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Sample records for acanthopanax senticosus extract

  1. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Leaves of Acanthopanax Senticosus Harms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Introduction The herbal plant Acanthopanax Senticosus Harms[1,2] is natural herb of Changbaishan in Jilin Province of China, which belongs to the Araliaceae family. As the ingredients of folk medicine, it has long been used to treat a variety of human diseases, such as cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, tumor, isochemic heart diseases, hypertension, rheumatic arthritis,etc. [2,3].

  2. Two new compounds from Acanthopanax senticosus Harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Feng; Wu, Zhao-Hua; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Qi-Hui; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2009-08-01

    From the dried aerial part of Acanthopanax senticosus, a new coumarin glycoside, eleutheroside B(2) (1), and a new sesquiterpenoid, oplopanone B (2), were isolated. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods.

  3. Development of sample preparation method for eleutheroside B and E analysis in Acanthopanax senticosus by ionic liquids-ultrasound based extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Ge, Hongshuang; Wang, Wenjie; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Fengjian; Zhao, Chunjian; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying

    2013-12-01

    An ionic liquids-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction (ILUAE) method was successfully developed for extracting eleutheroside B and E from Radix Acanthopanax senticosus. Thirteen 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were investigated and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4mim]Br) solution was selected as the solvent. The conditions for ILUAE, including the ionic liquid concentration, soaking time, ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time, solid-liquid ratio and number of extraction cycles, were optimized. With the proposed method, the energy consumption time was reduced to 30 min, whereas conventional method requires about 4h. The proposed method had good recovery (97.96-103.39%) and reproducibility (RSD, n=5; 3.3% for eleutheroside B, 4.6% for eleutheroside E). ILUAE was an efficient, rapid and simple sample preparation technique that showed high reproducibility and was environmental friendly.

  4. A benzenoid from the stem of Acanthopanax senticosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jiyoung; Son, Dongwook; Kang, Jungil; Kim, Hyun-Su; Kim, Bak-Kwang; Lee, Sanghyun

    2004-09-01

    Seven compounds were isolated from the stem of Acanthopanax senticosus by repeated column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated as isovanillin (1), (-)-sesamin (2), isofraxidin (3), (+)-syringaresinol (4), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5), eleutheroside B (6), and eleutheroside E (7) by spectral analysis. Among them, isovanillin (1) was isolated for the first time from the family Araliaceae.

  5. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linzhang; Zhao, Hongfang; Huang, Baokang; Zheng, Chengjian; Peng, Wei; Qin, Luping

    2011-02-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (Araliaceae), also called Siberian Ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Ciwujia in Chinese, is a widely used traditional Chinese herb that could invigorate qi, strengthen the spleen, and nourish kidney in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. With high medicinal value, Acanthopanax senticosus (AS, thereafter) is popularly used as an "adaptogen" like Panax ginseng. In recent decades, a great number of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on AS have been carried out worldwide. Several kinds of chemical compounds have been reported, including triterpenoid saponins, lignans, coumarins, and flavones, among which, phenolic compounds such as syringin and eleutheroside E, were considered to be the most active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have persuasively demonstrated that AS possessed anti-stress, antiulcer, anti-irradiation, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, etc. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and clinical trials of AS.

  6. Characterization of eleutheroside B metabolites derived from an extract of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms by high-resolution liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and automated data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang; Sun, Qiang; Bai, Yun; Bao, Shunru; Li, Xuzhao; Yan, Guangli; Liu, Shumin

    2012-10-01

    We elucidated the structure and metabolite profile of eleutheroside B, a component derived from the extract of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms, after oral administration of the extract in rats. Samples of rat plasma were collected and analyzed by selective high-resolution liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) automated data analysis method. A total of 11 metabolites were detected: four were identified, and three of those four are reported for the first time here. The three new plasma metabolites were identified on the basis of mass fragmentation patterns and literature reports. The major in vivo metabolic processes associated with eleutheroside B in A. senticosus include demethylation, acetylation, oxidation and glucuronidation after deglycosylation. A fairly comprehensive metabolic pathway was proposed for eleutheroside B. Our results provide a meaningful basis for drug discovery, design and clinical applications related to A. senticosus in traditional Chinese medicine.

  7. Three new compounds from the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Three new compounds named (2E)prenyl benzoate-4-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1→6) β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 7-methoxy-8-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl coumarin (2), and 3,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxy benzenepentanoic acid (3) were isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms. The structures of new compounds were determined by means of 2D NMR experiments and chemical methods.

  8. Anti-oxidant activities of Acanthopanax senticosus stems and their lignan components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyun; Son, Dongwook; Ryu, Jiyoung; Lee, Yeon Sil; Jung, Sang Hoon; Kang, Jungil; Lee, Sang Yun; Kim, Hyun-Su; Shin, Kuk Hyun

    2004-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of Acanthopanax senticosus stems were evaluated in CCl4-intoxicated rats. The n-butanol fraction from the water extract of the stems, when pretreated orally at 200 mg/kg/day for 7 consecutive days in rats, was demonstrated to exhibit significant increases in antioxidant enzyme activities such as hepatic cytosolic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase by 30.31, 19.82 and 155%, respectively. The n-butanol fraction whereas showed a significant inhibition of serum GPT activity (65.79% inhibition) elevated with hepatic damage induced by CCl4-intoxication. Eleutheroside B, a lignan component, isolated from the n-butanol fraction was found to cause a moderate free radical scavenging effect on DPPH, its scavenging potency as indicated in IC50 value, being 58.5 microM. These results suggested that the stems of A. senticosus possess not only antioxidant but also hepatoprotective activities.

  9. Radioprotective effects of active compounds from Acanthopanax senticosus of Lesser Khingan Mountain in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weihong; Sun, Yeqing; Shi, Jinming

    Bioactive compounds including polysaccharides, flavones, syringin and eleutheroside E were extracted from wild Acanthopanax senticosus and purified by chromatography. In vitro and in vivo anti-radiation activities of the compounds were compared. In vitro radical scavenging results showed that polysaccharides and flavones were more effective than syringin and eleutheroside E in In vivo study proved that polysaccharides and flavones were effective in protecting mice from heavy ion radiation induced oxidative damages. Also, the activity of polysaccharides and flavones in repressing expression changes of radiation response proteins including heat shock protein, disulfide-isomerase and glutathione S-transferase were also found by our results. Moreover, the radioprotective effects were more significant when polysaccharides and flavones were used together.

  10. Effect of extract from roots and rhizomes of Acanthopanax senticosus on immune function of Drosophila melanogaster%刺五加提取物对果蝇免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文佳; 刘强; 金丽华

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of the extract from the roots and rhizomes of Acanthopanax senticosus (ERA) and extract especially here from the fruits of of A. senticosus (EFA) on innate immunity and gut immunity of Drosophila melanogaster. Methods D. melanogaster was infected by bacterial or fungal biological solution with or without ERA or EFA, and the effects of ERA or EFA on the survival rates of D. melanogaster with microbial infection and thermal stimulation were recorded. Cell apoptosis was observed using fluorescence microscopy after immunostaining gut tissue of D. melanogaster. The total RNA of spore-infected D. melanogaster was extracted and the expression of antimicrobial peptides was detected. Results ERA and EFA could improve the survival rate of bacteria-infected D. melanogaster, meanwhile alleviate the apoptosis of gut epithelial cells. The survival rate of spore-infected D. melanogaster was improved by ERA and EFA, and certain antimicrobial peptides were highly expressed in vivo. ERA and EFA could also improve the survival rate of D. melanogaster with thermal stimulation. Conclusion ERA and EFA could significantly improve the immune function of D. melanogaster.%目的 研究刺五加提取物对果蝇天然免疫和肠道免疫功能的影响.方法 用含或不含刺五加根或果实提取物的细菌或真菌生物溶液感染果蝇,观察刺五加根和果实提取物对感染细菌或真菌以及对热刺激果蝇生存率的影响;果蝇肠道组织免疫染色,荧光显微镜观察肠壁细胞凋亡情况;提取被真菌孢子感染的果蝇总RNA,检测抗菌肽表达量.结果 刺五加根和果实提取物能提高细菌感染后果蝇的生存率,缓解肠壁细胞凋亡,也可提高经真菌孢子感染后果蝇的生存率,使体内部分抗菌肽出现高表达,也能提高经热刺激处理果蝇的生存率.结论 刺五加根和果实提取物能显著提高果蝇机体免疫功能.

  11. Chemical constituents of Acanthopanax senticosus%刺五加的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚婧如; 王书芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 对刺五加Acanthopanax senticosus的化学成分进行研究.方法 刺五加药材用75%乙醇提取,依次用石油醚、醋酸乙酯萃取,对醋酸乙酯部分采用硅胶柱色谱、反相制备色谱等技术进行分离,根据波谱学数据(MS、1H-NMR、13C-NMR)进行化合物的结构鉴定.结果 从醋酸乙酯部分分离得到19个化合物,分别鉴定为槲皮素(1)、槲皮苷(2)、山柰酚(3)、金丝桃苷(4)、芦丁(5)、金合欢素(6)、大豆苷(7)、3′-甲氧基大豆苷(8)、葛根素(9)、3′-甲氧基葛根素(10)、4′-甲氧基葛根素(11)、丁香醛(12)、丁香酸(13)、紫丁香酸葡萄糖苷(14)、异嗪皮啶(15)、2,3-二(3′,4 ′-二甲氧基苄基)-2-丁烯-4-内酯(16)、l-芝麻酯素(17)、methylpluviatolide (18)、4′-羟基-2′-甲氧基肉桂醛(19).结论 化合物6~11、14、16、18、19为首次从该属植物中分离得到.%Objective To study the chemical constituents of Acanthopanax senticosus. Methods A. senticosus was extracted with 75% EtOH and separated with petroleum ether and EtOAc, successively. The EtOAc-soluble fraction was isolated by column chromatography and RP-preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic method (MS, 'H-NMR, and 13C-NMR). Results Nineteen compounds were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of A. senticosus and identified as quercetin (1), quercitrin (2), kaempferol (3), hyperoside (4), rutin (5), acacetin (6), daidzin (7), 3'-methoxydaidzin (8), puerarin (9), 3'-methoxypuerarin (10), 4'-methoxypuerarin (11), syringaldehyde (12), syringic acid (13), glucosyringic acid (14), isofraxidin (15), 2, 3-di(3', 4'-methyl-endioxy-benzyl)-2-buten-4-olide (16), l-sesamin (17), methylpluviatolide (18), and 4'-hydroxy-2'-methoxycinnamaldehyde (19). Conclusion Compounds 6-1,14,16,18, and 19 are isolated from the plants in Acanthopanax (Deche et Planch.) Miq. For the first time.

  12. Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus on learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and protection against free radical injury to brain tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanji Xu; Chunji Han; Songji Xu; Xing Yu; Guozhe Jiang; Chunhua Nan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Acanthopanax senticosus,a plant of the Araliaceae family,is used in traditional Chinese medicine.It can be used to replenish Qi,strengthen the spleen,tonify the kidney,and relieve mental strain.OBJECTIVE:To observe effects ofAcanthopanax senticosus on learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and abnormal biochemical changes in the brain tissue.DESIGN:A completely randomized grouping,controlled animal experiment.SETTING:Department of Preventive Medicine,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Yanbian University.MATERIALS:A total of 50 Kunming mice,aged 1-1.5 months,equal numbers of males and females,were provided by the Laboratory Animal Center,Yanbian University Medical College.The study was performed in accordance with ethical guidelines for the use and care of animals.Acanthopanax was provided by Yanbian Chengda Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.Acanthopanax senticosus(0.5 kg)was soaked in water for 1 hour and transferred to 1.5 kg distilled water for extraction.It was boiled for 1 hour and extracted after 1 hour of boiling.The procedure was repeated 3 times.The extract was condensed to 500 mL and then adjusted to 500 and 1 000 g/L with water.Piracetam tablets were produced by Shandong Luoxin Pharmaceutical Corporation, China.Malonaldehyde(MDA),superoxide dismutase(SOD),and acetylcholinesterase(ACHE)kits were purchased from Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Co.,Ltd.,China. METHODS:This study was performed at the Department of Preventive Medicine,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Yanbian University from January to June 2007.All mice were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 mice in each:control group,model group,low-,and high-dose Acanthopanax senticosus-treated groups, and piracetam-treated group.All groups were administered 0.1 mL/10 g.In the control and model groups, mice were intragastrically administered saline each morning for 5 days prior to experimentation.Five days later,they were intraperitoneally perfused with saline and aluminum trichloride

  13. α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from Acanthopanax senticosus Harm Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new triterpene glycoside, 3-O-[(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2]-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-O-methyl ester]-olean-12-ene-28-olic acid (1 and a new indole alkaloid, 5-methoxy-2-oxoindolin-3-acetic acid methyl ester (5 were isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms along with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of 2D-NMR experiments and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their glycosidase inhibition activities and compound 6 showed significant α-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  14. Two new ceramides from the fruit pulp of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhaowei; Liu, Jinping; Lu, Dan; Narlawar, Rajeshwar; Groundwater, Paul; Li, Pingya

    2014-01-01

    Two new ceramides, (3S,4S,5R)-3-octadecanoylamino-4-hydroxy-5-dodecane-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrofuran (1) and (3S,4S,5R)-3-[(2R)-2-hydroxyhexacosanoylamino]-4-hydroxy-5-[(4E)-dodecane-4-ene]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrofuran (2), together with eight known compounds, eleutheroside A (3), eleutheroside B (4), eleutheroside E (5), 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (6), 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (7), 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3-ol (8), stigmasterol (9) and rutin (10), were isolated from the fruit pulp of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms. Their structures were elucidated by means of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic methods (1D, 2D NMR and MS).

  15. Study on Yogurt with Acanthopanax senticosus%刺五加酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春艳; 孙迪; 张筠; 赵兴明; 李春; 赵琳

    2012-01-01

    The acidity from Acanthopanax senticosus was reduced by sodium bicarbonate solution and the sodium chloride solution, and followed drying. Its powder with skimmed milk, sugar and water were mixed for yogurt production. The result showed that the best way to reduce acidity was 4% sodium bicarbonate at 40 ℃ for 1 h, then 3% sodium chloride solution soaking for 2 h under normal temperature, following water soaking under normal temperature for 3 h. The best proportion for yogurt was 3% Acanthopanax senticocous powder, 11% skim milk powder, 8% sugar, and 3% culture starter.%以刺五加为研究对象,经碳酸氢钠溶液、氯化钠溶液降低其酸度后,干燥成粉末,与脱脂乳粉、白砂糖、水混合生产酸奶。研究发现,降低酸度的最佳方案为4%碳酸氢钠,40℃浸泡1 h,然后3%氯化钠溶液常温浸泡2 h,最后水常温浸泡3 h。酸乳调配的最佳配比为3%刺五加粉、11%脱脂乳粉、8%白砂糖、3%乳酸菌。

  16. In vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of liriodendrin isolated from the stem bark of Acanthopanax senticosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Hee-Juhn; Kim, Ryung-Gue; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Ha, Joohun; Choi, Jong-Won; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Yong Sup; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2003-07-01

    In the present study, liriodendrin isolated by activity-guided fractionation from the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of the stem bark of Acanthopanax senticosus, was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Liriodendrin (5, 10 mg/kg/day, p. o.) significantly inhibited the increase of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in mice and reduced an acute paw edema induced by carrageenan in rats. When the analgesic activity was measured by the acetic acid-induced writhing test and hot plate test, liriodendrin showed a dose-dependent inhibition in animal models. In addition, syringaresinol, the hydrolysate of liriodendrin, more potently inhibited the LPS-induced production of NO, PGE 2 and TNF-alpha production of macrophages than liriodendrin. Consistent with these observations, the expression level of iNOS and COX-2 enzyme was decreased by syringaresinol in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of liriodendrin after oral administration were attributable to the in vivo transformation to syringaresinol, which may function as the active constituent.

  17. Anti-diabetic activities of Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharide (ASP) in combination with metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianfang; Fu, Jufang; Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Nanyan; Gao, Bin; Fu, Guoqiang; Tu, Yanyang; Zhang, Yongsheng

    2012-04-01

    Combination therapy had become very popular currently for the diabetes mellitus and its complications, because of long term unreasonable drug use and adverse reaction to human body. In this study, a polysaccharide (ASP) from the roots of Acanthopanax senticosus was evaluated as an adjuvant with metformin for antidiabetic therapy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The result identified ASP plus metformin had a more beneficial promotion for relieving the symptoms of diabetes and reversing liver and kidney damage to normal level than only metfomin administration to diabetic rats. The blood glucose, blood lipid (TC and TG), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), AST, ALT, ALP, total bilirubin, creatinine and urea levels in diabetic rats were decreased by combination of ASP and metformin. Furthermore, the body weight, liver glycogen formation, antioxidant substance (GSH) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GPX) levels increased evidently in diabetic mice treated with both ASP and metformin. In particular, sometimes ASP plus metformin could significantly reverse the pathophysiologic parameters of diabetic rats to normal level than only metformin administration. Therefore ASP could be developed to a new adjuvant combined with metformin for diabetes mellitus therapy in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Protection of Acanthopanax Senticosus Saponin on Free Radical Injury Induced Aging of Nerve Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘永进; 顾永健; 顾小苏

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of Acanthopanax senticosus saponin (ASS) on free radical injury induced neuron aging. Methods: On day 7 of fetal mice, cortical neuron primary passage cultures were divided into the normal control group, model group and ASS groups. The model group using free radical (FeSO4 plus H2O2) injury mode prepared in vivo cultured ICR mice cortical neuron aging model; ASS groups: 24 hrs before and after treated with H2O2 and FeSO4, different concentration of ASS was added, according to biochemical parameters such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) etc. and histomorphologic change to observe the protection of ASS on aging neurons. Results: The LDH, SOD, MDA of the model group were compared with the normal group, P<0.01; ASS groups added 1.25 mg/100 ml, 2.5 mg/100 ml, 5 mg/100 ml concentration of ASS, their LDH, SOD, MDA compared with the model group P<0.05-0.01, the difference was significant. In medicated groups the SOD activity of oxidization injured nerve cells obviously elevated, LDH activity and MDA content apparently lowered. Microscope and scanning electron microscopic observation showed that supplemented with ASS to protect the nerve cell injury abated, part of the cellular structure tended to normalize. Conclusion: ASS could act against free radical toxic effect, increase the anti-oxidase activity, strengthen the protection of neuron cells. It is assumed that the effect against nerve cell aging was possibly through scavenging oxygen free radical, strengthening the stability of cell membrane, thus delaying the development of aging.

  19. Structure Determination of Triterpene Saponin from the Seed of Acanthopanax Senticosus by 2D NMR%2D NMR对刺五加种子中的一个三萜皂苷进行结构解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 高慧媛; 吴斌; 吴立军

    2005-01-01

    A triterpene saponin was extracted from the seeds of Acanthopanax Senticosus, and determined to be hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranpside on the basis of MS and NMR measurements. The 1 H and 13C NMR chemical shift of this compound was assigned using 2D NMR spectroscopy.%通过质谱、核磁共振谱并结合文献对一个三萜皂苷hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranpside进行结构解析. 通过2D NMR(HMQC、HMBC)对其进行了NMR全归属.

  20. 刺五加叶挥发性化学成分的提取与气相色谱-质谱分析%Extraction and GC/MS analysis of volatile constituents from Acanthopanax senticosus(Rupr.et Maxim.)Harms leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张肖宁; 孙妍; 曹飞

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较不同提取方法对刺五加叶中挥发性化学成分的得率,并对其挥发性化学成分进行分析.方法:采用同时蒸馏萃取法(SDE)与常规提取法(水蒸气蒸馏法、溶剂法)对刺五加叶药材挥发性化学成分的提取收率进行比较研究,用GC/MS法对其挥发性化学成分进行分离鉴定,用峰面积归一化法得出各化学成分在挥发性组分中的相对百分含量.结果:共分离出51个成分,确认了其中39种化学成分,主要为萜类及其含氧衍生物(68.85%)和芳香族类化合物(6.32%),其中,(+)-匙叶桉油烯醇含量最高,达19.89%,其余依次为1-甲基-5-亚甲基-8-[1-甲基乙基]-1,6-环癸二烯(7.02%)和1-甲基-1-乙烯基-2,4-二异丙烯基-环己烷(5.59%)等.结论:同时蒸馏萃取法是提取刺五加叶挥发性物质的优良方法.采用GC-MS法可以高效、适用、准确地分析、鉴定药材中挥发性物质的组成,对深入探索中药的药用价值具有积极的促进作用.%Objective: To determine the volatile constituents extracted from Acanthopanax senticosus( Rupr.et Maxim. ) Harms leaf by different methods. Methods: Simultaneous distillation and solvent extraction ( SDE),traditional hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent extraction were applied to analyze the volatile constituents of Acanthopanax senticosus( Rupr. et Maxim. ) Harms leaf. The volatile constituents were identified by gas chromatographymass spectrometry and the relative contents of the constituents were determined by an area nomalization method.Results: Totally 51 peaks were separated, of which 39 compounds were identified and quantified. The main components were terpenoids, and their oxo-derivatives (68.85%) and aromatic compounds (6.32%). The main volatile chemical components were ( + )-spathulenol (19.89%); 1-methyl-5-methylene-8-[ 1-methylethyl]-1,6-cyclo-decadiene (7.02%); l-methyl-l-vinyl-2, 4-isopropenyl-cyclohexane (5.59%) and others. Conclusion: Simultaneous

  1. Dynamical Changes of the Serum Nitric Oxide(NO) Concentrations after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage(SAlH) and the Effects of Acanthopanax Senticosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She Zheng Ming; Qian Hong Fa

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To explore the dynamical changes of the serum NO concentrations after SAH and the effects of acanthopanax senti cosus. Background. No, as a vascul ar regulat i on factor, Plays an important role on cerebral blood circulation .High intention has been paid to the rclationaship betveen No and cerebral vasospasm following SAH. Methods. The serum NO concentrat,ons of simple SAH group and acanthopanax senticosus--treated group were dynamically measured in the 2nd, 4th and 6th day after onset. Results. The serum NO concentrations of simple SAH group and acanthopanax scnticosus-treated group in the 4th and 6th day after onset were obviously lower than those of control group(P<0.01,P<0.05).The serum NO concentrations of the two groups reached their minimum in the 4th day after onset and then went up gradually in the 6th day. The content of the red blood cell in the cerebrospinal tiui of the simple SAH group was significamily contrary related to the Serum N0 concentration in the 4 th day (r=-0. 69. P< 0. 01). Discussion. The Sources , Synthesis, functious of No , the relationship between No and SAl and the effects of acanthopanax Senticoaus were discussed. Conclusion. The serum NO concentrations of the patients after SAH decrease and that may be involvea in the mechanism of cerebral vasospasm (CVS). Acanthopanax senticosus can increase the serum NO concentrations.

  2. Simultaneous determination of protocatechuic acid, syringin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, liriodendrin and isofraxidin in Acanthopanax senticosus Harms by HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Jia, Ying; Xu, Liang; Wang, Xiaohui; Shen, Zhenduo; Liu, Yulei; Bi, Kaishun

    2006-03-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the first time to quantify simultaneously the six major active ingredients in Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms, namely protocatechuic acid, syringin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, liriodendrin and isofraxidin. The analysis was performed by a reverse phase gradient elution with an aqueous mobile phase (containing 0.05% phosphoric acid) modified by acetonitrile and diode-array multiple-wavelength UV detector (DAD). Six regression equations showed good linear relationships between the peak area of each marker and concentration. The recoveries of the markers listed above were 92.3%, 93.9%, 90.3%, 93.1%, 94.3% and 90.7%, respectively. The relative standard deviation of intra-day and inter-day were less than 2.7% and 3.1%, respectively. This method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision and limits of quantification. Medicinal materials of ten commercial brands were analyzed and found to contain different amounts of the six bioactive markers. The method developed can be used for the quality control of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms.

  3. Studies on the Extraction and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of the flavoniods from the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus%刺五加叶中总黄酮的分离提取及抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文闻; 刘春明; 陆娟; 王铎

    2011-01-01

    对刺五加叶总黄酮提取工艺进行了研究,同时利用1,1-二苯基-2-苦基苯肼自由基(DPPH)法和羟基自由基(OH)法对刺五加叶总黄酮提取物进行了的抗氧化评价.结果表明:超声提取法对刺五加叶总黄酮提取效果最佳.超声提取正交试验结果表明,刺五加叶总黄酮的最佳提取工艺为:以50%乙醇溶液提取,提取时间为1.5h,提取次数为2次,溶媒倍量为20倍,提取率为5.192%.抗氧化活性结果表明,刺五加叶总黄酮对DPPH和·OH均有良好的清除作用,且随着其浓度的增加,清除能力增强.%Objective: The extraction methods of Flavonoids have been studied, and the extraction process has been optimized. And then,the antioxidant activity of total flavonoids extract against DPPH and hydroxyl radical has been evaluated. The experimental. Methods-.Results:show that the ultrasonic extraction method is best by compared with the reflux method and accelerated solvent extraction and extraction, and the optimization extraction conditions are as follows: ethanol concentration is 50% , extraction time is 1. 5h,extraction times is 2 times,solvent times is about 20 times. The extraction rate is 5. 192% . The removal capacity of the extract on DPPH and OH radical is best. With the. Conclusion: increasing, the removal capacity is increasing.

  4. Analysis of the volatile oil from the stem of acanthopanax senticosus(Rupr.et Maxim.)harms with several hyphenated methods of chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wanying; Zhang Hua; Huang Weidong; Chen Jiping; Liang Xinmiao

    2006-01-01

    Gas chromatography/quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/qMS),gas chromatography/Fourier transform infrared spectrometry(CC/FTIR)and gas chromatography/orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry(GC/oaTOFMS)were applied to analyze the volatile oil from the stem of Acanthopanax Senticosus(Rupr.et Maxim.)Harms.Based on the mass spectra search function of GC/qMS with the aid of the discriminability of the geometrical isomer by GC/FTIR and the ability to determine the accurate mass charge ratio(m/z)by GC/oaTOFMS,68 GC eluants were identified successfully.Compared with the results obtained by GC/qMS only,the analytical results obtained by these hyphenated methods of gas chromatography are more credible.

  5. 刺五加水煎液合并DA受体拮抗剂改善小鼠睡眠作用的实验研究%Acanthopanax Senticosus Combined with Dopamine Receptor Antagonist for Improving Mice Sleep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文婷; 董梅; 李廷利

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the machanism of the effect of Acanthopanax senticosus on improving mice sleep. Methods: The content of DA in the whole brain of mice administrated by Acanthopanax senticosus (32g·kg-1) was estimated with ELISA. This research observed the latency and duration of sleep of mice which was narcosised by pentobarbital after being administrated with subthreshold dose of Acanthopanax senticosus combined with dopamine D, receptor antagonist SCH23390 or dopamine D2 receptor antagonist Haloperidol. Results: The content of DA in the whole brain of mice administrated by Acanthopanax senticosus showed no significant difference compared with the control group(P>0.05). Contrasting with the blank group, the results showed that SCH23390(7μg·kg-1) significantly prolonged the time of falling asleep(P<0.01)and shortened the duration sleep latency(P<0.01 )in mice which were administrated with sub-threshold dose of Acanthopanax senticosus (8g·kg-1); Haloperidol (7mg·kg-1) was able to significantly prolong the time of falling asleep(P<0.01) and shorten the duration sleep lalency(P<0.01 )in mice which were administrated with subthreshold dose of Acanthopanax senticosus(8g· kg-1). Conclusion: The synergic effect of Acanthopanax senticosus combined with dopamine DA, ,DA2 receptor antagonist seems to be one of the reasons why Acanthopanax senticosus can extend sleep time.%目的:探讨刺五加水煎液改善小鼠睡眠作用的机制.方法:采用酶联免疫吸附法,观察刺五加水煎液(32g·kg-1)对小鼠脑内多巴胺(DA)含量的影响.应用戊巴比妥钠致小鼠睡眠的实验方法,观察小鼠给予阈下剂量刺五加水煎液合并多巴胺D1受体拮抗剂SCH23390,以及刺五加水煎液合并多巴胺D2受体拮抗剂氟哌啶醇(Haloperidol)后小鼠睡眠潜伏期和睡眠时间.结果:刺五加水煎液对小鼠全脑DA的含量与空白组相比无显著性差异(P>0.05).与空白组比较,给予阈下剂量刺五加水煎液(8g·kg-1)

  6. 刺五加果肉化学成分的研究(Ⅱ)%Chemical Constituents from Pulp of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr.et Maxim) Harms (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫兆威; 刘金平; 卢丹; 李平亚

    2013-01-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from the water extract of the pulp of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. Et Maxim) Harms by various column chromatographic techniques. The structures were elucidated on the basis spectral data ( H NMR, 13 C NMR and MS) and chemical evidences. Their structures were determined as (-)-3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran (1)、(-)-savinin (2) 、5α,8α-epidioxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (3)、Eleutheroside A (4)、Eleutheroside B (5)、Uracil (6)、2-furoic acid (7)、Succinic acid (8)、Phthalic acid bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl) ester (9)、Glyceryl monos-tearate (10)、Isoselachoceric acid (11) and Octadecane (12). Among them compounds 1、3、6 、7 、8 and 9 are isolated from this plant for the first time.%应用多种色谱技术进行分离纯化,从刺五加果肉水提取物中分离得到12个化合物,经理化性质和波谱分析鉴定其结构分别为:(-)-3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃(1)、桧脂素(2)、5α,8α-桥二氧麦角甾-6,22-双烯-3-醇(3)、刺五加苷A(4)、刺五加苷B(5)、尿嘧啶(6)、2-呋喃甲酸(7)、琥珀酸(8)、Phthalic acid bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl) ester (9)、硬脂酸甘油酯(10)、正二十四烷酸(11)和正三十八烷(12).其中化合物1、3、6、7、8和9为首次从本植物中分得.

  7. 刺五加黑斑病的室内药剂筛选%Indoor Fungicide Screening of Black Spot Disease in Acanthopanax senticosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏书琴; 刘俊霞

    2009-01-01

    [目的]筛选对刺五加黑斑病菌具有抑菌效果的药剂.[方法] 用 11种药剂在2 500、1 250和833 μg/ml 3种浓度条件下分别对刺五加黑斑病菌进行处理,研究不同药剂和稀释浓度对刺五加黑斑病菌的抑菌效果.[结果] 不同药剂和稀释浓度对刺五加黑斑病菌的抑菌效果影响很大,其中10%世高水分散剂、30%福嘧霉悬浮剂、50%扑海因WP和20%黑星叶霉唑超微WP对刺五加黑斑病的抑菌效果最佳,在各浓度处理条件下的抑菌率均为100%;3%多抗霉素WP的抑菌效果也很好;50%菌安利WP在浓度为2 500 μg/ml时,75%达科宁(百菌清)WP在浓度为1 250 μg/ml时,对刺五加黑斑病也有一定抑制作用;其他药剂对刺五加黑斑病的抑制作用不大. [结论] 在11种药剂的3种浓度处理中,筛选出5种对刺五加黑斑病菌具有较明显抑制作用的药剂.%[Objective]The study aimed to screen the fungicides had optimum antibacterial effects on black spot disease in Acanthopanax senticosus.[Method] The black spot disease in A. Senticosus was treated separately with 11 kinds of fungicides at 3 concn. Of 2 500, 1 250 and 833 μg/ml,and study the antibacterial effect of different fungicides and concn. On controlling of black spot disease in A. Senticosus.[Result] The different fungicides and their dilution concn. Had great effects on the bacteriostasis for black spot disease in A. Senticosus, in which 10% difenoconazole dispersant, 30% thiram suspending agent, 50% ipiodine WP, 20% tetramethylthiuramdisulphide ultrafine WP and 3% Polyoxin WP got optimum antibacterial effect on black spot disease in A. Senticosus, with the antibacterial rate of 100% under various concn. Treatments. 50% Carbendzim Mancozeb WP at 2 500 μg/ml and 75% chlorothalonil WP at 1 250 μg/ml had certain antibacterial action on black spot disease in A. Senticosus and other fungicides had little antibacterial action on this disease.[Conclusion] Among 11 kinds of fungicide with

  8. Effects of acanthopanax senticosus injection on the repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats%刺五加注射液对大鼠坐骨神经损伤修复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方欣; 贾建新; 闫旭升; 宋嵬; 杨占君

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨刺五加注射液对大鼠坐骨神经损伤修复的影响。方法:将60只 SD雄性大鼠随机分为3组,分别为对照组、模型组和刺五加组,每组20只。对照组不施加任何干预,模型组和刺五加组进行左侧坐骨神经离断后缝合。术后刺五加组每日给予刺五加注射液腹腔注射(20 mg/kg),其余两组常规喂养。观察三组大鼠左足皮肤温度、坐骨神经功能指数(seiatic fanetion index ,SFI)和坐骨神经传导速度(sciatic nerve conduction velocity ,SNCV)。结果:在术后第3周和第4周,刺五加组大鼠左后足部皮肤温度均比模型组明显升高( P <0.01);术后第2周、第4周和第6周,刺五加组坐骨神经功能指数均明显优于模型组( P <0.01);术后第2周、第4周和第6周,刺五加组坐骨神经功能指数均明显优于模型组( P <0.01)。结论:刺五加注射液对大鼠周围神经损伤后功能恢复具有促进作用。%Objective :To explore the effect of acanthopanax senticosus injection on the repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats .Methods:60 SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (the control group ,the model group ,and the acanthopanax senticosus group) ,20 rats in each group .The rats in the control group were not given any intervention .All the left sciatic nerves were sutured after being cut in the other two groups .The rats in acanthopanax senticosus group were given daily intraperitoneal injection of acanthopanax senticosus (20mg/kg) ,and the rats in the control group and the model group were given normal feeding ,with skin temperature in the left foot ,sciatic nerve function index (SFI) and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (SNCV ) of rats in all groups observed .Results :3 or 4 weeks after surgery , compared with the model group ,the left foot skin temperature in acanthopanax senticosus group increased significantly ( P <0 .01) .SFI of acanthopanax senticosus

  9. Immunopharmacological in vitro effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, G G; Esperester, A; Joller, P

    2001-01-01

    The objective of these investigations was to further elucidate the immunopharmacological profile of fluid extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus and to identify the specific role of its characteristic eleutherosides B and E. An ethanolic dry extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus was used as starting material for the isolation of the eleutherosides B and E. Immunopharmacological studies included expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules by rat bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes, human lymphocyte marker flow cytometry, and in vitro testing of human lymphocyte functions. In contrast to the isolated eleutherosides B and eleutherosides E and the re-mixed eleutherosides B and E, the whole ethanolic fluid extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus was able to induce and enhance interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 but not interleukin-2 production in vitro. The effective concentration of the whole ethanolic extract ranged from 1.0-0.1 mg/ml for the enhancement of interleuking-1 alpha production and 1.0-0.03 mg/ml for the enhancement of interleukin-6 production. It is concluded that the observed enhancing immunopharmacological activities on acute phase response mediators are best exhibited by the induction with whole ethanolic extracts whereas the species-specific and characteristic eleutherosides B and E are not associated with these activities.

  10. Study on Antioxidative Properties of Different Fractions from Acanthopanax Senticosus(Rupr.etMaxim.) Harms Leaves%刺五加叶不同部位抗氧化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊标; 赵红丹; 徐春玲; 陈秋连; 梁彩霞; 郑友兰

    2012-01-01

    目的研究刺五加叶不同部位在不同浓度下的体外抗氧化活性。方法采用清除ABTS+自由基、DPPH自由基评价法和测定还原性法,利用紫外分光光度计法测定刺五加叶的总提液、10%、30%和50%大孔吸附树脂醇洗脱部位在不同浓度下的抗氧化能力。结果刺五加叶不同部位抗氧化活性的强弱顺序为:30%部位〉10%部位〉总提液〉50%部位,随着各部位浓度的增加,抗氧化能力增强。ABTS+自由基和DPPH自由基模型中,在浓度为0.64mg/mL时,30%的部位对ABTS+DPPH自由基模最大清除率分别达到99.541%、95.331%,与同浓度VC的清除率接近,其次浓度0.64mg/mL的10%部位的最大清除率分别达到96.324%、88.033%。在还原性法测定中30%部位在浓度为0.64mg/mL时,吸光度为2.269,与VC较接近,同浓度时10%部位的吸光度为2.155,次于30%部位。结论刺五加叶抗氧化能力较好,各种评定方法结合分析,其30%部位最好,可以开发为抗氧化剂,为进一步研究和开发刺五加叶提供了科学依据。%Objective Study on different Fractions of Acanthopanax Senticosus(Rupr.etMaxim.) Harms Leaves at different concentrations,and determine its antioxidative activities.Methods The antioxidative activities of Acanthopanax Senticosus compared with VC were investigated employing various methods established in vitro systems such as DPPH(1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical ABTS(2,2-azo-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging assay and reducing power assay measured by ultraviolet spectro-photometer.Results The elution fractions of Acanthopanax Senticosus exhibited significant antioxidant properties on ABTS free radical,DPPH radical scavenging systems,and good reduction.The inhibition of freeing radical scavenging ability of the different elution fractions from strong to weak is: 30%fraction10%fraction the total extracts50%fraction.The antioxidant properties of different fractions depended

  11. Clinical Observation of Acanthopanax Senticosus Injection in the Treatment of Insomnia%刺五加注射液治疗失眠症的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范昕; 刘锦森

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy ofAcanthopanax senticosus injection in the treatment of insomnia.METHODS: 80 insomnia cases were randomly divided into treatment group and control group (40 cases).Treatment group was given A.senticosus injection while control group was given Shengrnai injection.Curative effect, score of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Athens Sleep Quality Index and adverse drug reaction were compared between 2 groups.RESULTS: The total effective rate of treatment group was 92.5% and that of control group was 77.5%, there was significant difference between 2 groups (P<0.05); there were significant improvements in the PSQI, Athens Sleep Quality Index in both groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01),there was significant differences between 2 groups (P<0.05).No serious adverse drug reaction was found in 2 groups.CONCLUSION: A.senticosus injection is effective in the treatment of insomnia.%目的:观察刺五加注射液治疗失眠症的临床疗效.方法:将80例失眠患者随机分为治疗组和对照组各40例.治疗组采用刺五加注射液治疗,对照组采用生脉注射液治疗,比较2组临床疗效、匹兹堡睡眠质量指数评分、Atbens睡眠量表评分和不良反应.结果:治疗组总有效率为92.5%,对照组为77.5%,2组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05);2组匹兹堡睡眠质量指数评分和Athens睡眠量表评分治疗后较治疗前明显降低(P<0.05或P<0.01),2组间比较均有显著性差异(P<0.05).2组均未见严重不良反应发生.结论:刺五加注射液治疗失眠症疗效确切.

  12. Enrichment and Purification of Syringin, Eleutheroside E and Isofraxidin from Acanthopanax senticosus by Macroporous Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen a suitable resin for the preparative simultaneous separation and purification of syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin from Acanthopanax senticosus, the adsorption and desorption properties of 17 widely used commercial macroporous resins were evaluated. According to our results, HPD100C, which adsorbs by the molecular tiers model, was the best macroporous resin, offering higher adsorption and desorption capacities and higher adsorption speed for syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin than other resins. Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests were carried out to optimize the process parameters. The optimal conditions were as follows: for adsorption, processing volume: 24 BV, flow rate: 2 BV/h; for desorption, ethanol–water solution: 60:40 (v/v, eluent volume: 4 BV, flow rate: 3 BV/h. Under the above conditions, the contents of syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin increased 174-fold, 20-fold and 5-fold and their recoveries were 80.93%, 93.97% and 93.79%, respectively.

