alcohol solution caused by several doses of gamma radiation was determined by using the spectrophotometric technique. (author)

  16. Shelf-life increase of fresh mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju using gamma radiation;Aumento da vida util de cogumelos Pleurotus sajor-caju in natura com aplicacao de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moda, Evelise Moncaio

    2008-07-01

    The production and consumption of edible mushrooms has been increasing in the last years due to its nutritional composition and sensory quality. The irradiation of mushrooms has been used with the purpose of maintaining the fresh product characteristics during shelf-life. The present study evaluated the effect of different radiation doses on the conservation of mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju, through by chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial parameters. The packaging consisted on polystyrene trays with 250 g of sample, wrapped in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The mushrooms were irradiated with doses of 125, 250, 500 and 750 Gy in a Gamma cell 220 type irradiator, and stored at 4 +- 1 deg C and 90% UR for 10 days. The proximate composition (moisture, crude fibre, total protein, total fat and ash), total soluble solids, pH, texture, color (L, a, b, Chroma and ho), enzymatic activity (polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase), microbiological (total coliform, Escherichia coli and total psychotropic bacteria) and sensory evaluation (color, taste and appearance) were determined in the 1st, 5th and 10th storage days. For the respiratory rate analysis, 30 g of sample were placed in jars and stored at 4 +- 1 deg C and 90% UR for 8 days. CO{sub 2} was analyzed every day using a gaseous chromatograph. The results were submitted to variance analysis and average test using the SAS statistical package. The total protein and total fat values did not differ significantly between treatments or storage periods, while the moisture, crude fibre and ash values differ between treatments and periods. The dose of 750 Gy darkness the mushroom in the last evaluation, and texture was better in control during the storage period. The color (L, a), texture and proximate composition values did not differ significantly between treatments or storage periods. A significant increase was observed for soluble solids, b{sup *} and enzymatic activity values in all treatments at the end of the storage period. Values of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities increased in the last day of evaluation in samples irradiated with 250 Gy. This fact may be a result of the water radiolysis process, since mushrooms have high water content. The dose of 125 Gy increased the respiratory rate of the samples until the 5th storage day in comparison to the other treatments, causing reduction in the product shelf-life. The samples irradiated with 250, 500 and 750 Gy had a reduction on the respiratory rate if compared with the control, so contributing to the maintenance of the post harvest quality during the storage. The samples which received 750 Gy obtained the best results in the microbiological analyses, with reduction of total coliform and psychotropic bacteria during the storage period. Sensory analyses showed that the control had higher scores for color, aroma and appearance attributes; they were above the acceptability limit until the last storage day. In general, the irradiated samples were accepted for the evaluated attributes until the 5th storage day; thus, establishing the shelf-life for irradiated mushrooms (author)

  17. Evaluation of the calibration uncertainty of gamma radiation monitors using a {sup 137}Cs source; Avaliacao da incerteza de calibracao de monitores de radiacao gama com uma fonte de {sup 137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Elisabeth; Leite, Sandro Passos; David, Mariano Gazineu; Estrada, Carlos Frederico Alves; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: beth.fernandes56@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ/LCR), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2014-07-01

    This study shows all the relevant components to the calculation of the calibration uncertainty of gamma radiation area monitors performed by the Lab. Ciencias Radiologicas of UERJ . The uncertainty components will be related with their respective estimated values, details about the uncertainty components calculations of positioning and field homogeneity will be shown. There were obtained the values of 3,8 % and 5,8 % to the expanded uncertainty (k=2) for the dosimetry and for the area monitors calibration, respectively. (author)

  18. In vitro evaluation of ionizing radiation effects in bone tissue by FTIR spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis; Avaliacao in vitro dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em tecido osseo bovino por espectroscoia ATR-FTIR e analise dinamica-mecanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Marcelo Noronha

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation from gamma radiation sources or X-ray generators is frequently used in Medical Science, such as radiodiagnostic exams, radiotherapy, and sterilization of haloenxerts. Ionizing radiation is capable of breaking polypeptidic chains and causing the release of free radicals by radiolysis.of water. It interacts also with organic material at the molecular level, and it may change its mechanical properties. In the specific case of bone tissue, studies report that ionizing radiation induces changes in collagen molecules and reduces the density of intermolecular crosslinks. The aim of this study was to verify the changes promoted by different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Samples of bovine bone were irradiated using Cobalt-60 with five different doses: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy, 15 kGy and 75 kGy. To study the effects of ionizing irradiation on the chemical structure of the bone, the sub-bands of amide I, the crystallinity index and relation of organic and inorganic materials, were studied. The mechanical changes were evaluated using the elastic modulus and the damping value. To verify whether the chemical changes and the mechanical characteristics of the bone were correlated, the relation between the analysis made with spectroscopic data and the mechanical analysis data was studied. It was possible to evaluate the effects of different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue. With ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, it was possible to observe changes in the organic components and in the hydroxyapatite crystals organization. Changes were also observed in the elastic modulus and in the damping value. High correlation with statistical significance was observed among (amide III + collagen)/{sub v1,v3}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} and the delta tangent, and among 1/FHWM and the elastic modulus. (author)

  19. Dosimetric methodology for extremities of individuals occupationally exposed to beta radiation using the optically stimulated luminescence technique; Metodologia dosimetrica para extremidades em individuos ocupacionalmente expostos a radiacao beta por meio da tecnica de luminescencia opticamente estimulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Teresa Cristina Nathan Outeiro

    2010-07-01

    A dosimetric methodology was established for the determination of extremity doses of individuals occupationally exposed to beta radiation, using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C detectors and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) reader system microStar, Landauer. The main parts of the work were: characterization of the dosimetric material Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C using the OSL technique; establishment of the dose evaluation methodology; dose rate determination of beta radiation sources; application of the established method in a practical test with individuals occupationally exposed to beta radiation during a calibration simulation of clinical applicators; validation of the methodology by the comparison between the dose results of the practical test using the OSL and the thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. The results show that both the OSL Al-2O{sub 3}:C detectors and the technique may be utilized for individual monitoring of extremities and beta radiation. (author)

  20. Radiation dose estimation due Pb-210 incorporation in inhabitants from Recife/PE, Brazil; Estimacao da dose de radiacao por incorporacao de Pb-210 nos ossos de habitantes de Recife/Pernambuco, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, C.E.O.; Silva, E.B.; Santos Junior, J.A., E-mail: oliveiracosta@msn.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, C.M. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Matematica

    2013-08-15

    {sup 210}Pb is an element widely distributed in the environment and when it is ingested by humans through air, water and food can cause various diseases including cancer because it is deposited in bones. Studies about assessment of the dose due to incorporation of {sup 210}Pb using the urine samples of volunteers from Recife are scarce. Thus, the purpose of this research was to estimate the radiation dose in bones of inhabitants from Recife (PE-Brazil) by incorporation of this radionuclide. For this, the concentration of {sup 210}Pb present in urine samples was determinate from 11 healthy and nonsmoker subjects. The urine samples were collected for a period of 24 hours following the procedures adopted by Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. Pb-210 was separated by ion exchange resin technique. In this method, the {sup 210}Pb was precipitated in form of PbCrO{sub 4} followed by beta counting, which were conducted in a Canberra Tennelec S5E detector. To estimate radiation dose in bones it was adopted values of retention and excretion of activity from IAEA-37. Concentrations of {sup 210}Pb in the urine samples of inhabitants from Recife varied from 82 to 712 mBq.l{sup -1}. The maximum annual dose estimated in bones for individuals from Recife was about 2.15 nSv.y{sup -1}. This value is below from the recommended dose limit for member of the general public, which corresponding to 1 mSv.a{sup -1}, representing a negligible risk for the population studied. (author)

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on fungal microbiota and mycotoxins in broiler chicken feed; Efeitos da radiacao gama sobre microbiota fungica e micotoxinas encontradas em racao de frangos de corte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Monica Mattos dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the control of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in broiler feed by gamma radiation. Feed samples were treated with gamma radiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) and contaminated with aflatoxins or fumonisins. Performance, hematological and biochemical results indicated that a 5 kGy dose was effective on the control of the deleterious effects caused by mycotoxins on broilers. No significant alterations were observed on the feed chemical composition. Irradiated samples presented lower fungal contamination than those not irradiated. We did not detect alterations on aflatoxin or fumonisin content of feed samples after irradiation. AFLP results demonstrated that Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides did not present any correlation between groups, toxin production and irradiation dose. We can conclude that the dose of 5 kGy is indicated for treatment of broiler feed. Despite the fact that it does not change the mycotoxin levels found in the samples, this dose significantly reduces the fungal microbiota and modifies the feed digestibility, increasing the final weight of broiler chickens. (author)

  2. Effects of gamma radiation and electron beam on samples of the Brazil nuts artificially inoculated with Aspergillus flavus; Efeitos da radiacao gama e feixe de eletrons sobre amostras de castanhas-do-Brasil inoculadas artificialmente com Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Ednei Assuncao Antunes

    2012-07-01

    The high level of contamination by aflatoxin produced by fungi in lots of Brazil nuts and the strict control by importing countries in relation to the levels of toxins in food, European Union countries decided in 2003 by the return of these lots products from Brazil. Despite the economic loss represented by contamination by toxigenic fungi in Brazil nuts, a major product of extractive Northern of Brazil, studies are still preliminary as the control of contamination aflatoxigenic fungal using methods such as gamma radiation (G.R) and mainly, electron beam (E.B). These facts motivated this research, which aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation and application of electron beam in samples of Brazil nut artificially inoculated with Aspergillus flavus. This goal, we were studied 50 samples of the Brazil nut previously inoculated with spores of A. flavus and subsequently incubated at 30 °C in relative humidity controlled at 93%. After incubation, period of 15 days, the average water activity of the samples was 0.80, the samples were divided into 5 groups that received the following doses of radiation: control (0 kGy), 5 and 10 kGy 5 E.B and G.R. The mycobiota was performed by serial dilution, plated on surface using potato dextrose agar. The results demonstrated that treatment with E.B using a dose of 5 kGy and 10 kGy resulted in reduced growth of A. flavus in 74% (37/50) and 94% (47/50) of samples. The samples treated with G.R at the dose of 5 kGy and 10 kGy no fungal growth occurred in 92% (46/50) 100% (50/50) of. The study of aflatoxins showed that doses of E.B of 5 kGy and 10 kGy reduced levels of AFB1 at 53.32% and 65.66% respectively. The application of gamma rays at doses of 5 and 10 kGy reduced levels of toxins in 70.61% and 84.15% respectively. This result may be attributed to higher penetrability of gamma radiation. Sensory analysis showed greater acceptance of the judges for the samples irradiated with E.B and G.R at the dose of 10 kGy. We concluded that although sensory analysis have demonstrated some loss of organoleptic characteristics, both processes of radiation were effective in reducing the count of A. flavus and aflatoxin contamination. (author)

  3. Statistical analysis of natural radiation levels inside the UNICAMP campus through the use of Geiger-Muller counter; Analise estatistica dos niveis de radiacao natural dentro da UNICAMP atraves do uso de contador Geiger-Muller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontolan, Juliana A.; Biral, Antonio Renato P., E-mail: fontolanjuliana@gmail.com.br, E-mail: biral@ceb.unicamp.br [Hospital das Clinicas (CEB/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Biomedica

    2013-07-01

    It is known that the distribution at time intervals of random and unrelated events leads to the Poisson distribution . This work aims to study the distribution in time intervals of events resulting from radioactive decay of atoms present in the UNICAMP where activities involving the use of ionizing radiation are performed environments . The proposal is that the distribution surveys at intervals of these events in different locations of the university are carried out through the use of a Geiger-Mueller tube . In a next step , the evaluation of distributions obtained by using non- parametric statistics (Chi- square and Kolmogorov Smirnoff) will be taken . For analyzes involving correlations we intend to use the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical tool . Measured in six different places within the Campinas , with the use of Geiger- Muller its count mode and a time window of 20 seconds was performed . Through statistical tools chi- square and Kolmogorov Smirnoff tests, using the EXCEL program , it was observed that the distributions actually refer to a Poisson distribution. Finally, the next step is to perform analyzes involving correlations using the statistical tool ANOVA.

  4. Effects of the low-intensity laser therapy on the prevention of dental caries induced in rats; Efeitos da radiacao laser em baixa intensidade na prevencao de carie dental induzida em ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Karin Praia

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low intensity laser therapy, associated or not to an acidulated phosphate fluoride, on the prevention of dental caries induced in rats. It was used 40 wistar rats, female, weaned with 18 days, fed with a cariogenic diet during 48 days and inoculated orally with Streptococcus mutans by three consecutive days starting from the second day of the diet. On the fifth day of experiment the animals were divided into five groups: G{sub c} (control) the animas were no submitted to any treatment; G{sub L} (laser) irradiation with low power laser (GaAlAs, {lambda}=660 nm, P=30 mW, {delta}t=5 sec, 5 J/cm{sup 2}); G{sub F} (fluoride) topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF 1,23%) for four minutes; G{sub LF} (laser + fluoride) irradiation with low power laser followed by topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride; G{sub FL} (fluoride + laser) topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride followed by low power laser. The animals were sacrificed after 48 days; the molars were extracted and prepared to determine the dental caries lesions area by optical microscopy, enamel microhardness and analysis of the calcium and phosphorus ratio (Ca/P) by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA (p

  5. Gamma radiation effects at color, antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.); Efeitos da radiacao gama na cor, capacidade antioxidante e perfil de acidos graxos em amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Mansi, Debora Niero; Domingues, Maria Antonia Calori [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Irradiation is efficient at extinction fungi contamination in peanuts. Peanuts have high biologic value protein, minerals, vitamin E, complex B, and high concentration of lipids. The objective of this research is to evaluate the gamma irradiation effect on color, total phenolic, antioxidant activity, and fatty acid profile in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Cultivars IAC-Tatu ST and IAC-Runner 886 were submitted to gamma radiation with doses of 5.0; 7.5; 10.0, and 15.0 kGy and storage at room temperature. There was no significant difference in the color of IAC-Tatu ST. However, significant difference was found in the luminosity and Chroma in IAC-Runner 886. Total fenolics differed from the control with 33.27 mg.g{sup -1} and treatment dose of 10.0 kGy with 58.60 mg.g{sup -1} in IAC-Tatu ST. This parameter not had significant difference in IAC-Runner 886 and the control with 51.59 mg.g{sup -1}. The antioxidant activity did not present significant difference with a dose of 10.0 kGy, recommended for the elimination of fungi in peanuts. The dose of 10.0 kGy showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids, increase in unsaturated fatty acids, and an increase in linolleic acid. The oleic/linoleic relation decreased justifying further research correlating storage and oxidative stability. (author)

  6. Application gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in disinfestation of some types of rations for feeding small animals; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto-60 na desinfestacao de alguns tipos de racoes para alimentacao de animais de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula Bergamin

    2012-07-01

    The pests as beetles, mites, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting to deterioration of the products. The present research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding animals of small size. In the first experiment packing of free samples were used measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), e (3), and (4). Each treatment consisted of 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the samples. After the irradiation (disinfestation) of the all irradiated packing and more the control was conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects were liberated Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae, in a total of 400 for each box and maintained at room acclimatized with 27 {+-} 2 Deg C and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5%. In the second experiment packing were used made with the materials of packing of the first experiment. Each packing was made of 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate (ration). In each repetition was inoculated 10 insects of each species, in a total of 400 insects for experiment per box. The packing with substrate and insect, were stamped in commercial machine and irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy. The irradiated packing and the control were maintained at room acclimatized same the mentioned in the first experiment. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. Concluded that only the packing of the ration type number 4 was susceptive to attack of all species of insects. The dose of 0,5 kGy was sufficient to induce the sterilization and consequently the disinfestation of all studied rations. (author)

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation on nutritional properties of table grapes Benitaka and dark raisins; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas propriedades nutricionais das uvas de mesa Benitaka e uvas passas escuras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda Galassi

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is a major producer of fruits, but its tropical climate with high humidity and temperature, eventually creates unfavorable conditions for the preservation of food and especially the fruit. Ionizing radiation has the potential to solve problems affecting the food supply in many countries. Using the right dose, this technology can be used to extend shelf life and safety of many fresh fruits in addition to controlling their rates of maturation. There are thousands of grape varieties around the world, most of them belonging Vitis vinifera. This fruit can be dried to obtain raisins in order to maintain the natural characteristics of the product and hinder the growth of microorganisms that can promote the deterioration of fresh fruit. One of the major sources of phenolic compounds are found in grapes, compared to other fruits and vegetables. One of the phenolic compounds represented by resveratrol is that stands out when it comes to fighting various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neurological diseases. The irradiations were performed in {sup 60}Co irradiator Multipurpose Center installed on Radiation Technology (CTR-IPEN-CNEN/SP) with different doses: control, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 kGy for the analysis of color, texture, sensory and microbiological shelf life. For analysis of phenolic compounds and resveratrol were radiated only at doses: control, 1.5 and 3 kGy. With the results it was found that doses of 0.5, 1.5 kGy grape variety Benitaka have been accepted well both in sensory and shelf life tests. Samples of raisins had no variation in this analysis. No microbial growth was found and after treatment with radiation it was possible to prove the presence of resveratrol in all samples. (author)

  8. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effects on carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugar contents of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa L.); Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nos teores de carotenoides, acido ascorbico e acucares do fruto Buriti do Brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Antonio Luis dos Santos [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Quimica, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br; Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Silva, Jaqueline Michele [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Irradiacao de Alimentos], e-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, e-mail: jaquelinefisica@bol.com.br; Coelho, Maysa Joppert [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Engenharia Ambiental], e-mail: maysa@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br; Pacheco, Sidney [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: sidney@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical fruit from the Northeast and Center-West Amazon of Brazil, is used in many regional dishes. It is considered an excellent source of carotenoids that are A vitamin precursors, showing a majority of beta-carotene. It also presents ascorbic acid and sugar contents. Many studies have indicated that the lack of A vitamin is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. Also, ascorbic acid deficiency may cause scorbutic disease. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to agriculture through the reduction of post-harvesting losses while maintaining food nutritional quality. In this study, buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation with doses of 0.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The objective was to evaluate the irradiation effects on total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugars concentrations of buriti. The fruit was evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (alpha and beta-carotene and lutein), ascorbic acid and sugars were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids (44600 {mu}g/100 g). The irradiation of buriti with the dose of 0.5 kGy did not significantly change carotenoids and sugars contents. However, there was a reduction of ascorbic acid concentration with an increase of the dose, which may have been caused by irradiation or by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that alter ascorbic acid stability in food, converting ascorbic to dehydroascorbic acid, while keeping the C vitamin active form. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, subjected to gamma radiation, compared to saline artemias; Avaliacao da toxicidade do extrato metanolico de Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, submetido a radiacao gama, frente a artemias salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Juanna G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Costa, Michelle C.A.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Cabral, Daniela L.V.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of irradiation of 60 Co in methanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira) with function of reducing the toxicity of the extract at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 ppm irradiating them with doses of 5 kGy 7 kGy and 10 kGy, using lethality tests with saline Artemias.

  10. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations EPDM and NBR rubber; Aplicacao da radiacao gama para incorporacao do po de borracha em formulacoes de borracha EPDM e nitrilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila de Ysasa Pozzo

    2014-07-01

    The natural decomposition of rubber is a very slow process due to its three-dimensional network formed by vulcanized crosslinked structures becoming extremely difficult to reprocess this material. The present work aims to study the application of gamma irradiation as devulcanization process for material reuse/recycling. The interactions of elastomers with ionizing radiation of a gamma source were investigated and the changes in physicochemical properties of the materials were evaluated. Formulations of NBR (acrylonitrile - butadiene) and EPDM (ethylene - propylene - diene terpolymer) from the rubber industry were crosslinked by conventional sulfur-based mixing. Master - batch was processed with rubber powder (industrial waste) and virgin rubber. The raw material (master batch) was irradiated in {sup 60}Co source at doses of 50, 100, 150 kGy and dose rate of 5 kGy h{sup -1} at room temperature. The irradiated material was incorporated in classical sulfur-based formulations. The formulations were characterized by: infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG and DTG), tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, abrasion resistance, rheometry and swelling. The results showed a predominance of chain scission at a dose of 50 kGy for EPDM rubber. For nitrile predominance of chain scission was observed at a dose of 100 kGy. These results show the possibility of the use of gamma radiation for the reuse/recycling of EPDM and nitrile rubbers. (author)

  11. Neutrons, radiation and archaeology: a multi analytical case study of incised rim tradition ceramics in Central Amazon; Neutrons, radiacao e arqueologia: estudo de caso multianalitico de ceramicas da tradicao borda incisa na Amazonia Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazenfratz-Marks, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary archaeometric study involving archaeological ceramic material from two large archaeological sites in Central Amazon, namely Lago Grande and Osvaldo, on the confluence region of Negro and Solimoes rivers. It was tested a hypothesis about the existence of an exchange network between the former inhabitants of those sites, focusing on material and/or technological exchange. That hypothesis has implications for archaeological theories of human occupation of the pre-colonial Central Amazon, which try to relativise the role of ecological difficulties of the tropical forest as a limiting factor for the emergence of social complexity in the region. The physical-chemical characterization of potsherds and clay samples near the sites was carried out by: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental chemical composition; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the firing temperature; X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the mineralogical composition; and dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Previous studies showed that Osvaldo and Lago Grande were occupied by people which produced pottery classified in the Manacapuru and Paredao phases, subclasses of the Incised Rim Tradition, around the 5-10th and 7-12th centuries BC, respectively. INAA results were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods, whereby two chemical groups of pottery were defined for each archaeological site. Significant variation in firing temperatures and mineralogical composition were not identified for such groups. By integration of the results with archaeological data, the superposition between pairs of chemical groups was interpreted as a correlate of an ancient exchange network, although it was not possible to define if it existed exclusively between Lago Grande and Osvaldo. On the contrary, it was suggested that Lago Grande participated in a more extensive exchange network by comparison of two chemical groups. (author)

  12. Gamma radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on eggs of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst., 1797) (Coleoptera: tenebrionidae); Efeitos da radiacao gama do cobalto-60 em ovos de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst., 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, L.S.; Arthur, V. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research was to verify the effects of gamma radiation of a cobalt-60 source on eggs of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst., 1797). The used dose rate was 1.28 kGy per hour, and the irradiated insects were kept under controlled environmental conditions: 25 {+-} 2{sup 0} C and 70 {+-} 5% relative humidity. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Study of stability of humic acids from soil and peat irradiated by gamma rays; Estudo da estabilidade de acidos humicos extraidos de solo e turfa, frente a radiacao ionizante gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wilson Tadeu Lopes da

    1995-07-01

    Humic acids samples (one deriving from a sedimentary soil and other from a peat), in aqueous media, were irradiated with gamma rays, in doses of 10, 50 and 100 kGy, in order to understand their chemical behavior after the irradiation. The material, before and after irradiation, was analyzed by Elemental Analysis, Functional Groups (carboxylic acids and phenols), UV/Vis Spectroscopy (E{sub 4}/E{sub 6} ratio), IR spectroscopy, CO{sub 2} content and Gel permeation Chromatography (GPC) ). The Elemental Analysis showed the humic acid derived from a peat had a most percentage quantity of Carbon and Hydrogen than the material from a sedimentary soil. From the UV/Vis Spectroscopy, it was observed a decrease of E{sub 4}/E{sub 6} ratio with an increase of the applied dose. The data from GPC are in agreement with this. The results showed that the molecular weight of the material increased by exposing it to a larger radiolitical dose. The peat material was less affected by the gamma radiation than the soil material. The carboxylic groups were responsible by radiochemical behavior of the material. (author)

  14. Evaluation of area monitor response for neutrons in radiation field generated by a 15 MV clinic accelerator; Avaliacao da resposta dos monitores de area para neutrons em campo de radiacao gerado por um acelerador clinico de 15 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula

    2011-07-01

    The clinical importance and usage of linear accelerators in cancer treatment increased significantly in the last years. Coupled with this growth came the concern about the use of accelerators with energies over to 10 MeV which produce therapeutic beam contaminated with neutrons generated when high-energy photons interact with high-atomic-number materials such as tungsten and lead present in the accelerator itself. At these facilities, measurements of the ambient dose equivalent for neutrons present difficulties owing to the existence of a mixed radiation field and possible electromagnetic interference near the accelerator. The Neutron Laboratory of the IRD - Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, aiming to evaluate the survey meters performance at these facilities, initiated studies of instrumentation response in the presence of different neutron spectra. Neutrons sources with average energies ranging from 0.55 to 4.2 MeV, four different survey meters and one ionization chamber to obtain the ratio between the dose due to neutrons and gamma radiation were used in this work. The evaluation of these measurements, performed in a 15 MV linear accelerator room is presented. This work presents results that demonstrate the complexity and care needed to make neutrons measurements in radiotherapy treatment rooms containing high energy clinical accelerators. (author)

  15. Change of the natural radiation exposure due to agriculture and industrial activities in a high natural radioactivity area from Brazil; Modificacao da exposicao a radiacao natural devido a atividades agricolas e industriais numa area de radioatividade natural elevada no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Amaral, E.C. da

    1992-12-31

    The Pocos de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais State one of the biggest alkaline intrusions in the world. This study has shown the expected value for the mean annual radiation exposure due to the agricultural activities ranges from 6 up to 14 mSv/a depending on the age and living habits of the population group. The inhalation exposure of radon, thoron and their progenies represents the largest radiological health hazard (70-90%); this is followed by the external gamma irradiation from soil (10-25%). Ingestion of natural radionuclides with local food is only of minor radiological consequence. It was found that the lethal cancer risk might increase by 4% for a person born at the plateau, living and working there for the rest of her life. For the remote population the consumption the consumption of food products exported from the plateau leads to an expected value for the collective dose of 19 man Sv/a. This corresponding nominally to the small calculated number of 1 additional case of cancer per year. Therefore the main radiation impact of the agricultural activities are not the increased concentrations of natural radionuclides in food products but the fact that they are produced there with human labor and thus increasing the radiation exposure to a large number of farm workers and their families that move for occupational reasons to that region. The radiation exposure due to the mining and milling activities is, in spite of the significant increase of radionuclide activity concentrations in river waters, only of the order of 0.3 mSv/a. However as a recognized industrial source the ICRP dose limitation system has to be applied. Under this aspect the exposure calculated here, 0.3 mSv/a, should be considered as acceptable. (author). 93 refs, 16 figs, 58 tabs.

  16. Study of ionizing radiation effects in human costal cartilage by thermogravimetry and optical coherence tomography; Estudo dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em cartilagem costal humana por meio de termogravimetria e tomografia por coerencia optica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2012-07-01

    Tissue Banks around the world have stored human cartilages obtained from post mortem donors for use in several kinds of reconstructive surgeries. To ensure that such tissues are not contaminated, they have been sterilized with ionizing radiation. However, high doses of gamma radiation may cause undesirable changes in the tissues. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of use Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) to identify possible structural modifications caused by both preservation methods of cartilage and gamma irradiation doses. Cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -70 deg C or preserved in glycerol. Irradiation was performed by {sup 60}Co source with doses of 15, 25 and 50 kGy. Our TGA results showed that glycerolized cartilages irradiated with different doses of radiation does not presented statistical differences when compared to the control group for the dehydration rate. However, the same was not observed for deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 15 kGy. The results of OCT associated to total optical attenuation coefficient showed that doses of 15 kGy promote cross-link between collagen fibrils, corroborating the results obtained from TGA. Moreover, total optical attenuation coefficient values are proportional to stress at break of cartilages, what will be very useful in a near future to predict the quality of the allografts, without unnecessary loss of biological tissue, once OCT is a nondestructive technique. By PS-OCT images, we found that high doses of ionizing radiation does not promote sufficient impairments to promote complete loss of tissue birefringence. Thus, TGA and OCT are techniques that can be used for tissue banks to verify tissue quality before its transplant. (author)

  17. Use of ionizing radiation in the recycling of unserviceable tires of automotive and its adequate environmental disposal; Utilizacao da radiacao ionizante na reciclagem de pneus inserviveis de automovel e sua destinacao ambiental adequada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Clecia de Moura

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use ionizing radiation in the recycling of scrap tires of automotive. Samples of rubber unserviceable tires were irradiated with radiation doses 200, 400 and 600kGy in an electron accelerator. Subsequently, they were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile strength mechanical test, spectrophotometry Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By thermogravimetry was possible to observe the effects of radiation in the mass loss of material. In the DSC curves were observed exothermic decomposition peaks and associated values of enthalpy variation (ΔH). The mechanical properties of the elastomeric matrix with unserviceable tires powder were studied and its behavior to ionizing radiation was analyzed. FTIR spectra were obtained in the 4000 - 650cm-1 region. It was observed that there was no change in the peaks due irradiation. For SEM the micrographs were enlarged from 32 times up to 1000 times and observed in sizes from 1mm up to 20μm. It was observed at doses of 200 and 400kGy, roughness corresponding to breaks or ruptures possibly caused by radiation. In 600kGy radiation dose was observed cavities caused by radiation. It was observed that at all doses occurred degradation. For samples without powder and with 10, 30 and 50% of unserviceable tires powder it was obtained micrographs of 100μm and 200μm amplification. Also it was possible to observe the incorporation of unserviceable tires powder of automotive in the elastomeric matrix of non-irradiated and irradiated samples. (author)

  18. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of EPDM and natural rubber; Aplicacao da radiacao gama para incorporacao do po de borracha em formulacoes de borracha natural e EPDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo, E-mail: ludmilapozzo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP/CQMA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the behavior of the recycling of rubber burrs in form of powder, of the rubber industry from EPDM rubber powder and natural rubber with SBR. The rubber powder was irradiated and reused in rubber artifacts formulations for classical vulcanization. The processed material was irradiated using a {sup 60}Co source in doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy and a dose rate of 5 kGy s-1 at room temperature. The radiation created devulcanization active sites for subsequent integration of the material (rubber powder) in formulations of commercial use. The processes were compared and their products characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as strength and elongation. Satisfactory results were found, noting a major spin-off of EPDM chain demonstrated by increased elongation.

  19. Gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}) effects on active substances and microbe burden of medicinal plants; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama (Co{sup 60}) sobre principios ativos e carga microbiana de plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Agnol, L. [Herbarium Laboratorio Botanico Ltda, Colombo, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Garantia da Qualidade

    2001-04-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of radioactivity on active vegetal substances, samples of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller., fructus), Guarana (Paulinia cupana, Kunth, semen), Gingko (gingko biloba, L., folium), and Kawa-Kawa (Piper methysticum G. Forst, rhizoma), were treated with scaling doses (0 to 25 KGy) of gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}). The 'blind test' methodology was used. The active substances from each sample were analysed by qualitative and quantitative methods after radiation. There were no significant differences seen between the control sample (0 KGy) and the irradiated samples. Microbe contamination was significantly reduced, about 10000 CFU/g, with the initial 5 KGy dose. It was concluded that gamma radiation can be used as an alternative procedure to reduce microbiologic contamination in medicinal plants. Before this procedure can be extended to other medicinal plants, more specific analytical methods are recommended to verify possible structural alterations in active vegetal molecules. (author)

  20. Effects of ionizing radiation in the physico-chemical characteristics of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas do vinho tinto Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Leiras, Anderson; Wagner, Walsan, E-mail: fellipe.souzadasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The oenology in the current days is increasingly aimed obtain improvements on wine quality produced without there the deterioration of characteristics of the same, using new technologies for such order. The objective of present work will be the application of the radiation ionizing in wines Cabernet Sauvignon, with the interest of analyzing its effects on physic-chemical characteristics of this wines, such as quality, aging and etc. Were analyzed the following strands: degree alcoholic; dry extract; density and absorbance with spectrometer (420, 520 and 620 nm). (author)

  1. Implantation of radiation qualities for mammography in accordance with the IEC 61627 and TRS 457 criteria; Implantacao das qualidades de radiacao para mamografia, segundo os criterios da IEC 61627 e do TRS 457

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Evandro J.; David, Mariano G.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: pires@lcr.uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab de Ciencias Radiologicas; Peixoto, J. Guilherme, E-mail: guilhem@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work it is discussed the technical conditions of the implantation of radiation qualities adequate for dosemeter applied to mammography at the Radiological Science Laboratory (RSL) of the University of State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It performed tests for evaluation the homogeneity of the radiation field, the scattering, the half-layers and the system stability. The test results point for adequacy of the laboratory installed at the LCR for calibration of the mentioned dosemeters in seven qualities of radiation and the expanded uncertainty with better capacity of measurement at those qualities was of {+-}1.8% (k = 2)

  2. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radioprotecao em feixes padronizados de radiacao X, gama e beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-07-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ({sup 37}Cs and {sup 60}Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr+{sup 9'}0Y e {sup 204}Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  3. Effect synergistic of the radiation and of the refrigeration in the conservation of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei);Efeito sinergistico da radiacao gama e de refrigeracao na conservacao do camarao-branco-do-pacifico (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes-Lopes, Tatiana Giselle

    2006-07-01

    Taking into account shrimp susceptibility to autolise and bacterial decomposition, this study aimed to evaluate the different gamma irradiation doses influence over meat quality related to microbiological, physical-chemical, nutritional and sensorial aspects, during cold storage of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Samples were taken from fresh shrimps without cephalothoraxes, settled into polystyrene trays, packed with flexible plastic film and submitted to different doses of gamma irradiation (1.0 and 3.5 kGy). Samples were kept under refrigeration (5 deg C) and analyzed at the 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day of storage. Microbiological analyzes were realized (Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella ssp, coliforms, psychotropic and mesophilic population), and physical-chemical and tests (Total volatile bases (TVNB), pH, non proteic nitrogen (NNP), TBARS analysis - reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (TBA), trimetil amine (TMA) cholesterol tenor and proximate composition). Instrumental color test were realized and hedonic test was taken to determine cooked products sensorial quality during storing period. It was noticed that the irradiation process reduced bacterial population and during storage all the irradiated samples were under the patterns established by the Brazilian legislation (Brazil, 2005a). Non-irradiated samples were inappropriate for consumption after one week of storage, since they were over Staphylococcus established limits. The pH values ranged from 6.05 to 6.39; 19.47 to 80.84 mg.100g-1 for TVNB; 2.61 to 12.85 mg.100g-1 for TMA-N; 0.22 a 1.20 mg of malonaldeide.1000g{sup -1} for TBA and 53.09 to 134.81 mg.100g-1 for cholesterol concentrations. Irradiated samples kept more stability during storage period when compared to non-irradiated samples, regarding to pH, TVNB and TMA levels. Samples irradiation resulted into cholesterol and TBA values reduction at different evaluated moments. No significant differences (p <= 0.05) were found in terms of instrumental color during the first day of storing when compared to the non-irradiated samples and to the 3.5 kGy irradiated ones. Statistical differences were not found (p <= 0.05) between non-irradiated and irradiated samples within the first day of sensorial analysis. Non-irradiated samples were rejected on the sensorial test after the 7th day of storage, while the 1kGy irradiated samples were accepted until the 14th day. Samples irradiated with 3.5 kGy kept viability in terms off flavour and aspect until the end of the experiment. When compared to conventional refrigerated product, the gamma-irradiation technique, (especially the 3.5 kGy doses) provided a higher stability related to physical chemical properties and microbiological safety during storage. No differences on the sensorial shrimp quality were found. Through gamma irradiation, we obtained a product with minimal procedure modifications, with enhanced shelf life under refrigeration. (author)

  4. Study of the simultaneous grafting and heparinisation of poly(vinyl chloride), by gamma radiation; Estudo da enxertia e heparinizacao simultaneas do poli(cloreto de vinila), via radiacao gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzarini, Luz Consuelo Gonzalez Alonso

    2003-07-01

    This work had the objective of obtaining the PVC-co-DMAEMA-co-Heparin graft copolymer through process of simultaneous irradiation by {gamma}-radiation coming from a {sup 60}Co source with dose rate ranging between 0,5 and 0,8 kGy h{sup -1}. Grafting parameters were evaluated in function of PVC film swelling time before irradiation, concentration of hydrophilic N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) monomer, radiation doses ranging between zero and 7,0 kGy, concentration of isopropyl alcohol and CUSO{sub 4} as homopolymerization inhibitors varying from 0,02 mol L{sup -1} to 1,0 mol L{sup -1}. Preliminary studies allowed us to establish the concentration of DMAEMA at 30 and 45%. At these two studied concentrations, were observed the highest grafting levels when was utilized 0,02 mol L{sup -1} concentrations of homopolymerization inhibitor. A study of grafting as a function of the dose showed an interdependence between the dose and DMAEMA concentration, where was achieved the highest grafting level at doses of 2,5 kGy and 5,0 kGy for the systems containing 45% and 30% of DMAEMA, respectively. Graft copolymer characterization, accomplished by Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) evidenced the largest grafting levels for the irradiated samples with 45% of DMAEMA, however heparin presence was only evident on irradiated samples with 30% of DMAEMA. Surface morphological analysis, carried out by scanning electronic microscopy, permitted us to notice that addition of heparin to the reaction medium (0.25% w/v) led to obtaining surfaces less rough than those ones observed in heparin absence, suggesting then a more homogeneous distribution of the graft chains. Evaluation of antithrombogenic properties of the graft copolymers, accomplished 'in vitro' through platelets adhesion test, showed that the increase of surface roughness affects the blood platelet activation mechanisms, leading consequently to a more thrombogenic surface. Analysis by means of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the kinetical decay of radicals of PVC-co-DMAEMA-coheparin is strongly induced by radicals formed throughout the radiolysis of DMAEMA and PVC. The PVC-co-DMAEMA-co-heparin graft copolymer that presented less thrombogenic surfaces was obtained by means of a simultaneous radiation beam dose of 5,0 KGy on PVC films immersed in aqueous solutions containing DMAEMA (30%), heparin sodium salt (0,25%w/v) and isopropanol (0,02 mol L{sup -1}. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Hayward minimally processed; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Hayward minimamente processado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia Sampaio

    2011-07-01

    The search for a healthy life has led consumers to rethink their eating habits, consuming fruits and vegetables in place of manufactured products, therefore, the demand for minimally processed products has evolved rapidly. The kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) has high nutritional value, being rich in C vitamin especially, which has wide acceptance in consumer markets. Thus, along with papaya, passion fruit and pineapple, kiwi can be considered as an additional feature of C vitamin in the diet, or as a substitute for traditional citrus. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of gamma radiation on physical and chemical characteristics of kiwis minimally processed and stored under refrigeration, since this technology increases the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. The Kiwis was stripped, processed and cut into slices, stored in polyethylene bags of 10 cm squared and irradiated at doses of 0 (control), 1 and 2 kGy. A source of {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220, dose rate of 0.429 kGy/hour, in which each treatment had 5 replicates with 15 slices of kiwifruit per replicate. After irradiation the samples were stored in a climatic chamber at 6 degree C (near the temperature of commercial refrigerators). The following criteria were physical chemical analysis: pH, color, chlorophyll content, loss of weight, moisture, acidity and Brix. The analysis were done on 1{sup st}, 7{sup th} and 14{sup th} days after irradiation. The results indicated that gamma radiation did not induce deleterious changes in the physicochemical properties of the kiwi may be used for preservation of minimally processed kiwifruit. (author)

  6. Measures and modelling of PAR (photosynthetically-active radiation) for the Northeast of Brazil; Medidas e modelagem da radiacao PAR (photosynthetically-active radiation) para o nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiba, Chigueru; Leal, Sergio da S.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear], e-mail: tiba@rce.neoline.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Photosynthetically active solar radiation, known by its acronym in the English language as PAR, is the principal driving force of innumerable biological and physical processes related to biomass production, such as, the evolution of vegetal covering, agricultural productivity, and countless environment aspects, among others. Unfortunately in Brazil and particularly in the Northeast of Brazil, the PAR radiation measures are not a routine part of meteorological station measures, and therefore are still rarer than solar irradiation measures. In this context, a station was installed in Recife, Pernambuco in 2003, to carry out simultaneous measures of daily solar irradiation and PAR irradiation, which permits the modelling and valuation of the relationship between these two parameters and thus makes the estimation of PAR radiation possible, where there used to be only information on solar irradiation. Three others stations are being installed, one on Fernando de Noronha-PE, another in Pesqueira-PE, and the other in Xingo-SE, which complete a group of 4 between Latitudes 8 deg and 10 deg South and Longitudes 34 deg to 38 deg West, each having differentiated Equatorial Climates: island maritime, continental maritime, sylvan (Agreste) and semi-arid. (author)

  7. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation; Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em sementes de cafe arabica e conillon: avaliacao fisico-quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcus Henriques da

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  8. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites based on PCL/PLLA and coconut fiber; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em compositos de PCL/PLLA com fibra de coco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yasko

    2011-07-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem recently concerning environmental impact. In this scenario, preparation of polymers and composites based on coconut husk fiber would lead to a reduction on the cost of the final product. Additionally, it will reduce the amount of agribusiness waste disposal in the environment. In Brazil, coconut production is around 1.5 billion fruits by year in a cultivated area of 2.7 million hectares, but the coconut husk fiber has not been used much for industrial applications. Moreover, biodegradable polymers have attracted the attention of the most part of population, due to the environmental issues arising from the increasing use of polymeric materials of low degradability discharged as waste residue. Besides, when considering an application in the medical field, it is necessary that the products are sterilized and, ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize medical and surgical devices. In this work, it was studied blends and composites based on two commercial polymers: poly (e-caprolactone), PCL, and poly (lactic acid), PLLA, and coconut fiber. Those polymers are biodegradable as well as biocompatible, so it is important to know the effect of ionizing radiation in these materials. Samples were irradiated with gamma rays from {sup 60}Co source and electron beam with radiation doses ranging from 10 kGy up to 1 MGy. The non-irradiated and irradiated samples were studied using several analytical techniques and characterization assays that allowed understanding their properties in order to enable their application as precursors for medical and surgical devices. Thermal stability of non irradiated and irradiated composites up to 100 kGy radiation dose is not affected significantly by the coconut fiber incorporation to the polymeric matrix. Acetylation of fibers was not effective in order to induce any interaction between fibers and polymeric matrix, as expected. That was verified by the slight reduction of stress strength observed in the composites specimens. Besides that, this reduction did not affect negatively mechanical properties of blends compared to the composites. Ionizing radiation neither promoted detectable interaction between polymeric matrix and fibers. Cytotoxicity tests indicated that lixiviation products from homopolymers, blend and composites did not release sufficient amount of substances to induce significant cellular death. Thermal processing used to obtain composites and previous acetylation by chemical treatment contributed to the bioburden reduce. Furthermore, reducing initial bioburden it was possible to diminish radiation doses needed to perform sterilization. Enzymatic and soil degradation were not negatively affected by radiation processing. Even though fiber incorporation to the polymer blend slightly reduced degradation process, composites continued degrading through time. Artifacts produced by means of the materials studied here can be radiation processed with doses up to 100 kGy without prejudice of their biodegradability. (author)

  9. Gamma radiation applied to extend the shelf-life of lamb meat vacuum packed and stored under refrigeration; Radiacao gama aplicada para estender a vida util da carne de cordeiro embalada a vacuo e armazenada sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fregonesi, Raul Pereira

    2013-07-01

    The State of Sao Paulo has experienced in recent years a significant increase in production, supply and consumption of lamb meat. With the current trend of demand for products of greater convenience, with speed and ease preparation, there is the need to invest in the market supply of refrigerated lamb cuts. Accordingly, irradiation with ionizing energy could be a viable alternative for the marketing of refrigerated cuts of lamb meat. The aim of this work was to study the application of different doses of gamma radiation in order to extend the stability of lamb meat vacuum packed and stored under refrigeration. For this, first a preliminary experiment was conducted aiming to determine parameters such as irradiation dose and storage time. The lamb loins (Longissimus dorsi) were vacuum packed, irradiated with doses of 1,0, 3,0 and 5,0 kGy and stored under refrigeration in cooling chamber at 1 °C. According to the results, a dose of 3,0 kGy may be indicated as the maximum dose of irradiation. After establishing these parameters, the final experiment began, and for that, the lamb loin samples were vacuum packaged and irradiated with doses zero (control), 1,5 kGy and 3,0 kGy and stored under refrigeration at 1 °C. In predetermined periods (zero, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days) microbiological and physical chemical analysis were carried out. Also, a sensory acceptance test was conducted, with 63 consumers, which evaluated aroma, texture, juiciness, flavor and overall quality attributes. All data were statistically evaluated using contrasts between means, with a significance level of 5%. The results obtained for microbiological testing of all samples were absence of Salmonella sp. and sporadic counts of coliforms at 45 °C and Staphylococcus aureus (<10 (est) CFU/g). For other microbiological analysis there were significant effects (p <0,05) of treatment, and time. However, for the physicochemical characteristics, there were only differences (p <0,05) of time from zero to 28 days for pH and color b * (yellow), which declined and increased, respectively, over this period. In the sensory acceptance test, the samples did not differ (p> 0,05) in any of the evaluated attributes. Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation in the lamb loins was effective in decreasing the proliferation of microorganisms without damaging its physical and chemical characteristics. At the end of the experiment, it was possible to say that the 3.0 kGy dose was indicated because could extend the shelf life of 14 to 56 days of loin of lamb irradiated and stored at 1 °C . (author)

  10. The benefits of prone SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in reducing both artifact defects and patient radiation exposure; Beneficio da aquisicao de imagem na posicao Prona em perfusao miocardica com SPECT para reducao de artefatos e exposicao do paciente a radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathaki, Maria; Koukouraki, Sophia; Papadaki, Emmanouela; Tsaroucha, Angeliki; Karkavitsas, Nikolaos, E-mail: mariast_cha@yahoo.gr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2015-10-15

    Background: Prone imaging has been demonstrated to minimize diaphragmatic and breast tissue attenuation. Objectives: To determine the role of prone imaging on the reduction of unnecessary rest perfusion studies and coronary angiographies performed, thus decreasing investigation time and radiation exposure. Methods: We examined 139 patients, 120 with an inferior wall and 19 with an anterior wall perfusion defect that might represented attenuation artifact. Post-stress images were acquired in both the supine and prone position. Coronary angiography was used as the 'gold standard' for evaluating coronary artery patency. The study was terminated and rest imaging was obviated in the presence of complete improvement of the defect in the prone position. Quantitative interpretation was performed. Results were compared with clinical data and coronary angiographic findings. Results: Prone acquisition correctly revealed defect improvement in 89 patients (89/120) with inferior wall and 12 patients (12/19) with anterior wall attenuation artifact. Quantitative analysis demonstrated statistically significant difference in the mean summed stress scores (SSS) of supine and mean SSS of prone studies in patients with disappearing inferior wall defect in the prone position and patent right coronary artery (true negative results). The mean difference between SSS in supine and in prone position was higher with disappearing than with remaining defects. Conclusion: Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging with the patient in the prone position overcomes soft tissue attenuation; moreover it provides an inexpensive, accurate approach to limit the number of unnecessary rest perfusion studies and coronary angiographies performed. (author)

  11. Conservation studies of peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft.): effects of packaging, gamma radiation and storage temperature;Estudos de conservacao de mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft.): efeitos da embalagem, radiacao gama e temperatura de armazenamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiebao, Helena Pontes

    2008-07-01

    Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft.) is a tuber root that presents a short post-harvest period of conservation, 3 to 5 days, due to a phyto pathology known as soft rot or {sup m}ela{sup ,} caused by bacteria of the genus Erwinia. This bacteria release enzymes that decay the cellular wall, causing the lost of the characteristic rigidity. At present, many conservation methods have been studied in the attempt of prolonging the post harvest conservation, but the combination of processes seems to be the best alternative. The aim of this work was to study the interaction between the conservation processes (refrigeration, vacuum packaging and irradiation) to extend the post-harvest period of the roots. It was studied the combination of two temperatures (25 deg C e 4 deg C), with two packages (boxes and vacuum) and three gamma irradiation doses (1, 2 e 3kGy), obtaining a total of 16 sample groups. The samples were daily analyzed, for a 30 day period, using texture parameters (penetration energy), microbiology and pectinolitic enzymes activities (pectate lyase, polygalactunoronase and pectin methyl esterase). The samples irradiated in doses of 2 and 3kGy, vacuum packed and conserved at 4 deg C extend the post-harvest period of 5 to 28 days, with a decrease of the microbiologic population, but with decreased in the rigidity of the roots (p<0.05). The treatments affected the pectinolitic enzymes profile, however the amplitude of the results and the low number of analysed samples per day, besides the complexity of factors affecting the enzyme activity and the multiple possible sources(endogenous, bacterial or fungous), limits the carefully discussion of the results. (author)