  13. Studies on the chemical constituents of the stems of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms%刺五加茎的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑艳光; 王录全; 吴立军; 吴振

    2002-01-01

    目的对五加科五加属植物刺五加Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr.et Maxim.)Harms茎的提取物的化学成分进行了分离和鉴定.方法 刺五加茎的乙醇提取物经D101大孔树脂以水及不同浓度乙醇洗脱,硅胶柱色谱分离得到6个化合物,通过波谱(1H-NMR,13C-NMR)分析和化学方法进行结构鉴定.结果 6个化合物分别被鉴定为香草酸(vanillic acid Ⅰ)、丁香酸(syringic acid Ⅱ)、对羟基苯乙醇(tyrosol Ⅲ)、异香草醛 (isovanillin Ⅳ)、异秦皮啶(isofraxidin Ⅴ)、丁香苷(syringin Ⅵ).结论 对羟基苯乙醇和异香草醛为首次从五加属植物中分离得到的已知化合物.

  14. Lignin separation and antioxidant capacity from Acanthopanax senticosus remainders using acetone%刺五加根茎剩余物丙酮有机溶剂提取木质素及抗氧化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明华; 方桂珍; 韩世岩; 张彦华; 荣海宏; 郭军; 史永纯

    2012-01-01

    Lignin was extracted from Acanthopanax senticosus remainders coming from pharmaceutical production process with acetone as extracting reagent.Lignin antioxidant capacity and yield were tested under single-factor experiment,such as reaction temperature,reaction time,solid-liquid ratio,acetic acid concentration,and solution concentration of acetone.The optimal conditions by a four-level orthogonal array design were as followings:reaction temperature 180 ℃,solution concentration of acetone 80%,solid-liquid ratio 1:20,and reaction time 80 min.The EC50 of the acetone organic lignin on DPPH was 1.518 mg/mL by verification experiments.The results indicate that the acetone organic lignin antioxidant capacity is better than that of Kraft lignin,but much lower than that of butylated hydroxyanisole(BHA).%以制药废弃物刺五加根茎剩余物为原料,采用丙酮有机溶剂法提取木质素,探讨了反应温度、反应时间、料液比、乙酸体积分数、丙酮体积分数等工艺条件对木质素得率和木质素抗氧化活性的影响。结果表明:反应温度对丙酮有机木质素抗氧化性能影响最显著,其他因素不显著。优化工艺条件为反应温度180℃、丙酮体积分数80%、料液比1:20、反应时间80min。重复性验证实验得知,丙酮有机木质素DPPH去除能力EC50值为1.518mg/mL,丙酮有机木质素抗氧化活性比常规碱法木质素抗氧化活性高,但低于商业合成抗氧化剂BHA。

  15. Contrast Study on Contents of Effective Components in Stem Coat of Acanthopanax Senticosus (Rupr.et Maxim.) Harms and Acanthopanax Sessilifrus (Rupr.et Maxim.) Seem.%刺五加及短梗五加茎皮有效成分含量对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘枞; 李先宽; 徐保利; 韩荣春; 王冰

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To establish the determination of eleutheroside B,E and Isofraxidin in Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr.et Maxim.) Harms and Acanthopanax sessilitloms (Rupr.et Maxim.)Seem.stem coat by HPLC,to determine the content of eleutheroside B,E and Isofraxidin in Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr.et Maxim.) Harms and Acanthopanax sessilitloms (Rupr.et Maxim.) Seem.stem coat,to find the difference between them.Method:HPLC method was used to obtain chromatograms column (150 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μ m),motion phase methanol (A)-water (B),gradient elution (0~15 min:20A; 15~20 min:21A; 20~35 min:30A),velocity of flow 0.8 mL · min-1,column temperature 30 ℃,determinating wave length 210 nm.Results:The three compounds in their respective peak areas had good line arities and the average recovery rates were 99.1%,97.3% and 99.9%,RSD was 0.7%,1.3% and 0.6%.Conclusion:This method was simple and the results were satisfactory.It is can be used for the content of eleutheroside B,E and Isofraxidin in Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr.et Maxim.)Harms and Acanthopanax sessilifloms (Rupr.et Maxim.) Seem.stem coat.%目的:建立刺五加及短梗五加茎皮刺五加苷B、刺五加苷E及异嗪皮啶的高效液相测定方法,测定刺五加及短梗五加中上述成分的含量,对比研究刺五加及短梗五加茎中的成分含量差异.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,Agilent TC-C18色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),以甲醇(A)-水(B)为流动相,梯度洗脱:(0~15 min∶ 20A;15~20 rmin:21A; 20~35 min:30A),流速0.8mL·min-1,柱温30℃,检测波长210 nm.结果:样品进样量在各自浓度范围内呈良好的线性关系,加样回收率分别为99.1%、97.3%和99.9%,RSD为0.7%、1.3%和0.6%.结论:本法操作简便,分离效果好,可用于刺五加及短梗五加茎皮刺五加苷B、刺五加苷E及异嗪皮啶的含量测定.

  16. Clinical Experience of Acanthopanax Senticosus Injection in the Treatment of 60 Cases of Insomnia%刺五加注射液治疗失眠症60例临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋琴; 祝红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of Acanthopanax senticosus injection in the treatment of insomnia. Methods 60 insomnia cases were randomly divided into two groups: treatment group and control group (30 cases in each' group) . Patients in the treatment group were given A. Senticosus injection while thoese in the control group were given Glu injection. The curative effect, score of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) , Athens sleep quality score and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups. Results The total effective rate of treatment group was 76.67% and that of control group was 30% , there was significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). There were significant improvement in the PSQI scores in both groups (P<0.05) and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). No serious adverse reactions were found in both groups. Conclusion A. Senticosus injection is effective in the treatment of insomnia.%目的 观察刺五加注射液治疗失眠症的临床疗效.方法 将60例失眠患者随机分为治疗组和对照组各30例,治疗组采用刺五加注射液治疗,对照组采用5%葡萄糖注射液治疗,比较两组临床疗效、匹兹堡睡眠质量指数评分、Athens睡眠量表评分和不良反应.结果 治疗组总有效率为76.67%,对照组为30%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组匹兹堡睡眠质量指数评分治疗后较治疗前明显降低(P<0.05),两组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组均未见严重不良反应发生.结论 刺五加注射液治疗失眠症疗效确切.

  17. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from stems and leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms%刺五加茎叶化学成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玥秀; 吴兆华; 高慧援; 黄健; 孙博航; 吴立军

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究五加科五加属植物刺五加(Acanthopanax senticosus(Rupr.et Maxim.)Harms)茎叶中的化学成分.方法 采用反复硅胶色谱法分离纯化,通过理化常数测定和谱学分析鉴定其化学结构.结果 分离得到7个化合物,分别鉴定为丁香苷(syrigin,1)、刺五加苷B_1 (eleutheroside B_1,2)、刺五加苷D(eleutheroside D,3)、甘露醇(mannitol,4)、丁香醛(syringaldehyde,5)、2,6-二甲氧基苯甲酸苄酯(2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid phenylmethyl ester,6)、salvadoraside(7).结论 化合物5~7为首次从五加属植物中分离得到的已知化合物.

  18. 西洋参刺五加中药保健胶囊抗疲劳作用评价%The Anti-fatigue Effect Evaluation of Chinese Medicine Health Capsule Contain Panax Quinquefolium and Acanthopanax Senticosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路子佳; 卢雪瑶; 谢瑶

    2015-01-01

    Weight-bearing swimming time, the content of blood urea nitrogen, liver glycogen and blood lactate of mice was determined respectively in order to study the anti-fatigue activities of Chinese medicine health capsule. The Chinese medicine health capsule was made up of Panax quinquefolium, Acanthopanax senticosus, starch and maltodextrin. Results showed that, compared with the negative control group, the weight-bearing swimming time was effectively prolonged, and the content of blood urea nitrogen and blood lactate was reduced for the high dose group (533 mg/kg). Thus the Chinese medicine health capsule had anti-fatigue effect.%对以西洋参、刺五加、淀粉、硬脂酸镁为原料制成的中药保健胶囊进行抗疲劳作用研究,分别测定小鼠负重游泳时间,血清尿素、肝糖原和血乳酸含量。结果表明:与阴性对照组比较,该中药保健胶囊高剂量组(533 mg/kg)可以有效地延长小鼠负重游泳时间(P<0.05),可通过减少运动后小鼠血清尿素和血乳酸含量(P<0.05)缓解机体疲劳。由此可见,该保健胶囊具有一定的抗疲劳作用。

  19. Effect of Acanthopanax Extractives on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Utilization in Sheep%刺五加提取物对绵羊瘤胃发酵及养分利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文艳; 翟博; 杨连玉

    2012-01-01

    观察添加刺五加提取物对绵羊瘤胃发酵及养分利用的影响,以揭示其对瘤胃发酵影响的机理。选择6只健康的小尾寒羊,随机分为2组,采用交叉试验设计,分别添加0、50mg/kg刺五加水提取物。不同时间点采集试验羊的瘤胃液,测定pH值、氨态氮(NH,-N)浓度、挥发性脂肪酸(VFA)浓度;收集试验动物粪便,测定日粮中各营养物质的表观消化率。试验结果表明:刺五加的添加可以降低绵羊瘤胃NH,-N浓度,使瘤胃液pH值变化趋势减缓;明显提高日粮酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)和中性洗涤纤维(NDF)的表观消化率(P〈0.05),显著提高瘤胃液乙酸和总挥发性脂肪酸(TVFA)浓度(P〈0.05)。该试验为刺五加添加剂在反刍动物中的应用奠定基础,同时对中草药添加剂日粮在反刍动物中的使用提供借鉴。%The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of Acanthopanax extractives on rumen fermentation and nutrient utilization in sheep so as to reveal the mechanism of rumen fermentation. Six healthy sheep were used to divided into two groups and fed 0 and 50 mg/kg Acanthopanax senticosus according to a cross - over design. The rumen fluid of different time in sheep was collected to measure the pH value, the concentration of NH3 - N and VFA on the different period of test, also collecting the feces of sheep to test apparent digestibility of nutrients. The results showed that the addtion of Acanthopanax senticosus caused a considerable decrease in NH3 -N concentration ( P 〈 0.05 ) and slowdown of pH value of liquid. The addtion of Acanthopanax extractives could significantly increase the apparent digestibility of ADF and NDF in diets ( P 〈 0. 05 ), and significantly increased acetic acid and the concentration of TVFA( P 〈 0.05 ). The results can not only lay a foundation on the application for ruminant of Acanthopanax additive ,but also provide reference for

  20. 刺五加树莓果茶的研制%Study on the Acanthopanax and Raspberry Tea Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟

    2014-01-01

    首次把树莓与刺五加叶同时用做果茶的主要原料,采用浸提方法提取刺五加叶子的汁液同树莓汁混合调配,通过正交试验和感官评价方法,确定了产品最佳配方,制成一种富有良好感官性状及营养价值的保健型果茶饮品。%The productive process of use of acanthopanax and frozen raspberry was studied in this article ,through the extraction method to extract of acanthopanax senticosus leaf juice together with raspberry juice blend , through orthogonal experiments and sensory evaluation methods, to determine the product the best formula, made a and its nutritional value for the health care tea drinks.

  1. Effects of Dietary Acanthopanax senticosus Polysaccharide on Growth Performance and Immune Parameters of Weaner Piglets%刺五加多糖对断奶仔猪生长性能和免疫指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩杰; 边连全; 刘显军; 张飞; 杨侃侃

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharide (ASPS) on growth performance and immune parameters of weaner piglets. This experiment was a 21-d growth assay, in which ninety-six (28 ±3)-day-old ' Landrac x Yorkshire' crossbred weaner pigs with an average body weight of (7.13 ±0. 67) kg were randomly allotted to 6 dietary treatments supplemented with 0 (control) , 150, 300, 500, 800 and 1 000 mg/kg of ASPS, respectively. Each treatment was replicated in 4 pens containing 4 pigs per pen. The results showed that compared with the control, diets supplemented with 500 and 800 mg/kg ASPS could extremely significantly improve final body weight and average daily gain (P 0. 05). Final body weight, average daily gain and diarrhea ratio were affected quadratically with the increase of dietary ASPS supplemental level (P < 0.01) and feed to gain ratio was improved linearly (P < 0. 05). The supplementation of 800 mg/kg ASPS extremely significantly increased peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation (P <0. 01) and significantly reduced serum cortisol level (P <0. 05) , and the two parameters changed linearly (P <0. 01). The results indicate that the supplementation of ASPS can significantly increase average daily gain and decrease diarrhea ratio, improve immune parameters, and reduce the diarrhea ratio and stress degree of weaner piglets. The optimum supplemental level of ASPS in diets for weaner piglets is 800 mg/kg. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2012, 24(11) :2203-2209]%本试验旨在探讨饲粮中添加刺五加多糖(Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharide,ASPS)对断奶仔猪生长性能和免疫指标的影响.试验选用96头(28±3)日龄、平均体重为(7.13±0.67)kg的“长白×约克夏”二元杂交仔猪,随机分成6组,每组4个重复,每个重复4头猪.对照组饲喂基础饲粮,试验组饲喂在基础饲粮中分别添加150、300、500、800和1 000 mg/kg ASPS

  2. Inhibitory effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on amyloid beta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, Chihiro; Ichimura, Mahoko; Bai, Yanjing; Tanaka, Ken; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2008-07-01

    Neurons with atrophic neurites may remain alive and therefore may have the potential to regenerate even when neuronal death has occurred in some parts of the brain. This study aimed to explore effects of drugs that can facilitate the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses even in severely damaged neurons. We investigated the effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses in rat cultured cortical neurons damaged by amyloid beta (Abeta)(25-35). Treatment with Abeta(25-35) (10 microM) induced axonal and dendritic atrophies and synaptic loss in cortical neurons. Subsequent treatment with the methanol extract and the water extract of E. senticosus (10 - 1000 ng/ml) resulted in significant axonal and dendritic regenerations and reconstruction of neuronal synapses. Co-application of the extract and Abeta(25-35) attenuated Abeta(25-35)-induced neuronal death. We investigated neurite outgrowth activities of eleutherosides B and E and isoflaxidin, which are known as major compounds in E. senticosus. Although eleutheroside B protected against Abeta(25-35)-induced dendritic and axonal atrophies, the activities of eleutheroside E and isofraxidin were less than that of eleutheroside B. Although the contents of these three compounds in the water extract were less than in the methanol extract, restoring activities against neuronal damages were not different between the two extracts. In conclusion, extracts of E. senticosus protect against neuritic atrophy and cell death under Abeta treatment, and one of active constituents may be eleutheroside B.

  3. 刺五加多糖对60Coγ射线照射大鼠外周血细胞的影响%Protective effect of Acanthopanax Senticosus polysaccharide on peripheral hematological cells in rats irradiated with 60 Co γ ray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫琳芳; 李珂娴; 钱甜甜; 沈先荣; 何颖; 蒋定文; 刘玉明; 侯登勇; 刘琼; 陈伟; 王庆蓉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of Acanthopanax Senticosus polysaccharide on peripheral hematological cells in rats irradiated with 60Co γ ray.Methods Sixty-three male rats were randomly divided into 7 groups,i.e.the normal control group,the irradiation control group,the WR-2721 group,the 523 group and the 3 experimental groups with high (200 mg · kg-1 · d-1 ), moderate (100 mg · kg-1 · d-1) and low (50 mg· kg-1 · d-1) doses of Acanthopanax Senticosus polysaccharide.The marrow-depressed model rats received 5 Gy 60Co γ ray whole body irradiation with a dose absorption rate of (0.388 Gy/h) except those in the normal control group.WBC,RBC and PLT in the peripheral blood were detected with hemocytometer both on the 5th day before irradiation and the 3rd and 10th days after exposure.Results When detected on the 3rd day following irradiation,WBC in the peripheral blood of the irradiated animals decreased to a level of (2.482 ±0.808) × 109 · ml-1,RBC to a level of (7.680 ±0.926) × 1012·ml-1 and PLT to a point of (360.000±43.967) × 109 · ml-1,having a rather significant decrease in the indices,when compared with those of the normal control group (P < 0.01 ). On the 10th day following irradiation,WBC in the peripheral blood of the irradiated control animals decreased to a level of (4.764 ±0.679) × 109 · ml - 1,RBC decreased to (9.004 ± 0.761 ) × 1012 · ml -1 and PLT to ( 390.000 ± 43.967 ) ×109 · ml-1,with all the indices decreasing more obviously than those of the normal control group(P < 0.01 ).Data detection before irradiation with 60Co γ ray indicated that WBC,RBC and PLT in the peripheral blood of the experimental animals elevated to various extent,when compared with those of the normal control group.Detection after irradiation showed that Acanthopanax Senticosus polysaccharide could obviously increase the levels of WBC,RBC and PLT in the peripheral blood of the irradiated animals,when compared with those of the irradiation

  4. The Clearance Function To NO2 -By Extraction In Acanthopanax%刺五加提取液抗NO2-的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛长晖

    2015-01-01

    研究了反应时间、提取液浓度、pH 和温度对刺五加提取液抗 NO2-的作用的影响,结果发现:在反应30min,提取液浓度0.297 mg /ml 以上,pH =3,37℃条件下,清除率可达50%以上。%The clearance function to NO2 - by extraction from Acanthopanax was studied.The conditions that influence on the clearance to the NO2- was also studied.The results showed that the optimum clearance of Acanthopanax to the NO2- was at 30min,0.297 mg /ml,pH =3 and 37 ℃,the clearance rate can reach to 50%.

  5. 刺五加增强小鼠睡眠剥夺模型免疫功能和抗疲劳能力的实验研究%Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus on Immune Function and Anti-fatigue Ability in Sleep Deprivated Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许光辉; 吴艳萍; 罗友华; 黄亦琦; 李廷利

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To study the effects of Acanthopanax senticosus (500, 1 000 mg -kg-1) on immune function and anti-fatigue ability in sleep deprivated mice. Method; Sleep-deprivated mice model was induced by single platform technique, the immune function of sleep-deprivated mice was tested by the clearance rate of charcoal particles and the level of serum, and anti-fatigue ability was measured by the weight-loaded swimming method and the rotated performance test. Result; A. senticosus could significantly enhance the clearing index and the correction clearing index of sleep deprivated mice, the time of loaded-swimming and the residence time on the rotated sticks deprivation mice were extended significantly. Conclusion; A. senticosus can increase immune functions and anti-fatigue ability of sleep deprivated mice.%目的:探讨刺五加对小鼠睡眠剥夺模型免疫功能和抗疲劳能力的影响.方法:将小鼠随机分为正常对照组、模型组和刺五加低、高剂量组.刺五加低、高剂量组分别按照500,1000 mg· kg-1的剂量ig,连续给药10 d,正常对照组和模型组每天ig等体积的蒸馏水.在第11d,将模型组和刺五加低、高剂量组的小鼠采用单平台水环境法进行睡眠剥夺(sleep deprivation,SD),在SD期间,继续给予实验药物.SD连续3d后,采用炭粒廓清实验观察药物对SD小鼠免疫功能的影响,通过负重游泳实验和转棒疲劳实验观察药物对SD小鼠抗疲劳能力的影响.结果:炭粒廓清实验中,刺五加500,1000 mg·kg-1的K值和α值为(0.0214±0.0083,0.0307±0.0059),(4.0±0.2,4.6±0.2),与SD组相比均显著增加;抗疲劳实验中,刺五加500,1000 mg·kg-1的游泳时间和转棒时间为(828±83),(990±64)S,(330±63),(665±170)s,与SD组相比均显著延长.结论:刺五加具有增强睡眠剥夺小鼠免疫功能和抗疲劳能力的作用.

  6. Effect of Acanthopanax Senticosus Injection on Plasma and Urinary Endothelin in Early Stage of Diabetic Nephropathy%刺五加注射液对早期糖尿病肾脏病变及血浆、尿内皮素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪海祥; 罗苏生; 邵国民; 魏佳平; 姚定国; 郑翠瑛

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察刺五加注射液对早期糖尿病肾病(DN)尿微量白蛋白及肾脏内皮素代谢的影响,探讨刺五加防治DN的机制。方法:47例无高血压、持续微量白蛋白尿的2型糖尿病患者随机分为刺五加治疗组(治疗组)和常规治疗组(对照组),疗程8周。治疗前后观察尿白蛋白排泄率(UAE),血浆内皮素(ET)及尿ET等指标。结果:刺五加治疗8周后,DN患者UAE、血浆ET及尿ET排泄量均有明显下降(P<0.01),而常规治疗组无明显变化。相关性分析提示UAE的下降与尿、血浆ET降低呈正相关(r=0.72,P<0.01和r=0.63,P<0.01)。结论:刺五加注射液对DN的保护作用可能与通过对肾脏局部抑制ET合成密切相关。%Objective: To explore the mechanism of Acanthopanax senticosus(AS) on diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients by observing its effect on urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and renal endothelin (ET) metabolism. Methods: Forty-seven patients of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 with persistent microalbuminuria and normotension were randomly divided into two groups, the conventional treatment group (control group) and the AS treatment group. The treatment course was 8 weeks. The changes of UAE, plasma and urinary ET levels before and after treatment were observed. Results: Levels of UAE, plasma and urinary ET lowered significantly (P<0.01) in the AS groups, while no significant change was shown in the control group. By correlation analysis, the decrement of UAE was positively correlated with the decrement of urinary and plasma ET levels (r=0.72,P<0.01 and r=0.63,P<0.01). Conclusion: The protective effect of AS injection on DN is probably correlated with its inhibition on ET synthesis in kidney.

  7. Urinary metabolomics study on potential protective and toxic effects of Acanthopanax senticosus harms intervention in rats%刺五加干预对大鼠潜在保护/毒性作用的尿代谢组学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帅男; 李煦照; 王宇; 卢芳; 刘树民

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the potential protective and toxic effects of Acanthopanax senticosus harms(AS)in rats. Methods Twenty male SD rats were divided into the AS-treated and control groups by random number table method. Each group comprised 10 rats. The rats in the AS-treated group were gavage-fed with AS extracts 31. 6 mg/ kg(equivalent to crude drug 0. 386 g/ kg in human)once daily for 20 days and the volume of the drug was 10 ml/ kg. The rats in the control group received an equal volume of saline once daily for 20 days. The urinary samples of 24 h from rats in the 2 groups which were gavage-fed for 1,5,10,15,and 20 days were collected respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry was used to detect the ion intensities of metabolites from urinary samples. The ion intensities of urinary metabolites at different time points in the 2 groups were compared. The ion intensity of each metabolite was normalized with respect to the total ion intensities to generate a data matrix. The data matrix at different time points were processed by partial least-squares-discrimination analysis(PLS-DA)of EZinfo software. Characteristic metabolites were screened according to the PLS-DA score plot. Two sets of data matrix with relatively large distance were further processed by orthogonal partial least-squares-discrimination analysis(OPLS-DA)and the variable importance of project(VIP)scores were calculated. Characteristic metabolites induced by AS intervention were screened from variables with VIP > 1 and P 1 and P < 0. 05 were screened and identified as 3-methylguanine,3-methylglutarylcarnitine,3-hydroxydodecanedioic acid, tiglylcarnitine, kynurenic acid,and 13-cis-retinoic acid by comparing with the information of HMDB. At the 20 d of AS-treated group, the expression of 3-methylguanine,kynurenic acid,and 3-hydroxydodecanedioic acid were up-regulated and the expression of tiglylcarnitine,3-hydroxydodecanedioic acid,and 13-cis

  8. Simultaneous Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Six Components in Rat Plasma by HPLC-MS/MS after Oral Administration of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruit Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peng; Lei, Mingdao; Liu, Yu; Yang, Shilin

    2016-12-28

    A specific and reliable HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of protocatechuic acid (PCA), scopolin, (-)-pinoresinol-4,4'-di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (PDG), acanthoside D, acanthoside B and hyperin in rat plasma for the first time. The analytes were separated on a C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm) and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source was used for detection. The rat plasma sample was prepared using the protein precipitation procedure. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 1.2-1200.0 ng/mL for PCA, 0.96-960.0 ng/mL for scopolin, 1.12-1120.0 ng/mL for PDG, 1.32-1320.0 ng/mL for acanthoside D, 0.99-990.0 ng/mL for acanthoside B and 1.01-1010.0 ng/mL for hyperin. The intra-day and inter-day precision was less than 11.4% and the relative error (RE) was all within ±15%. The validated method was successfully applied to assess the pharmacokinetics characteristics after the extracts of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits were orally administered to the Sprague-Dawley rat.

  9. Simultaneous Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Six Components in Rat Plasma by HPLC-MS/MS after Oral Administration of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruit Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Du

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A specific and reliable HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of protocatechuic acid (PCA, scopolin, (−-pinoresinol-4,4′-di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (PDG, acanthoside D, acanthoside B and hyperin in rat plasma for the first time. The analytes were separated on a C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI source was used for detection. The rat plasma sample was prepared using the protein precipitation procedure. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 1.2–1200.0 ng/mL for PCA, 0.96–960.0 ng/mL for scopolin, 1.12–1120.0 ng/mL for PDG, 1.32–1320.0 ng/mL for acanthoside D, 0.99–990.0 ng/mL for acanthoside B and 1.01–1010.0 ng/mL for hyperin. The intra-day and inter-day precision was less than 11.4% and the relative error (RE was all within ±15%. The validated method was successfully applied to assess the pharmacokinetics characteristics after the extracts of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits were orally administered to the Sprague-Dawley rat.

  10. 刺五加质量标准控制%Control the quality standard of Acanthopanax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 郭冷秋; 张博; 蔡亚萍; 李廷利

    2014-01-01

    Objective To purification the Acanthopanax glycosides of two kinds of main component with macroporous resin method to be control the standard of quality of Acanthopanax medicinal materials.Methods Eleutheroside B and Eleutheroside E were isolated and purified by macro-porous resin.Determination of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms of Eleuth-eroside B and Eleutheroside E content by HPLC , as a quality standard of Acanthopanax senticosus.Results The sample concentration is 0.5 g· mL-1, adsorption velocity 2 BV· h-1, 30% ethanol eluent, elution rate 1 BV· h-1.Dialysis treatment.Column:C18 (4.6 mm ×250 mm,5μm);detection wavelength was 220 nm;mobile phase:water-acetoni-trile (0~10 min, 90∶10;10~30 min,90~80∶10~20 );flow rate:1.0 mL· min -1; Column temperature was 25 ℃.Conclusion The method of operation has good reproducibility which can be used as an effective method to control the quality of Acanthopanax senticosus harms.%目的:用大孔树脂分离纯化刺五加苷的2种主要成分作为控制刺五加药材质量的标准。方法用D-101大孔树脂对刺五加苷B、刺五加苷E进行分离纯化,用高效液相色谱法测定以上2个成分的含量,以此作为刺五加的质量标准。结果上样液浓度0.5 g· mL-1,吸附流速2 BV· h-1,30%乙醇的洗脱流速1 BV· h-1。透析袋处理。色谱柱:C18(4.6 mm ×250 mm,5μm);检测波长220 nm;流动相:水-乙腈(0~10 min,90∶10;10~30 min,90~80∶10~20);流速:1.0 mL· min-1;柱温25℃。结论该方法操作性强,重现性好,可作为刺五加药材质量控制的有效方法。

  11. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of antioxidant components from Acanthopanax sessiliflorum fruit%无梗五加果中抗氧化物质的提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯颖; 赵琳娜

    2015-01-01

    The ultrasonic extraction conditions of antioxidant components from Acanthopanax sessiliflorum fruit was studied by single factor approach and response surface methodology.The extraction conditions were optimized by a three-variable and three-level experimental design including extraction temperature,extraction time and ultrasonic power.The optimal extraction conditions were:60.84 ℃ for 27.65 min at 226.88 W.The predicted yield of total antioxidant capacity under the optimized condition was 88.440 9 u/mL.Combined with practical application,the extraction conditions were modified to 61 ℃,28 min and 227 W.Under the above condition,the average yield of total antioxidant capacity was (88.257 2 ± 0.342 3) u/mL,very close to the predicted results.%以无梗五加干果为原料,在单因素试验的基础上,采用响应面试验设计,以提取液的总抗氧化能力为响应值,以提取温度、提取时间和超声功率为影响提取过程的3个因素进行三因素三水平的试验设计,优化无梗五加果抗氧化物质的提取条件.结果表明:无梗五加干果中抗氧化物质的提取工艺为,提取温度60.84℃,提取时间27.65 min,超声功率226.88W,此时总抗氧化能力的理论值可达88.440 9 u/mL.结合实际操作调整提取温度61℃,提取时间28 min,超声功率227W,并重复试验进行验证,平均总抗氧化能力为(88.257 2±0.342 3) u/mL接近预测值.

  12. Comparison of some antioxidant properties of plant extracts from Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Eleutherococcus senticosus and Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaško, Ladislav; Vašková, Janka; Fejerčáková, Andrea; Mojžišová, Gabriela; Poráčová, Janka

    2014-08-01

    Phenolic compounds from plants are known for their antioxidant properties and have been proposed as therapeutic agents to counteract oxidative stress. However, under normal circumstances, the body only receives a very small amount of these substances in the diet. We have investigated the effect of extracts from known and frequently used plants as part of diet, food seasoning, medicinal tea, and sweetener at different concentrations on the ability to scavenge free radicals, to affect antioxidant enzymes, and finally in the survival of cancer cell lines. We found extract concentrations of about 100 μg.ml(-1) more indicative in the assessment of all parameters investigated. Ginseng possessed a very good ability to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, while stevia also manifested significant effects against hydroxyl radicals. Both extracts also showed NO decomposition ability. The antioxidant defense system against the excessive production of radicals in mitochondria was sufficient. In contrast, the range of operating concentrations for sage and oregano mainly presented no significant effects against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Taken together with the significantly reduced activity of glutathione peroxidase, this led to the depletion of glutathione. The demonstrated modulation of redox state capability was sufficient to affect the viability of all tested cancer cell lines, but especially A-549, CEM and HeLa by oregano extract. Results support the promising role of the tested extracts as a source of compounds for further in vivo studies with the ability to powerfully interfere with or modify the redox state of cells according to the type of disease, which is expected to be associated with oxidative stress.

  13. 紫外分光光度法测定5种藏羌五加菜中总黄酮的含量%Extraction and Determination of Total Flaconoids of Leave from 5 Species of Acanthopanax by UV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳丹; 黄艳菲; 丁玲; 左旭; 刘圆

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the optimal extraction processed conditions and contents of total flavonoids in vegetables of Acanthopanax. Method: Single factor and orthogonal design were optimized. Result: The optimums of extraction were extracted in 80% ethanol ultrasonic, processed time 40 min, extraction once, liquid-solid ratio 40: 1 ( mL·g-1 ). Under the above conditions, the extraction ratio could be 11.22 mg ·g-1 in stove dried tender leave of A. leucorrhizus ( Oliv. ) Harms var. fulvescens Harms & Rehd. Contents of different processed technology of A. leucorrhizus ( Oliv. ) Harms var. fulvescens Harms & Rehd were as following: Stove dried ≈ sun-cured ≈ shade-dried > water-scalded ≈ tea made > microwave-dried>>refrigerator frozen > pickled. Conclusion: The method is simple, accurate and repeatable and useful for the study of the quality control of vegetables of Acanthopanax. Samples, which origined from Tibetan and Qiang Herbs in Aba and Ganzi Autonomous Prefectures of Sichuan province of China, contain higher contents of total flaconoids than that of A. sessiliforus Rupr. Et Maxim. , moreover they are worth to be farther developed and have a good prospect.%目的:优化藏羌五加菜总黄酮的最佳工艺条件,测定五加菜中总黄酮的含量.方法:以总黄酮含量为指标,单因素试验和正交设计优化提取工艺.结果:最佳工艺条件为用80%的乙醇超声40 min,料液比40∶1 (mL/g);提取1次.在最优工艺条件下,糙叶藤五加嫩叶低温烘干品总黄酮的提取率可达11.22 mg·g-1;不同工艺中总黄酮含量为烘干≈晒干≈阴干>热烫≈茶叶>微波干燥》冻藏1个月>盐渍.结论:方法简便、准确、重复性较好,可用于控制藏羌五加菜的质量;四川阿坝藏族羌族自治州、四川甘孜藏族自治州的藏羌五加菜总黄酮含量比目前唯一有市售的无梗五加菜更高,具有开发和利用价值.

  14. Monoterpenoids from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new acyclic monoterpenoids named (2E-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O-a-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1®6-b-D-glucopyranoside (1, (3Z,6E-3,7-dimethyl-3,6-octadiene-1,2,8-triol (2 and (6E-7-methyl-3-methylene-6-octene-1,2,8-triol (3 were isolated from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits, along with three known monoterpenoid compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS and chemical methods.

  15. Determination of Eleutheroside B in Acanthopanax Senticosus Extract Sustained Release Microspheres by HPLC%HPLC法测定刺五加提取物缓释微球中刺五加苷B的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋; 焦海胜; 李树纲

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立测定刺五加提取物缓释微球中刺五加苷B含量的方法.方法:采用HPLC法.色谱柱为Agilent Eclipse Plus C18(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm),流动相为乙腈:水(17:83),流速为1.0 ml·min-1,柱温为30℃,检测波长为220 nm,进样量为20 μl.结果:刺五加苷B浓度在10.00~120.00 μg·ml-1范围内线性关系良好(r=0.999 9);平均加样回收率为98.10%(RSD=0.98%,n=6).结论:该方法结果准确可靠,可以作为该制剂的质量控制方法.

  16. Anti-inflammatory Lignans from the Fruits of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gye-Won Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new lignan, named acanthosessilin A (1, as well as eight known lignan and lignan glycosides 2-9 were isolated from an ethanolic extract of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits. The chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, including HR-EIMS, 1D NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT, 2D NMR (gCOSY, gHSQC, gHMBC, NOESY, and IR spectroscopy. All isolated compounds were tested for the ability to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages.

  17. Oleanene Glycosides from the Leaves of Acanthopanax seiboldianus forma albeofolium Yook%异柱五加叶中齐墩果烷型皂苷的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向前; 金寅钐; 陆昌洙; 南相吉; 李龙燮

    2008-01-01

    Four known oleanane glycosides were isolated for the first time from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Acanthopanax sieboldianus forma albeofolium Yook by using column chromatography.They were identified as kalopanax-saponin B (1),acanthopanax saponin CP3 (2),kalopanax-saponin A (3) and sieboldianoside A (4) on the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic data (1H NMR,13C NMR,2D NMR and FAB-MS).%利用柱色谱从异柱五加 (Acanthopanax sieboldianus forma albeofolium Yook) 叶的甲醇提取液中分离出四个齐墩果烷型皂苷类化合物.通过波谱方法(1H NMR、13C NMR、2D NMR和FAB-MS)鉴定它们分别为kalopanax-saponin B (1)、acanthopanax saponin CP3(2)、kalopanax-saponin A (3) 和sieboldianoside A (4).

  18. Antitussive effect of a fixed combination of Justicia adhatoda, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection: A comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Anders; Hovhannisyan, Areg; Jamalyan, Kristina; Narimanyan, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    Kan Jang® oral solution (KJ) is a fixed combination of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Justicia adhatoda L. leaf, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench root, and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Harms root. It is approved in Scandinavia as an herbal medicinal product for respiratory tract infection treatment. The present clinical trial aimed to compare the antitussive effect of KJ with placebo (PL) and bromhexine (BH) among patients of 18-65 years old with non-complicated upper respiratory infections (URI; i.e., common cold). We performed a parallel-group, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in in 177 patients with acute URI over a 5 day period. We investigated the antitussive effects of a KJ (30 ml/day; 762 mg genuine extracts with standardized contents of 0.2 mg/ml vasicine, 0.8 mg/ml chicoric acid, and 0.03 mg/ml eleutherosides B and E), bromhexine hydrochloride (24 mg/30 ml/day) and PL on cough and blood markers. The primary outcome was cough relief, which was assessed as the change of cough frequency from baseline (cough index). Secondary outcomes were safety with regards to reported adverse events (AEs) and hematological data. Both KJ and BH relieved cough more effectively than placebo. On the third and fourth days of treatment, we observed faster improvement in the group receiving KJ compared to in the groups receiving BH (100%) or PL (100%), indicating a slightly shorter recovery time in the KJ group. KJ showed a good tolerability and safety profile. KJ exerted significant antitussive effects in URI. The present data further support the therapeutic use of KJ in upper respiratory tract infections. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of Reflux Extraction for Total Lignans from Acanthopanax Sessiliflorus by Orthogonal Experi-ment%回流提取无梗五加根总木脂素的正交试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋洋; 李晓红

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究不同提取溶剂提取无梗五加根中总木脂素的最佳工艺。方法:采用紫外-可见分光光度法,以芝麻脂素为对照品,测定样品溶液在558 nm波长处的吸光度。采用正交试验法,以木脂素的含量为考察指标,对提取时间,提取次数及提取溶剂用量等影响因素进行研究。结果:对照品芝麻脂素取样量在10.6~53.0μg·ml-1范围内吸光度与浓度呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9997)。平均回收率102.2%(RSD=1.6%,n=6)。以芝麻脂素计,无梗五加根中总木脂素含量为10.0 mg·g-1。最佳提取条件确定为无梗五加根药材粉末50%甲醇40倍量回流提取1次。结论:采用紫外分光光度法测定总木脂素含量方法简便、准确、可靠,最佳提取工艺可行。%Objective:To study the optimal process of reflux extraction for lignans from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus roots. Methods:Sesamin as the reference substance, a colorimetric method was used to detect the absorption value of the samples at 558 nm to calculate the content directly. The extraction time, the extraction times and the volume of extraction solvent were applied to optimize the extrac-tion conditions for total lignans by orthogonal experiment. Results:The absorbance had a linear relationship with the amourt of sesamin within the range of 10. 6-53. 0 μg·ml-1(r=0. 999 7). The average recovery of sesamin was 102. 2%(RSD=1. 6%, n=6). The content of total lignans (measurement by sesamin) in the extracts was 10. 0 mg·g-1. The optimum reflux extraction conditions were as follows:adding 40-fold 50 % methanol, extracting once for 30 min. Conclusion:The UV method for determining the total lignans is feasible, stable and reliable as well as precise, and the optimal extraction process is reasonable.

  20. Quality control of roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apers, Sandra; Naessens, Tania; Van Miert, Sabine; Pieters, Luc; Vlietinck, Arnold

    2005-01-01

    An HPLC method based on several known methods for the determination of eleutherosides B and E was developed, optimised and validated in terms of linearity, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision on different days and at different concentration levels) and accuracy (recovery). The extraction procedure, the extraction solvent and the extraction yield were evaluated and optimised. A reversed-phase RP-18 column gradient eluted with a two-phase system consisting of phosphoric acid:water (0.5:99.5) and acetonitrile was used to evaluate the samples; detection was at 220 nm. Although eleutherosides B and E are commercially available, they are very costly, and therefore ferulic acid was chosen as external standard. The correction factors for the response of ferulic acid against both eleutherosides were determined and validated. This method, accepted by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission, will be included in the monograph on Eleutherococcus senticosus roots to assay the content of eleutherosides B and E.

  1. 刺五加制剂用固相萃取后以高效液相色谱法测定刺五加苷B、苷E的含量%Determination of Eleutheroside B and E in Acanthopanax Preparations by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Solid-Phase Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡芳弟; 封士兰; 赵健雄; 陈立仁; 徐静汶

    2005-01-01

    Aim An HPLC method for analyzing eleutheroside B (ELU B) and eleutheroside E (ELU E), two of the main active substances of Acanthopanax preparations were studied. Methods The samples were analyzed on a kromasil ODS column with water-acetonitrile as a gradient mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.8 mL·min-1 and detecting wavelengths were 206 nm for ELU B, 220 nm for ELU E, solid phase extraction (SPE) and internal standard-salicin were selected. Results The recoveries of Acanthopanax tablets and injection were 90.4%-96.8% and 96.4%-99.8% for ELU B, 87.7%-93.3% and 95.7%-98.5% for ELU E, respectively. The linear ranges were 4.45-22.25 μg· mL-1(r=0.999 8) and 5.11-25.55 μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 7) respectively. Conclusion This method can save the time for cleaning the chromatographic system and improve sensitivity for Acanthopanax preparations, thus providing a way to evaluate the quality of Acanthopanax preparations.%目的用高效液相色谱法研究刺五加制剂中2个主要活性成分刺五加苷B、苷E的含量测定方法.方法 Kromasil ODS柱, 水-乙腈梯度流动相, 流速0.8 mL·min-1, 测定波长刺五加苷B 206 nm,刺五加苷E 220 nm, 水杨酸作为内标, 选择了固相萃取条件.结果刺五加片中刺五加苷B、苷E的回收率范围分别是90.4%~96.8%和87.7%~93.3%;刺五加注射液中刺五加苷B、苷E的回收率范围分别是96.4%~99.8%和95.7%~98.5%.线性范围分别是4.45~22.25 μg·mL-1(r=0.999 8)和5.11~25.55 μg·mL-1(r=0.999 7).结论该方法节约了清洗色谱系统的时间, 提高了测定的灵敏度,提供了评价刺五加制剂质量的方法.

  2. A new lignan glycoside from Eleutherococcus senticosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X C; Barnes, D L; Khan, I A

    2001-11-01

    A new lignan glycoside, named eleutheroside E(2) (1), has been isolated from the roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus (known as "Siberian ginseng"), along with isomaltol 3-O-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (2), eleutherosides B, E and E(1), and thymidine. The structure of 1 was established by spectral interpretations as episyringaresinol 4"-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Compound 2 is described here for the first time as a naturally occurring compound.

  3. Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegant, F.A.C.; Surinova, S.; Ytsma, E.; Langelaar-Makkinje, M.; Wikman, G.; Post, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Extracts of plant adaptogens such as Eleutherococcus senticosus (or Acanthopanax senticosus) and Rhodiola rosea can increase stress resistance in several model systems. We now show that both extracts also increase the mean lifespan of the nematode C. elegans in a dose-dependent way. In

  4. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho

    2004-12-01

    The cortex of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. has been used extensively in Russia, China, Korea and Japan as an adaptogen whose properties are the ability to increase as non-specific body resistance to stress and fatigue. Although it has been reported that Eleutherococcus senticosus has anti-fatigue and anti-stress actions, their actions are still unclear on the relationship between immune system, especially natural killer (NK) activity and endocrine system (corticosterone level). We compared the effects of the water extracts (A, B, C, D and E) of five Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on the swimming time, NK activity and blood corticosterone level using forced swimming stressed mice. Among five kinds, C, D and E extracts significantly prolonged the swimming time. C and D extracts inhibited the reduction of NK activity and the corticosterone elevation induced by forced swimming. The contents of eleutheroside E, isoflaxidin and eleutherosides B plus E were in the order C > D > E > B > A and C > E > D > A > B extracts, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that eleutheroside E may be contributed to the anti-fatigue action, the recovery of the reduction of NK activity and the inhibition of corticosterone elevation induced by swimming stress.

  5. Inhibitory Effects of seco-Triterpenoids from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruits on HUVEC Invasion and ACE Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Won; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Dae-Young

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the crude extract from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits and the isolated seco-triterpenoids from the crude extract on blood flow in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) invasion assay and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity assay. On the basis of DMSO, the extent of HUVECs' invasion was remarkably decreased with crude extract concentrations of 400 and 1000 pg/mL. Additionally, the extent of the HUVEC invasion inhibitory effect in 400 and 1000 µg/mL of acanthosessilioside F were 55.8% and 72.4%, respectively. In addition, the maximum extent of the HUVEC invasion inhibitory effect of 22-α-hydroxychiisanoside was 88.9%. The IC50 value of the inhibitory effect on ACE activity in the crude extract was 4 µg/mL. The isolated seco-triterpenoids, 22α-hydroxychiisanogenin, 3,4-seco-lupan-20(30)-en-3,28-dioic acid, (lR)-1,4-epoxy-11α,22α-hydroxy-3,4-seco-lupan-20(30)-en-3,28-dioicacid, (+)-divaroside, and chiisanosidehad showed very high inhibitory effects on ACE activity, ranging from 1.8 to 2.9 µg/mL, which is much higher than the 150.0 µg/mL effect of aspirin. These results suggest that the crude extract from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits and the isolated seco-triterpenoids from the crude extract enhance the blood flow effect by decreasing ACE activity.

  6. Simultaneous quantification of polyherbal formulations containing Rhodiola rosea L. and Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim. using rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan-Chun; Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Hou, Feifei; Ma, Jie; Luo, Mai; Lu, Shane; Jin, Peter; Chen, Alice; Xu, Iris; Patel, Asmita V; Gorecki, Derek

    2011-07-15

    An RRLC method capable of simultaneous identification and rapid quantification of six biologically active compounds (salidroside, tyrosol, rosarin, rosavin, rosin, rosiridin) in Rhodiola rosea L. and two active compounds (eleutheroside B and eleutheroside E) in Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim. was developed. The chromatographic analyses were performed on a reversed phase Phenomenex C18 (2)-HST column at 40°C with a neutral mobile phase (purified water and acetonitrile) gradient system at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min and UV detection at 205 and 220nm simultaneously. Baseline separation of eight active compounds was achieved within 8min. This developed method provides good linearity (R>0.9997), precision (RSD<1.99%) and recovery of the bioactive compounds. The RRLC method developed is capable of controlling the quality of R. rosea and E. senticosus raw herbs, commercial extracts, as well as polyherbal formulations containing R. rosea and E. senticosus as ingredients. This RRLC method is accurate and sensitive; in addition, it greatly increases sample analysis throughput with reduced analysis time, which is suitable for routine quality control analysis.

  7. MS/MS similarity networking accelerated target profiling of triterpene saponins in Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue-Wei; Zhu, Shu; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2017-07-15

    The targeted mass information of compounds accelerated their discovery in a large volume of untargeted MS data. An MS/MS similarity networking is advanced in clustering the structural analogues, which benefits the collection of mass information of similar compounds. The triterpene saponins extracted from Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves (ESL), a kind of functional tea, have shown promise in the relief of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, a target-precursor list (TPL) generated using MS/MS similarity networking was employed to rapidly trace 106 triterpene saponins from the aqueous extracts of ESL, of which 49 were tentatively identified as potentially new triterpene saponins. Moreover, a compound database of triterpene saponins was established and successfully applied to uncover their distribution features in ESL samples collected from different areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Semipreparative separation and determination of eleutheroside E in Acanthopanax giraldii Harms by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuwei; Zhang, Lixia; Sun, Yuqing

    2005-01-01

    A method for the isolation, purification, and determination of eleutheroside E in Acanthopanax giraldii Harms, collected in the Sichuan province (China), is established. The water extraction of A. giraldii Harms is pre-isolated using macroporous adsorption resin (D-101) and a C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge, and the enriched extract is purified to give eleutheroside E (syringaresinol-di-O-beta-D-glucoside; liriodendrin) by semipreparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Structure identification is performed by a comparison of IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric data with the literature. The final purity of the compound is 97%. Quantitative determination of eleutheroside E in A. giraldii Harms is performed on a Zorbax SB C18 (150- x 4.6-mm i.d., 5 microm) column. The linear range of eleutheroside E is 4.85-194 mg/L (r = 0.9998), and the average recovery is 99.6-101%. The developed method is simple, reproducible, and easy to operate. It is useful for the evaluation of Acanthopanax giraldii Harms.

  9. 细柱五加皮化学成分的研究%Chemical constituents of Acanthopanax gracilistylus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向前; 陆昌洙; 张承烨

    2004-01-01

    目的系统地研究五加属植物细柱五加皮Acanthopanax gracilistylus 的化学成分.方法用热甲醇分别对细柱五加皮的根进行提取后,采用Diaion HP-20P,Chromatorex ODS,Sephadex LH-20和硅胶色谱进行分离纯化,通过光谱分析以及直接和标准品对照进行结构确认.结果从根皮中得到二萜类等6 个化合物:五加酸(Ⅰ),异贝壳杉烯酸(Ⅱ),l-芝麻素(Ⅲ),豆甾醇(Ⅳ),β-谷甾醇(Ⅴ)和刺五加苷B(Ⅵ).结论化合物Ⅰ,Ⅳ,Ⅴ为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Object To study the chemical constituents of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W. Smith as the purpose of study continually on plants of Acanthopanax (Decne. et Planch.) Miq. Methods The leaves, roots, and stem barks of A. gracilistylus were extracted with hot MeOH and steam distillation respectively, and then, separated and purified by column chromatographies on Diaion HP-20P, Chromatorex ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and silica gel. All compounds were identified on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis including GC-MS, 1D and 2D NMR, MS and IR, or comparison with the reported data. Results Six compounds were obtained from the roots of A. gracilistylus. They are (-)-pimara-9 (11), 15-dien-19-oic acid (Ⅰ), (-)-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (Ⅱ), d-sesamin (Ⅲ), stigmasterol (Ⅳ), β-sitosterol (Ⅴ), and eleutheroside B (Ⅵ). Conclusion Compounds Ⅰ, Ⅳ, and Ⅴ are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  10. Acanthopanax koreanum roots inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Acanthopanax koreanum is a popular plant found on Jeju Island, Korea and is commonly used to prevent the side effects of consumption of alcoholic beverages. However, this plant has not been properly utilized as a medicinal material. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the 70% ethanol extract of A. koreanum roots (AKR-E). The results indicated that the AKR-E (200 μg/mL) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin ...

  11. The Blood Lactate Increase in High Intensity Exercise Is Depressed by Acanthopanax sieboldianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyukki Chang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the anti-fatigue effects of Acanthopanax sieboldianus (A. sieboldianus at various exercise intensities. Two experiments were conducted in 18 Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, a three-stage increment test (15 m/min for 5 min, and 20 m/min for 5 min and 25 m/min for 10 min was performed using a treadmill. In Experiment 2, a 10-min swimming test was conducted. Blood samples were extracted from each rat before, during and after the exercises and the blood concentrations of lactate and glucose measured. In both experiments, water (control or A. sieboldianus solution (ASS was administered orally using a zonde 30 min before the exercise. In the swimming test, ASS administration significantly decreased the blood lactate level measured at the end of the exercise and 5 min post-exercise relative to the water group, although the two groups did not differ significantly in the treadmill test. Our study demonstrates that a single oral administration of A. sieboldianus prior to high-intensity exercise significantly decreases the blood lactate concentration suggesting that A. sieboldianus has an intrinsic anti-fatigue effect.

  12. 无梗五加果化学成分的研究%Studies on the Chemical Constituents of the Fruit of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Seem.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安琪; 杨春娟; 宋洋; 于凯; 熊志立; 李发美

    2008-01-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of the fruit of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus (Ru-pr. et Maxim.) Seem. ,which was fractionated on a macroporous resin column by 60% and 30% ethanol. They were i-dentified as scopoletin (1), protocatechuic acid methyl ester (2), quercetin (3), acanthoside B (4), hyperin (5), (-) -pinoresinol-4,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), chiisanoside (7), 22a-hydroxychiisanoside (8), niduloic acid (9), daucosterol (10) ,acopolin (11) ,and acanthoside D (12) ,by analysis of their spectroscopic data and by comparison with those reported on the literature. Compound 9 was a new natural product. 1,2,6 and 11 were isolated from Araliaceae for the first time and 3 was obtained from Acanthopanax genus for the first time.%从无梗五加(Acanthopanax sessiliflorus(Rupr.et Maxim.)Seem.)果70%乙醇提取物中分离鉴定了12个化合物.经波谱鉴定为东莨菪内酯(1),原儿茶酸甲酯(2),槲皮素(3),无梗五加苷B(4),金丝桃苷(5),(-)-pinoresinol-4,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(6),chiisanoside(7),22a.hydroxyehiisanoside(8),niduloic acid(9),胡萝卜苷(10),东莨菪苷(11)和无梗五加苷D(12).其中化合物9为新天然产物,化合物1,2,6和11是首次从五加科植物中分离得到,化合物3是首次从五加属植物中分离得到.

  13. Ecological Impact of Acanthopanax Senticosus on Exploitation in Changbai Mountain Forest%长白山林区刺五加开发的生态影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英伟; 端木晶

    2009-01-01

    文章通过对长白山林区的刺五加开采情况的野外调查,采用样带网格调查方法与对比分析方法,分析了刺五加开发对生态系统的主要影响,结果表明:(1)刺五加的开发对草本层和灌木层的物种丰富度都有影响;草本层物种丰富度,开发程度适中时最大,开发过度时最小,影响显著;而对灌木层的物种丰富度影响不显著.(2)刺五加的开发对草本层和灌木层的α多样性指数影响都不显著.(3)刺五加的开发对草本层和刺五加的生物量都有影响;草本层的生物量随开发程度的增大而减小,影响不显著;刺五加的生物量在开发中度时最大,开发重度时最小,影响显著.本研究在一定程度上可以为合理开发和保护刺五加提供理论依据.

  14. Analysis of iridoids from Harpagophytum and eleutherosides from Eleutherococcus senticosus in horse urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, C; Popot, M-A; Garcia, P; Bonnaire, Y; Bouchonnet, S

    2008-08-01

    LC/ESI-MS n methods have been previously set up to detect the administration of (i) Harpagophytum and (ii) preparations containing a plant capable of anti-stress properties: Eleutherococcus senticosus. Harpagoside has been found to be the main indicator of Harpagophytum administration in the horse. These methods have been applied to a large number of horse urine samples of various origins. Regarding the detection of Harpagophytum administration, harpagoside, harpagide and 8-para-coumaroyl harpagide were detected together in only one sample out of 317. Eleutheroside E was found to be the main indicator of Eleutherococcus senticosus administration. It was detected in post-administration samples collected from two horses having received a feed supplement containing Eleutherococcus senticosus for several days. Out of the 382 samples tested, eleutheroside E was found in an unexpected large number of urine samples (39%) of various origins and its presence cannot be only due to the sole use of herbal dietary supplements.

  15. Methyl jasmonate induced overproduction of eleutherosides in somatic embryos of Eleutherococcus senticosus cultured in bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Shohael,Abdullah Mohammad; Murthy,Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Paek,Kee-Yoeup

    2007-01-01

    This study was concentrated on the production of eleutherosides and chlorogenic acid in embryogenic suspension cultures of Eleutherococcus senticosus by exposing them to different concentrations (50-400 µM) of methyl jasmonate (MJ) during the culture period. In the bioreactor cultures, eleutheroside content increased significantly by elicitation of MJ, however, the fresh weight, dry weight and growth ratio of embryos was strongly inhibited by increasing MJ concentrations. The highest total el...

  16. Quantitative determination of eleutheroside B and E from Acanthopanax species by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J S; Linh, P T; Cai, X F; Kim, H S; Lee, J J; Kim, Y H

    2001-10-01

    Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was applied for the determination of eleutheroside B and E in the various Acanthopanax species collected in Korea. The stationary phase used was Zorbax 300 SB C18 and a mobile phase program was used, which started at 6% acetonitrile for 2 min, and then a linear gradient was operated for the next 18 min to 17% acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The column effluent was monitored at UV 210 nm. Identification was carried out by comparing the retention time and the LC/MS spectrum of each peak corresponding to eleutheroside B and E from sample with those of standards. In general, the contents of eleutheroside B and E in stems were higher than those in roots. Acanthopanax species could be classified into two groups based upon the contents of eleutheroside B and E: one group contains no or very little eleutheroside B and another contains both eleutheroside B and E.

  17. Acanthopanax koreanum Fruit Waste Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Production of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Acanthopanax koreanum fruit is a popular fruit in Jeju Island, but the byproducts of the alcoholic beverage prepared using this fruit are major agricultural wastes. The fermentability of this waste causes many economic and environmental problems. Therefore, we investigated the suitability of using A. koreanum fruit waste (AFW as a source of antiinflammatory agents. AFWs were extracted with 80% EtOH. The ethanolic extract was then successively partitioned with hexane, CH2Cl2, EtOAc, BuOH, and water. The results indicate that the CH2Cl2 fraction (100 g/mL of AFW inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells by 79.6% and 39.7%, respectively. These inhibitory effects of the CH2Cl2 fraction of AFWs were accompanied by decreases in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 proteins and iNOS and COX-2 mRNA in a dose-dependent pattern. The CH2Cl2 fraction of AFWs also prevented degradation of IB- in a dose-dependent manner. Ursolic acid was identified as major compound present in AFW, and CH2Cl2 extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Furthermore using pure ursolic acid as standard and by HPLC, AFW and CH2Cl2 extracts was found to contain 1.58 mg/g and 1.75 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, we tested the potential application of AFW extracts as a cosmetic material by performing human skin primary irritation tests. In these tests, AFW extracts did not induce any adverse reactions. Based on these results, we suggest that AFW extracts be considered possible anti-inflammatory candidates for topical application.

  18. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae) leaf morpho-anatomy, essential oil composition and its biological activity against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus, a well-known medicinal plant from Eastern Asia, are used worldwide for their known beneficial medicinal properties. Recently the leaves have been used as an alternative to the roots. The present study was aimed at exploring the leaf essential oil as a potenti...

  19. GC -MS Analysis of Volatile Components from Leaves of Dlender Acanthopanax%气质联用法分析细柱五加叶挥发油的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勇龙; 朱冬青; 林崇良; 王贤亲; 林观样

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the chemical components of volatile oils from leaves of Dlender acanthopanax. Methods:he volatile was extracted by steam - stilling and identified by GC - MS. The percentage composition of volatile oil was calculated by the peak area normalization method- Results: 51 peaks were separated and 47 compounds were identified from volatile oils of leaves of Dlender acanthopanax,accounting for 97. 83% of the total,in which the major constituents were alpha-Pinene(9.93% ) ,Bicyclo[3. 1.0]hex-2 - ene,4 - methyl - 1 - (1 - methylethyl) - ( 15.05% ) ,3 -Cy-clohexen-1 - ol ,4 - methyl - 1 -(1 -methylethyl) -,(R) - (14. 82% ) ,Caryophyllene(9. 63% ). Conclusion: The volatile oils from leaves of Dlender acanthopanax is rich in biological active components and it was of high use value.%目的:研究细柱五加叶挥发油的化学成分.方法:水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,利用GC - MS计算机联用仪定性分析,按峰面积归一化法求出挥发油中化学成分的百分含量.结果:从细柱五加叶挥发油中共分离出51个峰,鉴定出47个化学成分,占挥发油总量的97.83%,主要有2-蒎烯(9.93%)、4-甲基-1-(1-甲基乙基)二环[3.1.0]己-2 - 烯(15.05%)、(-)-4-萜品醇(14.82%)、反式石竹烯(9.63%).结论:细柱五加叶的挥发油富含生物活性成分,有良好的利用价值.

  20. First Report and Characterization of Pestalotiopsis ellipsospora Causing Canker on Acanthopanax divaricatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Ahn, Geum Ran; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-09-01

    Acanthopanax divaricatus, a member of the Araliaceae family, has been used as an invigorant in traditional Korean medicine. During disease monitoring, a stem with small, irregular, brown lesions was sampled at a farm in Cheonan in 2011. The symptoms seen were sunken cankers and reddish-brown needles on the infected twig. The isolated fungal colonies were whitish, having crenated edges and aerial mycelium on the surface, and with black gregarious fruiting bodies. The reverse plate was creamy white. Conidia were 17~22 × 3.5~4.2 µm, fusiform, 4-septate, and straight to slightly curved. The nucleotide sequence of the partial translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene of the fungal isolate, shares 99% sequence identity with that of known Pestalotiopsis ellipsospora. Based on the results of the morphological and molecular analyses, the fungal isolate was identified as P. ellipsospora. In Korea, this is the first report of canker on A. divaricatus.

  1. Acanthopanax koreanum roots inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acanthopanax koreanum is a popular plant found on Jeju Island, Korea and is commonly used to prevent the side effects of consumption of alcoholic beverages. However, this plant has not been properly utilized as a medicinal material. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the 70% ethanol extract of A. koreanum roots (AKR-E. The results indicated that the AKR-E (200 μg/mL inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages by 41.2% and 78.9%, respectively. These effects were accompanied by concentration-dependent decreases in the expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 proteins. Additionally, the AKR-E inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL-6 (22.7% and IL-1β (74%. These data showed that the AKR-E had protective effects against the induction of LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  2. Active components from Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) for protection of amyloid β(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy in cultured rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanjing; Tohda, Chihiro; Zhu, Shu; Hattori, Masao; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2011-07-01

    Not only neuronal death but also neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss underlie the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease as direct causes of the memory deficit. Extracts of Siberian ginseng (the rhizome of Eleutherococcus senticosus) were shown to have protective effects on the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses in rat cultured cortical neurons damaged by amyloid β (Aβ)(25-35), and eleutheroside B was one of the active constituents. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of constituents was conducted to explore active components from Siberian ginseng which can protect against neuritic atrophy induced by Aβ(25-35) in cultured rat cortical neurons. The ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions from the methanol extract of Siberian ginseng showed protective effects against Aβ-induced neuritic atrophy. Twelve compounds were isolated from the active fractions and identified. Among them, eleutheroside B, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin showed obvious protective effects against Aβ(25-35)-induced atrophies of axons and dendrites at 1 and 10 μM.

  3. RAPD analysis of natural populations of Acanthopanax brachypus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANHUAJUN; SILANDAI; 等

    1997-01-01

    Random amplified Polymorphic DNA(RAPD) analysis is a new technology of molecular marking which has proved very powerful in detecting genetic diversity at the level of population.The genomic DNAs used in our experiment were extracted from fresh leaves taken from 59 individuals sampled from three natural populations in Yan an,Shanxi Province.Through more than 2,000 PCRs,deep-going RAPD analysis was carried out on DNA samples from 49 inviduals.The percentage of polymorphic RAPD loci found in these three populations were respectively 27.2%,18.6% and 5.4%;the average genetic distances within population,0.055,0.026 and 0.008;the average genetic distances between populations (I-II),(I-III) and (II-III),0.105,0.096 and 0.060.The genetic diversity of A.brachypus within and between populations was found,for the first time,to be rather poor,thus revealing innate factors as the cause contributing to its endangered status.In addition,our work also provides basic materials for elucidating the underlying cause of its endangerment and for its protection biology.

  4. Authentication of the traditional medicinal plant Eleutherococcus senticosus by DNA and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Miyai, Miho; Komatsu, Katsuko; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Fujita, Masao; Shimada, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Shibata, Toshiro; Goda, Yukihiro

    2008-06-01

    Shigoka (SGK), the rhizome of Eleutherococcus senticosus, is a traditional medicine used as a tonic in northeastern Asia and far eastern Russia. We analyzed the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of the medicine available on the Japanese and Chinese markets and found that at least 3 species were used as the source plant of the commercial SGKs and that only 70% of all samples was made from the correct species. Furthermore, we performed the quantitative determination of 3 marker compounds, eleutheroside B (EB), syringaresinol diglucoside (Syr), and isofraxidin (Iso) by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/mass spectrometry (MS). We found that EB and Iso are specific to the correct source plant of SGK. Of them, EB is thought to be the best marker compound for quality assurance of the SGK from the viewpoint of its pharmacological activity.

  5. Phytochemical Content and Pharma-Nutrition Study on Eleutherococcus senticosus Fruits Intractum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Załuski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades public interest in herbal products has increased significantly in Europe, especially in the plant-based products from non-European traditions. Eleutherococcus senticosus has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, anemia, and rheumatoid arthritis. The Eleutherococcus senticosus fruits intractum was examined for the content of phenolic acids (LC-ESI-MS/MS, minerals (AAS, TPC, and TFC (spectrophotometric assay. The antioxidant activity was determined using free radical scavenging assay and TLC-DB-DPPH∗ dot-blot test. An anti-Hyal activity was evaluated by the spectrophotometric assay method. Cytotoxicity towards HL-60, HL-60/MX1, HL-60/MX2, CEM/C1, and CCRF/CEM leukemic cell lines was done using trypan blue test. Among eight phenolic acids, trans-caffeic acid was found in the largest amount (41.2 mg/g DE. The intractum presented a high amount of macroelements (Ca, Mg, K; 1750, 1300, and 21000 mg/kg and microelements (Fe, Mn; 32.7, 54.3 mg/kg, respectively. The content of TPC and TFC was 130 and 92 mg/g DE, respectively. The intractum showed anti-Hyal activity (2.16–60% and an antioxidant capacity (EC50; 52 μg/mL. The intractum most strongly inhibited the growth of HL-60, HL-60/MX1, and CCRF/CEM. A better understanding of the intractum health benefits is important in order to increase its utility and enrich dietary sources of health promoting compounds.

  6. Phytochemical Content and Pharma-Nutrition Study on Eleutherococcus senticosus Fruits Intractum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Załuski, Daniel; Olech, Marta; Galanty, Agnieszka; Verpoorte, Robert; Kuźniewski, Rafał; Nowak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades public interest in herbal products has increased significantly in Europe, especially in the plant-based products from non-European traditions. Eleutherococcus senticosus has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, anemia, and rheumatoid arthritis. The Eleutherococcus senticosus fruits intractum was examined for the content of phenolic acids (LC-ESI-MS/MS), minerals (AAS), TPC, and TFC (spectrophotometric assay). The antioxidant activity was determined using free radical scavenging assay and TLC-DB-DPPH(∗) dot-blot test. An anti-Hyal activity was evaluated by the spectrophotometric assay method. Cytotoxicity towards HL-60, HL-60/MX1, HL-60/MX2, CEM/C1, and CCRF/CEM leukemic cell lines was done using trypan blue test. Among eight phenolic acids, trans-caffeic acid was found in the largest amount (41.2 mg/g DE). The intractum presented a high amount of macroelements (Ca, Mg, K; 1750, 1300, and 21000 mg/kg) and microelements (Fe, Mn; 32.7, 54.3 mg/kg), respectively. The content of TPC and TFC was 130 and 92 mg/g DE, respectively. The intractum showed anti-Hyal activity (2.16-60%) and an antioxidant capacity (EC50; 52 μg/mL). The intractum most strongly inhibited the growth of HL-60, HL-60/MX1, and CCRF/CEM. A better understanding of the intractum health benefits is important in order to increase its utility and enrich dietary sources of health promoting compounds.

  7. No benefit adding eleutherococcus senticosus to stress management training in stress-related fatigue/weakness, impaired work or concentration, a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffler, K; Wolf, O T; Burkart, M

    2013-07-01

    Plant adaptogens are traditionally used for stress-related symptoms, but clinical evidence is inconsistent. This trial explored the effects of 120 mg/day Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract (ES), 2-day professional stress management training (SMT) and a combination of both (COM). 144 participants suffering from asthenia and reduced working capacity related to chronic stress were randomized to the treatments. Validated scales and tests were used to investigate cognitive performance; feeling stressed; fatigue and exhaustion; alertness, restlessness and mood; quality of life and sleep; physical complaints and activities; and physiological stress parameters including cortisol awakening response (CAR), at baseline, after 2 and 8 weeks of treatment (German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00000692). Almost all parameters improved significantly over time without group differences. Significant differences were found in mental fatigue and restlessness, both in favor of COM vs. ES. COM was not superior to SMT in any parameter at week 8. An attenuation of the CAR was seen at week 2 without group differences. All treatments were well tolerated. Effects of adding ES to SMT are, if any, negligible. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. [Study on morphology, quality and germination characteristics of Acanthopanax trifoliatus seeds under different habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Juan

    2014-05-01

    To preliminary explore the difference of the morphological, quality and germinal characteristics of Acanthopanax trifoliatus seeds under different habitats. Collect the wild seeds from different habitats in West Mountain, and then observe their external appearances and internal structure, and test the thousand seeds weight,water content and seed vigor. What's more, the influence to germination rates of the seeds from different temperatures and light intensities in artificial bioclimatic chamber was studied. Orthogonal test in experimental plots was carried out to screen the different sowing dates, matrix types and soil depths which may influence germination rate. The external appearances and quality characteristics of wild seeds from three habitats were different. Seeds could germinate in the both light and dark, the germination rate of the habitat II was as high as 70.5% at the optimum temperature 20 degrees C in artificial bioclimatic chamber. The optimal combination A1, B1, C1 was screened out through orthogonal test, namely, the germination rate would be the highest when the seeds sowed in autumn covering with 2 cm depth of matrix type which component of the ratio of soil, sand and organic fertilizer was 6: 3: 1. There was significant difference in the morphology and germination rate of the three habitats seeds. The habitat II seeds were the optimal choice when culture seedling. The influences of different temperatures on germination rate were different, and the dried seeds should sow in current autumn, better than the next spring.

  9. Analysis of Yield of Eleutherosides B and E in Acanthopanax divaricatus and A. koreanum Grown with Varying Cultivation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong Min Lee; Myoung-Hee Lee; Suk-Bok Pae; Ki-Won Oh; Chan-Sik Jung; In-Youl Baek; Sanghyun Lee

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the yield of eleutherosides B and E in Acanthopanax divaricatus and A. koreanum was performed using high performance liquid chromatography to evaluate production by different cultivation methods. In A. divaricatus and A. koreanum, the total content of eleutherosides B and E was 2.466–7.360 mg/g varying by plant section, 3.886–11.506 mg/g by pinching site, 3.655–10.083 mg/g by planting time, and 3.652–10.108 mg/g by fertilizer ratio. Thus the total content of eleutherosides B an...

  10. Effects of Light Intensity on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Acanthopanax senticosus%光照对刺五加种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔立勇; 佟庆; 史伟国; 梁程斌

    2015-01-01

    研究不同透光率(100%、51.2%、39.8%、18.9%、4.5%)对刺五加种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果表明,全光100%(裸地)组刺五加种子的萌发率显著低于遮荫组,遮荫利于种子的萌发,但萌发率在各遮荫组间差异不显著.萌发速率系数在39.8%组最高,萌发指数在18.9%(室外)和39.8%(气候箱)处理组最大,在51.2%(室外)和100%(气候箱)处理组的萌发指数最小.可见强光对种子的萌发有一定的延迟作用,光照对刺五加的生长有显著影响.生长在高中光强下的刺五加幼苗正常生长,生长在低弱光强下的植株生长不良,表现为植株矮小,茎秆细弱,中度的遮荫对刺五加生长没有明显影响,但在严重遮荫下生长受抑制.

  11. 刺五加叶皂苷对心肌ATP敏感性钾通道的作用%Effects of acanthopanax senticosus saponins on myocardial ATP sensitive potassium channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周逸; 唐其柱; 史锡滕; 王滕

    2004-01-01

    目的:研究刺五加叶皂苷(ASS)对心肌线粒体ATP敏感性钾通道(mito KATP)和细胞膜ATP敏感性钾通道(sarcol KATP)的作用,探讨ASS对缺血心肌保护作用的机制.方法:用酶解法获取兔心室肌细胞,激光扫描共聚焦显微镜观察ASS对mito KATP的作用,全细胞膜片钳技术观察ASS对sarcol KATP的作用.结果:对照组观察 10min 线粒体荧光强度无明显变化.ASS 30、100和 300 mg·L-1 组均可见用药后线粒体荧光强度明显增加,分别增加(14.8±3.6)%、(30.4±4.3)%和(38.4±5.7)%.3 μmol·L-1格列本脲不影响线粒体荧光强度,但可以阻断ASS对线粒体荧光强度的作用.而对照组、ASS 10、100和 300μmol·L-1 组的IK-ATP峰值无明显差异.结论:ASS对mito KATP有开放作用,而对sarcol KATP没有作用.ASS通过开放mito KATP产生心肌保护作用.

  12. 刺五加抗疲劳活性部位中刺五加苷B的含量测定%Determination of eleutheroside B in antifatigue fraction of Acanthopanax senticosus by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰; 王晓燕; 胡绪玮; 范海涛; 乔善义

    2008-01-01

    目的:建立刺五加抗疲劳活性部位中刺五加苷B的含量测定方法.方法:用小鼠负重游泳实验,确定刺五加粗提物的抗疲劳活性部位;硅胶柱色谱,Sephadex LH-20柱色谱,制备液相色谱对活性部位分离纯化,并对分离所得化合物进行理化性质研究和结构鉴定;含量测定中高效液相色谱条件为Diamonsil C18柱(4.6 mm×250mm,5 μm),流动相乙腈-水-醋酸(10:90:0.01),流速1.0 mL·min-1,紫外检测波长344 nm.结果:从刺五加抗疲劳活性部位Asl中分离得到一化合物,鉴定为刺五加苷B;刺五加苷B的线性范围为0.104~20.8μg,r=0.999 9;平均回收率为97.68%,RSD 1.4%(n:6).结论:从刺五加抗疲劳活性部位As1中分离得到含量较高的刺五加苷B,作为质量控制的指标成分,并建立了刺五加抗疲劳活性部位中刺五加苷B含量测定方法.

  13. HPLC法测定刺五加不同部位刺五加苷B、E含量%HPLC determination of syringin and eleutheroside E in different parts of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. Et Maxim.)Harms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 刘芳芳; 薛起; 李凤伟

    2008-01-01

    目的:建立HPLC法同时测定刺五加苷B和刺五加苷E含量的方法,并对刺五加不同部位的刺五加苷B和刺五加苷E进行含量测定,为合理开发、利用刺五加资源提供理论依据.方法:采用Nucleosil C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,5μm),以乙腈(A)-水(B)为流动相,梯度洗脱(0~8 min:12%B;8~20 min:12%B→18%B;20~25 min:18%B;25 min:12%B),流速0.8 mL·min-1,检测波长210 nm.结果:刺五加苷B在茎干中含量最高,叶中最低;刺五加苷E在根中含量最高,花中含量最低.除叶以外,其他各部位中刺五加苷E的含量均低于刺五加苷B.结论:本方法简便,重复性好,可作为刺五加药材的质量控制方法,也为合理利用刺五加这一资源提供依据.

  14. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents of flavones from the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms%刺五加叶中黄酮类成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王知斌; 高慧媛; 吴立军

    2010-01-01

    目的 分离、鉴定刺五加叶提取物中的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱、ODS开放柱和制备液相等色谱方法分离,并通过NMR和MS等谱学技术确定结构.结果 从提取物中分离得到9个黄酮类化合物,分别鉴定为异鼠李素-3-D-刺槐二糖苷(isorhamnetin-3-O-robinobioside,1)、山柰酚-3-O-刺槐二糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside,2)、金丝桃苷(hyperin,3)、异鼠李素-3-O-β-D-半乳糖苷(isorhamnetin-3-O-β-galactopyranoside,4)、异鼠李素-3-O-β-D-鼠李糖基-(1→6)-[a-L-鼠李糖基-(1→2)-β-D-半乳糖苷(isorhamnetin-3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-galactopyranosid,5)、山柰酚-3-O-a-L-鼠李糖基-(1→2)-β-D-葡萄糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside,6)、槲皮素-3-O-a-L-阿拉伯糖基-(1→2)-β-D-半乳糖苷(quercetin-3-O-a-L-arabinopyaranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-galacto-pyranoside,7)、槲皮素(quercetin,8)山柰酚(kaempferol,9).其中化合物1、2、4-7为首次从五加属植物中分离得到.结论

  15. Characterization and biological effects of two polysaccharides isolated from Acanthopanax sciadophylloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Bum; Tanikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Kyoko; Asagi, Mariko; Kasahara, Yoshimasa; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2015-02-13

    Two polysaccharides abbreviated ANP and AAP were isolated from the young buds of Acanthopanax sciadophylloides. ANP consisted of L-arabinose, D-mannose, D-glucose and D-galactose in a ratio of ca 1.0:2.6:2.5:1.4 and its weight average molecular weight (Mw) was 1.07×10(4). AAP consisted of L-arabinose, D-galactose and 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid in a ratio of ca 5:10:1, and its Mw was estimated to be 8.40×10(4). ANP was suggested to be an acetylated heteropolysaccharide, whereas AAP was speculated to be a type II arabinogalactan on the basis of structural analysis data. Both polysaccharides were found to stimulate NO production and induce the expression of cytokine mRNAs including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α on RAW264.7 cells. They also induced NF-κB activation in RAW-Blue cells. NO production and NF-κB activation by both polysaccharides were decreased by pretreatment with neutralizing anti-TLR-4 and anti-CD14 antibodies but not with anti-TLR-2, anti-SR-A, anti-CD11c, and anti-Dectin-1 antibodies. Therefore, these immunostimulating effects of ANP and AAP were suggested to be promoted by the interaction through the membrane receptors, TLR-4 and CD14. In addition to immunomodulating effects, ANP showed anti-HSV-2 effects in vitro.

  16. Analysis of yield of eleutherosides B and E in Acanthopanax divaricatus and A. koreanum grown with varying cultivation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Myoung-Hee; Pae, Suk-Bok; Oh, Ki-Won; Jung, Chan-Sik; Baek, In-Youl; Lee, Sanghyun

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the yield of eleutherosides B and E in Acanthopanax divaricatus and A. koreanum was performed using high performance liquid chromatography to evaluate production by different cultivation methods. In A. divaricatus and A. koreanum, the total content of eleutherosides B and E was 2.466-7.360 mg/g varying by plant section, 3.886-11.506 mg/g by pinching site, 3.655-10.083 mg/g by planting time, and 3.652-10.108 mg/g by fertilizer ratio. Thus the total content of eleutherosides B and E in A. divaricatus and A. koreanum differed depending on cultivation methods. These results present useful information for high eleutheroside content applications in A. divaricatus and A. koreanum. This information can affect selection of plant section and cultivation methods for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical material development.

  17. Analysis of Yield of Eleutherosides B and E in Acanthopanax divaricatus and A. koreanum Grown with Varying Cultivation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Min Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the yield of eleutherosides B and E in Acanthopanax divaricatus and A. koreanum was performed using high performance liquid chromatography to evaluate production by different cultivation methods. In A. divaricatus and A. koreanum, the total content of eleutherosides B and E was 2.466–7.360 mg/g varying by plant section, 3.886–11.506 mg/g by pinching site, 3.655–10.083 mg/g by planting time, and 3.652–10.108 mg/g by fertilizer ratio. Thus the total content of eleutherosides B and E in A. divaricatus and A. koreanum differed depending on cultivation methods. These results present useful information for high eleutheroside content applications in A. divaricatus and A. koreanum. This information can affect selection of plant section and cultivation methods for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical material development.