  12. Mechanical and thermal properties of castor oil polyurethane bone cement after gamma irradiation;Propriedades mecanicas e termicas de poliuretanas derivadas do oleo de mamona usadas como cimento osseo depois da irradiacao com radiacao gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, E.C. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DF/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Soboll, D.S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal Parana (CPGEI/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Chierice, G.O.; Claro Neto, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Lepiesnki, C.M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (DF/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nascimento, E.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DM/UTFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    Polyurethanes from castor oil are being employed as bone cement in medical applications. In this work the thermal and mechanical properties of gamma irradiated polyurethanes derivative from castor oil were investigated by instrumented indentation, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. A slightly increase in hardness is observed only for doses as high as 100 kGy. Thermal analysis indicates stability at human body temperature. The glass transition temperature has small changes after gamma irradiation. (author)

  13. Aluminum and steel adhesion with polyurethanes from castor oil adhesives submitted to gamma irradiation;Estudo da adesividade do aco e aluminio com adesivo de poliuretana derivada de oleo de mamona submetido a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Elaine C.; Assumpcao, Roberto L.; Nascimento, Eduardo M. do, E-mail: elainazeve@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologia Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Claro Neto, Salvador [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Soboll, Daniel S. [Universidade Tecnologia Federal do Parana (CPGEI/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial; Lepienski, Carlos M., E-mail: elainazeve@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologia Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Polyurethanes adhesive from castor oil is used to join aluminum and steel pieces. The effect of gamma radiation on the resistance to tension tests is investigated. The aluminum and steel pieces after being glued with the adhesive were submitted to gamma irradiation in doses of 1 kGy, 25 kGy and 100 kGy. The rupture strength of the joints after irradiation have a slightly increase or remains practically unchanged indicating that the adhesive properties is not affected by the gamma radiation. (author)

  14. Enzymatic activity of granulations tissues under low doses of radiation. Biochemical analysis in rats; Estudo da atividade enzimatica em tecidos de granulacao de ratos submetidos a baixas doses de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosoni, Guilherme Monteiro [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Diagnostico e Cirurgia; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Cury, Jaime Aparecido [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Estomatologia

    1994-12-31

    This paper was designed to investigate in the rat subcutaneous sponge-induced granulation tissue under low doses of X-ray, the activity of alkaline phosphatase, 5`nucleotide phosphodiesterase and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzymes. One hundred and fourteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups, as follows: Group I as control, Group II that received single 7,14 R in split-dosis immediately after sponge-implantation at the third and fifth days postoperatively. Biopsies were taken after 7, 11, 14, 21 and 28 days and the activity of the three enzymes was determined. The results have shown that in Group II alkaline phosphatase had higher activity in the 14th day of tissue evolution when compared to Groups I and III . The 5`nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in Group I was similar in all days checked, although in Group II the enzyme showed higher activity in 7th day and lower in 21st. In Group III the activity was higher after 14 and 7 days and lower after 28 and 21 days. There was no observation of changing in adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity when the three groups were compared. (author) 28 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Ionizing radiation dose control for workers in a nuclear plant working with unsealed sources; Controle da dose de radiacao ionizante para trabalhadores em uma instalacao radiativa com fontes nao seladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerulis, Eduardo

    2006-07-01

    With the liberation of the use of the nuclear energy for peaceful applications, International Commission Radiological Protection, ICRP, founded in 1928, created a system of protection of the undesirable doses of ionizing radiation in 1958. This has been received by workers, members of the public and environment and hence it became possible for the introduction of these applications. This protection system is adopted by the International Agency of Energy Atomic, IAEA, that publishes recommendations in safety series, 88 and by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, CNEN, which publishes these regulations. The international recommendations and national regulations were adapted and they need to be applied in this way. The present paper uses recommendations of the publication 75 from ICRP, of the publication 115 from 88 and regulations of the regulation NN 3.01 from CNEN to present, through radiological protection measures, the ionizing radiation dose control for workers in a nuclear plant that works in the research, production, division and packing of unsealed sources to be used in clinical applications. In that way it is possible to prevent appropriately the undesirable doses and to confirm the received doses. (author)

  16. Study of the electron beam irradiation effect on some properties of aromatic aliphatic copolyester films; Estudo do efeito da radiacao por feixe de eletrons nas propriedades de filmes de copoliester alifatico aromatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda, Patricia Negrini Siqueira

    2008-07-01

    Biodegradable and green plastics are the new tendency in the world. The effect of the electron beam irradiation in aromatic aliphatic copolyester and the blend with corn starch films (Ecoflex{sup R} and Ecobras{sup R}) were studied by tensile strength at break, elongation at break, Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), crosslinking degree and biodegradability. The measurements in both, the machine direction and the transverse direction were made for mechanical tests. It was found that, the electron irradiation caused an increase in the strength at break of the blend with corn starch film, when doses of up to 10 kGy were applied. A significant decrease of the elongation at break of the blend with corn starch was observed at doses of 10 kGy and 40 kGy. It was not found important change in tensile properties for aromatic aliphatic copolyester. Structural changes of the samples (crosslinking or degradation) by SEM were not observed. The FT-IR identified the characteristic peaks of each involved functional group (copolyester and corn starch). However, it was not found bands of oxidation of the samples. In the DSC, changes in the melting temperature of the irradiated Ecoflex{sup R} and Ecobras{sup R} samples, was not identified when compared with the samples of reference. However, it was verified a reduction in the melting enthalpy of the Ecobras{sup R} samples after irradiation. The Ecobras{sup R} material presented crosslinking, when submitted to doses of 10 kGy and 40 kGy. The Ecoflex{sup R} material did not present crosslinking when submitted to these doses. The biodegradability of the materials was evaluated by two methods of test: soil simulated and enzymatic. In both methods, the irradiated samples presented faster biodegradation than the references not irradiated. (author)

  17. Effect of gamma radiation from {sup 60}C in conservation and quality of pepper fresh and pulp; Efeito da radiacao gama do {sup 60}Co na conservacao e qualidade de pimenta in natura e em polpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milagres, Regina Celia Rodrigues de Miranda

    2014-07-01

    Capsicum peppers are among the most used and most valued seasoning spices in the world. They are highly susceptible to post harvest decay, therefore the use of irradiation may contribute to conservation of this fruit which has significant nutritional, economic and social value. Were evaluated the effects of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in increasing the shelf-life and preservation of quality of pepper 'Dedo-de-moca' (Capsicum baccatum var. Pendulum) fresh and pulp associated or not with another conservation methods. Gamma radiation doses were investigated of 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50; 2,00 e 3,00 kGy in fresh fruit and 1,50; 2,00; 3,00; 4,50 e 6,00 kGy in pepper pulp. The use of laboratory pasteurization (85°C/3min), the addition of citric acid (5%) and 5% NaCl were also investigated in the pepper pulp. The samples were stored at 5 °C and or 25 °C. Were performed analysis: visual (disease incidence, turgidity and color); bioactive compounds (carotenoids, capsaicinoids, antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds); physicochemical (Weight loss, firmness, soluble solids (SS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), ratio, color and moisture); respiratory rate and ethylene production; proximate composition (moisture, soluble and insoluble fiber, ash, protein, ether extract, total and available carbohydrate); microbiological contamination (mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, coliforms at 45 °C, Salmonella spp. and yeasts and molds) and sensory (acceptance test, difference test and paired preference). Radiation doses between 0.25 and 3.00 kGy were not effective to increase shelf-life and maintain fresh pepper quality during storage. There was increased intensity of red color, of incidence of disease, decreased turgidity and changes in physical, chemical and nutritional parameters. In pulp, the doses of gamma radiation of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy and the addition of 5% NaCl no changing sensory attributes, physical-chemical and bioactive compounds. Only the antioxidant activity and the color were influenced by irradiation during storage. Coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella not were detected in irradiated and non-irradiated samples during storage. In the dose of 6.00 kGy there was reduction of the initial count of yeasts and molds of the 5 logarithmic cycles, while other doses decreased by 2 and 3 logarithmic cycles. However, 21 days after the irradiation, the contamination by yeasts and molds increased in all treatments. In pepper Dedo-de-moca fresh, the irradiation doses studied not contributed to preserving the fruit during storage. In the pulp pepper, doses of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy, associated with 5% NaCl proved promising to increase shelf-life without affecting the bioactive compounds, physicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes during storage at 25 °C. (author)

  18. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of carrageenan, agarans and alginates to be used as food additives; Efeito da radiacao gama na viscosidade de carragenanas, agaranas e alginatos utilizados na industria alimenticia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    1999-07-01

    Carrageenan, agarans and alginates are phycocolloids, which change the consistence of the foodstuff and prevent undesirable changes such as moisture migration or textural profile changes. These phycocolloids are additives used in large scale for all kind of food products. They are not absorbed for the human organism and do not introduce extra calories in the diet. The process of irradiation, is an alternative method of great potential, because do not increase the temperature and it is highly in the decontamination of food ingredients. In this work, agar alginates and carrageenan were irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of the irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. The viscosity of these hydrocolloids shows a decrease when submitted to an irradiation with doses until 10 kGy. (author)

  19. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on the growth of Aspergillus Flavus aflatoxins producer and on the use of polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) in samples of maize grains artificially inoculated; Efeitos da radiacao gama no crescimento de Aspergillus flavus produtor de aflatoxinas e no emprego da tecnica da Reacao em Cadeia da Polimerase (RCP) em amostras de graos de milho inoculadas artificialmente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this present study was to verify the effects of gamma radiation on the growth of Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxins producer; to demonstrate the application of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique in the diagnostic of A. Flavus, as well to verify the effect of radiation in the profile of DNA bands. Twenty samples of grains maize with 200 g each were individually irradiated with 20 kGy, to eliminate the microbial contamination. In following, the samples were inoculated with an toxigenic A. flavus (1x10{sup 6} spores/ml), incubated for 15 days at 25 deg C with a relative humidity of around 97,5% and irradiated with 0, 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The samples, 5 to each dose of irradiation, were individually analyzed for the number of fungal cells, water activity, viability test (fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide), PCR and aflatoxins (AFB) detection. The results showed that the doses used were effective in reducing the number of Colony Forming Units (CFU/g) mainly the doses of 5 and 10 kGy. In addition, the viability test showed a decrease of viable cells with increase of irradiation doses. The reduction of AFB{sub 1} and AFB-2, was more efficient with the use of 2 kGy in comparison with the dose of 5 kGy, while the dose of 10 kGy, degraded the aflatoxins. Thereby, it was observed that AFB2 showed to be more radiosensitive. The use of PCR technique showed the presence of DNA bands, in all samples. (author)

  1. O resgate da epistemologia

    OpenAIRE

    João Arriscado Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Ao longo das três últimas décadas, o projecto da epistemologia passou por um processo de crítica e de transformação, marcado, sucessivamente, pela transferência da soberania epistémica para o “social”, pela redescoberta da ontologia e pela atenção à normatividade constitutiva e às implicações políticas do conhecimento, chegando mesmo a ser postulado o abandono da epistemologia como projecto filosófico. Em contraponto a esse processo, foi ganhando contornos a proposta de uma outra epistemologi...

  2. GERONTOLOGIA: ESTADO DA ARTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M.A.Tordino Brandão

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O Programa de Gerontologia da PUC desenvolve pesquisas focando o ser na perspectiva do envelhecimento. As atividades são interdisciplinares e reúnem docentes, alunos e ex-alunos. Nesta mesa redonda apresentamos um panorama sobre estes estudos. Na área da educação e comunicação o foco está centrado na longevidade e na preparação e representação social da velhice. São ressaltadas como temáticas: a formação continuada de profissionais e pesquisadores; o significado da religiosidade/espiritualidade ao longo da trajetória, e sua repercussão na qualidade de vida do idoso; os programas sócio-educacionais para idosos e concepções sobre educação; o monitoramento da mídia na cobertura da crescente longevidade e seus impactos. Em identidade e modos de morar reflete-se sobre soluções planejadas e sua adequação para a inclusão do envelhecimento populacional como questão fundamental, que implica a elaboração de novas políticas, investigações e, especialmente, apresenta-se como questão a ser analisada, refletida e vivenciada pela sociedade em geral. Quanto à saúde, o Programa desenvolve várias pesquisas numa abordagem interdisciplinar tendo como objetos de estudo: a terapia assistida com animais direcionada a idosos com diagnóstico de Alzheimer; o acompanhamento terapêutico e o atendimento psicoterapêutico em grupo, a aplicação da técnica de Calatonia em idosos moradores de ILPI, além da investigação sobre impasses clínicos no idoso frágil. Palavras-chave: gerontologia, longevidade, envelhecimento

  3. Study of seasonal variation of the gamma radiation at Praia da Areia Preta, Guarapari, Espirito Santo, Brazil: radiometry and risk analysis; Estudo da variacao sazonal dos niveis de radiacao gama na Praia da Areia Preta, Guarapari, Espirito Santo, Brasil: radiometria e analise de risco ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work is the study of the natural gamma radiation at the Areia Preta Beach (APB) in Guarapari, state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The level of this radiation is dependent on the concentration of the radioactive mineral monazite in the sand. Probable risks of the exposure to gamma radiation at the APB were evaluated by the preliminary environmental risk analysis technique. For this purpose were conducted two annual sets monitoring gamma radiation in the APB every two months and so, acquired the seasonal variation of the radioactive levels. Additional/y was investigated the granulometry of the heavy mineral fraction and also carried out electronic microscopic scanning and radiometric age dating of the monazites of the APB, the mineral separation by magnetic susceptibility, and the mineralogic determination of the sediment. In order to gain a more complete picture of the seasonal variation, and, consequently, of the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation at the APB, the radiometric variation was also studied at some other beaches in the same region. The results indicate that the highest radiometric values are measured in summer and the lowest in winter. The radiometric dating of the monazites from the APB revealed the ages of 475 and 530 Ma. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis indicates a minimum risk of excessive radioactive exposition. It would take a period of approximately 870 years of a beach fully crowded to result in one case of bad consequences due to exposure to gamma radiation. (author)

  4. Use of the gamma radiation, in a dose of 0,4 kGy, on the storage temperature reduction of the banana nanica;Utilizacao da radiacao gama, na dose de 0,4kGy, na reducao da temperatura de armazenamento da banana nanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoel, Luciana, E-mail: luciana_manoel@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Estadual Paulisa (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Vieites, Rogerio Lopes, E-mail: vieites@fca.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulisa (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2009-07-01

    The aim was to evaluate the use of gamma radiation, in a dose of 0,4 kGy, on the storage temperature reduction of the banana 'Nanica'. The bananas 'Nanica' were harvested in the Arm Taperao, Brotas (SP) town, and sent to CBE (Companhia Brasileira de Esterilizacao-Cotia-SP) for irradiation and constitution of the following treatments: T1 (fruits irradiated at 0,4 kGy and stored at 16 +-1 deg C); T2 (fruits irradiated at 0,4 kGy and stored at 14 +-1 deg C); T3 (fruit irradiated ata 0,4 kGy and stored at 12+-1 deg C); T4 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 16+-1 deg C); T5 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 14+-1 deg C) and T6 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 12+-1 deg C). The fruits were stored in B.O.Ds. of the Agroindustrial Management and Technology Department, with a relative humidity of 80+-5%. The experiment was divided in two groups: control group (post harvest conservation and disease incidence) and parcel group (soluble solids and pulp/peel). The analyses were performed in intervals of five days during a period of 25 days. The experimental design employed was completely randomized (DIC) by applying a factor of 2 x 3 x 6 (irradiation x temperature x time). The Tukey test with 5% of probability was used for comparison between means. The storage temperature of the bananas 'Nanica' was not reduce by irradiation. (author)

  5. Evaluation of seawater contamination with benzene, toluene and xylene in the Ubatuba north coast, SP region, and study of their removal by ionizing radiation; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua do mar por benzeno, tolueno e xileno na regiao de Ubatuba, litoral norte (SP) e estudo da degradacao destes compostos por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Kelly Cristina Santana de

    2006-07-01

    A major concern with leaking petroleum is the environmental contamination by the toxic and low water-soluble components such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). These hydrocarbons have relatively high pollution potential because of their significant toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of seawater by the main pollutants of the output and transport of petroleum, such as benzene, toluene, and xylene, and their removal by the exposure to the ionizing radiation. The studied region was Ubatuba region, SP, between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S of latitude and 45 deg 02'W and 45 deg 11'W of longitude, area of carry and output of petroleum, and samples were collected from November, 2003 to July, 2005. For BTX in seawater analysis, the Purge and Trap concentrator with FIDGC detector showed significantly higher sensibility than Head Space concentrator with MSGC detector. The minimal detected limits (MDL) obtained at FIDGC were of 0.50 {mu}g/L for benzene, 0.70 {mu}g/L for toluene, and 1.54 {mu}g/L for xylene, and the obtained experimental variability was 15%. While the concentrator type Headspace system with MS detector showed higher MLD, about of 9.30 mg/L for benzene, 8.50 mg/L for toluene, and 9.80 mg/L for xylene, and 10% of experimental variability. In the studied area the benzene concentration varied from 1.0 {mu}g/L to 2.0 {mu}g/L, the concentration of toluene varied from < 0.70 {mu}g/L to 3.24 {mu}g/L and the maximum value of xylene observed was of 2.92 {mu}g/L. The seawater samples contaminated with BTX standard and exposed to ionizing radiation using a source of {sup 60}Co, presented a removal from 10% to 40% of benzene at 20 kGy absorbed doses and concentration of 35.1 mg/L and 70.2 mg/L, respectively; from 20% to 60% of toluene removal with 15 kGy absorbed dose and from 20% to 80% of xylene with 15 kGy absorbed dose in similar concentrations. (author)

  6. Alguns aspectos da avifauna da Ilha Terceira.

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Fátima; Daniel, Ana; Pereira, Ana C.; Pimentel, Dinarte; J. Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    IX Expedição Científica do Departamento de Biologia - Terceira 1994. 0s objectivos da presente expedição foram os seguintes: 1. Captura e biometria de espécimes pertencentes a diferentes espécies de aves com vista ulterior realização de estudos morfológicos; 2. Estudo da distribuição de Columba palumbus na ilha Terceira; 3. Detecção de habitats propícios para a nidificação de Gallinula chloropus correiana; 4. Observação e identificação de diferentes espécies de aves residentes e migrató...

  7. Het Italiaanse voorzetsel da

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    SAMENVATTING In een voorzetselstudie in het kader van Jackendoffs semantische theorie wordt het sterk polyseme Italiaanse voorzetsel da geanalyseerd als een verzameling deelbetekenissen waarbij de meeste door een of meer semantische regels afgeleid kunnen worden van de basisbetekenis ruimtelijke He

  8. Aspectos internacionais da Revolta da Chibata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Love

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats four international dimensions of the Revolta da Chibata: 1 the trip of the Dreadnought Sao Paulo to Lisbon (with Presidente Hermes aboard, during which the Portuguese monarchy was overthrown, providing a model for Brazilian sailors; 2 the reception and interpretation of the revolt by the French, British, and American presses, which quickly saw that the central issue was torture; 3 ideological aspects of the revolt, which focus on the rights of citizens under the constitution of 1891; and 4 foreign observers’ favorable impression of the working conditions of Batalhao Naval before the second rebellion in December, and their discovery of a massacre after the second revolt.

  9. DA LITERATURA AO PENSAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bernardo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Apresento uma concepção pessoal do ensino de literatura, condensando a discussão das principais questões que o afetam: a singularidade da disciplina entre as demais disciplinas escolares; a crítica do realismo como valor dominante; a importância do exemplo; os efeitos da desvalorização salarial e moral do professor; a praga das adaptações literárias para jovens. A partir dessas questões, apresento cinco modos de leitura e ensino do texto literário, a saber: ler como resposta; ler como pergunta; a leitura ingênua; a leitura crítica; a leitura teórica. Concluo pela necessidade de proteção radical à dúvida, fundadora da literatura e do próprio pensamento.

  10. Da Vinci Linjen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul

    Afsluttende evalueringsrapport fra følgeforskningen gennem tre år i forbindelse med dety pædagogiske arbejde på Blåbjerggårdskolens Da Vinci Linje for skolemotiverede og underpræsterende elever på 7. til 9. klassetrin.......Afsluttende evalueringsrapport fra følgeforskningen gennem tre år i forbindelse med dety pædagogiske arbejde på Blåbjerggårdskolens Da Vinci Linje for skolemotiverede og underpræsterende elever på 7. til 9. klassetrin....

  11. O esvaziamento da cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Paula de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se da resenha da obra "A civilização do espetáculo: uma radiografia do nosso tempo e da nossa cultura" de autoria de Mario Vargas Llosa, ganhador do Nobel de Literatura em 2010. O trabalho busca compreender este tempo em que a diversão assume maior relevância em detrimento da cultura profunda e reflexiva. Destarte, a todo momento se olha para o passado com vistas a examinar este fenômeno que se tornou um verdadeiro "esvaziamento cultural". Outrossim, busca-se elucidar que embora ocorra um progresso científico, acesso a educação e a tecnologia de forma vertiginosa, isso não significa que a as artes avançaram na mesma velocidade, pelo contrário, acabou estagnando e já não visa mais a modificação de estruturas, mas apenas entreter.

  12. Dj Da Hai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Miko Da Hai is DJ at a Xi’an disco bar. At work, in his cool attire, the pulsing disco beat punctuated by his distinctive vocal commentary, he makes a striking impression. The job having come his way by chance, Miko is now a skilled and experienced DJ of eight years’ standing. This may be

  13. Transitoriedade ou o desterro da certeza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Carvalho da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O tema da transitoriedade era lugar-comum da medicina da alma da primeira modernidade. Este artigo analisa algumas dessas fontes para mostrar como a dor do tempo e os males da alma atinentes eram relacionados a um modo de encarar a fugacidade do tempo e a fragilidade da vida. Dá-se destaque, sobretudo, às construções em torno da condição humana enquanto desterro da certeza.

  14. Action of Bothrops moojeni venom and its L-amino acid oxidase fraction, treated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays, in Leishmania spp; Acao do veneno de Bothrops moojeni e sua fracao L-aminoacido oxidase, submetida ao tratamento com raios gama de {sup 60}Co, em Leishmania spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Andre Gustavo Tempone

    1999-07-01

    Bothrops moojeni venom showed an anti leishmania activity in vitro, as determined by a cell viability assay using the reduction of MTT. After venom purification, by chromatography techniques, the fractions with anti leishmania and L-amino acid oxidase activities, eluted in the same positions. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 140 kDa by molecular exclusion chromatography, and 69 kDa, by SDS-PAGE, migrating as a single band, with an isoelectric point of 4.8 as determined by isoelectric focusing. The purified LAO from B. moojeni venom, 135-fold more active than crude venom, showed homo dimeric constitution, and was active against Leishmania spp from the New World, with an effective concentration against L(L). amazonensis of 1.80 {mu}g/ml (EC{sub 50}), L.(V.) panamensis (0.78 |{mu}g/ml) and L.(L.) chagasi (0.63 ({mu}g/ml). Ultrastructural studies of promastigotes affected by LAO demonstrated cell death, with edema in several organelles such as mitochondria and nuclear membrane, before cell disruption and necrosis. The action of LAO was demonstrated to be hydrogen peroxide-dependent. Studies with LLCMK-2 cells, treated with LAO, showed a toxic effect, with an EC{sub 50} of 11|{mu}g/ml. Irradiation of LAO with 6{sup 0C}o gamma rays, did not affect its whole oxidative activity, neither detoxified the enzyme. Amastigotes treated with LAO were not affected by its hydrogen peroxide, otherwise, the exogenous product, killed amastigotes with an EC{sub 50} of 0.67mM. These data could be of help in the development of alternative therapeutic approaches to the treatment of leishmaniasis. (author)

  15. O exame da OAB

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Júlio Cezar Bittencourt

    2013-01-01

    Versa o trabalho sobre a exigência de aprovação em Exame de Ordem para a inscrição do advogado nos quadros da Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil. Tal requisito gera inúmeros disparates e injustiças, não apenas com os bacharéis, que têm cerceada sua garantia constitucional de exercício da profissão à qual estão qualificados, mas também à sociedade, que resta prejudicada pelos altos custos dos serviços de advocacia, bem como, pelo incremento das dificuldades de acesso à justiça. Procede-se então a u...

  16. Fisiopatologia da asma grave

    OpenAIRE

    Todo-Bom, Ana; Mota-Pinto, Anabela

    2006-01-01

    Não tem resumo. Transcreve-se o primeiro parágrafo: A história natural da asma e os condicionalismos de uma evolução para formas moderadas ou graves não está completamente estabelecida. Contudo, quer os factores genéticos quer os factores ambientais, serão determinantes na fisiopatologia e no prognóstico da doença. A asma é, por definição, uma doença inflamatória crónica das vias aéreas caracterizada por uma obstrução brônquica generalizada mas variável que é, pelo menos parcialmente, reve...

  17. Pedagogia etnomatemática: uma proposta para o ensino de matemática na educação básica

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Assis Bandeira

    2012-01-01

    As reflexoes apresentadas neste artigo sao parte de uma proposta de reorientacao curricular em educacao matematica que defende a utilizacao do conhecimento matematico vivenciado pelo aluno em sua comunidade como subsidio metodologico para o processo de ensino-aprendizagem da matematica escolar. Mas, a luz das concepcoes d.ambrosianas de Etnomatematica, principalmente, a educacional, que procura compreender a realidade sociocultural e chegar a acao pedagogica de maneira natural mediante um enf...

  18. Hepatotoxicidade da cianotoxina microcistina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Castro Leal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitui interesse emergente em saúde pública avaliar a possibilidade de intoxicação humana por biotoxinas de algas cianofíceas, principalmente as hepatotoxinas do grupo das microcistinas. A microcistina, um heptapeptídeo monocíclico, é produzida principalmente pela cianobactéria Microcistis aeruginosa. São caracterizadas por alguns aminoácidos variáveis, dois deles com uma estrutura não usual que possuem importante papel na hepatotoxidade da microcistina. Apesar do acometimento humano atribuído as microcistinas incluírem gastroenterite, reações alérgicas ou irritativas, neurotoxicidade, o principal alvo da toxina é o fígado. Nos hepatócitos as microcistinas são carreadas pelo sistema transportador do ácido biliar, inibindo a atividade da proteína fosfatase no citoplasma. A inibição leva a mudanças morfológicas na membrana plasmática pela hiperfosforilação de citoqueratinas, e à atividade de promoção tumoral pelas proteínas hiperfosforiladas. Os métodos de detecção e quantificação de microcistinas no ambiente incluem a cromatografia líquida, o bioensaio em camundongos e os testes imunoenzimáticos. O último vem ganhando destaque pela praticidade e alta sensibilidade.

  19. O paradoxo da legitimidade a partir da legalidade segundo Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylton Barbieri Durão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n2p233A autonomia jurídica surge da conexão co-originária entre a autnomia privada dos indivíduos e a autonomia pública dos cidadãos, a qual, contudo, ficou velada ao longo da história da filosofia política e jurídica por causa da herança metafísica do direito natural racional e da filosofia da consciência que gerou uma relação de competição entre os direitos humanos e a vontade soberana do povo. Por causa desta conexão entre a autonomia privada e pública, o processo democrática de produção de normas jurídicas apresenta um aparente paradoxo porque os cidadãos tanto podem aprovar as normas motivados pela busca do êxito da racionalidade estratégica como orientados pelo reconhecimento de sua validade através da racionalidade comunicativa, o qual se dissolve, contudo, quando se considera a democracia como um processo aberto para a solidariedade dos cidadãos no mundo da vida.

  20. Effect of the ionizing radiation of the {sup 60}Co on the radiological properties of guar gum and carboxymethylcellulose for the food industry use; Efeito da radiacao ionizante de {sup 60}Co sobre propriedades radiologicas da goma guar e carboximetilcelulose para uso na industria alimenticia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Fernando Fabris; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Hydrosoluble polysaccharides or gums are long chain polymers that dissolve or disperse in water. When added to foods, they change rheological characteristics, stabilize emulsions, promote particle suspension, control crystallization and inhibit sineresis of processed foods. Guar gum is an hydro soluble polysaccharide obtained from the seed of Cyamopsis tetragonolobus. Carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC) is an homopolisaccharide prepared by the treatment of alkaline cellulose with sodium monochloroacetate. This work presents the results of the study of radiation effects on the viscosity of guar gum and CMC used for the food industry when irradiated with {sup 60} Co ionizing radiation. (author)

  1. Study of the effects of gamma radiation on the microbiological quality, lipid oxidation and sensory properties of mechanically deboned chicken meat throughout refrigerated and frozen storage; Estudo dos efeitos da radiacao gama sobre a qualidade microbiologica, a oxidacao lipidica e as propriedades sensoriais da carne mecanicamente separada de frango, armazenada refrigerada e congelada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Heliana de Azevedo

    2002-07-01

    Mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) is widely used in traditional meat products such as sausages. The proceed of mechanical separation results in grinding of the bones, liberating the marrow and rupturing cells, thus making the MDCM a favorable medium for biochemical reactions and microbiological growth. Irradiation using a Co{sup 60} source is one of the processes which has been developed aimed at reducing contamination by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in foods. The main advantages of food irradiation are the possibilities of treating the already packaged products at refrigerated and frozen temperatures, ideal for a highly perishable product such as MDCM, which, being a ground, easily spoiled product, requires rapid cooling followed by freezing, immediately after processing. Processing with ionizing radiation results in chemical alterations in the food, including the production of volatile compounds and free radicals. Irradiation of meat in the frozen state reduces or eliminates the negative sensory effects of this process. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of gamma radiation at doses of 3.0 and 4.0 kGy, on the microbiological quality, lipid oxidation and sensory properties of MDCM, at the refrigerated (2 {+-} 1 deg C) and frozen (-18 {+-} 1 deg C) storage, The results showed that irradiation increased the shelf life of this raw material when stored under refrigeration, as compared to non-irradiated samples. Since doses of 3.0 kGy produced increases in the shelf life of refrigerated MDCM equal or greater than those produced by doses of 4.0 kGy, this dose was considered the most adequate for the irradiation of this raw material. According to the results of microbiological, chemical and sensorial testing in irradiated MDCM samples with doses of 3.0 kGy and 4.0 kGy, the material studied presented conditions that were adequate for human consumption during the 90 days of frozen storage, whereas samples of non-irradiated MDCM were shown to be unacceptable with respect to the occurrence of S. aureus and fecal coliforms after only 30 days of frozen storage, The irradiation process produced characteristic volatile compounds, perceived as irradiation odor. These were lost from the MDCM during refrigerated and frozen storage, For the non-irradiated MDCM samples, bacterial contamination was the main limiting factor with respect to the shelf life, whereas for the irradiated MDCM samples this factor was lipid oxidation. (author)

  2. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on different phases of the evolutive cycle of pinworm - Tuta absoluta (Meyrich, 1917) (Lepidoptera,Gelechiidae); Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 nas diferentes fases do ciclo evolutivo da traca do tomateiro - Tuta absoluta (Meyrich, 1917) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, Gerson Antonio

    1996-10-01

    The effects of different gamma radiation (Cobalt-60) doses on different phases of the evolutive cycle of Tuta absoluta (Meyrich, 1917) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) have been studied under laboratory conditions in the laboratory of Entomology of Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. For all the treatments with gamma radiation a Cobalt-60 source type Gamma beam-650 was used. The doses utilized ranged from of 0,0 (Control) to 3250 Gy with a dose rate of 1110 Gy/h. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions at 25{+-} 2 deg C, 70 {+-} 5% of relative humidity and photo period of (12:12). It was verified that the lethal doses were: for eggs - 70 Gy; for larvae - 200 Gy e for pupae - 300 Gy. The sterilizing dose for adults from irradiated larvae was 45 Gy. The sterilizing dose for the crossing of irradiated female with normal males (FI X MN) was 100 Gy and for normal female with irradiated male (FN x MI) was 150 Gy, in the both crosses, doses refer to irradiation of pupae. The sterilizing dose for adults, of both sexes, irradiated and crossed with normal adults, (FI x MN) and (FN x MI, were 150 and 200 Gy, respectively. The average longevity of adults, of both sexes, irradiated and crossed with normal adults was 8,3 days. The immediate lethal dose for adults was 3250 Gy. (author)

  3. Developpement and characterization of an DL-Alanine Gel to be applied in the measurement of the dose distribution with the Spectrophotometry Technique; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de um gel alanima para aplicacao na medida da distribuicao da dose de radiacao usando a tecnica de espectrofotometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Erick Yukio

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a DL-Alanine, Fe-II based gel dosimeter to be applied in the dosimetry of the Co-60 gamma-radiation fields in the dose range of radiation therapy procedures. The aminoacid DL-Alanine is dissolved in an acid solution containing the Fe-II and added to the gel. A series of essays was performed with different chemicals and different procedures were made to evaluate the behavior of the obtained dosimetric gel as function of the time. The absorption spectra, before and after the irradiation, present maximum in 457 nm and 588 nm, respectively. These two peaks correspond to absorption wavelengths of the chemical species Fe-II and Fe-III, respectively, both species being in equilibrium. With the irradiation, the formation of the radicals that oxide the Fe-II into Fe-III occurs, altering the chemical balance of both species - hence the increase of the Fe-III - and causing the gel to change its tonality, in such a way that it is possible to determine the absorbed dose. In the analysis of the spectra and respective dose-response curves it was observed that the dosimetric gel shows linearity in dose range of 0.5 to 40 Gy. From the obtained linearity results, stability and lower detectable dose - 0,3 Gy - it is possible to conclude that the present DL-Alanine, Fe-II based dosimetric gel presents an excellent potential to the application to which it is proposed, namely, the determination of the dose fields in radiation therapy and its future application as a standard in the determination of these fields, in 3D, using the Magnetic Resonance Imaging. (author)

  4. Effects of gamma radiation immunogenicity of ribonucleoprotein (RNPs) of rabies virus and purification of anti-RNPs antibodies for diagnosis; Efeitos da radiacao gama na imunogenicidade das ribonucleoproteinas (RNPs) do virus da raiva e purificacao de anticorpos anti-RNPs para diagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ana Elena Boamorte da

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization recommends the direct immunofluorescence test for laboratory diagnosis and serological evaluation of rabies. To achieve this test, fluorescent anti-ribo nucleoproteins (RNPs) conjugates, produced from purified IgGs of RNP-immunized animals are employed. The aims of the present study were: investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the immunogenicity of RNPs, as well as to compare two chromatographic methodologies for the purification of anti-RNPs immunoglobulins. Sera from animals immunized with either native or irradiated RNPs were compared by direct immunofluorescence and immuno enzymatic assays. Our results indicate that the animals immunized with irradiated antigen requested a lower number of doses to reach high antibody titers. The immunofluorescence assays indicated that the conjugates produced with the anti-irradiated RNPs IgGs showed similar specificity to its anti-native counterpart, but with a higher definition of the virus inclusions. The purification methods were compared by Bradford and electrophoresis assays. According to the results, we concluded that the affinity-based process resulted in higher yields, lower execution time, and higher purity of the antibodies. (author)

  5. Assessment of the effects of inhibition of inflammatory cascades and exogenous supplementation of CXCL12 in hematopoiesis of experimental; Avaliacao dos efeitos da inibicao de cadeias inflamatorias e da suplementacao exogena de CXCL 12 na hematopoiese de modelos experimentais expostos a doses letais ou subletais de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Daniel Perez

    2007-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of inhibition of the inflammatory chains governed by the action of interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma}) and the enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in damage after radiation exposure to lethal dose (8 Gy) or moderate /severe dose (4 Gy) in hematopoietic tissues (spleen and bone marrow) of experimental models irradiated at these doses. Groups of isogenic C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to radiation (4 or 8 Gy) in whole-body exposures in a {sup 60}Co panoramic source. Similarly, were irradiated mice whose iNOS or IFN-{gamma} expression was absent or undetectable. Other groups received orally in all days of experiments an inhibitor of iNOS activity, aminoguanidine, or CXCL12, a primordial chemokine known as an haematopoiesis promoter intraperitoneally by days 0 to fourth after radiation events. Another groups received the two agents concomitantly. The animals were sacrificed on days second, fourth and eighth after irradiation, and fragments of the spleens and femurs were preserved for histology. Splenocytes and non-adherent cells from femoral bone marrow were removed and divided, providing aliquots for subsequent RT-PCR and cell suspensions suitable for flow cytometry experiments specific to the detection of the frequency of CD34+ cell populations. In same days of experiment, tail blood samples were collected for counting of peripheral red blood cells and platelets. The results showed that the absence of the production of interferon-gamma at the irradiated sites increases the survival and the amount of hematopoietic progenitor cells and that the absence of iNOS or its functional blockade reduces the extent of radioinduced damage in tested hematopoietic tissues. Furthermore, it was possible to observe that supplementing with synthetic CXCL12 increases the frequency of CD34{sup +} phenotype in the spleens of tested models, and that its effect seems to antagonize the inhibition of the production of NO by aminoguanidine. (author)

  6. Use of the MCNP code for analysis of the attenuation of the radiation produced by radioactive sources used in radiotherapy in skin tumors; Uso do codigo MCNP para analise da atenuacao da radiacao produzida por fontes radioativas utilizadas em radioterapia em tumores de pele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, A., E-mail: ariane.tada@gmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salles, T.; Yoriyaz, H., E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.b, E-mail: tasallesc@gmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear; Fernandes, M.A.R, E-mail: marfernandes@fmb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia

    2010-07-01

    The present work had as objective to analyze the distribution profile of a therapeutic dose of radiation produced by radioactive sources used in radiotherapy procedures in superficial lesions on the skin. The experimental measurements for analysis of dosimetric radiation sources were compared with calculations obtained from the computer system based on the Monte Carlo Method. The results obtained by the computations calculations using the code MCNP-4C showed a good agreement with the experimental measurements. A comparison of different treatment modalities allows an indication of more appropriate procedures for each clinical case. (author)

  7. Pioneirismo da associacao brasileira de enfermagem no desenvolvimento da pesquisa: da revista ao centro de pesquisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais de Araujo Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar as primeiras iniciativas da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa em enfermagem. Com um recorte temporal que engloba o período de 1932 a 1971, ano de criação da Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem à criação do Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas, da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem. As fontes utilizadas foram documentos escritos localizados no Centro de Documentação da Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro e no Centro de Memória da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem, além de edições da revista localizadas na Biblioteca Setorial da Pós-Graduação da Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery. Percebe-se, nesta análise, que os empreendimentos realizados por essa entidade representaram um verdadeiro espaço de investigação e de formação de enfermeiros pesquisadores no Brasil.

  8. Hepatotoxicidade da cianotoxina microcistina

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa de Castro Leal; Manoel do Carmo Pereira Soares

    2004-01-01

    Constitui interesse emergente em saúde pública avaliar a possibilidade de intoxicação humana por biotoxinas de algas cianofíceas, principalmente as hepatotoxinas do grupo das microcistinas. A microcistina, um heptapeptídeo monocíclico, é produzida principalmente pela cianobactéria Microcistis aeruginosa. São caracterizadas por alguns aminoácidos variáveis, dois deles com uma estrutura não usual que possuem importante papel na hepatotoxidade da microcistina. Apesar do acometimento humano atrib...

  9. Fisiopatologia da Dor

    OpenAIRE

    Varandas, Cláudia Maria Brás

    2013-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Farmacêuticas A dor constitui uma experiência indissociável do ser humano, experiência essa que afeta a qualidade de vida do Homem, o seu bem- estar e atividades do dia- a- dia, independentemente da sua faixa etária e classe social. A dor pode ser classificada segundo a duração temporal e segundo a sua fisiopatologia, assim sendo existe dor a...

  10. O CORPO DE BAILE DA LINGUAGEM DA VIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldes de Melo e Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available “O corpo de baile da linguagem da vida” propõe-se a evidenciar a unidade primordial da música e da linguagem. Ambas se correspondem, quando se compreende a primeira como arte das musas e a segunda como expressão da vida em si mesma. O livro As musas e a origem divina do canto e da saga, de Walter F. Otto, dá o mote que o ensaio persegue e desdobra com o auxílio de inúmeros estudos altamente especializados, convalidando-se no exame da obra de artífices notáveis da expressão poética, de Homero a Joyce.  The essay proposes to evince the primordial unity between music and language. Their bond becomes apparent when the first is comprehended as the art of the muses and the second as the expression of life itself. The book The muses and the divine origin of singing and saga, by Walter Friedrich Otto, motivates the research which the essay pursues and develops with the aid of highly specialized studies. An incursion into the works of remarkable artifices of poetic expression from Homer to Joyce helps to corroborate the issue.  

  11. Tumores cartilaginosos da laringe

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    Thomé Robert

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Os tumores cartilaginosos da laringe são raros, sendo a cartilagem cricóide a mais acometida. A raridade desses tumores tem como conseqüência experiência limitada e, portanto, o conhecimento a respeito destas neoplasias apresenta pontos obscuros. Objetivo: Apresentar os resultados cirúrgicos bem como o seguimento a longo prazo de 6 pacientes com tumores cartilaginosos da laringe, 4 condrossarcomas de baixa malignidade e 2 condromas. Forma de estudo: Retrospectivo não randomizado. Material e método: Cinco dos tumores acometiam a cartilagem cricóide e 1 a tireóide. Os pacientes foram submetidos a laringectomia parcial (4 e total (2, com seguimento de 6 a 30 anos (média-19,5 anos. Resultados: Nenhum dos pacientes apresentou metástase ou morte relacionada ao tumor. A sobrevida alcançada por 5 anos foi de 100% e a por 20 anos, 67%, sendo a comorbidade responsável por tal decréscimo. Conclusões: Nossos resultados reforçam o conceito de que a laringectomia conservadora seja a modalidade ideal de tratamento, reservando a ressecção total para tumores extensos ou casos de recorrência. Há indícios de que 5 anos pode não ser tempo suficiente para observar recorrência no condrossarcoma de baixo grau de malignidade.

  12. A morte da bailarina

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    Nancy Mangabeira Unger

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A história do Ocidente pode ser lida de acordo com o sentido da palavra grega hybris: transgressão, presunção, desmesura. Hoje, vivemos o ápice de um percurso marcado pela desejo de tudo dominar. Por sua extrema gravidade, a crise contemporânea nos coloca diante da responsabilidade de questionar a própria dimensão na qual pensamos, e a maneira em que compreendemos nossa identidade enquanto humanos e nosso lugar na totalidade do real.Palavras-chave: civilização ocidental; crise; hybris; questionamento. AbstractThe history of the West can be read according to the meaning of the greek word hybris: transgression, arrogance, loss of measure. We presently live the pinnacle of a course marked by the desire to dominate all beings.  The extreme gravity of  contemporary crisis confronts us with the responsibility of questioning the very dimension in which we think, as well as the manner in which we understand our identity as human beings and our place in the totality of being.Key words: western civilization; crisis; hybris; questioning. 

  13. Dos Males da Medida

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    Schwarcz Lilia Moritz

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem como objeto a difícil percepção da "diferença". Tema polêmico, o debate sobre as variedades culturais foi transformado, em meados do século XIX, em uma questão racial e, nesse sentido, vinculado às regularidades da biologia. Tecendo comparações entre os teóricos raciais brasileiros e os impasses mais contemporâneos, sobre a aferição de inteligência e capacidade, esse ensaio pretende provocar. Em pauta estarão as contradições que têm se destacado, mais recentemente, quando se opõem de um lado as etnicidades locais, de outro a tão propalada globalização. Tal qual dois lados de uma mesma moeda, a afirmação de identidades tem se mostrado tão evidente como o próprio estreitamento das relações internacionais. Mudam os termos do debate - de raça, para etnia -, mas, de alguma maneira, continuamos presos a uma lógica positiva de estabelecimento de hierarquias ontológicas.

  14. Assessment of toxicity and genotoxicity of the reactive azo dyes Remazol Black B and Remazol Orange 3R and effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the reduction of color and toxic effects; Avaliacao da toxicidade e genotoxicidade dos corantes azo reativos Remazol Preto B e Remazol Alaranjado 3R e da eficacia da radiacao com feixe de eletrons na reducao da cor e efeitos toxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sa

    2011-07-01

    The textile industries play an important role in national and global economy. But, their activities are considered potentially polluting. The use of large volumes of water and the production of colored wastewater with high organic matter are among the main issues raised, especially during the stage of dyeing and washing of the textile process. The reactive azo dyes are the main colors used in the industry for dyeing of cotton in Brazil and worldwide. Because of its low setting and variations in the fiber production process, about 30% of the initial concentration used in the dyeing baths are lost and will compose the final effluent. These compounds have a low biodegradability, are highly soluble in water and therefore are not completely removed by conventional biological processes. In addition, other processes do not promote degradation but the transference to solid environment. The dyes discarded without treatment in the water body can cause aesthetic modifications, alter photosynthesis and gas solubility, as well as being toxic and genotoxic. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the toxicity and genotoxicity of two reactive azo dyes (Remazol Black B - RPB and Remazol Orange 3R - R3AR) and the percentage of color and toxicity reduction after the use of electron beam radiation. The acute toxicity assays performed with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Biomphalaria glabrata showed different response patterns for dyes. The different chemical forms of dyes were slightly toxic to Vibrio fischeri and only the RPB dye (vinylsulphone) was toxic (EC50{sub 15min} = 6,23 mg L-1). In tests with Daphnia similis, the dye RPB was slightly toxic in its pattern form, sulphatoethylsulphone, (CE50{sub 48h} = 91,25 mg L{sup -1}) and showed no toxicity in other chemical forms. However, the RA3R dye was toxic to the dafnids and the vinylsulphone form very toxic (EC50{sub 48h} = 0,54 mg L-1). No toxicity was observed in Biomphalaria glabrata assays. Chronic toxicity was assessed with the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia and the NOEC and OEC values of RPB dye (sulphatoethylsulphone) were 12.5 and 25 mg L-1, respectively. After hydrolysis of the dye (vinylsulphone and hydroxyethyl sulphone) was shown to increase the values obtained from the NOEC and OEC. There was no chronic effect for the R3AR dye and its chemical forms to C. dubia. The comet assay adapted to haemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata was used to assess the genotoxicity of the dyes. The RPB dye was genotoxic at highest concentrations (1 and 2 g L-1), with quantitative values of DNA damage equal to 117 and 112 and the R3AR dye was not genotoxic. The use of radiation with electron beams have proven effective in removing the color dyes. With a dose of 10 kGy a reduction of 97.64% and 96.8% for R3AR and RPB, respectively, was achieved. Possibly, the color removal was mainly due to the interaction of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals generated in the radiolysis of water after the radiation beam of electrons. After radiation of the RPB dye a dose of 10 kGy reduced 59.52 % of the acute toxicity measured with Vibrio fischeri. For the other doses there was no significant reduction, as well as with Daphnia similis, where the values of EC50{sub 48h} obtained were smaller than the non-irradiated dye. The R3AR dye showed better decreased toxicity after radiation when compared with the RPB, with reductions of 82.95% (V. fischeri) and 71.26% (D. similis) with 10 kGy. (author)

  15. Filosofia da amizade: uma proposta

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    Konrad Utz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n2p151O artifo tenciona desenvolver o conceito da amizade como conceito-base de toda Filosofia Prática. Porém pretende apresentar apenas uma entre as várias argumentações possíveis em favor desta concepção: defende que a amizade, no sentido exposto, seja a solução mais convincente ao problema da intersubjetividade. A questão é como a  concepção da subjetividade pode ser entendida a outros indivíduos, se essa, como o autor defende pode ser compreendida priginariamente somente a partir da auto-referência da primeira pessoa. Para isso, ele faz uso do conceito aristotélico do amor amigável enquanto direcionado a um "heterosautos", identificando como seus momentos tanto o conhecimento e o desejo do outro, como o respeito e a benevolência. Os últimos dois momentos são interpretados como "conversão" da consciência dos primeiros. Por meio dessa "conversão da consciência" a consciência do Outro é estabelecida. Como se trata da conversão de uma consciência concreta, tanto cognitiva quanto volitiva, seu resultado não é um conceito abstrato e geral de uma subjetividade diferente da minha, mas uma relação concreta entre indivíduos que implica um compromisso e a partir da qual forma-se um étos específico da comunidade assim estabelecida.