  18. 短柄五加茶加工工艺研究%Acanthopanax brachypus Tea Processing Technology Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武永福; 周天林; 胥国斌; 李东波

    2012-01-01

    Acanthopanax brachypus is good for the spleen,calmness,gore.It has good remission or therapeutic effects of menopause's physically fatigue,hot flashes,insomnia,depression,unhappiness,forgetfulness,heart palpitations,dizziness,headache,Arthralgia and so on.In this experiment,the raw material is acanthopanax brachypus fresh leaves Ziwu Mountains of Qingyang area,Use of modern tea processing technology processes it.After picking,withering,heating,rolling twists,drying,filtering and other processing technics,the best processing craft parameter of withering 10h,heating 3min,rubing twists 40min,then drying 20min at 100℃and 60min at 80℃ was obtained.%短柄五加具有益气健脾、养心安神、解郁和血之功效,对更年期体虚乏力、潮热失眠、抑郁不欢、健忘心悸、头晕头痛、关节痛等有很好缓解或治疗作用[1-12].本试验以庆阳地区子午岭短柄五加嫩叶为原料,运用现代茶叶加工技术对其加工.经过捡杂、萎凋、杀青、揉捻、干燥、筛选等加工工序,得到精制茶最佳加工工艺参数为萎凋10h、杀青3min、揉捻40min、120℃毛火10min,然后100℃干燥30min.

  19. 40. The in vitro Inhibitory Effects of Acanthopanax Giraldii Harms Var. Hispidus Hoo Plant Polysacchrides on Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line and the Molecular Mechanism of Inducing Apoptosis.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Araliaceal plant polysaccharides have wide biological effects. The antitumor activities of Acanthopanax Giraldii Harms Var.Hispidus Hoo plant polysaccharides (AGP) are becoming increasingly an interesting topic. In this thesis, some aspects of the efects of the AGP on the tumor have been studied, including the in vitro antitumor activity, the induction of apoptosis, the suppression of oncogene and/or the activation of antioncogene, and the modulation of cell factors.

  20. A Herbal Composition of Scutellaria baicalensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus Shows Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effects in an Ex Vivo Human Mucosal Tissue Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients seek an effective alternative to pharmacotherapy including herbal treatment options for allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. Material and Methods. Nasal mucosal tissue was obtained from 12 patients, fragmented, preincubated with tissue culture medium, S. baicalensis and/or E. senticosus and/or vitamin C (each compound 0.2 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL for 1 hour at 37°C/5% CO2, and stimulated with anti-IgE for 30 minutes and 6 hours to imitate the allergic early and late phases. Furthermore, Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB stimulation for 6 hours was used to imitate T-cell activation. Results. The combination of S. baicalensis and E. senticosus had a more potent suppressive effect on the release of PGD2, histamine, and IL-5 than S. baicalensis alone. The combination also resulted in a significant inhibition of SEB-induced cytokines comparable or superior to an established topical corticosteroid, fluticasone propionate. Vitamin C increased ciliary beat frequency, but had no anti-inflammatory effects. Discussion. The combination of S. baicalensis and E. senticosus may be able to significantly block allergic early-and late-phase mediators and substantially suppress the release of proinflammatory, and Th1-, Th2-, and Th17—derived cytokines.

  1. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, M; Krikorian, A D

    2000-10-01

    The adaptogen concept is examined from an historical, biological, chemical, pharmacological and medical perspective using a wide variety of primary and secondary literature. The definition of an adaptogen first proposed by Soviet scientists in the late 1950s, namely that an adaptogen is any substance that exerts effects on both sick and healthy individuals by 'correcting' any dysfunction(s) without producing unwanted side effects, was used as a point of departure. We attempted to identify critically what an adaptogen supposedly does and to determine whether the word embodies in and of itself any concept(s) acceptable to western conventional (allopathic) medicine. Special attention was paid to the reported pharmacological effects of the 'adaptogen-containing plant' Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae), referred to by some as 'Siberian ginseng', and to its secondary chemical composition. We conclude that so far as specific pharmacological activities are concerned there are a number of valid arguments for equating the action of so-called adaptogens with those of medicinal agents that have activities as anti-oxidants, and/or anti-cancerogenic, immunomodulatory and hypocholesteroletic as well as hypoglycemic and choleretic action. However, 'adaptogens' and 'anti-oxidants' etc. also show significant dissimilarities and these are discussed. Significantly, the classical definition of an adaptogen has much in common with views currently being invoked to describe and explain the 'placebo effect'. Nevertheless, the chemistry of the secondary compounds of Eleutherococcus isolated thus far and their pharmacological effects support our hypothesis that the reported beneficial effects of adaptogens derive from their capacity to exert protective and/or inhibitory action against free radicals. An inventory of the secondary substances contained in Eleutherococcus discloses a potential for a wide range of activities reported from work on cultured cell lines

  2. Acanthopanax trifoliatus inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Mei Chien

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a well-known herb that is used for the treatment of bruising, neuralgia, impotence, and gout in Taiwan. This herb exhibits multifunctional activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammation, and antioxidant effects. This paper investigated the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of A. trifoliatus. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis established the fingerprint chromatogram of the ethyl acetate fraction of A. trifoliatus (EAAT. The anti-inflammatory effect of EAAT was detected using lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation of the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 in vitro and LPS-induced lung injury in vivo. The effects of EAAT on LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and the mouse model were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. EAAT attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and IL-6 in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with EAAT markedly reduced LPS-induced histological alterations in lung tissues. Furthermore, EAAT significantly reduced the number of total cells and protein concentration levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Western blotting test results revealed that EAAT blocked protein expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, phosphorylation of Nuclear factor-kappa-B Inhibitor alpha (IκB-α protein, and mitogen-activated protein kinases in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells as well as LPS-induced lung injury. This study suggests that A. trifoliatus may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  3. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  4. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents of fruits of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus%无梗五加果化学成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春娟; 安琪; 宋洋; 熊志立; 李发美

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and elucidate the chemical constituents of the fruits of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus.Method:Isolation and purification were carried out on the column chromatography of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20.Their structures were elueidated on basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data.Result:Nine compounds were isolated and identified as oleanolic acid3-O-6'-O-methyl-β-D-glucuronopyranoside(1),22-α-hydroxychiisanogenin(2),oleanolic acid-3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside(3),oleanolic acid-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(4),oleanolic acid(5),chiisanogenin(6),(-)-sesamin(7),daucosterol(8),β-sitosterol(9).Conclusion:Compound 1 is obtained from the genus Acanthopanax genus for the first time.Compounds 2-5 are isolated from this plant for the first time.%目的:对五加科五加属植物无梗五加Acanthopanax sessiliflorus果的化学成分进行分离与鉴定.方法:采用硅胶柱色谱,Sephadex LH-20柱色谱等方法对化学成分进行分离及纯化,根据化合物理化性质及波谱数据鉴定其结构.结果:分离得到9个化合物,oleanolic acid-3-O-6'-O-methyl-β-D-glucumnopyranoside(1),22-α-hydroxychiisanogenin(2),齐墩果酸-3-o-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸苷(momordin Ib 3),齐墩果酸-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(oleanolic acid-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside 4),齐墩果酸(oleanolic acid 5),ehiisanogenin(6),(-)-芝麻脂素[(-)-sesamin 7],胡萝卜苷(daucosterol 8),β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol 9).结论:化合物1是首次从五加属植物中分离得到,化合物2~5是首次从该植物中分离得到.

  5. Studies on phenolic acid constituents of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits%无梗五加果酚酸类化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖扬; 王立波; 金刚; 孙锐; 胡希; 杨春娟

    2012-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the fruits from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus,the seperation was carried out on the column chromatography of silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and preparative liquid chro-matography. Their structures were elucidated on basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Eight phenolic acid compounds were isolated and identified as tyrosol(1) ,p-hydrocoumaric arid(2),protocate-chuic aldehyde(3) ,caffeic acid(4) ,4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone(5) ,gallic acid(6) ,4-hydroxy-benzoic acid(7), pyrocatechol (8). Compound 5 was isolated from the family of Araliaceae for the first time. Compound 2 was isolated from Acanthopanax genus for the first time, and compounds 1,7,8 were isolated from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus for the first time.%目的 对五加科五加属植物无梗五加果的化学成分进行研究.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱法、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱法、ODS柱色谱法以及制备液相色谱法对无梗五加果的化学成分进行分离,根据化合物的理化性质及波谱数据鉴定其结构.结果 分离得到8个已知的酚酸类化合物,分别为对羟基苯乙醇( tyrosol,1)、对羟基苯丙酸(p-hydrocoumaric acid,2)、原儿茶醛(protocatechuic aldehyde,3)、咖啡酸(caffeic acid,4)、4-(3,4-二羟基苯基)-2-丁酮[4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone,5]、没食子酸(gallic acid,6)、对羟基苯甲酸(4-hydroxybenzoic acid,7)、邻苯二酚(pyrocatechol,8).结论 化合物5为首次从五加科植物中分离得到,化合物2为首次从五加属植物中分离得到,化合物1、7、8为从该植物中首次分离得到.

  6. 糙叶五加根皮化学成分研究%Study on chemical constituents from root barks of Acanthopanax henryi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恒言; 金钟焕; 刘向前; 陆昌洙

    2012-01-01

    目的 基于抗炎活性研究糙叶五加根皮的化学成分.方法 采用XAD-4、正相硅胶、ODS、Sephadex LH-20等常规柱色谱技术结合实时直接分析质谱技术(DART-MS)进行分离纯化,并根据其理化性质和波谱数据鉴定结构.结果 通过常规柱色谱从糙叶五加根皮中分离鉴定了7个化合物,分别为:豆甾醇(1)、β-谷甾醇(2)、海松酸(3)、(+)-芝麻素(4)、洒维宁(5)、丁香苷(6)和刺五加苷E(7);另外,通过实时直接分析质谱与标准图谱比较推测糙叶五加根皮中可能存在taiwanin C、10-羟基-2,8-癸二烯-4,6-二炔酸、3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienoic acid、咖啡酸和stigmast-7-ene-3,6-diol.结论 化合物3,4,5,7为首次从该种植物中分离得到.%Objective To study the chemical constituents of root barks of Acanthopanax henryi (A. Henryi) based on anti-inflammatory activities. Methods The compounds were isolated and obtained by column chromatography including XAD -4, silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH -20, combined with DART -MS technology. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of physiochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. Results Seven compounds were separated and identified as stigmasterol(1), β-sitosterol(2), pimaric acid(3), (+)-sesamin(4), savinin (5), syringing (6) and eleutheroside E (7) by column chromatography. In addition, taiwanin C, 10-hydroxy-2,8-decadiene-4,6-diynoic acid, 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienoic acid, caffeic acid together with stigmast-7-ene-3,6-diol could be existed in root barks of Acanthopanax henryi by DART-MS compared with their standard spectrums. Conclusion Compounds 3, 4, 5, 7 were obtained from the genus for the first time.

  7. 刺五加总苷对REM睡眠剥夺所致大鼠记忆获得障碍的改善作用及其LTP机制%Effect of Total Glucosides of Acanthopanax senticosus on Memory Acquisition Deficit Rats Induced by REM Sleep Deprivation and It's LTP Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭冷秋; 郭壮丽; 康施瑶; 叶晓楠; 李廷利

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究刺五加总苷对快动眼睡眠剥夺(REMSD)所致记忆获得障碍的改善作用及对突触电位长时程增强(LTP)的影响,探讨刺五加总苷改善学习记忆能力的可能机制.方法:成年雄性SD大鼠,随机分为大平台对照组、睡眠剥夺组和刺五加总苷3个剂量组(200,100,50 mg· kg-1).各组大鼠灌胃给药/蒸馏水3d后,利用改良多平台水环境法(MMPM)剥夺REM睡眠,制备学习记忆获得障碍动物模型;造模期间利用六角迷宫进行训练并测试,观察刺五加总苷对记忆获得障碍的改善作用;最后利用电生理学方法,高频刺激大鼠海马内嗅皮层穿通纤维诱导LTP,记录海马齿状回颗粒细胞层群峰电位(PS)幅值.结果:与对照组相比,模型组大鼠的记忆能力降低(P<0.01),同时伴有海马脑区强直刺激后PS幅值明显下降(P<0.01);与模型组大鼠相比,刺五加总苷中、高剂量均能明显增强模型大鼠的记忆能力(P <0.05,P<0.01).升高PS幅值(P <0.01,P<0.05),且具有剂量依赖性.结论:REM睡眠剥夺能够造成大鼠记忆获得障碍,刺五加总苷能够改善这种障碍,此作用可能与增强大鼠海马区突触可塑性有关.

  8. Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng%杜仲和西伯利亚人参的化学成分及药理作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DEYAMA Takeshi; NISHIBE Sansei; NAKAZAWA Yoshihisa

    2001-01-01

    The bark and leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oiiv ( Eucommiaceae ) and "Siberian ginseng" ( Ezoukogi in Japanese) prepared from the root bark or stem bark of Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim ( Acanthopanax senticosta Harms) have been used as tonic and anti-stress drug. The extracts of Eucommia showed anti-hypertensive, anti-complementary, anti-oxidative, and antigastric ulcer effects, and promoting collagen synthesis, accelating granuloma formation, and other pharmacological effects. The Siberian ginseng exhibited anti-fatigue,anti-stress, immuno-enhancing effect, CNS activity, and anti-depressive effect. By now, 40, 28, and 10 compounds have been isolated from Eucommia ulmoides bark, Eucommia ulmoides leaves, and Siberian ginseng,respectively, and their structures were elucidated. Their pharmacological activities were mainly due to lignans and iridoid glycosides.

  9. Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegant, F A C; Surinova, S; Ytsma, E; Langelaar-Makkinje, M; Wikman, G; Post, J A

    2009-02-01

    Extracts of plant adaptogens such as Eleutherococcus senticosus (or Acanthopanax senticosus) and Rhodiola rosea can increase stress resistance in several model systems. We now show that both extracts also increase the mean lifespan of the nematode C. elegans in a dose-dependent way. In at least four independent experiments, 250 microg/ml Eleutherococcus (SHE-3) and 10-25 microg/ml Rhodiola (SHR-5) significantly increased life span between 10 and 20% (P adaptogen extracts were also able to increase stress resistance in C. elegans: against a relatively short heat shock (35 degrees C during 3 h) as well as chronic heat treatment at 26 degrees C. An increase against chronic oxidative stress conditions was observed in mev-1 mutants, and during exposure of the wild type nematode to paraquat (10 mM) or UV stress, be it less efficiently. Concerning the mode of action: both adaptogens induce translocation of the DAF-16 transcription factor from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, suggesting a reprogramming of transcriptional activities favoring the synthesis of proteins involved in stress resistance (such as the chaperone HSP-16) and longevity. Based on these observations, it is suggested that adaptogens are experienced as mild stressors at the lifespan-enhancing concentrations and thereby induce increased stress resistance and a longer lifespan.

  10. Simultaneous Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Six Components in Rat Plasma by HPLC-MS/MS after Oral Administration of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruit Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Du; Mingdao Lei; Yu Liu; Shilin Yang

    2016-01-01

    A specific and reliable HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of protocatechuic acid (PCA), scopolin, (−)-pinoresinol-4,4′-di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (PDG), acanthoside D, acanthoside B and hyperin in rat plasma for the first time. The analytes were separated on a C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm) and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source was used for detection. The rat plasma sample was prepared usi...

  11. Study on Seed Germination Experiment of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus, Seem.%短梗五加种子催芽试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董立国; 董作梅

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the seed sprouting of Acanthopanax sentieosus and improve the emergence rate in next year. This could solve the difficulties in breeding and irregular emergence of seedling. [Method] The temperature-accelerated stratification and seed soaking with 4 different concentrations Gibberellin were taken in the experiment. [Result]The best embryo rate with 100 mg/mL Gibberellin was the best (91.4%). And the 100 mg/mL Gibberellin could accelerate the transformation of soluble sugar, protein and decrease the content of starch. [Conclusion] The embryo must undergo two different stages of morphological after-ripening and physiological after-ripening and break the inhibition substance.With these measures, be reached. seed collecting and seedling in next spring colud be reached.%[目的]对短梗五加进行种子催芽试验,解决短梗五加种子繁育困难、当年出苗不齐等问题,提高翌春播种出苗率。[方法]采取变温层积加赤霉素浸种处理,人工控制变温层积,以4种不同浓度的赤霉素浸种。[结果]以100mg/L的赤霉素处理的胚率最佳,发芽率达91.4%,100mg/L的赤霉素可加速可溶性糖和可溶性蛋白的转化,降低种子淀粉的含量。[结论]种胚必须经过形态后熟和生理后熟2个不同阶段,种子内的抑制物质通过人为处理来打破,可以实现当年采种,次年春天播种育苗的生产需要。

  12. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (AL), Camellia sinensis (CS), Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG), and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM) are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (m)RNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results A noncytotoxic dose (200 μM) of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001) regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation into molecular mechanisms modulated by herbal extracts should be undertaken to shed light on the development of novel

  13. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomari E

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elena Pomari, Bruno Stefanon, Monica Colitti Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy Background: Arctium lappa (AL, Camellia sinensis (CS, Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG, and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods: Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (mRNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results: A noncytotoxic dose (200 µM of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001 regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in

  14. Evaluation of molecular chaperons Hsp72 and neuropeptide Y as characteristic markers of adaptogenic activity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asea, Alexzander; Kaur, Punit; Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Karl Georg

    2013-11-15

    We have previously demonstrated that ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of adaptogenic substances derived from Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract, Schisandra chinensis berry extract, Rhodiola rosea root extract stimulated the expression and release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and molecular chaperone Hsp72 from isolated human neurolgia cells. Both of these mediators of stress response are known to play an important role in regulation of neuroendocrine system and immune response. We further demonstrated that ADAPT-232 induced release of Hsp70 is mediated by NPY, suggesting an existence of NPY-mediated pathway of activation of Hsp72 release into the blood circulation system. The objective of this study was to determine whether this pathway is common for adaptogens and whether NPY and/or Hsp72 can be considered as necessary specific biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. The release of NPY and Hsp72 from neuroglia cells in response to treatment with various plant extracts (n=23) including selected validated adaptogens, partly validated adaptogens, claimed but negligibly validated adaptogens and some other plant extracts affecting neuroendocrine and immune systems but never considered as adaptogens was measured using high throughput ELISA techniques. We demonstrated that adaptogens, e.g. R. rosea, S. chinensis and E. senticosus stimulate both NPY and Hsp70 release from neuroblastoma cells, while tonics and stimulants have no significant effect on NPY in this in vitro test. In the groups of partly validated adaptogens the effect of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera was not statistically significant both on NPY and Hsp70 release, while the activating effect of Bryonia alba and Rhaponticum cartamoides was significant only on Hsp70. In contrast, all tested non-adaptogens, such as antiinflammatoty plant extracts Matricaria recutita, Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera helix and Vitis vinifera significantly inhibit Hsp70 release and have no influence on NPY release from neuroblastoma

  15. Influence of Phenobarbital and Topiramate on long-term learning and memory in Rats with immature brain and the protection effect of Acanthopanax%PB和TPM对未成熟脑大鼠远期学习记忆的影响及刺五加的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛利吉; 杨琳; 韩玲; 刘宇; 齐薛浩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of Phenobarbital ( PB) and Topiramate ( TPM) on long-term learning and memory of newly-born rats by short-term administration and the protection effect of Acanthopanax.Methods There were two batches of rats.Among the first batch, 30 3-day old healthy Sprague-Dawley ( SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, control group, PB group and PB combined with Acanthopanax group.Among the second batch, 30 3-day old healthy Sprague-Dawley ( SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 rats in each, control group, TPM group and TPM combined with acanthopanx group.Hypertonic saline (10mL・ kg-1・ d-1 ) was given to the control group, PB group was injected with PB (62.5mg・ kg-1・ d-1), and PB (62.5mg・ kg-1・ d-1) and Acanthopanax (5.6g・ kg-1・ d-1 ) were injected to PB combined with Acanthopanax group.TMP was injected to TMP group with the dose of 62.5mg・kg-1・ d-1 , and TMP combined with Acanthopanax group were given 62.5mg・ kg-1・ d-1 of TMP and 5.6g・ kg-1・ d-1 of Acanthopanax.The rats were injected after weighed for three continuous days.They were regularly fed till they were one month old.Finally 8 out of each group were selected to attend the game of Morris water maze.Results The incubation period for searching underwater platform in PB group was longer than the control group, and the difference was significant ( t=-3.542,P=0.005) .The times passing through the effective area reduced in PB group compared with the control group (t=3.352,P=0.005).However, after adding Acanthopanax, the incubation period (t=1.313,P=0.210) and the times passing through the effective area (t =0.051,P=0.128) had no significant difference from the control group.The incubation period for searching underwater platform in TPM group was significantly longer than the control group (t=-1.920,P=0.075), but the times passing through the effective area was less than the control group (t=1.915,P=0.076) .However, TPM group was not

  16. 刺五加亚精胺合成酶基因的克隆及内生真菌对其表达的影响%Cloning of spermidine synthase gene in Eleutherococcus senticosus and effect of endophytic fungus on its expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢朝斌; 龙月红; 李明; 梁能松; 何闪; 朱金丽; 李宝财

    2012-01-01

    Objective In order to clone spermidine synthase (SPDS) gene in Eleutherococcus senticosus and analyze the effects of endophytic fungi on its expression. Methods The SPDS full-length cDNA sequence of E, senticosus was cloned by rapid amplification of cDN A ends (RACE). The gene was analyzed by the bioinformatics method. The effects of endophytic fungi, P116-1 a, P116-1 b, P109-4, and P312-1, on SPDS expression were detected by RT-PCR. Results The full-length cDN A of E. senticosus SPDS gene was 1 541 bp containing an open reading frame length of 1 002 bp that encoded protein with 333 amino acids. The predicted protein included the basic structure and typical sequences of SPDS family. RT-PCR results showed that endophytic fungi could significantly improve SPDS gene expression amount (P < 0.05). The highest expression amount of SPDS showed up on day 90 after reinoculation with PI 16-lb, which was as much as 2.06 times of the control. Conclusion The full-length cDNA sequence of E. senticosus SPDS gene is successfully cloned and reported for the first time. The results demonstrate that endophytic fungi could obviously improve SPDS gene expression. This result could provide a foundation for clarifying the mechanism that endophytic fungi could improve the content of triterpenoid saponins in E. senticosus and for stressing the tolerance improvement.%目的 克隆刺五加亚精胺合成酶(spermidine synthase,SPDS)基因,并分析内生真菌对其表达的影响.方法 采用cDNA末端快速扩增(rapid amplification of cDNA ends,RACE)技术克隆刺五加SPDS基因全长cDNA序列.运用生物信息学方法对该基因进行分析.RT-PCR法检测内生真菌菌株P116-1a、P116-1b、P109-4和P312-1对SPDS基因表达的影响.结果 刺五加SPDS基因的cDNA全长为1 541 bp,开放阅读框长1 002 bp,编码333个氨基酸的蛋白,包含SPDS家族的基本结构和标志性序列.RT-PCR结果显示,内生真菌可显著提高刺五加SPDS基因的表达量(P<0.05),

  17. Cloning of pleiotropic drug resistance transporter gene from Eleutherococcus senticosus and effect of its expression on saponins content%刺五加多向耐药性转运蛋白基因的克隆及其表达对皂苷含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢朝斌; 孟春燕; 修乐山; 劳凤云; 庄鹏宇; 柴丽花

    2014-01-01

    利用简并引物进行聚合酶链式反应( PCR)扩增获得长度为693 bp 的刺五加( Eleutherococcus senticosus)多向耐药性(pleiotropic drug resistance,PDR)转运蛋白基因,GenBank登录号为KC473536,其编码的231个氨基酸的蛋白属于PDR转运蛋白的核苷酸结合结构域。氨基酸序列与毛果杨(Populus trichocarpa)、蓖麻(Ricinus communis)和水稻(Oryza sativa)的PDR氨基酸序列一致性分别为88.74%,90.04%和88.31%。RT-PCR法检测PDR在刺五加不同生长发育时期和不同器官中表达情况和分光光度法测定刺五加总皂苷含量的结果显示:刺五加PDR基因在整个生长期中均有表达,与皂苷在整个生长期中均有合成的特点相符,但两者的相关性未达显著水平。 PDR基因在叶片和叶柄中高表达的特点与刺五加皂苷仅存在于叶中的特点相符,两者间存在显著的正相关关系(P<0.05)。%cDNA encoding pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) gene, whose length was 693 bp, was amplified from Eleutherococcus senticosus,by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with degenerate oligo nucleotide primers , the gene has been deposited in GenBank under accession number KC 473536.It encoded a protein of 231 amino acids belonging to PDR's nucleotide binding domain.In comparison with E.senticosus PDR with those of Populus trichocarpa, Ricinus communis and Oryza sativa on the amino acid sequence, the amino acid homology was 88.74%, 90.04% and 88.31%.The expression of PDR in different organs of E.senticosus in various growing periods was detected by RT-PCR, and E.senticosus saponins content was measured by spectrophotometry method , the results showed that PDR gene expressed in the whole growing periods of E.senticosus, which was consistent with the characteristic of saponins formation in the whole growing periods , and the correlation of the two was not significant . The characteristic of high expression of PDR

  18. LC-MS/MS法同时测定刺五加制剂中紫丁香苷、刺五加苷E和异嗪皮啶的含量%Simultaneous Determination of Syringin, Eleutheroside E and Isofraxidin in Acanthopanax Preparations by LC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范惠霞; 邓志鹏; 仲浩; 徐晓婷; 姚庆强

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立一种液相色谱-串联四级杆质谱(LC-MS/MS)法同时测定两种刺五加制剂中紫丁香苷、刺五加苷E和异嗪皮啶的含量。方法LC采用内标法,MS采用电喷雾离子源,多反应监测模式,正负离子同时检测。3种被测成分的监测离子对分别为395.0/232.0(紫丁香苷),765.2/765.2(刺五加苷E),223.0/162.0(异嗪皮啶),内标化合物的监测离子对为431.0/311.1(牡荆苷)。色谱柱为Diamonsil C18色谱柱(4.6 mm ×150 mm ,5µm),流动相A为甲醇,流动相B为0.1%甲酸溶液,梯度洗脱,流速0.6 mL/min,分析时间12 min。结果刺五加注射液、刺五加片中紫丁香苷、刺五加苷E、异嗪皮啶的线性范围分别为6.00~2000 ng/mL(r =0.9979),6.00~2000 ng/mL(r =0.9951),2.00~600 ng/mL (r=0.9931);刺五加注射液的平均加样回收率(n=9)分别为104.13%,95.16%,102.64%;刺五加片的平均加样回收率(n=9)分别为102.51%,99.60%,99.15%。结论采用LC-MS/MS方法测定刺五加注射液、刺五加片中3个有效成分含量,该方法快速、简便、灵敏度高、专属性好,可作为刺五加制剂的一种质量控制评价方法。%Objective To establish a liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin in Acanthopanax preparations. Methods Vitexin was used as internal standard for the determination of three active compounds in Acanthopanax preparations. Detection and quantification were performed by mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode with m/z 395.0→232.0 for syringin, m/z 765.2→765.2 for eleutheroside E, 223.0→162.0 for isofraxidin, and m/z 431.0→311.1 for vitexin, respectively. The chromatographic analysis was carried out by Diamonsil C18 column(4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5 µm). The gradient elution was performed with mobile phase consisted of methanol

  19. 刺五加对睡眠剥夺大鼠学习记忆及海马单胺类神经递质的影响%Effects of Acanthopanax on Learning and Memory andMonoamine Neurotransmitters in Hippocampus of Sleep Deprived Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱蕾; 张茹; 李廷利

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective mechanism of acanthopanax on learning and memory and monoamine neurotransmitters acetylcholinesterase ( AchE ) , serotonin ( 5-HT ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) , 5-hydroxindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) of hippocampus in sleep deprivation rats. Method: Total of 75 male wistar rats were randomized into 5 groups, large platform group, sleep deprivation group, three treatment groups (high, middle and low dose). Treatment groups were given Acanthopanax solution (11.2, 5.6, 2. 8 g·kg-1) for 7 days. The others were given distilled water. A small platform was used to establish rapid eye movement sleep ( REMS) deprivation model in rats. After 4 days, the ability of learning memory and space exploration was tested by Hexagonal maze in rats. The level of AchE, 5-HT, NE, 5-HIAA in hippocampus homogenate were measured. Result: Compared with a large platform, the number of errors of sleep deprivation group increased, the rate of cognitive reduced ( P < 0. 01 ) , but finding time was shorten ( P < 0. 05 ) . After administration of Acanthopanax solution, the number of errors reduced significantly, the rate of cognitive increased(P <0. 01 ) , finding time was shorten(P <0. 01 ) , the level of 5-HT, NE. 5-HIAA was higher in Acanthopanax solution than sleep deprivation group (P <0. 05 or P <0. 01). The AchE level in treatment groups was lower thanthat in sleep deprivation groupbut higher than large platform group (P <0. 05 or P <0. 01) . Conclusion: Acanthopanax can improve learning and memory ablity in sleep deprived rats, and the mechanism may involve regulating the sleep deprivation caused by disorders of monoamine neurotransmitter, accelerating the metabolic conversion of 5-HT, regulating NE, and AchE activity in the hippocampus.%目的:探讨刺五加对睡眠剥夺大鼠学习记忆能力及对海马单胺类神经递质AchE(乙酰胆碱酯酶),5-HT(5-羟色胺)、NE(去甲肾上腺素)、5-HIAA(5-羟吲哚乙酸)的影响.方法:将75

  20. Experimental Research of Extract of Acathopancix Senticosus in Anti-tumor Action%刺五加提取物抗肿瘤作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽坚; 蔡宇; 梁少玲

    2006-01-01

    目的评价不同提取方法所得的刺五加提取物的抗肿瘤作用,为今后探讨其制剂工艺合理优化提供药效学依据.方法采用S180移植瘤动物模型,对刺五加水煎液、甲醇提取液、甲醇提后再经水提醇沉后的提取部分Ⅰ,Ⅱ和Ⅲ从抑瘤率、NK细胞活性两方面评价其抗肿瘤和免疫调节攻效.结果样品Ⅱ的不同剂量组对S180肉瘤小鼠抑瘤率为19.47%~35.67%,样品Ⅲ的不同剂量组对S180肉瘤小鼠抑瘤率32.27%~48.17%,样品Ⅲ用药各剂量与空白比较差异显著P<0.05,样品Ⅱ和样品Ⅲ药物用量与抑瘤率成正相关.结论刺五加提取物Ⅲ能体现明确的抗肿瘤活性功效.

  1. Acanthopanax Injection Combined with Fluoxetine for Treating Depression in Alzheimerˊs Disease in 57 Cases and Its Safety Evaluation%刺五加注射液联合氟西汀治疗老年痴呆抑郁症57例及安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of Acanthopanax Injection combined with fluoxetine in the treatment of depres-sion in alzheimer's disease and to evaluate its safety. Methods 114 cases of alzheimer's patients with depression were randomly divid-ed into the control group and the observation group,57 cases in each group. The control group received fluoxetine treatment,the obser-vation group was given intravenous Acanthopanax Injection on the basis of the control group. The efficacy in patients with depression, UPDRS scores and adverse events were compared. Results After treatment,the effective treatment of depression of the observation group was significantly higher than the control group ( P < 0. 05);the UPDRS scores of the two groups were significantly lower than before treatment ( P < 0. 05),and the UPDRS score of the observation group was significantly lower than the control group ( P < 0. 05);all patients showed mild headache,palpitations,lethargy and other symptoms,but no serious adverse events. Conclusion Acanthopanax Injec-tion combined with fluoxetine treatment of depression in alzheimer's disease has significant effect,can effectively improve symptoms and quality of life of patients;it is safe,reliable,and superior to using fluoxetine alone,which is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的:探讨刺五加注射液联合氟西汀治疗老年痴呆抑郁症的临床疗效并评价其安全性。方法选取合并抑郁症的老年痴呆患者114例,随机分为对照组和观察组,各57例。对照组患者给予氟西汀治疗,观察组患者在对照组基础上给予静脉滴注刺五加注射液治疗。比较两组患者抑郁疗效、帕金森氏病综合评分量表(UPDRS)评分及不良反应发生情况。结果治疗后,观察组抑郁治疗总有效率显著高于对照组( P<0.05);两组患者UPDRS评分较治疗前均显著降低( P<0.05),且观察组显著低于对照组( P<0.05);两组患者均

  2. Effect of endophytic fungi on expression amount of key enzyme genes in saponins biosynthesis and Eleutherococcus senticosus saponins content%内生真菌对刺五加皂苷合成关键酶基因表达及皂苷含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢朝斌; 龙月红; 劳凤云; 何闪; 梁能松; 李宝财

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析刺五加内生真菌菌株P116-1a,P116-1b,P109-4,P312-1对刺五加中皂苷合成关键酶基因SS( squalene synthase),SE( squalene epoxidase),bAS(β-amyrin synthase)表达量和皂苷含量的影响.方法:伤口法回接内生真菌.以GAPDH为内参照基因,Real time PCR法检测关键酶基因表达量的变化.分光光度法测定刺五加的总皂苷含量.结果:回接P116-1a和P116-1b 30 d,刺五加SS基因的表达量显著提高(P<0.05),P109-4和P312-1无显著变化,之后出现降低-相等-降低的变化趋势.回接菌株P312-1 30 d,刺五加SE的表达量显著提升(P<0.05),回接菌株P116-1b和P312-1 90 d,SE的表达量分别显著提升至对照的130%,161% (P <0.05).回接120 d,4个菌株处理的SE表达量均显著高于对照(P<0.05).各处理bAS的表达量在回接60 ~ 120 d时均显著高于对照(P<0.05).4个菌株均显著提高了刺五加的皂苷含量(P<0.05).结论:菌株P116-1a,P116-1b,P109-4,P312-1可显著影响刺五加SS,SE,bAS的表达量,进而影响刺五加的皂苷含量,其中bAS为主要靶点基因.%Objective: To analyze the effect of endophytic fungi on expression amount of key enzyme genes SS ( squalene syn-thase gene) , SE ( squalene epoxidase gene) and bAS (β-amyrin synthase gene) in saponin biosynthesis and saponins content in Eleuiherococcus senticosus. Method: Wound method was used for back meeting the endophytic fungi to E. senticosus. With GAPDH as internal control gene, the expression of key enzyme genes was detected by real time PCR method. E. senticosus saponins content was measured by spectrophotometry method. Result: When wound method back meeting PI 16-1 a and PI 16-1 b after 30 d, the expression content of SS improved significantly (P<0. 05) , however the back meeting of P109-4 and P312-1 didnt change the expression of SS. After that SS expression showed reduction-equality-reduction varying trend. Thirty days after back meeting P312-1 , the expression content of SE

  3. Tooth extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007630.htm Tooth extraction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A tooth extraction is a procedure to remove a tooth from ...

  4. THE EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF HERBAL EXTRACTS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH STATUS OF RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Chrenková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seventy two rabbits (Hycole, (♂+♀ 5 weeks old were divided into 2 experimental (EG and one control (CG group. The feed mixture A in control (CG did not contain any coccidiostat. In the first experimental group (EG1 was tested a complete granulated mixture B enriched with 30 g dry extract Eleutherococcus senticosus per 100 kg mixture. The animals were fed mixture B in combination with probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium EF AL 41 applied orally at a dose (10 9 CFU. ml-1 500 μl per animal in drinking water during 21 days. In the second group (EG2 was tested complete granulated mixture B. The experiment lasted 42 days. Body weight and feed consumption were registered weekly. Samples of faeces were taken at days 1, 21 and 42 to monitor the counts and effect of natural substances. Blood samples were also taken to check biochemical parameters using commercial kits. The samples for microbiological analyses were treated by the standard microbiological method according to ISO with appropriate media. Results presented in this study introduce different mechanisms of action for different classes of feed additives and how these may influence the observed live performance benefits. Application of Eleutherococcus extract in combination with EF AL 41 strain in rabbits was beneficial for performance. Additives reduced counts of S. aureus and Clostridium-like sp in faeces. Bioactive substances can be beneficial for animal health as was repeatedly confirmed by our results (mortality in EG1- 12%, EG2 - 8% compared to CG- 17%.

  5. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  6. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...

  7. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...

  8. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human nutrition, particularly in developing ... studied the effect of NaCl on the extractability of ... significant influence on the functional properties ..... Malaka, S. L. O. and Amund, O. O. Studies on the Life Cycle and Morphometrics of Honeybees,.

  9. Bevalac extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

  10. Phyto-adaptogens protect against environmental stress-induced death of embryos from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon-Niermeijer, E K; van den Berg, A; Wikman, G; Wiegant, F A

    2000-10-01

    The main purpose of the studies presented in this paper is twofold: 1) to evaluate whether phyto-adaptogens (Acanthopanax senticosus and Rhodiola rosea) are able to exert a protective action against stress-induced death of embryos of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis; and 2) whether a possible protective action by phyto-adaptogens can be explained by the induction of heat shock proteins. Enhancement in resistance by phyto-adaptogens was studied by applying plant extracts for a period of 20 hours to 3-day old larvae of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Subsequently they were exposed to a high and toxic dose of different environmental stressors. The following stress conditions were selected: a physical stress condition (heat shock: 43 degrees C for 4 minutes), an oxidative stress condition (superoxide radicals induced by menadione (600 microM for 2 hours)) and heavy metal-induced stress (copper (150 microM for 1 hour) or cadmium (20 microM during 1 hour)). Both Acanthopanax and Rhodiola exert a strong protective action against a lethal heat shock. These adaptogens also significantly protect against the negative effect of superoxide radicals as induced by menadione. With respect to the protective action against exposure to heavy metals a small but significant protection was observed against intoxication with copper or cadmium by the phyto-adaptogens. In summary, there appears to be a difference in efficiency in enhancing resistance to the various stress conditions used (heat shock>menadione>copper>cadmium). Based on the results presented in this paper, we can conclude that phyto-adaptogens are able to enhance the resistance against the different stress conditions tested in developing individuals of Lymnaea. Although the degree to which resistance is enhanced appears to depend on the type of stressor applied, our results confirm the definition of phyto-adaptogens as being universal enhancers of non-specific resistance against different kinds of stress conditions. With

  11. Information extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lei; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to extract relevant information by knowledge graphs from natural language text. We give a multiple level model based on knowledge graphs for describing template information, and investigate the concept of partial structural parsing. Moreover, we point out that

  12. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the phenomeno

  13. 不同药剂处理对短梗五加种子后熟过程中相关物质代谢的影响%The influence of different reagent treatment on substance metabolism in seed afterripping of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖泳

    2015-01-01

    采用不同质量浓度GA3、KNO3处理短梗五加种子,并对层积过程中种子的胚率、可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白及淀粉含量变化进行研究。结果表明:GA3100 mg·L-1和清水处理种子的胚率最好,2种药剂处理均可以提高未层积前种子可溶性糖的含量,GA3100 mg·L-1和KNO310 g·L-1处理可显著提高未层积种子的淀粉含量,GA3300 mg·L-1和KNO310 g·L-1处理可显著提高未层积种子的可溶性蛋白含量,而清水更有利于储藏物质的转化。%In this study,seeds of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus were treated by different mass concentrations of GA3 and KNO3,and the embryo rate and contents of soluble saccharide,soluble protein and soluble starch of seed were studied during stratification.The results showed that:embryo rates of seeds which treated by GA3 100 mg·L-1 and water were the highest.GA3 and KNO3 could improve the content of soluble saccharide of seeds without stratification.GA3 100 mg·L-1 and KNO3 10 g·L-1 could significantly improve starch content of seeds without stratification.GA3 300 mg·L-1and KNO3 10 g·L-1 could significantly improve soluble protein of seeds without stratification.Water was helpful in substance metabolism.