  16. Em favor da talassografia

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    Jean-Louis Boudou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A Talassografia (“descrição do mar” interessa-sepelos impactos físicos, biológicos, ecológicos... culturais da violenta antropização dos ambientes costeiros (oceânicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexigüidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil é um “país marítimo”, os geó-grafos (os talassógrafos brasileiros são convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas áreas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulgá-las: Revista, Encontros, Associação, Pós-Graduação... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  17. Fisiologia da caquexia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Catarina Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz A caquexia é uma síndrome de desnutrição multifatorial que se caracteriza por uma perda de peso e perda de massa muscular. Esta síndrome parte de uma doença subjacente e pode estar presente em várias doenças crónicas como por exemplo HIV, doença renal crónica, DPOC, doença hepática crónica, insuficiência cardíaca congénita e cancro. Com este trabalho, pretendeu-se entender a definição de ca...

  18. Dimensão da maturidade à luz da logoterapia

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    Libardi, Tadeu Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o tema da maturidade humana à luz da logoterapia, fundada por Viktor Emil Frankl. Nos dias de hoje, existe a frustração existencial, não mais a sexual, como analisada por Freud. Cada ser humano, como pessoa livre e responsável e tendo como meta a busca da maturidade, vai percorrendo seu próprio caminho, que o leva à ceitação de si, de seus limites e potencialidades e ao relacionamento social e religioso, capacitando-o ao confronto com o sofrimento humano

  19. Controle da ferrugem e da broca-dos-ramos da figueira com diferentes fungicidas e inseticidas

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    Éder Júnior Mezzalira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperaturas e precipitações elevadas favorecem a incidência da ferrugem (Cerotelium fici(Cast. e da broca-dos-ramos (Azochis gripusalis (Walker, 1859 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, limitando a produção comercial de figos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a eficiência de fungicidas e inseticidas alternativos em relação à de produtos convencionais registrados para a cultura. Foram realizados dois experimentos, no delineamento de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro repetições, no setor de fruticultura da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos. Para controle da ferrugem, foram utilizados, em 100 L de água, azoxistrobin (10 g, calda bordalesa (1.500 g de cal virgem + 1.500 g de sulfato de cobre e testemunha (água. No controle da broca-dos-ramos utilizaram-se, em 100 L de água, azadiractina (1.000 mL P.C., alho (Allium sativumL. (100 mL P.C., cinza (20.000 g, extrato de fumo (nicotina (10.000 mL do preparado, deltametrina (50 mL P.C., Bacillus thuringiensisBerliner (100 g P.C., rotenona (1.000 mL P.C., sabão de coco (1.000 g e testemunha (água. A calda bordalesa foi o tratamento mais efetivo no controle da ferrugem, promovendo aumento da produtividade e da qualidade dos frutos. A deltametrina promoveu o melhor controle da broca-dos-ramos da figueira. Entre os produtos alternativos testados, o alho foi o mais efetivo no controle dessa praga.

  20. ESTUDO DA PASTEURIZAÇÃO DA POLPA DE GRAVIOLA

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    C. K. B. TEIXEIRA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudou-se a pasteurização da polpa de graviola (Annona muricata L., visando estabelecer condições simples e eficientes para sua conservação. Foram realizadas avaliações microbiológica, enzimática e de cor da polpa, para identificar parâmetros a serem utilizados no acompanhamento da pasteurização. O produto foi submetido a tratamento térmico, em copos de inox, em diferentes tempos (1 a 300 seg e temperaturas (70°C a 90°C, para identificar o efeito destas variáveis sobre parâmetros de qualidade do produto. Constatou-se que os tratamentos não provocaram variação na atividade da peroxidase, contagem de bactérias, bolores e leveduras e cor da polpa. Em seguida foram realizadas pasteurizações, em escala piloto, a 80°C e 90°C; sendo os produtos estocados a 25°C e avaliados durante 120 dias. A redução da atividade da peroxidase e da concentração de bactérias, bolores e leveduras, a níveis aceitáveis, e a manutenção da cor, demonstraram a eficiência dos processos térmicos. A manutenção destes parâmetros, nos níveis aceitáveis, durante a estocagem, confirmou a aplicabilidade dos processos, sem a necessidade da adição de conservante na polpa. A pasteurização da polpa de graviola a 80°C ou 90°C, mostrou ser um tratamento térmico adequado para a conservação do produto, proporcionando 120 dias de vidade- prateleira à temperatura ambiente ( 25°C.

  1. A INTERPRETAÇÃO DELEUZEANA DA GENEALOGIA DA MORAL

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    Péricles Pereira de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto tem o objetivo de apresentar como o filósofo francês Gilles Deleuze, a partir da obra Nietzsche e a Filosofia, interpreta a Genealogia da Moral, obra escrita pelo filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, levando em consideração as formas mais gerais do niilismo: ressentimento, má consciência e ideal ascético.

  2. SOBRE OS FUNDAMENTOS DA ARQUITETURA DA INFORMAÇÃO

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    Alfram Roberto Rodrigues de Albuquerque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Expõe-se o estado atual da disciplina Arquitetura da Informação quanto a problemática terminológica da definição do campo de estudo, apresentando-se argumentos para uma definição de Arquitetura da Informação de uma forma ampla na qual os usos correntes dessa expressão sejam vistos como especializações. Defende-se uma definição com a utilização de um conjunto de propriedades mínimas cujas interações levam a uma terminologia formal e cuja abstração leva a uma definição formal do conceito que emprega a linguagem de morfismos da Teoria das Categorias. Trata-se de um recorte de alguns dos resultados obtidos na tese de doutoramento de um dos autores, defendida em setembro de 2010. O contexto da pesquisa é exposto e alguns dos resultados obtidos são delineados.

  3. A utilização da teoria da aprendizagem significativa no ensino da Enfermagem

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    Alana Tamar Oliveira de Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivo:sintetizar a produção científica acerca da Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa no processo de ensino-aprendizagem em Enfermagem.Método:revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e CINAHL, com artigos que abordaram a temática ou aspectos da teoria da aprendizagem significativa de David Ausubel. Fizeram parte da amostra dez artigos, sendo seis escritos no idioma português e quatro no inglês, publicados de 1998 a 2013.Resultados:cinco artigos fizeram alusão à Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, quatro citaram Ausubel como autor dessa teoria e apenas dois seguiram a estrutura para a aplicação da teoria completamente. Há escassez de estudos sobre o tema e os que o abordam não o correlacionam com a teoria de Ausubel.Conclusão:faz-se necessário romper com a dicotomia entre teoria e prática e promover a articulação dos conteúdos com a ação, introduzindo o aluno como autor de seu próprio conhecimento.

  4. A subjetividade fora da mente

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    Alexandre Simões

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo contextualiza uma tradição que se apresenta de maneira recorrente nas práticas clínicas da psicologia e da saúde mental: o Mentalismo. O Mentalismo pressupõe uma concepção interiorizada do sujeito em prol de modelos instrumentais de clínica. A partir da crítica ao Mentalismo, os autores examinam outras possibilidades de se lidar não mais com o sujeito essencializado, porém, com os complexos processos de subjetivação. Esta é uma perspectiva clínica que recorrendo a Deleuze, Guattari e à Filosofia da Diferença oferece estratégias mais condizentes com a complexidade do mundo contemporâneo, introduzindo debates éticos, políticos e estéticos na dimensão psíquica.

  5. Atlas nacional da Espanha, demografia

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    Hervé Théry

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Calvo Palacios J.L., Pueyo Campos Á. (2008, Atlas nacional de España, Demografía. Madrid: Centro Nacional de Información Geográfica, 386 p. ISBN: 978-8-4416-0685-2.O volume, que faz parte da série Monografias do Atlas Nacional de Espanha, inclui 420 mapas, 91 dos quais apresentam informações por município que dão uma visão global, concisa e muito completa da realidade da população espanhola e da sua evolução (em alguns casos analisada desde 1857. Seus diretores científicos são José Luis Cal...

  6. SÍNTESE DA PENEIRA MOLECULAR MCM-41 DERIVADA DA CINZA DA CASCA DO ARROZ

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Martins Braga; Najara Maira Teodoro; Dulce Maria de Araujo Melo; Flávia de Medeiros Aquino; Joana Maria de Farias Barros; Julio Cezar de Oliveira Freitas

    2013-01-01

    As peneiras moleculares MCM-41 têm atraído grande interesse devido as suas propriedades de alta área específica, volume e diâmetro de poros controláveis. Estes materiais são aplicados em diversos ramos da indústria química como adsorventes, suportes catalíticos e catalisadores heterogêneos em vários processos. Neste trabalho, o MCM-41 foi sintetizado a partir da cinza da casca do arroz, natural e tratada quimicamente, como fontes alternativas de sílica, denominadas CCA-MCM-41 e CCAL-MCM-41, r...

  7. Teoria da Literatura e interdisciplinaridade: o espaço da impureza

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Nazareth Soares Fonseca; Ivete Lara Camargos Walty

    1996-01-01

    Este estudo constitui uma reflexão sobre o lugar da Teoria da Literatura na América Latina. A metáfora da impureza, resgatada dos estudos de Roland Barthes, é o fio condutor da trajetória que procura delinear a questão do sujeito e suas implicações na busca da identidade latinoamericana.

  8. O PRAZER DA APRENDIZAGEM ATRAVÉS DA POESIA

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    COLI, Katiane Cristie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To present researches “The pleasure of the learning through of the poetry” has for objective to emphasize the importance of pleased poetries in classroom of the fundamental teaching, proposing to the students one moment ludic, tends in view the exercise of the imagination, of the fantasy and of the creativity, developing like this a form teaching more cheerful, more poetic and with larger freedom to build the knowledge. The research also has for purpose to call the teachers’ attention for the importance of the reading of poetries in the classroom and to develop in the students the taste for her. For the accomplishment of this research works of renowned national prominence were used, among other materials. It was also accomplished a field research, in way to still give larger credibility to the study. A presente pesquisa “O prazer da aprendizagem através da poesia” teve por objetivo ressaltar a importância de poesias prazerosas em sala de aula do ensino fundamental, propondo aos alunos um momento lúdico, tendo em vista o exercício da imaginação, da fantasia e da criatividade, desenvolvendo assim um ensino de forma mais alegre, mais poético e com maior liberdade para construir o conhecimento. A pesquisa também tem por propósito chamar a atenção dos professores para a importância da leitura de poesias na sala de aula e desenvolver nos alunos o gosto por ela. Para a realização desta pesquisa foram utilizadas obras de renomado destaque nacional, entre outros materiais. Foi realizada também uma pesquisa de campo, de forma a dar maior credibilidade ao estudo.

  9. VOLTAIRE CRÍTICO DA TEOLOGIA DA HISTÓRIA

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    Pedro Miguel Sousa Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A teologia esforça-se por repertoriar e sistematizar o que a revelação e a fé trazem ao crente sobre o problema do sentido da história, da peregrinação através do tempo da humanidade pensada em seu conjunto. Ela enfatiza, não tanto o conhecimento, mas o estado espiritual de felicidade ao qual a humanidade deve ascender antes do fim da vida na terra. Os modernos não aceitam a proposta teológica e têm por ambição descentralizar a história tradicionalmente ordenada por uma visão cristocêntrica do mundo. O historiador, isentando-se da facção, assume o discurso racional sobre a trajetória dos humanos a partir de um novo núcleo referencial interpretativo, a saber, a ideia de humanidade. Voltaire apresenta-se como legítimo representante dessa perspectiva. A história sob o prisma voltairiano é colocada como problema e não como dogmática com características de uma aquisição definitiva. O problema histórico é o de compreender o mundo atual e a humanidade nele inserida. O objetivo, portanto, do trabalho foi apresentar a proposta teológica para a história e a crítica a ela desenvolvida por Voltaire, de forma a evidenciar a originalidade da abordagem moderna do fenômeno histórico.

  10. Avaliação da qualidade do serviço da biblioteca da Universidade de Aveiro

    OpenAIRE

    Pour, Masoomeh Tasouji Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Este estudo examina em termos gerais a qualidade do serviço prestado pela biblioteca da Universidade de Aveiro em Portugal baseado na perspetiva dos utilizadores da biblioteca com o intuito de investigar quais são os atributos essenciais para os quais os gestores da biblioteca devem alocar recursos de forma a garantir um serviço de qualidade e como é que se comporta o ranking da biblioteca em termos da perceção da qualidade do serviço prestado. Neste trabalho também são anal...

  11. Publicidade e ética: um estudo da construção da imagem da mulher

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    Elizabeth Moraes Gonçalves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O texto propõe uma reflexão sobre a ética da responsabilidade na publicidade veiculada nas revistas Claudia e Nova. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, resultante da leitura dos anúncios selecionados, subsidiada por teóricos da Análise do Discurso da linha francesa, que busca averiguar como a mulher é representada. Constatou-se que no contexto da sociedade contemporânea o retrato da mulher como sedutora ainda está presente, mesmo que em vários momentos ela apareça como protagonista de sua própria vida.

  12. O PROJETO DA MODERNIDADE SEGUNDO HABERMAS

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    João Paulo Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O projeto acadêmico de Habermas busca contribuir para a realização das metas emancipatórias da modernidade, através da teoria da ação comunicativa. Portanto, será examinado aqui se o processo de racionalização da sociedade moderna, presente na teoria da ação comunicativa, realmente representa um potencial para a emancipação humana. Primeiramente, pretende-se abordar no respectivo trabalho os principais conceitos que Habermas utiliza em sua teoria da ação comunicativa. Em um segundo momento, serão explorados os elementos fundamentais da teoria da sociedade. Após isso, será analisada a teoria da modernidade e a sua relação com a teoria da sociedade. Tal caminho terá o objetivo de investigar a possibilidade de resgate do projeto da modernidade, ao explicar a possibilidade da teoria da ação comunicativa ser considerada o potenciador emancipatório da sociedade moderna, formando tanto o cidadão como um indivíduo autônomo, preservando a sua identidade pessoal, quanto o cidadão como participante de uma sociedade política, possuidor de uma identidade cultural, étnica, entre outras, que abrange variados grupos sociais.

  13. ESTUDO DA EFICIÊNCIA DA PASTEURIZAÇÃO DA POLPA DE TAPEREBÁ (SPONDIAS MOMBIN

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    C. T. R. M. BASTOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    O taperebá (Spondias mombim é uma pequena drupa elipsóide, de cor amarelo alaranjado, com casca fi na que pode ser facilmente rompida, tornando o fruto susceptível à contaminação por ação de agentes externos. Estudou-se a pasteurização da polpa de taperebá, visando estabelecer condições simples e efi cientes de conservação a temperatura ambiente. Parâmetros microbiológicos (enumeração de microrganismos mesófílos aeróbios e pesquisa de coliformes a 45°C, químicos (teor de vitamina C, enzimáticos (atividade da peroxidase – POD e colorimétricos (colorimetria tristimulus foram utilizados como variáveis de resposta. Em bancada, foram testados diferentes tempos (1 a 300 s e temperaturas (70ºC a 90ºC de tratamento térmico, não tendo sido observado efeito estatisticamente signifi cativo (p < 0,05 sobre as contagens de microrganismos mesófi los aeróbios, coliformes a 45°C e sobre a cor da polpa. Em escala piloto, realizou-se a pasteurização da polpa a 85°C por 3 minutos, sendo avaliados parâmetros de qualidade do produto durante 14 dias de manutenção a 40°C, sob iluminação artifi cial, e realizados testes sensoriais. A redução da contagem de microrganismos mesófi los aeróbios e coliformes a 45°C, para níveis aceitáveis pela legislação brasileira, a manutenção da cor e os índices de aceitação da polpa confi rmaram a efi ciência do tratamento térmico. Não se observou atividade da POD na polpa pasteurizada, devendo o controle de qualidade do produto ser feito com base nos parâmetros microbiológicos e de cor da polpa.

  14. O panorama das Drogas no México: da margem da sociedade ao centro da cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Palaversich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo destaca o percurso das manifestações culturais ligadas ao tráfico de drogas no México, de um lugar marginal, de subcultura, na sociedade mexicana das décadas de 1970 e 1980, expressas principalmente através dos narcocorridos e do narcocine, para um lugar no mainstream cultural mexicano, desde o início do século 21, com destaque especial para a narcoliteratura. O aumento da violência, provocado pela guerra ao narcotráfico, produz uma proliferação da temática nos meios de comunicação e se reflete em áreas da cultura como as artes plásticas e a literatura, produzindo um novo tipo de expressão artística ou narrativa, que tanto pode ser oportunista e contribuir para a banalização da violência do narcotráfico como ser crítica e narrar o impacto individual e coletivo do tráfico de drogas, narrar a desenfreada e violenta realidade mexicana sem cair no estilo da imprensa marrom, do folclore ou dos lugares comuns dos romances de ação.

  15. CILADAS DA DIFERENÇA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Flávio Pierucci

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar os efeitos perversos da apropriação pela esquerda de um tema definidor das tradições de direita, a saber, a diferença. Com base no caso Sears (EUA e no caso Le Pen (França, o autor aponta para as armadilhas racistas e sexistas presentes nos discursos que focalizam e enfatizam a diferença, sobretudo num período histórico de reemergência dos conservadorismos que, por sua vez, se apropriam do argumento da diferença, dirigindo-o contra os próprios movimentos de esquerda.

  16. Cinco discursos da digitalidade audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbase, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Michel Foucault ensina que toda fala sistemática - inclusive aquela que se afirma “neutra” ou “uma desinteressada visão objetiva do que acontece” - é, na verdade, mecanismo de articulação do saber e, na seqüência, de formação de poder. O aparecimento de novas tecnologias, especialmente as digitais, no campo da produção audiovisual, provoca uma avalanche de declarações de cineastas, ensaios de acadêmicos e previsões de demiurgos da mídia.

  17. Efeitos da acupuntura no tratamento da ansiedade: revisao integrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Leiko Takamatsu Goyatá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar as evidências científicas disponíveis na literatura sobre os efeitos da acupuntura no tratamento da ansiedade e a qualidade desses estudos. Método: revisão integrativa, realizada nas bases/bancos de dados CINAHL, LILACS, PUBMEDPICO, SciELO, The Cochrane Library, no período entre 2001 a 2014. Os descritores anxiety, acupuncture therapy, acupuncture e anxiety disorders foram combinados entre si para garantir a ampla busca de estudos primários. Resultados: dos 514 artigos, 67 foram selecionados para leitura na íntegra e 19 incluídos. Desses, 11 apresentaram forte nível de evidência. Dos seis artigos de estudos clínicos randomizados, cinco apresentaram qualidade classificada como razoável. Dois estudos utilizaram acupunturistas enfermeiros para a aplicação da intervenção. Os resultados mostram efeitos positivos e estatisticamente significativos do uso da acupuntura para tratamento de indivíduos com ansiedade. Conclusão: a acupuntura parece ser um tratamento promissor para a ansiedade, no entanto, há necessidade de melhorar a qualidade metodológica das pesquisas nessa temática.

  18. Transierra social action plan; Plano de acao social de Transierra: responsabilidade social e satisfacao comunitaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Alba, Rafael [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2005-07-01

    The design and the execution of the social - environmental compensation's plan of Transierra, or Plan of Social Action (PAS), are based on the implementation of programs and projects with 8 organizations belonging to 2 Indigenous Villages and with 6 Municipal Governments, for which jurisdictions crosses the Gas pipeline Yacuiba Rio Grande (GASYRG). The PAS is allowing the company to support tight links of good vicinity, and at the same time that is generating local employment and public and private concurrent investments, contributing this way to the sustainable development and to the improvement of the quality of life of the region and the country. Transierra's PAS is implemented by the principal social actors of the influence area who have institutional, legal and social - politics responsibilities with the development of more than 30.000 families, the same ones that have expressed a high degree of satisfaction for being beneficiaries of more than 600 projects of health, education, culture, basic sanitation, infrastructure and productive development. The present work tries to summarize the current advances and the results of the implementation of the PAS, as well as to demonstrate that the levels of satisfaction of the beneficiaries are happily coincidental with the institutional intentions of Social Corporate Responsibility. (author)

  19. Laser de diodo no tratamento da retinopatia da prematuridade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liarth Josilene de Carvalho Soares

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar a eficácia do laser de diodo e suas complicações no tratamento da retinopatia da prematuridade, estágio 3 limiar. Métodos: De 348 crianças pré-termo examinadas na Clínica Oftalmológica do Hospital Getúlio Vargas e Instituto de Olhos do Piauí, em Teresina, Piauí, no período de julho/89 a março/99, 152 (43,7% apresentaram retinopatia da prematuridade. As crianças com retinopatia da prematuridade no estágio 3 limiar foram submetidas a laserablação retiniana com laser de diodo indireto, no centro cirúrgico, sob anestesia geral. Resultados: Vinte crianças (38 olhos foram submetidas a laserablação retiniana. Doze pacientes (80,0% tiveram regressão da retinopatia e três (20,0% evoluíram para o estágio 5. Cinco crianças não retornaram para controle, sendo excluídas do estudo quanto aos resultados do laser. Não foram observadas complicações oculares. Cinco crianças apresentaram apnéia relacionada à anestesia. Conclusões: Neste grupo de crianças, o laser de diodo foi eficaz em 80,0% dos pacientes tratados. As complicações encontradas (cinco casos de apnéia se relacionaram possivelmente à anestesia geral.

  20. Termoestabilidade da peroxidase extraída da folha de repolho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlei Scariot Roling

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Extratos da enzima peroxidase solúvel e ionicamente ligada foram obtidos da folha do repolho (Brassica oleracea L., var. capitata. Para essa extração usou-se solução-tampão fosfato 100 mM, pH 6,0. Perante o tratamento térmico nas temperaturas de 65, 70, 75ºC, observou-se um comportamento não linear. O extrato solúvel de peroxidase apresentou-se particularmente mais estável no tratamento térmico que a peroxidase ionicamente ligada. O estudo da regeneração foi realizado a 70ºC. A peroxidase ionicamente ligada permaneceu estável, demostrando não haver renaturação, enquanto que o extrato solúvel perdeu atividade.

  1. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  2. O panorama das Drogas no México: da margem da sociedade ao centro da cultura

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Palaversich

    2013-01-01

    O artigo destaca o percurso das manifestações culturais ligadas ao tráfico de drogas no México, de um lugar marginal, de subcultura, na sociedade mexicana das décadas de 1970 e 1980, expressas principalmente através dos narcocorridos e do narcocine, para um lugar no mainstream cultural mexicano, desde o início do século 21, com destaque especial para a narcoliteratura. O aumento da violência, provocado pela guerra ao narcotráfico, produz uma proliferação da temática nos meios de comunicação e...

  3. Psicologia da saúde no ISPA

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, José A. Carvalho

    1992-01-01

    Na presente nota didáctica, após algumas considerações gerais, procura-se fazer o ponto da situação actual da Psicologia da Saúde no ISPA, e destacar aigumas perspectivas futuras de desenvolvimento.

  4. Da ordem. Da cidade. Da literatura: personagens à beira do "ruim do mundo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Kuster

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As grandes cidades estão doentes. Seus sintomas: a quebra da sociabilidade e a irrupção rotineira da violência. Diante disso, ecoa na sociedade um clamor por ordem. No mesmo momento em que a polícia põe a tropa na rua, os literatos criam personagens que dão voz à sensação crescente de que a cidade está deixando de ser uma referência à constituição das identidades urbanas. É a partir da literatura, em especial da obra do escritor Rubem Fonseca, que iremos perscrutar as possibilidades apresentadas pela cidade para o convívio humano.The great cities are sick. Its indications: the sociability in addition and the routine irruption of the violence. Ahead of this, a outcry for order echoes in the society. At the same moment where the policy goes to the street, the writers create personages who give voice to the increasing sensation of that the city is leaving of being a reference to the constitution of the urban identities. It is from literature, in special of the writer Rubem Fonseca, that we will go to investigate the possibilities presented for the city for the human conviviality.

  5. Trabalho de pares na aprendizagem da leitura e da escrita

    OpenAIRE

    Relva, Tânia Regina de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    A estratégia do trabalho a pares é um elemento chave para a criação de um ambiente inclusivo de sucesso. Especificamente no caso das crianças com dificuldades específicas de aprendizagem da leittura (dislexia) tem-se assistido ao desenvovimento e implementação com bastante sucesso de vários programas centrados no trabalho de pares. (...)

  6. Avaliando a efetividade da Lei Maria da Penha

    OpenAIRE

    Cerqueira, Daniel; Matos, Mariana; Martins, Ana Paula Antunes; Pinto Junior, Jony

    2015-01-01

    The Law 11.340, known as Maria da Penha Law (MPL), enacted in 2006, represented an important institutional framework in order to overcome domestic violence in Brazil. However, more than eight years after the sanction of MPL, there is a complete gap about empirical studies to evaluate their effect, which is the object of this work. We Constructed a model of differences in differences, where homicides against women that occurred at home were compared with those against men. Our results indicate...

  7. A arte da fuga: Os mecanismos da liquidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Castro Caldas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A ideia de “liquidez” enquanto característica da fase actual da modernidade, presente na obra mais recente de Zygmunt Bauman, convida a uma leitura cruzada entre este autor e Keynes. Quer em Bauman, quer em Keynes, a liquidez aplica-se a relações que podem ser facilmente revertidas, ou revertidas a baixo custo, e a sistemas que, sendo caracterizados pela precariedade dos laços que unem os seus elementos constituintes, tendem a ser, eles próprios, instáveis e precários. Em ambos os autores, a liquidez e a especulação surgem como respostas racionais à incerteza e, ao mesmo tempo, como estratégias individuais que contribuem para o aumento do risco sistémico. As duas abordagens são complementares e coerentes. A leitura cruzada sugere a existência de mecanismos da liquidez transversais a diferentes domínios institucionais cuja identificação é aqui ensaiada.

  8. baseado no principio da elasticidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue realizado en el Laboratorio de Mecanización Agrícola del Departamento de Ingeniería Agrícola de la Universidad Federal de Viçosa, con el objetivo de separar los frutos de café verde de los de cereza, buscando propiciar una mejor calidad de la bebida. En este experimento se evaluó el comportamiento de los frutos de café, en la caída libre sobre superficie de madera inclinada, considerando las diferentes distancias de rebote alcanzadas, de acuerdo con la variación de los factores: altura de caída, inclinación de la superficie de impacto en los estadios de maduración de los frutos de café arábica, variedad Catuai Rojo. El experimento fue dividido en tres etapas. La primera parte del estudio fue observar el efecto del ángulo de la superficie de impacto de separación de los frutos de café. La altura de caída fue fijada a 80 cm y evaluados los ángulos de la superficie de impacto de 10º , 15º , 20º , 25º , 30º, 35º y 40º, respectivamente, utilizando, para cada una de las seis repeticiones, una muestra que contiene diez frutos de café . Para determinar con cuáles inclinaciones se obtuvieron las mayores distancias de rebote, se partió de los frutos verdes de cerezas para saber la altura de caída que proporciona un aumento en la diferencia de rebote de los frutos, después del impacto en la tabla. Esta segunda etapa consistió en un ensayo del comportamiento de los frutos, considerando las alturas de caída de 40 cm, 80 cm y 120 cm, se utilizaron seis muestras, conteniendo quince frutos de cada uno. A partir de estos ensayos se pudo concluir que la altura de caída libre de 80 cm y la inclinación de la superficie de impacto de 30º proporcionan una mayor eficiencia de separación de los frutos verdes de los cerezos para el café estudiado

  9. Industrialização da celebridade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de relatos descritivos acerca de personagens históricos, o texto percorre os 250 anos da história das celebridades. Entre o sociopolítico e a esfera do sentimento, a figura da celebridade nasce para uma identificação distante, que nos ensina como estar em sociedade. No decorrer dos capítulos, o autor demonstra como foi construída a “indústria da celebridade”, como a fama deslocou-se do renome para o glamour e como esses atores sociais contribuem para a manutenção da ordem social.

  10. A study about the effects of gamma radiation and electron beam irradiation in the detection of genetically modified maize (Zea Mays); Estudos dos efeitos da radiacao gama e de aceleradores de eletrons na deteccao de graos de milho (Zea mays) geneticamente modificado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crede, Ricardo Gandara

    2005-07-01

    The major technique to detect genetically modified organism - GMO is the polymerase chain reaction - PCR. The PCR is a method that allows the enlargement in vitro of DNA segments, using two starters ('primers') that hybridize with the opposing ribbons, in regions that match the segment to be amplified. For that, the DNA is disnatured (92-96 deg C), the 'primers' are hybridized (30 deg C a 60 deg C ) and, after that, the DNA synthesis is made with a DNA-polymerase and nucleotides (dNTPs) (72 deg C), for some repetitive cycles. The development of the PCR allowed great advances in Molecular Biology, mainly for analysis of genes, diagnosis of illnesses and pathogens, among some other examples. Currently, the PCR has been very much used for the identification of transgenic constituents in foods. In the detection of genetically modified grains, the PCR technique showed to be highly sensitive, because it allows identifying one genetically modified grain amongst a million of normal grains. Nowadays, the analysis through the PCR method is the only capable to discriminate an organism genetically modified from a not transgenic one. The identification of foods that were made of transgenic grains, as soy and maize, through the PCR technique is still controversial. Therefore the result of the test is more trustworthy when it is positive. Or either, the detection absence does not mean that the product does not have, in fact, transgenic ingredients. It happens because to detect a DNA sequence, is necessary to preserve a minimum portion of the DNA. However, what happens many times in the industrialization process is that, in the manipulation of the ingredients, the DNA can be degraded (for example, for heat or radiation) and, consequently, is not detectable any longer. This work has as a main objective the study of the viability on the use of the PCR in the detection of GMO's in radiated foods containing maize. For the irradiation of the material, a source of {sup 60}Co Irradiator Gamma Cell-220 and electron beam irradiation (Radiation Dynamics Inc. USA) were used (Atomic Energy of Canada, LTD), applying doses of 1, 25 and 50 kGy. After irradiating the samples, the detection results were compared with non-irradiated samples, showing that, when the PCR technique, was used, the irradiation does not affect the perception of the genetically modified maize. (author)

  11. Mast cells behavior analysis: non mineralized wall of suprabony periodontal pockets submitted to low intensity laser radiation. (An in anima nobile study); Verificacao do comportamento de mastocitos na parede nao mineralizada da bolsa periodontal supra-ossea submetida a radiacao laser de baixa intensidade. (Estudo in anima nobile)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Livio de Barros

    2001-07-01

    For this study 20 patients with periodontal disease were selected. The treatment required for all of then was the gingivectomy, a ressective periodontal surgery. This technique consists of removing the whole excess of gingival tissue with the intent of reestablishing the anatomy and the correct function. The gingival area was submitted to 2 different wavelengths and then histologically analysed to search for alterations, mainly concerning mast cells behavior, a blood cell responsible, among other things, for blood vases enlargement. During the surgical procedure each gingival area was submitted to infrared low intensity laser ({lambda} = 785 nm) or to red laser ({lambda} = 688 nm), both with 50 mW of power and fluence of 8 J/cm{sup 2}. A third area was analysed, the control area, in which no laser treatment was employed. The samples were fixated in formol, cut and stained by hematoxyline eosine and toluidine blue. Based on the result we can conclude: the 2 wavelengths used in this study led to the reduction in the number of mast cells present in the tissue as well as to the increase on the degranulation of the remaining mast cells, considered statistically significant taken the degranulation index and; there was no significant difference caused by the action of the two laser wavelengths {lambda}=785 nm and {lambda}=688 nm -50 mW of power and fluence of 8 J/cm{sup 2}-, over the degranulation of the mast cells; the length and width of the randomly chosen blood vases were not statistically different among the analysed groups. (author)

  12. Comparative study of the sensibility of Metacercaria cysts of Phagicola Faust, 1920 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) to ionizing radiation and to freezing in raw mullets Mugil Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Mugilidae); Estudo comparativo da sensibilidade de cistos de Metacercarias de Phagicola Faust, 1920 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) a radiacao ionizante e ao congelamento em peixes crus preparados a partir de tainha Mugil Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Mugilidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ivany Rodrigues de

    2005-07-01

    Foodborne illnesses have been a growing concern to the governments, international organizations and consumers, mainly regarding the damages they cause to human health. This issue is the result of the substitution of imported food habits, which enable the consumption of raw fish or wrongly prepared fish. Among the emergent parasitic zoonosis, the Fagicolose stands out. It is transmitted by Phagicola longa, a trematoda of great importance in public health and responsible for high percentages of Mugilidae infections, that is able to produce humans' parasitism. In this experiment, the studies were focused to the radio sensibility of metacercaria of Phagicola longa exposed to a treatment with ionizing radiation (gamma rays and electron beams) and the sensibility to freezing, in artificially infected fish. Some data were acquired regarding the occurrence of Phagicola longa in mullets bought in the local market, the freezer temperature of 10 domestic refrigerators, and the origin and preservation of the mullets in some Japanese-type restaurants in Sao Paulo. The results indicated more effectiveness in the treatment with the electron accelerator, as well as with the freezing at the temperature of-16 deg C. (author)

  13. Study of the effect of gamma radiation on some physical-mechanical properties of wood used in Brazilian cultural and artistic heritage; Estudo do efeito da radiacao gama sobre algumas propriedades fisico-mecanicas de madeiras usadas em patrimonios artisticos e culturais brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severiano, Lucio Cesar

    2010-07-01

    Wood is considered a natural composite of extreme complexity, basically composed by cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose (polyosis) and extractives. Its composition favors biological attacks from different species. In this context, several techniques have been studied and applied for disinfecting and decontaminating wood-made works of art and cultural heritage, which have been damaged by fungi, bacteria and insects. Gamma radiation emitted by unstable isotopes, such as 60- cobalt, has also been studied as an alternative to the conventional wood preservatives. So, gamma rays treatment has been shown to be efficient to the removal of infestations by insects and microorganisms in wood-made artifacts, to be fast and not to require quarantine because it does not generate toxic waste. Similar to other techniques, this process does not prevent the irradiated material of re-infestation or recontamination. In this context, the effects of relatively high disinfestation gamma radiation doses (up to 100 kGy) on cedro rosa and imbuia, two typical Brazilian wood species, are accompanied by the changes on the following attributes: apparent density, retracting, parallel compression to fibers, bending in the modulus of elasticity, hardness, shear and thermal stability. Results have shown that gamma radiation, in the studied dose range, does not promote alterations on properties of investigated wood species. In case of a re-infestation, these observations indicate that the wood species can be submitted to repeatedly irradiation processes without causing damage to their structure up to the studied dose range, in despite of radiation effects be always cumulative. (author)

  14. Reduction of levels of radiation exposure over patients and medical staff by using additional filters of copper and aluminum on the outputs of X-ray tubes in hemodynamic equipment; Reducao da dose de radiacao em pacientes e equipes medicas pelo uso de filtros adicionais de cobre e aluminio nas saidas de tubos de raios X em equipamentos de hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Guilherme L.; Müller, Felipe M.; Schuch, Luiz A., E-mail: glweis@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Radioprotection in hemodynamic services is extremely important. Decrease of total exposition time, better positioning of medical staff in the room, use of individual and collective protection equipment and shorter distance between the patient and the image intensifier tube are, among others, some ways to reduce the levels of radiation. It is noted that these possible forms of reducing the radiation exposition varies depending on the medical staff. Hence, the purpose of the present paper is to reduce such levels of radiation exposition in a way apart from medical staffs. It is proposed, therefore, the use of additional filters on the output of the X-ray tube in three hemodynamic equipment from different generations: detector with a flat panel of amorphous selenium, image intensifier tube with charge coupled device, and image intensifier tube with video camera. In order to quantify the quality of the images generated, a simulator made of aluminum plates and other devices was set up, so it was possible to measure and compare the acquired images. Methods of images analysis (threshold, histogram, 3D surface) were used to measure the signal/noise ratio, the spatial resolution, the contrast and the definition of the signal area, thus doubts regarding the analysis of the images among observers (inter-observers) and even for a single observer (intra-observer) can be avoided. Ionization chambers were also used in order to quantify the doses of radiation that penetrated the skin of the patients with and without the use of the filters. In all cases was found an arrangement of filters that combines quality of the images with a significant reduction of the levels of exposure to ionizing radiation, concerning both the patient and the medical staff. (author)

  15. Effect of the radiation processing in species of Zingiberaceae family: turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe); Efeitos do processamento por radiacao em especies da familia Zingiberaceae: acafrao (Curcuma longa L.), gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) e zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Mariana Correa de

    2012-07-01

    The species of Zingiberaceae family are characterized for rhizome. Phenolic constituents like curcuminoids and gingerols have had reports of biological activities. Food irradiation is an effective means of preservation, however it is important to ensure that their functional properties are not compromised. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co in doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy on species of Zingiberaceae: turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe). The qualitative determination of bioactive compounds profile was performed by thin layer chromatography. The quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu method and assessing the potential of antioxidant activity by the free radical [2,2 difenil-1-pricril-hydrazyl (DPPH.] scavenging and by Rancimat method. The curcumin and 6-gingerol quantification was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Compared to control, there were significant losses of total phenolic compounds in turmeric samples irradiated with 15kGy and 20kGy. There were significant decreases in the ability to scavenge DPPH in irradiated ginger extracts and zedoaria extract irradiated with 20kGy. The Antioxidant Activity Index was significantly lower in 5kGy and 15kGy irradiated turmeric extracts and in irradiated zedoaria extracts. The curcumin quantification was significantly lower in 15kGy irradiated turmeric extracts and there was no significant difference in the 6-gingerol quantification between ginger extracts. It is concluded that gamma radiation processing technology in Zingiberaceae can be viable for industry. To maintain safety of antioxidant activity it should be applied doses up 10kGy. (author)

  16. Study of the radiation scattered and produced by concrete shielding of radiotherapy rooms and its effects on equivalent doses in patients' organs; Estudo da radiacao espalhada e produzida pela blindagem de concreto de salas de radioterapia e seus efeitos sobre doses equivalentes nos orgaos dos pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, K.L.; Rebello, W.F.; Andrade, E.R.; Gavazza, S.; Medeiros, M.P.C.; Mendes, R.M.S.; Gomes, R.G.; Silva, M.G., E-mail: kelmo.lins@gmail.com, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: fisica.dna@gmail.com, E-mail: sergiogavazza@yahoo.com, E-mail: eng.cavaliere@gmail.com, E-mail: raphaelmsm@gmail.com, E-mail: ggrprojetos@gmail.com, E-mail: maglosilva15@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Thalhofer, J.L.; Silva, A.X., E-mail: jardellt@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Energia Nuclear; Santos, R.F.G., E-mail: raphaelfgsantos@gmail.com [Centro Universitario Anhanguera, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia

    2015-07-01

    Within a radiotherapy room, in addition to the primary beam, there is also secondary radiation due to the leakage of the accelerator head and the radiation scattering from room objects, patient and even the room's shielding itself, which is projected to protect external individuals disregarding its effects on the patient. This work aims to study the effect of concrete shielding wall over the patient, taking into account its contribution on equivalent doses. The MCNPX code was used to model the linear accelerator Varian 2100/2300 C/D operating at 18MeV, with MAX phantom representing the patient undergoing radiotherapy treatment for prostate cancer following Brazilian Institute of Cancer four-fields radiation application protocol (0°, 90°, 180° and 270°). Firstly, the treatment was patterned within a standard radiotherapy room, calculating the equivalent doses on patient's organs individually. In a second step, this treatment was modeled withdrawing the walls, floor and ceiling from the radiotherapy room, and then the equivalent doses calculated again. Comparing these results, it was found that the concrete has an average shielding contribution of around 20% in the equivalent dose on the patient's organs. (author)

  17. Influence of gamma irradiation on natural mycoflora of poultry feed and effect on morphology, physiology and genetic of strains Aspergillus spp;Influencia da radiacao gama sobre a micobiota natural de racao avicola e seu efeito sobre a morfologia, fisiologia e genetica de cepas de referencia de Aspergillus spp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Jessika Mara Martins

    2008-07-01

    Maize flour samples, soy crumb and feed were collected directly from the production line of a poultry farm in Avelar, RJ, and exposed to doses of 0,3.5, 0,8 and 15 kGy of gamma irradiation. Counting, isolation and identification of the contaminant mycoflora were performed before and after irradiation. The radiosensitivity of strains of reference of Aspergillus spp. was determined in CYA medium and in corn for doses ranging from 0 to 8 kGy. Comparison between the morphologies of control and irradiated strains were performed by using macroscopy, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Toxigenic profile determination and genetic evaluation by RAPD were also carried out. Higher doses have been found to reduce the number of active colonies, causing elimination of the mycoflora at 8 kGy. A larger radiosensitivity of yeasts was observed in comparison with filamentous fungi. A significant reduction in fungi population occurred at 3.5 kGy to levels below the limit that ensures the hygienic quality of ingredients and poultry feeds. The residual mycoflora was found to decrease with post-irradiation time and included mostly Cladosporium spp., Curvularia spp., Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp. and sterility of mycelium prevented further identification of the surviving species of Aspergillus spp. Differences in radioresistance were found among species of Aspergillus and the highest tolerance to radiation was observed for A. parasiticus. Initial morphologic changes were found to be more severe during the first isolation after irradiation than in later ones, with the fungi gradually recovering their normal growth rate. Ultrastructural changes in the irradiated strains were observed mostly in the plasmatic membrane and membranous organelles of nuclei and mitochondria. An increase in the rate of production of toxins by the irradiated strains has been found, however no significant alterations have been observed in their genotypes. Such findings apparently indicate that irradiation stress affected the metabolic response of the fungi, leading to a larger production of toxins. In addition, when appropriate conditions of feeding and growth were restored, the physiologic damages were gradually repaired. Therefore, under such circumstances, irradiated strains may resume growing, thus further deteriorating the substratum. (author)

  18. Study of chemical interaction induced by ionizing radiation poly(dimethylsiloxane-g-ethylene oxide) in the poly(n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and agar membrane; Estudo da interacao quimica do poli(dimetilsiloxano-g-oxido de etileno) na membrana de poli(n-vinil-2-pirrolidona) e agar induzida com radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi, Aurea de Souza

    1999-07-01

    Membrane composed by poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and agar was formulated with and without poly(dimethylsiloxane-g-ethylene oxide) (SEO) irradiated with electron beam with doses between 10-50 kGy. The radiolytic behaviour of each component, PVP, agar and SEO, was studied when irradiated by gamma ray, in the absence and presence of air and water, by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at 77 K. The chemical interaction of SEO with PVP/agar membrane was investigated by: infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, dynamic-mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, gel and swelling analysis. The cytotoxicity of the PVP/agar/SEO membrane was evaluated by cellular suppression. The membrane radicals from PVP ({phi}NC.) and from water (H., OH. and H{sub 2}O) was observed by EPR at 77K. The agar radicals formed by hydrogen abstraction of C{sub 1} and C{sub 3} of {beta}-D-galactose and/or C{sub 1} and C{sub 4} of {alpha}-L-galactose, reacted primarily with water radicals in despite of they also took part in the membrane by chemical bond. The radicals from SEO (.CH{sub 2}{approx}, .Si{approx}, .O{approx}) participated in the inter and intramolecular crosslinking as co-crosslinker by polymeric bridge. The co-crosslinked action depended on its concentration associated to PVP concentration. The presence op acrylates increases the tensile break of the PVP/agar/SEO membrane significantly. (author)

  19. Application of low-dose gamma irradiation to extend the shelf life of minimally processed Red Beet (Beta vulgaris sp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder; Aplicacao de baixas doses de radiacao gama para extensao da vida util de beterraba vermelha (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder, minimamente processada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Nilber Kenup

    2006-07-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effects of low-dose gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension and phyto sanitary safety of minimally processed red beet with basis on physicochemical; microbiological; chemical and sensory analyses. The samples (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Early Wonder cultivar, were cultivated in the experimental area of the Horticulture Sector of the Departamento de Fitotecnia of the Instituto de Agronomia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ, as part of two experiments performed during the second semester of 2005. In each experiment, 1200 plants (40 per linear meter of terrain) were sowed. Physicochemical analyses (fresh mass; length; average diameter and total soluble solids) of the edible part of the red beets (their tuberous roots) were periodically carried out in order to assess the most appropriate time for harvest by monitoring the development of the plants. Those times were found to be 104 and 73 days after transplanting, respectively. The harvested edible part of the roots were minimally processed and separated in two groups: (1) gamma irradiated (with doses of 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) and (2) non-irradiated (control). All samples were stored at 8 degree C. Microbiological analyses were performed during the storage period (22 and 21 days, for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) in order to evaluate the phyto sanitary quality of the samples (Salmonella sp.; coliforms and total count of mesophilic aerobic and lactic acid bacteria). The samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy were found to remain appropriate for consumption for 21 days, as compared to only 7 days for the control. Monitoring of chemical composition was also performed and included the determination of saccharose; glucose; fructose and vitamins B1 and B2. No difference was found between the concentrations of those vitamins in irradiated and control samples at the end of the storage period, whereas significant changes in sugar contents were detected independently of the dose. In addition, physicochemical analyses investigated the evolution of pH; total acidity; total soluble solids and ascorbic acid throughout storage. Samples from experiment 2 were also subjected to sensory analyses for overall appearance and aroma at 4 different post-irradiation times. The results indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it can be concluded that the application of those doses extended the shelf life of the samples without harming their nutritional and sensory quality. Finally, the results indicate that the dose of 1.0 kGy is the most appropriate for the conservation of red beet among those tested. (author)

  20. Electromagnetic attenuation analysis of Ni{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2O4} obtained by citrate precursor method; Analise da atenuacao de radiacao eletromagnetica de Ni{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2O4} obtido pelo metodo de citrato precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, K. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Atividades Espaciais. Div. Materiais; Moura, A.E.G.; Nasar, R.S.; Nasar, M.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Pereira, J.J. [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, two types of synthesized Ni{sub 0,4}Zn{sub 0,6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} by citrate precursor method. The first type was calcined at 350 deg C for 3.5 h, and the second, after calcination, it was subjected to heat treatment at 600 deg C for 2h in argon atmosphere. Both types were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and equipment waveguide. The data were investigated by Rietveld refinement method and showed the NiZn ferrite phase with crystallite size of 12.2 +- 0.1 nm (350 deg C) and 166.7 +- 3.6 nm (600 deg C). The heat treatment also influenced the values of electric permittivity and magnetic permeability, and attenuation of electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range in microwave (8-12 GHz). The sample treated attenuates more and allows its application with thinner, making it attractive its use as absorber material in this frequency range. (author)

  1. Evaluation of electron beam radiation effects in the incorporation of Piassava fibers (Attalea funifera Mart.) on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH); Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante por feixe de eletrons na incorporacao de fibra de Piacava (Attalea funifera Mart.) no copolimero de etileno e alcool vinilico (EVOH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Beatriz Ribeiro

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the contribution of ionizing radiation in the incorporation of piassava fibers (derived from wastes from broom factories) in the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), to obtain a composite material, {sup E}VOH-Piassava{sup ,} for packaging applications. The interest in this fiber is due to its inherent properties and morphology as well as being biodegradable. The EVOH composite reinforced with 5% or 10%, by weight of piassava fiber powder with a particle size equal to or less than 125 {mu}m, untreated or treated with 1% silane, were obtained by extrusion, using a twin screw extruder. For carrying out the tensile tests and oxygen barrier of the materials obtained, films were produced from composite materials and EVOH resin was obtained using the process of flat extrusion. Samples of EVOH and the composites were irradiated using an electron accelerator, at doses from 0 to 500 kGy. The results of SEM analysis and X-ray diffraction of composites suggest a good fiber-matrix adhesion, which can be also confirmed by its higher tensile strength at break, compared to that of neat EVOH. The results showed that the incorporation of piassava fibers can promote better oxygen barrier compared to the neat EVOH, in conditions of high humidity. It was observed that, after irradiation, the EVOH film showed better oxygen barrier in high humidity condition, when compared to the non-irradiated EVOH under the same condition, indicating radiation as an effective treatment to improve oxygen barrier in the studied conditions. (author)

  2. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites of wood flour in polypropylene matrix using barium titanate as coupling agent; Estudo do efeito da radiacao ionizante em compositos de polipropileno/po de madeira usando titanato de bario como agente de acoplagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulloa, Maritza Eliza Perez

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effects of ionizing radiation on the properties of wood flour composites in polypropylene matrix, using barium titanate as a coupling agent and the reactive monomer tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPDGA). An electron accelerator was used in the study as the radiation source. The physical properties of virgin compounds and of the polypropylene/wood flour composite, with and without barium titanate and TPDGA addition, were investigated. The composites were developed from the load treatment, which first consisted of incorporating additives to the wood flour reinforcement and after that, the fusion process of polypropylene and composite mixing in a 'calander'. Subsequently, the samples to be irradiated and submitted to thermal and mechanical assays were molded by injection. The mechanical properties (hardness, impact resistance and molten fluidity index (MFI)), as well as the thermal properties (HDT and Vicat) of the composites were determined. The investigated compositions consisted of polypropylene/wood flour, polypropylene/wood flour with barium titanate and polypropylene/wood flour with barium titanate and TPDGA, using different wood flour concentrations of 10 por cent, 15 por cent and 20 por cent in the polypropylene matrix. The samples were separated in groups and irradiated to doses of 10 kGy and 20 kGy in the samples of the essays of traction. Besides these doses, it was also used doses of 15 kGy and 25 kGy to be observed the behavior of the sample of the sample due to the increase of the radiation. These doses were chosen to show that with low doses the composite material presents reticulation, what represents a viable commercial option. There was a reduction of the flow rate for the composites containing wood flour, being this reduction more effective in the presence of TiBa. The superficial treatment using TPDGA monomer influence in the composite samples because it acted as a plastic additive becoming the sample easier to be processed, increasing the mobility among the macromolecules, so that decreasing the viscosity and increasing the flow rate. The results obtained from the essay of the resistance to traction showed an addition of the property. The increase occurred both in the samples with no additives. The radiation modified the composite material occurring the formation of crosslinking. The incorporation of wood flour to the propylene resulted to the decrease of the resistance to the impact. The decrease of this property can be occurred because of the presence of wood flour can act as a tension concentrator, and consequently, reduces the impact strength. There was an addition in the hardness of the composites which had wood flour. The addition in the hardness was meaningful to the composites WF/PP, that because the bigger the amount of load, the bigger the module of hardness. In the irradiated samples, the hardness increase due to the wood oxidation, face to the radiation. It was observed that in some cases the increase in the radiation dose, did not influenced meaningfully in the variation of the temperature of thermal deflection of the composites indicating that there was crosslinking among the molecules promoted by TPDGA, and an improvement in the adhesion among interfaces promoted by the titanate. In the essay of temperature of softening Vicat, results presented were quite closed to pure PP and the results were not meaningful, the temperature of the composites can be considered the same of the pure PP. The ionizing radiation interacted in the composite material crosslinking the PP and oxidant the wood, what shows an increase in some proprieties and decrease in others ones. (author)

  3. Experimental verification for in vitro technique confirmation of bystander effect induced by gamma radiation in CHO-K1 cell line; Verificacao experimental para confirmacao da tecnica in vitro do efeito bystander induzido por radiacao gama na linhagem celular CHO-K1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, P.H.L.; Goes, A.M.; Gomes, D.A., E-mail: pedroleroybio@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento Bioquimica e Imunologia. Lab. de Imunologia Celular e Molecular; Grynberg, S.E., E-mail: seg@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    The bystander effect refers to biological responses detected in cells not directly irradiated but influenced, somehow, by signals transmitted from neighboring irradiated cells. These biological responses include sister chromatid exchange, mutations, micronucleus formation, chromosomal aberrations, carcinogenesis, apoptosis and necrosis. Although its existence is unquestionable, the mechanisms involved on triggering the bystander effect are not yet completely elucidated. Previous studies have shown that the bystander effect depends on a large variety of parameters including the radiation dose, the dose rate, the type of radiation and type of cells or tissue. This study aims to confirm the technique previously used in the literature in human cell lines for the bystander effect verification. The results suggest that the working conditions adopted by the group show technical efficiency and enables the reproduction of the bystander effect. (author)

  4. A comparative study of the effect of low laser radiation on mast cells in inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia colored and not colored by the toluidine blue; Estudo comparativo do efeito da radiacao laser em baixa intensidade sobre mastocitos de hiperplasias fibrosas inflamatorias coradas e nao coradas por azul de toluidina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawazaki, Iris

    2001-07-01

    THIS STUDY SHOWS A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF THE LASER RADIATION IN LOW INTENSITY ON THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION IN INFLAMMATORY FIBROUS HYPERPLASIA WHEN THEY ARE COLORED OR NOT BY THE TOLUIDINE BLUE. THE DYE WAS USED IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE ABSORPTION OF THE LASER LIGHT BY THE TISSUE. THE INJURE WAS DIVIDED IN THREE EQUAL PARTS, AND EACH PART RECEIVED A DIFFERENT KIND OF TREATMENT. ONE OF THEM WAS REMOVED TO BE THE CONTROL, THE SECOND PART WAS LASER TREATED AND THEN IMMEDIATELY REMOVED AND THE LAST ONE, AFTER BEING SUPERFICIALLY COLORED, WAS LASER TREATED AND THEN IMMEDIATELY REMOVED . THE ORDER OF THE STAGES WAS RANDOMLY CHANGED , THEN THE TIME BETWEEN THE STAGES WOULD NOT INTERFERE IN THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION RATES. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION RATES WERE 49% FOR THE CONTROL GROUP, 87% FOR THE LASER GROUP AND 88% FOR THE COLORED/LASER GROUP. THERE WAS NO SIGNIFICANT STATISTICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE GROUP LASER TREATED AND THE ONE COLORED/LASER TREATED. HOWEVER, THERE WAS A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE CONTROL AND THE TREATED GROUP (PS {<=} 0,01). (AUTHOR)

  5. Effects of low-intensity GaAlAs laser radiation ({lambda}=660 nm) on dentine-pulp interface after class I cavity preparation; Efeitos da radiacao laser GaAlAs ({lambda}=660 nm) em baixa intensidade na interface dentina-polpa pos-preparo cavitario classe 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, Bruno Miranda

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity irradiation with GaAlAs laser (red emission) on the ultrastructure of dentine-pulp interface after conventionally prepared class I cavity preparation. Two patients with 8 premolars for extraction indicated for orthodontic reasons. Class I cavities were prepared in these teeth that were then divided into two groups. The first group received a treatment with laser with continuous emission, {lambda}=660 nm, with maximum power output of 30 mW. The dosimetry applied was of approximately 2J/cm{sup 2}, directly and perpendicularly into the cavity in only one section. After the irradiation, the cavities were filled with composite resin. The second group received the same treatment, except by the laser therapy. Twenty-eight days after the preparation, the teeth were extracted and were processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Two sound teeth, without any preparation, were also studied. The irradiated group presented odontoblastic processes in higher contact with the extracellular matrix and the collagen fibers appeared more aggregated and organized than those of control group. These results were also observed in the healthy-teeth. Thus, we suggest that laser irradiation accelerates the recovery of the dental structures involved in the cavity preparation at the pre-dentine level. (author)

  6. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Diethyltoluamide (DEET) in Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) mussels non-irradiated and irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Avaliacao da citotoxicidade do dietiltoluamida (DEET) em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) irradiados e nao irradiados com radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Gisela de Assis

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have identified the presence of several emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. The occurrence in different environmental matrices has been continuously reported, highlighting the need for toxicity studies. The DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) is the active ingredient used in most insect repellents, and is present in many commercially available formulations. Apart from chemical pollutants, aquatic organisms are subject to exposure of ionizing radiation from natural sources or in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. The present study evaluated the toxicity of DEET in organisms irradiated and non-irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, and the effects that radiation causes in lysosomes of hemocytes of Perna perna mussel. For this purpose, assays were performed to identify the acute toxicity of DEET concentration and the dose of gamma radiation able to cause mortality. Subsequently, cytotoxicity assays were carried out to assess the stability of the lysosomal membrane in organisms exposed to ionizing radiation and DEET. According to the results obtained in acute toxicity tests, the concentration of DEET that causes mortality of 50% exposed organisms (LC50) is 114,27 mg L{sup -1}, and the radiation dose that causes mortality (LD50) is 1068 Gy. In the cytotoxicity assays, the concentration of the non-observed effect (NOEC) for irradiated and non-irradiated organisms 0.0001 mg L-1 and observed effect concentration (LOEC) at concentrations above this. The IC25 (72h) for non-irradiated organisms was 0.0003 mg L-1 and IC50 (72h) was 0.0008 mg L{sup -1} for irradiated and non-irradiated organisms. Despite of the concentrations of effect found in this study were higher than in the environment, both measurements are in the same order of magnitude and should be also take into account the possible synergistic effects of DEET with other contaminants in the aquatic environment. (author)

  7. Gamma ({sup 60}CO) radiation effects on arcelin protein and evaluation of bean lineages against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Col.: Bruchidae);Efeito da radiacao gama ({sup 60}CO) sobre a proteina arcelina e avaliacao de linhagens de feijoeiro a Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Col.: Bruchidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Ana Claudia Girardo

    2006-07-01

    The resistance of arcelin carrying seeds of bean lineages (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against the bean weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), and the influence of gamma radiation ({sup 60}CO) on the manifestation of arcelin resistance to Z. subfasciatus were verified. Laboratorial tests, in choice and non-choice tests, with wild specimens carrying Arc-1, Arc-2, Arc-3, Arc-4, Raz-56 and Raz-59 (with Arc-5 alleles) and commercial lineages as control IAC - Carioca and IAC - Arua were conducted. Statistical design was completely randomized, with five repetitions, with 10 g of grains from each lineage samples by portion. Attractiveness, oviposition, emergence, mortality, adults' weigh and longevity, developing period, sexual rate, seeds' weigh loss, infestation and fecundity (Z. subfasciatus) were observed. Gamma radiation doses irradiations, in general, haven't affected the resistance manifestation of lineages carrying arcelin protein variants against the Z. subfasciatus bean weevil, thus, joint application use of both control methods can be recommended. Raz-56 lineage showed high resistance of the antibiosis types and non-preference for oviposition and feeding to Z. subfasciatus, while Raz-59 showed antibiosis and non-preference for feeding, and both (Raz-56 and Raz-59) showed intermediate resistance to A. obtectus, against which lineage Arc-2 was the most harmful to its development, expressing non-preference to feeding and/or antibiosis. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects of the {sup 60}Co on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp beans; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante de {sup 60}Co em propriedades fisicas, quimicas e nutricionais dos feijoes Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casanas Haasis

    1998-07-01

    The effects of {sup 60} Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10 kGy on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., of the carioca variety and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, of the macacar variety stored for 6 months were studied. The cooking time was established, and then the following analyses were carried out: Sensory, vitamins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2} and B{sub 6} protein content, biological evaluation in rats (Food intake and Weight gain (in grams)), apparent Digestibility (Dapp), apparent Net Protein Utilization (NPUapp) and apparent Biological Value (BVapp), as well as the applicability of detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs through germination tests, the analysis of DNA migration, thermoluminescence and analysis of the carbohydrates formed by radiation. Changes in the cooking time were observed for all doses. In doses up to 1 kGy, the nutritional quality of the irradiated beans were not altered. The application of the proposed detection methods of the irradiated foodstuffs allowed the detection of irradiated beans with doses as low as 0.5 kGy. (author)

  9. Effect of gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}) in physic-chemical and sensory properties of aged beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.); Efeito da radiacao gama (Co{sup 60}) nas propriedades fisico-quimicas e sensoriais de feijoes envelhecidos (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Lenice Magali do

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the efficiency of different doses of gamma radiation as an alternative process to improve the quality of aged beans. Beans of the 'Carioca 80' variety were submitted to an accelerated aging process according to the followings patterns: 30 deg C and 50 or 75% relative humidity and 40 deg C and 50 or 80% relative humidity, during 45 days. After that time samples were submitted to gamma irradiation at doses of 300, 600, 900 and 1200 Krad. At the same time samples of 1989, 1987 and 1983 harvest and submitted to slow aging process, 12 deg C and 50-60% relative humidity, were evaluated to comparison with former accelerated aging. All the samples were analysed on moisture and starch content, cooking time, texture and sensorial evaluation. The results showed that samples submitted to aged faster presented better quality, second the evaluated parameters, as far as irradiation applied was 300 Krad. The same happened to samples of harvest 1989 aged slowly. The 1987 and 1983 harvests, respectively, were the doses that gave better softness to the beans. This work permitted conclude that gamma irradiation is an alternative method of advantage for aged beans, for same decrease the cooking time and improvement the sensory quality of stored grain. (author)

  10. Determination of the dose of gamma radiation sterilization for assessment of biological parameters of male Ceratitis capitada (Diptera: Tephritidae), tsl - Vienna 8 strain; Determinacao da dose de radiacao gama esterilizante pela avaliacao dos parametros biologicos de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), linhagem tsl - Vienna 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Aline Cristina Pereira da

    2011-07-01

    The Vienna-8, tsl (temperature sensitive lethal) strain of Ceratitis capitata, by presenting mutations that facilitate the mass rearing and release only of sterile males in the field, has been used in (Sterile Insect Technique) programmes. The objective of this study was to determine the radiation dose that provides the highest level of sterility for Vienna-8, tsl males assessing their biological parameters that indicate the quality of sterile males to be released. Brown pupae (males) of the tsl strain were obtained from the mass rearing of the Food Irradiation and Radio entomology laboratory of CENA/USP, and they were irradiated (with gamma radiation - {sup 60}Co) 24 hours before the emergence at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 Gy. The determination of the sterilizing dose was based on fertility of sexually mature females of the bisexual strain and not irradiated, mated with males of different treatments. Eggs were collected daily during 6 days, were counted and it was possible to estimate fecundity, and assess the hatching rate. The emergence and flight ability were determined by following the protocol of quality control manual for FAO/IAEA/USDA (2003). To assess the longevity under nutritional stress, the insects were kept a period of 48 h after emergence in the absence of water and food, and after this period, mortality was recorded. The size of the testes (left and right) was obtained by dissecting irradiated and non-irradiated males at the eighth day of life, and measure the testes in an ocular micrometer, considering the maximum length and width of each sample. To determine the sperm number was necessary to dissect the males and break their testicles. No difference was observed in emergence rate, flight ability and longevity of irradiated and non-irradiated males, nor in the fecundity of females mated with males of different treatments. The sterilizing dose that resulted in lower fertility of females was 120 Gy, with 1.5% hatching. Considering the parameters of emergence, flight ability, longevity under stress and sterility recommended for the sterile insect technique which consists of approximately 99%, the sterilizing dose to be used is 120 Gy. The size of the testes and the sperm number were affected by radiation. Males irradiated with 120 Gy presented a reduction about 25% in size of the testes, compared with the control (0 Gy). The testes of normal males contained an average of 41.910 sperm, and this value was decreased by increasing the dose of radiation, so that males irradiated with 120 Gy had a median of 27.921 sperm, and this allowed to recommend the use of GM male to control C. capitata. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the ICRU operational magnitudes implantation for the photon radiation at the Angra I and Angra II nuclear power plants; Avaliacao da implantacao das grandezas operacionais do ICRU para a radiacao de fotons nas usinas nucleares Angra I e II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Ronaldo do Nascimento

    2006-07-01

    The measurements of photon radiation field intensity are usually performed by a radiation protection technician trained and having skill in using radiation rate meters. Nowadays, these measurements are reported on exposure quantity and used to protect exposed individuals against the radiation risks while executing their activities. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements - ICRU - defined the operational quantity ambient equivalent dose H{sup *}(10). This quantity is accepted by the scientific community as the best estimative of the protection quantity effective dose, which can not be directly measured. The operational quantity H{sup *}(10) was introduced in Brazilian rules by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CNEN (2005a), although its adoption was conditioned to studies of convenience and applicability of implementation. The present work may contribute to these studies, as it presents the evaluation of H{sup *}(10)'s implementation at the Nuclear Central Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA. The evaluation involved radiological tests - the energy dependence and angular dependence - applied to six types of photon radiation rate meters utilized at the CNAAA, with represent around 83% of the total number of rate meters in use by CNAAA. The result of this evaluation is favorable to the quantity H{sup *}(10)'s implementation. Suggestions are presented in order to update de rate meters and the technical and administrative procedures related to the Laboratory of Calibration of Rate Meters - LCMR, belonging to CNAAA. Thus, it could be possible to perform the calibration of the rate meters at the nuclear installation. The results obtained allows to carry out new evaluations of H{sup *}(10)'s implementation on installations that perform measurements with radiation rate meters on the practice of radiation protection, in order to adopt the H{sup *}(10) quantity in our country. (author)

  12. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration;Efeitos do processamento termico e da radiacao gama na estabilidade fisico-quimica, microbiologica e sensorial de caldo de cana puro e adicionado de suco de frutas, armazenado sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-07-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the sensory analyses that the best mixture was that formulated with sugarcane juice and 4% of lemon juice as well as 10% of pineapple juice. Sugarcane juice centesimal composition was not altered by fruit juice concentration addition. However, sugarcane juice added with 10% pineapple juice incremented manganese and reducing sugars when compared with pure sugarcane juice and added with 4% lemon juice. The market test proffered mixture was shown to be that containing sugarcane juice and natural lemon juice for evaluation the shelf life. Sugarcane juice added with 4% of lemon juice submitted to gamma radiation, heat treatment combined with gamma radiation and heat treatment remaining satisfactory microbiological, sensory and physical chemical characteristics until 28, 35 and 42 days respectively, after processing. These results indicated that the heat treatment was effective for sugarcane juice preservation. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation {sup 60}Co effect on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of different cultivars of soybean grains (Glycine max (L.));Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante de {sup 60}Co em propriedades fisicas, quimicas e nutricionais de diferentes cultivares de graos de soja Glycine max (L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Tais Carolina Franqueira de

    2006-07-01

    With the increase of the world population, creative strategies will be necessary to control food production. To achieve this challenge, new cultivars have been development, though different techniques and characteristics. To improve food conservation, a plant of methods can be used. The use of Cobalto-60 radiation is a secure and useful method to increase the life time of foods. Due to the commercial and nutritional importance of soybean, some alterations must be studied. This study has the objective to determinate this alterations caused by irradiation (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw and cooked grain of five different cultivars of soybean (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, 231 BRS and E48), this study includes analysis of time cooking and hydratation, and chemical analysis of proximate composition, in vitro digestibility of proteins, percentage of deamidation , phenolics compounds, trypsin inhibitors and tannins. The amount of water absorbed by each grain varied from 14.00 to 16.66mL, and the time cooking varied from 119.67 to 291.33 minutes. The values found for ash were 4.90 to 6.08%, for protein from 21.23 to 36.99%, for fat from 19.22 to 24.84%, soluble staple fibres from 1.37 to 4.03% and insoluble staple fibres from 15.97 to 18.87%. The deamidation percentage in the different samples varied of 17,34 to 57.79% and the digestibility in vitro from 84.45 to 89.11%. Inside of the anti nutritional factors, the total compounds phenolics varied from 3.9 to 9.7 mg/g, the units of trypsin inhibited from 24.75 to 57.53 UTI/g and the tannins from 0.02 to 0.32 mg/g. For the physical analyses it showed differences in the time of hydratation among them and the irradiation promoted reduction in the time, but not in the amount of absorbed water; in the cooking time it had reduction with the increase of the doses of radiation; the differences found in the proximate composition did not have influence with the irradiation, but with the different cultivars; for the digestibility alterations only with the cooking treatment had been found, showing an increase after the baking; the treatment of irradiation promoted a higher percentage of deamidation of the samples with the increase of the doses; regard to the anti nutritional factors, all them had a reduction as the doses radiation increased. The cooking also promoted a reduction in the anti nutritional factors in the raw and baked samples. So the treatment of irradiation did not promote reduction in the nutritional qualities of the soybean grains, being effective in the improvement of them with the reduction in the anti nutrient factors. (author)

  14. Effects of the copper vapour laser radiation in the root canal wall dentine: in vitro experiment using scanning electron microscopy and stereoscopy; Efeitos da radiacao laser de vapor de cobre na parede de dentina de canais radiculares: estudo in vitro por meio de microscopia eletronica de varredura e microscopio estereoscopico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Maria Claudia Garcia da

    2001-07-01

    Ten human uniradicular teeth had their crown removed along the cement-enamel junction and right away a proper chemical-surgical preparation of the radicular canals was done; the roots were longitudinally sectioned in order to allow the irradiation of the surfaces of the root canals wall dentine. The hemi-roots were separated in two groups: group I (control), with four hemi-roots, not irradiated; and group II, with 16 hemi-roots, subdivided in four sub-groups submitted to the following exposition time: 0,02 s; 0,05 s; 0,1 s and 0,5 s. A copper vapour laser was used with a 510,6 nm wavelength, total average power of 11 W in green and yellow emissions; average power of 6,5 W in green emission; pulse repetition rate of 16.000 Hz and pulse duration of 30 ns. The pulse energy (green line) is 0,4 mJ and the peak power 13,5 W. The laser cavity is unstable type (R{sub 1}=3.900 mm and R{sub 2}-250 mm). The focusing have focal length lens f{sub 1}=250 mm and f{sub 2}=150 mm. The beam quality is of the M{sup 2}=5. The results obtained by scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the appearance of a cavity in the region of the laser beam incidence in the edges of this cavity, dentin was melt and resolidified presenting also cracks due to heat diffusion. Based on these results, we concluded that the size of the cavity formed in the dentin is directly proportional to the rate of exposure and, the more laser emission in the same area, more damage in the root canals wall dentin occurs. More studies need to be done with different exposition's time in order to obtain a safety protocol that does not cause injury in dental and support tissue. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation on the quality of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Meer) cv. Smooth Cayenne minimally processed, storaged on differents temperatures and packages;Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama na qualidade de abacaxi (Ananas comosus (L.) Meer) cv. Smooth Cayenne minimamente processado, armazenado em diferentes temperaturas e embalagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Daniela Terenzi Stuchi

    2006-07-01

    The present work aimed to verify the effects of gamma radiation (doses until 2 kGy), types of packages and temperatures of storage (5, 8 e 12 deg C) on the physicochemical characteristics, on the microbiological contamination and on the sensorial characteristics of pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' minimally processed. The fruits were selected, washed; peeled and cutted transverse and the slices cutted were cutted on two or for pieces. The pieces were immersed in chlorinated water (100 mg/L) for 3 minutes, flowing and package, irradiated and stored. According with the results obtained in thi present work it was concluded that bigger the temperature of storage more quickly were the browning of the fruits. The loss of fresh weight of pineapple was bigger in the packages of polystyrene comparing with PET package when both are covered with PVC film and smaller in the PET packages covered with the same material. Doses of gamma radiation until 2 kGy did not change the physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' minimally processed. The microbiological growth on the pieces of the processed fruit was smaller on the biggest dose. All the samples were is in good conditions for the human consume. (author)

  16. Distribution of K, eU and Th and evaluation of annual radiation dose in the region of the Serra do Carambei Granite - PR; Distribuicao de K, eU e eTh e avaliacao da dose anual de radiacao na regiao do Granito Serra do Carambei - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, Luiz C., E-mail: luizcgodoy@brturbo.com.br [Departamento de Geociencias, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Bittencourt, Andre V.L., E-mail: andre@ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Pesquisas Hidrogeologicas - LPH, Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Santos, Leonardo J.C., E-mail: santos@ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Biogeografia e Solos - LABS, Departamento de Geografia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco J.F., E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada - LPGA, Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    is study was conducted in an area of 14 km in length oriented in the NNE direction by 7.3 km wide, covering the totality of the Serra do Carambei Granite and adjacent units. Located in the northern region of the Alagados dam, Parana State, this granite contains relatively high concentrations of K, eU and eTh, known since the 1970s through airborne and terrestrial gamma-ray spectrometry surveys. Recent radiochemical tests conducted on 61 samples of geological materials such as rocks (17 samples) and material of the weathering mantle and alluvial deposits (44 samples), confirmed the occurrence of radioactive anomalies in this granite, especially in thorium and uranium. The contents of K, eU and eTh obtained in gamma-ray spectrometry survey and radiochemical tests, converted to annual radiation dose (ARD), allowed to evaluate the intensity of natural radiation, whose levels relatively high in certain regions of the study area, can offer hazard to the local populations. The analysis and interpretation of data, as well the preparation of contour maps of K, eU and eTh were fundamental to understand the behavior and mobility of radionuclides in different environmental compartments of the area. (author)

  17. Study of ionizing radiation as a tool for select promastigotes forms of Leishmania Amazonensis, and the megalomaniac response in experimental models; Estudo do uso da radiacao ionizante como ferramenta de selecao de formas promastigotas metaciclicas de Leishmania amazonensis, e a inducao de resposta imunologica em modelos experimentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetti, Franco Claudio

    2006-07-01

    Actually, millions of people around the globe are under the risk of infection by a protozoan transmitted by a bit of a sand fly. This parasite is a Leishmania spp. This causes a wide spectrum disease, since a cutaneous disease to a visceral one. The cutaneous form is the major clinical manifestation (above 90%). The ionizing radiation, produced in a {sup 60}Co font, had being successes used to promote physical-chemical transformations on different protozoan, including Leishmania spp. In previous work was determined that promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis, irradiated with different doses of radiation, lost their viability maintaining, however, their immunogenicity. In this work, was studied the use of ionizing radiation as a tool for selection of meta cyclic forms of the parasite in axenic culture, for a possible efficient irradiated immuno gene production. Our results shown that cultures irradiated with 400 Gy of gamma irradiation, has 75% of metacyclic form, which are capable to produce, in vitro, an infection that is similar the natural occurrence. These irradiated parasites have their internal cellular structure modified, maintaining their external structure intact. Susceptible strain of mice immunized with leishmania irradiated with different doses had high immunoglobulin production, and maintained this production after the challenge with naive parasites. In other strains this default was similar, however in lower titles. Immunodeficient mice didn't produce immunoglobulin nor on the immunization or on the challenge. (author)

  18. Evaluation of quality characteristics and functional properties of mechanically deboned chicken meats treated with different dose rates of ionizing radiation and use of antioxidants; Avaliacao de caracteristicas de qualidade e propriedades funcionais da carne mecanicamente separada de frango tratada com diferentes taxas de dose de radiacao ionizante e uso de antioxidantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula

    2012-07-01

    The Mechanically Deboned chicken meat (MDCM) is used in traditional meat products, in greater proportion in those emulsified, replacing meat raw materials more expensive. The raw material can have high MDCM the microbial load, as a result of contamination during processing or failure during the evisceration. The irradiation process is accepted as one of the most effective technologies when compared to conventional techniques of preservation, to reduce contamination of pathogens and spoilage. However, little information is available about the use and effects of different dose rates of ionizing radiation processing. Irradiation causes chemical changes in food, a major cause of deterioration of quality of raw or cooked meat products during refrigerated storage, frozen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dose rates of ionizing radiation on the production of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), color, microbiological and sensory characteristics of mechanically deboned chicken added or without added antioxidants, during the cold storage and evaluation of functional properties. The results showed that among the tested dose rates using cobalt-60 source, dose rate of 4.04 kGy.h-1 was the best for processing MDCM. Furthermore, the use of the combination of rosemary antioxidant and α-tocopherol were able to reduce lipid oxidation generated by irradiation of the samples, showed a synergistic effect to the processing with ionizing radiation in reduction of psychrotrophic bacteria count and contributed to a better sensory quality. The use of radiation in the processing FDMI did not adversely affect the functional properties studied. (author)

  19. The use of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 to control avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit of Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae).; Uso da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60, para controlar a broca-do-abacate Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) e seus efeitos na qualidade do fruto de Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lilian Karla Figueira da

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60, in the avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae). For this research, insects were irradiated in ali phases of their life cycle with doses varying from O to 600 Gy and they were maintained at the temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, humidity of 70 +- 10% and photo phase of 14 h. The species was raised on natural diet, avocado seeds. The cultivar fruits Geada were irradiated with doses that varied from 0 to 150 Gy, maintained for 15 days at room temperature (20 a 35 deg C and humidity of 70 - 80 %) and 30 days at a temperature of 10 deg C, humidity of 40 - 60 %. The chemical-physics and sensorial analyses were carried out. According to the obtained results, it was verified that the lethal dose of gamma radiation to S. catenifer eggs, was of 75 Gy; for caterpillars and pupas was of 300 Gy. The sterile-dose for upcoming adults from irradiated S. catenifer eggs was of 25 Gy; for upcoming adults from irradiated caterpillars, it was of 100 Gy; for adults coming from irradiated pupas was of 150 Gy and for irradiated adults was of 200 Gy. The irradiation in the avocado fruit, maintained at room temperature for 7 days of storage, caused change in the coloration of the fruit (dark spots and yellowish coloration) and more firmness. The sensorial characteristics were kept and the irradiated fruit was the chosen one as favorite for tasting. The irradiated fruits that were kept at 10 deg C, obtained an increase in the storage period, without changing their chemical physics characteristics. The coloration of the fruits was kept, more firmness and a subtle acidity taste increase, being effective in the conservation of the fruits and in the maintenance of their sensorial characteristics. The use of the gamma radiation as treatment quarantine of S. catenifer it was efficient, should be treated them with doses capable to promote the sterilization of the insect, without committing your qualities physical-chemistries and sensorial of the fruits. Therefore, it is suggested the treatment with the dose of 50 Gy for fruits infested with eggs and 150 Gy for fruits infested with caterpillars and pupas of S. catenifer, maintained in temperature of 10 deg C. Para the use of the Technique of the Sterile Insect it is recommended the irradiation of pupas and adults with doses of 150 Gy and 200 Gy, respectively. (author)

  20. Ionizing radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological of bread with addition of linseed (Linum usitatissimum); Efeitos da radiacao ionizante de cobalto-60 nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas sensoriais e microbiolgicas de paes com adicao de linhaca (Linum usitatissimum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de

    2011-07-01

    The incorporation of functional ingredients on breading products has grown very much lately, because of the preoccupation with the consumers' health. The linseed has awakened the interest by its high level of fiber, lignin, omega-3 and antioxidants compounds. The objective of the present work is evaluate the ionizing radiation effect of {sup 60}Co on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological characteristics of bread with addition of different concentration of brown linseed. There were elaborated 3 types of bread: French roll, form bread prepared with the mixture and form bread produced with conventional ingredients. It was added smashed brown linseed on the bread dough, with concentrations of 8% and 12%. After the preparation, the three kinds of bread packed with polypropylene packages and taken to the IPEN/USP (Institute of Nuclear Energetic Research/University of São Paulo) and irradiated with doses of 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Treatments were elaborated without the addition of linseed and without irradiation, for control, totalizing 12 distinct treatments, to each bread formula tested. Chemical analyses were made (centesimal composition, anti-nutritional compounds, anti-oxidant activity, glycemic index, fat acids, complex B vitamins and minerals); physical analyses (cooking index, volume, color and water activity); sensorial analyses (preference tests and Descriptive Quantitative Analysis - ADQ); microbiological analysis and a survey about irradiated products. It could be seen that the addition of linseed was efficient to increase the level of alimentary fiber and the level of lipids on the 3 bread formula. The three kinds of bread that received the linseed addition and that were not irradiated presented increase on the level of total phenolic; however, when the samples which received the linseed addition were submitted to the irradiation process, it could be noticed the decrease of the antioxidant capacity. There was an increase on the level of omega-3, depending on the percentage of linseed added to the bread. The linseed addition was effective to raise the level of potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. But, the irradiation decrease the level of vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 of the three kinds of bread. The irradiation did not influence the quality of the obtained bread. The sample tasters, not trained, accepted the bread independently of the doses of applied radiation. The ADQ test evidenced that the sensorial characteristics of the samples depend on the ingredient variation used on the formulas and on the radiation. The irradiated samples presented mold counting considerably lower than the non-irradiated samples, which increased the shelf-life of those products. The survey reveals that the majority of the people interviewed has little or any knowledge about radiation and believe that the irradiation can generate some kind of harm for human beings. Therefore, the bread production enriched with mashed linseed and submitted to gamma radiation is promising, given that the chemical and sensorial properties were considered satisfactory, besides the increasing of the shelf-time. (author)

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on the fungus Alternaria alternata and on mycotoxins Alternariol and Alternariol monomethyl ether in artificially contaminated cereal samples;Efeitos da radiacao gama no fungo Alternaria alternata e nas micotoxinas Alternariol e Alternariol monometil eter em amostras de cereais artificialmente contaminadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braghini, Raquel

    2009-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different gamma irradiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata and on production of mycotoxins Alternariol (AOH) and Alternariol Monomethyl Ether (AME) in cereal samples. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of CFU/g in rice grains and sunflower seeds, which were proportional to radiation dose used. However, in corn and wheat grains was observed an increase in the number of CFU/g with the increase of gamma irradiation. The radiation doses used resulted in a reduction of AOH levels. In rice and corn grains, the production of AOH was highest in the group irradiated with 5 kGy. Similar result was obtained with relation to AME. Scanning electron microscopy made it possible to visualize structural alterations on A. alternata induced by the different g-radiation doses used. Analysis of irradiated AOH and AME toxins standards did not show any alteration comparing to the control group. (author)

  2. Influence of irradiation (Co{sub 6}0) in pre-implant rabbits embryos: effect on blastocyst diameters and embryos smaller than 2 mm; Influencia da radiacao ionizante (bomba de cobalto) em embrioes de coelha na fase de pre-implantacao: efeito no diametro das blastulas e embrioes com menos de 2mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Approbato, Mario S.; Oliveira Moura, Katia K.V. de; Souza Florencio, Rodopiano de; Cunha Junior, Carlos; Garcia, Ricardo; Faria, Renato S.; Benedetti, Leonardo N.; Goulart, Flamarion B.

    1995-06-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), in three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses, 5 c Gy and 10 c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. The matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after ({+-} 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. The embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryos parameters were studied: diameter growth; percentage of embryos smaller than 2 mm. We observed that only the irradiation time influenced the blastocysts diameter (no irradiation dose). There was no relation between percentage of embryos smaller than 2 mm and the irradiation. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Influence of the radiation (Co{sub 60}) in pre-implants rabbit embryos: effect on atypic mitotic index and embryo pole development; Influencia da radiacao ionizante (bomba de cobalto) em embrioes de coelha na fase de pre-implantacao: influencia no numero de mitoses atipicas e no grau de desenvolvimento do polo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Approbato, Mario S.; Oliveira Moura, Katia K.V. de; Souza Florencio, Rodopiano de; Garcia, Ricardo; Faria, Renato S.; Benedetti, Leonardo N.; Goulart, Flamarion B. [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ginecologia e Obstetricia

    1995-08-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), at three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses: five c Gy and ten c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. the matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after ({+-} 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. the embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryo parameters were studied: embryo pole development; percentage of abnormal mitotic figures. irradiation time was associated with lower scores of embryo pole development, but not with irradiation dose. There were no gross abnormalities of embryo pole. The abnormal mitotic cells was affected both by the time and dose of irradiation. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Influence of radiation (Co{sub 60}) in pre-implant rabbit embryos: effect on mitotic index and embryonic pole malformations; Influencia da radiacao ionizante (bomba de cobalto) em embrioes de coelha na fase de pre-implantacao: influencia no indice mitotico e malformacoes no polo embrionario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Approbato, M.S.; Moura, K.K.V.O.; Florencio, R.S.; Cunha Junior, C.; Garcia, R.; Faria, R.S.; Benedetti, L.N.; Goulart, F.B. [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ginecologia e Obstetricia

    1995-03-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), at three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses: five c Gy and ten c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. the matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after ({+-} 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. the embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryo parameters were studied: mitotic index; embryonic pole malformations. There were no gross abnormalities of embryo pole. The mitotic index were altered both by the time and doses. (author). 12 refs., 3 figs.

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGIA DA LEPTOSPIROSE EM BOVINOS

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiomar Soares Brod; Marta Fernanda Fehlberg

    1992-01-01

    A leptospirose é uma zoonose causada por 'ima bactéria que pertence ao gênero Leptospira e a espécie L. interrogans a qual apresenta mais de 200 sorovares diferentes. A principal fonte de infecção desta doença são os roedores peri-domésticos, tais como o rato e o camundongo. Dentre os animais domésticos, os suínos são os principais reservatórios de leptospiras. Esses animais eliminam o agente através da urina, contaminando a água, o solo e os alimentos, principais vias de transmissão da doenç...

  6. para um museu da praia

    OpenAIRE

    Severo, Carlos Manuel de Oliveira, 1958-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Museologia e museografia, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Belas Artes, 2011 O documento possui um ficheiro com Anexos em Word, sem possibilidade de conversão que apenas poderá ser consultado na Biblioteca da FBAUL Due to the exceptional weather, climatic and morphologic characteristics of the west region of Lisbon, seaside holidaying was born and grew in Costa do Sol in Portugal. Sea bathing first started for therapeutic reasons, but it was quickly transformed ...

  7. 1992: a redescoberta da Natureza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Santos

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a presença do homem sobre a Terra, a natureza está, sempre, sendo redescoberta, com a criação da natureza social. É a história de uma rutura progressiva entre o homem e o entorno, acelerada pela mecanização. Mediante a tecnociência, a natureza artificializada alcança seu estágio supremo, onde a natureza e o homem tornam-se reciprocramente hostis. Com a globalização da economia, da política e da cultura, não há mais relações totalizantes entre a sociedade e o meio. A natureza tecnicizada se impõe como algo abstrato, exigindo um discurso. A questão do meio ambiente é um aspecto dessa evolução e reclama um estudo abrangente, para permitir uma correta interpretação. Para alcançar essa interpretação, a universidade deve fugir dos raciocínios técnicos e conformistas e enfrentar o entendimento do mundo como um todo.With man on Earth, Nature is being permanently rediscovered through the creation of social nature. The progressive rupture between man and his surrounding is quickened by mechanization. More recently, with globalization of economy, politics and culture, there are no longer totalizing relations between society and environment. Through technoscience, nature and man become reciprocally hostile. Tecnicized nature emerges as an abstraction that demands a discourse. Environmental problems are only an aspect of this evolution, and ask for a comprehensive approach, in order to reach its correct interpretation. University must fly away from technical and conformicist reasonning and face the understanding of the world as a whole.

  8. EXPANSÃO DA SOJA NO TERRITÓRIO NACIONAL: O PAPEL DA DEMANDA INTERNACIONAL E DA DEMANDA INTERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida de Cássia Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Produto das discussões do segundo capítulo da tese de doutorado intitulada A Embrapa/Soja em Londrina (PR. Pesquisa agrícola dum país moderno que analisou a criação da Embrapa/Soja em Londrina, como parte integrante do projeto nacional desenvolvimentista, idealizado a partir da década de 1930. Discutem-se os fatores da expansão da soja no Brasil, a fim de entender quais agentes externos e internos foram responsáveis pelo incentivo à expansão do plantio de soja no território brasileiro, no decorrer das últimas décadas, tendo em vista a importância dessa Commodity como geradora de divisas e importante produto para o mercado interno em franca expansão. Defende-se que a expansão da soja no território nacional a partir da década de 1960 teve influência direta da demanda internacional por essa oleaginosa, além de atender à demanda interna, proveniente da crescente urbanização e mudança nos hábitos de alimentação da população brasileira.

  9. Da onda da gestão da qualidade a uma filosofia da qualidade da gestão: Balanced Scorecard promovendo mudanças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cavalcanti Correia Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available No final da década de 80 a Gestão da Qualidade Total (GQT era apresentada como capaz de resolver todos os problemas e atender a todas as necessidades da gestão das organizações. Buscando solucionar problemas de gestão não equacionados pela GQT, muitas organizações começam a adotar o Balanced Scorecard (BSC. Uma questão ainda não discutida com profundidade no mundo acadêmico é a viabilidade de integração desses dois modelos. O presente artigo discute a possibilidade de integração dessas duas ferramentas, verificando as melhorias que podem alcançar, principalmente no gerenciamento da estratégia da organização. Assim sendo, realizou-se estudo de caso no Caesar Park Hotel Fortaleza (CPHF, empresa que vêm adotando com sucesso os dois modelos. A pesquisa revela que é possível integrar os princípios da GQT com os do BSC, à medida que os fundamentos de ambos se complementam, sendo assim a utilização conjunta das ferramentas propicia melhor gerenciamento da estratégia da organização.In recent years, many organizations have been managed according to the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM, which became known around the globe in the 1980's, when looking for explanations for the so-called "Japanese miracle". TQM was presented as being capable of solving all problems and attending to all company management needs, a stage that seems outdated now. In the search for a model that would allow them to analyze and follow up the implementation of organizational strategies, without remaining limited to Quality indicators, many companies started to adopt the Balanced Scorecard (BSC. Companies using TQM question whether it is viable together with the BSC. In order to contribute to a solution to this question, this article discusses the possibility of aligning these two tools. Therefore, a case study was carried out at the Caesar Park Hotel Fortaleza, a company that implanted TQM in 1997 and started to adopt the BSC in 2000. The

  10. Formas obstrutivas da neurocisticercose ventricular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio de Vergueiro Forjaz

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available A incidência da cisticercose cerebral entre os consulentes orientados para o Ambulatório de Neurologia da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Prêto é muito alta. Trata-se de moléstia que, pela gravidade de seus sintomas, pela facilidade de infestação e pela precariedade dos recursos terapêuticos, representa um probiema individual e social grave nesta região. Muitos aspectos da moléstia já foram esclarecidos, sendo grande a contribuição de autores brasileiros. Certas feições da moléstia, porém, ainda comportam maiores estudos. É nosso objetivo oferecer uma contribuição ao estudo das formas intraventriculares de neurocisticercose. Relatamos as observações de 4 pacientes com queixas de hipertensão intracraniana periódica e com achados liquóricos e radiológicos compatíveis com a suspeita de cisticercose cerebral. Exames subsidiários (pneumencefalografia ou ventriculografia mostraram que em dois dêstes pacientes havia bloqueio do aqueduto de Sylvius (casos 3 e 4 e que, nos outros dois, havia exclusão de um ventrículo lateral por bloqueio do buraco de Monro (caso 1 e da confluência dos cornos temporal e occipital (caso 2. Nos dois casos em que havia bloqueio na parte alta do aqueduto de Sylvius os pacientes acusavam dificuldade no olhar vertical (síndrome de Parinaud. O tratamento cirúrgico permitiu desfazer o bloqueio em 3 casos (casos 2, 3 e 4; no caso 1 as punções feitas após a intervenção cirúrgica parecem ter agido benèficamente no sentido de restabelecer o trânsito do liqüido cefalorraquidiano. Excluindo um paciente (caso 2 que faleceu em caquexia 3 meses após a operação e no qual o exame necroscópico mostrou lesões pregressas imputáveis apenas à hipertensão aguda sem lesões cisticercóticas, os outros casos evoluíram para a cura.

  11. POSSIBILIDADES NO TRATAMENTO DA HISTÓRIA DISCIPLINAR DA HISTÓRIA DA EDUCAÇÃO POR MEIO DA CULTURA ESCOLAR

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    Bruno Gonçalves Borges

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste artigo é apresentar como possibilidade o tratamento da história da disciplina História da Educação na perspectiva da cultura escolar. Para tanto, inicia-se com a abordagem da história da própria disciplina, que originária nos cursos de formação de professores, disseminou-se pelo mundo a partir do início do século XX. Na sequência, são apresentados os usos do termo cultura, propriamente nas ciências humanas e no interior da disciplina História com o desenvolvimento da chamada Nova História. No contexto da pesquisa em História da Educação, aborda-se a cultura escolar como objeto e categoria histórica e a possível construção de uma história do ensino, que responda a intenção de fazer uma história de dentro, ou seja, a reconstrução de uma disciplina por meio de suas práticas escolares e ação dos agentes educacionais.http://dx.doi.org/10.14572/nuances.v25i1.2726

  12. SÍNTESE DA PENEIRA MOLECULAR MCM-41 DERIVADA DA CINZA DA CASCA DO ARROZ

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    Renata Martins Braga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As peneiras moleculares MCM-41 têm atraído grande interesse devido as suas propriedades de alta área específica, volume e diâmetro de poros controláveis. Estes materiais são aplicados em diversos ramos da indústria química como adsorventes, suportes catalíticos e catalisadores heterogêneos em vários processos. Neste trabalho, o MCM-41 foi sintetizado a partir da cinza da casca do arroz, natural e tratada quimicamente, como fontes alternativas de sílica, denominadas CCA-MCM-41 e CCAL-MCM-41, respectivamente, com o objetivo de reaproveitar este resíduo e produzir um material mesoporoso de menor custo. Os materiais foram sintetizados pelo método hidrotérmico a partir de um gel com composição molar: CTAMBr 1,0 mol L-1; SiO2 4,0 mol L-1; Na2O 1,0 mol L-1; H2O 200 mol L-1 e caracterizados por FRX, DRX, FT-IR e determinação de área superficial pelo método BET. Os materiais obtidos apresentaram elevada área superfícial específica (905 m2 g-1, com dimensões e volume de poros dentro das especificações de materiais mesoporosos, sendo estas prorpriedades semelhantes ao MCM-41 sintetizado com a sílica gel comercial, comprovando que a cinza da casca do arroz pode ser utilizada como fonte alternativa de sílica na síntese de peneiras moleculares do tipo MCM-41.

  13. Controlo operacional da qualidade da água: caso Águas do Algarve

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Helena Maria Gonçalves Lucas dos

    2014-01-01

    O presente relatório pretende contribuir para a demonstração de que a adoção de um esquema de certificação da água para consumo humano associado à implementação de um plano de segurança da água, permite implementar um programa de controlo operacional da qualidade da água, quer no tratamento da água para consumo humano, quer no sistema de abastecimento de água, tendo em vista detetar e corrigir, em tempo útil, as alterações que eventualmente ocorram na qualidade da água. ...

  14. Investimento no capital humano da AP, factor essencial na resolução da crise

    OpenAIRE

    Rato, Helena; Silva, Matilde Gago da

    2011-01-01

    Becker e outros cientistas das ciências humanas levaram ao desenvolvimento da teoria do capital humano. O desenvolvimento da sociedade do conhecimento e as TIC reforçaram o reconhecimento da importância do capital humano. Contudo, os países da sociedade do conhecimento enfrentam uma ameaça de retrocesso, devido ao desajuste dos indicadores do desempenho macroeconómico e à dificuldade de mensuração do investimento em capital humano. A resolução da crise actual exige que o capital humano da Adm...