  14. Chemical profile of ginseng, Epimedium, Rhodiola and Siberian ginseng extracts and stability of their formulated products

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Epimedium and Panax species have been used in complementary and alternative medicine for thousands of years and are used worldwide for their range of curative effects. In order for any herb preparation to be considered medicinally effective, it must be given at a sufficient dosage level, as well, for therapeutic purposes, the correct plant species is most important. Due to the lack of quality control, many herb-containing products that are made avai...

  15. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  16. Extraction parameters for metabolomics from cell extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ser, Zheng; Liu, Xiaojing; Tang, Ngoc Nu; Locasale, Jason W

    2015-01-01

    The successful extraction of metabolites is a critical step in metabolite profiling. By optimizing metabolite extraction, the range and quantitative capacity of metabolomics studies can be improved. We considered eight separate extraction protocols for the preparation of a metabolite extract from cultured mammalian cells. Parameters considered included temperature, pH, and cell washing before extraction. The effects on metabolite recovery were studied using a high resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) platform that measures metabolites of diverse chemical classes including among others amino acids, lipids, and sugar derivatives. The temperature considered during the extraction or the presence of formic acid, a commonly used additive, was shown to have minimal effects on the measured ion intensities of metabolites. However, washing of samples before metabolite extraction whether with water or PBS (both commonly considered practices) exhibited dramatic effects on measured intensities of both intra- and extra-cellular metabolites. Together these findings present a systematic assessment of extraction conditions for metabolite profiling. PMID:25613493

  17. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce inflammation. Grape seed extract contains the antioxidant compound oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC), which has been studied for a variety of health conditions. OPCs are found in extracts of grape skin and seeds, which are by-products of the ...

  18. Method of infusion extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  19. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço; Mônica Tirre de Souza Araújo

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portugue...

  20. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  1. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de S. Dardengo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases.

  2. Environ: E00594 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00594 Acanthopanax giraldii shaft bark Crude drug Acanthopanax giraldii Araliaceae... (ginseng family) Acanthopanax giraldii shaft bark (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Araliaceae (ginseng family) E00594 Acanthopanax giraldii shaft bark ...

  3. Acathopanas Senticosus Polysaccharides: Effects on Growth Performance,Serum Immune Indices and Microbial Flora in Feces of Weaner Piglets%刺五加多糖对断奶仔猪生长性能、血清免疫指标及粪便微生物菌群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨侃侃; 边连全; 刘显军; 韩杰; 张飞

    2013-01-01

    本试验在基础饲粮中添加刺五加多糖,旨在研究其对断奶仔猪生长性能、血清免疫指标及粪便微生物菌群的影响.试验选用96头平均体重为(7.125 ±0.576) kg的28日龄断奶的“长白×约克夏”二元杂交仔猪,随机分为6个组,每组4个重复,每个重复4头猪.其中Ⅰ组为对照组,饲喂基础饲粮;Ⅱ~Ⅵ组饲喂在基础饲粮中分别添加150、300、500、800、1 000 mg/kg刺五加多糖的试验饲粮,试验期为21 d.结果表明:1)饲粮中添加刺五加多糖能够显著地提高试验全期(1 ~21 d)Ⅳ、V、Ⅵ组断奶仔猪的平均日增重(P<0.05),显著地降低试验15~21 d时Ⅲ、Ⅳ、V和Ⅵ组的料重比以及试验全期各试验组的腹泻率(P<0.05),但对试验各阶段的平均日采食量无显著影响(P>0.05).2)刺五加多糖能够显著提高试验全期Ⅲ、Ⅳ、V组断奶仔猪血清中免疫球蛋白A含量(P<0.05),显著提高试验l ~14d时Ⅲ、Ⅳ、V组和试验全期Ⅳ、V组免疫球蛋白G含量(P<0.05),显著提高试验全期V组免疫球蛋白M含量(P<0.05).3)刺五加多糖可以显著提高断奶仔猪粪便中乳酸杆菌和双歧杆菌的数量(P<0.05),显著降低大肠杆菌的数量(P<0.05).综合本试验各项指标,断奶仔猪饲粮中刺五加多糖最适宜添加量为800mg/kg.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of Acathopanas senticosus polysaccharides (ASPS) on growth performance, serum immune indices and microbial flora in feces of weaner piglets. Ninety-six 28-day-old weaner piglets (Landrace × Yorkshire) with an average body weight of (7. 125 ±0. 576) kg were randomly allocated into 6 groups with 4 replicates in each group and 4 piglets in each replicate. Piglets in group Ⅰ (control) was fed a basal diet, and those in groups Ⅱ to Ⅵ were fed the basal diet supplemented with 150, 300, 500, 800 and 1 000 mg/kg ASPS, respectively. Piglets were raised for 21 days. The results showed as

  4. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehala. G

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS. FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extracting true minutiae.

  5. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  6. Extractant Design by Covalency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, Angela Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kozimor, Stosh Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cross, Justin Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batista, Enrique Ricardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Macor, Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This project aims to provide an electronic structure-to-function understanding of extractants for actinide selective separation processes. The research entails a multi-disciplinary approach that integrates chemical syntheses, structural determination, K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In FY15, the project reached the final stage of testing the extraction performance of a new ligand design and preparing an americium-extractant complex for analysis.

  7. Parallel Feature Extraction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHuimin; WANGYan

    2003-01-01

    Very high speed image processing is needed in some application specially for weapon. In this paper, a high speed image feature extraction system with parallel structure was implemented by Complex programmable logic device (CPLD), and it can realize image feature extraction in several microseconds almost with no delay. This system design is presented by an application instance of flying plane, whose infrared image includes two kinds of feature: geometric shape feature in the binary image and temperature-feature in the gray image. Accordingly the feature extraction is taken on the two kind features. Edge and area are two most important features of the image. Angle often exists in the connection of the different parts of the target's image, which indicates that one area ends and the other area begins. The three key features can form the whole presentation of an image. So this parallel feature extraction system includes three processing modules: edge extraction, angle extraction and area extraction. The parallel structure is realized by a group of processors, every detector is followed by one route of processor, every route has the same circuit form, and works together at the same time controlled by a set of clock to realize feature extraction. The extraction system has simple structure, small volume, high speed, and better stability against noise. It can be used in the war field recognition system.

  8. Extraction of polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loucif Seiad L.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of certain parameters on efficiency of the extraction of polyphenols from an Algerian tree (Pinus Halepensis Mill. Extraction was conducted in a stirred closed extractor. Our study was conducted to optimize the extraction conditions for total phenolic contents (TPC using Folin Ciocalteu method. A response surface methodology (RSM was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on extraction followed by a composite design (CD approach. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were for a temperature of 45°C and for the smallest particles.

  9. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing...

  10. Nano-electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj J.

    2013-01-01

    The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 μL acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE......), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary...... as extraction selectivity. Compared with conventional EME, the acceptor phase volume in nano-EME was down-scaled by a factor of more than 1000. This resulted in a very high enrichment capacity. With loperamide as an example, an enrichment factor exceeding 500 was obtained in only 5 min of extraction...

  11. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  12. CARICA PAPAYA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Powdered leaves of Carica papaya (L.) were extracted with ethanol and partitioned in chloroform and distilled .... employed in this research is important in determining whether the ... Screening of higher plants reputed as pesticides using brine ...

  13. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mehala. G

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE) algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS). FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extractin...

  14. Painful Bile Extraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber

  15. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  16. Neutral Complex Extraction and Synergistic Extraction of Macrolide Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the theory of reactive extraction, new solvent systems were developed to replace butylacetate for extraction of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, kitasamycin, spiramycin meleumycin etc.). A new neutral complex solvent extraction system, fatty alcohol-kerosene (marked by E1), was used for extraction of erythromycin, one of the macrolide antibiotics. The extraction equilibrium equation is obtained, and the extraction distribution is as follows The effects of several parameters on extraction equilibrium were investigated. Furthermore, a new synergistic extraction system (marked by E2) was developed, in which another solvent was used as synergistic agent to replace the diluent kerosene in the neutral complex extraction system. Based on these new extraction systems, an improved process for extraction of erythromycin was developed, showing remarkable advantages in technology and economics owing to its low solvent consumption of 3kg per billion unit compared with 9-10 for butylacetate. The recovery process of solvent from raffinate may be eliminated.

  17. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  18. Tevatron extraction microcomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, L.; Finley, D.A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.

    1985-06-01

    Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance.

  19. Extracting oil from coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil having a high volatile load is thus obtained, presenting favourable sensory characteristics. The pulp was physically and chemically analysed to show its benefit and particular properties and, according to the results so obtained, it is a product having potential usefulness.

  20. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition

  1. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  3. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  4. Second premolar serial extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joondeph, D R; Riedel, R A

    1976-02-01

    Serial extraction of mandibular second premolars should be considered if they are impacted or in cases with moderate arch length deficiency combined with an absence of dentofacial protrusion. The favorable dental changes associated with this approach greatly minimize future orthodontic treatment complexity and time.

  5. [Amebicidal plants extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara; Sułek, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The free-living amoebae from genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system; amebic keratitis (AK), a chronic eye infection; amebic pneumitis (AP), a chronic lung infection, and skin infection. Chemotherapy of Acanthamoeba infection is problematic. The majority of infections have been fatal. Only a few cases are reported to have been treated successfully with very highly toxic drugs. The therapy might be succeed, if the diagnosis and therapy is made at very early stage of infection. In our experiments we used the following plant extracts: Solidago virgaurea, Solidago graminifolia, Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, and natural plants products as ellagic acid and puerarin. Those therapeutic agents and plants extracts have been tested in vitro for amebicidal or amebostatic activity against pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. Our results showed that methanol extracts obtained from plants are active against axenic pathogenic Acanthamoeba sp. trophozoites in vitro at concentration below 0.1 mg/ml. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these extracts are also effective in vivo in animal model of infection with Acanthamoeba sp.

  6. SPS extraction systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    One of the 3-m long electrostatics septa. The septum itself consists of 0.15 mm thick molybdenum wires with a 1.5 mm pitch. Each of the two SPS extraction systems will contain four of these electrostatic septa.

  7. Pneumomediastinum after Tooth Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ilhan Ocakcioglu; Serhat Koyuncu; Mustafa Kupeli; Oguzhan Bol

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of air in mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can sometimes occur after surgery. Pneumomediastinum seen after dental procedures is rare. We presented the case of subcutaneous emphysema developed in the neck and upper chest after tooth extraction and discussed the possible mechanisms of pneumomediastinum.

  8. Endophthalmitis following cataract extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, K; Coster, D J; Badenoch, P R; Sanders, R; Chandraratnam, E; Kupa, A

    1987-02-01

    We describe a case of bacterial endophthalmitis complicating routine cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation in a 91-year-old woman. The ocular and systemic factors that may have predisposed to intraocular infection in this case, and the possibility of predicting these pre-operatively, are discussed.

  9. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  10. Comparison of the outcomes of the lower incisor extraction, premolar extraction and non-extraction treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan; Malkoc, Siddik; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the treatment outcome of lower incisor extraction and to compare it with premolar extraction and non-extraction treatment. The sample consisted of 60 subjects with Class I malocclusion and moderate crowding. The sample was separated into three groups: extraction of a lower incisor group, extraction of a four first premolar group and a non-extraction group. All groups involved 13 girls and 7 boys with a total of 20 patients. The Peer assessment rating (PAR) index was applied to a patient's pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) dental casts. T1 dental casts were also used for determining Bolton discrepancy. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey HSD tests were used for statistical analysis. For the mean percentage PAR score reduction for each group, there was one significant difference seen between the lower incisor extraction group and the non-extraction group (P = 0.047). For the mean anterior ratios, there were significant differences among premolar extraction group versus non-extraction group (P = 0.042) and non-extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.000). For the mean overall ratios, there were significant differences among the premolar extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.048) and the non-extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.001). Orthodontic treatment without extraction has a better treatment outcome than the four-first premolar extraction and single lower incisor extraction protocols in Class I cases with moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding.

  11. Extracting tag hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...

  12. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  13. Live facial feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  14. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  15. Driver Fatigue Features Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengtian Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver fatigue is the main cause of traffic accidents. How to extract the effective features of fatigue is important for recognition accuracy and traffic safety. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new method of driver fatigue features extraction based on the facial image sequence. In this method, first, each facial image in the sequence is divided into nonoverlapping blocks of the same size, and Gabor wavelets are employed to extract multiscale and multiorientation features. Then the mean value and standard deviation of each block’s features are calculated, respectively. Considering the facial performance of human fatigue is a dynamic process that developed over time, each block’s features are analyzed in the sequence. Finally, Adaboost algorithm is applied to select the most discriminating fatigue features. The proposed method was tested on a self-built database which includes a wide range of human subjects of different genders, poses, and illuminations in real-life fatigue conditions. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. DNA extraction from crayfish exoskeleton

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Yanhe; Wang, Weimin; Liu, Xiaolian; Luo, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Gul, Yasmeen

    2011-01-01

    .... However, it is difficult to extract DNA from them. This study was intended to investigate CE as a DNA source and design an easy and efficient DNA extraction protocol for polymerase chain reactions...

  17. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  18. Contact dermatitis to botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiken, David A; Cohen, David E

    2002-09-01

    A review of the literature of reported cases of contact dermatitis to a variety of natural herbal extracts is Presented. Natural extracts are commonly used ingredients in many cosmetic preparations and homeopathic remedies. Although the term natural botanical extracts inherently purports to have beneficial and benign properties, these extracts can cause adverse reactions in individuals. As such, dermatologists should be cognizant of these agents as possible sources of allergenicity in patients presenting with contact dermatitis.

  19. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  20. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  1. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  2. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  3. Application of ultrasound in extractive metallurgy: Sonochemical extraction of nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesic, Batric; Zhou, Taili

    1992-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound in solvent extraction was examined by studying solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70 extractants. The studied parameters were ultrasonic energy and frequency, pH, temperature, and organic and aqueous solution composition. The stability of extractants under the influence of ultrasound was also examined. It was found that ultrasound had a significant importance, because it increased the extraction rates four- to sevenfold. The effect of ultrasound was physical, i.e., to increase the surface area. Ultrasonic energy consumption was also evaluated. The consumption was high, but it can be significantly reduced by the appropriate method of application. A novel solvent extraction method, extraction-in-pipe, was also proposed.

  4. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  5. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  6. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction of hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN ZEKOVIC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cultivars of hop were extracted by the method of supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE–CO2 as extractant. The extraction (50 g of hop sample using a CO2 flow rate of 97.725 L/h was done in the two steps: 1. extraction at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (sample of series A was obtained and, after that, the same sample of hop was extracted in the second step: 2. extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C for 2.5 h (sample of series B was obtained. The Magnum cultivar was chosen for the investigation of the extraction kinetics. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained hop extracts, the GC-MS method was used. Two of four themost common compounds of hop aroma (a-humulene and b-caryophyllene were detected in samples of series A. In addition, isomerized a-acids and a high content of b-acids were detected. The a-acids content in the samples of series B was the highest in the extract of the Magnum cultivar (it is a bitter variety of hop. The low contents of a-acids in all the other hop samples resulted in extracts with low a-acids content, i.e., that contents were under the prescribed a-acids content.

  8. Extracting Text from Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  9. EXTRACTING TEXT FROM VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  10. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  11. Solvent extraction:The coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, Mn+, metalate anions, MXxn-, or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal ...

  12. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract

    OpenAIRE

    Haritha Kanne; Narayan Pandurang Burte; Prasanna, V; Ravi Gujjula

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: T...

  13. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  14. Foreign Body Extraction Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavy

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract are common. Mostly they are swallowed accidentally by children but also by adults. When round and slippery, foreign bodies cause a technical problem for removal. After several days in the stomach they are covered with mucus and extraction becomes even harder. There are various devices designed for use through the flexible endoscope for grasping foreign bodies but due to the great variety of objects, one may face a real problem while trying to remove them. We faced a challenge in a woman who underwent vertical band gastroplasty and was obstructed by a round and slippery hazelnut. We managed to remove the nut using a simple homemade device. This device is easy to make, cheap, and simple to use and maybe useful for various foreign bodies.

  15. Feature Extraction Using Mfcc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mel Frequency Ceptral Coefficient is a very common and efficient technique for signal processing. Thispaper presents a new purpose of working with MFCC by using it for Hand gesture recognition. Theobjective of using MFCC for hand gesture recognition is to explore the utility of the MFCC for imageprocessing. Till now it has been used in speech recognition, for speaker identification. The present systemis based on converting the hand gesture into one dimensional (1-D signal and then extracting first 13MFCCs from the converted 1-D signal. Classification is performed by using Support Vector Machine.Experimental results represents that proposed application of using MFCC for gesture recognition havevery good accuracy and hence can be used for recognition of sign language or for other householdapplication with the combination for other techniques such as Gabor filter, DWT to increase the accuracyrate and to make it more efficient.

  16. Quantitative metamaterial property extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Schurig, David

    2015-01-01

    We examine an extraction model for metamaterials, not previously reported, that gives precise, quantitative and causal representation of S parameter data over a broad frequency range, up to frequencies where the free space wavelength is only a modest factor larger than the unit cell dimension. The model is comprised of superposed, slab shaped response regions of finite thickness, one for each observed resonance. The resonance dispersion is Lorentzian and thus strictly causal. This new model is compared with previous models for correctness likelihood, including an appropriate Occam's factor for each fit parameter. We find that this new model is by far the most likely to be correct in a Bayesian analysis of model fits to S parameter simulation data for several classic metamaterial unit cells.

  17. [Quality control of plant extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yun-dong; Gao, Wen-yuan; Liu, Dan; Jia, Wei; Duan, Hong-Quan; Zhang, Tie-jun

    2003-10-01

    The current situation of plant extract in domestic and international market was analyzed in the paper. The quality control of 20 plant extracts which have reasonably good sales in USA market was compared and analyzed. The analysis of the quality control of six plant extracts indicated that there were two main reasons leading to the varied quality specifications among different suppliers. One reason was that the plant species utilized by different companies were different. The other reason was that the extraction processes were different among different production plants. Comparing with the significant international suppliers of plant extracts, the product quality of Chinese companies were not satisfactory. It was suggested that chromatography and chromatographic fingerprint techniques should be applied to improve the quality control standard of plant extract in our country.

  18. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  19. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  20. Complex Event Extraction using DRUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    read papers and combine results of individual studies into a comprehensive explanatory model. A first step is to automatically extract relevant events...for public release; distribution is unlimited. Complex Event Extraction using DRUM The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are...event extraction , big mechanism, deep reading REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S

  1. Quasi-linear Dialectica Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Trifon

    Gödel's functional interpretation [1] can be used to extract programs from non-constructive proofs. Though correct by construction, the obtained terms can be computationally inefficient. One reason for slow execution is the re-evaluation of equal subterms due to the use of substitution during the extraction process. In the present paper we define a variant of the interpretation, which avoids subterm repetition and achieves an almost linear bound on the size of extracted programs.

  2. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  3. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  4. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  5. Crystal extraction at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Luminosity-driven channeling extraction was observed for the first time in a 900 GeV study at the Fermilab Tevatron carried out in the 1995-1996 period. This experiment, Fermilab E853, demonstrated that useful TeV level beams can be extracted from a superconducting accelerator during high luminosity collider operations without unduly affecting the background at the collider detectors. Multipass extraction was found to increase the efficiency of the process significantly. The beam extraction efficiency was in the range of 25%. The history of the experiment is reviewed. Special attention is paid to results related to collimation.

  6. Evaluation of DNA and RNA extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Shiaw, C S; Shiran, M S; Cheah, Y K; Tan, G C; Sabariah, A R

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method (Methods C and D) and one commercial FFPE DNA Extraction kit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK). For RNA extraction, 2 extraction protocols were evaluated including the enzymatic extraction method (Method 1), and Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2). Results show that the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A) is an efficient DNA extraction protocol, while for RNA extraction, the enzymatic method (Method 1) and the Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2) are equally efficient RNA extraction protocols.

  7. Analysis of antioxidants extracted from polypropylene by supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, J A; Catalá, R; Gavara, R

    1998-01-01

    Maximal potential migration of six antioxidants (AO) from five polypropylene (PP) formulations was determined by two supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedures, both of which contained static and dynamic steps. All analytical conditions affecting the extraction were studied and optimized using Irgafos 168 as standard. SFE was more efficient as temperature and fluid density increased. During the static step in which the samples were exposed to the fluid without flux, the introduction of hexane and methanol as fluid modifiers significantly improved the extraction. Hexane appears to facilitate polymer swelling while methanol solvates the antioxidants. In the dynamic step (in which the extraction actually occurs) time is the key parameter. Extraction for 90 min results in an efficiency of around 75%. The introduction of modifiers during this step (by an HPLC-SFE procedure) did not produce any significant improvement. When SFE was carried out on all samples, extraction efficiency was around 75% except for Irganox 1010 and Hostanox O3. The large molecular volume of these antioxidants may be responsible for the considerable reduction of extraction efficiency. Particle size and shape of polymer sample were also important. The greater the surface to volume ratio the greater the extraction efficiency.

  8. Extractive Metallurgy Program funded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In an effort to concentrate research on ore dressing and metal production, the National Science Foundation (NSF) formed a new basic research program as a part of its Chemical and Process Engineering Division. This program will be under the auspices of NSF's Engineering Directorate. Research is to be supported on every step of extractive metallurgy, from mining to processing to production, and even to reprocessing and disposal. Budgeting for the new program is expected to be on the order of $1.2 million for fiscal year 1981.A program of this nature was apparently considered seriously by the Carter administration as a joint Department of Interior-private industry project of considerable size. Then-Secretary of Interior Cecil Andrus evidently did not support the program, but there is wide agreement throughout the mineral industries and the university community that such research is badly needed for the U.S. to compete. A joint program could benefit by cutting across the many difficult regulations that now are blamed for slowing research in minerals processing in this country.

  9. Effect of soybean extract after tooth extraction on osteoblast numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sharon Suhono

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many researches were done to find natural materials that may increase and promote bone healing processes after trauma and surgery. One of natural material that had been studied was soybean extract which contains phytoestrogen, a non-steroidal compounds found in plants that may binds to estrogen receptors and have estrogen-like activity. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean extract feeding on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone socket after mandibular tooth extraction. Methods: This study was studied on male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar. Seventeen rats divided into three groups were used in this study. Group 1 fed with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC solution 0,2% for seven days, and the left mandibular central incisivus was extracted; group 2 fed with soybean extract for seven days and the left mandibular central incisives was extracted; group 3 received the left mandibular central incisives extraction followed by soybean extract feeding for seven days after the extraction. All groups were sacrificed on the seventh day post-extraction, and the alveolar bone sockets were taken for histopathological observation. The tissues were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin to identify the amount of osteoblast cells. The number of osteoblast cells was counted using an Image Tool program. The data was analyzed statistically using the One-Way ANOVA test. Results: Significant differences were found on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone after tooth extraction between groups. Group 2 (fed with soybean extract is higher than group 1 (fed with CMC and group 3 (fed with soybean extract after extraction. Conclusion: Soybean extract feeding that given for seven days pre-tooth extraction can increase the number of osteoblast cells compared with the group that were not given soybean extract feeding and also with the group that were given soybean extract feeding for seven days post

  10. Extraction treatment in lingual orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary lingual orthodontic appliances offer an aesthetic and accurate means of treating malocclusion. Managing extraction-based treatments with lingual appliances presents a number of challenges. This article discusses the specific biomechanical considerations associated with extraction treatment and outlines clinical techniques that can optimize treatment outcome in these cases.

  11. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  12. Extracting amplitudes from photoproduction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, R. L.

    2011-09-01

    We consider the problems associated with amplitude extraction, from meson photoproduction data, over the first resonance regions. The notion of a complete experiment has motivated the FROST program at Jefferson Lab. Exercises applied to pion photoproduction data illustrate the problems to be confronted in any attempt to extract underlying resonance signals from these data (without introducing a model for the resonant process).

  13. Extraction systems of the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    A pair of prototype septum magnets for the extraction systems of the SPS. Each of the two extraction systems will contain eighteen of these septum magnets (eight with a 4 mm septum and ten with a 16 mm septum) mounted in pairs in nine vacuum tanks.

  14. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  15. Event extraction for DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohta Tomoko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the task of automatically extracting DNA methylation events from the biomedical domain literature. DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression and implicated in many cancers, but there has been little study of automatic information extraction for DNA methylation. Results We present an annotation scheme for DNA methylation following the representation of the BioNLP shared task on event extraction, select a set of 200 abstracts including a representative sample of all PubMed citations relevant to DNA methylation, and introduce manual annotation for this corpus marking nearly 3000 gene/protein mentions and 1500 DNA methylation and demethylation events. We retrain a state-of-the-art event extraction system on the corpus and find that automatic extraction of DNA methylation events, the methylated genes, and their methylation sites can be performed at 78% precision and 76% recall. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that reliable extraction methods for DNA methylation events can be created through corpus annotation and straightforward retraining of a general event extraction system. The introduced resources are freely available for use in research from the GENIA project homepage http://www-tsujii.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/GENIA.

  16. Development of signal-extraction scheme for Resonant Sideband Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Kokeyama, K; Kawazoe, F; Sato, S; Kawamura, S; Sugamoto, A

    2008-01-01

    As a future plan, an advanced gravitational-wave detector will employ an optical configuration of resonant sideband extraction (RSE), achieved with an additional mirror at the signal-detection port of the power-recycled Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. To control the complex coupled cavity system, one of the most important design issues is how to extract the longitudinal control signals of the cavities. We developed a new signal-extraction scheme which provides an appropriate sensing matrix. The new method uses two sets of sidebands: one of the sideband components satisfies the critical coupling ondition for the RSE interferometer and reaches the signal-extraction port, and the other sideband is completely reflected by the Michelson interferometer. They provide a diagonalized sensing matrix and enable the RSE control to be robust.

  17. Adult orthodontic therapy: extraction versus non-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated.

  18. Implantable defibrillator lead extraction with optimized standard extraction techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Ming Chu; Xue-Bin Li; Ping Zhang; Yi An; Jiang-Bo Duan; Long Wang; Ding Li; Bing Li; Ji-Hong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads might not be extracted especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools. We aimed to evaluate transvenous extraction of ICD leads using optimized standard techniques. Methods We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, optimized extraction techniques and the feasibility of extraction for 40 patients (33 males; mean age 47.9 ± 16.1 years) with 42 ICD leads. Results Complete procedural success rate was 95.2% (40/42), and the clinical success rate was 97.6% (41/42). One ICD lead required cardiothoracic surgery. Minor complications occurred in three cases (7.5%), and no major complications or death occurred. Locking stylets were used to extract most leads (34, 81.0%) and almost half of the leads (20, 47.6%) required mechanical dilatation to free fibrotic adhesions; these leads had been implanted for a longer period of time than the others (43.7 ± 18.2 vs. 18.4 ± 13.4 months, P < 0.05). Three-quarters of the leads (30, 71.4%) were extracted with locking stylets plus manual traction (12, 28.6%), or mechanical dilatation with counter-traction (18, 42.8%) by the superior vena cava approach and one-quarter of the leads (11, per lead. Linear regression analysis showed that the extraction time was significantly correlated with implant duration (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). optimized procedure for transvenous extraction of ICD leads provides a practical and low-cost method for standard procedures.

  19. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  20. REACTIVE EXTRACTION OF TARTARIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Marchitan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the results of reactive extraction of tartaric acid in model systems, which can be used for its separation from secondary wine products. As extractant have been used a normal/isododecyl mixed secondary amine Amberlite LA-2. The following parameters of the separation process have been varied: nature of diluent and modifier; modifier concentration; concentration, temperature and pH of the tartaric acid solution and the stirring time, and the work intervals have been established. It was concluded that in determinated conditions the extent of tartaric acid extraction attains value 85-95%.

  1. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 1. Reactive extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of downstream processes for biosynthetic products constitutes a particularity of industrial biotechnologies, especially because of the biosynthetic product high dilution in fermentation broth, their chemical and thermal liability and the presence of secondary products. For these reasons, new separation techniques have been developed and applied to bioseparations. Among them, reactive extraction, pertraction (extraction and transport through liquid membranes and direct extraction from broths have considerable potential and are required for the further development of many biotechnologies. This review is structured on two parts and presents our original results of the studies on the separation of some biosynthetic products (antibiotics, carboxylic acids, amino acids, alcohols by reactive extraction in the first part, and by pertraction and direct extraction from broths without biomass filtration in the second. For all the analyzed cases, these extraction techniques simplify the technologies by reducing material and energy consumption, by avoiding product inhibition, by increasing the separation selectivity, therefore decreasing the overall cost of the product.

  2. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Kanne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO 3 and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S 3 O 9 . Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements.

  3. COMPARING EXTRACTIONS OF SIVERS FUNCTIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VOGELSANG, W.

    2005-09-07

    A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

  4. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  5. ACTIVITIES OF ACACIA NILOTICA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    The water, chloroform and interface fractions were separated in glass ... (Ciulei, 1994), saponins (Turner and Brain, 1975), .... computer loaded with Finney program (Guerrero and. Robledo .... interface extracts appears to have the highest.

  6. The fallacy of serial extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K Paul

    2013-11-01

    It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'.

  7. Methanol Leaf Extracts in Experimental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commonly available natural drugs as alternative to currently used antitliarrhoeal drugs, which are not completely free from .... TABLE I: Effect of the extract of Anacardium rlccidentrlle on Castor .... and electrolyte movement in canine jejunum.

  8. TSCA Inventory Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data extraction tool contains the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted...

  9. Extracting oil using carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, J.

    1984-01-01

    Special literature is the basis for a brief characterization of a method for extracting oil using CO2 and for generalizing the basic results of physical and chemical experiments, as well as displacement experiments conducted in laboratory conditions.

  10. Community extraction for social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yunpeng; Zhu, Ji

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of networks and in particular discovering communities within networks has been a focus of recent work in several fields, with applications ranging from citation and friendship networks to food webs and gene regulatory networks. Most of the existing community detection methods focus on partitioning the entire network into communities, with the expectation of many ties within communities and few ties between. However, many networks contain nodes that do not fit in with any of the communities, and forcing every node into a community can distort results. Here we propose a new framework that focuses on community extraction instead of partition, extracting one community at a time. The main idea behind extraction is that the strength of a community should not depend on ties between members of other communities, but only on ties within that community and its ties to the outside world. We show that the new extraction criterion performs well on simulated and real networks, and establish asymptotic consistency ...

  11. Point Source Extraction with MOPEX

    CERN Document Server

    Marleau, D M F R

    2005-01-01

    MOPEX (MOsaicking and Point source EXtraction) is a package developed at the Spitzer Science Center for astronomical image processing. We report on the point source extraction capabilities of MOPEX. Point source extraction is implemented as a two step process: point source detection and profile fitting. Non-linear matched filtering of input images can be performed optionally to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and improve detection of faint point sources. Point Response Function (PRF) fitting of point sources produces the final point source list which includes the fluxes and improved positions of the point sources, along with other parameters characterizing the fit. Passive and active deblending allows for successful fitting of confused point sources. Aperture photometry can also be computed for every extracted point source for an unlimited number of aperture sizes. PRF is estimated directly from the input images. Implementation of efficient methods of background and noise estimation, and modified Simplex a...

  12. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  13. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  14. Electrochemical process of titanium extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CH. RVS. NAGESH; C. S. RAMACHANDRAN

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of processes are being pursued by researchers for cost effective extraction of titanium metal. Electrochemical processes are promising due to simplicity and being less capital intensive. Some of the promising electrochemical processes of titanium extraction were reviewed and the results of laboratory scale experiments on electrochemical reduction of TiO2 granules were brought out. Some of the kinetic parameters of the reduction process were discussed while presenting the quality improvements achieved in the experimentation.

  15. Caesium extraction by calixarene molecules: Some aspects of extraction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Tournois, B.; Volle, G

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the environment Code (2000 studies were developed to recover long-lived fission products (F.P.) from acidic highly radioactive effluents issuing the reprocessing of spent fuels, to destroy them by transmutation or to encapsulate them into specific matrices. Efforts had been directed towards caesium, particularly {sup 135}Cs, which is one of the most harmful fission products because of its long half life (more than 2.10{sup 6} years) and its mobility in repository. The flow-sheet will be included in the general scheme of long-lived radionuclide partitioning. It was decided to define a process based on liquid-liquid extraction. Crown-calixarenes molecules were chosen for process development. To refine the flowsheet diagram, it is necessary to know the rate constants of the implied chemical reactions involved in the extraction. This paper describes the first determination of rate constant in the Cs extraction with crown calixarenes. (authors)

  16. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

    2006-06-15

    In this review we examine the related fields of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). We reviewed the published literature in the period from November 2003 to November 2005. Well over 300 papers were published in this period. This large body of work indicates continuing active growth of the field, but an exhaustive review is beyond the scope of this work. We have chosen to include a sampling of publications that best represent the continuing trends and new ideas in the field. In keeping with past reviews on this subject1, we have broadened our scope to include fluid systems operating at high temperature and pressure, but below the critical point. Various terms have been applied to this state: sub-critical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. The term accelerated solvent extraction has been used by instrument manufacturers to refer to this process, but we will use the more descriptive term pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to refer to these systems. Most of the research in the field is of an “evolutionary” rather than “revolutionary” nature. As in the previous review period, applications papers make up a majority of the published work. Pharmaceutical applications continue to be a strong theme. Most of the pharmaceutical work has centered on preparative, rather than analytical, separations. Chiral separations are an exception, as analytical scale separations of chiral compounds are an area of intense interest. Food and natural products represent the next largest body of work. Major themes are the isolation and characterization of high-value added foodstuffs, fragrances, and flavor compounds from novel natural materials or agricultural by-products. The areas of food, natural products, and pharmaceutical separation science converge in the area of so-called nutraceuticals. These are typically high-value products, either sold alone or as part of a fortified food, that

  17. Propolis extract application in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Spaziani Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has been ground in various areas of science, but its application in agriculture, is a recent and almost unknown subject. In agronomy work mainly seek to explore the antibiotic and antifungal properties of propolis, but other uses have been proposed, such as plant nutrition, pest control (such as mites and even reducing water stress in plants. Despite numerous utilities proven and proposals, there are many questions, particularly for the preparation of the extract, most appropriate chemical composition for a particular use, application forms, crude propolis extract in percentages, dose minimum efficiency, efficiency, etc. Given the above, the purpose of this literature review is to present the origin and chemical composition of propolis, making methodology of propolis extract, more effective dose in the control of fungi, plant pathogenic bacteria and reduce water stress. During the study, it can be seen that the difference in propolis composition occurs mainly due to the variability of vegetable composition in the vicinity of the hive, the bees forage and chemical composition is quite complex and variable in terms of both concentration and chemicals gifts. In the extraction, there are still many gaps to be studied, including the best way to obtain the extract, with questions about the best puller, with lack of consensus in the literature. On the efficiency of this technology, there are numerous studies with promising results, which allow implementation of technology in the field and these jobs concentrated in coffee crops, beans, cucumber and tomato.

  18. Optimal Extraction of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Kamal; Scherer, Charles, R.

    1977-06-01

    This study is concerned with the optimal extraction of energy from a hot water geothermal field. In view of the relative "commercial" availability of the many energy sources alternative to geothermal, it is possible that a socially "best" extraction policy may not include producing geothermal energy as fast as the current technology will permit. Rather, a truly "optimal" policy will depend on, among other things, the costs and value of geothermal energy in the future and the analogous values of other energy sources. Hence, a general approach to this problem would make the policy contingent on pertinent information on alternative sources. A good example of this approach is given in Manne's (1976) Energy Technology Assessment Model, where he points out that "Each energy source has its own cost parameters and introduction date, but is interdependent with other components of the energy sector." (Manne (1976), p. 379). But by their large dimensions, such relativity macro-analyses tend to preclude a close look at the specific technology of a process is important in developing meaningful resource management models, we substitute for a macro model the increasing value over time of the energy extracted. In this contact we seek an extraction rate (and an economic life) that maximizes the net discounted value of the energy extracted. [DJE-2005

  19. Extraction of Silver by Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, Ananya; Gandi, Mounika; Chaudhari, Swathi; Bag, Soumabha; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2016-06-27

    Unprecedented silver ion leaching, in the range of 0.7 ppm was seen when metallic silver was heated in water at 70 °C in presence of simple carbohydrates, such as glucose, making it a green method of silver extraction. Extraction was facilitated by the presence of anions, such as carbonate and phosphate. Studies confirm a two-step mechanism of silver release, first forming silver ions at the metal surface and later complexation of ionic silver with glucose; such complexes have been detected by mass spectrometry. Extraction leads to microscopic roughening of the surface making it Raman active with an enhancement factor of 5×10(8) .

  20. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME...

  1. Evaluation of Rule Extraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiruveedula GopiKrishna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For the data mining domain, the lack of explanation facilities seems to be a serious drawback for techniques based on Artificial Neural Networks, or, for that matter, any technique producing opaque models In particular, the ability to generate even limited explanations is absolutely crucial for user acceptance of such systems. Since the purpose of most data mining systems is to support decision making,the need for explanation facilities in these systems is apparent. The task for the data miner is thus to identify the complex but general relationships that are likely to carry over to production data and the explanation facility makes this easier. Also focused the quality of the extracted rules; i.e. how well the required explanation is performed. In this research some important rule extraction algorithms are discussed and identified the algorithmic complexity; i.e. how efficient the underlying rule extraction algorithm is

  2. Piezoelectric extraction of ECG signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2016-11-01

    The monitoring and early detection of abnormalities or variations in the cardiac cycle functionality are very critical practices and have significant impact on the prevention of heart diseases and their associated complications. Currently, in the field of biomedical engineering, there is a growing need for devices capable of measuring and monitoring a wide range of cardiac cycle parameters continuously, effectively and on a real-time basis using easily accessible and reusable probes. In this paper, the revolutionary generation and extraction of the corresponding ECG signal using a piezoelectric transducer as alternative for the ECG will be discussed. The piezoelectric transducer pick up the vibrations from the heart beats and convert them into electrical output signals. To this end, piezoelectric and signal processing techniques were employed to extract the ECG corresponding signal from the piezoelectric output voltage signal. The measured electrode based and the extracted piezoelectric based ECG traces are well corroborated. Their peaks amplitudes and locations are well aligned with each other.

  3. Website-Level Data Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yu

    This paper proposes a website-level data extraction approach to identify the object relevant information distributed across multiple web pages. Page-level data extraction is widely studied with assumption that each input web page contains multiple data records of interested objects. However, in many cases for web mining, the multiple pages describing an object are sparsely distributed in a website. It makes page-level solutions no longer applicable. We exploit the hierarchy model of websites for web page organization to solve the problem of website-level data extraction. A new resource, the Hierarchical Navigation Path (HNP), which can be discovered from the website structure, is introduced for object relevant web page filtering. The found web pages are clustered using the URL and semantic hyperlink analysis, and then the entry page and the detailed profile pages of each object are identified. The empirical experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-07

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents.