  15. EFEITOS DA LARGURA DA FAIXA DE CAPINA NA CULTURA DA MAMONA

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    EDISON MARTINS PAULO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência de diferentes larguras de faixas de controle de plantas daninhas sobre a altura, o número de racemos e a produção de grãos da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. var. IAC-80, objetivando-se determinar a área vegetada entre as linhas de plantio. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos em Adamantina, na Estação Experimental de Agronomia da Alta Paulista do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, nos anos agrícolas 1989/90, 1990/91 e 1991/92. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos. Os tratamentos consistiram em faixas com 0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0 m de largura capinadas ao longo da linha de plantio e mantidas sempre livres de plantas daninhas; além dessas, mateve-se uma faixa de 1,0 m de largura e mesmo procedimento, na qual a comunidade infestante das entrelinhas era roçada manual- mente sempre que a altura média de 0,3 m era atingida. Concluiu-se que faixas de capina menores do que 1,0 m aplicadas sobre a linha de plantio da cultura diminuíram a produção de grãos, o número de racemos e a altura da mamoneira.Three experiments were carried out in Adamantina at the Experimental Station of Agronomy of Alta Paulista, Instituto Agronômico (IAC, State of São Paulo, Brazil, on a Dark Red Latosol during 1989-1992, in order to study the effects of different row widths covered by weeds on the yield, height and number of racemes of IAC-80 castor bean cultivar. Hoed rows of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 m wide were studied. An extra treatment had the entire plot covered with weeds mantained at 0.3 m height. The row space used was 3.0 x 1.0 m and the plots were 9.0 x 5.0 m. The experiment was set in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Hoeing row width of 1.0 m or less reduced raceme emission, plant height and seed yields.

  16. À Procura da Unidade Primordial

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    Debora Pazetto Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo uma abordagem crítica de um dos primeiros ensaios de Hölderlin, escrito por volta de 1794-5, intitulado Juízo e Ser. Nesse período, fundamentar o sistema kantiano através de um primeiro princípio tornou-se um dos principais incentivos dos desenvolvimentos teóricos do idealismo alemão. A filosofia de Fichte e Schelling, bem como a de Hölderlin, podem ser compreendidas por esse viés. Entretanto, o último chega a soluções bastante diferentes dos demais, culminando com a negação da possibilidade de um princípio unificador para qualquer sistema filosófico. Assim, contra os incessantes esforços dos idealistas alemães para apreender a totalidade do real em termos conceituais, através de um primeiro princípio, normalmente caracterizado como o Eu, o Sujeito, o Eu absoluto, Hölderlin defende a incognoscibilidade de qualquer conceito unificante do real. A realidade enquanto unidade primordial não pode ser apanhada pelo discurso teórico, nem conhecida, nem aprisionada em conceitos, revelando-se apenas através de uma intuição intelectual de cunho estético. Esse conceito eminentemente anti-kantiano constitui a peça chave para o entendimento do pensamento hölderliniano. Ele justifica, em última instância, o privilégio da poesia e da linguagem poética em detrimento do discurso conceitual e mostra, com isso, que há uma coerência interna entre os ensaios teóricos de Hölderlin e suas obras literárias.

  17. A procura do belo e da verdade

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Cristina Azevedo, 1956-

    2012-01-01

    Contém: 1:Paidéia. 2:Da teoria da arte à representação do corpo. 3: O mundo medieval, as ideias estéticas e a medicina. 4: Os tratados, programa e método. Berengário da Capri e a beleza humanista: o corpo de Apolo como esplendor do conhecimento. Vesalius: a fronteira do natural e do ideal

  18. Geografia social da AIDS no Brasil

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    Bastos Francisco Inácio

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available São divulgados os primeiros resultados da avaliação da dinâmica da epidemia da AIDS no Brasil através de técnicas de análise da distribuição espacial. São revisadas questões metodológicas, apontando as dificuldades de estabelecer regiões geográficas homogêneas no Brasil. Descrevem-se tendências recentes da dinâmica da epidemia da AIDS no Brasil - pauperização, interiorização e alteração na participação proporcional das categorias de exposição. Avalia-se a distribuição de casos de AIDS por Unidades da Federação (UFs, confeccionando-se mapas relativos à disseminação da epidemia no período 1987-1993 nas diversas UFs, estabelecendo-se os Centros Gravimétricos (CGs relativos a esses anos. A análise do posicionamento e deslocamento pluri-anual desses CGs indica a força atrativa do Estado de São Paulo como pólo de difusão da epidemia e uma expansão simultânea da epidemia em direção às fronteiras de ocupação. Essas tendências colocam dificuldades adicionais às atividades de prevenção ao acrescentarem novos segmentos populacionais e regiões geográficas ao quadro observado inicialmente nas principais regiões metropolitanas e segmentos mais afetados.

  19. Fisiopatologia da enxaqueca Migraine pathophysiology

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    MAURICE B. VINCENT

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A fisiopatologia da enxaqueca ainda não foi completamente elucidada. As principais estruturas envolvidas parecem ser o sistema nervoso central (córtex e tronco cerebral, o sistema trigeminovascular e os vasos correspondentes, outras fibras autonômicas que inervam estes vasos, e os vários agentes vasoativos locais, como a SP, CGRP, NO, VIP, NPY, ACh, NA, NKA, entre outros. A depressão alastrante é o fenômeno neurológico que provavelmente justifica achados experimenais e clínicos na enxaqueca. Ela tem velocidade de propagação semelhante à aura, ativa o núcleo espinhal do trigêmeo e está relacionada à liberação de CGRP e NO. Alterações circulatórias detectadas por métodos complementares reforçam o papel da depressão alastrante. A identificação de anormalidades em pelo menos três loci (cromossomas 19 e 1 na enxaqueca hemiplégica familiar ocorreu recentemente. Elas estão relacionadas a anormalidades nos canais de cálcio voltagem dependentes tipo P/Q, específicos do sistema nervoso central, que regulam a liberação de vários neurotransmissores, incluindo possivelmente a serotonina. A exemplo de outras anormalidades neurológicas paroxísticas que resultam da hiperexcitabilidade da membrana plasmática, é possível que a enxaqueca ocorra devido a uma desordem de canais iônicos.The pathophysiology of migraine is not yet fully understood. The most important structures involved seem to be the central nervous system (cortex and brain stem, the trigeminovascular system and related cranial arteries, other autonomic fibres innervating such vessels, and various local vasoactive agents, including SP, CGRP, NO, VIP, NPY, ACh, NA, NKA, among others. The spreading depression phenomenon may explain clinical as well experimental findings in migraine. Its propagation velocity mirrors what is found in clinical aura, it may activate the spinal trigeminal nucleus and may induce CGRP and NO release. Circulatory changes detected with

  20. Vigotski e o estudo da psicologia da arte: contribuições para o desenvolvimento humano

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Mari Shima Barroco; Tatiane Superti

    2014-01-01

    O presente texto resulta de investigação bibliográfica e de um exercício teórico-metodológico sobre a obra Psicologia da Arte, de L. S. Vigotski (1999), visando aprofundar uma reflexão sobre o objeto e método da própria psicologia da arte. Objetiva-se, assim, discutir as possíveis contribuições da arte para o desenvolvimento humano com base na teoria histórico-cultural. Propõe-se que o objeto da psicologia da arte é o estudo da estrutura da obra, que deve provocar uma resposta estética e impa...

  1. Hiperplasia Benigna da Próstata

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente de Carvalho, J; Sismeiro, A; Campos Pinheiro, L; Catalão Castro, MT; Carmona Luís, MJ; Abreu, MJ; Mendes Silva, M

    2001-01-01

    Os autores fazem a revisão da clínica, do registo da sintomatologia e impacto na qualidade de vida, dos meios auxiliares ao diagnóstico e das atitudes terapêuticas da Hiperplasia benigna da Próstata. Fundamentados nestes dados propõem Orientações Terapêuticas e Recomendações, para quando e como enviar os doentes portadores desta patologia a Urologia. Assim, segundo os critérios definidos neste trabalho, devem ser enviados à Urologia os doentes com sintomatologia importante ou grave, idade ...

  2. Biomarcadores da injúria renal aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Alberto Batista Peres; Ademar Dantas da Cunha Júnior; Alex Júnior Schäfer; Aline Liene da Silva; Arianne Ditzel Gaspar; Deborah Francisca Scarpari; Julia Barazetti Ferrari Alves; Rodolfo Girelli Neto; Thaís Figueiredo Teodoro de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    A creatinina continua a ser o padrão laboratorial para diagnóstico da injúria renal aguda (IRA). Esforços para prevenção da nefrotoxicidade foram prejudicados pelo atraso no diagnóstico da IRA por critérios utilizando somente a creatinina como marcador, havendo, por isso, grande interesse em identificar mais precocemente biomarcadores confiáveis. Além disso, o tratamento precoce da IRA pode ser correlacionado com um melhor prognóstico e a identificação de biomarcadores para um diagnóstico pre...

  3. Actinomicose da Mama em Gestante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottola Jr Juvenal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A actinomicose mamária é doença inflamatória rara, com poucos casos descritos na literatura. Pode ser primária da mama quando resultante de traumas na pele e papila mamária, e, secundária, quando de origem toracopleural. Sua apresentação clínica é variável, devendo ser diferenciada das doenças mais comuns, dentre elas as mastites e também as neoplasias, como o carcinoma inflamatório. Seu diagnóstico é realizado pela cultura da secreção, com a identificação das colônias de Actinomyces sp. Seu tratamento é a drenagem, quando indicada, a antibioticoterapia endovenosa e manutenção oral por tempo prolongado. Os autores relatam caso de abscesso retromamário por Actinomyces sp. em gestante de 12 semanas que apresentava tumoração mamária expansiva na mama esquerda.

  4. A cirurgia da endomiocardiofibrose revisitada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. MORAES

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre dezembro de 1977 e dezembro de 1997, 83 doentes com endomiocardiofibrose (EMF foram submetidos a decorticação endocárdica e substituição ou reparo das valvas atrioventriculares. Sessenta e seis (79,6% eram do sexo feminino e 17 (20,4% do masculino, variando as idades de 4 a 59 anos (média 31. Trinta e sete (44,5% pacientes tinham doença biventricular, 34 (41% apenas do ventrículo direito e 12 (14,5% apresentavam EMF limitada ao ventrículo esquerdo. Todos estavam na classe funcional III ou IV da classificação da New York Heart Association. Sessenta e oito (81,9% pacientes sobreviveram à operação e foram seguidos por período de tempo que variou de um mês a 17 anos. O tempo total de seguimento foi de 6.290 pacientes/meses (média: 92 meses. Houve 15 óbitos tardios, mas em 6 a causa não esteve relacionada à doença de base. Quatro (5,8% doentes apresentaram recidiva da fibrose e foram reoperados; em 6 (8,8% apareceu fibrose no outro ventrículo. Cinco (7,3% pacientes foram reoperados, seja para retroca de prótese valvular, seja para substituir a valva preservada na primeira operação. Somente 24 (45% dos atuais 53 sobreviventes estão em classe funcional I ou II. A curva de sobrevida actuarial, incluindo a mortalidade operatória, revelou que a probabilidade de sobrevida, 17 anos após a operação, é de 55%. Conclui-se que o tratamento cirúrgico da EMF deve ser considerado um procedimento paliativo porque a operação não impede a progressão da doença. Mesmo assim a operação é recomendada em pacientes com EMF e sintomas de insuficiência cardíaca, visto ser a única forma de tratamento.Eighty-three patients with endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF underwent endocardial decortication and atrioventricular valve replacement or repair between December, 1977, and December, 1997. There were 66 (79.6% female and 17 (20.4% male patients, ranging in age from 4 to 59 years (mean, 31. Thirty-seven (44.5% had biventricular disease

  5. Os determinantes da atitude e da lealdade nas compras online

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Ana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Marketing Relacional apresentada à ESTG - Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão do Instituto Politécnico de Leiria. Hoje em dia a utilização da Internet está completamente enraizada nos hábitos das pessoas. Inicialmente usada como meio de comunicação, a Internet assume-se hoje como um espaço negocial onde se efetuam transações e onde as empresas procuram dinamizar os seus negócios, tornando-se mais competitivas. A globalização dos mercados e a competição m...

  6. Estudo da estabilidade térmica da pele

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mónica Rosas da

    2008-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Química As preocupações ambientais associadas à indústria dos curtumes centram-se no curtume com crómio, uma das etapas mais poluentes de todo o processo. Actualmente, 80 a 90% das peles, em todo o mundo, são curtidas com crómio (wet blue), é do interesse de todos a busca por um processo isento de crómio, de forma a obter um couro mais ecológico, o wet white. A pele é formada por uma rede complexa de fibras de colagénio que são estabilizadas através da formação de...

  7. Autocorrelation descriptor improvements for QSAR: 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwoski, Gregory; Mendenhall, Jeffrey; Meiler, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is a branch of computer aided drug discovery that relates chemical structures to biological activity. Two well established and related QSAR descriptors are two- and three-dimensional autocorrelation (2DA and 3DA). These descriptors encode the relative position of atoms or atom properties by calculating the separation between atom pairs in terms of number of bonds (2DA) or Euclidean distance (3DA). The sums of all values computed for a given small molecule are collected in a histogram. Atom properties can be added with a coefficient that is the product of atom properties for each pair. This procedure can lead to information loss when signed atom properties are considered such as partial charge. For example, the product of two positive charges is indistinguishable from the product of two equivalent negative charges. In this paper, we present variations of 2DA and 3DA called 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign that avoid information loss by splitting unique sign pairs into individual histograms. We evaluate these variations with models trained on nine datasets spanning a range of drug target classes. Both 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign significantly increase model performance across all datasets when compared with traditional 2DA and 3DA. Lastly, we find that limiting 3DA_Sign to maximum atom pair distances of 6 Å instead of 12 Å further increases model performance, suggesting that conformational flexibility may hinder performance with longer 3DA descriptors. Consistent with this finding, limiting the number of bonds in 2DA_Sign from 11 to 5 fails to improve performance. PMID:26721261

  8. Tratamento cirúrgico da cisticircose da fossa craniana posterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia Lopes

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available A cisticercose, um dos mais sérios problemas parasitológicos do sistema nervoso, apresenta, quando localizada na fossa posterior, um quadro clínico dramático, no qual predomina a hipertensão intracraniana. Foram estudados neste trabalho, 70 pacientes com cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior, atendidos no Serviço de Neurocirurgia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo de 1945 a 1968. Considerando-se a grande diversidade existente em torno das técnicas de tratamento cirúrgico, foi objetivo deste trabalho o estudo dos resultados obtidos nestes pacientes, nos quais várias técnicas foram empregadas. As cirurgias paliativas que derivam o trânsito do líquido cefalorraqueano para regiões extracranianas, quando comparadas aos outros tipos de cirurgias utilizados, foram as que proporcionaram maior índice de recuperação, exigiram menos reoperações, além de terem sido acompanhadas de menor número de complicações, bem como de menor mortalidade pós-operatória. Por outro lado, a neurocisticercose geralmente é um processo difuso, encontrando-se parasitas em várias regiões do encéfalo e/ou aracnoidite, conforme comprovou-se, também, entre os casos ora reunidos e que vieram a falecer. Baseando-se nestes fatos, não se justificam as derivações intracranianas e, a não ser eventualmente, a abordagem direta do parasita. Os casos estudados permitem cone- tatar, portanto, que as derivações extracranianas, por sua simplicidade e eficácia, apresentam-se, atualmente, como a terapêutica cirúrgica mais propriada à cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior.

  9. Determinantes da estrutura de capital das empresas de tecnologias da informação

    OpenAIRE

    Rebelo, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    O presente estudo pretende identificar os determinantes financeiros da estrutura de capital das empresas de tecnologias de informação e, ao mesmo tempo, verificar o poder explicativo de várias teorias financeiras sobre a estrutura de capital, nomeadamente, a teoria do efeito fiscal, a teoria dos custos de falência, a teoria da agência e a teoria da pecking order. A evidência empírica reforça o poder explicativo da teoria da pecking order e sugere que o crescimento, a rendibilidade, a re...

  10. Metodologia da investigação em cibercultura I: Design da pesquisa

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Pedro José de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Linguagem da Ciência e a problematização na área da Cibercultura: O objecto de estudos científico; conceitos e teoria; Conceitos principais; A validade dos conceitos; Metodologia e técnicas sociológicas; Fontes da pesquisa; Agenda da pesquisa; Metodologias Sociológicas clássicas e emergentes; Métodos e técnicas de pesquisa sobre a Cibercultura; Exemplo de um projeto de investigação: a Comunicação Pública da Arte em museus físicos e virtuais.

  11. Estudo sobre a estabilidade da rede geodésica de monitoramento da UHE Salto Caxias

    OpenAIRE

    Suci, Felipe Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho analisa a estabilidade da rede geodésica que dá suporte ao monitoramento da Usina Hidrelétrica Salto Caxias. Tal rede é composta por cinco pilares de centragem forçada localizados à jusante da barragem, além de um pino de crista, situado sobre uma das comportas da mesma. Essa análise foi realizada a partir da coleta de dados GNSS. Decidiu-se tomar o pilar P1 como referência e suas coordenadas foram determinadas de forma relativa (utilizando-se o aplicativo Leica Ge...

  12. Abner Vicentini: um pioneiro da Biblioteconomia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Bastos Cunha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio biobibliográfico analisa a trajetória profissional do bibliotecário Abner Vicentini (23/08/1929 – 9/08/1976. Dentre vários cargos ocupados, Abner Vicentini foi presidente da Associação Paulista de Bibliotecários (1958-1961; professor de Biblioteconomia na Universidade de Brasília (1964-1971; conselheiro da Federação Internacional de Documentação; consultor da FAO para a implantação da Biblioteca Nacional da Agricultura e do Sistema Nacional de Informação e Documentação Agrícola (1975-1976. Como diretor na área de bibliotecas, Vicentini passou pela seguinte trajetória: Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (1952-1953, Centro Tecnológico da Aeronáutica (1954-1963, Universidade de Brasília (1964-1971, Ministério das Minas e Energia (1972-1975. Abner Vicentini foi ainda, um grande divulgador da Classificação Decimal Universal e editor da primeira edição brasileira do Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR-1, lançada em 1969

  13. Arquitetura da paisagem da cidade e a importância da sistematização da análise do problema projetual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gonçalves dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com este artigo pretende-se levantar os conceitos próprios da atividade da Arquitetura Paisagística encarando-a como disciplina projetual e associando-a ao Design Ambiental, necessitando, assim, de linhas metodológicas específicas para apresentação de soluções coerentes aos problemas paisagísticos. Sob esta ótica, reflexões sobre o uso da vegetação no projeto dos espaços exteriores são apresentadas apontando-se uma etapa de sistematização da análise do problema de projeto, dentro da abordagem da concepção de uma metodologia projetual em arquitetura paisagística. Também foram analisadas oito vias de circulação da área central de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, exemplificando uma etapa de sistematização da análise do problema de projeto.

  14. Flaskehalsen peger på DA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Nu har vi i årevis stillet krav til de arbejdsløse. Flaskehalsen peger nu på DA. Kom ind i kampen!......Nu har vi i årevis stillet krav til de arbejdsløse. Flaskehalsen peger nu på DA. Kom ind i kampen!...

  15. Abner Vicentini: um pioneiro da Biblioteconomia brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Murilo Bastos Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Este ensaio biobibliográfico analisa a trajetória profissional do bibliotecário Abner Vicentini (23/08/1929 – 9/08/1976). Dentre vários cargos ocupados, Abner Vicentini foi presidente da Associação Paulista de Bibliotecários (1958-1961); professor de Biblioteconomia na Universidade de Brasília (1964-1971); conselheiro da Federação Internacional de Documentação; consultor da FAO para a implantação da Biblioteca Nacional da Agricultura e do Sistema Nacional de Informação e Documentação Agrícola...

  16. Hanna Krall e os caminhos tortos da memória e da identidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kilanowski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentamos a escritora polonesa de origem judaica Hanna Krall por meio da análise literária do seu romance Sublokatorka (A sublocatária.  O romance, com elementos autobiográficos, apresenta a personalidade cindida de uma menina sobrevivente do Holocausto e discute o tema da identidade polonesa, judaica e judaico-polonesa. Através da observação da memória e do processo de criação da memória, a autora mostra a construção da identidade falsa e a repressão da verdadeira, o comportamento comum entre alguns dos sobreviventes.

  17. O peso social da obesidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felippe, Flávia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Conhecer as representações sociais sobre o comer para indivíduos obesos, o significado atribuído à relação com o comer e com a manutenção de um peso saudável são os objetivos deste artigo. O peso social da obesidade revela que ela vem crescendo em proporções epidêmicas, favorecidas pela sociedade contemporânea, onde se percebem intenções ideológicas claras. Os mapas de diferentes segmentos foram construídos mostrando aspectos contraditórios no significado do comer para os obesos, como prazer e sofrimento relacionado ao comer (compulsão, descontrole; como aspectos que permeiam essa relação, aparecem os fatores sociais (discriminação, pressão, preconceito, culto ao corpo

  18. No arco da luz obscura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude LeManchec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEm Kafka, criação literária, escrita epistolar, anotações íntimas e escritos gnômicos estão dispostos sobre uma tela que comporta escritos como a Carta ao pai, orientada pela dupla compreensão da singularidade de seu percurso na sociedade e de sua vocação de escritor. A escrita nasce do vazio existencial e a ele reconduz. Este ensaio se propõe a refletir sobre os movimentos da escrita de Kafka em sua dimensão ética.Palavras-chave : criação literária ; escrita epistolar ; ética.Résumé Chez Kafka, création littéraire, écriture épistolaire, notations intimes et écrits gnomiques se positionnent sur une immense toile qui enserre des écrits comme la Lettre au  père orientée par la double compréhension de la singularité de son parcours dans la société et de sa vocation d’écrivain. L’écriture naît du vécu existentiel et elle y reconduit. Cet essai se propose à réfléchir sur les  mouvements de l’écriture de Kafka dans sa dimension éthique.Mots-clés: création littéraire; écriture épistolaire; éthique

  19. Fenomenologia e crise da arquitetura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Furtado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao se fazer no espaço limítrofe entre a engenharia e a arte, a arquitetura enfrenta simultaneamente problemas estéticos e técnicos. Esta situação a torna tarefa sempre inacabada, ciência tecida no diálogo constante entre dois valores e fazeres tradicionalmente antagônicos. Diante desse quadro, busca-se comumente enraizar a arquitetura em fundamentos exteriores aos seus próprios conceitos, seja na improvisação criadora dos indivíduos, inerente à vida urbana, ou nos diversos saberes sobre o homem que equacionam as necessidades universais às quais ela deveria responder. Estas considerações preliminares conduzem ao cerne de uma questão propriamente filosófica acerca dos fundamentos pré-reflexivos do mundo da vida (Lebenswelt e, no caso da arquitetura, sobre a experiência do habitar que constitui o campo ontológico "regional" de onde parte a ciência/arte aqui investigada.Architecture faces technical and aesthetical problems since it exists in the space between Engineering and Art. This situation turns Architecture into an endless task, a science made in a ceaseless dialogue between two traditional antagonistic values. Art and Engeneering seek to base Architecture in foundations that are outside its own concepts, either when they try to base it in creative improvisation of individuals in their urban lives or when they try to put its roots in several different cognizances about humankind to which it should respond. This introductory essay intends to take us to the experience of inhabitation which constitutes the ontological "region" where this science/art departs from.

  20. SOBRE AS ORIGENS DA FAVELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pereira de Queiroz Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon the origins of the Brazilian shantytown (favela. It investigates the context of the appearance of the housing and of the name itself which came to characterize this form of precarious settlement in Rio de Janeiro at the end of the 19th century. Evidence suggests that the appearance of the shacks was related to the population explosion and the lack of housing in what was the Federal Capital at the time. The name ¿favela¿ is considered to have its origins in the place name 'Alto da Favela', a district on high ground located to the south of the town of Belo Monte, in the North-eastern state of Bahia, which was the site of the 'War of Canudos' uprising. 'Favela' is also the popular name for a plant, common to the outback of Bahia where the fi ghting took place. The species described by Euclides da Cunha, in his book 'Os Sertões', is probably the Cninodoscolus quercifolius. Of the many theories concerning the renaming of the hill district 'Providência' as 'Favela' by those who had been involved in the uprising, the most plausible is that it recalls strategic and topographic features. On the 'Favela' hill in Canudos, the Republican troops were ambushed, and the occupation was extremely important in the defeat of Antonio Conselheiro's followers. The topography is associated with a metaphor for the deprivation suffered by the troops during and after the fi ghting. The natural diffi culties of the battle, compounded by the physical characteristics of the outback, were related to the struggle the soldiers had in receiving their pay once the war had ended.

  1. Estudo da prevalência e da gravidade da dermatite de contacto em 'frango do campo'

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Maria Clara Simões

    2014-01-01

    O sector avícola enfrenta atualmente dois desafios muito estimulantes. O primeiro decorre do aumento, que se prevê continuar a crescer, nos níveis de procura de carne de aves no mercado interno e internacional; o segundo decorre do facto da criação avícola ter adotado métodos de produção mais intensivos (kg peso vivo/m2/ano) e em maior escala, i.e. com maior concentração animal na mesma exploração. Este carácter vincadamente “industrial” tem merecido uma natural atenção das sociedades e das a...

  2. Pegada de carbono da Quinta da Gruta: quantificação e compensação

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mafalda Diana das Dores Rocha e

    2011-01-01

    A presente dissertação resulta de uma proposta feita por parte da Câmara Municipal da Maia, para a realização de um estudo sobre a pegada de carbono na Quinta da Gruta, um centro de educação ambiental localizado na freguesia de Avioso (Santa Maria), na Vila do Castêlo da Maia. Neste sentido, após uma revisão de literatura no âmbito das metodologias actualmente usadas no cálculo da pegada de carbono, foram calculadas as emissões totais anuais decorrentes da actividade da Quinta da Gruta, pa...

  3. Da veritas à caritas: a religião depois da religião

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Antônio de Paiva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa abordar a passagem da veritas para a caritas, como possibilidade privilegiada da espiritualidade após a religião. No horizonte da filosofia da religião, o artigo discute os problemas de tal perspectiva e aponta sua contribuição para ler o fenômeno da espiritualidade dos sem religião. Tal objetivo será direcionado para o retorno da religião segundo o senso cultural comum, de um lado; e de outro, para a queda das razões filosóficas do ateísmo. Percorrendo as obras consideradas fundamentais, o texto se desenvolve a partir do horizonte maior do pensiero debole, mostrando a perspectiva hermenêutica da verdade – a verdade como abertura – até desembocar na concepção de caritas, como viés possível da experiência religiosa, após a morte de Deus e o fim da metafísica. Vattimo vê na passagem da veritas à caritas o itinerário do pensamento contemporâneo, definindo o cristianismo como ato de amor antes que revelação de verdades.

  4. ESTATUTO PARADOXAL DA PELE E CULTURA CONTEMPORÂNEA: da porosidade à pele-teflon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Franco Ferraz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A exploração do estatuto paradoxal da pele - interface dentro/fora - permite ultrapassar a dicotomia metafísica superfície/profundidade, problematizando a tendência atual, também expressa na teoria, a um elogio das superfícies e a um horror por oposições dicotômicas. Possibilta avaliar as implicações do fechamento da porosidade da pele em formas de sociabilidade estimuladas na cultura da imagem, da exibição, do espetáculo, bem expressas pelo material inorgânico teflon. Sendo Poros, na visão grega, pai de Eros, a investigação acerca do estatuto paradoxal da pele convida a uma retomada do tema do erotismo. Partindo de perspectivas oferecidas por Agamben acerca da pornografia, ligada ao valor de exibição nas sociedades de espetáculo e de consumo, e relacionando-as a diversas reflexões de José Gil acerca do corpo e da pele, discute-se e convoca-se a abertura da porosidade da pele.

  5. Oyster radiation sensitivity; Sensibilidade de ostras a radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchese, Sandra R.M. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Various food products like oysters, crabs and shrimps have been described as possible Vibrio spp. transmitting agents. Seafood irradiation is been presented as an alternative among the different public health intervention measures to control food borne diseases. The objective of this work was to establish, firstly, the radioresistance of Crassostrea brasiliana oysters. The oysters were irradiated with Co-60 radiation with doses of 0, 1.5,3 and 6 kGy. Survival curves a function of time showed that 100% of samples irradiated with 3 kGy survived at least 6 days; among those irradiated with 6 kGy, 100% survived 3 days. These results are encouraging since a dose of 2 kGy is already effective in diminishing oyster bioburden. (author)

  6. Combatentes do gueto, guerreiros da periferia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Rebecca Ferrari Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combatente do gueto, guerreiro da periferia, militante da causa (... Combatente do gueto é o nome de uma rua atrás do Palácio do Governo (...” conta Jairo, taxista, a propósito de sua inspiração poética, durante as filmagens de Povo lindo, povo inteligente – O Sarau da Cooperifa, documentário dirigido por Sérgio Gagliardi e Maurício Falcão, produzido, em 2008, pela DGT Filmes. O filme narra a história e os bastidores do sarau que acontece na zona sul da cidade de São Paulo, em Campo Limpo, no bar do Zé Batidão. “A periferia não tem museu, não tem teatro nem cinema, o único espaço público que tem é o bar”, explica Sérgio Vaz, um dos idealizadores do movimento que contempla na produção poética, da periferia para a periferia, a força da contestação social. A cultura como arena para a luta entre os signos monossêmicos e a pluralidade sígnica proposta pelo artista que faz da palavra ruído incômodo. O sarau da Cooperifa, o sarau do Binho também já foram objetos de estudos acadêmicos, como a tese As redes de escritura nas periferias de São Paulo, de Marco Antônio Bin, defendida no Programa de Ciências Sociais da PUCSP, em maio de 2009

  7. Aneurismas da aorta Aortic aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januário M Souza

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre janeiro de 1979 e janeiro de 1992, foram realizadas 212 operações para correção de aneurismas e de dissecções da aorta. Neste trabalho serão analisados 104 procedimentos cirúrgicos (em 97 pacientes para correção de aneurismas. A idade dos pacientes variou de 14 a 79 anos (média 59,5 anos e o sexo predominante foi o masculino, com 75 pacientes. Os aneurismas localizavam-se na aorta ascendente em 46 pacientes, na croça em 8, na aorta descendente em 8, na aorta toráco-abdominal em 8, na aorta abdominal em 21, na aorta descendente e abdominal em 2, na aorta ascendente e tóraco-abdominal em 2, na aorta ascendente e descendente em 1, na aorta ascendente, croça e descendente em 1. Doenças cardiovasculares associadas estavam presentes em 39 pacientes, sendo valvopatia aórtica em 18 (excluídos os pacientes com ectasiaânulo-aórtíca, insuficiência coronária em 17, coarctação da aorta em 2, persistência do canal arterial em 1 e valvopatia mitral e aórtica em 1. A mortalidade imediata (hospitalar e/ou 30 dias foi de 14,4%, sendo de 27,7% (5/18 para pacientes com mais de 70 anos e de 11,3% (9/79 para pacientes com idade inferior a 70 anos. Os aneurismas localizados na aorta ascendente e croça foram operados como o auxílio de circulação extracorpórea. Parada circulatória e hipotermia profunda foram utilizadas em todos os pacientes com aneurisma da croça. O estudo tomográfico e angiográfico deve ser de toda a aorta, pela possibilidade de aneurismas de localizações múltiplas.Among 212 patients undergoing operation for aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection between January 1979 and January 1992, 97 were operated on for aneurysms. The aneurysms were localized in: ascending aorta in 46 patients, transverse aortic arch in 8, descending aorta in 8, thoracoabdominal aorta in 8, abdominal (infrarenal aorta in 21, descending and abdominal aorta in 2, ascending and thoracoabdominal aorta in 2, ascending and descending in 1

  8. Fontes para o estudo da arte medieval

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga Sampedro, Mª Dolores

    2013-01-01

    A materia Fontes documentais e literarias para a Historia da Arte, posúe o carácter de obrigatoria e ten que ser cursada no segundo ano (2º curso), en concreto no segundo cuadrimestre. Está integrada no módulo Coñecementos sistemáticos e integrados do feito artístico. Esta materia está estreitamente relacionada con Literatura e Arte no mundo antigo e medieval de primeiro curso, Fundamentos teóricos da historia da Arte de primeiro curso, Métodos de Análise e Interpretación do Fenómen...

  9. Aplicabilidade da escala de Torrington e Henderson

    OpenAIRE

    Faresin S.M.; Barros J.A. de; Beppu O.S.; Peres C. de A.; Atallah A.N.

    2000-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Validar a escala de Torrington e Henderson na estratificação do risco cirúrgico da nossa população, fornecendo a quantificação do mesmo. Tipo de estudo: coorte prospectivo longitudinal. Duração do estudo: 30 meses. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 1162 pacientes no pré-operatório de cirurgia geral eletiva no Ambulatório de Risco Cirúrgico da Disciplina de Pneumologia da EPM/Unifesp. De acordo com a escala de Torrington e Henderson os pacientes foram classificados no período pré-operatório e...

  10. O ACOMPANHANTE NO ALOJAMENTO CONJUNTO DA MATERNIDADE

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Mendes; Márcia Guimarães Alcântara; Diogo de Souza C orreia; Marisa Monticell; Luana Cláudia dos Passos Aires; Fernanda Cardinal

    2011-01-01

    Pesquisa qualitativa exploratório-descritiva, realizada no Alojamento Conjunto do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, de agosto a novembro de 2010, com o objetivo de observar a inserção e as ações do acompanhante nessa unidade. Participaram 32 sujeitos. Da análise dos dados, coletados através da observação participante, emergiram seis categorias: a) O acompanhante na admissão e na alta; b) Receber e dar informações: a complexidade comunicacional na unidade; c) O ...

  11. Virtual observatory publishing with DaCHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demleitner, M.; Neves, M. C.; Rothmaier, F.; Wambsganss, J.

    2014-11-01

    The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building VO and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

  12. Virtual Observatory Publishing with DaCHS

    CERN Document Server

    Demleitner, Markus; Rothmaier, Florian; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building Virtual Observatory (VO) and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

  13. Metilfenidato: medicamento gadget da contemporaneidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Brant

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo consiste em apresentar os principais aspectos do uso não médico do metilfenidato. Em termos metodológicos, procedemos a uma pesquisa bibliográfica na busca por uma melhor compreensão interdisciplinar dessa utilização polêmica e multifacetada. Constatamos que o uso contemporâneo ultrapassa a tríade doença, saúde e cuidado. Compreende a busca incessante do homem em superar seus limites e viver bem em sociedade, o que torna esse medicamento um fetiche, aproximando o usuário de sua fragilidade. Percebe-se que, primeiramente, produziu-se o metilfenidato e, posteriormente, tentou-se configurar cientificamente o transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH, ou seja, inventou-se, primeiro, o remédio e, depois, a doença. Concluímos ser o metilfenidato mais um gadget da contemporaneidade. Um objeto de consumo curto e rápido, parceiro conectável e desconectável ao alcance das mãos, tornando-se dispositivo de prazeres efêmeros, fabricado e comercializado como medicamento.

  14. Tipologia da consciência

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    João Queiroz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do interesse crescente de muitas comunidades cientí­ficas pelo fenômeno da consciência, e apesar dos avanços obtidos recentemente por estas comunidades, multiplicam-se questões básicas sobre teorias, métodos, modelos e protocolos de investigação adequados; multiplicam-se as divergências sobre definições e demarcações conceituais e terminológicas. Parece, entretanto, haver uma questão consensual, embora não resolvida, que aproxima materialistas e dualistas, reducionistas e epifenomenalistas de muitas áreas: a consciência é um estado, processo ou entidade, que manifesta-seheterogeneamente. Como classificar a heterogeneidade de suas formas?Abstract: In spite of the increased interest of several scientific communities in the phenomenon of consciousness, and in spite of the recent results they have obtained, many basic questions about the most adequate theories, methods, models, and protocols for investigation concerning this topic remain, as well as disagreements about conceptual and terminological definitions. However, there does seem to be a consensus among dualists, materialists, reductionists and epiphenomenalists from many fields that consciousness is a state, process or entity, which express itself heterogeneously. This,therefore, leads to the question of how to classify the heterogeneity of its forms.

  15. Sobre o tempo da loucura em Nise da Silveira Time in mental illness according to Nise da Silveira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacileide Guimarães

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um ensaio sobre a vivência do tempo no âmbito do hospital psiquiátrico. Após breve incursão acerca da escrita sobre o tempo e o tempo no hospital psiquiátrico, nos detemos no enfoque da psiquiatra e pesquisadora Nise da Silveira, cujo trabalho foi desenvolvido no Centro Psiquiátrico Nacional do Engenho de Dentro Rio de Janeiro (antigo Centro Psiquiátrico Pedro II e atualmente denominado Instituto Municipal Nise da Silveira, onde criou, em 1946, a Seção de Terapêutica Ocupacional e Reabilitação (STOR, chamada por um interno de "a sala da emoção de lidar". O tempo da loucura em Nise equaciona a síntese tempo versus afeto, sem reservas para com as susceptibilidades de um saber científico, mas em busca da real complexidade da condição humana. Reportando-se da vida ao sofrimento, Nise trouxe o afeto como condição sine que non para a compreensão da diferença e no limite para o questionamento do que o jargão psiquiátrico preconizava/esquadrinhava como "desorientado no tempo e no espaço". Com a tendência da reestruturação dos serviços psiquiátricos no Brasil, o tempo revisitado da loucura enclausurada traz a contribuição de Nise da Silveira como atitude digna de sobrevivência em tempos de atenção psicossocial.This research is about time at psychiatric hospitals. After a brief review of the literature on time and time at a psychiatric hospital, the author focused on psychiatry's approach and on studies by Nise da Silveira, a researcher who worked at the Centro Psiquiátrico Nacional do Engenho de Dentro, Rio de Janeiro (now named Centro Psiquiátrico Pedro II, where in 1946 she founded an Occupational Therapy and Rehabilitation Division, which a patient named "the emotions coping room". Time of mental illness according to Nise is equal to the synthesis of time versus affection, with no considerations towards the sensitivities of scientific knowledge, but instead is a search for the real complexities of the

  16. An extension of PPLS-DA for classification and comparison to ordinary PLS-DA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Telaar

    Full Text Available Classification studies are widely applied, e.g. in biomedical research to classify objects/patients into predefined groups. The goal is to find a classification function/rule which assigns each object/patient to a unique group with the greatest possible accuracy (classification error. Especially in gene expression experiments often a lot of variables (genes are measured for only few objects/patients. A suitable approach is the well-known method PLS-DA, which searches for a transformation to a lower dimensional space. Resulting new components are linear combinations of the original variables. An advancement of PLS-DA leads to PPLS-DA, introducing a so called 'power parameter', which is maximized towards the correlation between the components and the group-membership. We introduce an extension of PPLS-DA for optimizing this power parameter towards the final aim, namely towards a minimal classification error. We compare this new extension with the original PPLS-DA and also with the ordinary PLS-DA using simulated and experimental datasets. For the investigated data sets with weak linear dependency between features/variables, no improvement is shown for PPLS-DA and for the extensions compared to PLS-DA. A very weak linear dependency, a low proportion of differentially expressed genes for simulated data, does not lead to an improvement of PPLS-DA over PLS-DA, but our extension shows a lower prediction error. On the contrary, for the data set with strong between-feature collinearity and a low proportion of differentially expressed genes and a large total number of genes, the prediction error of PPLS-DA and the extensions is clearly lower than for PLS-DA. Moreover we compare these prediction results with results of support vector machines with linear kernel and linear discriminant analysis.

  17. Aleksi II kritikujet "Kod da Vintshi"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Dan Browni samanimelise romaani järgi valminud põnevusfilm "Da Vinci kood" : režissöör Ron Howard : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Venemaa patriarh Aleksius II nimetas filmi linastamist lugupidamatuseks moraalinormide vastu

  18. O psicanalista no tratamento da dor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Pinto Minatti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A dor se manifesta como mal-estar do corpo e no corpo, e tende a ser encaminhada para tratamento médico. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a queixa dolorosa do ponto de vista do tratamento psicanalítico, retomando algumas acepções relacionadas ao tratamento da dor, encontradas na obra de Freud. Partimos da experiência no trabalho em hospital pediátrico, utilizando a análise do atendimento de pacientes com queixas de dor para definir e situar a dor no campo da psicanálise, e distingui-la do campo da medicina. No texto, pode-se acompanhar a dor como signo de sofrimento e diversas formas de abordá-la tanto pelo sujeito que a porta quanto pelas instituições que propõem seu cuidado.

  19. Nova abordagem no tratamento da esquizofrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Speltri

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram tratados 11 casos de esquizofrenia com a guanetidina, substância considerada, do ponto de vista farmacodinâmico, como simpaticoplégica. Na opinião do autor, os surpreendentes e significativos resultados obtidos autorizam uma nova abordagem nas pesquisas à procura da etiopatogenia da esquizofrenia e, a partir dos elementos colhidos, considera plausível uma "teoria psicossomática da esquizofrenia". Recusa-se, entretanto, a cair no atraente, mas inútil, terreno especulativo. Prefere aguardar que os farmacologistas e fisiologistas forneçam dados pais precisos sobre o mecanismo de ação da guanetidina e que novos estudos confirmem seus resultados para, depois, dar publicidade à sua teoria.

  20. INFLUÊNCIA DA DANÇA NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DA COORDENAÇÃO MOTORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ricotso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista os benefícios proporcionados pela prática da dança, o papel educativo da escola deve ter também em consideração as atividades físicas enquanto promotoras da postura, equilíbrio e coordenação motora.Objetivo: Analisar o efeito que a prática da dança, no contexto do desporto escolar, exerce no desenvolvimento motor dos alunos.

  1. Estimativa da produtividade da cana-de-açúcar utilizando o Sebal e imagens Landsat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Guimarães Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As técnicas de sensoriamento remoto têm sido muito promissoras para o desenvolvimento de medidas mais confiáveis e economicamente viáveis da produção vegetal em larga escala. O algoritmo SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land tem como vantagem a obtenção de parâmetros biofísicos usando imagens de satélite e poucos dados observacionais. Este trabalho objetivou estimar a produtividade da cana-de-açúcar por meio da aplicação do algoritmo SEBAL e de imagens Landsat 5 TM. O estudo foi realizado em plantios de cana-de-açúcar da fazenda Boa Fé, localizada no Triângulo Mineiro, município de Conquista, Minas Gerais. A metodologia utilizada apresentou variação de desempenho nas estimativas de produtividade da cana-de-açúcar de cada gleba, provavelmente em decorrência de influências da dimensão dos talhões e da resolução espacial da imagem, e de variedades e épocas de plantio e colheita da cultura. No entanto, os resultados apontam que a metodologia tem potencial para ser aplicada em áreas extensas com limitada disponibilidade de dados meteorológicos.

  2. Influência da estrutura da paisagem nas comunidades de passeriformes no centro de Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Quinta-Nova, L.C.; Tomé, J.; Cabaceira, S.; Fernandez, P.; Roque, N.

    2015-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objetivo identificar a relação existente entre as comunidades de passeriformes que nidificam na região Centro de Portugal e a composição e estrutura da paisagem desse território. Procurou-se, igualmente, verificar a importância da rugosidade do terreno na distribuição destas comunidades. Identificaram-se um conjunto de indicadores espaciais (métricas da paisagem e variáveis morfométricas) que, no seu conjunto, caracterizam a estrutura da paisagem, bem como as tipo...

  3. Aspectos morfológicos da terminologia da nanociência e nanotecnologia

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Sossai Coleti; Gladis Maria de Barcellos Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Neste artigo, descrevem-se e analisam-se os aspectos morfológicos do conjunto de termos mais frequentes da terminologia da Nanociência e Nanotecnologia, de forma a cooperar com a fixação e maior compreensão da terminologia da Nanociência e Nanotecnologia, áreas centrais das atividades de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e inovação no mundo todo, como também enriquecer a descrição morfológica do português a partir de um léxico especializado, de maneira a contribuir com o refinamento de conhecimento l...

  4. O método comparativo na origem da psicologia da arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Andriolo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem por objetivo apresentar o surgimento do método comparativo nas interpretações psicológicas das produções artísticas da Europa e do Brasil. Utilizam-se os discursos da Psiquiatria no início do século XX, notando como as interpretações básicas acerca da Psicologia da Arte foram permeadas pelo método comparativo. Este, por sua vez, carregou consigo um risco de análise, o de encontrar na arte uma manifestação de degeneração.

  5. O método comparativo na origem da psicologia da arte

    OpenAIRE

    Arley Andriolo

    2006-01-01

    Este texto tem por objetivo apresentar o surgimento do método comparativo nas interpretações psicológicas das produções artísticas da Europa e do Brasil. Utilizam-se os discursos da Psiquiatria no início do século XX, notando como as interpretações básicas acerca da Psicologia da Arte foram permeadas pelo método comparativo. Este, por sua vez, carregou consigo um risco de análise, o de encontrar na arte uma manifestação de degeneração.

  6. Discursos e imagens da violência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Marquetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo baseou-se na pesquisa de doutorado “Discursos e imagens da violência”, na qual abordamos as mortes violentas (homicídios na metrópole de São Paulo, privilegiando o estudo das elaborações subjetivas e culturais que ocorrem em torno desse fenômeno. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi abordar dois tipos de discursos sobre as mortes violentas: o discurso de uma população submetida ao evento das mortes violentas e o discurso da mídia televisiva sobre o fenômeno da violência. Há duas vertentes metodológicas neste estudo. A primeira é uma abordagem etnográfica de um bairro situado ou visto como “território violento” na cidade de São Paulo. A segunda são duas análises de discursos sobre as mortes violentas: o discurso da mídia televisiva e o discurso dos moradores do território. Nos resultados da etnografia do território violento encontramos, na trama da sociabilidade, angústia, medo, estratégias de sobrevivência e outros subterfúgios para viver num bairro violento. Nas narrativas dos moradores encontramos uma série de discursos verbais fragmentados, caóticos, desorganizados onde estava presente o terror da proximidade excessiva com a morte. Em contraponto, na análise do discurso da mídia televisiva, encontramos o excesso de imagens, verbalizações, teorizações e interpretações sobre a violência.

  7. Claro Enigma:o discurso da Obscuridade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Fiorillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrariando o molde clssico, o intenso poder comunicativo da primeira retrica crist repousa no paradoxo, no exagero e na ambivalncia. A retrica crist nasceu no da simplicidade dos lrios dos campos, mas de uma exortao ao assombro e ao enigma como pathos das boas-novas. Neste ensaio, analisamos em mincia esta caracterstica, numa passagem (perikope do mais antigo evangelho de que se tem conhecimento, o Evangelho de Tom.

  8. The Structure of Ferroelectric DCsDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, G. M.; Dietrich, O. W.; Nelmes, R. J.;

    1976-01-01

    In further neutron scattering experiments on the (orthorhombic) ferroelectric phase of DCsDA and CsDA, a study has been made of the scattering arising at wavevectors along the a* direction at positions away from Bragg reflections. It is shown that this most probably arises from Bragg scattering i...... temperature range. This effect has been observed with both neutron and X-ray scattering techniques and is independent of crystal size....

  9. Fundamentos bioquímicos da hereditariedade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Otto

    1970-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam os resultados de levantamentos seccionais sobre a prevalência e a morbidade da esquistossomose mansônica no Estado de Alagoas. Os inquéritos foram feitos em oito localidades, urbanas e rurais. A prevalência da esquistossomose e de outras helmintoses intestinais foi muito elevada. As formas hepato-esplênicas variaram de 1 a 3%.

  10. Morfologia da laringe de cutia (Dasyprocta sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza B.S. Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A cutia (Dasyprocta sp. é um roedor silvestre com distribuição mundial. Atualmente, além de importante papel ecológico que exerce, está sendo utilizada como modelo em experimento animal. Estudos sobre a morfologia destes animais são importantes porque podem ser uma alternativa para o estudo de diversos processos patológicos, além de contribuirem para a preservação da espécie. A laringe é um órgão localizado entre a faringe e a traqueia, no qual está envolvido nas funções de respiração, deglutição e fonação. O presente estudo propôs realizar uma descrição morfológica macroscópica e microscópica da laringe da cutia. Para tanto, foram utilizadas quinze cutias pertencentes ao Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Piauí e provenientes do Núcleo de Estudos e Preservação de Animais Silvestres com licença do IBAMA (Nº 02/08-618, CTF Nº 474064. Todos os animais foram identificados, promovida a sexagem e, posteriormente, a laringe acessada e dissecada sendo os fragmentos cartilagíneos encaminhados para rotina histológica e corados pelo método de hematoxilina-eosina. As lâminas obtidas foram visualizadas em microscopia óptica de luz e foto documentadas. A laringe da cutia apresenta cinco cartilagens, com ausência da cartilagem cuneiforme e presença da incisura caudal na cartilagem tireoide. O tecido epitelial da laringe varia de epitélio estratificado pavimentoso queratinizado à não queratinizado e ciliado com células caliciformes.

  11. "Da Vinci kood" ja Eesti / Reet Rast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rast, Reet, 1964-

    2010-01-01

    Möödunud kuu kunstisündmuseks oli "Da Vinci koodi avamine" Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis ja Tallinna Ülikoolis. 5.-12. veebruarini eksponeeriti Kadrioru kunstimuuseumis Leonardo da Vinci arvatavat autoportreed. Lõuna-Itaalia erakogust leitud maali analüüsimisega tegelesid Tallinna Ülikooli maali ja maalitehnoloogia õppejõud Orest Kormašov, kes valmistas klassikalise portreeskulptuuri, arvutisimulatsiooni teostas Eesti Kunstiakadeemia graafilise disaini tudeng Helen Kokk

  12. NOTAS SOBRE A IRRACIONALIDADE DA GUERRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Leal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo, procedemos a uma análise sobre a irracionalidade da guerra em tempos cada vez mais caracterizados pela evolução da racionalidade técnica, ou seja, em tempos contemporâneos. Esse é o ponto a partir do qual traçamos, aqui, um percurso argumentativo dividido em duas partes. Na primeira, reconstituímos elementos da concepção de guerra de filósofos como Maquiavel, Clausewitz e Kant, destacando, nos dois primeiros pensadores, a prerrogativa de que a guerra é racional quando se configura meio para fins políticos. Na segunda parte, confrontamos essa racionalidade política da guerra com a dupla dimensão técnica que a guerra assumiu: de um lado, a guerra como um fim em si mesmo e não mais como meio da ação política; de outro, a dimensão racionalizante da guerra como resultado do progresso técnico e científico, atualizada como guerra do terror.

  13. A LEITURA DA GRAMÁTICA DA FORMA DO CONJUNTO HABITACIONAL CAMPINAS-F DA CDHU EM CAMPINAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Morais

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A gramática da forma constitui uma importante ferramenta que pode dar suporte para futuros estudos e melhor qualidade em conjuntos habitacionais. A utilização de sistemas generativos de projeto pode aperfeiçoar uma série de rotinas de projeto, potencializando seu uso com outras ferramentas de informática. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de estudo exploratório com um sistema generativo de projeto em processo de simulação e imersão, por meio do qual se pode avaliar o desenvolvimento e as alterações do projeto de implantação de conjunto habitacional social, ocasionadas pela variação das regras nos algoritmos criados. Inicialmente, se realizou a leitura Analítica da Gramática da Forma de um Conjunto Habitacional específico e, posteriormente, simulou-se em ferramenta computacional a Gramática da Forma Paramétrica, para futuros estudos de melhorias em conjuntos habitacionais similares. Tal ferramenta visa desenvolver soluções inovadoras em tecnologia da informação e comunicação aplicadas à construção e arquitetura. Os resultados demonstram a potencialidade do uso da Gramática da Forma, permitindo a inserção de novos parâmetros a cada momento, criando a perspectiva de flexibilidade na concepção e gerando diversas possibilidades que podem ser analisadas e comparadas durante o processo de tomada de decisão do projeto.

  14. Corrimentos vaginais em gestantes: comparacao da abordagem sindromica com exames da pratica clinica da enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Marques Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo avaliativo de abordagem quantitativa, com amostra de 104 gestantes, com o objetivo de comparar os achados de infecções vaginais em gestantes obtidos por meio do fluxograma de corrimento vaginal com exames presentes na prática clínica da Enfermagem. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista e exame ginecológico realizados de janeiro a julho de 2011. O fluxograma não se mostrou eficaz na identificação de candidíase e tricomoníase, apresentou baixa sensibilidade (0,0%; 50% e valor preditivo positivo (0,0%; 3,6% para as duas infecções e baixa especificidade para tricomoníase (46%. Mostrou-se satisfatório para vaginose bacteriana, com alta sensibilidade (100%, valor preditivo negativo (100% e acurácia (74%. Conclui-se que o emprego do fluxograma precisa ser reavaliado, visto que não foi eficaz em identificar infecções importantes em gestantes. Os esforços para o desenvolvimento de testes eficazes devem ser contínuos, com intuito de prevenir a disseminação de infecções e reduzir tratamentos desnecessários.

  15. 75 FR 52292 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA...

  16. Fase aguda da esquistossomose mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Tonelli

    1972-10-01

    Full Text Available O A. faz um estudo panorâmico sobre a fase aguda da esquistossomose mansoni, abordando o quadro clínico e seu diagnóstico, os exames subsidiários, o diagnóstico diferencial, a terapêutica e os aspectos evolutivos. As manifestações clinicas dos períodos de incubação, de estado e de supressão são abordados. O diagnóstico da fase aguda é baseado em dado epidemiológico, 110 exame fisico e em exames subsidiários. O dado epidemiológico. em geral, é positivo, com menção a banho infectante, comumente 30 a 40 dias antes do início do quadro clínico e ao exame físico, encontramos hipertermia (38 - 4G°C, prostração, micropoliadenia hepatomegalia dolorosa em 95%, dos casos e esplenomegalia em 70% dos casos. Os exames prioritários para o diagnóstico são o exame parasiiológico de fezes seriado, que é positivo para ovos viáveis de S. mansoni e o leucograma seriado, que, geralmente, acusa leucocitose com eosinofilia. Em caso de dúvida ou para complementação diagnostica, podemos recorrer à endoscovia retal, ao oograma e á biópsia hepática. A endoscopia acusa, comumente, mucosa hiperêmica, edemaciada, friável, granulosa, com pontos hemorrágicos e o exame colhido por punção biópsia revela, entre outros achados, granulomas na fase necrótica-exsudativa. O diagnóstico diferencial deve ser feito com as seguintes entidades clínicas: gastroenterites. febre tifóide, disenteria bacilar, amebíase aguda, salmonelose septicêrnica prolongada, devendo, ainda, figurar a tuberculose miliar, abdome agudo, a G.N.D.A., a mononucleose infecciosa, a leptospirose, a hepatite e as poaneurites. A terapeutica é baseada nos cuidados gerais, na córticoterapia e na terapêutica específica. Observamos regressão dramática do quadro toxinfeccioso. nas primeiras 24 a 48 horas com a córticoterapia (prednisona que tem duração aproximada de 7 a 10 dias. A terapêutica específica (derivado nitrotiazolico = ambilhar e derivado hidroximet

  17. Energy education; Pedagogia da energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Rafael Ninno, e-mail: rafaelninno@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    'Pedagogia da Energia' (energy education) is a qualification course that has as intention to unite ambient education with renewable energies through the art-education and of the long-distance education. Collective made up of theoretical and practical activities through group dynamic and works, with intention to integrate and to enable the participants as a whole, aiming to form potentials to agreement and diffusion of energy concepts of the subjects environment - energy - residues. It possess the structure of an actual course with support of long-distance education with a platform of available web education in the Internet, where the participants have access the all content used in the course (texts, presentations and figures), virtual library, colloquy room, thematic list of quarrel and forum, beyond guardianship accompaniment. A structure constructed in classroom for the participants uses as pedagogical tool titled 'Mandala das Energias' where the concepts studied are worked in. The politics characteristics presented are, ambient and social of the use of the power plants and its implications in the daily one of the humanity. It understands the education as a reciprocal process, that understands the intention to teach and to learn in a set of exchanges of necessary information to the curious nature of the human beings. This article explains the structure and methodology of functioning of the course with a summary of the worked chapters. It also presents the pedagogical tool 'Mandala das Energias' and its respective flowchart of energies that originated it in annex at the end of the text. (author)

  18. Tratamento da giardiase com tinidazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslau Constante Baranski

    1975-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a eficácia terapêutica do tinidazol, um novo derivado nitroimidazólico, em trinta pacientes com giardiase. A posologia diária foi de 300 mg em 20 pacientes com idade superior a 10 anos, e de 150 mg em 10 crianças com idade inferior a 10 anos. O tratamento teve a duração de cinco dias. O diagnóstico e os controles de cura parasitológicos foram feitos pelos métodos de Hoffman, Pons & Janer e de Faust e cols. Foram realizados três controles, com intervalos de sete dias, iniciando-se na semana subsequente ao término do tratamento. Obtiveram cura parasitológica em 96,6% dos casos. Ressaltam a excelente tolerância da droga, mesmo em pacientes com grave doença fundamental ou em crianças, não se registrando efeitos colaterais. Concluem ser o tinidazol excelente droga giardicida.The Autors study the therapeutic efficacy of Tinidazole, a new nitrimidazole derivative, in the treatment of thirty patients with giardiasis. They employed the daily dosage of 300 mg for twenty patients and 150 mg for ten children, respectively with ten years of age or and less during five consecutive days. The diagnosis and the parasitological evaluation of the results of treatment were accomplished by stool examinations using zinc sulphate centrifugal-flotation technique of Faust et al. and sedimentatian-concentration technique of Hoffman, Pons and Janer. The control started one week after the treatment and consisted of three stool examinations, at one week intervals. The Authors achieved 96.6 per cent of parasitological cures. They stressed the excellent tolerance of the drug ,even by patients with serious fundamental diseases or by children. No side effects were registered. They conclude that Tinidazole is an excellent drug against Giardia lamblia infections.

  19. Determinantes sociais da saude e o Programa Saude da Familia no municipio de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pluciennik Dowbor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Analisar a situação do trabalho com determinantes sociais da saúde no âmbito do Programa Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS Estudo de caso com métodos mistos de pesquisa, ancorados em estratégia sequencial explanatória, com 171 gerentes das unidades do Programa Saúde da Família em São Paulo, SP, em 2005/2006. Questionários autopreenchíveis foram aplicados. Entrevistas semiestruturadas e grupos focais foram realizados com amostra intencional de profissionais envolvidos no trabalho com determinantes sociais da saúde. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados por análise descritiva, análise de correspondência múltipla, análise de agrupamento e testes de correlação entre variáveis. Os dados qualitativos foram apurados por análise de conteúdo e a criação de categorias temáticas. RESULTADOS Apesar da concentração de atividades direcionadas ao cuidado com a doença, o Programa Saúde da Família realizou atividades relacionadas à determinação social da saúde, contemplando todas as formas de abordagem da promoção da saúde (biológico, comportamental, psicológico, social e estrutural e os principais determinantes sociais da saúde descritos na literatura. Houve diferença significativa quanto à abrangência dos determinantes trabalhados nas unidades em relação às diferentes regiões do município. Constatou-se fragilidade das iniciativas e a sua desconexão com a estrutura programática do Programa Saúde da Família. CONCLUSÕES A quantidade e variedade de atividades com determinantes sociais da saúde realizadas no Programa Saúde da Família mostram potencial para trabalhar a determinação social da saúde. Mas a fluidez de objetivo e o caráter extraordinário das atividades descritas questionam sua sustentabilidade como parte integral da atual estrutura organizacional do programa.

  20. DETERMINANTES DA DIVULGAÇÃO DOS INDICADORES DE DESEMPENHO DA GRI NAS EMPRESAS DO BRASIL E DA ESPANHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Diógenes Góis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo investigar os fatores determinantes da divulgação dos indicadores de desempenho de sustentabilidade da GRI nas empresas listadas nas bolsas do Brasil e da Espanha. Para tanto, foram analisados os dados de 94 empresas de capital aberto dos dois países que publicaram relatórios anuais e/ou de sustentabilidade, referentes a 2011, no padrão GRI-G3. A pesquisa é descritiva, com abordagem quantitativa dos dados, utilizando-se a Regressão Linear Múltipla para quatro modelos de disclosure (econômico, ambiental, social e de sustentabilidade. Os resultados mostram que as empresas da Espanha apresentam um nível de disclosure de sustentabilidade mais elevado, e que o nível de evidenciação geral, considerando o conjunto das dimensões da sustentabilidade (econômica, social e ambiental, corresponde a 72,7%. Quanto ao resultado dos modelos de regressão, observa-se que as variáveis independentes (Tamanho, Rentabilidade, Endividamento, Auditoria, Setor de Impacto Ambiental e Idade não explicam o disclosure econômico; porém, quanto aos disclosures ambiental, social e de sustentabilidade, as variáveis Tamanho e Idade são fatores determinantes.

  1. ANÁLISE EXPERIMENTAL DA INFLUÊNCIA DA TECNOLOGIA HOMEPLUG NA QUALIDADE DA ENERGIA ELÉTRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Pereira de Siqueira Campos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhos recentes têm estudado características do meio elétrico para a transmissão de dados, ruídos e técnicas empregadas na comunicação pela rede elétrica. A maioria dos trabalhos limita-se a fazer testes de desempenho do protocolo. Diversos pesquisadores têm se preocupado com a influência das transmissões de dados na rede elétrica sobre as comunicações sem fio, mas ninguém tem se preocupado com a influência dessas transmissões na qualidade da energia elétrica. Este trabalho apresenta resultados preliminares sobre o efeito produzido por redes de computadores que utilizam a tecnologia Homeplug 1.0 na qualidade da energia elétrica. Para isso, foram escolhidos parâmetros apropriados para análise da qualidade da energia elétrica, bem como, foram definidas as formas de se obter esses parâmetros. Foi montada uma rede de computadores, com modem’s PLC, no CEFET-RN e realizados testes iniciais para medição da qualidade de energia elétrica. Resultados numéricos são apresentados.

  2. Os problemas epistemológicos da realidade, da compreensibilidade e da causalidade na teoria quântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos Filho Jenner Barretto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho apresentamos uma discussão epistemológica sobre os problemas da Realidade, da Compreensibilidade e da Causalidade no contexto de algumas das questões suscitadas pela teoria quântica, discussão essa que se reflete também num combate à concepção positivista de ciência. Argumentamos em prol de uma maior aproximação entre a epistemologia complexa de Bachelard, a filosofia popperiana do racionalismo crítico e a concepção lakatosiana de programas científicos de pesquisa. Argumentamos, outrossim, em prol de ambas: da necessidade de se levar mais a sério a complexidade do diálogo teoria/experimento e da cautela redobrada em relação à idéia de 'experimentos cruciais' notadamente quando esses são lidos tanto na ótica do positivismo quanto na do realismo ingênuo.

  3. O OFÍCIO DA PINTURA EM PORTUGAL E O PROJETO DA ACADEMIA DE PINTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Quinet Pifano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda o processo de reconhecimento do estatuto teórico das artes visuais e a consequente transformação do estatuto social do artista na Europa a partir do século XV. A formulação inédita de uma teoria da arte fundamentará tal processo e justificará a criação da Academia de Desenho em Florença no século XVI. A partir daí, muitas academias serão fundadas na Europa, consolidando paulatinamente a institucionalização da arte da pintura, escultura e arquitetura como artes liberais. Embora Portugal não se mantenha à margem deste processo, precisou esperar a dissolução do sistema de organização dos ofícios mecânicos em corporações para então fundar uma Academia de Belas Artes. Reflete-se aqui sobre o processo português de liberalização da arte: as relações entre a prática efetiva da pintura, a teoria da arte e o projeto de uma Academia de Pintura proposto pelo pintor Cyrillo Volkmar Machado.

  4. Vigotski e o estudo da psicologia da arte: contribuições para o desenvolvimento humano

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    Sonia Mari Shima Barroco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto resulta de investigação bibliográfica e de um exercício teórico-metodológico sobre a obra Psicologia da Arte, de L. S. Vigotski (1999, visando aprofundar uma reflexão sobre o objeto e método da própria psicologia da arte. Objetiva-se, assim, discutir as possíveis contribuições da arte para o desenvolvimento humano com base na teoria histórico-cultural. Propõe-se que o objeto da psicologia da arte é o estudo da estrutura da obra, que deve provocar uma resposta estética e impactar a psique do fruidor. Considera-se que a arte, por sua estrutura específica e condição de objeto cultural, pode trazer desenvolvimento à psique humana pois, entre outros aspectos, possibilita a duplicação do real no âmbito intrapsiquíco, ao oferecer ao fruidor a vivência, por meio indireto, sobretudo de emoções e sentimentos não cotidianos.

  5. A inclusão da subjetividade no ensino da Psicopatologia

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    Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da Psicopatologia tem sido freqüentemente apresentado em sua dimensão descritiva. Apesar da relevância para o ensino - auxiliar o aluno a reconhecer a dimensão sintomatológica dos quadros psicopatológicos -, exclui a dimensão subjetiva da experiência do adoecimento e seus aspectos relacionais. Partindo da tradição antropológico-existencial, apresentamos uma experiência de ensino de Psicopatologia que considera tais dimensões relevantes para a compreensão do sofrimento mental. Trabalhando com estudo de caso descritivo, são apresentadas duas novas modalidades de práticas na disciplina Psicopatologia Especial I, oferecida para alunos do curso de Psicologia da UFRJ. A proposta é ampliar o ensino prático, tradicionalmente centrado no modelo da extensa entrevista clínica, realizada diante de um grande grupo de alunos que a tudo assistem passivamente. Pretendemos aproximar o ensino e a prática da Psicopatologia dos ideais da Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileira, que concebe o adoecimento mental como fenômeno complexo, envolvendo a relação do sujeito com o mundo.

  6. A revolução da biotecnologia: questões da sociabilidade

    OpenAIRE

    Valério Igor P Victorino

    2000-01-01

    O autor procura levantar uma série de questões relacionadas ao avanço acelerado da biotecnologia e aos paradigmas que fundamentam tal avanço, como o determinismo genético. É demonstrado que as ciências biológicas sentem-se tão confortáveis com seus últimos desenvolvimentos que pressupõem amplos esquemas interpretativos para todos os campos da existência, principalmente para as ciências do comportamento e da cultura. É problematizada a ambivalência da questão da genética na relação entre as ci...

  7. A Liberdade da Imprensa Agrilhoada

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    Marco Aurelio Peri Guedes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho aborda caso decidido no ano de 2009 - MCRecl. nº 9.428 - pelo STF, envolvendo possível censura ao jornal O Estado de São Paulo. O jornal publicou matéria sobre operação da Polícia Federal designada Boi Barrica, envolvendo entre tantas outras pessoas o empresário Fernando Sarney, filho do então presidente do Senado José Sarney. O empresário, então, ingressa com ação junto ao T.J.D.F. a fim de tutelar o seu direito fundamental à intimidade, que estaria sendo violado pelo jornal. Medida liminar favorável lhe é concedida por desembargador daquele tribunal, que havia sido anteriormente indicado politicamente pelo Senador José Sarney – pai do empresário. Sem o conhecimento de todos os detalhes, poderíamos dizer que ponderação de interesses foi realizada – liberdade de imprensa e direito à privacidade - e direitos fundamentais foram protegidos, tendo o poder judiciário agido proativamente em sua defesa – sob uma leitura de ativismo judicial. Contudo, o que se observou foi a expressão de práticas oligárquicas a influenciar politicamente a composição do poder judiciário com vistas a dirigir suas decisões, denotando a força do patrimonialismo na república e a fragilidade de nossa constituição. Assim, teria se estabelecido uma censura em via oblíqua à liberdade de imprensa em plena vigor de um Estado democrático e social de direito, a ferir mortalmente nossas liberdades públicas e a constituição. Lembre-se que a constituição de 1988 veda todas as formas de censuta. Precisamos compreender o significado desta decisão e reverter este quadro de insegurança à liberdade de imprensa.

  8. Possíveis impasses da Lei Maria da Penha à convivência parental

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    Fernanda Simplício Cardoso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa discorrer sobre a temática da convivência parental, a partir dos pressupostos teóricos da Psicologia Jurídica, em sua interface com o Direito de Família. A questão problematizada são os possíveis desdobramentos da lei 11.340/2006, conhecida como Lei Maria da Penha, na convivência dos filhos com o pai, suposto autor de agressão. Trata-se de investigação baseada em pesquisa bibliográfica e observações realizadas em um serviço de psicologia do judiciário. A partir da explanação do contexto de surgimento da Lei Maria da Penha no Brasil e da atual estrutura do judiciário para aplicá-la, questiona-se os desdobramentos das medidas de proteção de urgência. Embora tenham a finalidade de prevenir a ocorrência de novos episódios de violência contra a mulher, supõe-se que possam interferir na convivência familiar, quando o pai é impedido de ter contato com os filhos, seja pela medida de afastamento da mulher ou de restrição/suspensão das visitas paternas. Concluiu-se neste estudo que, embora a referida lei esteja voltada para a proteção da mulher, seus efeitos sobre a convivência familiar precisam ser melhor investigados, visando assegurar a diferenciação entre conjugalidade e parentalidade para evitar que os filhos sofram prejuízos em seu direito a conviver com ambos os pais.

  9. Acompanhamento de familias de criancas com doenca cronica: percepcao da equipe de Saude da Familia

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    Etelvaldo Francisco Rego Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou caracterizar como a equipe da Estratégia Saúde da Família percebe sua dinâmica de acompanhamento de famílias que convivem com a doença crônica da criança. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que teve como referencial teórico o Interacionismo Simbólico e como método a Análise de Conteúdo, técnica de análise categorial temática. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se o grupo focal, que foi desenvolvido com três equipes de Saúde da Família, totalizando 32 sujeitos. Os resultados foram organizados em três categorias temáticas: Peculiaridades das famílias que convivem com a doença crônica da criança; Equipe, família e Estratégia Saúde da Família e Limitações para cuidar. A percepção da equipe é que o desenho da Estratégia Saúde da Família favorece o acesso à experiência familiar, permitindo o reconhecimento de suas especificidades. Os dados revelam ainda as limitações da equipe em sua capacidade de resolução e a necessidade de investimentos na articulação entre os distintos serviços, setores e equipamentos sociais.

  10. 76 FR 12627 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... the MCAI, on November 23, 2010, we issued AD 2010-25-01, Amendment 39-16534 (75 FR 75868, December 7... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  11. FUNDAMENTOS COGNITIVOS PARA O ENSINO DA LEITURA

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    Lucilene Bender de Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, revisamos alguns fundamentos teóricos para o ensino da leitura baseados em recentes estudos das neurociências e ciências cognitivas. A leitura, enquanto processo cognitivo, deve ser compreendida em todos os seus níveis de processamento para que o ensino possa identificar e atender às necessidades do aluno. Primeiramente, abordamos o processamento da leitura do nível mais básico, a decodificação, ao nível mais avançado, a compreensão. Em seguida, exploramos funções cognitivas que não são exclusivas da leitura, a memória, a emoção e a aprendizagem. Por fim, propomos uma visão integrada desses processos, considerando a intrínseca relação entre língua, cognição e cultura, a qual permeia todas as nossas atividades, destacando o papel da cultura e da educação no desenvolvimento cognitivo.

  12. A PROPAGANDA NA VAZANTE DA INFOMARÉ

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    Admir Borges

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende fazer uma reflexão sobre a origem sistêmica da Internet, sua adoção pelo marketing e a tímida tentativa da publicidade de agregar e conceber a Web como uma nova e importante mídia. Apresenta-se uma exposição sobre o surgimento da preocupação com a integração das ciências no contexto e abordagem proposta pela Teoria Geral dos Sistemas (sistema aberto, do biólogo alemão Ludwig Von Bertalanffy. O fenômeno da Internet tornou possível a democratização da informação e abriu para o marketing significativas fronteiras para a maior aproximação com o consumidor, através de suas estratégias de relacionamento, logística e interatividade. No entanto, a publicidade ainda não conseguiu criar uma linguagem e uma forma adequada de mensagem para esse novo meio.

  13. ANTROPOLOGIA DA IGUALDADE: DO ANONIMATO À FAMA

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    Nizia Maria Souza Villaça

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O texto pretende refletir sobre a cultura da performance, discutindo paralelamente a antropologia da igualdade que, no contemporâneo, dá lugar ao surgimento de novos heróis interpelados pela generalização da publicidade que promete a todos a possibilidade de atingir uma repentina notabilidade. A estratégia consegue seduzir uma quantidade grande de anônimos que participam dos certames e/ou se identificam com os que se sobressaem por meio dos dispositivos midiáticos. Tal modelo é pautado por uma cultura de estilo atlético e empresarial e tem seu foco na obtenção da fama. O fracasso de tal busca gera frequentemente um paradigma depressivo entre ansiolíticos, drogas, reclusão e imobilidade. A dinâmica da identidade/diferença é dinamizada pelas práticas do marketing cultural cujas ações serão objeto de discussão no sentido de verificar se o recurso à cultura propicia, efetivamente, um envolvimento individual e comunitário.

  14. O paradoxo da teoria: interpretando Niklas Luhmann

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    Hans-Georg Moeller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O artigo discute o papel do paradoxo na teoria social de Niklas Luhmann a partir de uma perspectiva hermenêutica "autológica": uma tentativa de interpretação "ortodoxa" da teoria de Luhmann, incluindo sua teoria do paradoxo, descobrirá que esta teoria não se presta a uma interpretação ortodoxa. Assim, mesmo que o paradoxo da teoria de Luhmann só possa ser compreendido por meio de uma interpretação ortodoxa, os fundamentos mesmos de tal abordagem hermenêutica ortodoxa são desconstruídos por seus próprios resultados. Com base em uma visada sobre esse paradoxo hermenêutico, o papel fundamental do paradoxo na teoria de Luhmann pode ser apreciado. Para Luhmann, a autoconstrução da sociedade como um sistema complexo de funções de comunicação baseia-se na Paradoxieentfaltung - o desenvolvimento de paradoxos -, que, por sua vez, se fundamenta no "paradoxo fundamental da observação" (die Grundparadoxie des Beobachtens. Assim, a construção social não opera por meio da eliminação de paradoxos, mas por meio do uso deles.

  15. Sustentabilidade Ambiental da Alimentação Humana

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Ana Margarida Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Trabalho complementar (Monografia) realizado no âmbito da Unidade Curricular Estágio da Licenciatura em Ciências da Nutrição da Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do Porto, sob orientação de Dr.ª Ana Sofia Costa (Misericórdia de Riba de Ave) e coorientação de Dr. Pedro Carvalho (Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do Porto) Resumo da tese: Num mundo em constante crescimento e globalização, os impactes ambientais são cada vez mais not...

  16. Influência da nutrição mineral foliar sobre doenças da parte aérea da cultura do trigo

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    Rafael Gustavo Ferreira Morales

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de fungicida para o controle de doenças foliares na cultura do trigo é prática comum entre os triticultores. Contudo, devido ao impacto ambiental provocado pelo seu uso generalizado, buscam-se alternativas para controle dos fitopatógenos. Sendo assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da nutrição mineral foliar sobre as doenças foliares do trigo, bem como seu efeito sobre o desenvolvimento da planta. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e quatro tratamentos: 1- testemunha; 2- adubação foliar aos 30 dias após a emergência (DAE e aos 75 DAE; 3- fungicida aos 30 e 75 DAE; e 4- adubação foliar aos 30 DAE e adubação foliar mais fungicida aos 75 DAE. Foram realizadas nove avaliações da incidência e da severidade do oídio, cujos dados foram utilizados para o cálculo das áreas abaixo das curvas de progresso da doença; três avaliações da severidade da ferrugem e da mancha da gluma; e duas avaliações da mancha amarela. Foram determinadas a massa de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular e a produtividade da cultura. Foi observada redução da incidência e da severidade de oídio em função da adubação foliar, apenas na primeira avaliação de incidência e nas segunda e quinta avaliações de severidade da doença. O efeito complementar dos nutrientes com o fungicida para redução das doenças foi observado apenas para a mancha amarela, com redução de aproximadamente 11,16 % da severidade. Os maiores valores de produtividade foram observados para os tratamentos apenas com fungicida e, com fungicida mais nutrientes. A adubação foliar proporcionou aumento da massa fresca de raízes e massa seca de raízes. Apesar disso, não houve aumento da massa fresca da parte aérea em função da adubação foliar.

  17. Instrumento mensurador de adesao para hipertensos: contribuicao da Teoria da Resposta ao Item

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Thais Pacheco Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar instrumento de medição da adesão ao tratamento da hipertensão por meio da "Teoria da Resposta ao Item". MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico com 406 hipertensos com complicações associadas, atendidos na atenção básica em Fortaleza, CE, 2011, pela "Teoria da Resposta ao Item". As etapas de execução foram: teste de dimensionalidade, calibração dos itens; tratamento dos dados e construção da escala, analisadas com base no modelo de resposta gradual. Estudo da dimensionalidade do instrumento foi feito pela análise da matriz de correlação policórica e análise fatorial de informação completa. Utilizou-se o software Multilog para calibração dos itens e estimação dos escores. RESULTADOS: Os itens referentes ao tratamento medicamentoso foram os mais diretamente relacionados à adesão, enquanto aqueles referentes ao tratamento não medicamentoso precisam ser reformulados, pois possuíram menor quantidade de informação psicométrica e baixa discriminação. A independência dos itens, o reduzido número de níveis da escala e as baixas variâncias explicadas no ajuste dos modelos mostraram as principais fragilidades do instrumento analisado. A "Teoria da Resposta ao Item" mostrou-se relevante para análise, pois avaliou o respondente quanto à adesão ao tratamento da hipertensão, ao nível de dificuldade dos itens e à sua capacidade de discriminação entre indivíduos com diferentes níveis de adesão, o que gerou maior quantidade de informação. CONCLUSÕES: O instrumento analisado é limitado para medir a adesão ao tratamento da hipertensão, mediante análise pela "Teoria da Resposta ao Item", e necessita de ajustes. A adequada formulação dos itens é importante para medir precisamente o traço latente desejado.

  18. o caso da Primark em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana Daniela Antunes da Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos de obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências da Comunicação, Ramo de Relações Públicas O valor da marca e a satisfação do consumidor são dois temas que têm vindo a ser abordados ao longo de décadas, por diversos autores. Como tal, surgiu o interesse de relacionar ambas as variáveis uma vez que não existe nenhum estudo em concreto que apresente uma relação entre as duas. Deste modo, o tema da presente pesquisa é a...

  19. Metáforas Organizacionais da Escola.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Maria

    1999-01-01

    A escola não é uma empresa. Ainda que hoje o papel do Estado esteja muito reduzido em relação ao passado e se fale de gestão profissional em praticamente todas as áreas, a verdade é que a escola como instituição tem uma missão e um conjunto de objectivos próprios e diferentes dos de uma empresa. Não de pretende pois recorrer a um modelo de gestão empresarial com panaceia para todos os males que são apontados ao Ensino, numa época que se fala da privatização da saúde, da segurança social. A Eu...

  20. The Supernova Impostor SN 2010da

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Breanna A.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova impostors are optical transients that, despite being assigned a supernova designation, do not signal the death of a massive star or accreting white dwarf. Instead, many impostors are thought to be major eruptions from luminous blue variables. Although the physical cause of these eruptions is still debated, tidal interactions from a binary companion has recently gained traction as a possible explanation for observations of some supernova impostors. In this talk, I will discuss the particularly interesting impostor SN 2010da, which exhibits high-luminosity, variable X-ray emission. The X-ray emission is consistent with accretion onto a neutron star, making SN 2010da a likely high mass X-ray binary in addition to a supernova impostor. SN 2010da is a unique laboratory for understanding both binary interactions as drivers of massive star eruptions and the evolutionary processes that create high mass X-ray binaries.

  1. Pungente vislumbre: a triste infalibilidade da culpa

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    Thales Augusto Barretto de Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O crime do professor de Matemática, de Clarice Lispector, aborda a necessidade inconsciente de punição advinda do sentimento de culpa, que constitui elemento inexorável da psique humana. O espelhamento do homem em seu animal o conduz à aproximação de uma possível consciência deste transtorno, fato que culmina no irremissível abandono do cão. Com base nos ensaios O estranho e O mal-estar na civilização, de Sigmund Freud, almeja-se entender a origem da dolente identificação entre estes dois personagens narrada no conto, bem como o corolário da cultura, responsável pela tristeza humana com a qual o professor irremediavelmente se coaduna.

  2. A cascata da água

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, José

    2011-01-01

    Propriedades da água. A água no sistema climático. O ciclo da água.Precipitação e intercepção (Formas e tipos de precipitação, Precipitação ponderada numa bacia hidrográfica. Medidas pluviométricas. Intercepção.Exercícios propostos)Evaporação e evapotranspiração (Considerações gerais,Factores de que depende a evapotranspiração,Medição e estimativa da evapotranspiração,Exercícios propostos) Infiltração.Esoamento.Balanço Hídrico.

  3. Tendencia secular da amamentacao no Brasil

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    Sonia Isoyama Venancio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de documentar a tendência secular da amamentação no Brasil, foram reanalisadas as bases de dados de sete pesquisas nacionais realizadas de 1975 a 2008. Para obter dados comparáveis entre os diferentes inquéritos, foram analisadas as mesmas faixas etárias e indicadores, e utilizadas as mesmas técnicas estatísticas. A duração mediana da amamentação aumentou de 2,5 para 11,3 meses e a prevalência da amamentação exclusiva em menores de seis meses passou de 3,1% para 41,0% no período. Os resultados apontam importantes desafios no sentido de acelerar o ritmo de crescimento dessa prática no País, rumo às recomendações internacionais.

  4. A atualidade da ética husserliana

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    Fabri, Marcelo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo argumenta em favor da atualidade da ética husserliana a partir de três eixos temáticos, que se complementam: a relação entre razão teórica e razão prática no interior da fenomenologia, o conceito de humanidade autêntica e, finalmente, a reflexão fenomenológica sobre a esfera do estrangeiro. Parte-se do pressuposto segundo o qual o pensamento de Husserl abre caminho para uma superação de duas atitudes éticas radicais: o ceticismo de caráter biológico e o universalismo abstrato

  5. Sustentabilidade da Frota DHC1 CHIPMUNK

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Luís

    2012-01-01

    O sistema de armas Chipmunk está ao serviço da Força Aérea Portuguesa desde 1951. Desde essa altura, já comportou diversas modificações, tendo procurado manter-se a aeronave operacional e o mais adequada possível à missão e aos padrões de segurança dos nossos dias. Há já 14 anos que a aeronave foi remotorizada, com um novo motor mais potente, tendo sido introduzida ao serviço da Academia da Força Aérea para efetuar a atividade aérea curricular com os alunos daquele estabelec...

  6. Do valor da vida, dos interesses, do sujeito

    OpenAIRE

    Marciano Adilio Spica

    2004-01-01

    O presente artigo versa sobre um dos mais polêmicos temas da ética prática, a saber, a inclusão de seres não-humanos na esfera da moral. Busca-se aqui reconstruir os argumentos de Peter Singer e Holmes Rolston III sobre o valor da vida, dos interesses e do sujeito. Ambos os autores defendem um alargamento da esfera moral, tradicionalmente reduzida somente aos seres da espécie humana. Suas teorias, porém, entram em conflito quando se trata dos limites da esfera moral. Enquanto Singer def...

  7. Origens da vida Origins of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Damineli

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um panorama geral das idéias sobre a origem da vida na história. Após delinearmos os principais temas necessários para o entendimento da origem da vida, mostramos as características básicas da vida atual e as relações entre os seres vivos que sugerem um ancestral comum. Revemos as condições químicas pré-bióticas no ambiente terrestre e fora dele. Quanto ao aparecimento da vida, confrontamos as principais vertentes sobre a precedência do código genético ou do metabolismo. Evidenciamos a curta janela de tempo para o estabelecimento da vida na Terra, indicando a facilidade de esse processo ocorrer no Universo. Finalmente, são apresentados os fundamentos dos projetos atuais de procura de vida fora de nosso planeta.We present a historical perspective about the ideas concerning the origin of life. After displaying the main topics necessary for understanding life’s origin, the main characteristics of the present life forms and their relationships are shown, suggesting a common ancestor. The conditions for prebiotic chemistry in terrestrial or interplanetary environments are reviewed. We put in context the arguments about the early origin of replicators versus metabolism. The very narrow window for life settlement in the early Earth is stressed, pointing to the likelihood of life arising in other places in the Universe. Finally, we present the cornerstones of current search for life outside our planet.

  8. Determinação da idade à puberdade fisiológica em borregas da raça Churra da Terra Quente nascidas no Inverno

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Jorge; Correia, Teresa Montenegro; Almeida, José Carlos; Valentim, Ramiro; Fontes, Paulo; Coelho, Alípio

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como principal objectivo estudar a idade à puberdade fisiológica de um grupo de borregas da raça Churra da Terra Quente, nascidas no início do Inverno e sujeitas às condições de maneio da Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD). Neste sentido, em Vila Real, mais precisamente na Quinta de Prados, pertencente à UTAD, 24 borregas da raça Churra da Terra Quente, nascidas em Janeiro, foram seleccionadas para a realização deste estudo. Estas borregas alcançaram a puber...

  9. Sobre a sistematizabilidade da filosofia da história de Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamm, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available São muitas e, até hoje, muito controvertidas as opiniões referentes à função e ao lugar sistemático da filosofia da história de Kant no todo do seu projeto crítico-transcendental; nem há consenso quanto à importância ou relevância filosófica dos diversos escritos em que Kant aborda e defende os seus teoremas histórico-políticos. - No presente trabalho, pretende-se interpretar a "doutrina" histórico-filosófica kantiana - não obstante o seu caráter fragmentário e até aparentemente nem sempre coerente - na perspectiva da sua possível homogeneidade e compatibilidade com os elementos centrais da própria teoria-base transcendental. Isso significa, antes de mais nada, ler os respectivos teoremas não como resultados de um raciocínio dogmático baseado num saber do processo histórico, mas como um conjunto de teses e postulados baseados no mero suposto subjetivo-racional de um progresso, ou seja, na idéia não só da possibilidade mas da necessidade (subjetiva da razão de implantar princípios racionais na história

  10. Imunologia da retinocoroidite toxoplásmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Azeredo Cordeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A infecção pelo Toxoplasma gondii é uma importante causa de doença ocular, tanto em indivíduos imunocomprometidos como em imunocompetentes. A patogênese da destruição retinocoroidiana associada a essa infecção ainda não está totalmente esclarecida. Nesta revisão, discute-se o papel do sistema imune no controle da infecção pelo Toxoplasma, especialmente, no olho.

  11. Resultados Preliminares da Reorganização da Coleção de Paleontologia da Faculdade de Geologia da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Figueiredo Souto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A coleção de fósseis do Departamentode Estratigrafia e Paleontologia da Faculdade deGeologia da Universidade do Estado do Rio deJaneiro (FGEO/UERJ, foi iniciada pelos professoresJosué Camargo Mendes, Maria Antonieta daConceição Rodriguez e Benedicto HumbertoRodriguez Francisco, a partir dos anos setenta nofinal do século passado, muitos dos exemplares destacoleção, utilizados em publicações e dissertações eteses. Entretanto, a inexistência de uma infraestruturadestinada a viabilizar os trabalhos de curadoriadificultou a organização e acessibilidade da mesmapor um longo tempo. O acervo é constituído por cercade novecentos exemplares, entre os quais figuram:microfósseis, vegetais, invertebrados, vertebrados eicnofósseis, com a maioria proveniente de diferentesbacias brasileiras (Paraná, Araripe, Parnaíba e SãoJosé de Itaboraí e alguns adquiridos por doaçãode instituições estrangeiras. Atualmente, após umano da implantação do Projeto de Reorganização eAtualização da Coleção, os trabalhos de reestruturaçãoda coleção foram retomados, possibilitando aadequação do espaço, triagem, recuperação e aotimização do armazenamento, alem da inclusãode novos exemplares. Esses procedimentos jáestão concluídos com a parte do acervo referente acoleção de invertebrados (conularia, braquiópodes,trilobitas, amonóides, gastrópodes, biválvios etentaculites constando de: 563 exemplares fósseise 298 exemplares atuais. A etapa seguinte do projetoserá dedicada aos exemplares de paleobotânica,paleovertebrados e icnofósseis. Em fase futura, omaterial da coleção será disponibilizado através demeio digital. Esse projeto recebe o apoio do InstitutoVirtual de Paleontologia/IVP – Fundação CarlosChagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado doRio de Janeiro/FAPERJ (Proc. E-26/150939-2005.

  12. Tecer sobe no ranking da Capes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surpresa ainda maior foi verificar que prosseguimos no rumo da consolidação, crescendo no ranking – chegando a B3 em alguns campos, como pode ser visto no portal de buscas do Qualis Capes http://qualis.capes.gov.br/webqualis/principal.seamhttp://qualis.capes.gov, que apresenta nossa classificação abaixo:   B3 ADMINISTRAÇÃO, CIÊNCIAS CONTÁBEIS E TURISMO B4 CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS APLICADAS I B4 EDUCAÇÃO B4 INTERDISCIPLINAR B5 DIREITO B5 HISTÓRIA C CIÊNCIA DA COMPUTAÇÃO

  13. Aspectos psiquiátricos da obesidade

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrow Ilyse J; Kamenetz Claudia; Devlin Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Pesquisas recentes mostram que a obesidade é, em grande parte, o produto da vulnerabilidade genética mediada por um ambiente promotor da doença, o que sugere que os modelos biológicos podem ser mais úteis que os psicológicos para entender seu início e manutenção. No entanto, entre os pacientes que procuram tratamento, a obesidade tem sido associada a outros transtornos psiquiátricos, especialmente à depressão, o que sugere que a comorbidade psiquiátrica deve ser considerada na avaliação e no ...

  14. Da kvinderne greb bøgerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Astrid Elkjær

    2016-01-01

    I 1800-tallet blev det anset for at være særdeles skadeligt for kvinder at bruge hovedet, og da den første kvindelige studerende startede på Københavns Universitet i 1877 ventede der en lang kamp for anerkendelse......I 1800-tallet blev det anset for at være særdeles skadeligt for kvinder at bruge hovedet, og da den første kvindelige studerende startede på Københavns Universitet i 1877 ventede der en lang kamp for anerkendelse...

  15. Os Desafios da Epidemia do Ebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Dias da Fonsêca Neto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde que se criaram as condições para a existência de aglomerados populacionais, os grandes flagelos sanitários da humanidade sempre estiveram presentes. As condições de vida, os desastres naturais ou provocados, podem agravar consideravelmente o risco de epidemias. Ao largo da história da humanidade, se viu populações de todo o mundo afetadas esporadicamente por surtos devastadores de doenças infecciosas, com destaque para cólera, peste e varíola. Hipocrates (460-377 AC e Galeno (129-216 DC já descreveram em suas épocas um doença que provavelmente era a cólera(1.A relação entre doença e civilização tem raízes mais antigas que a historia escrita. Os males sofridos durante os primeiros estágios da evolução humana foram identificados através de estudos arqueológicos(2.A atualidade é marcada por erupções recorrentes de doenças recém- descobertas, como o hantavirus, a AIDS, o ebola e gripes provocadas por vírus de diversas estruturas, entre outras epidemias de doenças que migraram para novas áreas, moléstias que adquiriram importância através de tecnologias humanas, como as síndromes de choques tóxicos, a doença dos legionários e zoonoses, em decorrência da destruição dos habitats naturais dos animais pelo homem. Algumas dessas doenças são potencialmente epidêmicas, e poderão gerar epidemias em grande escala, até mundial, a exemplo da epidemia global do vírus da imunodeficiência humana, a AIDS, considerada a primeira doença infecciosa epidêmica moderna(2,3.O grande aumento da movimentação de pessoas e mercadorias pelo mundo é força motriz por trás da globalização das doenças, tornando o mundo mais rapidamente vulnerável às mesmas e à sua propagação, tanto de antigas como de novas enfermidades. As pessoas e as mercadorias passaram a viajar e circular mais, muito mais rápido e a mais lugares e com elas, transportam-se micro-organismos a locais onde antes inexistiam. A nova epidemia

  16. Fluorescência da clorofila a em plantas de pessegueiro da cultivar maciel enxertada sobre diferentes porta-enxertos

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuela Garbin Martinazzo; Diolina Moura Silva; Valmor João Bianchi; Marcos Antonio Bacarin

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características da fluorescência da clorofila a em plantas de pessegueiro da cv. Maciel enxertadas em seis porta-enxertos. As análises da fluorescência da clorofila a, do índice de clorofila e do comprimento das folhas iniciaram-se após o período invernal e foram repetidas até aproximadamente 150 dias, totalizando seis coletas. O início da ontogenia das folhas foi caracterizado por alguns parâmetros de fluorescência mais elevados. Elevada pluviosidade, oc...

  17. A dor de amor na medicina da alma da primeira modernidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Carvalho da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute o problema da dor de amor nos diferentes campos do saber que compunham a medicina da alma da primeira modernidade. Deu-se especial destaque às reflexões do médico francês Jacques Ferrand (1575-1623 sobre o caráter instável, ilusório e faltoso do amor. Conclui-se que a dor de amor exige pensar as relações entre os afetos e o corpo, além de desafiar as próprias categorias diagnósticas e os tratamentos tradicionais.

  18. Avaliação da fragilidade ambiental da Bacia do Rio Nhundiaquara - PR

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maria Cristina Borges da

    2001-01-01

    Resumo: O propósito do presente trabalho foi o de analisar a fragilidade ambiental da bacia hidrográfica do Rio Nhundiaquara e cartografar indicadores da dinâmica ambiental, através de vários temas, como: geologia, solos, hidrografia, declividade, hipsometria, geomorfologia e uso da terra, com a preocupação de subsidiar a questão ambiental atr avés de uso do Geoprocessamento. A Bacia do Rio Nhundiaquara, abrange parte dos Municípios de Morretes, Antonina, Piraquara e Quatro Barras. A escolha ...

  19. A intervenção da Fisioterapia no cancro da mama

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Tânia Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Licenciada em Fisioterapia O Cancro da Mama é a neoplasia maligna que mais afecta a mulher em Portugal, estimando-se que haja mais de 4000 novos casos por ano. Objectivo: Determinar a intervenção da Fisioterapia com recurso a técnicas de Drenagem Linfática Manual (DLM), Ligaduras de compressão (LC) e Exercício Físico em Doentes com Cancro da Mama. Metodologia: Pesquisa computorizada...

  20. Fundo Nacional da Assistência Social: da teoria à prática social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, Lessí Inês Farias

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por escopo analisar o financiamento da assistência social no contexto dos ajustes fiscais realizados no Brasil no período 1990-2003. Para tanto, inicialmente, explicita-se o marco político-legal da política de Assistência Social. A seguir, é analisada a execução orçamentária do Fundo Nacional da Assistência Social desde a sua criação até 2003

  1. Especificidades da atividade física no cancro da mama

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Beatriz; Tomás, Mª Teresa

    2013-01-01

    De acordo com o estudo de Gatta e col, em Janeiro de 2003, 11,6 milhões de europeus apresentaram história clínica de cancro. Destes, uma em cada 73 mulheres tinham história de cancro da mama enquanto que um em cada 160 homens apresentaram história de cancro da próstata. A prevalência em 2003 conduziu a valores estimados de - 13 milhões de europeus afetados por cancro em 2010. O cancro da mama é o tipo de cancro que mais frequentemente é diagnosticado e a segunda causa de morte por cancro nas ...

  2. Aprender na Internet: um estudo de caso da aprendizagem autodirigida da pessoa idosa

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Rui Miguel Nobre

    2013-01-01

    Aprender é uma parte inevitável da vida e uma atividade tão antiga quanto a humanidade. Muita da aprendizagem é planeada, facilitada por terceiros e tem lugar em instituições como escolas, faculdades, universidades e centros de formação. Contudo uma grande parte da aprendizagem, às vezes originada pela curiosidade, outras vezes como resposta a imperativos externos, é em grande parte auto-planeada e autogerida. A aprendizagem na internet implica um maior controlo do aprendente facilitando a...