  5. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible ...

  6. Antibacterial activity of Pulicaria dysenterica extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickavar, Bahman; Mojab, Faraz

    2003-06-01

    Aqueous, methanolic and chloroformic extracts of Pulicaria dysenterica aerial parts were tested for their antibacterial activity using the disc-diffusion assay technique. The methanolic extract was found to be the most effective extract against three out of six tested bacteria. All of the extracts were active against Vibrio cholera.

  7. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  8. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... model outperformed other existing content extraction models. We present a browser based implementation of the proposed model as proof of concept and compare the implementation strategy with various state of art implementations. We also discuss various applications of the proposed model with special...

  9. Informed consent in dental extractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Capote Femenías

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When performing any oral intervention, particularly dental extractions, the specialist should have the oral or written consent of the patient. This consent includes the explanation of all possible complications, whether typical, very serious or personalized associated with the previous health condition, age, profession, religion or any other characteristic of the patient, as well as the possi.ble benefits of the intervention. This article is related with the bioethical aspects related with dental extractions, in order to determine the main elements that the informed consent should include.

  10. [Efficient extraction of transmembrane proteins using ProteoExtract Transmembrane Protein Extraction Kit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Karina

    2010-01-01

    Detergents commonly used for solubilization of membrane proteins may be ionic or non-ionic. Exposing membrane proteins to detergents, however, can adversely affect their native structure, which can be a major hindrance for functional studies. This is especially true for proteins with multiple transmembrane domains. The ProteoExtract Transmembrane Protein Extraction Kit (TM-PEK), offered by Merck, provides a detergent-free novel reagents to enable the mild and efficient extraction of proteins containing seven transmembrane domains, such as GPCRs (G-Protein Coupled Receptors) e.g.: Frizzled-4 and CELSR-3, from mammalian cells. The fraction enriched in transmembrane proteins using TM-PEK is directly compatible with enzyme assays, non-denaturing gel electrophoresis, 1- and 2-D SDS-PAGE, MS analysis, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation and ELISA. Unlike many alternatives, TM-PEK extraction procedure does not require sonication, extended rigorous vortexing, ultracentrifugation, or incubation of samples at elevated temperatures--thus minimizing the risk of post-extraction degradation or modifications.

  11. Tablets with thyme (Thymus Vulgaris L extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeković Zoran P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The strongly antiseptic and antifungal activities of thyme is mainly due to the presence of phenolic compounds, thymol and carvacrol. Thyme extracts essential oil, extract obtained using 70% ethanol and extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using carbon dioxide, were incorporated in the most useful form of pharmaceutical products - tablets. The work is concerned with the characterisation of the obtained tablets containing thyme extracts.

  12. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  13. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction of mercury species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, G P; Pacey, G E

    2003-12-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction was used to recover organic and inorganic mercury species. Variations in pressure, water, methanol, and chelator create methods that allowed separation of inorganic from organic mercury species. When extracted using a compromised set of extraction conditions, the order of extraction was methyl, phenyl and inorganic mercury. For the individually optimized conditions, quantitative recoveries were observed. Level as low as 20 ppb were extracted and then determined using ICP.

  15. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  16. Extracting useful information from images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of methods for extracting useful information from digital images. It covers various approaches that utilized different properties of images, like intensity distribution, spatial frequencies content and several others. A few case studies including isotropic...... and heterogeneous, congruent and non-congruent images are used to illustrate how the described methods work and to compare some of them...

  17. Feature extraction using fractal codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Ben; Zeeuw, Paul M. de

    1999-01-01

    Fast and successful searching for an object in a multimedia database is a highly desirable functionality. Several approaches to content based retrieval for multimedia databases can be found in the literature [9,10,12,14,17]. The approach we consider is feature extraction. A feature can be seen as a

  18. Feature Extraction Using Fractal Codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.; Zeeuw, P.M. de

    1999-01-01

    Fast and successful searching for an object in a multimedia database is a highly desirable functionality. Several approaches to content based retrieval for multimedia databases can be found in the literature [9,10,12,14,17]. The approach we consider is feature extraction. A feature can be seen as a

  19. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict signi...

  20. Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmary, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

  1. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    -tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  2. Development of new natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoine-Hanneguelle, Sophie; Périchet, Christine; Schnaebele, Nicolas; Humbert, Marina

    2014-11-01

    For over the past 20 years, a remarkable development in the study and search of natural products has been observed. This is linked to a new market trend towards ecology and also due to new regulations. This could be a rupture, but also a real booster for creativity. Usually, in the flavor and fragrance field, creativity was boosted by the arrival of new synthetic molecules. Naturals remained the traditional, century-old products, protected by secrecy and specific know-how from each company. Regulatory restrictions or eco-friendly certification constraints like hexane-free processes triggered an important brainstorming in the industry. As a result, we developed new eco-friendly processes including supercritical CO2 extraction, allowing fresh plants to be used to obtain industrial flower extracts (Jasmine Grandiflorum, Jasmine Sambac, Orange blossom). These extracts are analyzed by GC, GC/MS, GCO, and HPTLC techniques. New or unusual raw materials can also be explored, but the resulting extracts have to be tested for safety reasons. Some examples are described. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Extractive Summarisation of Medical Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeed Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence Based Medicine (EBM practice requires practitioners to extract evidence from published medical research when answering clinical queries. Due to the time-consuming nature of this practice, there is a strong motivation for systems that can automatically summarise medical documents and help practitioners find relevant information. Aim The aim of this work is to propose an automatic query-focused, extractive summarisation approach that selects informative sentences from medical documents. MethodWe use a corpus that is specifically designed for summarisation in the EBM domain. We use approximately half the corpus for deriving important statistics associated with the best possible extractive summaries. We take into account factors such as sentence position, length, sentence content, and the type of the query posed. Using the statistics from the first set, we evaluate our approach on a separate set. Evaluation of the qualities of the generated summaries is performed automatically using ROUGE, which is a popular tool for evaluating automatic summaries. Results Our summarisation approach outperforms all baselines (best baseline score: 0.1594; our score 0.1653. Further improvements are achieved when query types are taken into account. Conclusion The quality of extractive summarisation in the medical domain can be significantly improved by incorporating domain knowledge and statistics derived from a specialised corpus. Such techniques can therefore be applied for content selection in end-to-end summarisation systems.

  4. Statistical Model for Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features to predict significance of the node towards overall content...

  5. Extracting Gamers' Opinions from Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirbu, Dorinela; Secui, Ana; Dascalu, Mihai; Crossley, Scott; Ruseti, Stefan; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Opinion mining and sentiment analysis are a trending research domain in Natural Language Processing focused on automatically extracting subjective information, feelings, opinions, ideas or emotions from texts. Our study is centered on identifying sentiments and opinions, as well as other latent ling

  6. EXTRACTIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    ketone (MIBK) extractable yellow nickel(II)-methyldithiocarbamate complex at 380 nm through ... The method has been applied to the analysis of carbaryl in its ...... Farahani, G.H.N.; Zakaria, Z.; Kuntom, A.; Omar, D.; Ismail, B.S. Adv. Environ.

  7. DNA Extraction and Primer Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Albertsen, Mads

    Talk regarding pitfalls in DNA extraction and 16S amplicon primer choice when performing community analysis of complex microbial communities. The talk was a part of Workshop 2 "Principles, Potential, and Limitations of Novel Molecular Methods in Water Engineering; from Amplicon Sequencing to -omics...

  8. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  9. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  10. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  11. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  12. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  13. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  14. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  15. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  16. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  17. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  18. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  19. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  20. Recycle use of phosphorous mixer extractant to extract indium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The stripping and regeneration of the loaded organic phase of phosphorous mixer extractant (PPD) were studied.The mixed solutions (3 mol/L HCl +2 mol/L ZnCl2) were used as the stripping agent and more than 99% of indium can bestripped after three-stage stripping when the volume ratio of organic phase to stripping agent is 1:1. The organic phase canbe recycled to use after regeneration with HCl. The parallel contrast experiments with D2EHPA (di-2-ethyl hexyl phospho-ric acid) were carried out under the same conditions. The results show that the mixer extractant has good reusability and thestripping and regeneration of PPD are superior to those of D2EHPA.

  1. Recent trends in metals extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regel-Rosocka, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available After near 70 years of practical usage, solvent extraction is a perfectly mastered technique of separation, widely used on an industrial scale for the separation of metals mainly from raw materials. However, currently, in the era of depleting natural resources and increasingly less accessible deposits, environmental restrictions, etc., an increasing interest, both from social and economical constrains, is being directed at the extraction of metals from the secondary sources (such as batteries, electronic scrap. In many cases, solvent extraction, due to its operational characteristics, can be considered as the Best Available Technology for the purpose of separating multielemental metal solutions. This paper provides a brief overview of past achievements and present scenario of solvent extraction investigations and developments, describing some recently commissioned solvent extraction plants, whereas the Skorpion Zinc plant (Namibia for zinc extraction from raw materials and caesium removal from radioactive High Level Wastes (HLWs are told over in detail as case studies. The paper also presents some proposals for the use of liquid-liquid extraction to separate metal ions from secondary sources (e.g. cobalt from industrial waste streams. The review highlights the emerging use of ionic liquids as new extractants for metals, providing an insight into this exciting research field. Despite its detractors, solvent extraction has entered in force into XXI century as a leading separation technology for metals.Después de casi 70 años de uso práctico, la extracción líquido-líquido o extracción con disolventes es una técnica de separación muy evolucionada, utilizándose a escala industrial en el beneficio de metales obtenidos de diversas materias primas. Sin embargo, con el agotamiento de los recursos naturales y el aumento de depósitos minerales de más difícil acceso, restricciones medio ambientales, etc., ha aumentado el interés, tanto desde

  2. Experience with intravascular lead extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian; TANG Kai; WANG Fang-zheng; ZHANG Shu; HUANG Cong-xin

    2005-01-01

    @@ With the increase of clinical use of cardiac pacemaker, a certain kinds of severe leads-related complications (especially infection) have presented in a few patients who underwent pacemaker implantation. The best way to manage this problem is to remove the transvenous leads.1,2 The technique for percutaneous removal of transvenous leads have undergone considerable development in western countries over the past 2 decades. However, there was scarce data on the application of this technique in China. This article reports the results of transvenous extraction of 171 permanent pacemaker leads with the standard lead extraction devices and intravascular countertraction technique during the period from January 1996 to May 2005 in the Center of Arrhythmia Diagnosis and Treatment, Fu Wai Hospital, Beijing, China.

  3. Recent trends in extractive metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Metallurgists and solution geochemists are joining forces to develop processes for extraction of metals from low-grade ores. The processes, which come under the name hydrometallurgy, include several new applications of solvent extraction techniques. Aqueous solutions are employed, leaching metals from ores, mine waste dumps, and even from deposits still in the ground. It was notable, for example, that Chemical and Engineering News (Feb. 8, 1982) recently featured the subject of hydrometallurgy in a special report. They noted that ‘recovering metals by use of aqueous solutions at relatively low temperatures increasingly is competing with dry, high-temperature pyrometallurgical methods.’ The relatively new techniques have caused a revolution, of sorts, in engineering programs of university metallurgy departments. The challenge of developing selective metal dissolution processes is drawing upon the best national talent in the fields of solution geochemistry and metallurgy.

  4. Antimutagenic activity of berry extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope Smith, S; Tate, Patricia L; Huang, George; Magee, James B; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Wedge, David E; Larcom, Lyndon L

    2004-01-01

    Plants are proven sources of useful anti-tumor and chemopreventative compounds. Hence, identification of phytochemicals useful in dietary prevention and intervention of cancer is of paramount importance. The initial step in the formation of cancer is damage to the genome of a somatic cell producing a mutation in an oncogene or a tumor-suppressor gene. Fresh juices and organic solvent extracts from the fruits of strawberry, blueberry, and raspberry were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the production of mutations by the direct-acting mutagen methyl methanesulfonate and the metabolically activated carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene. Juice from strawberry, blueberry, and raspberry fruit significantly inhibited mutagenesis caused by both carcinogens. Ethanol extracts from freeze-dried fruits of strawberry cultivars (Sweet Charlie and Carlsbad) and blueberry cultivars (Tifblue and Premier) were also tested. Of these, the hydrolyzable tannin-containing fraction from Sweet Charlie strawberries was most effective at inhibiting mutations.

  5. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Extracting aluminum from dross tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, A. M.

    2002-11-01

    Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

  7. Electrostatic septa for SPS extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The extraction system for the N-Area is located in LSS2 (another one for the W-Area, now abandoned, was in LSS6). The electrostatic septum consists of 4 parts, each 3 m long. It is made of W-wires, 0.12 mm thick. The nominal electric field is 100 kV/cm. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  8. Extraction de motifs graduels emergents

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Anne; Lesot, Marie-Jeanne; Rifqi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    National audience; Mining emerging patterns aims at contrasting data sets and identifying itemsets that characterise a data set by contrast to a reference data set, so as to capture and highlight their differences. This paper considers the case of emerging gradual patterns, to extract discriminant attribute co-variations. It discusses the specific features of these gradual patterns and proposes to transpose an efficient border-based algorithm, justifying its applicability to the gradual case....

  9. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  10. Feature extraction for speaker diarization

    OpenAIRE

    Negre Rabassa, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Se explorarán y compararán diferentes características de bajo y alto nivel para la diarización automática de locutores Feature extraction for speaker diarization using different databases Extracción de características para la diarización de locutores utilizando diferentes bases de datos Extracció de caracteristiques per a la diarització de locutors utilitzant diferents bases de dades

  11. Extraction treatment using Invisalign Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancotti, Aldo; Greco, Mario; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2006-01-01

    The Invisalign method is gaining an increasing interest as an alternative treatment option in adult patients and in difficult orthodontic cases. The aim of this work is to show a class II malocclusion with severe crowding in the upper and lower arches treated with the extraction of the upper first premolars performed by means of Invisalign. The alignment phase was successfully completed but the space closure achieved with crown tipping and without correct root inclination making a further fixed appliance phase necessary.

  12. Prevalent Color Extraction and Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.Thyagharajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colors in an image provides tremendous amount of information. Using this color information images can be segmented, analyzed, labeled and indexed. In content based image retrieval system, color is one of the basic primitive features used. In Prevalent Color Extraction and indexing, the most extensive color on an image is identified and it is used for indexing. For implementation, Asteroideae flower family image dataset is used. It consist of more than 16,000 species, among them nearly 100 species are considered and indexed by dominating colors. To extract the most appealable color from the user defined images, the overall color of an image has to be quantized. Spatially, quantizing the color of an image to extract the prevalent color is the major objective of this paper. A combination of K-Mean and Expectation Minimization clustering algorithm called hidden-value learned K-mean clustering quantization algorithm is used to avoid the over clustering behavior of K-Mean algorithm. The experimental result shows the marginal differences between these algorithms.

  13. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  14. Information Extraction and Webpage Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sharmila Begum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The two most important tasks in information extraction from the Web are webpage structure understanding and natural language sentences processing. However, little work has been done toward an integrated statistical model for understanding webpage structures and processing natural language sentences within the HTML elements. Our recent work on webpage understanding introduces a joint model of Hierarchical Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs and extended Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields (Semi-CRFs to leverage the page structure understanding results in free text segmentation and labeling. In this top-down integration model, the decision of the HCRF model could guide the decision making of the Semi-CRF model. However, the drawback of the topdown integration strategy is also apparent, i.e., the decision of the Semi-CRF model could not be used by the HCRF model to guide its decision making. This paper proposed a novel framework called WebNLP, which enables bidirectional integration of page structure understanding and text understanding in an iterative manner. We have applied the proposed framework to local business entity extraction and Chinese person and organization name extraction. Experiments show that the WebNLP framework achieved significantly better performance than existing methods.

  15. Electromembrane extraction: distribution or electrophoresis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Sønsteby, Marit Hovde; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents for the first time a phenomenological theoretical model for the time dependent distribution of analytes during electromembrane extraction (EME). The model was verified experimentally for a range of model drugs and peptides. Analytes were extracted from an acidified aqueous sample solution, through an organic supported liquid membrane (SLM), and into an acidified aqueous acceptor solution. Mass transfer was governed by an applied electric field across the SLM. A rapid depletion was seen in the sample during extractions, with a steady increase in the amount accumulated in the acceptor solution. This was in good accordance with the theoretical model. A deviation from the modeled behavior was seen for some of the peptides where trapping of analyte in the SLM was high. The results demonstrated for the first time that EME behaved like a distribution system, with voltage dependent distribution coefficients. In addition, electrokinetic migration was observed across the SLM, which added an electrophoretic component to the mass transfer. This improved theoretical understanding will be highly beneficial for future optimization and development of applications using EME.

  16. Optimal and Sustainable Groundwater Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Wada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For sufficiently convex extraction costs, the extraction path converges to an internal steady state above the level of maximum sustainable yield. We describe the challenges facing groundwater managers faced with multiple aquifers, the prospect of using recycled water, and the interdependence with watershed management. The integrated water management thus described results in less water scarcity and higher total welfare gains from groundwater use. The framework also can be applied to climate-change specifications about the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation by comparing before and after optimal management. For the case of South Oahu in Hawaii, the prospect of climate change increases the gains of integrated groundwater management.

  17. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CANINE ECTOPIC TREATMENT WITH FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Margo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.

  19. [Studies on extraction of active fraction from Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici by supercritical CO2 extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Cai-Ni; He, Wei; Li, Yong; Yuan, Wan-Rui

    2008-10-01

    To study the conditions of extraction of active fraction in Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici by supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE). Using the content of ferulic acid as the index, conditions for the extraction including extracting pressure, extracting temperature, temperature of resolution and extracting time were optimized by uniform design. The best SFE conclusions were as follows: cosolvent was 50% ethanol (ml/g), extracting pressure was 40 MPa, extracting temperature was 50 degrees C, pressure of resolution was 6 MPa, temperature of resolution was 50 degrees C, extracting time was 3.5 hours. The optimum extraction has high extraction ratio of active fraction in Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici, so it is reasonable and practicable.

  20. Modification of Phenolic Oximes for Copper Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Forgan, Ross Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the modification of salicylaldoxime-based reagents used in hydrometallurgical extraction, addressing rational ligand design to tune copper(II) extractant strengths and also the development of reagents which are capable of transporting transition metal salts. Chapter 1 reviews current solvent extractant technology for metal recovery, including the limited knowledge of the effect of substituents on extractive efficacy. Advances in leaching technology have...

  1. Web-Based Information Extraction Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Information extraction techniques on the Web are the current research hotspot. Now many information extraction techniques based on different principles have appeared and have different capabilities. We classify the existing information extraction techniques by the principle of information extraction and analyze the methods and principles of semantic information adding, schema defining,rule expression, semantic items locating and object locating in the approaches. Based on the above survey and analysis,several open problems are discussed.

  2. Properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, G. V.; Gamelas, J.A.F.; Ramarao, B. F.; Amidon, T. E.; Ferreira, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    This work was a comprehensive study of the properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps. Five levels of hot water extraction were performed, each followed by kraft cooking to three different kappa numbers. As extraction took place, the hemicelluloses content of the kraft pulps was reduced from 21%-22% to 3%-4% and, conversely, the cellulose fraction increased from 73%-75% to 85%-90%. Fiber length decreased for all pulps and kink index increased greatly with extraction. The dispersi...

  3. Extraction of tritium from lithium aluminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunker, W [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Complete data are presented for the extraction of tritium from neutron irradiated lithium aluminate pellets. Two methods were used: (a) thermal/vacuum extraction at temperatures up to 980/sup 0/C and (b) dissolution of the pellets in sodium tetraborate at 850/sup 0/C followed by vacuum extraction. Approximately 1 percent of the tritium was in a noncondensable (at -195/sup 0/C and 10/sup -3/ torr) form. Extraction efficiency was greater than 95 percent.

  4. Effective Approaches For Extraction Of Keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeen Kaur

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Keywords are index terms that contain most important information. Automatic keyword extraction is the task to identify a small set of words , keyphrases or keywords from a document that can describe the meaning of document. Keyword extraction is considered as core technology of all automatic processing for text materials. In this paper, a Survey of Keyword Extraction techniques have been presented that can be applied to extract effective keywords that uniquely identify a document.

  5. Extraction of aurum(Ⅲ) with thiophosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xingzhi; FANG Dawei; XUE Hong; LI Jun; ZANG Shuliang

    2005-01-01

    The extraction capability of aurum with di-(2-ethylhexyl)monothiophosphoric acid from hydrochloric acid solution has been studied. The extraction capability decreases with the increase of acidity. It is showed by the saturation method and equal Moore series method that the composition of the extraction complex is AuR3. IR and 1H NMR studies indicate that the extraction mechanism is a cation exchange process through coordination with P=S bonds.

  6. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    GÜVENÇ, A.; MEHMETOĞLU, Ü.; ÇALIMLI, A.

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of ethanol was studied from both synthetic ethanol solution and fermentation broth using supercritical CO2 in an extraction apparatus in ranges of 313 to 333 K and 80 to 160 atmospheres, for varying extraction times. The experimental system consists mainly of four parts: a CO2 storage system, a high-pressure liquid pump, an extractor and a product collection unit. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Effects of temperature, pressure, extraction time, initial ethan...

  7. Environ: E00593 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00593 Acanthopanax gracilistylus root bark Crude drug Acanthopanax gracilistylus [...TAX:265764] Araliaceae (ginseng family) Acanthopanax gracilistylus root bark (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305...] Dicot plants: asterids Araliaceae (ginseng family) E00593 Acanthopanax gracilistylus root bark ...

  8. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa, U.; Rao, J. Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A.M.; Shanmukhappa, S.

    2007-01-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  9. Automated Extraction of DNA from clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing...... the amount of PCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts and increasing the proportion of reportable DNA profiles....

  10. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  11. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  12. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-10-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  13. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction of Beauvericin from maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, P; Galvano, F; Fogliano, V; Logrieco, A; Fresa, R; Ritieni, A

    2004-02-27

    Beauvericin (BEA), a supercritical fluid extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide from maize was investigated. Extraction efficiencies under several different extraction conditions were examined. Pressure, temperature, extraction time, organic modifier and water matrix content (10%) were investigated. The best extraction conditions were at a temperature of 60 degrees C, 3200psi, for 30min static extraction time and methanol as modifier solvent. Extraction recovery of 36% without modifier by adding water to the matrix in the extraction vessel (reproducibility relative standard deviations (R.S.D.)=3-5%) were recorded. Extraction recovery of 76.9% with methanol as co-solvent (reproducibility R.S.D.=3-5%) was obtained. Data shows that SFE gives a lower BEA recovery compared to conventional extraction protocol with organic solvents while SFE with modifier and conventional extraction yields are comparable. BEA extract contents were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) at 205nm and BEA peak confirmed by LC-MS. Acetonitrile-water as mobile phase and column C-18 were both tested. Instrumental and analytical parameters were optimized in the range linear interval from 1 to 500mgkg(-1) and reached a detection limit of 2ng.

  15. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

    1998-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  16. Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics. -Author

  17. The combined extraction of sage (Salvia officinalis L.): ultrasound followed by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisic, Sandra B; Ristic, Mihajlo; Skala, Dejan U

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of phytochemicals could be isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) using different extraction or distillation technique: the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the volatiles compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) isolation using hydrodistillation or higher molecular compounds with Soxhlet extraction or ultrasound-assisted extraction. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by re-extraction of obtained extract with supercritical CO(2) was performed in this study. The goal of performed investigation was to concentrate diterpenes present in sage extract which are generally considered to be responsible for antioxidant activity of extracted compounds. The fractionation using the supercritical CO(2), and different combination of the ultrasound-assisted solvent extractions (water-ethanol mixture or only water) followed by supercritical CO(2) re-extraction of obtained extract or treated plant material were analyzed and compared. Based on the results of these investigations it could be proposed the best extraction procedure: the ultrasound pretreatment of plant material with distilled water and re-extraction of plant material (residue) using supercritical CO(2). That procedure gives two valuable products: the ultrasound extract which is rich in sugars and possess the immunomodulatory activity and supercritical extract which is rich in diterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

  18. Handling uncertainty in relation extraction: a case study on tennis tournament results extraction from tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, J.; Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction involves different types of uncertainty due to the imperfection of the extraction tools and the inherent ambiguity of unstructured text. In this paper, we discuss several ways of handling uncertainties in relation extraction from social media. Our study case is to extract tennis

  19. Integration of galacturonic acid extraction with alkaline protein extraction from green tea leaf residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Bozileva, Elvira; Klis, van der Frits; Dong, Yiyuan; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf pectin can be used as a feedstock for galacturonic acid (GA) production, but high extraction costs limit economic feasibility. To improve the extraction efficiency, leaf pectin extraction was integrated with an already cost-effective alkaline protein extraction, focusing on high yield of GA

  20. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...

  1. Extraction of Polyphenols from Cashew Nut Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Obichukwu EDOGA; Labake FADIPE; Rita Ngozi EDOGA

    2006-01-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was extracted from cashew nut shell by indirect leaching process using soxhlet extraction equipment. Normal hexane (n-hexane) was used as solvent. The operating conditions for the extraction were 680C and 1 atmosphere in every 100g of cashew nut shell used for the extraction, 35gCNSL was obtained. The CNSL was further separated into cardol, cardanol and anacardic acid (polyphenol) using an amine extractant (alanine) with the aid of shake-out separation equipment...

  2. Automatic extraction of planetary image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  3. Personalized Web Services for Web Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Jarir, Zahi; Erradi, Mahammed

    2011-01-01

    The field of information extraction from the Web emerged with the growth of the Web and the multiplication of online data sources. This paper is an analysis of information extraction methods. It presents a service oriented approach for web information extraction considering both web data management and extraction services. Then we propose an SOA based architecture to enhance flexibility and on-the-fly modification of web extraction services. An implementation of the proposed architecture is proposed on the middleware level of Java Enterprise Edition (JEE) servers.

  4. Automated Extraction of DNA from clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing t...... the amount of PCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts and increasing the proportion of reportable DNA profiles.......Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing...

  5. Development of Poliovirus Extraction Method from Stool Extracts by Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Sensitized with Soluble Poliovirus Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Arita, Minetaro

    2013-01-01

    A method for extracting poliovirus (PV) from stool extracts was developed. Magnetic nanoparticles sensitized with soluble PV receptor efficiently extracted PV pseudovirus (>99% extraction) or endogenous infectious PVs (>90% extraction) from stool extracts. This method would be useful for extraction of PV from crude biological samples.

  6. [Study on condition for extraction of arctiin from fruits of Arctium lappa using supercritical fluid extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen-hong; Liu, Ben

    2006-08-01

    To study the feasibility of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for arctiin from the fruits of Arctium lappa. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC, optimum extraction conditions were studied by orthogonal tests. The optimal extraction conditions were: pressure 40 MPa, temperature 70 degrees C, using methanol as modifier carrier at the rate of 0.55 mL x min(-1), static extraction time 5 min, dynamic extraction 30 min, flow rate of CO2 2 L x min(-1). SFE has the superiority of adjustable polarity, and has the ability of extracting arctiin.

  7. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  8. Clinical evaluation of postradiation dental extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusukawa, Jingo; Ohisi, Shinichiro; Kameyama, Tadamitsu; Yoshizumi, Munehiro; Hayabuchi, Naofumi [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-05-01

    Twenty-one patients who had undergone postradiation dental extraction were evaluated clinically. All patients had received irradiation for primary head and neck malignancies at doses ranging from 8 to 60 Gy (mean, 51.6 Gy). Time to dental extraction after irradiation ranged from 8 to 156 months (mean, 57.9 months). Of the 21 patients (80 teeth extracted, including 33 maxillary teeth and 47 mandibular teeth), one had delayed healing after wisdom tooth extraction due to postextraction irradiation. Thus, osteoradionecrosis after dental extraction did not develop. These results suggest that dental extraction after radiation is not contraindicated. To prevent complications, patients who have received radiation and require extractions should be cared for by oral and maxillofacial surgeons in close association with radiation oncologists. (author).

  9. Bioactivity studies of extracts from Tridax procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

    2000-06-01

    An updated review on the biological activity of Tridax procumbens is presented. A detailed biological screening comprised of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi using crude extracts of this plant was undertaken. The n-hexane extract of the flowers showed activity against Escherichia coli. The same extract of the whole aerial parts was active against Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi. The ethyl-acetate extract of the flowers was active against Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella sp. The aerial parts extract also showed activity only against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Staphylococcus aureus, while the aqueous extract showed no antimicrobial activity. None of the tested extracts was active against the yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula rubra; or the fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp. and Trichophyton rubrum.

  10. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Etre, A.Y

    2003-11-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions.

  11. Schistosoma mansoni antigenic extracts obtained by different extraction procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Tendler

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Solubilization of Schistosoma mansoni antigens was obtained by agitation of adult worms in a 3M KCl solution. The protein contents of the KCl extrats varied from 0.35 to 0.96 mg/ml. Sera from 97 patients with hepatointestinal shistosomiasis and viable eggs in stools from a Brazilian endemic area were studied by immunoelectroomophoresis and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion methods with the KCl extract and with another antigen, obtained by homogenization of adult schistosomes in saline. The rate of positiveness of immunoprecipitation deterctions by immunoelectroomophoresis with the KCl extract was 53.5%. A correlation was verified between methods of detection and extration procedures, resulting in a better association of the extract obtained by agitation in 3M KCl and immunoelectroomophoresis.Foi obtida a solubilização de antígenos do Schistosoma mansoni por agitação de vermes adultos em solução de KCl 3M. O teor protéico dos extratos de KCl variou de 0,35 a 0,96mg/ ml. Foram testados pelos métodos de imunoeletroosmoforese (IEOP e dupla imunodifusão (Ouchterlony, 97 soros de doentes de area endêmica brasileira de esquistossomose, forma clínica hepatointestinal e com exames coprológicos positivos para S. mansoni, com o extrato de KCl e outro antígeno obtido pela homogenização de vermes adultos em salina. A taxa de positividade das reações de imunoprecipitação por IEOP com o antígeno extraído pela ação do KCl 3M foi 53,5%. Foi verificada a correlação entre os métodos de detecção e de extração resultando numa melhor associação entre o extrato obtido por agitação no KCl 3M e a IEOP.

  12. Pediatric tooth extractions under sedoanalgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaci, Ayse Hande; Isik, Berrin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims to evaluate intravenous ketamine and inhalation sedation in children, their unwanted side-effects and surgeon satisfaction. Methods: In this study, data of 922 children aged between 1-18 who underwent tooth extraction under sedoanalgesia in our department between September 2015-January 2016 were gathered and anesthesia approaches, unwanted side effects and surgical satisfaction was investigated. Postoperative recovery emergence agitation or delirium was evaluated with Watcha Behavior Scale (WBS). Results: Patients were grouped and compared according to acceptance of intravenous line placement (Group-1) or not (Group- 2). Group 1 received intravenous ketamine anesthesia (n=822), Group 2 received inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane (n=100). Number of patients, age, weight and gender was significantly different in two groups. When side effects were investigated nausea was observed in 30 patients (3.6%), skin rashes were observed in 26 patients (3.2%) in Group-1 while skin rashes were observed in one patient (1%) in Group 2. 95% of surgeons reported intravenous anesthesia, 18% of surgeons reported inhalation anesthesia to be the anesthesia of choice. Emergence of postoperative recovery agitation (WBS≥3) was observed more frequent in Group 2 (p<0.05) than Group 1. Conclusion: Ketamine, which has analgesic, hypnotic and amnestic effects and which does not alter pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes thus minimizes aspiration possibility, is a safe and effective anesthetic agent for tooth extractions of the pediatric population under sedoanalgesia. PMID:27882039

  13. DESIGNING AN EVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botond BENEDEK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Internet world, the amount of information available reaches very high quotas. In order to find specific information, some tools were created that automatically scroll through the existing web pages and update their databases with the latest information on the Internet. In order to systematize the search and achieve a result in a concrete form, another step is needed for processing the information returned by the search engine and generating the response in a more organized form. Centralizing events of a certain type is useful first of all for creating a news service. Through this system we are pursuing a knowledge - events from the Internet documents - extraction system. The system will recognize events of a certain type (weather, sports, politics, text data mining, etc. depending on how it will be trained (the concept it has in the dictionary. These events can be provided to the user, or it can also extract the context in which the event occurred, to indicate the initial form in which the event was embedded.

  14. Web Data Identification and Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V.Rajya Lakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the rapid growth of the web, a large volume of data and information are published in numerous web pages. As web sites are getting more complicated, the construction of web information extraction systems becomes more difficult and time-consuming. In this paper proposes a new method to perform the task automatically which is more effective than machine learning and semi automated system. The proposed method consists of two steps, (1 identifying individual data records in a page, and (2 aligning and extracting data items from the identified data records. For step 1, we propose a method based on visual information to segment data records, which is more accurate than existing methods. For step 2, we propose a novel partial alignment technique based on tree matching. Partial alignment means that we align only those data fields in a pair of data records that can be aligned (or matched with certainty, and make no commitment on the rest of the data fields.

  15. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

    2008-12-01

    Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

  16. Extraction efficiency of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants from lyophilized foods using pressurized liquid extraction and manual extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun; Oki, Tomoyuki; Takebayashi, Jun; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    The efficient extraction of antioxidants from food samples is necessary in order to accurately measure their antioxidant capacities. α-Tocopherol and gallic acid were spiked into samples of 5 lyophilized and pulverized vegetables and fruits (onion, cabbage, Satsuma mandarin orange, pumpkin, and spinach). The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the samples were sequentially extracted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane and dichloromethane, and then with acetic acid-acidified aqueous methanol. Duplicate samples were extracted: one set was extracted using an automated pressurized liquid extraction apparatus, and the other set was extracted manually. Spiked α-tocopherol and gallic acid were recovered almost quantitatively in the extracted lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively, especially when pressurized liquid extraction was used. The expected increase in lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (L-ORAC) due to spiking with α-tocopherol, and the expected increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and total polyphenol content due to spiking with gallic acid, were all recovered in high yield. Relatively low recoveries, as reflected in the hydrophilic ORAC (H-ORAC) value, were obtained following spiking with gallic acid, suggesting an interaction between gallic acid and endogenous antioxidants. The H-ORAC values of gallic acid-spiked samples were almost the same as those of postadded (spiked) samples. These results clearly indicate that lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effectively extracted from lyophilized food, especially when pressurized liquid extraction is used.

  17. Extraction and Separation of Fucoidan from Laminaria japonica with Chitosan as Extractant

    OpenAIRE

    Ronge Xing; Song Liu; Huahua Yu; Xiaolin Chen; Yukun Qin; Kecheng Li; Pengcheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Herein the extraction method of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is reported. Firstly, chitosan, chitosan-N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HACC), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CPAB) were used to extract the fucoidan. The results showed that chitosan was the optimal extractant compared with the other two extractants. After extraction, different aqueous solutions, including NaCl, KCl, and HCl (pH2), were used to separate fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The resul...

  18. Extraction and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Coumarin in Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Mikania glomerata Spreng: ("guaco" Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeghini Renata M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for preparation of hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" (Mikania glomerata Spreng. leaves were compared: maceration, maceration under sonication, infusion and supercritical fluid extraction. Evaluation of these methods showed that maceration under sonication had the best results, when considering the ratio extraction yield/extraction time. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure for the determination of coumarin in these hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" leaves is described. The HPLC method is shown to be sensitive and reproducible.

  19. Kinetics study of oil extraction from Citrus auranticum L. by solvent-free microwave extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Septya Kusuma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus and its oil are of high economic and medicinal value because of their multiple uses, such as in the food industry, cosmetics and folk medicine. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of solvent-free microwave extraction for the extraction of essential oils from Citrus auranticum L. peels. Specifically, this study verifies the kinetics based on second-order model and mechanism of solvent-free microwave extraction of Citrus auranticum L. peels. Solvent-free microwave extraction is used to extract essential oils from Citrus auranticum L. peels. The initial extraction rate, the extraction capacity and the second-order extraction rate constant were calculated using the model. Using a three-step experimental design of the kinetics of oil extraction from Citrus auranticum L. peels by solvent-free microwave extraction, this study showed that the extraction process was based on the second-order extraction model. The initial extraction rate (h, the extraction capacity (CS, the second-order extraction rate constant (k, and coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.7483 g L-1 min-1, 0.7291 g L-1, 1.4075 L g-1 min-1 and 0.9992, respectively.

  20. Improving the efficiency of antioxidant extraction from mango peel by using microwave-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta, Eva; Lobo, M Gloria; González, Mónica

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extraction efficiency of antioxidants from mango peel by comparing two techniques: microwave-assisted (MAE) and traditional solvent (TE) extraction. The number of extraction steps, water content in the extractant, peel weight-to-solvent volume ratio in extractions and extraction time all had an influence on obtaining extracts with high antioxidant capacity, but the extraction technique and the water content in the extractant were the factors with the greatest effect. Using three steps, a water content of 50 % in the ethanol:water extractant, an extraction time of 60 min and a weight-to-volume ratio of 1:10 or 1:50 (w/v) led to the highest antioxidant activity and phytochemicals content in extracts. The extraction time needed to extract phytochemicals from mango peel was similar when MAE and TE were used. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content were around 1.5-6.0 times higher in the extracts obtained by MAE.

  1. Extraction matrine from Radix Sopheorae Tonkinensis by non-supported liquid membrane extraction technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (NSLME is a new development extraction technology based on Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (SLME. Sample extraction assembly is composed of three phases: an acceptor phase: phosphate–sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution at the bottom; an organic phase: chloroform applied as the non-supported liquid membrane in the middle layer; and a donor phase: aqueous solution samples containing alkaloids in the upper layer. The whole system is maintained stable by density difference among the three layers that avoided the mutual interferences. The alkaloid in the donor phase can spread to the underlying acidic acceptor phase, where it is able to form water soluble salt in the acid environment, and thus cannot return to the middle organic phase. Therefore, the transmission of alkaloid is a one-way path, and the extraction of alkaloids can be achieved and enriched. In this study, the extraction of alkaloid was carried out by using matrine aqueous solution as the donor phase, and the extraction quantity and efficiency were investigated by GC/MS. This study evaluated the relationship between extracted quantity and extraction time. The effects of extraction temperature, membrane thickness, pH value of acceptor phase on extraction quantity and efficiency were also studied, and the optimal extraction condition was found. The extracted quantity achieved the largest amount at 45 °C when pure phosphoric acid was applied as the acceptor phase; the organic solvent volume was 0.2 mL. The extraction of alkaloid from Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis was performed under the optimized condition. The extraction rate of matrine was up to 54% after a four-hour extraction. A huge advantage of NSLME technology is that the extracted alkaloid enjoyed high purity compared with that extracted by the traditional Liquid–Liquid Extraction (LLE.

  2. Changing perspectives on resource extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

  4. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  5. Management of SAH with traditional Chinese medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxue; Zhao, Xingquan; Mao, Shujing; Wang, Yongjun; Cui, Xiangning; Pu, Yuehua

    2006-06-01

    China lacks large scale authorized epidemiological study results in allusion to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) within recent 15 years since MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) study revealed SAH situation in China in 2000. The main cause of SAH in China is aneurysm which takes up 30-50%, while over 90% aneurysm locates at Willis circle. Early surgery for SAH after aneurysm rupture is the dominant procedure to deal with SAH in China. Moreover, calcium antagonists rank the absolute leading position for cerebral vascular spasm (CVS) among medication-based treatment options. However, traditional Chinese medicine such as Salvia miltiorrhiza, Acanthopanax senticosus, Ginkgo biloba, Pueraria lobata, Liguisticum chuanxiong, cow bezoar, Diospyros kaki and Gynostemma pentaphyllum have been proven beneficial in CVS prevention and treatment, while Salvia miltiorrhiza and TCM soup have unique effects on bleeding absorption. In addition, aescine and some TCM soup might relieve strong headache after SAH. In general, TCM integrated with western medicine have shown unique advantages in the current treatment of SAH in China. However, it is a pity that China still lacks larger scale randomized controlled trials and research on SAH treatment focusing on TCM and the related mechanism of TCM on SAH still need to be investigated further.

  6. Development of Healthcare Wine to Relieve Physical Fatigue%缓解体力疲劳保健酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何正军; 尼科; 郭敏; 贾国夫

    2012-01-01

    Rhodiola, American ginseng, Acanthopanax senticosus, Medlar, Tuckahoe and Yam were used as raw materials to produce healthcare wine with 35 %vol liquor as wine base through quenching, blending and aging process. Acute oral toxicity test, three genetic toxicity tests and 30 d feeding test showed that the produced wine is non-toxic. Mice burden swimming test showed that the wine has healthcare functions of reliev- ing physical fatigue.%以红景天、西洋参、刺五加、枸杞子、茯苓、山药6味天然中药为主要原料,以35%vol白酒为酒基,采用冷浸、勾兑陈化等工艺制作保健酒。经急性口毒性试验、3项遗传毒性试验和30d喂养试验,表明该保健酒无毒;经小鼠负重游泳试验,表明其具有缓解身体疲劳的保健功能。

  7. Advances on Bioactive Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian-Hua; Jin, Ming-Liang; Morris, Gordon A; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yi, Yang; Li, Jing-En; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Nie, Shao-Ping; Shang, Peng; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-07-29

    In recent decades, the polysaccharides from the medicinal plants have attracted a lot of attention due to their significant bioactivities, such as anti-tumor activity, antioxidant activity, anticoagulant activity, antidiabetic activity, radioprotection effect, anti-viral activity, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory activities, which make them suitable for medicinal applications. Previous studies have also shown that medicinal plant polysaccharides are non-toxic and show no side effects. Based on these encouraging observations, most researches have been focusing on the isolation and identification of polysaccharides, as well as their bioactivities. A large number of bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and biological effects from medicinal plants have been purified and characterized. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments in physiochemical, structural features and biological activities of bioactive polysaccharides from a number of important medicinal plants, such as polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium plants, Bupleurum, Cactus fruits, Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Aloe barbadensis Miller, and Dimocarpus longan Lour. Moreover, the paper has also been focused on the applications of bioactive polysaccharides for medicinal applications. Recent studies have provided evidence that polysaccharides from medicinal plants can play a vital role in bioactivities. The contents and data will serve as a useful reference material for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents.

  8. Clinical utility of curcumin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Gary N; Spelman, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric root has been used medicinally in China and India for thousands of years. The active components are thought to be the curcuminoids, primarily curcumin, which is commonly available worldwide as a standardized extract. This article reviews the pharmacology of curcuminoids, their use and efficacy, potential adverse effects, and dosage and standardization. Preclinical studies point to mechanisms of action that are predominantly anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic, while early human clinical trials suggest beneficial effects for dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, uveitis, orbital pseudotumor, and pancreatic cancer. Curcumin is well-tolerated; the most common side effects are nausea and diarrhea. Theoretical interactions exist due to purported effects on metabolic enzymes and transport proteins, but clinical reports do not support any meaningful interactions. Nonetheless, caution, especially with chemotherapy agents, is advised. Late-phase clinical trials are still needed to confirm most beneficial effects.

  9. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    or a Panorama, where an observer is data space this approach is far from optimal. A more scalable approach is to make the observer-aware database system and to restrict the communication between the database and visualization systems to the relevant data. In this paper VR-tree, an extension of the R......The visual exploration of large databases calls for a tight coupling of database and visualization systems. Current visualization systems typically fetch all the data and organize it in a scene tree that is then used to render the visible data. For immersive data explorations in a Cave......-tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  10. Adaptive web data extraction policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provetti, Alessandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Web data extraction is concerned, among other things, with routine data accessing and downloading from continuously-updated dynamic Web pages. There is a relevant trade-off between the rate at which the external Web sites are accessed and the computational burden on the accessing client. We address the problem by proposing a predictive model, typical of the Operating Systems literature, of the rate-of-update of each Web source. The presented model has been implemented into a new version of the Dynamo project: a middleware that assists in generating informative RSS feeds out of traditional HTML Web sites. To be effective, i.e., make RSS feeds be timely and informative and to be scalable, Dynamo needs a careful tuning and customization of its polling policies, which are described in detail.

  11. Extracting information from multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ̃(S) for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  12. Extracting Information from Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iacovacci, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from Big Data. For these reasons characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function $\\widetilde{\\Theta}^{S}$ for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying thes...

  13. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  14. Extraction and separation of proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagishita, Masaki; Podyma-Inoue, Katarzyna Anna; Yokoyama, Miki

    2009-11-01

    Proteoglycans contain a unique carbohydrate component, glycosaminoglycan, which consists of repeating, typically sulfated disaccharides, and is capable of interacting with diverse molecules. Specific, clustered arrangements of sulfate on the glycosaminoglycan backbone form binding sites for many biologically important ligands such as extracellular matrix molecules and growth factors. Core proteins of proteoglycans also show molecular interactions necessary for organizing scaffolds in the extracellular matrix or for anchoring proteoglycans to the plasma membrane. Experimental protocols aiming at extracting maximal amounts of proteoglycans from tissues or cells require disruption of molecular interactions involving proteoglycans by denaturing solvents. Among many of the proteoglycan separation procedures, anion exchange chromatography, which takes advantage of the presence of highly negatively charged glycosaminoglycans in all proteoglycans, serves one of the most convenient general separation techniques.

  15. [Extraction of praeruptorin A from Radix Peucedani by supercritical fluid extraction-CO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-dong; Hou, Wei; Chen, Xue-song; Qiu, Zhi-dong

    2008-12-01

    To extract praeruptorin A from Radix Peucedani by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)-CO2. After preliminary experiment, three main factors were acquired that could influence the result of SFE-CO2, including the time, pressure and temperature of the extraction. The optimal extraction process was carried out on orthogonal design, and SFE-CO2 was compared with the traditional methods. In the extraction of the praeruptorin A, the best extraction conditions were 60 degrees C, 20 MPa, and duration for three hours. As cosolvent alcohol was added, the amount of extraction of the praeruptorin A increased, and the amount of SFE-CO2 extraction was higher than those of decoction and heating reflux. The SFE-CO2 in extracting praeruptorin A from Radix Peucedani is feasible and reliable.

  16. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  17. Topic extraction from adverbial clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio Alcalá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers new data to support findings about Topic extraction from adverbial clauses. Since such clauses are strong islands, they should not allow extraction of any kind, but we show here that if the appropriate conditions are met, Topics of the CLLD kind in Romance can move out of them. We propose that two conditions must be met for such movement to be possible: the first is that the adverbial clause must have undergone topicalisation in the first place; the second is that the adverbial clause is inherently topical from a semantic viewpoint. Contrast with other language families (Germanic, Quechua and Japanese is provided and the semantic implications of the proposal are briefly discussed. Keywords: topicalisation; Clitic Left Dislocation; syntactic islands; adverbial clauses Este artículo ofrece nuevos datos sobre la extracción de Tópicos desde oraciones subordinadas adverbiales. Dado que dichas oraciones son islas fuertes, no deberían permitir extracción de ningún tipo, pero mostramos que si se dan las condiciones apropiadas, los Tópicos del tipo CLLD en lenguas románicas pueden desplazarse fuera de ellas. Proponemos que se deben cumplir dos condiciones para que ese movimiento sea posible: la primera es que la propia subordinada adverbial se haya topicalizado en primer lugar; la segunda es que la subordinada adverbial sea inherentemente un Tópico desde el punto de vista semántico. Proporcionamos también algunos contrastes con otras familias lingüísticas (germánica, quechua y japonés y se discuten brevemente las implicaciones semánticas de la propuesta. Palabras clave: topicalización; dislocación a la izquierda con clítico; islas sintácticas; oraciones adverbiales

  18. Preliminary studies on the extraction of Glycospanonins in Tongkat Ali extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abirame, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Chua, L. S.; Sarmidi, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as Tongkat Ali, is a famous medicinal plant in the family of Simaroubaceae and well known for its aphrodisiac properties from its water extract. The root of E. longifolia is used to extract wide range bioactive components of Tongkat Ali. Previous works standardised Tongkat Ali extracts by measuring the concentration of eurycomanone, a quassinoid marker chemical, within the overall extract. There is a newer Malaysian standard that specifies that Tongkat Ali can be standardised to glycosaponin, thus it is desired to determine how extraction parameters such as particle size, extraction temperature, and solvent type affects the glycosaponin content in the extract. The overall study is aimed to determine how the extraction parameters affect the glycosaponin amount in extract. This paper presents the preliminary work where in this study the effect of particle size on overall extract and glycosaponin quantification method development is presented. A reflux extraction method was used to extract Tongkat Ali with a particle size of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm of raw material to study effect of particle size on overall extract. Water and methanol were the two types of solvent used for extraction to study the quantity of glycosaponin.

  19. Enzyme extraction by ultrasound from sludge flocs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guanghui; HE Pinjing; SHAO Liming; ZHU Yishu

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes play essential roles in the biological processes of sludge treatment. In this article, the ultrasound method to extract enzymes from sludge flocs was presented. Results showed that using ultrasound method at 20 kHz could extract more types of enzymes than that ultrasound at 40 kHz and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) methods. The optimum parameters of ultrasound extraction at 20 kHz were duration of 10 min and power of 480 W. Under the condition, ultrasound could break the cells and extract both the extracellular and intercellular enzymes. Ultrasound power was apparently more susceptive to enzyme extraction than duration, suggesting that the control of power during ultrasound extraction was more important than that of duration. The Pearson correlation analysis between enzyme activities and cation contents revealed that the different types of enzymes had distinct cation binding characteristics.

  20. Data extraction from proteomics raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Wierer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In shot-gun proteomics raw tandem MS data are processed with extraction tools to produce condensed peak lists that can be uploaded to database search engines. Many extraction tools are available but to our knowledge, a systematic comparison of such tools has not yet been carried out. Using raw data...... and agreement in-between tools. Processing a primary data set with 9 different tandem MS extraction tools resulted in a low overlap of identified peptides. The tools differ by assigned charge states of precursors, precursor and fragment ion masses, and we show that peptides identified very confidently using one...... extraction tool might not be matched when using another tool. We also found a bias towards peptides of lower charge state when extracting fragment ion data from higher resolution raw data without deconvolution. Collecting and comparing the extracted data from the same raw data allow adjusting parameters...

  1. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  2. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...... for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge. The sludge was continuously stirred in the presence of either buffer alone or in the presence of detergent and/or chelating agents. In all cases, a marked reduction in floc size was observed upon continuous stirring. However, no lipase activity...... and negligible protease activity was extracted in the presence of buffer alone, indicating that enzyme extraction was not due to shear force alone. The highest lipase activity was extracted using 0.1% Triton X-100 above which the activity was gradually decreasing. For proteases, the highest activity was obtained...

  3. Allelopathic Potential of Cucumber Tissues Aqueous Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lin-lin; HAO Zhi-peng; ZUO Yuan-mei; LI Xiao-lin; WANG Qian

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this study was to explore allelopathic effects of the water-extracted crude of cucumber plant parts on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ), cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L. ), radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) and scallion ( Allium fistulosum L. ). [ Method] The allelopathic effects of different cucumber tissues aqueous extracts were investigated on lettuce, cabbage,radish and scallion using the water-soluble allelopathic principle by seedling bioassay tests. [ Result] The trends of inhibitory effects of different cucumber parts increased with increasing extract concentrations. The inhibition effects and the inhibition rate of three aqueous extracts were more significant on root growth than shoot length. Leaf aqueous extracts represented the most exhibited and root aqueous extracts representing the least inhibitory on seed germination, shoot length and root length of lettuce, cabbage, radish and scallion. [Conclusion] This study had provided basis for allelopathic character of different cucumber plant parts.

  4. [Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction of Rosmarinus officinalis and capability of extracts eliminate OH radical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Li, Jia-Cheng; Zhang, De-La; Feng, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Chen, Si-Li

    2008-05-01

    Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction process of antioxidation active components from Rosmarinus officinalis was studied. A new extraction process of components extracted from R. officinalis by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE-CO2 ) was studied in detail. The capability of that the extract eliminate *OH radical was tested by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique and spin catch technique. With free radical clearance as index, by range and variance analysis, the optimum extraction process conditions were: keeping pressure at 30 MPa and temperature at 75 degrees C for 1 h, in the same time adding alcohol 0.30 mL x g(-1).

  5. Extraction of Parquat from Blood by Clinoptilolite

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Amin Aghaii-Afshar; Seyed Vahid Shetab-Boushehri

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat is a bipyridyl herbicide and organic divalent cation which due to its high polarity and water solubility cannot be readily extracted by common organic solvents from body fluids. Dithionite color test for qualitative and quantitative determination of paraquat in urine has been proposed and used for many years. Although some methods were proposed for solvent extraction of paraquat from blood, they are less practical in clinical laboratories and lack high extraction recovery. Clinoptilo...

  6. Automatic Extraction of Protein Interaction in Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peilei; Wang, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction extraction is the key precondition of the construction of protein knowledge network, and it is very important for the research in the biomedicine. This paper extracted directional protein-protein interaction from the biological text, using the SVM-based method. Experiments were evaluated on the LLL05 corpus with good results. The results show that dependency features are import for the protein-protein interaction extraction and features related to the interaction w...

  7. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  8. Extraction in Dutch with Lexical Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rentier, G

    1994-01-01

    Unbounded dependencies are often modelled by ``traces'' (and ``gap threading'') in unification-based grammars. Pollard and Sag, however, suggest an analysis of extraction based on lexical rules, which excludes the notion of traces (P&S 1994, Chapter 9). In parsing, it suggests a trade of indeterminism for lexical ambiguity. This paper provides a short introduction to this approach to extraction with lexical rules, and illustrates the linguistic power of the approach by applying it to particularly idiosyncratic Dutch extraction data.

  9. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Research this past year continued to emphasize characterization of the physicochemical nature of the microscopic interfaces, i.e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co, and Na in order to improve on the model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of model extractant (surfactant) molecules was further investigated. 1 fig.

  10. The Extraction and Application of Ginger Oleoresin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩吉庆; 张慧; 姜传世; 崔振蕾

    2014-01-01

    Ginger oleoresin is to present the main substance of ginger spicy flavor and aroma from the ginger extract.How to extract a high concentration of ginger oleoresin from ginger ginger is an important research direction.In this paper, different ginger oleoresin extraction process gives a brief introduction and comparison;Finally the application of ginger oleoresin in food and medicine are introduced in the paper.

  11. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Liudmila V. Dyakova; Aleksander G. Kasikov; Elena S. Kshumaneva; Svetlana V. Drogobuzhskaya

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cob...

  12. DNA extraction from formalin-fixed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Paula F; Gilbert, Thomas M P

    2012-01-01

    The principal challenges facing PCR-based analyses of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed materials are fragmentation of the DNA and cross-linked protein-DNA complexes. Here, we present an efficient protocol to extract DNA from formalin-fixed or paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPE). In this protocol, protein-DNA cross-links are reversed using heat and alkali treatment, yielding significantly longer fragments and larger amounts of PCR-amplifiable DNA than standard DNA extraction protocols.

  13. Pattern Based Term Extraction Using ACABIT System

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Koichi; Koyama, Teruo; Daille, Béatrice; Romary, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pattern-based term extraction approach for Japanese, applying ACABIT system originally developed for French. The proposed approach evaluates termhood using morphological patterns of basic terms and term variants. After extracting term candidates, ACABIT system filters out non-terms from the candidates based on log-likelihood. This approach is suitable for Japanese term extraction because most of Japanese terms are compound nouns or simple phrasal patterns.

  14. Hawthorn extract inhibits human isolated neutrophil functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalli, Ernesto; Milara, Javier; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Cosín-Sales, Juan; Sotillo, José Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Hawthorn extract is a popular herbal medicine given as adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure. In contrast to the cardiac properties of hawthorn extract, its anti-inflammatory effect has been scarcely investigated. This study examines the effects of a dry extract of leaves and flowers of Crataegus laevigata on various functional outputs of human neutrophils in vitro. Incubation of human neutrophils obtained from peripheral blood of healthy donors with C. laevigata extract (0.75-250 microg/ml) inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-induced superoxide anion generation, elastase release and chemotactic migration with potency values of 43.6, 21.9, and 31.6 microg/ml, respectively. By contrast, serum-opsonized zymosan-induced phagocytosis was unaltered by plant extract. C. laevigata extract (125 microg/ml) reduced FMLP-induced leukotriene B(4) production and lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8. Extract inhibited FMLP-induced intracellular calcium signal with potency of 17.4 microg/ml. Extract also markedly inhibited the extracellular calcium entry into calcium-depleted neutrophils, and the thapsigargin-induced intracellular calcium response. In conclusion, C. laevigata extract inhibited various functional outputs of activated human neutrophils which may be relevant to the pathophysiology of cardiac failure.

  15. Synergistic Extraction of Gallium for Sulfate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGTong; HUANGLijuan; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel extractant mixture, di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate (DEHPA) plus HX, was propose and tested for recovering gallium from sulfate solution.It was found that the extraction capacity of DEPHA for gallium from sulfate solution could be enhanced significantly due to the synergistic effect of acidix extractant HX. Gallium extraction is negligible below pH 0 and highly sensitive to pH of aqueous phase in the range from 0 to 1, and satisfactory extraction can be gained at pH>1. More than 96% Ga extraction was obtained using 15% DEHPA plus 2% HX. Although Fe(Ⅲ) was found to be extracted preferentially to Ga (Ⅲ), effective extraction of Ga (Ⅲ) was possible by reducing ferric to the ferrous state prior to extraction. A loaded organic phase containing 0.48g·L-1 Ga could be produced from solution of 0.12g·L-1 Ga at A/O ratio of 4:1 via three mixer-settler operation stages. Gallium was stripped quantitatively from the loaded organic phase with 1.5mol·L-1 of sulfuric acid.

  16. Rapid Feature Extraction for Optical Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Zahid; Yan, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Feature extraction is one of the fundamental problems of character recognition. The performance of character recognition system is depends on proper feature extraction and correct classifier selection. In this article, a rapid feature extraction method is proposed and named as Celled Projection (CP) that compute the projection of each section formed through partitioning an image. The recognition performance of the proposed method is compared with other widely used feature extraction methods that are intensively studied for many different scripts in literature. The experiments have been conducted using Bangla handwritten numerals along with three different well known classifiers which demonstrate comparable results including 94.12% recognition accuracy using celled projection.

  17. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satdive, R K; Abhilash, P; Fulzele, Devanand P

    2003-12-01

    The ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli.

  19. Optimization of Protein Extraction for Lichen Thalli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Anna S; Savchuk, Oleksiy M; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2015-06-01

    Lichen-forming fungal proteins have been seldom searched due to many difficulties in their extraction. Phenols, quinones, proteases, and other components released during cell disruption have been known to be the greatest challenges related to protein extraction from lichens. To overcome these problems and maintain good electrophoretic resolution and high protein concentration, an extraction buffer containing polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, ascorbic acid, Triton X-100, polyethylene glycol, proteinase, and oxidase inhibitors in sodium phosphate buffer was developed. This extraction buffer showed high efficiency for all lichen species tested in the study.

  20. A Line Extraction Algorithm for Hand Drawings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for extracting lines from hand drawings.It starts from contour pixel tracing,fits them into contour segments,and then extracts skeleton lines from the contour segments.The algorithm finds all contours in one scan of the input matrix without detecting and marking multiple pixels.In line extraction,the method Elastic Contour Segment Tracing is proposed which extracts lines by referring to the contour segments at both sides,overcoming noise and passing through blotted areas by fitting and extrapolation. Experiments on free hand mechanical drawings,sketches,letter/numerals,as well as Chinese characters are carried out and satisfactory results are achieved.

  1. Pain experience after simple tooth extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Taiseer Hussain; Alnahar, Amir

    2008-05-01

    To assess pain experience after simple uncomplicated tooth extraction and to see if there is a need to prescribe analgesic drugs after such a procedure. A random sample of patients presenting for tooth extraction at the Maxillofacial Unit, Jordan University of Science and Technology was included. A baseline assessment of previously experienced general and dental pains using numeric scales was done. Subsequently, tooth extractions were done and telephone interviews were made during evenings for a week. Pain intensity was assessed on a numeric scale, and use of analgesic drugs and pain quality were recorded. At the evening of extraction 81.8% of patients had pain. Female gender predominance in pain reporting was statistically significant on postextraction days 3 and 5. Chronically inflamed teeth caused the highest mean pain intensity scores and nonsmokers showed significantly higher mean pain intensity scores compared with smokers. Mild pain was experienced by most patients (38.6%) on the evening of extraction. It was found that 55.3% of participants (largely females) used analgesic drugs on the evening of extraction, and 6.8% of participants still used analgesic drugs on day 7 postextraction. There was a significant correlation between mean pain intensity score and previous dental injection pain. Patients, notably females, experienced pain of varying intensity after simple uncomplicated tooth extraction maximally at the evening of extraction; and greater than 50% of the patients used analgesic drugs. We recommend offering regular analgesic drugs during the first week after tooth extraction.

  2. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  3. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiong; He Gui-ming; Zhang Yun

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characteristic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  4. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Xiong; He; Gui-Ming; 等

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System(AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characterstic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  5. Vessel tree extraction using locally optimal paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; van Ginneken, Bram; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract vessel trees by continually extending detected branches with locally optimal paths. Our approach uses a cost function from a multi scale vessel enhancement filter. Optimal paths are selected based on rules that take into account the geometric characteristics...... of the vessel tree. Experiments were performed on 10 low dose chest CT scans for which the pulmonary vessel trees were extracted. The proposed method is shown to extract a better connected vessel tree and extract more of the small peripheral vessels in comparison to applying a threshold on the output...

  6. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh J. Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3 and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1. Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1 against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1 against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1 against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

  7. Solvent extraction of metals with hydroxamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, F; Khorassani, J H

    1978-07-01

    Solvent extraction with hydroxamic acids has been investigated. with comparison of aliphatic and aromatic reagents for the extraction of iron, copper, cobalt and nickel. Caprylohydroxamic acid has been evaluated for use in extraction systems for titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and uranium, both in terms of acidity of aqueous phase and oxidation state of the metal. It has been established that caprylohydroxamic acid in 1-hexanol is a suitable extractant for the removal of titanium(IV), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), molybdenum(VI) and uranium(VI) from 6M hydrochloric acid.

  8. Extraction of PCBs and water from river sediment using liquefied dimethyl ether as an extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Takaoka, Masaki; Kitade, Sin-ichiro; Takeda, Nobuo; Kanda, Hideki; Makino, Hisao; Matsumoto, Tadao; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and water could be simultaneously removed from river sediment by solvent extraction using liquefied dimethyl ether (DME) as the extractant. DME exists in a gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure and can dissolve organic substances and some amount of water; therefore, liquefied DME under moderate pressure (0.6-0.8 MPa) at room temperature can be effectively used to extract PCBs and water from contaminated sediment, and it can be recovered from the extract and reused easily. First, we evaluated the PCB and water extraction characteristics of DME from contaminated sediment. We found that 99% of PCBs and 97% of water were simultaneously extracted from the sediment using liquefied DME at an extraction time of 4320 s and a liquefied DME/sediment ratio of 60 mL g(-1). The extraction rate of PCBs and water was expressed in terms of a pseudo-first-order reaction rate. Second, we estimated the amount of DME that was recovered after extraction. We found that 91-92% of DME could be recovered. In other words, approximately 5-10% of DME was lost during extraction and recovery. It is necessary to optimize this process in order to recover DME efficiently. The extraction efficiency of the recovered DME is similar to that of the pure DME. From the results, we conclude that solvent extraction using liquefied DME is suitable for extracting PCBs and water from contaminated sediment. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Salido, Sofía; Sánchez, Adolfo; van Beek, Teris A; Altarejos, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    .... Among the fifty olive wood extracts obtained in this study, the most active ones were those prepared with ethyl acetate, either through direct extraction or by successive liquid-liquid partitioning...

  10. Acid Release from an Acid Sulfate Soil Sample Under Successive Extractions with Different Extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An acid sulfate soil sample was successively extracted with deionized water, 1 mol L-1 KCI and 0.000 5 mol L-1 Ca(OH)2 solutions. The results showed that only very small amounts of acidity were extracted by deionized water, possibly through slow jarosite hydrolysis. Acid release through jarosite hydrolysis was greatly enhanced by Ca(OH)2 extraction at the expense of the added OH- being neutralized by the acid released. Successive extraction of the sample with KCI removed the largest amounts of acidity from the sample. However, it is likely that the major form of acidity released by KC1 extraction was exchangeable acidity. The results also show the occurrence of low or non charged A1 and Fe species in water and Ca(OH)2 extracts after first a few extractions. It appears that such a phenomenon was related to a decreasing EC value with increasing number of extractions.

  11. The Effect of Different Extracting Agents on Extraction Rate of Polysaccharides in Shii- Takes from Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO; Liping

    2001-01-01

    Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) contains lots of bioactive components, such as equal amylose, mixed amylose, sugar albumen, albumen polysaccharide, proflin and so on, that all have effects of anticancer and restrain tumour. But the extraction rate by hot water and alkali solution is much low.  Different Shii-Takes contain polysaccharides with different properties and structures, such as acid-base property, solubility, stability and so on. So the property of extracting agent is one of important effects on extraction rate, in addition cell structures of Shii-Takes. Extraction of polysaccharides from four species of Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) from Guizhou in different extracting agents is studied in this paper. Extraction conditions are 0.5mol/L aqueous solution of extracting agents, 40 times of weight ratio of liquid and solid during 1hour at 60℃. The quantities of the polysaccharides extracted shows the following Table 1.……

  12. The Effect of Different Extracting Agents on Extraction Rate of Polysaccharides in Shii- Takes from Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) contains lots of bioactive components, such as equal amylose, mixed amylose, sugar albumen, albumen polysaccharide, proflin and so on, that all have effects of anticancer and restrain tumour. But the extraction rate by hot water and alkali solution is much low. Different Shii-Takes contain polysaccharides with different properties and structures, such as acid-base property, solubility, stability and so on. So the property of extracting agent is one of important effects on extraction rate, in addition cell structures of Shii-Takes. Extraction of polysaccharides from four species of Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) from Guizhou in different extracting agents is studied in this paper. Extraction conditions are 0.5mol/L aqueous solution of extracting agents, 40 times of weight ratio of liquid and solid during 1hour at 60℃. The quantities of the polysaccharides extracted shows the following Table 1.

  13. Extraction of glabridin with heat reflux extraction by response surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ying DING

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the extraction process of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra. Methods: The solid-liquid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature are the three main factors in the experiment, and the extract solvent is ethyl acetate. Establish the response surface quadratic regression equation of glabridin extraction rate and purity. Results:The results indicate that the optimum conditions for glabridin are as follows: solvent is ethyl acetate, extraction time is 90 min, the ratio of solvent to solid is 35 ∶1 (ml/g, and extraction temperature is 44.7 ℃, purity and the maximum yield of Extraction of glabridin are 6.96% and 0.241%, The validation test shows that the experimental values of the model are 0.235% and 6.05% . Conclusion: The model equation can predict the experimental results, it can be used as reference in industrial production. 

  14. Extraction of betulin from bark of Betula platyphylla by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-hong; YU Tao; WANG Yang

    2003-01-01

    Betulin, which is a medicinal pentacyclic triterpene, is abundant in the bark of white birch (Betula platyphlly). The bark of birch was collected at Tayuan Forest Farm of Jiagedaqi, Heilongjiang Province in September 2000. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that is a new separation technology has been used for the processing pharmaceutical and natural products. In this paper, the extraction of betulin from the bark of birch by supercritical CO2 extraction was studied. The authors investigated and analyzed a few parameters such as modifier dosage, extraction pressure and extraction temperature. The optimal extraction conditions showed that the modifier dosage used for per gram bark powder was 1.5 mL, the extraction pressure was at 20 Mpa, and the extraction temperature was at 55 ℃. The velocity of flow of liquid CO2 was at 10 kg/h. The pressure and temperature in separation vessel were at 5.5 Mpa and 50 ℃, respectively.

  15. Microwave-assisted extraction versus Soxhlet extraction to determine triterpene acids in olive skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pastor, Ignacio; Fernandez-Hernandez, Antonia; Perez-Criado, Sergio; Rivas, Francisco; Martinez, Antonio; Garcia-Granados, Andres; Parra, Andres

    2017-03-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction is compared with a more classical technique, Soxhlet extraction, to determine the content of triterpene acids in olive skins. The samples used in their original unmilled state and milled were extracted with ethyl acetate or methanol as solvents. The optimized operating conditions (e.g., amount and type of solvent, and time and temperature of extractions) to attain the better extraction yields have been established. For the identification and quantitation of the target compounds, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was employed. The best results were achieved using the microwave-assisted extraction technique, which was much faster than the Soxhlet extraction method, and showed higher efficiency in the extraction of the triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic).

  16. Combined extraction processes of lipid from Chlorella vulgaris microalgae: microwave prior to supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dejoye, Céline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    ...) allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO(2) extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic...

  17. Betalains and phenolics in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) peel extracts: extraction and characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, T; Loponen, J; Pihlaja, K

    2001-01-01

    The extraction of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) peel betalains and phenolics was compared with two extraction methods and solvents. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined according to a modification of the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The profiles of extracts were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compounds of beetroot peel extracted with 80% aqueous methanol were characterised from separated fractions using HPLC- diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) techniques. The extraction methods and the choice of solvent affected noticeably the content of individual compounds in the extract. The betalains found in beetroot peel extract were vulgaxanthin I, vulgaxanthin II, indicaxanthin, betanin, prebetanin, isobetanin and neobetanin. Also cyclodopa glucoside, N-formylcyclodopa glucoside, glucoside of dihydroxyindol-carboxylic acid, betalamic acid, L-tryptophan, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and traces of unidentified flavonoids were detected.

  18. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  19. Language extraction from zinc sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varn, Dowman Parks

    2001-09-01

    Recent advances in the analysis of one-dimensional temporal and spacial series allow for detailed characterization of disorder and computation in physical systems. One such system that has defied theoretical understanding since its discovery in 1912 is polytypism. Polytypes are layered compounds, exhibiting crystallinity in two dimensions, yet having complicated stacking sequences in the third direction. They can show both ordered and disordered sequences, sometimes each in the same specimen. We demonstrate a method for extracting two-layer correlation information from ZnS diffraction patterns and employ a novel technique for epsilon-machine reconstruction. We solve a long-standing problem---that of determining structural information for disordered materials from their diffraction patterns---for this special class of disorder. Our solution offers the most complete possible statistical description of the disorder. Furthermore, from our reconstructed epsilon-machines we find the effective range of the interlayer interaction in these materials, as well as the configurational energy of both ordered and disordered specimens. Finally, we can determine the 'language' (in terms of the Chomsky Hierarchy) these small rocks speak, and we find that regular languages are sufficient to describe them.

  20. Volume-Enclosing Surface Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Schlei, B R

    2010-01-01

    A new method is presented here, which allows one to construct triangular surfaces from three-dimensional data sets, such as 3D image data and/or numerical simulation data that are based on regularly shaped, cubic lattices. This novel volume-enclosing surface extraction technique, which has been named VESTA, is guaranteed to always produce surfaces that do not contain any holes, e.g., in contrast to the well-known and very popular Marching Cubes algorithm, which has been developed by W.E. Lorensen and H.E. Cline in the mid-1980s. VESTA is not template based. In fact, the surface tiles are determined with a fast and robust construction technique. Among other things, VESTA's relationship to the DICONEX algorithm is explained, which -- in a lower-dimensional analogy -- produces contours from two-dimensional data sets, such as 2D gray-level images. In particular, the generation of isosurfaces from initially created VESTA surfaces is demonstrated here for the very first time. A few examples are provided, namely in ...

  1. Extracting entanglement from identical particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, N; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B

    2014-04-18

    Identical particles and entanglement are both fundamental components of quantum mechanics. However, when identical particles are condensed in a single spatial mode, the standard notions of entanglement, based on clearly identifiable subsystems, break down. This has led many to conclude that such systems have limited value for quantum information tasks, compared to distinguishable particle systems. To the contrary, we show that any entanglement formally appearing amongst the identical particles, including entanglement due purely to symmetrization, can be extracted into an entangled state of independent modes, which can then be applied to any task. In fact, the entanglement of the mode system is in one-to-one correspondence with the entanglement between the inaccessible identical particles. This settles the long-standing debate about the resource capabilities of such states, in particular spin-squeezed states of Bose-Einstein condensates, while also revealing a new perspective on how and when entanglement is generated in passive optical networks. Our results thus reveal new fundamental connections between entanglement, squeezing, and indistinguishability.

  2. Upper incisors' positions after extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics.

  3. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Assays on Polygonum minus Extracts: Different Extraction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The effect of solvent type and extraction method was investigated to study the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Polygonum minus. Two extraction methods were used: a solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the free radical-scavenging capacity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The highest polyphenol content was obtained from the m...

  4. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev; Renata R. Iskhakova; Zamzagul D. Dosymbaeva; Esen N. Sulejmenov

    2014-01-01

    There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  5. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible and managea

  6. [Guided tooth eruption via serial extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, C

    1995-01-01

    Crowding of teeth is the result of arch length discrepancy (ALD). Minimal crowding can be solved with slice-technique, more severe crowding (ALD > or = 5 mm) can be intercepted with a serial extraction procedure. In this paper a sequence of serial extraction will be explained and illustrated with case reports.

  7. Reactive extraction of lactic acid using alamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting it out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent) sy

  8. Ranking XPaths for extracting search result records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2012-01-01

    Extracting search result records (SRRs) from webpages is useful for building an aggregated search engine which combines search results from a variety of search engines. Most automatic approaches to search result extraction are not portable: the complete process has to be rerun on a new search result

  9. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  10. Fingerprint Minutiae Extraction using Deep Learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, Luke Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available components, such as image enhancement. We pose minutiae extraction as a machine learning problem and propose a deep neural network – MENet, for Minutiae Extraction Network – to learn a data-driven representation of minutiae points. By using the existing...

  11. Heavy metals extraction from anaerobically digested sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Bruning, H.; Loan, N.T.P.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical extraction efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge from an activated-sludge system, which receives as influent both industrial and municipal wastewater. Utilizing a series of chemical extractants in a sequential order comprised the first phase of the

  12. How biomass composition determines protein extractability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Syafitri, U.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass consists of a complex mixture of different components, of which protein potentially has a high added value for biorefinery. In this study, protein extractability of different types of biomass, mostly by-products, was analyzed. Protein yield obtained from a three step extraction using alkali

  13. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto extract, including pigments... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF...

  14. How biomass composition determines protein extractability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Syafitri, U.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass consists of a complex mixture of different components, of which protein potentially has a high added value for biorefinery. In this study, protein extractability of different types of biomass, mostly by-products, was analyzed. Protein yield obtained from a three step extraction using alkali

  15. Automated extraction of DNA from clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing t...

  16. Heavy metals extraction from anaerobically digested sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Bruning, H.; Loan, N.T.P.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical extraction efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge from an activated-sludge system, which receives as influent both industrial and municipal wastewater. Utilizing a series of chemical extractants in a sequential order comprised the first phase of the

  17. Outcomes of lead extraction in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Chami, Mikhael F; Sayegh, Michael N; Patel, Adarsh; El-Khalil, Jad; Desai, Yaanik; Leon, Angel R; Merchant, Faisal M

    2017-04-01

    Extraction of pacemaker and defibrillator leads in young adults may be technically challenging because of more extensive fibrosis and calcification in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes of lead extraction (LE) in young adults at our institution. We retrospectively identified all patients who underwent LE at our institution between January 1, 2007, and May 31, 2016. Patients were divided by age into 2 groups: extracted per procedure compared to group 1 (1.64 ± 0.80 vs 1.45 ± 0.64; P extraction techniques more frequently (9.5% vs 4.4%; P = .055). Extraction procedural success (group 1: 94.1%, group 2: 94.9%; P = .792), major complications (group 1: 0%, group 2: 1.3%; P = 1), and periprocedural mortality (group 1: 0%, group 2: 0.86%; P = 1) were similar in the 2 groups. LE can be performed safely and effectively in young adults. Despite the lower number of leads extracted per procedure and the similar lead dwell time, younger adults more frequently required the use of femoral extraction tools, thus highlighting the importance of performing these procedures in centers with advanced expertise in extraction techniques. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. WEB CONTENT EXTRACTION USING HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nethra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is done through Web page segmentation, but it increases the time complexity. Hand crafted rule generation uses string manipulation function for rule generation, but generating those rules is very difficult. A hybrid approach is proposed to extract main content from Web pages. A HTML Web page is converted to DOM tree and features are extracted and with the extracted features, rules are generated. Decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are machine learning methods used for rules generation. By using the rules, noisy part in the Web page is discarded and informative content in the Web page is extracted. The performance of both decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are measured with metrics like precision, recall, F-measure and accuracy.

  19. Differential extraction of axonally transported proteoglycans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, J.S. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Axonally transported proteoglycans were differentially solubilized by a sequence of extractions designed to infer their relationship to nerve terminal membranes. Groups of goldfish were injected unilaterally with 35SO4 and contralateral optic tecta containing axonally transported molecules were removed 16 h later. Tecta were homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min to create a total supernatant fraction. Subsequent homogenizations followed by recentrifugation were with hypotonic buffer (lysis extract), 1 M NaCl, Triton X-100 or alternatively Triton-1 M NaCl. Populations of proteoglycans in each extract were isolated on DEAE ion exchange columns and evaluated for content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Results show the distribution of transported proteoglycans to be 26.3% total soluble, 13.7% lysis extract, 13.8% NaCl extract, 12.2% Triton extract, and 46.2% Triton-NaCl extract. Proteoglycans from all fractions contained heparan sulfate as the predominant GAG, with lesser amounts of chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate. The possible localizations of transported proteoglycans suggested by the extraction results are discussed.

  20. Kinetics and thermodynamics of cottonseed oil extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, D. K.; Sharma, S. K.

    2011-07-01

    Petroleum derived n-hexane is commercially used in solvent extraction plants due to its higher extraction efficiency in spite of the fact that it is graded as highly toxic and hazardous. The present study is based on the use of both a much safer and non toxic solvent ethanol and n-hexane for the extraction of oil from cottonseed. The extraction data were obtained by varying temperature, solvent-solid ratio and particle size, to compare the extraction efficiency of both ethanol and n-hexane. The data show that nearly the same amount of extraction is possible at a higher solvent-solid ratio for both the solvents. This study has established that the kinetics of oil extraction follows a second order reaction mechanism. The thermodynamic analysis of the data shows that both .{delta}H degree centigrade and {delta}G degree centigrade are positive, and {delta}G degree centigrade is negative indicating that the extraction process is endothermic, irreversible, and spontaneous. (Author) 41 refs.