  3. A dimensão da pobreza, da desnutrição e da fome no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho pretende contribuir para um melhor entendimento da dimensão e possíveis soluções para a fome e a desnutrição no Brasil. Inicialmente, procuramos esclarecer a natureza distinta de cada um desses problemas e o que os distingue conceitualmente da pobreza. A seguir, examinamos as alternativas disponíveis para operacionalizar os conceitos de pobreza, desnutrição e fome em estudos empíricos que buscam aferir a freqüência desses problemas na população. Finalmente, apresentamos e comparamos resultados relativos à freqüência, distribuição geográfica e tendência secular da pobreza, da desnutrição e da fome no Brasil e destacamos suas principais implicações para o delineamento de políticas públicas que busquem o controle desses problemas em nosso meio.This paper intends to contribute to a better understanding of the dimension and possible solutions for hunger and malnutrition in Brazil. We start by clarifying conceptual distinctions between hunger and malnutrition and what distinguishes these two problems from poverty. Then we examine available alternatives to implement the concepts of poverty, malnutrition and hunger in field studies aiming to assess the magnitude of these problems in the population. Finally, we present and compare results on the frequency, distribution and secular trends of poverty, malnutrition and hunger in Brazil and we also discuss its main implications to the design of public policies aiming the control of these problems.

  4. Leonardo da Vinci on alati moes / Linda Järve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järve, Linda, 1946-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna Energiakeskuses avati Leonardo da Vinci lennumasin, mille aluseks on Milanos Biblioteca Ambrosiana raamatukogus säilitatavad joonised. Artikli autor külastas Itaalias Leonardo da Vinciga seotud paiku

  5. Eestisse jõuab Leonardo da Vinci arvatav autoportree

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis eksponeeritakse 5.-12. veebruarini Leonardo da Vinci arvatavat autoportreed. Toimub maali pidulik avamine ja maali analüüse tutvustav rahvusvaheline konverents "Da Vinci kood" Tallinna Ülikoolis

  6. A proposal for developing natural gas in Peru; Uma proposta de acao para o desenvolvimento do gas natural no Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, Maria E.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1996-12-31

    The discovery of natural gas in the South region of Peru (Camisea) has shown that reserves are four times petroleum reserves. A study that would contribute to the economical development of the South region of Peru for exploiting natural gas is proposed. 6 refs.

  7. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes.

  8. "Da Vinci kood" tuleb Eestisse / Urve Eslas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eslas, Urve

    2006-01-01

    17. mail esilinastus Cannes'i filmifestivalil Dan Browni samanimelise menuromaani järgi valminud põnevusfilm "Da Vinci kood" : stsenarist Akiva Goldsman : režissöör Ron Howard : osades Tom Hanks, Audrey Tautou, Jean Reno : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006

  9. Kod Da Vintshi. Tserkov protiv / Maria Tsheskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tsheskis, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus Dan Browni samanimelise menuromaani järgi valminud põnevusfilm "Da Vinci kood" : stsenarist Akiva Goldsman : režissöör Ron Howard : osades Tom Hanks, Audrey Tautou, Jean Reno : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Vastukajad ja skandaalid, eelkõige religioossete ringkondade poolt

  10. Sobrevoando Auschwitz: As aves da noite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Waldman

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Em As Aves da noite (1968, texto que é objeto de minha análise, Hilda Hilst mostra-se precursora no que diz respeito à matéria escolhida. Sua peça passa-se em Auschwitz e se refere ao Holocausto, num momento em que poucos escritores o tematizavam na literatura brasileira.

  11. DA White Dwarfs in the Kepler Field

    CERN Document Server

    Doyle, T F; Petit, V; Lepine, S

    2016-01-01

    We present 16 new, and confirm 7 previously identified, DA white dwarfs in the Kepler field through ground-based spectroscopy with the Hale 200", Kitt Peak 4-meter, and Bok 2.3-meter telescopes. Using atmospheric models we determine their effective temperatures and surface gravities to constrain their position with respect to the ZZ Ceti (DA pulsator) instability strip, and look for the presence or absence of pulsation with Kepler's unprecedented photometry. Our results are as follows: i) From our measurements of temperature and surface gravity, 12 of the 23 DA white dwarfs from this work fall well outside of the instability strip. The Kepler photometry available for 11 of these WDs allows us to confirm that none are pulsating. One of these eleven happens to be a presumed binary, KIC 11604781, with a period of ~5 days. ii) The remaining 11 DA white dwarfs are instability strip candidates, potentially falling within the current, empirical instability strip, after accounting for uncertainties. These WDs will he...

  12. The Structure of Ferroelectric DCsDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O. W.; Cowley, R. A.; Shapiro, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Neutron scattering measurements on DCsDA (CsD2AsO4) have failed to show ferroelectric critical scattering above Tc, but have provided evidence for a complex structure in the ferroelectric phase with periodicities of approximately 30, 15, 10 and 5 lattice spacings....

  13. 25 anos da revista Psicologia USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelia Ramozzi-Chiarottino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este pequeno artigo narra a fundação da revista Psicologia USP em 1990 e sua origem, inspirada no Jornal Brasileiro de Psicologia. Faz também, singela homenagem ao seu idealizador Professor Norberto de Abreu e Silva Neto.

  14. "O Aleph" e o estranhamento da linguagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O escritor argentino Jorge Luis Borges é conhecido não somente por seu trabalho artístico, mas também por sua atuação como crítico literário. Dentre seus ensaios críticos destaca-se a discussão da linguagem literária, assim como o tema é frequente em seus contos. O conto “O Aleph”, publicado pela primeira vez em coletânea homônima no ano de 1949, é, além de uma obra-prima do autor, uma discussão fantástico-maravilhosa da linguagem literária e suas limitações. A partir das leituras de Freud, Saussure, Monegal, Todorov, dentre outros, podemos encontrar em “O Aleph” a questão da linguagem enquanto representação da realidade, tudo isso de forma estranha, se colocando como personagem de um conflito fantástico. O objetivo deste artigo é apontar como a metalinguagem opera o estranhamento nesse conto e, além disso, como todo o conto se volta a discussão metalinguística, tendo em vista a teoria do estranho de Freud e a teoria dos signos linguísticos de Saussure.

  15. Eestlased muugivad da Vinci koodi / Mart Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Mart

    2009-01-01

    Itaalia kunstiajaloolane Nicola Barbatelli leidis tuttava kunstikogu korrastades Leonardo da Vinci arvatava autoportree. Tallinna Ülikooli maaliosakonna juhataja Orest Kormašov voolis maali järgi skulptuuri, et pilti võrrelda Leonardo õpilase Francesco Melzi tööga. Graafiline disainer Helen Kokk modelleeris arvutil maalist kolmedimensioonilise mudeli

  16. O sentido da vida no aconselhamento existencialista

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Eduardo João Ribeiro dos

    2002-01-01

    Neste artigo apresentam-se as linhas fundamentais do aconselhamento existencialista, nomeadamente em torno do conceito de sentido da vida. Implicações para a interpretação psicopatológica e para a intervenção psicoterapêutica são equacionadas

  17. Hidden sketches by Leonardo da Vinci revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2009-02-01

    Three drawings on the back of Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin and Child with St Anne (circa 1508) have been discovered by researchers led by Michel Menu from the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) and the Louvre Museum in Paris.

  18. A Estrutura Temporal da Consciência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Vitor Geraldi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Podemos ainda estar bastante longe de construir um modelo neurobiológico dos estados mentais conscientes sem incorrer nas insuficiências do reducionismo ou do funcionalismo. Alguns passos importantes foram entretanto dados neste sentido. O principal deles refere-se à idéia de que o estudo da dinâmica temporal de grupos neuronais pode fornecer alguma pista sobre os blocos funcionais utilizados na construção da experiência subjetiva consciente. Há cerca de 30 anos Pöppel vem trabalhando com um modelo de organização temporalmente descontínua da atividade mental consciente, o qual compreende dois mecanismos oscilatórios, de alta e de baixa frequência. O primeiro relaciona-se à definição de eventos e o segundo a sua integração em um momento psicológico. Os mecanismos da consciência equivalem aos que tornam esta sucessão de momentos temporais discretos possível. A compreensão dos mecanismos neuronais destas periodicidades e de sua relação com o processamento de informação está apenas começando.

  19. Passado e presente na psicopatologia da paranoia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Galdini Raimundo Oda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo comenta um ensaio do médico brasileiro Raimundo Nina-Rodrigues, publicado em 1902, sobre o diagnóstico e a psicopatologia da paranoia, bem como de suas relações com o chamado atavismo psíquico.

  20. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  1. DA White Dwarfs in the Kepler Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, T. F.; Howell, S. B.; Petit, V.; Lépine, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present 16 new, and confirm 7 previously identified, DA white dwarfs in the Kepler field through ground-based spectroscopy with the Hale 200″, Kitt Peak 4-meter, and Bok 2.3-meter telescopes. Using atmospheric models we determine their effective temperatures and surface gravities to constrain their position with respect to the ZZ Ceti (DA pulsator) instability strip, and look for the presence or absence of pulsation with Kepler's unprecedented photometry. Our results are as follows: i) From our measurements of temperature and surface gravity, 12 of the 23 DA white dwarfs from this work fall well outside of the instability strip. The Kepler photometry available for 11 of these WDs allows us to confirm that none are pulsating. One of these eleven happens to be a presumed binary, KIC 11604781, with a period of ˜5 days. ii) The remaining 11 DA white dwarfs are instability strip candidates, potentially falling within the current, empirical instability strip, after accounting for uncertainties. These WDs will help constrain the strip's location further, as eight are near the blue edge and three are near the red edge of the instability strip. Four of these WDs do not have Kepler photometry, so ground-based photometry is needed to determine the pulsation nature of these white dwarfs. The remaining seven have Kepler photometry available, but do not show any periodicity on typical WD pulsation timescales.

  2. Influência da idade da planta e da maturação dos frutos no momento da colheita na qualidade do café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Fernanda Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available São de grande importância os cuidados no preparo do café desde a colheita até o consumo e o estudo de parâmetros que possam influenciar na classificação comercial do grão e na qualidade da bebida. Teve-se como objetivos analisar a influência da idade das plantas, pertencentes à mesma variedade, e dos estágios de maturação dos grãos (secos, cerejas e verdes no resultado da classificação comercial e na qualidade da bebida. Realizou-se a colheita, por derriça no pano, de uma área com café arábica variedade Catuaí de 12 anos e de outra de 3 anos. Constituiu-se, para cada idade das plantas, os seguintes lotes: 100% cereja, 60% cereja e 40% verde, 80% cereja e 20% verde, 60% cereja e 40% seco, 80% cereja e 20% seco, e composição obtida na colheita. Na classificação comercial, obedeceu-se as normas estabelecidas pela Tabela Oficial Brasileira de Classificação (tipo, peneira, aspecto, cor e seca. Na classificação da bebida, optou-se por utilizar consumidores como provadores, com o objetivo de analisar a aceitabilidade da bebida pelo mercado consumidor. Como resultados, obteve-se, na classificação por tamanho e determinação de peneira média que os lotes de 12 anos apresentaram-se, com peneira média 15, resultado inferior aos lotes de 3 anos, com peneira média 16. Na classificação comercial e na da bebida, os resultados foram melhores, em geral, para os lotes de 3 anos em diferentes misturas, sem influência dos diferentes estágios de maturação.

  3. Fatores determinantes da capacidade funcional entre idosos

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    Tereza Etsuko da Costa Rosa

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO; Investigar a influência de fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos relativos à saúde, bem como os fatores ligados às atividades sociais e à avaliação subjetiva da saúde sobre a capacidade funcional dos idosos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, integrante de estudo multicêntrico, em amostra representativa do município de São Paulo, realizado em 1989. A capacidade funcional foi avaliada através da escala de atividades da vida diária pessoal e instrumental e investigada como variável dicotômica: ausência de dependência - incapacidade/dificuldade em nenhuma das atividades versus presença de dependência moderada/grave - incapacidade/dificuldade em 4 ou mais atividades. Análise de regressão logística múltipla foi aplicada aos fatores hierarquicamente agrupados. RESULTADOS: As características que se associaram com a dependência moderada/grave foram analfabetismo, ser aposentado, ser pensionista, ser dona de casa, não ser proprietário da moradia, ter mais de 65 anos, ter composição familiar multigeracional, ter sido internado nos últimos 6 meses, ser "caso" no rastreamento de saúde mental, não visitar amigos, ter problemas de visão, ter história de derrame, não visitar parentes e ter avaliação pessimista da saúde ao se comparar com seus pares. CONCLUSÕES: As características identificadas que se associaram à dependência moderada/grave sugerem uma complexa rede causal do declínio da capacidade funcional. Pode-se supor, entretanto, que ações preventivas especificamente voltadas para certos fatores podem propiciar benefícios para o prolongamento do bem estar da população idosa.

  4. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense... LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure C-2... properly prepared and sealed DA Form 4 are self-authenticating. (See Fed. R. Evid. 902). (b) Preparation...

  5. Aspectos morfológicos da terminologia da nanociência e nanotecnologia

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    Joel Sossai Coleti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, descrevem-se e analisam-se os aspectos morfológicos do conjunto de termos mais frequentes da terminologia da Nanociência e Nanotecnologia, de forma a cooperar com a fixação e maior compreensão da terminologia da Nanociência e Nanotecnologia, áreas centrais das atividades de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e inovação no mundo todo, como também enriquecer a descrição morfológica do português a partir de um léxico especializado, de maneira a contribuir com o refinamento de conhecimento linguístico útil para aplicação em sistemas híbridos de extração automática de terminologias (aqueles que combinam métodos estatísticos e conhecimento linguístico considerados mais eficazes.

  6. O PAPEL DA ARTE APRESENTADO POR HERBERT MARCUSE EM A IDEOLOGIA DA SOCIEDADE INDUSTRIAL.

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    Jorge Benedito de Freitas Teodoro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como finalidade analisar a perspectiva da arte como parte do aparato de dominação social, desenvolvida na obra A ideologia da sociedade industrial, de Herbert Marcuse. Para isso, utilizaremos como referência constante as teorias propostas pelos filósofos da Escola de Frankfurt, em especial Theodor W. Adorno e Max Horkheimer no que diz respeito, sobretudo, ao termo “indústria cultural”, cujo conceito aparece no capítulo homônimo de A dialética do esclarecimento. Apoiaremo-nos também na tese de doutorado de Imaculada Kangussu, intitulada Leis da liberdade: as relações entre Estética e Política na Filosofia de Herbert Marcuse, e, ainda, nas demais obras marcuseanas, com destaque para Eros e Civilização: uma interpretação filosófica do pensamento de Freud.

  7. Regulação da expressão da transtirretina pelo cortisol em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso, Irina Mendes Morgado

    2010-01-01

    A transtirretina (TTR) é uma proteína tetramérica com um peso molecular de 55 kDa sintetizada maioritariamente no fígado e plexo coroideu (CP) e tem um papel importante no transporte de hormonas da tiróide e de ligação ao retinol. É uma proteína que está associada a patologias neurodegenerativas, como a doença de Alzheimer (AD). Tem-se dado especial relevância às funções da TTR relacionadas com a progressão da AD. Esta caracteriza-se pela deposição de fibrilhas do péptido am...

  8. Síndrome extrapiramidal e hipoparatireoidismo: acerca da identidade da doença de Fahr

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    Marcelo Gabriel Vega

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available A presença de calcificações bilaterais dos gânglios da base associadas a manifestações neurológicas foi por muito tempo diagnosticada como doença de Fahr . Apresentamos os casos de dois pacientes com calcificações bilaterais de gânglios da base que apresentavam síndromes extrapiramidais e hipoparatireoidismo. Revimos a literatura pertinente e discutimos a identidade da doença de Fahr e as relações entre calcificações dos gânglios da base, manifestações neurológicas e endócrinas.

  9. Bases históricas da Epidemiologia

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    Naomar de Almeida Filho

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio tenta sistematizar uma série de informações esquemáticas sobre a história da Epidemiologia, a fim de compreender a sua evolução enquanto disciplina articulada ao desenvolvimento histórico dos principais movimentos sociais na área da saúde. Discute-se as raízes da Epidemiologia a partir do tripé Clínica-Estatística-Medicina Social, o seu desenvolvimento inicial subsidiário à Saúde Pública, a sua constituição ideológica e o seu avanço técnico no bojo do projeto preventivista. Finalmente, a Epidemiologia moderna é vista como uma disciplina que retorna às suas raízes históricas e políticas no movimento da Saúde Coletiva, opondo-se, a nível teórico, às pressões para torná-la um mero instrumento "método-lógico " da pesquisa clínica.The present article is an attempt to organize some information about the history of Epidemiology, in order to understand its evolution as a scientific discipline connected with the historical development of major social movements in the health fields. The roots of Epidemiology from the triad Clinics-Statistics-Social Medicine, its initial development depending on the Public Health, its Technical advancement and ideological constitution within the preventive project, are all discussed. Finnally, modem Epidemiology is seen as a discipline that recovers its historical and roots through the movement of Collective Health, in opposition, at a theoretical level, to pressures to make it a mere "methodological" tool for clinical research.

  10. A agroecologia: uma ilustração da fecundidade da pesquisa multiestratégica

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh Lacey

    2015-01-01

    Os objetivos deste artigo são (1) salientar o fato de que a pesquisa conduzida sob as estratégias agroecológicas serve para ilustrar a fecundidade da pesquisa multiestratégica e (2) apontar a relevância da agroecologia no Brasil, bem como sua crescente importância na produção dos alimentos no mundo inteiro.

  11. Holy Motors: da experiência de ser em vida

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    Sofia Karam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio se articula a partir da curiosidade e do encantamento em relação ao filme Holy Motors de Leos Carax, tendo em vista a sua potência como narrativa e experiência da imaginação do cinema, e da própria vida.

  12. Impacto do polimorfismo genetico da enzima conversora da angiotensina no remodelamento cardiaco

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    Felipe Neves de Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: O papel dos polimorfismos genéticos da enzima de conversão da angiotensina na insuficiência cardíaca, como preditor de desfechos ecocardiográficos, ainda não está estabelecido. é necessário identificar o perfil local para observar o impacto desses genótipos na população brasileira, sendo inédito o estudo da insuficiência cardíaca de etiologia exclusivamente não isquêmica em seguimento mais longo que 5 anos. Objetivo: Determinar a distribuição das variantes do polimorfismo genético da enzima de conversão da angiotensina e sua relação com a evolução ecocardiográfica de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca de etiologia não isquêmica. Métodos: Análise secundária de prontuários de 111 pacientes e identificação das variantes do polimorfismo genético da enzima de conversão da angiotensina, classificadas como DD (Deleção/Deleção, DI (Deleção/Inserção ou II (Inserção/Inserção. Resultados: As médias da coorte foram: seguimento de 64,9 meses, idade de 59,5 anos, 60,4% eram homens, 51,4% eram brancos, 98,2% faziam uso de betabloqueadores e 89,2% de inibidores da enzima de conversão da angiotensina ou de bloqueador do receptor da angiotensina. A distribuição do polimorfismo genético da enzima de conversão da angiotensina foi: 51,4% de DD; 44,1% de DI; e 4,5% de II. Não se observou nenhuma diferença das características clínicas ou de tratamento entre os grupos. O diâmetro sistólico do ventrículo esquerdo final foi a única variável ecocardiográfica isolada significativamente diferente entre os polimorfismos genéticos da enzima de conversão da angiotensina: 59,2 ± 1,8 para DD versus 52,3 ± 1,9 para DI versus 59,2 ± 5,2 para II (p = 0,029. No seguimento ecocardiográfico, todas as variáveis (diferença entre a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo da última e da primeira consulta; diferença entre o diâmetro sistólico do ventrículo esquerdo da última e da primeira

  13. A contribuição da ABEn/SC nos 75 anos da ABEn

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    Nelcy Terezinha Coutinho Mendes

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata o presente trabalho da trajetória da ABEn-SC, desde sua criação em 13 de março de 1962 até a presente data. Faz referência a precária situação da Enfermagem na década de 60 e a insuficiência de profissionais existentes no Estado, à época, razão principal da criação da Seção. Comenta as atividades desenvolvidas, procurando decodificar a natureza e as atitudes assumidas pela Associação, diante dos impactos sociais, e a postura política junto aos órgãos públicos. Fala sobre os meios utilizados para a divulgação da profissão e atualização profissional Cita os eventos que a Seção vem promovendo ou colaborando, os parceiros de quem tem recebido apoio e como vem divulgando suas atividades.

  14. Isenção da ciência, neutralidade da análise

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    Daniel Menezes Coelho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute as relações entre a psicanálise e a ciência, especialmente no que tange aos seus métodos de investigação e trabalho. Para isso, tomamos como objeto a noção de neutralidade, tal como podemos apreendê-la na clínica da psicanálise, para confrontá-la com o que chamamos de isenção no campo da ciência, que não quer dizer outra coisa que a neutralidade proposta lá. Veremos que, apesar da clara filiação da noção psicanalítica para com a noção vinda da ciência, a neutralidade clínica da psicanálise toma outro rumo, que se pode mesmo opor ao sentido do termo na ciência. Enquanto em ciência o termo quer significar um processo de purificação e de seleção, em psicanálise ele surge como a exigência de nada selecionar.

  15. Repercussoes do pet-saude na formacao de estudantes da area da saude

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    Paula Hubner Freitas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as repercussões do Programa de Educação pelo Trabalho para a Saúde/PET-Saúde na formação de estudantes da área da saúde. METODOS: Configura-se como exploratório-descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa.Fizeram parte do estudo, vinte estudantes participantes do PET-Saúde. A técnica de coleta de dados foi a entrevista semi-estruturada e o método de análise dos dados empregado, a análise de conteúdo temática. RESULTADOS: Os dados sinalizam que o PET-Saúde configura-se como um programa facilitador para a busca da integralidade e que proporciona articulação teórica-prática entre estudantes, serviço de saúde e comunidade, o que é imprescindível para a reorientação da formação em saúde. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que o desafio centra-se na formação crítico-reflexiva de profissionais da área da saúde, apontando para novos comportamentos e atitudes.

  16. Bioética nas questões da vida e da morte

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    Maria Julia Kovács

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho discute questões fundamentais acerca do fim da vida e da aproximação da morte. Como pano de fundo, apresenta uma reflexão bioética sobre temas complexos, tais como: qualidade de vida, dignidade no processo de morrer e autonomia nas escolhas em relação à própria vida nos seus momentos finais. O avanço da tecnologia médica favoreceu a cura de doenças e o prolongamento da vida, porém, levada ao exagero, pode fazer com que o sofrimento seja adicionado ao que se propõe ser um benefício, estimulando a discussão sobre questões relativas ao direito de decidir sobre o momento da morte, eutanásia, suicídio assistido e distanásia. A clarificação e a apresentação destes tópicos, sob vários ângulos, são os objetivos deste trabalho. Propõe-se, ainda, a criação de espaços para a discussão multidisciplinar das questões apresentadas.

  17. Os Avanços e os Limites da Queda Recente da Desigualdade no Brasil.

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    Patrícia Andrade de Oliveira e Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar os avanços e os limites na análise da queda recente verificada na desigualdade no Brasil. É sabido que durante os anos 2000, a alteração verificada no Índice de Gini teve como efeitos a redução expressiva da pobreza extrema, com um crescimento de quase 20% na renda desses indivíduos. No entanto, apesar da melhora nos rendimentos - derivado da conjugação entre o aquecimento da economia nacional (com expansão do consumo, melhora dos preços relativos e maior atuação das políticas sociais e internacional - alguns trabalhos argumentam que a desigualdade deve ser vista por um prisma multidimensional. Nesse sentido, pretende-se sintetizar e analisar a literatura acerca do tema, demonstrando as suas limitações e propondo novos enfoques para o estudo da realidade brasileira.

  18. O espaço da mulher brasileira e o espaço da enfermeira brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    O presente artigo tece alguns comentários sobre o espaço que a mulher brasileira conquistou durante o decorrer dos anos e relaciona a conquista deste espaço dentro da profissão de enfermagem. Tenta mostrar os condicionantes da conquista deste espaço na sociedade brasileira e se, de fato, eles operaram da mesma forma no caso da mulher desempenhando o papel de enfermeira nesta mesma sociedade.

  19. As bases moleculares da hemofilia A

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    Simone Ferreira Pio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As hemofilias são doenças hemorrágicas resultantes da deficiência de fator VIII (hemofilia A ou de fator IX (hemofilia B da coagulação, decorrentes de mutações nos genes que codificam os fatores VIII ou IX, respectivamente. A hemofilia A é mais frequente que a hemofilia B e acomete aproximadamente 1:10.000 nascimentos masculinos. A gravidade e frequência dos episódios hemorrágicos está relacionado ao nível residual de atividade de fator VIII presente no plasma e este relaciona-se ao tipo de mutação associada à doença. A clonagem do gene do fator VIII tornou possível o conhecimento das bases moleculares da hemofilia A, sendo hoje conhecidas mais de 1.000 mutações associadas à doença. O conhecimento das bases moleculares da hemofilia A permite uma melhor compreensão da relação genótipo-fenótipo da doença, tomada de condutas clínicas diferenciadas em casos de mutações associadas a um maior risco de desenvolvimento de inibidor, determinação da condição de portadora de hemofilia em mulheres relacionadas aos pacientes, implementação de programa de aconselhamento genético/orientação familiar e melhor compreensão das relações estruturais-funcionais do gene-proteína. Este artigo propõe revisar as bases moleculares da hemofilia A, os métodos laboratoriais utilizados para a caracterização das mutações e as implicações clínicas envolvidas no diagnóstico molecular da hemofilia A.Hemophilias are bleeding disorders due to deficiency of the blood coagulation factor VIII (hemophilia A or factor IX (hemophilia B, resulting from mutation on the gene coding for factor VIII or factor IX. Hemophilia A is more frequent than hemophilia B and affects 1:10,000 male newborns. The severity and frequency of hemorrhagic episodes is related to residual activity of factor VIII present in the plasma and relates to the type of mutation associated with the disorder. Cloning of the factor VIII gene has enabled researchers to

  20. “Aberta e patente a todos”: Os quinhentos anos (pelo menos!) da Biblioteca da Universidade de Coimbra

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, António Eugénio Maia

    2013-01-01

    Compila-se uma breve história da Biblioteca da Universidade de Coimbra, que será objeto de um livro a editar este ano (2013).Trabalho de bibliotecários (para variar), de arquitetos e de historiadores de arte, que pretende focar-se nos contributos relevantes que a BGUC trouxe à história da biblioteconomia portuguesa.

  1. Didáctica da matemática : os materiais e o ensino da matemática

    OpenAIRE

    Serrazina, Lurdes

    1996-01-01

    Formação - Professores A utilização de materiais no ensino da Matemática - utilização concreta numa aula, papel dos materiais, papel do professor e dos alunos. Participação de Florinda Costa e Fátima Pedro, professoras da Escola Básica 2-3 do Monte da Caparica.

  2. Redes de atenção à saúde sob a luz da teoria da complexidade

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    Cecilia Arruda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Refletir acerca dos princípios que norteiam as Redes de Atenção em Saúde sob a luz dos princípios da Teoria da Complexidade de Edgar Morin. Métodos: Trata-se de uma reflexão teórica. Resultados: Esta reflexão foi organizada em três atos: primeiro, apresenta-se uma contextualização histórica das Redes de Atenção em Saúde no Brasil; segundo, a conexão entre as Redes de Atenção em Saúde e os princípios da teoria da complexidade de Edgar Morin; terceiro, expõe-se alguns desafios para construção das Redes de Atenção em Saúde na perspectiva da complexidade. Conclusão: A conexão existente entre os pressupostos das RAS e os princípios da Teoria da Complexidade sugere a possibilidade de se aprofundar o entendimento, tanto das dificuldades, como das possibilidades de transformação da realidade do serviço de saúde público brasileiro, em busca da implementação da prática da integralidade da atenção à saúde.

  3. A temática cultura organizacional nos estudos na área da saúde e da enfermagem

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    Bastos Marisa Antonini Ribeiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma revisão da literatura sobre a temática cultura organizacional apontando os pressupostos subjacentes às diferentes concepções teórico-metodológicas. Focaliza os estudos na área da saúde a da enfermagem.

  4. Prevenção e controle da tuberculose: revisão integrativa da literatura

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    Evelaine Pinheiro de Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A incidência cada vez maior de casos de tuberculose e o elevado índice de abandono ao tratamento faz com que esta doença seja um sério problema de saúde pública, principalmente pela ocorrência de casos de multirresistência. O presente estudo faz uma revisão integrativa da literatura, que objetivou analisar e discutir a produção cientifica brasileira sobre ações de prevenção e controle da tuberculose, para subsidiar a construção de uma Tecnologia Educativa em Saúde destinada aos contatos de doentes com tuberculose multirresistente. Materiais e Métodos: Os artigos foram selecionados no portal da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde/LILACS e SciELO, utilizando os descritores: prevenção e controle, associado ao descritor tuberculose. Após aplicados os critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram elencados 8 artigos completos. Resultados: Após a análise dos artigos reuniram-se os resultados  em  03 categorias temáticas: Dificuldades na prevenção e controle da tuberculose; Conhecimentos dos doentes e familiares sobre a doença e Estigma da tuberculose. Discussão: Os resultados evidenciaram que ainda existem grandes barreiras a serem vencidas para que o controle da tuberculose se torne efetivo. As maiores dificuldades estão no contexto do desconhecimento em relação à doença e o estigma da tuberculose, deixando explícito que somente o acesso ao diagnóstico e aos medicamentos não são suficientes para uma adesão efetiva. Conclusões: Conclui-se que é fundamental assegurar a informação e o esclarecimento dos principais aspectos relacionados à doença, com tecnologias educativas, de modo a inserir doentes e familiares como peças fundamentais no processo de enfrentamento da mesma, contribuindo para prevenção e controle dessa endemia.Cómo citar este artículo: Souza E, Barbosa E, Rodrigues I, Nogueira L. Prevenção e controle da tuberculose: revisão integrativa da literatura. Rev Cuid. 2015; 6(2: 1094

  5. Avaliação genética para a displasia da anca na raça cão da Serra da Estrela

    OpenAIRE

    Coxo, Alexandre Manuel Cadavez Gouveia

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária, Ciências Veterinárias A raça Cão Serra da Estrela tem predisposição para a Displasia da Anca, doença com uma forte componente hereditária. O controlo tem passado pela avaliação radiográfica da anca, na qual se baseia a reprodução seletiva, nem sempre com o sucesso desejado. Os principais objetivos deste trabalho foram: Estudar a população da raça Cão da Serra da Estrela registada no clube Português de canicultura e a ...

  6. O princípio da legalidade como direito fundamental

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiel, Caio Alexandro Lopes

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho apresenta o principio da legalidade enquanto direito fundamental. Não apenas por estar inserido dentre as garantias enumeradas no artigo quinto da Constituição Federal (inciso II), mas exatamente porque estas garantias ( todas elas) resultam da força democrática daquele princípio. A própria evolução do princípio da legalidade, enquanto obrigação à ordem legal, pela qual toda ação estatal e privada está sujeita à existência e ao termo da norma, propi...

  7. Aspectos neuroquimicos do parkinsonismo: revisão da literatura

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    James Pitagoras de Mattos

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores fazem revisão da literatura sobre os dados neuroquímicos até agora encontrados na síndrome parkinsoniana. Analisam as alterações das concentrações da dopamina, da acetilcolina, da serotonina, da noradrenalina, de enzimas, do ácido neuroamínico e de alguns metais e amino-ácidos, concluindo pela provável existência de defeito neuroquimico mais generalizado na condição em apreço.

  8. Aspectos neuroquimicos do parkinsonismo: revisão da literatura

    OpenAIRE

    James Pitagoras de Mattos; Claudio Cechela; Jonatas Galvarros Adams; José Mauro Braz de Lima

    1982-01-01

    Os autores fazem revisão da literatura sobre os dados neuroquímicos até agora encontrados na síndrome parkinsoniana. Analisam as alterações das concentrações da dopamina, da acetilcolina, da serotonina, da noradrenalina, de enzimas, do ácido neuroamínico e de alguns metais e amino-ácidos, concluindo pela provável existência de defeito neuroquimico mais generalizado na condição em apreço.

  9. Um retrato da identidade masculina no comercial Wilson

    OpenAIRE

    Asdrúbal Sobrinho

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho propõe-se a analisar, por meio da semiótica da cultura e de questões relacionadas a estudos de gênero e identidade, um personagem da propaganda, como signo capaz de representar marcas, valores e grupos sociais. Como mediador do diálogo entre eles e o anunciante, o personagem e o conjunto de signos correlatos facilitam a fixação da mensagem no imaginário e determinam o efeito persuasivo da propaganda. Palavras-chave: Personagem; propaganda; carência; dicotomia; identidade. ...

  10. Fundamentos kantianos da psicanálise freudiana e o lugar da metapsicologia no desenvolvimento da psicanálise

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    Leopoldo Fulgencio

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Pretendo mostrar que as referências de Freud a Kant não dizem respeito a pontos ou temas específicos, mas, sim, que Freud construiu a psicanálise na tentativa de elaborar uma psicologia científica de acordo com o programa kantiano de pesquisa a priori para as ciências da natureza. Esse programa não só objetifica o psiquismo, tal como qualquer outra coisa estrangeira ao homem, naturalizando-o, como também propõe que esse objeto seja pesquisado com a ajuda de fi cções heurísticas específi cas - em especial, as que caracterizam a suposição de forças em confl ito, que caracterizam o ponto de vista dinâmico -, as quais, em última instância, caracterizam a teorização de tipo metapsicológico na psicanálise. Tal quadro leva à pergunta sobre o futuro da psicanálise pós- Freud, uma vez que o solo filosófico kantiano sofreu severas críticas com o desenvolvimento da filosofia pós-Kant.

  11. Distúrbios da aquisição da linguagem e da aprendizagem Language and learning disorders

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    Carolina R. Schirmer

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste artigo é instrumentalizar os profissionais da saúde, em especial o pediatra, para que possam agir no diagnóstico e na prevenção primária dos distúrbios de linguagem oral e escrita. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada revisão da literatura sobre o tema proposto na MEDLINE nos últimos 5 anos e foram incluídas referências de livros-texto considerados como base para a compreensão dos distúrbios da linguagem e do aprendizado na infância. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Sabe-se que as causas de alterações de linguagem e de dificuldades de aprendizagem podem ser variadas, apesar de existirem muitos estudos indicando fatores neurológicos para tais problemas. CONCLUSÃO: Ressalta-se a importância de uma adequada investigação buscando um correto diagnóstico para, então, direcionar o melhor tratamento indicado para cada caso.OBJECTIVE: To aid health professionals, especially pediatricians, in the diagnosis and prevention of language and learning disorders. SOURCES OF DATA: Review of the relevant literature published in the past 5 years (MEDLINE and textbooks. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Multiple variables, among them neurological diseases, may be related to the etiology of language and learning disorders. CONCLUSION: An adequate diagnostic investigation may guide the choice of treatment.

  12. Fraturas da diáfise da tíbia Tibial shaft fractures

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    Kodi Edson Kojima

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A fratura de osso longo mais frequente é a da diáfise da tíbia, e seu tratamento adequado evita o aparecimento de falhas da consolidação, consolidação viciosa e reoperações. Para classificar a fratura ainda se utiliza a classificação AO/OTA, mas vale a pena conhecer a classificação de Ellis, que também inclui a avaliação da lesão das partes moles. A síndrome compartimental é uma associação frequente, e o diagnóstico precoce pode ser feito precocemente com avaliação dos parâmetros clínicos e uma monitorização clínica constante. Feito o diagnóstico, deve-se realizar a fasciotomia. A avaliação da consolidação sempre é difícil, mas o método de RUST pode ajudar nessa avaliação. Avalia-se a radiografia em duas projeções, dando-se pontos para a presença da linha de fratura e a presença de calo ósseo visível. Hoje em dia se discute o dogma das seis horas para a limpeza da fratura exposta. Considera-se de mais importância o início precoce da antibioticoterapia endovenosa e a gravidade da lesão. A questão do fechamento precoce ou tardio da lesão em uma fratura exposta passou por várias fases, com épocas se indicando o fechamento precoce e épocas o tardio. Atualmente se preconiza, sempre que possível, o fechamento precoce da lesão, pois isso diminui o risco de infecção. A fresagem do canal quando da introdução da haste intramedular ainda é um assunto controverso. Apesar de fortes posições pessoais a favor da fresagem, os estudos mostram haver alguma vantagem nas fraturas fechadas, mas não nas expostas.The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an

  13. A descoberta da contingência pela teoria social

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    Franz Josef Brüseke

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Historicamente, a contingência é pensada por Aristóteles, pela primeira vez, no seu texto peri hermeneias onde o filósofo introduz o conceito endechómenon, traduzido mais tarde como contingência. A descoberta da contingência reflete um novo estado de espírito nas obras de Weber, Parsons e Luhmann como na filosofia ocidental em Husserl, Heidegger, Camus, Sartre e outros, que se dão conta da dramaticidade das relações e fenômenos contingentes. Apesar da longa tradição da consciência da contingência no pensamento ocidental, é o advento do "pós-modernismo", relativamente tarde, que marca sua saída da latência. Autores como Lyotard, Maffesoli e Bauman exploram a descoberta da contingência no campo da teoria social e mostram que o mundo é necessariamente como é mas, também, poderia ser diferente. Nossa hipótese é que o caráter altamente contingente da técnica moderna, na medida em que esta penetra cada vez mais a sociedade contemporânea, afeta decisivamente o homem e seu modo de viver no mundo; desta maneira o problema da contingência ganha relevância sociológica.

  14. Regionalismo e Turismo: O Caso da Região Francesa da Borgonha

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    Vander Valduga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE O presente trabalho é resultado de uma imersão de estudos na região da Borgonha, na França, oportunizada por um estágio doutoral na Chaire UNESCO Culture et Traditions Du Vin, vinculada à Universidade da Borgonha. O Estágio foi realizado entre dezembro de 2009 e março de 2010 e o trabalho teve como propósito ampliar a compreensão do contexto regional, identitário e turístico da Borgonha. Essa região em na vitivinicultura milenar e nos produtos locais o alicerce patrimonial para difusão da prática turística. A formação regionalista da Borgonha se deu no seio da formação regionalista da França, que teve início no final do século XIX e foi fortalecida no período entre as duas Guerras Mundiais. A compreensão e análise do processo histórico de formação apontaram que o movimento regionalista foi estrategicamente articulado visando à manutenção dos agricultores no campo, evitando sua migração em massa às cidades e fomentando a produção local de produtos que se tornariam típicos, elitistas, e mais tarde, reconhecidos globalmente.

  15. Genética da resistência à ferrugem-da-folha em aveia

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    Cruz Renata Pereira da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem-da-folha (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae é a principal doença da cultura da aveia (Avena sativa L., e o uso de cultivares resistentes é o método de controle mais importante. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o controle genético da resistência à ferrugem-da-folha em aveia e identificar fontes de genes diferentes para resistência a esta doença. Foram utilizados três genótipos resistentes (UFRGS 15, UFRGS 881920 e UFRGS 86A1194-2, três genótipos suscetíveis (UFRGS 7, UFRGS 8 e UFRGS 14 e a geração segregante F3 proveniente dos cruzamentos entre estes genótipos. As plantas foram avaliadas individualmente quanto à presença ou ausência da ferrugem-da-folha, sendo os dados destas leituras utilizados numa análise genética em que a hipótese de um ou dois genes de resistência foi testada pelo qui-quadrado. Os resultados evidenciaram um gene dominante de resistência no genótipo UFRGS 881920 e dois genes complementares no genótipo UFRGS 15 quando estes foram cruzados com os suscetíveis. A análise genética feita não permitiu determinar se estes dois genótipos são ou não a mesma fonte genética de resistência.

  16. A gramática amorosa da amizade

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    Danièle Brun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A amizade tem origem nos primeiros laços amorosos, dos quais traz a marca. A satisfação sexual obtida nas relações de amizade, embora distinta daquela que caracteriza o amor, repousa sobre a sexualidade infantil. Aborda-se, com o apoio da literatura e da clínica (a partir da clínica e da literatura, a especificidade da amizade e seu papel no contexto da identificação e da imagem de si.The love grammar of friendship. The friendship has its first origins in the love ties, from which it brings its marks. The sexual satisfaction obtained from the friendship, although distinct from the one that characterizes love, lies on the childish sexuality. It is here approached, with the support of literature and clinical work, the specificity of friendship and its role in the identification context and the self-image.

  17. A teoria criminológica da pena

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Júnior, Reinaldo Santos de, 1987-

    2013-01-01

    O direito penal é técnica de controle social que define crimes, comina penas e prevê medidas de segurança, para constituir o centro do programa oficial de política penal do Estado para o controle social do crime e da criminalidade, por meio das penas criminais, cujas funções se apresentam nas dimensões de ilusão e realidade expressas na teoria jurídica da pena e na teoria criminológica da pena. A teoria jurídica da pena legitima a aplicação da pena por meio da teoria da pena, que estrutura o ...

  18. Historicidade da infância no Brasil

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    Eliseudo Salvino Gomes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem a finalidade de discutir diferentes concepções de infância; procurando entender o seu relacionamento na sociedade medieval, avaliando a sua imagem como «o jardim de infância» precocemente inserida no mercado de trabalho. Entretanto, o seu objetivo primordial é apresentar uma breve análise da história da Infância brasileira, considerando o seu conceito de infância, bem como os aspectos da exploração do trabalho infantil, do abuso e exploração sexual infantil e da educação infantil. Destacam-se ademais as influências culturais-econômicas-históricas que podem ser observadas ao longo da estruturação do campo de estudo da Psicologia da Infância e do Direito.

  19. Sobre o problema da demarcação

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    Marcos Barbosa de Oliveira

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde sua publicação, não têm faltado ataques ao critério da refutabilidade - a solução proposta por Popper para seu problema da demarcação. A crítica do presente artigo é mais fundamental: seu alvo é o próprio problema da demarcação. Como preliminar, mostra-se haver na obra de Popper não apenas um, mas dois problemas da demarcação, distintos e incompatíveis. Uma análise do antiessencialismo de Popper é o ponto de partida para a demonstração da tese central do artigo, a saber, a tese de que o problema da demarcação deve ser abandonado, por ser parte de uma abordagem cientificista da questão do valor das ciências.

  20. Atuação da equipe de enfermagem nos programas de assistência integral à saúde da criança e da mulher

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    Ana Luiza Stiebler Vieira

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando demonstrar a plena utilização dos Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem, o compromisso social desta com grupos da população reconhecidamente carente da assistência à saúde e a viabilização da extensão de cobertura, as autoras descrevem e avaliam as atividades da equipe de enfermagem junto a uma população de baixa renda no município do Rio de Janeiro.

  1. Contributo da directiva-quadro da água 2000/60/CE para a melhoria do controlo de qualidade da água de consumo humano

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, Cristina Maria Costa

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado, Tecnologia dos Alimentos, Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Universidade do Algarve, 2011 Neste trabalho pretendeu-se verificar a contribuição da Directiva-Quadro da Água 2000/60/CE para a melhoria do controlo analítico da água para consumo humano em Portugal. O Laboratório de Engenharia Sanitária da Universidade do Algarve foi analisado em particular, i.e. como um caso de estudo de um laboratório de ensaios de águas acreditado. Para atingir o objectivo geral pr...

  2. Utilisation of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 as quarantine treatment of medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae); Utilizacao da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 como tratamento quarentenario de plantas medicinais, aromaticas e condimentares desidratadas infestadas por Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) e Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2007-07-01

    The research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation of the Cobalto-60 as quarantine treatment of the medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella determining the disinfestation doses to attend the criterion in the not emergency of adults of the species in study and analysing through the Chromatography of Thin Layer the effect of the gamma radiation of the cobalto-60 on the active principle of extract dehydrated of Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Origanum vulgare, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Thymus vulgaris. The work was developed in the Laboratorio de Inseticidas in the Instituto Biologico in Sao Paulo in the period of August of 2005 the June of 2007. The radiation source used gamma was an experimental irradiator of Cobalto-60, model Gamacell 220, located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, located in Sao Paulo. In the period of 30 days after the irradiation of the samples evaluated the number of adults emerged of Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, using the data of mortality for the analysis of Probit. Obtained 100% of not emergency of adults in the Lasioderma serricorne with the dose of 2,00 kGy and 100% of not emergency of adults in the Plodia interpunctella with the dose of 2,25 kGy. The Chromatographic Analysis of Thin Layer was to evaluate did not show chemical differences in the extracts analysed. (author)

  3. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality; Utilizacao da radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para o 'bicho furao' Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) em laranja pera (Citrus sinensis), e o estudo dos seus efeitos sobre a qualidade dos frutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jose Tadeu de

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  4. O Mapeamento da inclusão no acervo nas bibliotecas da universidade federal da Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa tem por objetivo mapear a produção científica sobre o tema “inclusão” no acervo das bibliotecas da Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB e com este fim opta por uma revisão bibliográfica do fenômeno, analisando-o a partir de uma perspectiva dialética, e, ainda realiza um levantamento de obras disponíveis no sistema de bibliotecas. Assim, por meio de dois sistemas de filtragens: por título e por assunto, construímos uma lista de obras organizadas em: livros, monografias, dissertações e teses. A partir desta lista montou-se um quadro demonstrativo do acervo sobre inclusão e passou-se a análise do mesmo, dentro da perspectiva qualitativa e quantitativa. Na análise quantitativa buscou-se correlacionar à quantidade de obras disponíveis na área e sua representação dentro do acervo geral das bibliotecas da UFPB, enquanto na análise qualitativa, elas foram categorizadas a partir da especificidade apresentada, pautada exclusivamente no que se anuncia no título ou em caso de dúvida, procedeu-se investigação do assunto tratado nas obras. Os resultados demonstraram que o acervo sobre inclusão na UFPB ainda é bastante incipiente, e que por se referirem a grupos ou áreas específicas são ainda mais escassos quando categorizados por área: social, educacional, digital, por exemplo. Ressalta-se, ainda, o fato do maior número de obras disponíveis se referirem à questão educacional e, mais especificamente às pessoas com deficiência, o que demonstra que se tem restringido as aquisições de títulos sobre inclusão a uma só área, deixando de considerar outros debates relativos à inclusão étnica, do idoso, na saúde etc.

  5. METÁFORAS DA VIDA PLENA

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    Eunice Terezinha Piazza Gai

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O texto constitui uma reflexão sobre a metáfora da vida plena associada às idéias de utopia e de paraíso perdido, presentes em dois textos narrativos. Um, intitulado “Quando a vida era plena não existia a história”, pertence ao livro de Thomas Merton, A via de Chuang Tzu e o outro, “O sonho de um homem ridículo”, é de Dostoievski. O estudo volta-se para a análise dos textos narrativos, para alguns aspectos teóricos sobre a metáfora e para a linguagem, colocando em pauta a dupla face de que esta se constitui: portadora de sentido e ao mesmo tempo, testemunha da incompletude e carência humanas.

  6. Tratamento Cirúrgico da Epilepsia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, M.; Almeida, R

    1996-01-01

    A terapêutica dos doentes com epilepsia continua a ser essencialmente baseada na utilização dos fármacos antiepilépticos. No entanto, a terapêutica cirúrgica deve constituir uma alternativa nos doentes refractários à terapêutica e naqueles que apresentam efeitos secundários indesejáveis. O desenvolvimento dos métodos complementares de diagnóstico e das técnicas cirúrgicas permitiu uma melhoria apreciável da eficácia e da segurança deste tipo de procedimentos, sobretudo no que diz respeito a a...

  7. Lufenuron no tratamento da dermatofitose em gatos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina R. Ramadinha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Em função de controvérsias sobre a eficácia do lufenuron no tratamento da dermatofitose causada por Microsporum canis, o efeito da droga foi avaliado em 46 gatos (30 com lesões cutâneas e 16 portadores assintomáticos atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O diagnóstico foi estabelecido através da lâmpada de Wood, da cultura fúngica e, adicionalmente, na maioria dos animais sintomáticos, pela avaliação histopatológica da pele. Os animais foram tratados com 120mg/kg de lufenuron, a cada 21 dias (quatro doses; a droga mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento de 29 dos 30 felinos que apresentaram a forma clínica da dermatofitose, bem como no de todos os animais assintomáticos. O único felino que não teve cura clínica completa havia recebido várias doses de dexametasona antes do inicio do tratamento. Em um animal gestante, foram utilizadas duas doses do lufenuron e não foi observada qualquer alteração clínica e morfológica nos filhotes. Nenhum dos animais tratados teve qualquer reação adversa ao medicamento. Vinte dias após o último tratamento, o exame micológico resultou negativo em 45 dos felinos estudados (98%. Embora o lufenuron tenha o custo um pouco mais elevado do que o do cetoconazol, é uma droga que apresenta praticidade e margem de segurança bem maiores. Vale ressaltar que o sucesso do tratamento está diretamente relacionado à correta utilização da droga, assim como a perfeita higienização do ambiente e dos utensílios dos animais.Due to discrepancies regarding the effectiveness of lufenuron in treating dermato-phytosis caused by Microsporum canis the effect of this drug was checked in 46 cats (30 with cutaneous lesions and 16 asymptomatic carriers treated in the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The diagnosis was based on Wood's lamp examination and fungal cultures. Biopsies were only performed in symptomatic

  8. ASPECTOS MORFO-FISIOLÓGICOS DA CEBOLA

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    Paulo Augusto Manfron

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da cebola Allium cepa L. ocupa lugar de importância entre as hortaliças cultivadas no Brasil. Em termos de valor da produção, é superada apenas pelo tomate e a batata e, em algumas regiões de São Paulo, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina representa a principal atividade econômica. O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar aspectos morfo-fisiológicos importantes em cebola que variam conforme as condições climáticas. Apesar de existir um conhecimento satisfatório, o aprimoramento e desenvolvimento tecnológicos são fundamentais para aumentar a produtividade e normalizar o abastecimento do produto.

  9. Micropolítica da atividade

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    Jésio Zamboni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se, nesse ensaio teórico, de retomar o conceito de atividade desenvolvido por algumas máquinas de análise dos processos de trabalho. A saber, a ergonomia, a ergologia e a clínica da atividade. Tal abordagem caracteriza-se como micropolítica por privilegiar as dimensões éticas e políticas de tais dispositivos tomados no contexto das lutas coletivas no capitalismo. Define-se atividade como um conceito inacabável em função da sua consideração das variações incessantes no trabalho. Discute-se, ainda, o problema da atividade como uma função no campo científico e como um conceito no campo filosófico, destacando suas relações como instrumentos analíticos. Também se discute a relação entre condições de trabalho e sua organização pela problematização promovida pela ergonomia. A partir daí, acompanha-se o desenvolvimento do conceito de atividade desde o conceito de trabalho real, definido por seu deslocamento contínuo em relação às prescrições. Tal deslocamento permitirá, a seguir, conceituar a atividade como devir do trabalho, redefinindo a ferramenta analítica. Logo, define-se a atividade como sempre situada, destacando que a situação é marcada por um movimento abstrato que possibilita produzir transversalidade entre casos diversos vividos no trabalho em função da construção de um problema a viver. Partindo da situação de trabalho do motorista de ônibus coletivo urbano, discute-se as linhas micropolíticas de análise da atividade: a linha dura que separa trabalho prescrito e trabalho real em contraste com a linha vibratória que se privilegia pela análise da atividade situada. Abstract This theoretical essay revisits the concept of activity developed by some machines of analysis of labor processes. That is, ergonomics, ergology and clinic of activity. This approach is characterized as micropolitics for privileging the ethical and political dimensions of those dispositives taken in the context of

  10. PanDA for COMPASS at JINR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, A. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis System) is a workload management system, widely used for data processing at experiments on Large Hadron Collider and others. COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron. Data processing for COMPASS runs locally at CERN, on lxbatch, the data itself stored in CASTOR. In 2014 an idea to start running COMPASS production through PanDA arose. Such transformation in experiment's data processing will allow COMPASS community to use not only CERN resources, but also Grid resources worldwide. During the spring and summer of 2015 installation, validation and migration work is being performed at JINR. Details and results of this process are presented in this paper.

  11. Roteiro e design da narrativa (de Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Winck

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia narrativa audiovisual inaugura um modo de produção coletivo no qual a figura do autor se mescla e se anula na equipe de realizadores, os prossumidores. O projeto lógico estrutural ou design de relações da narrativa é o que emoldura toda a complexidade dos múltiplos projetos narrativos numa organização teleológica, uma espécie de “estrutura ausente”, um esqueleto fluido, invisível e inaudível. O design do audiovisual, é uma geometria plástica, matemática e política capaz de levar à compreensão das “mensagens” do audiovisual pela “maneira” de desenhar e organizar a trama no corpo da tecnologia narrativa; e  isso inaugura um novo design: o Design de Relações.

  12. Dimensões da cibercultura no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Echegaray Fabián

    2003-01-01

    Este artigo ilustra os efeitos do uso da Internet sobre aspectos atitudinais e comportamentais e descreve diferentes formas nas quais o modo de relação dos usuários com a Internet podem ser descritas e classificadas para os propósitos da análise de segmentação, no Brasil. Primeiro, diferenças entre grupos de usuários e não-usuários são examinadas baseadas em um conjunto de surveys com a população global. Em seguida, uma nova categorização de modos de relacionamento com a Internet, é proposta,...

  13. Projecto "Os alunos da escola do Alto"

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Gabriel Ferrera Ramos da

    2010-01-01

    Os alunos da escola pública permanecem demasiado tempo na instituição escolar e as propostas relativamente à ocupação do seu tempo nas Actividades de Enriquecimento Curricular apresentam-se mais como uma resposta - solução para os problemas das famílias e da escola do que para a escuta, participação e decisão dos alunos no espaço escolar. Vários autores são unânimes em considerar que há um excesso de tempo ocupado pelas crianças na escola e, ainda, uma "colonização" do tempo...

  14. Mudanças no uso da terra decorrentes da expansão da cultura da cana-de-açúcar na região oeste do estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Luiz Lourenzani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A demanda por alternativas energéticas tem aumentando a produção mundial de biocombustíveis e, consequentemente, o cultivo das culturas agrícolas. No Brasil, o lançamento dos veículos bicombustíveis propiciou a retomada da importância da produção de etanol e, consequentemente, numa nova fase de expansão do cultivo de cana-de-açúcar. Diversas questões relacionadas à sustentabilidade da produção de biocombustíveis têm sido discutidas na literatura, tais como o efeito na produção de alimentos e na segurança alimentar, o impacto ambiental da mudança do uso da terra e os efeitos sociais no campo. Este trabalho pretende analisar as mudanças no uso da terra na região Oeste Paulista, provocadas pela expansão do cultivo da cana-de-açúcar. Na última década (2003 a 2012, a região Oeste Paulista representou mais da metade da expansão dessa cultura no estado de São Paulo, maior estado produtor brasileiro. O método utilizado foi o Modelo Shift-Share, que, por meio da decomposição da variação das áreas, possibilitou calcular os efeitos escala e substituição das principais atividades em análise. Este trabalho revela que a expansão da cultura da cana-de-açúcar na região estudada ocorreu predominantemente pela substituição de áreas de pastagem e, consequentemente, da atividade pecuária

  15. THE SACRED FEMININE IN 'DA VINCI CODE

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    Priscila de Souza Moreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyse the feminine in the “Da Vinci Code”, a novel written by Dan Brown, whose the mean theme is permeated by issues relating to the feminine, linking it to the art and religion.We use the notion of female seized by psychoanalysis, to take this reading of the book, placing the efforts of the author in his attempt to unravel the mysteries of the sacred feminine.

  16. Webcam no contexto da antropologia digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A resenha do livro salienta as bases teoricas da antropologia digital, bem como ressalta como as relacoes socio-culturais mediadas pela Webcam ganham novos contornos no mundo contemporaneo: a reflexao sobre a auto-consciencia, a nocao de lugar e intimidade, os sentidos de pertencimentos familiares e afetivos. Trata-se de uma importante contribuicao para as relacoes entre consumo, mediacao tecnologica e vida socio-cultural.

  17. Webcam no contexto da antropologia digital

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Machado

    2015-01-01

    A resenha do livro salienta as bases teoricas da antropologia digital, bem como ressalta como as relacoes socio-culturais mediadas pela Webcam ganham novos contornos no mundo contemporaneo: a reflexao sobre a auto-consciencia, a nocao de lugar e intimidade, os sentidos de pertencimentos familiares e afetivos. Trata-se de uma importante contribuicao para as relacoes entre consumo, mediacao tecnologica e vida socio-cultural.

  18. Sensibilidade da rosa 'Osiana' ao etileno

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    Delaine Cristina Cordeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a sensibilidade e as respostas da rosa cultivar Osiana (Rosa × hybrida à presença de etileno ao longo da vida pós-colheita. Para determinar a sensibilidade da flor ao etileno, hastes foram cortadas e colocadas em câmaras herméticas e em seguida tratadas por 24 horas com diferentes concentrações de etileno variando de 0,0; 0,1; 1,0; 10; 100 e 1000 µL L-1do ar no interior da câmara. A rosa teve a vida pós-colheita reduzida pelo etileno, quando exposta a concentração igual ou superior a 10 µL L-1 de etileno. As flores tratadas com no mínimo de 10 µL L-1de etileno desenvolveram necrose, murcha e abscisão prematura das pétalas ainda túrgidas. As concentrações de 0,1 e 1,0 µL L-1de etileno estimularam a abertura do botão floral durante o período de 24 horas de exposição ao etileno, sem no entanto, reduzir a vida pós-colheita. A rosa 'Osiana' pode ser classificada como uma cultivar sensível ao etileno e a concentração influência os processos estimulados.

  19. O disfarce da força

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    Ivonil Parraz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo pretendemos analisar a definição de justiça que Pascal oferece, tal como ela se apresenta no "reino da concupiscência". Para ele, a justiça é "prevenção da sedição" (La 66; B.326. Prevenir qualquer revolta é a garantia da paz no Estado. Para tanto, não basta a arte do bem governar, ressaltada nos "Trois discours sur la condition des grands", é preciso usar a força. Ora, como a força não se deixa manipular por se tratar de uma qualidade palpável, ao passo que a justiça se presta a isso, por ser uma qualidade espiritual, manipula-se a justiça para justificar a força. Esvaziado o velho conceito de justiça: "dar a cada um o que lhe é devido", esta passa a ser o disfarce da força.In this article we intend to analyze the definition of justice in the "realm of concupiscence" given by Pascal. Justice is, according to him, prevention of sedition (L. 66; B. 326. Preventing any revolt is the guarantee of peace in the State. Pascal points out in the Trois discours sur la condition des grandes that the good art in governing is not enough to achieve this goal. It is necessary to use force. Because force cannot be manipulated since it is a tangible quality unlike justice, which is a spiritual quality, justice is manipulated to justify force. Once the traditional concept of justice as "give every one his due" becomes empty, justice becomes the disguise of force.

  20. A arquitetura da experiência

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    José Feres Sabino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto analisa o último romance do escritor argentino Ricardo Piglia, O caminho de Ida, como uma apresentação do modo como se dá a experiência humana na contemporaneidade. Além disso, se considerarmos toda a obra de Piglia uma investigação da experiência, esse romance pode ser lido como relatório conclusivo dessa investigação.

  1. Epidemiologia da raiva humana na Guanabara

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    Alfredo R. Matta B. da Silva

    1971-08-01

    Full Text Available A raiva humana se mantém como problema de Saúde Pública, especialmente nas áreas urbanas, onde o cão atua como principal reservatório e fonte imediata de infecção. A deficiência de programas de controle de cães vadios, de imunização sistemática e de educação sanitária, contribui para a perpetuação da cadeia epidemiológioa. O presente estudo analisa todos os casos de raiva humana, observados em habitantes do Estado da Guanabara, no período 1965-1969, segundo as variáveis: idade, sexo, côr, variação estacional, período de incubação e de duração da fase clínica, fonte de infecção, local de mordedura e uso de vacina posterior à exposição. Os principais resultados foram: 1. A ravia na Guanabara, parece ser mais comum nos grupos etários mais jovens e nos homens. 2. Não se observou variação estacional. 3. O período de incubação mediano foi de 45 dias e de duração da fase clínica de 3 dias. 4. Ocorreu uma associação entre período de incubação menor e vacinação incompleta.

  2. Nuances da vida e da morte no cotidiano da cidade de Salvador da Bahia seiscentista: a busca de evidências em um estudo paleobiológico

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Teresa Cristina de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    The skeletons and teeth are sources of anthropological value that can determine the circumstances that humans lived. The objective of this study is to obtain as much conclusive information, as possible, about the life and death of individuals buried at the burial site in the Antiga Igreja da Sé, in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The study was based on demographic and pathologic characteristics of samples analyzed. Salvador was the capital of the Portuguese empire in the Americas until 1763. In a so...

  3. [Leonardo da Vinci--a dyslectic genius?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røsstad, Anna

    2002-12-10

    Leonardo da Vinci's texts consist almost exclusively of scientific notes. Working on a book on Leonardo's art, I studied all Leonardo's published texts carefully for any new information. In some prefaces I came to suspect that Leonardo might have suffered from dyslexia. This article considers the question of whether it is possible to find indications of dyslexia in Leonardo's texts and in the accounts of his life.

  4. Leonardo da Vinci õpiränne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci programmi raames viibisid välispraktikal Hollandis 2008. a. sügisel Kuressaare ametikooli 4. kursuse paadiehituse õpilased Keiti Kangur ja Kaspar Nõgu ning 2009. a. kevadel 3. kursuse paadiehituse õpilased Kaspar Kõiv, Karl Truutsi ja Martin Müürisepp. 2009 a. kevadel sooritasid praktika Küprosel toitlustusteeninduse eriala õpilased: Heldur Hillak, Rain Rohumägi ja Karel Raudsepp

  5. Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S; Loukas, Marios; Benninger, Brion; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Namdar, Husain; Ghabili, Kamyar; Khalili, Majid; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-08-20

    Leonardo da Vinci's detailed drawings are justly celebrated; however, less well known are his accounts of the structures and functions of the organs. In this paper, we focus on his illustrations of the heart, his conjectures about heart and blood vessel function, his experiments on model systems to test those conjectures, and his unprecedented conclusions about the way in which the cardiovascular system operates. In particular, da Vinci seems to have been the first to recognize that the heart is a muscle and that systole is the active phase of the pump. He also seems to have understood the functions of the auricles and pulmonary veins, identified the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the pulse, and explained the hemodynamic mechanism of valve opening and closure. He also described anatomical variations and changes in structure and function that occurred with age. We outline da Vinci's varied career and suggest ways in which his personality, experience, skills and intellectual heritage contributed to these advances in understanding. We also consider his influence on later studies in anatomy and physiology.

  6. Males da casa em "Lavoura Arcaica"

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    Fernanda Müller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2011v16n1p99 Observando o papel central ocupado pela casa na Literatura, inclusive sua inscrição dentro da Toposforschung, ofereço uma leitura desse espaço tão presente na obra Lavoura arcaica, de Raduan Nassar. Para tanto, relaciono a casa às vivências das personagens e ao seu entorno – o bosque, a floresta –, e estabeleço um paralelo com outras obras. Metáforas da família, dos valores e da tradição, a casa assinalada é espaço de conforto e proteção tanto quanto de reclusão e repressão, cujo mal maior é ser espelho de dramas familiares profundos e insustentáveis, imigração e exílio

  7. Aspectos psiquiátricos da obesidade

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    Dobrow Ilyse J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas recentes mostram que a obesidade é, em grande parte, o produto da vulnerabilidade genética mediada por um ambiente promotor da doença, o que sugere que os modelos biológicos podem ser mais úteis que os psicológicos para entender seu início e manutenção. No entanto, entre os pacientes que procuram tratamento, a obesidade tem sido associada a outros transtornos psiquiátricos, especialmente à depressão, o que sugere que a comorbidade psiquiátrica deve ser considerada na avaliação e no manejo clínicos. Além disso, embora a obesidade não seja em si mesma um transtorno alimentar, um subgrupo de indivíduos obesos, incluídos aqueles com o transtorno de compulsão alimentar periódica (TCAP e com a síndrome do comer noturno - SCN (night eating syndrome - NES sofrem de transtornos alimentares. Os psiquiatras podem e devem ter um papel ativo no tratamento da comorbidade ou de patologias relacionadas à alimentação e no auxílio aos pacientes obesos para que façam escolhas de estilos de vida saudáveis que levem a um maior bem-estar em termos físicos e psicológicos.

  8. O ACOMPANHANTE NO ALOJAMENTO CONJUNTO DA MATERNIDADE

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    Luciana Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa qualitativa exploratório-descritiva, realizada no Alojamento Conjunto do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, de agosto a novembro de 2010, com o objetivo de observar a inserção e as ações do acompanhante nessa unidade. Participaram 32 sujeitos. Da análise dos dados, coletados através da observação participante, emergiram seis categorias: a O acompanhante na admissão e na alta; b Receber e dar informações: a complexidade comunicacional na unidade; c O difícil e consternado papel de coadjuvante no cuidado ao recém-nascido; d A insubstituível ajuda no cuidado à puérpera; e A solidariedade com as demais famílias; e f Entre a vigília e o sono. Conclui-se que a inserção do acompanhante é ainda tímida, apesar do suporte prático e emocional que proporcionam às puérperas.

  9. Pedagogia etnomatemática: uma proposta para o ensino de matemática na educação básica

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    Francisco de Assis Bandeira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As reflexoes apresentadas neste artigo sao parte de uma proposta de reorientacao curricular em educacao matematica que defende a utilizacao do conhecimento matematico vivenciado pelo aluno em sua comunidade como subsidio metodologico para o processo de ensino-aprendizagem da matematica escolar. Mas, a luz das concepcoes d.ambrosianas de Etnomatematica, principalmente, a educacional, que procura compreender a realidade sociocultural e chegar a acao pedagogica de maneira natural mediante um enfoque cognitivo com forte fundamentacao cultural. Para a concretizacao dessa proposta no campo educacional, busquei fundamentos legais, dentre os quais, os Parametros Curriculares Nacionais, que propoem ser apenas um documento de referencia para que as escolas organizem suas propostas curriculares. Nesse sentido, associei os blocos de conteudos dos Parametros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Fundamental da Matematica aos conhecimentos matematicos de uma comunidade de horticultores da Grande Natal/RN.

  10. Festival da loucura e a dimensão sociocultural da Reforma Psiquiátrica

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    Nadja Cristiane Lappann Botti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetiva discutir os significados do Festival da Loucura realizado em Barbacena. Realizada análise documental das reportagens publicadas, no período de 2006 a 2010, nos jornais de circulação local, estadual e nacional. Os dados foram analisados sob o referencial metodológico do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Os significados do Festival da Loucura identificados foram: evento de múltipla parceria, inusitado, acadêmico-cultural, turístico-cultural, polêmico, mudança de paradigma e resgate histórico. Os significados encontrados do Festival da Loucura expressam a dimensão sociocultural do processo da Reforma Psiquiátrica e apontam que para entender a mudança de paradigma na saúde mental e compreender as alterações da política de atenção necessita-se de uma abordagem histórica, política e social.

  11. A INFLUÊNCIA DA TECNOLOGIA E DA INTERNET NO MARKETING

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    Lúcia Cristina Vargas Machado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O dinamismo do mundo globalizado vem exigindo grandes mudanças das organizações, sejam para aquelas que produzem bens tangíveis, sejam para as prestadoras de serviços. E dentro da observância das mudanças, pode-se considerar as revoluções vividas pela humanidade, considerando aquela que mais mudou o cenário mercadológico pela primeira vez que foi 1ª revolução industrial e, a outra, a revolução da informação. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar através da revisão de literatura, a significativa e importante transformação da informação para a área de marketing das organizações. A revolução da informação, tendo como suas precursoras e legítimas aliadas a tecnologia e a internet, respectivamente, fez com que surgisse um novo tipo de marketing: o marketing digital. Com este novo tipo de marketing, as organizações que estiverem mais presentes na internet, poderão obter uma maior vantagem competitiva e como consequência uma maior lucratividade

  12. Dimensoes da vulnerabilidade para as familias da crianca com dor oncologica em ambiente hospitalar

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    Maria da Graca Corso da Motta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Identificar aspectos que demonstrem as dimensões da vulnerabilidade no universo familiar na ótica da família de crianças com dor oncológica em ambiente hospitalar Trata-se de um estudo descritivo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, realizada na Unidade de Hematologia e Oncologia Pediátrica, de um hospital de grande porte da cidade de Porto Alegre - RS. Participaram do estudo nove famílias, utilizando-se para coleta dos dados o Método Criativo Sensível, por meio das dinâmicas de criatividade e sensibilidade, analisadas conforme o referencial da Análise de Conteúdo de Minayo, nos meses de Maio e Junho de 2010 Constatou-se que a doença traz à tona situações de vulnerabilidade, conferindo à criança e à família, sofrimento, dor, medo, angústia, desgaste físico e mental, causados pelo câncer. Assim, a Enfermagem, ao apropriar-se do marco conceitual da vulnerabilidade, pode visualizar novas dimensões do processo saúde/doença auxiliando a criança doente e sua família.

  13. A regeneração hepática e os inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina

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    Fernando Silva Ramalho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, o autor aborda conceitos fundamentais acerca do fenômeno regenerativo hepático, seguido de alguns aspectos importantes relacionados ao sistema calicreína-cininas. A associação entre os inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina, a bradicinina e a regeneração hepática é discutida à luz de estudos recentes, que revelam um papel estimulante das cininas sobre a proliferação hepatocelular. Os inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina, extremamente utilizados no tratamento clínico da hipertensão arterial sistêmica, da insuficiência cardíaca congestiva e da nefropatia diabética, também são capazes de favorecer a regeneração hepática.

  14. O uso da teoria da visão baseada em recursos em propriedades rurais: uma revisão sistemática da literatura

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    Daniela Moreira de Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A teoria da Visão Baseada em Recursos (VBR tem se destacado como uma das mais importantes correntes teóricas da estratégia. O uso da teoria dos recursos mostra-se promissor para a análise das propriedades rurais, permitindo avançar no conhecimento do potencial a ser explorado em torno dos recursos internos. No presente estudo, contribui-se com um levantamento da literatura sobre os principais recursos e/ou fatores-chave determinantes para o desempenho de propriedades rurais por meio da análise de trabalhos que utilizaram a teoria da VBR como base teórica. Com esse levantamento, pretende-se verificar quais recursos foram considerados estratégicos pela literatura da área. A metodologia utilizada foi de revisão sistemática. Os resultados indicaram que o uso da teoria em estudos de empreendimentos agropecuários ainda é incipiente. Foram levantados 14 artigos em fazendas em geral e, dentre esses, três estudos em fazendas produtoras de leite que mostram resultados consistentes quanto ao impacto dos recursos sobre o desempenho. Recursos humanos e organizacionais foram os mais citados como estratégicos e fundamentais para o desempenho. Os recursos físicos foram citados mais vezes em artigos que analisaram o meio rural se comparado à literatura geral do uso da VBR, talvez pela maior dependência de aspectos naturais no desempenho das fazendas em relação aos outros setores da economia. Contudo, devido ao pequeno número de trabalhos encontrados e à diversidade de abordagens em torno da teoria, não é possível realizar inferências, somente concluir que existe um gap de conhecimento nessa área que deve ser suprido por meio de novas e amplas pesquisas.

  15. Kafka, Benjamin e Derrida: diante da lei

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    Carla Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEste artigo propõe articular três autores judeus — Kafka, Benjamin e Derrida, dispostos por mim nessa ordem a partir de uma perspectiva temporal — a partir da percepção de que suas obras podem ter em comum a experiência da linguagem como experiência de impossibilidade e como resistência à passagem para a modernidade. Para isso, discuto a parábola “Diante da lei”, de Kafka, comparada por Benjamin aos ensinamentos judaicos e percebida por Derrida como condição intrínseca do leitor: estar diante de um texto cuja lei de acesso nunca é dada.Palavras-chave: linguagem, desconstrução, judaísmoAbstractThis paper intends to discuss three Jewish authors — Kafka, Benjamin and Derrida, arranged by me in that or der from a temporal perspective — from the perception that their works share the experience of  language as an experience of impossibility and as resistance against the passage into modernity. To do so, I discuss Kafka’s parable “Beforethe Law”, which was compared by Benjamin to Jewish teachings and perceived by Derrida as an intrinsic condition of the reader: standing before a text whose access law is never given.Keywords: Language, deconstruction, judaismCarla Rodrigues é professora do Departamento de Filosofia da UFRJ (PPGF/IFCS/UFRJ, doutora e mestre em Filosofia (PUC-Rio; realizou pesquisa de pós-doutorado (IEL/Unicamp como bolsista PDJ/CNPq. É vice-coordenadora do Khôra – laboratório de filosofias da alteridade (UFRJ/CNPq e do GT Desconstrução, linguagem e alteridade (ANPOF. É autora, entre outros, de Coreografias do feminino (Ed. Mulheres, 2009 e Duas palavras sobre o feminino – hospitalidade e responsabilidade, sobre ética e política em Derrida (NAU Editora/Faperj, 2013.carla@ifcs.ufrj.br 

  16. DEZ ANOS DA RBIE: RETROSPECTIVA E DESAFIOS

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    Marcos da Fonseca Elia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A Revista Brasileira de Informática na Educação faz
    dez anos e chega à adolescência com todo o orgulho de
    uma publicação científica que traz, em tão pouco tempo,
    um currículo de vinte e quatro edições voltadas para uma
    comunidade formada por profissionais com interesses e
    competências multidisciplinares.
    E estes resultados quantitativos foram alcançados
    sem se afastar de um padrão de qualidade, o que veio a ser
    reconhecido em 2005 pelo conceito “B” atribuído à RBIE
    pelo processo de qualificação Qualis do sistema de
    avaliação da CAPES1, pelo qual, como se sabe, desde 2001
    os periódicos e eventos científicos passaram a ser
    enquadrados em categorias indicativas da qualidade A, B
    ou C e esta informação vem sendo utilizada para avaliar os
    cursos de pós-graduação stricto sensu.
    Celebrar este primeiro decênio de vida tão
    auspiciosa significa render tributos, primeiramente, à
    comunidade de Informática na Educação que,
    amalgamada dentro da Sociedade Brasileira de
    Computação, engendrou a Revista e vem exigindo níveis
    de qualidade cada vez maiores de si mesma, para nutrila
    e dela se servir. Em segundo lugar, significa também
    lembrar dos membros da comunidade que cumpriram
    com abnegação uma missão designada por seus pares,
    dedicando boa parte de sua energia, tempo e
    competência para que o sonho se transformasse em
    realidade.
    A eles e elas, representados aqui pelos editoreschefes
    de cada uma das equipes editoriais da Revista: Raul
    Wazlawick (UFSC, 1997-2001, Antônio Carlos Rocha Costa
    (UCPel, 2002-2004, Fábio Sampaio (UFRJ, 2005-2006 e
    Lúcia Giraffa (PUCRS, 2007- 2008; o nosso muito obrigado!
    E à comunidade, tentaremos retribuir oferecendo um ensaio
    histórico e reflexivo sobre a RBIE neste primeiro decênio,
    levantando alguns desafios para o

  17. PROCESSAMENTO DA LINGUAGEM: CONTRIBUIÇÕES DA NEUROLINGÜÍSTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Cristine Scherer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A implementação das técnicas de neuroimagem no estudo da cognição humana, incluindo a linguagem, possibilitou a ampliação de nosso conhecimento sobre o funcionamento do cérebro humano com ou sem lesão. No caso específico da linguagem, esse avanço fez florescer uma nova área de investigação, a neurolingüística (ou neuropsicolingüística, como vem recentemente sendo chamada. O presente artigo trata do escopo de estudo dessa nova ciência, revisando os seus principais campos de investigação, apresentando as principais contribuições por ela trazidas nos últimos anos, suas limitações e seus rumos. O artigo aborda sobretudo os estudos sobre o funcionamento normal da linguagem em adultos.

  18. Entre prisões da imagem, imagens da prisão

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    Fernanda Spanier Amador

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a temática das prisões, da imagem e da subjetividade. Pensando na direção das análises foucaultianas de que as prisões estão estabelecidas nos mais ínfimos espaços da vida cotidiana pelas práticas disciplinares e por jogos de visibilidade e enunciabilidade, pergunta-se: como a experimentação de produção de imagens digitais a respeito do trabalho na prisão, por parte de trabalhadores penitenciários, pode criar um plano perturbador das tecnologias prisionais já estabelecidas, introduzindo dissonâncias nas enunciabilidades e nas visibilidades que atravessam a prisão?

  19. APONTAMENTOS PARA CONSTRUÇÃO DA RACIONALIDADE AMBIENTAL

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    Munir Jorge Felício

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Os apontamentos para construção da racionalidade ambiental propostos nesse texto foram reunidos das contribuições presentes nas análises da fenomenologia, da epistemologia e da ontologia do ser social em Marx. Essa iniciativa almeja ampliar e aprofundar a compreensão da problemática ambiental cujas mudanças globais provocam desafios principalmente para comunidade científica. Trata-se de problematizar o desenvolvimento da racionalidade econômica, a partir das degradações dos recursos naturais engendradas pelo atual avanço do modelo de desenvolvimento socioeconômico. Modelo que se baseia na majoração da produtividade, se apóia na expansão tecnológica e se sustenta da exploração como se os recursos naturais fossem ainda considerados abundantes e ilimitados. A transição dessa racionalidade econômica para a racionalidade ambiental é um empreendimento buscado pelas possibilidades de conhecimento advindo das análises da fenomenologia. Entre essas possibilidades, a interdisciplinaridade indicada como necessária pela epistemologia ambiental, pode se tornar uma interessante estratégia de pesquisa, desde que, tenha como ponto de partida, as demandas externas onde se encontram os elementos da atual questão ambiental e de seus desdobramentos.

  20. AVALIAÇÃO DA DISPONIBILIDADE E DA QUALIDADE DE UMA PASTAGEM NATURAL

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    Jumaida Maria Rosito

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado numa área de pastagem natural de 1,5ha localizada no Campus da UFSM (Santa Maria, RS. Com o uso do Método Botanal, foram efetuados levantamentos nos meses de fevereiro, maio e outubro de 1985 e em maio de 1986. O objetivo do trabalho foi a determinação da disponibilidade total da pastagem (em kg MS/ha, a contribuição dos seus principais componentes para esta disponibilidade e a determinação da qualidade da pastagem através dos teores de PB, fibra detergente neutra (FDN e lignina encontrados. Com relação aos componentes da pastagem, Paspalum notatum destacou-se pela sua contribuição, que se manteve praticamente constante nos quatro períodos de amostragem. Axonopus affinis evidenciou uma queda nos valores de contribuição para a MS no levantamento que se seguiu ao período de estiagem prolongada (maio/86, enquanto Setaria geniculata registrou um comportamento inverso, neste mesmo período. Entre as leguminosas, Desmodium incanum destacou-se por sua persistência, mesmo durante períodos desfavoráveis. Com relação à PB, nos meses de outubro de 1985 e maio de 1986, primavera e outono, respectivamente, a pastagem apresentou os maiores teores, ocorrendo o inverso com a FDN. Em outubro de 1985 (outono a comunidade apresentou o menor teor de FDA, enquanto os menores teores de lignina foram encontrados no mês de fevereiro de 1985 (verão.

  1. A TRANSFORMAÇÃO DA MEMÓRIA EM MERCADORIA: FIM DA PRODUÇÃO FABRIL E A CONTINUIDADE DA “MARCA”

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    Sílvia Aparecida Guarnieri Ortigoza

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O resgate da história da Fábrica de Chapéus Sarkis foi retratado neste estudo. Buscou-se analisar as influências da referida fábrica no município de Itapira, principalmente na organização e produção do centro urbano e no cotidiano dos citadinos. Seu fechamento foi entendido a partir das mudanças da moda mundial e de seus reflexos no lugar Itapira – SP, Brasil. Este estudo contempla uma análise regressiva do período (décadas de 1920 a 1960 em que o chapéu era um acessório indispensável na vida cotidiana das pessoas. Reencontrando o presente, procurou-se entender o conteúdo da forma espacial que hoje se encontra em vestígios. O estudo é singular por identificar no espaço geográfico itapirense atual a peculiaridade da transformação da tradição da fábrica em mercadoria.

  2. Bibliografia: caminhos da história contada e da história vivida

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    Eduardo Alentejo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Trata sobre a Bibliografia tendo como referência sua historiografia. Tem por material as bibliografias citadas, os clássicos e os autores que marcaram o desenvolvimento da área.Objetivo: Visa analisar a bibliografia como sendo campo de interesse científico, buscando responder quais são os caminhos de sua história contada e de sua história vivida que a legitimam como campo de interesses científicos?Metodologia: A partir do método historiográfico, discorre sobre o estado atual do ensino brasileiro da Bibliografia. Mediante revisão de literatura, explica sua divisão em ramos e discorre sobre sua historiografia de acordo com contornos históricos dos quais envolvem aspectos tecnológicos da produção do conhecimento.Resultados: Explica que a polifonia e a vulgarização acerca de seu campo científico são fenômenos com impactos às atividades intelectuais nacionais. Analisa conceitos que fundamentam e validam a Bibliografia como área do conhecimento. Atualiza e dá continuidade historiográfica da Bibliografia ao acrescentar reflexões sobre as épocas do trabalho bibliográfico na era digital. Os resultados apontam para a evolução da Bibliografia, tanto enquanto produto e serviço, como área científica em constante desenvolvimento.Conclusões: Através da análise historiográfica, os caminhos da Bibliografia indicam que o campo de estudo é inesgotável, porque a pesquisa sobre o passado de bibliografia acumulada incluem aspectos teóricos que permanecem no tempo atual e sua atualidade expõe muitas possibilidades para o seu futuro. As bibliografias em ambiente Web permitem expandir entendimentos referentes ao acesso e ao uso da informação pela possibilidade de se empregar recursos tecnológicos capazes de aperfeiçoar suas funções sociais de acesso ao conhecimento, em distintos escopos.

  3. O desenvolvimento da leitura e da escrita em crianças com dislexia

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Alcina Maria Pires Freixinho

    2011-01-01

    A leitura e a escrita são duas competências adquiridas que estão na base da aprendizagem e servem de ferramenta às restantes áreas e ao desenvolvimento da criança em todas as vertentes. O seu ensino poderá ser distinto, utilizando diferentes métodos, baseados em modelos dissemelhantes, consoante aquele que parecer mais adequado aos alunos em questão. No entanto, existem factores extrínsecos e intrínsecos que influenciam a aprendizagem destas competências. Quando o sujeito manifesta dificul...

  4. Efeito da desrama artificial na qualidade da madeira de clones de eucalipto em sistema agrossilvipastoril

    OpenAIRE

    Vale Rodrigo Silva do; Macedo Renato Luiz Grisi; Venturin Nelson; Mori Fábio Akira; Morais Augusto Ramalho de

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da desrama artificial na qualidade da madeira de clones de eucalipto, em sistema agrossilvipastoril, na fazenda Riacho, pertencente à Companhia Mineira de Metais, município de Paracatu-MG, Brasil. O experimento foi instalado em dezembro de 1994, com o plantio das mudas de três clones de híbridos naturais de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (código 06) e de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake (código 13 e 44), no espaçamento de 10 x 4 m. O deline...

  5. Festival da loucura e a dimensão sociocultural da Reforma Psiquiátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja Cristiane Lappann Botti; Michele Cecília Silva Torrézio

    2014-01-01

    Este estudo objetiva discutir os significados do Festival da Loucura realizado em Barbacena. Realizada análise documental das reportagens publicadas, no período de 2006 a 2010, nos jornais de circulação local, estadual e nacional. Os dados foram analisados sob o referencial metodológico do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Os significados do Festival da Loucura identificados foram: evento de múltipla parceria, inusitado, acadêmico-cultural, turístico-cultural, polêmico, mudança de paradigma e res...

  6. A intenção empreendedora: nos alunos da Universidade da Beira Interior

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Rui Manuel Caetano

    2013-01-01

    O empreendedorismo tem vindo a ser considerado como um dinamizador da economia através do indivíduo empreendedor com características únicas. Como as empresas familiares são muito importantes para a economia é necessário verificar a existência de futuros empreendedores no seio familiar. Foram feitos inquéritos na Universidade da Beira Interior (UBI) com o objectivo principal de identificar a intenção empreendedora dos filhos que pertencem a empresas familiares. Os dados obtidos foram analis...

  7. O significado da menopausa e os fatores que interferem no relacionamento sexual da mulher

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    Ana Fátima Carvalho Fernandes

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo analisa os condicionantes que interferem no relacionamento sexual da mulher menopausada, utilizando a pesquisa qualitativa. Foram entrevistadas 15 mulheres do SESI da Pajuçara, Centro de Saúde Maracanaú, e outras residentes em Fortaleza, durante o período de maio a junho de 1992. As mulheres responderam que acham a menopausa uma fase difícil em suas vidas, Sintomas como ondas de calor, dores de cabeça, hemorragia vaginal e irritação estão presentes. Ocorre desmotivação, cansaço sexual e falta de interesse pelo sexo.

  8. Sobre a peleja dos sujeitos da reforma, ou da reforma dos sujeitos em peleja

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    Gastão Wagner de Sousa Campos

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho analisa os principais impasses da reforma sanitária brasileira, bem como avalia a atuação do movimento de saúde a nível das instituições. Aplicando à saúde conceitos de Gramsci, F. Guattari e Castoriadis, com o objetivo de identificar os processos de construção da subjetividade dos trabalhadores de saúde, propõe-se caminhos para a reforma dos sujeitos sociais nas práticas de saúde e como atores de um processo político de reforma.

  9. Instrumentos em Lingua Brasileira de Sinais para avaliacao da qualidade de vida da populacao surda

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    Neuma Chaveiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir a versão em Língua Brasileira de Sinais dos instrumentos WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para avaliar a qualidade de vida da população surda brasileira. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para a construção dos instrumentos adaptados para população surda em Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras. A pesquisa para execução do instrumento consistiu de 13 etapas: 1 criação do sinal qualidade de vida; 2 desenvolvimento das escalas de respostas em Libras; 3 tradução por um grupo bilíngue; 4 versão reconciliadora; 5 primeira retrotradução; 6 produção da versão em Libras a ser disponibilizada aos grupos focais; 7 realização dos grupos focais; 8 revisão por um grupo monolíngue; 9 revisão pelo grupo bilíngue; 10 análise sintática/semântica e segunda retrotradução; 11 reavaliação da retrotradução pelo grupo bilíngue; 12 filmagem da versão para o software; 13 desenvolvimento do software WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. RESULTADOS: Características peculiares da cultura da população surda apontaram a necessidade de adaptações na metodologia de aplicação de grupos focais quando compostos por pessoas surdas. As convenções ortográficas da escrita das línguas sinalizadas não estão consolidadas, o que trouxe dificuldades em registrar graficamente as etapas de tradução. As estruturas linguísticas que causaram maiores problemas de tradução foram as que incluíram expressões idiomáticas do português, muitas sem conceitos equivalentes entre o português e a Libras. Foi possível construir um software do WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. CONCLUSÕES: O WHOQOL-BREF e o WHOQOL-DIS em Libras possibilitarão que os surdos se expressem autonomamente quanto a sua qualidade de vida, o que permitirá investigar com maior precisão essas questões.

  10. A PERCEPÇÃO DA GESTÃO DO CONHECIMENTO NAS EMPRESAS EXPORTADORAS DA AMREC

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    Julio Cesar Zilli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a globalização e a era da tecnologia as empresas estão cada vez mais se utilizando do capital intelectual, que trata diretamente do conhecimento e habilidades exercitadas pelos seus colaboradores, para atuar nas atividades relacionadas ao mercado interno ou internacional. Diante do exposto, o presente estudo tem como objetivo identificar a percepção dos gestores de comércio exterior perante a Gestão do Conhecimento (GC nas empresas exportadoras da Associação dos Municípios da Região Carbonífera (AMREC. Quanto aos fins à pesquisa enquadrou-se como descritiva e quanto aos meios de investigação foi classificada como bibliográfica e de campo. A amostra foi composta por 10 empresas exportadoras que mantiveram relacionamento comercial com o mercado externo no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2012. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se um questionário com abordagem quantitativa para conhecer a percepção dos gestores de comercio exterior em relação à identificação, criação, armazenagem, compartilhamento e utilização da Gestão do Conhecimento. Percebe-se uma sinergia desfavorável por parte dos gestores e da organização ao acompanhamento e implantação da prática de GC. Algumas barreiras como motivação e compartilhamento, relações interpessoais, apoio da estrutura e cultura organizacional estão presentes nas empresas. Para o desenvolvimento das atividades voltadas ao mercado internacional essas barreiras devem ser trabalhadas em conjunto, resultando no emprego benéfico das cinco dimensões da GC: identificação, criação, armazenagem, compartilhamento e utilização.

  11. Otimização da Utilização da Energia a Bordo

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes , Marco André Nobre

    2013-01-01

    O consumo de combustíveis tem um peso determinante no custo total das missões desenvolvidas pela Marinha Portuguesa, pelo que a presente dissertação de mestrado se reveste de interesse no que diz respeito à poupança de combustível, com as vantagens evidentes, bem como na redução da pegada carbónica das operações do navio. Assim, este trabalho surge da necessidade de investigar metodologias para conhecer e reduzir os consumos energéticos a bordo de navios de guerra. Com a...

  12. O mundo da criança: análise da publicidade televisiva a brinquedos

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Ana Lúcia Maurício

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Comunicação Social O objectivo deste estudo é identificar as principais caraterísticas dos anúncios televisivos a brinquedos. Procurámos perceber como é que se processa o desenvolvimento da criança, qual a importância do brinquedo nesse processo, para entender como é que a publicidade, especialmente a emitida pela televisão, a pode influenciar e quais as reacções da criança à publicidade. Foram utilizadas dois tipos de análise: a Análise de Conteúdo, ...

  13. Nise da Silveira, Antonin Artaud e Rubens Corrêa: Fronteiras da Arte e da Saúde Mental

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    Walter Melo Junior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article deals with the importance of Antonin Artaud’s and Rubens Correa’s works so that Nise daSilveira could undertake a double modification in the field of mental health: a change in the organization of mentalhealth services and a cultural transformation. The first change takes place through an epistemological cut in relationto a medical pattern, made possible by the introduction of the concept of countless states of (human being, byAntonin Artaud. The second change takes place from the theatrical presentations developed by Rubens Correa,showing themes related to madness.

  14. Aspectos neurológicos da Pelagra

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    Aluízio Marques

    1944-12-01

    Full Text Available São estudadas as várias questões gerais da Pelagra, nomeadamente os aspectos clínicos e etiopatogênicos. As formas clássicas se traduzem por manifestações intensificadas na época de maior insolação e evidenciadas por desordens da pele, do aparelho digestivo e sistema nervoso. Lembra o autor que, não obstante se deva ter em primeira conta esses aspectos do mal, na prática não se podem descuidar os oligossintomáticos, frustos e larvados. Com referência a tais formas, acredita ser de grande importância salientar os exemplares em que se não encontram sintomas cutâneos e configuram a "Pelagra sine Pelagra". A seguir, procura mostrar a freqüência dos aspectos neurológicos e psiquiátricos da condição e afirma que, se não se descrevem mais amiúde, é porque os médicos que se ocupam da Pelagra, descuidam de esmiuçar a existência de sinais e sintomas nervosos e mentais muito sutis que com freqüência passam despercebidos. Também recorda que os aspectos neurológicos da Pelagra não se encontram mais vezes, porque, via de regra, só se diagnostica a doença quando as lesões cutâneas são evidentes; de hábito deixam-se de lado os exemplares de "Pelagra Sine Pelagra", os de tradução clínica destituída de eritema ou outros fenômenos dermatológicos. Baseado na sua experiência, diz que as manifestações nervosas e mentais da Pelagra são em muito maior número do que é de supor-se. Para documentar essa afirmação, recorda a observação que tem feito em mais de uma oportunidade e os casos publicados pelos autores brasileiros; nem só os registados especialmente do ponto de vista neurológico mas, também, aqueles em que se não deu particular apreço a esse aspecto e em que a simples leitura das observações evidencia fenômenos neuro-psiquiátricos muito caraterísticos. Os quatro exemplares relatados no trabalho, foram colhidos do Serviço de Clínica Neurológica do Hospital Getúlio Vargas. Dois deles

  15. Fragmentos da presença do pensamento idealista na história da construção das ciências da natureza

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Fernandes Nascimento Júnior

    2001-01-01

    O propósito deste trabalho é estabelecer o caminho percorrido pelo idealismo em sua participação na construção das Ciências da Natureza desde a antigüidade até o final do século XX. Para os pensadores antigos, o mundo físico era governado pela idéia, e o modo de apreendê-la era por meio da contemplação da alma ou da observação e da lógica. Na escolástica essa idéia é Deus. Na renascença, Deus se torna matemático. Em Galileu a Matemática do mundo é entendida pela experimentação. Para Descartes...

  16. Tecnificação da vida: uma discussão sobre o discurso da medicalização da sociedade

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    Jurema Barros Dantas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo pensaremos a noção de medicalização da sociedade e da existência cotidiana como um discurso de "tecnificação" da vida. Aderida a uma crença quase absoluta no discurso técnico, a contemporaneidade parece se anestesiar com as descobertas de substâncias que prometem solução para todos os problemas. O medicamento se apresenta como um possível exemplo desse aparato que, baseado em alta tecnologia, promete o alcance de um bem-estar pessoal e social. Este discurso "tecnificante" da vida se apresenta quase como discurso mítico, onde a apreensão da realidade se dá através de uma narrativa cuja eficácia é determinada pela potência misteriosa das substâncias.

  17. Título da página eletrónica: Centro de Estudos da Cultura e do Meio Ambiente da Amazônia - Rioterra

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz, Juliana Torquato

    2015-01-01

    O referido sítio eletrônico é o espaço virtual da Organização da Sociedade Civil de Interesse Público (OSCIP) “Centro de Estudos da Cultura e do Meio Ambiente da Amazônia – RIOTERRA”, existente desde 1999. Trata-se de um amplo trabalho, empreendido principalmente por biólogos, geógrafos e engenheiros ambientais, orientados para estudos, pesquisas e ações articuladas a diferentes populações de alguns territórios do sudoeste da Amazônia, ao exemplo do Vale do Guaporé, Território do Madeira Mamo...

  18. O reerguimento da Rússia, os EUA/OTAN e a crise da Ucrânia: a Geopolítica da nova Ordem Mundial

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Wanderley Messias da

    2015-01-01

    Este texto examina aspectos importantes do cenário internacional deste início do século 21 do ponto de vista da geopolítica, com destaque para o processo em curso de reerguimento da Rússia como Grande Potência. A abordagem articula conhecimentos da geografia regional, geopolítica, história e teoria das relações internacionais e procura concentrar-se na análise de aspectos relevantes da trajetória russa, desde o período czarista, passando pelo socialismo no âmbito da URSS, o declínio após 1991...

  19. Leitura, literatura e desenvolvimento da competência textual

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Otília de; Sepúlveda, Angélica; Lourenço, Manuela; Correia, Ana

    2013-01-01

    A investigação sobre aprendizagem de leitura e escrita indica que nas práticas educativas cujo centro são livros há lugar a numerosas oportunidades para que as crianças aprendam sobre a língua e os textos. Na perspetiva do estudo do desenvolvimento da linguagem e da eficácia das práticas de ensino baseadas na leitura de textos literários há evidências da relação entre o trabalho à volta dos livros e da leitura e o desenvolvimento da linguagem e da competência discursiva, nomeadame...

  20. Epistemologia pluralizada e história da psicologia

    OpenAIRE

    José Antônio Damásio Abib

    2009-01-01

    Tomam-se, aqui, obras de Wilhelm Wundt e William James para mostrar que a psicologia nasce como projeto científico no final do século XIX. Esse projeto diferencia psicologia como ciência de psicologia como metafísica. Dessa perspectiva, a história da psicologia é concebida como história da psicologia científica e a pré-história da psicologia é concebida como história da psicologia metafísica. Mas as concepções de ciência de Wundt e James são diferentes. Da perspectiva da epistemologia unitári...