  1. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  2. Rapid extraction of PCDD/Fs from soil and fly ash samples. Pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, P.; Fabrellas, B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The main reference extraction method in the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) is still the Soxhlet extraction. But it requires long extraction times (up to 24 hs), large volumes of hazardous organic solvents (100-300 ml) and its automation is limited. Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) and Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) are two relatively new extraction techniques that reduce the time and the volume of solvent required for extraction. However, very different PFE extraction conditions are found for the same enviromental matrices in the literature. MAE is not a extraction technique very applied for the analysis of PCDD/Fs yet, although it is used for the determination of other organic compounds, such as PCBs and PAHs. In this study, PFE and MAE extraction conditions were optimized to determine PCDDs y PCDFs in fly ash and soil/sediment samples. Conventional Soxhlet extraction with toluene was used to compare the extraction efficiency of both techniques.

  3. Effect of different extraction protocols on anticancer and antioxidant activities of Berberis koreana bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Syed Abdul; Kwon, Min Chul; Han, Jae Gun; Ha, Ji He; Chung, Hyang Suk; Ahn, Juhee; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2009-03-01

    High-pressure extraction and ultrasonification extraction techniques were employed to extract bioactive compounds from Berberis koreana. This study aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonification in a high pressure process on the extraction yield, and the anticancer and antioxidant activities of the B. koreana bark extract. The effect of high-pressure extraction time when carried out for 5 and 15 min (HP5 and HP15) was also investigated. The best extraction yield with maximum percentage of phenolic compounds was obtained using high pressure with sonification (HPWS) extraction method. Experimental results indicated that HPWS altered the antioxidant activities, including the scavenging capacity of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine oxidase. HP5 and HP15 with conventional extraction have almost similar bioactivity, but showed lower antioxidant and anticancer activities compared to HPWS. The results showed that the application of ultrasonification improved the extraction efficiency for bioactive compounds and, as deduced from chromatographic profiles, it may have allowed the release of new compounds. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed evidence of rupturing of the tissue surface treated with HPWS, in contrast to conventional extraction, HP5, and HP15. The HPWS extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active compounds of hard plant tissues.

  4. Natural colorants: Pigment stability and extraction yield enhancement via utilization of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamwonglumlert, Luxsika; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn

    2017-10-13

    Natural colorants from plant-based materials have gained increasing popularity due to health consciousness of consumers. Among the many steps involved in the production of natural colorants, pigment extraction is one of the most important. Soxhlet extraction, maceration, and hydrodistillation are conventional methods that have been widely used in industry and laboratory for such a purpose. Recently, various non-conventional methods, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed-electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction have emerged as alternatives to conventional methods due to the advantages of the former in terms of smaller solvent consumption, shorter extraction time, and more environment-friendliness. Prior to the extraction step, pretreatment of plant materials to enhance the stability of natural pigments is another important step that must be carefully taken care of. In this paper, a comprehensive review of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods for chlorophylls, carotenoids, betalains, and anthocyanins, which are major classes of plant pigments, is provided by using pigment stability and extraction yield as assessment criteria.

  5. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  6. Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun; Ji, Xiangming; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-14

    Three extraction strategies including Soxhlet extraction, conventional solid-liquid extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared for their efficiency to extract phenolic antioxidants from Virginia-grown soybean seeds. Five extraction solvents were evaluated in UAE and the conventional extraction. The soybean extracts were compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities. The results showed that UAE improved the extraction of soybean phenolic compounds by >54% compared to the conventional and Soxhlet extractions. Among the tested solvents, 50% acetone was the most efficient for extracting soybean phenolic compounds. There was no significant correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activities of the soybean extracts. The extracts prepared by 70% ethanol had the highest ORAC values. Overall, UAE with 50% acetone or 70% ethanol is recommended for extracting soybean antioxidants on the basis of the TPC and ORAC results.

  7. Synergy and antagonism of active constituents of ADAPT-232 on transcriptional level of metabolic regulation of isolated neuroglial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander George Panossian; Rebecca eHamm; Onat eKadioglu; Georg Carl Wikman; Thomas eEfferth

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiling was performed on the human neuroglial cell line T98G after treatment with adaptogen ADAPT-232 and its constituents – extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus root, Schisandra chinensis berry, and Rhodiola rosea root as well as several constituents individually, namely, eleutheroside E, schizandrin B, salidroside, triandrin, and tyrosol. A common feature for all tested adaptogens was their effect on G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways, i.e. cAMP, phosph...

  8. Synergy and Antagonism of Active Constituents of ADAPT-232 on Transcriptional Level of Metabolic Regulation of Isolated Neuroglial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Panossian, Alexander; Hamm, Rebecca; Kadioglu, Onat; Wikman, Georg; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiling was performed on the human neuroglial cell line T98G after treatment with adaptogen ADAPT-232 and its constituents – extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus root, Schisandra chinensis berry, and Rhodiola rosea root as well as several constituents individually, namely, eleutheroside E, schizandrin B, salidroside, triandrin, and tyrosol. A common feature for all tested adaptogens was their effect on G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways, i.e., cAMP, phospholipas...

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Wedelia trilobata crude extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

    1999-05-01

    A biological screening of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and fungi of crude extracts from Wedelia trilobata is reported. The n-hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram-positive bacteria); along with Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella group C, Salmonella paratyphi, and Shigella sonnei (Gram-negative bacteria). The ethyl acetate extract was active only against Salmonella group C; and the aqueous extract was inactive against the tested bacteria. None of the tested extracts showed biological activity against the yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra) or the fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum).

  10. Antimicrobial screening of Cichorium intybus seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef shaikh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants play an important role in the field of natural products and human health care system. Chemical constituents present in the various parts of the plants can resist to parasitic attack by using several defense mechanisms. One such mechanism is the synthesis of antimicrobial compound. Cichorium intybus is one of the important medicinal plants which belong to Asteraceae family. In the present work, antimicrobial screening of C. intybus seed extract was studied by agar well diffusion assay by using aqueous and organic extracts. The pathogenic microorganisms tested include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. All the seed extracts showed antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms whereas S. aureus was found to be most sensitive against aqueous extract and had the widest zone of inhibition. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extract were found to be significant against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The results obtained from antimicrobial screening scientifically support the effectiveness of the medicinal plant.

  11. Antimicrobial Effect of Extracts of Cruciferous Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Hu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The cruciferous vegetables cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, Chinese radish, Chinese kale, and Chinese kitam were used in this study to prepare water-soluble and methanol-water extracts. Crude protein extracts were also obtained by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE anion exchange chromatography. Water-soluble polysaccharides were prepared by ethanol precipitation followed by ultrafiltration. The antimicrobial effects of all these extracts were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast. Crude protein extracts exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity in monoculture experiments. The antimicrobial effects of cruciferous vegetables were also studied by steeping beef, carrot, and celery in chlorine (10 ppm or citric acid solution (1% containing the crude protein extract (500 ppm for different time periods. Total aerobic plate counts and coliform counts on these foods decreased significantly after 10 minutes in all steeping solutions (p < 0.05.

  12. Extraction Optimization of Polysaccharides from Pitaya Stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cong-fen; LI Peng; ZHAO Hua; SONG Li-ya; ZHU Jun; DONG Yin-mao

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to describe the extraction of polysaccharides from pitaya stems.[Method] The hot water,enzyme-assisted and microwave-assisted methods were used,with the microwave-assisted extraction being deemed optimal by general evaluation.[Result] The main factors affecting the yield of polysaccharides in the microwave-assisted extraction,by order of magnitude,were as follows:timemicrowave powertemperature;additionally,optimal conditions included a 10 min extraction time,an 80 ℃ extraction temperature and a microwave setting of 200 W.Using these optimal conditions,the yield of PSPS(Polysaccharides from Pitaya Stems) was 1.42%.After purification,the yield of PSPS was 0.74%.[Conclusion] The PSPS was analyzed by IR,MALDI-TOF-MS and an element analysis technique.It was shown to be a polysaccharide mixture,and the molecular weight was between 3 900 and 4 300 Da.

  13. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2003-01-01

    In the process of wastewater treatment hydrolysis of polymeric substances is the first and rate-limiting step. A closer study of the enzymes catalysing these reactions is essential for a better understanding of the microbial activity in the wastewater treatment process. Therefore, development...... of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...... and negligible protease activity was extracted in the presence of buffer alone, indicating that enzyme extraction was not due to shear force alone. The highest lipase activity was extracted using 0.1% Triton X-100 above which the activity was gradually decreasing. For proteases, the highest activity was obtained...

  14. Time profile of the slowly extracted beam

    CERN Document Server

    Pullia, M

    1997-01-01

    An important spin-off from accelerators is the use of synchrotrons for cancer therapy. For this application a precise control of the slow extraction is needed to satisfy the medical specifications for the online measurement and control of the delivered dose. This has led to a renewed interest in the basic theory of third-order resonance extraction. In the present paper, an analytic study of the time profile of the extracted beam is made by first considering the time profile of an elementary strip of monoenergetic particles from the side of the shrinking stable triangle. This basic result is then used to predict the characteristics of the spills for the most common extraction configurations. The influence of ripples whose period is comparable to the transit time of a particle in the resonance is also analyzed. Simulations of the extraction process that confirm the analytic study are included.

  15. Nondestructive DNA extraction from museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofreiter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Natural history museums around the world hold millions of animal and plant specimens that are potentially amenable to genetic analyses. With more and more populations and species becoming extinct, the importance of these specimens for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses is rapidly increasing. However, as most DNA extraction methods damage the specimens, nondestructive extraction methods are useful to balance the demands of molecular biologists, morphologists, and museum curators. Here, I describe a method for nondestructive DNA extraction from bony specimens (i.e., bones and teeth). In this method, the specimens are soaked in extraction buffer, and DNA is then purified from the soaking solution using adsorption to silica. The method reliably yields mitochondrial and often also nuclear DNA. The method has been adapted to DNA extraction from other types of specimens such as arthropods.

  16. Cinnamomum casia Extract Encapsulated Nanochitosan as Antihypercholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiwiyana; Purbowatiningrum; Fachriyah, Enny; Ismiyarto

    2017-02-01

    Atherosclerosis vascular disease with clinical manifestations such as cardiovascular disease and stroke are the leading cause of death in Indonesia. One solution to these problems is a natural antihypercholesterol medicine by utilizing Cinnamomum casia extract. However, the use of natural extracts to lower blood cholesterol levels do not provide optimal results because it is possible that the active components of extract have been degraded/damaged during the absorption process. So that, we need to do the research to get a combination of chitosan nanoparticles-Cinnamomum casia. extract as a compound which has an antihypercholesterol activity through the in vitro study. Modification of natural extracts encapsulated nanochitosan be a freshness in this study, which were conducted using the method of inclusion. The combination of both has the dual function of protecting the natural extracts from degradation and deliver the natural extracts to the target site. Analysis of nanochitosan using the Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) shows the particle size of synthesis product that is equal to 64.9 nm. Encapsulation efficiency of Cinnamomum casia extract-Chitosan Nanoparticles known through UV-VIS spectrophotometry test and obtained the efficiency encapsulation percentage of 84.93%. Zeta Potential at 193,3 mv that chitosan appropriate for a delivery drug. Antihypercholesterol activity tested in vitro assay that showed the extract-nanoparticle chitosan in concentration 150 ppm gave the highest cholesterol decreasing level in the amount of 49.66% w/v. So it can be concluded that Cinnamomum casia extract can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it has a cholesterol-lowering effect through the in vitro study.

  17. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose.

  18. Influence of extraction method on protein profile of soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlićević Milica Ž.; Stanojević Slađana P.; Vucelić-Radović Biljana V.

    2013-01-01

    Comparison between protein profiles of soybean obtained by commonly used methods of extraction (Tris buffer and Tris-urea buffer) with methods used for extraction of plant proteins for 2D PAGE analysis (direct solubilization in IEF buffer, acetone extraction, phenol extraction, extraction with urea solubilization buffer and thiourea-urea extraction) was investigated. 2D profiles of samples extracted directly in IEF buffer, in urea solubilization buffer and in acetone were characterized ...

  19. Isolation and Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Epimedium Koreanum Nakai by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ming; ZHAO Xue-liang; LIU Zhi-qiang; XING Jun-peng

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper is reported the method for the isolation and extraction of total flavonoids of Epimedium Koreanum Nakai by means of supercritical fluid extraction(SFE). By examining pressure, temperature, amounts of modifier and extraction time, the optimized condition of SFE is confirmed as 30 MPa and 60 ℃, with 70% ethanol as the modifier. The samples were statically extracted for 30 min, followed by dynamic extraction for 120 min at a flow rate of 6 mL/min. The quantitative analysis of total flavonoids was performed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Compared with the conventional method, the SFE method is more efficient, more rapid and more friendly environmentally.

  20. Combined extraction processes of lipid from chlorella vulgaris microalgae: microwave prior to supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Chemat; Frederic Charton; Céline Dejoye; Maryline Abert Vian; Guy Lumia; Christian Bouscarle

    2011-01-01

    Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2). Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO2 e...

  1. Different methods to select the best extraction system for solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicka-Daszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The optimization methods for planning a solid-phase extraction experiment are presented. These methods are based on a study of interactions between different parts of an extraction system. Determination of the type and strength of interaction depends on the physicochemical properties of the individual components of the system. The main parameters that determine the extraction properties are described in this work. The influence of sorbents' and solvents' polarity on extraction efficiency, Hansen solubility parameters and breakthrough volume determination on sorption and desorption extraction step are discussed.

  2. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  3. Are extraction methods in quantitative assays of pharmacopoeia monographs exhaustive? A comparison with pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalo, Carlos; Mohn, Tobias; Hamburger, Matthias

    2006-10-01

    The extraction methods in selected monographs of the European and the Swiss Pharmacopoeia were compared to pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with respect to the yield of constituents to be dosed in the quantitative assay for the respective herbal drugs. The study included five drugs, Belladonnae folium, Colae semen, Boldo folium, Tanaceti herba and Agni casti fructus. They were selected to cover different classes of compounds to be analyzed and different extraction methods to be used according to the monographs. Extraction protocols for PLE were optimized by varying the solvents and number of extraction cycles. In PLE, yields > 97 % of extractable analytes were typically achieved with two extraction cycles. For alkaloid-containing drugs, the addition of ammonia prior to extraction significantly increased the yield and reduced the number of extraction cycles required for exhaustive extraction. PLE was in all cases superior to the extraction protocol of the pharmacopoeia monographs (taken as 100 %), with differences ranging from 108 % in case of parthenolide in Tanaceti herba to 343 % in case of alkaloids in Boldo folium.

  4. Clinical research of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S G; Guan, S H; Wang, G M; Liu, G Y; Sun, H; Wang, B J; Xu, F

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the curative effects of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of headache and dizziness caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sixty patients were observed, who underwent therapy with persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract based on the treatment of nimodipine and aspirin. After 30 days, 30 patients treated with persimmon leaf extract and 30 patients with ginkgo biloba extract were examined for changes in hemodynamic indexes and symptoms, such as headache and dizziness. The results showed statistically significant differences of 88.3% for the persimmon leaf extract and 73.1% for the ginkgo biloba extract, P ginkgo biloba extract, the group of persimmon leaf extract had more apparent improvement in the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematokrit, and platelet adhesion rate, and the difference was statistically significant (P ginkgo biloba extract in many aspects, such as cerebral circulation improvement, cerebral vascular expansion, hypercoagulable state lowering and vertebrobasilar insufficiency-induced headache and dizziness relief.

  5. A review on solid phase extraction of actinides and lanthanides with amide based extractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Seraj A; Mohapatra, Prasanta K

    2017-05-26

    Solid phase extraction is gaining attention from separation scientists due to its high chromatographic utility. Though both grafted and impregnated forms of solid phase extraction resins are popular, the later is easy to make by impregnating a given organic extractant on to an inert solid support. Solid phase extraction on an impregnated support, also known as extraction chromatography, combines the advantages of liquid-liquid extraction and the ion exchange chromatography methods. On the flip side, the impregnated extraction chromatographic resins are less stable against leaching out of the organic extractant from the pores of the support material. Grafted resins, on the other hand, have a higher stability, which allows their prolong use. The goal of this article is a brief literature review on reported actinide and lanthanide separation methods based on solid phase extractants of both the types, i.e., (i) ligand impregnation on the solid support or (ii) ligand functionalized polymers (chemically bonded resins). Though the literature survey reveals an enormous volume of studies on the extraction chromatographic separation of actinides and lanthanides using several extractants, the focus of the present article is limited to the work carried out with amide based ligands, viz. monoamides, diamides and diglycolamides. The emphasis will be on reported applied experimental results rather than on data pertaining fundamental metal complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process.

  7. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Mazutti,M.; Mossi,A. J.; CANSIAN,R.L.; Corazza,M. L.; Dariva,C.; Vladimir Oliveira,J.

    2008-01-01

    This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC) and pressure (100 to 250 bar) on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, ...

  8. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Mazutti,M.; A J Mossi; CANSIAN,R.L.; M. L. Corazza; Dariva,C.; J. Vladimir Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC) and pressure (100 to 250 bar) on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, ...

  9. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased.

  10. Massive clot formation after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Hunasgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral surgical procedures mainly tooth extraction can be related with an extended hemorrhage owed to the nature of the process resulting in an "open wound." The attempt of this paper is to present a case of massive postoperative clot formation after tooth extraction and highlight on the oral complications of surgical procedures. A 32-year-old male patient reported to the Dental Clinic for evaluation and extraction of grossly decayed 46. Clinical evaluation of 46 revealed root stumps. Extraction of the root stumps was performed, and it was uneventful. Hemostasis was achieved and postsurgical instructions were specified to the patient. The patient reported to the clinic, the very subsequent morning with a criticism of bleeding at the extraction site. On clinical examination, bleeding was noted from the socket in relation to 46. To control bleeding, oral hemostatic drugs Revici - E (Ethamsylate 500 mg was prescribed and bleeding was stopped in 2 h. However, a massive clot was formed at the extraction site. Further, this clot resolved on its own in 1-week time. Despite the fact that dental extraction is considered to be a minor surgical procedure, some cases may present with life-threatening complications including hemorrhage. Vigilant and significant history taking, physical and dental examinations prior to dental procedures are a must to avoid intraoperative and postoperative complications.

  11. INTEGRATED SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION AND BIOPROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Catchpole

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluids are increasingly being used and promoted at a laboratory and pilot scale to produce high value, natural bioactives from biologically based raw materials. Supercritical CO2 is overwhelmingly the solvent of choice for these operations, but is largely limited to the processing of dry raw materials and the extraction of low polarity, low molecular weight compounds. The use of co-solvents and the use of alternative ‘near-critical’ extraction fluids such as dimethyl ether show potential to mitigate these limitations. Commercialisation of new supercritical extraction processes has arguably been limited because the supercritical extraction process has been developed in isolation of other processing steps necessary to achieve a successful product. This study reviews recent developments in integrated processing that incorporate the use of supercritical fluids for bioseparations and in particular process schemes that produce high value natural bioactives. Integrated processes include prior operation (fermentation, extraction, enzyme pre-treatment, physical fractionation or size reduction followed by supercritical extraction or fractionation and processes in which operations are carried out in situ in supercritical fluids (supercritical chromatography, enzymatic conversion, precipitation and coating of solutes. The use of co-solvents and alternative extraction solvents in these processes is discussed. Prospects for future developments are also discussed.

  12. Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  13. Oil extraction from microalgae for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Ronald; Gladman, Brendan; Danquah, Michael K; Webley, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the performance of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO(2)) extraction and hexane extraction of lipids from marine Chlorococcum sp. for lab-scale biodiesel production. Even though the strain of Chlorococcum sp. used in this study had a low maximum lipid yield (7.1 wt% to dry biomass), the extracted lipid displayed a suitable fatty acid profile for biodiesel [C18:1 (∼63 wt%), C16:0 (∼19 wt%), C18:2 (∼4 wt%), C16:1 (∼4 wt%), and C18:0 (∼3 wt%)]. For SCCO(2) extraction, decreasing temperature and increasing pressure resulted in increased lipid yields. The mass transfer coefficient (k) for lipid extraction under supercritical conditions was found to increase with fluid dielectric constant as well as fluid density. For hexane extraction, continuous operation with a Soxhlet apparatus and inclusion of isopropanol as a co-solvent enhanced lipid yields. Hexane extraction from either dried microalgal powder or wet microalgal paste obtained comparable lipid yields. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Extraction and isolation of catechins from tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh; Roach, Paul D

    2010-11-01

    Tea is a major source of catechins, which have become well known for their antioxidant potential. Numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies have linked tea catechins with prevention of certain types of cancers, reduction of the risks for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and improvement of the immune system. Tea catechins are widely used in various neutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics for either enhancing product shelf-life or for enhancing human health. Thus, the demand for catechins has increased considerably. Catechins have been extracted and isolated from tea leaves by numerous methods through several steps including: treatment of the tea leaves, extraction of catechins from teas into solvents, isolation of catechins from other extracted components, and drying the preparations to obtain catechin extracts in a powder form. This paper outlines the physical and chemical properties of the tea catechins and reviews the extraction steps of the various extraction methods, as a basis to improve and further develop the extraction and isolation of the tea catechins.

  15. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L. Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hua Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract, which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  16. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul–Mehdi S. AL-ANSARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD. Plant materials used in study were collected from different areas of Basrah province, south of Iraq. Aqueous extracts were prepared at ratio of 1:10 (plant material: water and added at conc. of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 ml g– 1 soil to loamy sand soil. DCD was added to soil at rate of 50 µg g-1 soil . Soil received urea at rate of 1000 µg N g-1 soil. Treated soils were incubated at 30 OC for 40 days. Results showed that application of all plant extracts, except those of casuarina, date palm and eucalyptus to soil retarded nitrification in soil. Caper, Sowthistle ,bladygrass and pomegranate extracts showed highest inhibition percentage (51, 42, 40 and 40 %, respectively and were found to be more effective than DCD (33 %. Highest inhibition was achieved by using those extracts at conc. of 0.1 ml g-1 soil after 10 days of incubation . Data also revealed that treated soil with these plant extracts significantly increased amount of NH4+–N and decreased amount of NO3-–N accumulation in soil compared with DCD and control treatments. Results of the study suggested a possibility of using aqueous extracts of some studied plants as potent nitrification inhibitor in soil.

  17. Chronic toxicity of Passiflora foetida L. extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chivapat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The extract of Passiflora foetida leaf has been reported to possess various interesting biological benefits. The objective of this study was to investigate the safety of ethanolic extract, containing 0.84% vitexin in Wistar rats. The animals were randomly allocated into five groups, each of twenty four rats (12 male and 12 female. Four experimental groups were orally given the P. foetida extract at the doses of 16, 160, 800 and 1600 mg/kg/day for six months respectively, whereas the control received distilled water.  The extract did not affect the body weights, food intake and relative organ weights of the animals, and nor did cause the abnormal changes of hematological and biochemical values.  Histopathological alterations in the various organs of all extract-treated group did not show any significance, except the adrenal glands of the highest dose male group showed the appearance of fatty infiltration in the cortex; however this phenomenon might be physiological rather than pathological change.  The results suggested that the ethanolic extract of P. foetida extract at the given doses did not induce any harmful effects in the rats.   Industrial relevance: In this study, 40% ethanolic extract from Passiflora foetida leaves contained 0.84% vitexin  which was reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, other compounds i.e. Kaempferol, apigenin and luteolin in this plant were found to exert anti-histamine release. The present toxicity study revealed no harmful effect in the experimental animal. Therefore, the quality control of the above mentioned compounds in the extract could lead to anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drug development for compensation of excessive steroidal drugs usage.

  18. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  19. Extraction and assessment of chatter feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Presents feature wavelet packets(FWP)a new method of chatter feature extraction in milling process based on wavelet packets transform(WPF)and using vibration signal.Studies the procedure of automatic feature selection for a given process.Establishes an exponential autoregressive(EAR)model to extract limit cycle behavior of chatter since chatter is a nonlinear oscillation with limit cycle.And gives a way to determine FWTsnumber,and experimental data to assess the effectiveness of the WPT feature extraction by unforced response of EAR model of reconstructed signal.

  20. Enhanced Pattern Representation in Information Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖乐健; 曹元大; 张映波

    2004-01-01

    Traditional pattern representation in information extraction lack in the ability of representing domain-specific concepts and are therefore devoid of flexibility. To overcome these restrictions, an enhanced pattern representation is designed which includes ontological concepts, neighboring-tree structures and soft constraints. An information-extraction inference engine based on hypothesis-generation and conflict-resolution is implemented. The proposed technique is successfully applied to an information extraction system for Chinese-language query front-end of a job-recruitment search engine.

  1. Extraction and chromatography of carotenoids from pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung Sook; Burri, Betty Jane C; Quan, Zhejiu; Neidlinger, Terry R

    2005-05-06

    Vitamin A deficiency is a health problem in Southeast Asia that can be corrected by feeding orange fruits and vegetables such as mango. Pumpkin is a traditional Korean food that is easy to store and is already believed to have health benefits. We extracted carotenoids from pumpkin by liquid-liquid extraction and by supercritical fluid extraction. We measured carotenoids by reversed-phase chromatography with diode array detection. The major carotenoid in pumpkin (> 80%) is beta-carotene, with lesser amounts of lutein, lycopene, alpha-carotene and cis-beta-carotene. Pumpkin is a rich source of beta-carotene and might be useful for preventing Vitamin A deficiency.

  2. Nootropic effect of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the extracts of the aboveground parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench on the behavior and memory of mice after hypoxic injury and their physical performance in the open-field test were studied using the models of hypoxia in a sealed volume, conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR), and forced swimming with a load. The extracts improved animal resistance to hypoxia, normalized orientation and exploration activities, promoted CPAR retention after hypoxic injury, and increased physical performance. Aqueous extract of meadowsweet had the most pronounced effect that corresponded to the effect of the reference drug piracetam. These effects were probably caused by modulation of hippocampal activity.

  3. Extractive Distillation with Salt in Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Extractive distillation with salt in solvent is a new process for producing anhydrous ethanol by combining the principle of "salt effect" and some traditional extractive distillation methods. Compared with the common extractive distillation the performance of solvent is improved, the recycling amount of solvent is reduced to 1/4-1/5, and the number of theoretical plates is reduced to 1/3. Energy consumption and cost of equipment are also reduced and continuous production is realized. High efficiency and low solvent wastage make this technique feasible.

  4. Chinese Term Extraction Based on PAT Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; FAN Xiao-zhong; XU Yun

    2006-01-01

    A new method of automatic Chinese term extraction is proposed based on Patricia (PAT) tree. Mutual information is calculated based on prefix searching in PAT tree of domain corpus to estimate the internal associative strength between Chinese characters in a string. It can improve the speed of term candidate extraction largely compared with methods based on domain corpus directly. Common collocation suffix, prefix bank are constructed and term part of speech (POS) composing rules are summarized to improve the precision of term extraction. Experiment results show that the F-measure is 74.97 %.

  5. Method for analyzing solvent extracted sponge core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellington, W.E.; Calkin, C.L.

    1988-11-22

    For use in solvent extracted sponge core measurements of the oil saturation of earth formations, a method is described for quantifying the volume of oil in the fluids resulting from such extraction. The method consists of: (a) separating the solvent/oil mixture from the water in the extracted fluids, (b) distilling at least a portion of the solvent from the solvent/oil mixture substantially without co-distillation or loss of the light hydrocarbons in the mixture, (c) determining the volume contribution of the solvent remaining in the mixture, and (d) determining the volume of oil removed from the sponge by substracting the determined remaining solvent volume.

  6. Extracting diagnosis from Japanese radiological report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takeshi; Onogi, Yuzo

    2003-01-01

    This study is aimed at extracting diagnosis with positive or negative assertion from radiological report written in Japanese Natural Language. We get frequency of verb patterns that indicate pos/neg assertion, and extract a rule in order of the occurrence. We made customized dictionary of 36,152 terms relating to disease names or radiological findings, and tried to extract pairs of (pos/neg, disease and verb pattern ) by using rules according to the most frequent pattern from 1,524/5,000 CT reports (each report consists of 15.1 words on the average). We tried only a few rules so far, and continue to find other rules.

  7. Newer methods of extraction of teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHendra Chandha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atraumatic extraction methods are deemed to be important to minimize alveolar bone loss after tooth extraction. With the advent of such techniques, exodontia is no more a dreaded procedure in anxious patients. Newer system and techniques for extraction of teeth have evolved in the recent few decades. This article reviews and discusses new techniques to make simple and complex exodontias more efficient with improved patient outcomes. This includes physics forceps, powered periotome, piezosurgery, benex extractor, sonic instrument for bone surgery, lasers.

  8. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  9. Uvulo-glossopharyngeal dimensions in non-extraction, extraction with minimum anchorage, and extraction with maximum anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germec-Cakan, Derya; Taner, Tulin; Akan, Seden

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate upper respiratory airway dimensions in non-extraction and extraction subjects treated with minimum or maximum anchorage. Lateral cephalograms of 39 Class I subjects were divided into three groups (each containing 11 females and 2 males) according to treatment procedure: group 1, 13 patients treated with extraction of four premolars and minimum anchorage; group 2, 13 cases treated non-extraction with air-rotor stripping (ARS); and group 3, 13 bimaxillary protrusion subjects treated with extraction of four premolars and maximum anchorage. The mean ages of the patients were 18.1 ± 3.7, 17.8 ± 2.4, and 15.5 ± 0.88 years, respectively. Tongue, soft palate, hyoid position, and upper airway measurements were made on pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms and the differences between the mean measurements were tested using Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Superior and middle airway space increased significantly (P extraction treatment using maximum anchorage has a reducing effect on the middle and inferior airway dimensions.

  10. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis, while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract, total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract, and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05. DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05. As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  11. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Das

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis. Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm: ethanol (ml of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were modeled with seven different mathematical models, including Power law, Peleg, Weinbull’s equation, Pseudo 2nd order, Intraparticle diffusion, Logarithmic, Weinbull’s distribution and one RSM model developed in this study. Pseudo 2nd order model was best fitted model (R2 - 0.99, χ 2 - 0.0091, RMSE- 0.1566, MAE- 0.0115 to describe extraction kinetics of β-carotene from carrot. The extraction time has significant effect on extraction process at p<0.05 level.

  12. Pain and chewing sensitivity during fixed orthodontic treatment in extraction and non-extraction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Gulsilay

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in pain perception and chewing sensitivity between extraction and non-extraction patients. Thirty orthodontic patients (11 males, 19 females) were included in this study who were classified as extraction (n=15; 6 males, 9 females) and non-extraction patients (n=15; 7 males, 8 females). The mean age of patients were 15.10±1.83 years in non-extraction group and 15.44±0.75 years in extraction group. The patients were asked to complete the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire and they were asked to mark the presence or absence of sensitivity during 7 days after the first arch wire placement. Pain intensity comparison between groups was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. The Friedman test was used to analyze within-group differences over time. There were no significant differences in pain scores between the groups. Pain levels significantly decreased between day 1 and day 3 in both the groups. No differences were found in the chewing sensitivity between the non-extraction and extraction groups. No difference in the pain perception was observed between the extraction and non-extraction patients during the 7 days after arch wire placement.

  13. Separation of digoxin by luiquid-luiquid extraction from extracts of foxglove secondary glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novković Vesna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the extraction of digoxin (Dgx from chloroform and trichloroethylene extracts of the secondary glycosides of fermented foxglove (Digitalis lanata Ehrh. foliage by liquid-liquid extraction. The extraction degree (ED of Dgx achieved by maceration and percolation using 10% vol. aqueous ethanol solutions were higher than 95%. Using trichlorethylene and chloroform, the ED of Dgx of about 100% and 96%, respectively from the liquid ethanolic extracts (macerate or percolate were achieved by the four-cycle extraction. Fifteen separating funnels were employed for the liquid-liquid extraction. Three different four-component two-phase systems (ethanol:water - chloroform:ethyl acetate, ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene and ethanol:water - trichloroethylene:ethyl acetate were tested as an extracting solvent to get the final product having more than 98% of Dgx. The initial amount of the chloroform or trichloroethylene extract in the light phase was varied between 5 and 25 g/L, while the volume ratio of light and heavy phases was in the range of 1:1 to 1:2. The best Dgx yield of 98% was achieved with the system ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene 35:15:20:30 at the volume ratio of the phases of 1:1.1 and at the initial amount of the extract of 15 g/L. Purity of the separated digoxin was 99.8 %. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-34012

  14. Green Vehicle Guide Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. This data extraction tool allows...

  15. Lunar In-Situ Volatile Extraction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method of extracting volatile resources from the Lunar regolith is proposed to reduce the launch mass and cost of bringing such resources from the Earth to enable...

  16. Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) Chartbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Analytic eXtract Chartbooks are research tools and reference guides on Medicaid enrollees and their Medicaid experience in 2002 and 2004. Developed for...

  17. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL, and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE. The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  18. Antioxidant activity of mulberry fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75-1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC(50) from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  19. Comparison of pyrethrins extraction methods efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... Best developed method was used for determination of pyrethrin content in three different ... There are many areas of application of .... The extractions were made on a soxtec avanti 2055 manual system ... was automated.

  20. Automated Feature Extraction from Hyperspectral Imagery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed activities will result in the development of a novel hyperspectral feature-extraction toolkit that will provide a simple, automated, and accurate...

  1. Extraction of airways from CT (EXACT’09)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Ginneken, Bram van; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for establishing a reference airway tree segmentation, which was used to quantitatively evaluate 15 different airway tree extraction algorithms in a standardized manner. Because of the sheer difficulty involved in manually constructing a complete reference standard...... or not it is a correctly segmented part of the airway tree. Finally, the reference airway trees are constructed by taking the union of all correctly extracted branch segments. Fifteen airway tree extraction algorithms from different research groups are evaluated on a diverse set of 20 chest computed tomography (CT) scans...... from the evaluation showed that no single algorithm could extract more than an average of 74% of the total length of all branches in the reference standard, indicating substantial differences between the algorithms. A fusion scheme that obtained superior results is presented, demonstrating...

  2. Enzymatic Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The procedure of enzymatic aqueous extraction of soybean oil was assessed when two-step controlled enzymatic hydrolysis was applied. With aqueous extraction of soybean oil-containing protein, the highest yield of oil was 96.1% at the optimized conditions studied. Soybean oil-containing protein was hydrolyzed and resulted in releasing part of oil. The separated protein that contained 40% oil was enriched due to its adsorption capacity of released oil, the average oil extraction yeild reached 93.5%. Then the high oil content protein was hydrolyzed again to release oil by enzyme, the oil extraction yeild was 80.4%. As a result, high quality of soybean oil was obtained and the content of total oil yield was 74.4%.

  3. Blueberries extract supplementation improves physical performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of blueberry extracts (BBE) ... decreasing the blood lactic acid and MDA levels, while increasing SOD, ..... antioxidative status in basketball players during training.

  4. SPIRAL CONTACTOR FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, C.R.

    1961-06-13

    The patented extraction apparatus includes a column, perforated plates extending across the column, liquid pulse means connected to the column, and an imperforate spiral ribbon along the length of the column.

  5. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  6. Extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of carbaryl in environmental samples. ... Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... method has been developed for its determination in environmental samples viz. soil, water and ...

  7. Improved Bligh and Dyer extraction procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren K

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids are specific compounds with well known chemical composition, but they exist in a great variety of molecules which differ in chemical and physical characteristics. Quantitative extraction of fatty acids is therefore a challenge. An acidic Bligh and Dyer method has been developed...... and compared with the traditional Stoldt fat extraction method. It is shown that depending on the matrix, the HCl-Bligh and Dyer extraction leads to 10-15% more total fatty acids and a 30-50% increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with the official EU method. Besides being much more efficient...... for extraction of fatty acids, the HCl-Bligh and Dyer method is faster, and allows the inclusion of internal standard at the beginning of the sample treatment....

  8. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fraction...... of the generated ions. The ion extractor is surrounded by a space charge (810) formed at least in part by the extracted ions. The ion extractor includes a biased electrode (806) forming an interface with an insulator (808). The interface is customized to form a strongly curved potential distribution (812......) in the space-charge surrounding the ion extractor. The strongly curved potential distribution focuses the extracted ions towards an opening (814) on a surface of the biased electrode thereby resulting in an ion beam....

  9. Current practice in transvenous lead extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina; Kennergren, Charles

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Current practice with regard to transvenous lead extraction among European implanting centres was analysed by this survey. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among all contacted centres, 164, from 30 countries, declared that they perform transvenous lead extraction and answered 58 questions...... with a compliance rate of 99.9%. Data from the survey show that there seems to be an overall increasing experience of managing various techniques of lead extraction and a widespread involvement of cardiac centres in this treatment. Results and complication rates seem comparable with those of main international...... registries. CONCLUSION: This survey gives an interesting snapshot of lead extraction in Europe today and gives some clues for future research and prospective European registries....

  10. Perfecting technological schemes for peat extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatitskii, N.V.; Nikolaeva, S.M.; Gatitskii, V.N. (Uralgiprotorfa (USSR). Ural' skii Filial)

    1991-04-01

    Comparatively evaluates three methods for peat extraction used in the USSR: using the MTF-43A(B) equipment with a closed cycle of cutting and drying; using the PPF-6 equipment with separate peat drying; using the MTF-96 and VFS-1 equipment for separate peat cutting and drying, the MTG-17 loaders and the MTP-24V-1 transport system. Economic efficiency of the three extraction systems was comparatively evaluated on the basis of statistical data that characterize peat extraction in the Tomsk area. Extraction conditions are evaluated. The following information is analyzed: peat output, working time during a calendar year, number of mining cycles, number of personnel, operating cost, investment, profitability. Economic analysis showed that the analyzed methods are comparable.

  11. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  12. Final report on the safety assessment of Juniperus communis Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Tar, Juniperus phoenicea extract, and Juniperus virginiana Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The common juniper is a tree that grows in Europe, Asia, and North America. The ripe fruit of Juniperus communis and Juniperus oxycedrus is alcohol extracted to produce Juniperus Communis Extract and Juniperus Oxycedrus Extract, respectively. Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is the volatile oil from the wood of J. oxycedrus. Juniperus Phoenicea Extract comes from the gum of Juniperus phoenicea, and Juniperus Virginiana Extract is extracted from the wood of Juniperus virginiana. Although Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is produced as a by-product of distillation, no information was available on the manufacturing process for any of the Extracts. Oils derived from these varieties of juniper are used solely as fragrance ingredients; they are commonly produced using steam distillation of the source material, but it is not known if that procedure is used to produce extracts. One report does state that the chemical composition of Juniper Communis Oil and Juniperus Communis Extract is similar, each containing a wide variety of terpenoids and aromatic compounds, with the occasional aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes, and, more rarely, alkanes. The principle component of Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is cadinene, a sesquiterpene, but cresol and guaiacol are also found. No data were available, however, indicating the extent to which there would be variations in composition that may occur as a result of extraction differences or any other factor such as plant growth conditions. Information on the composition of the other ingredients was not available. All of the Extracts function as biological additives in cosmetic formulations, and Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is used as a hair-conditioning agent and a fragrance component. Most of the available safety test data are from studies using oils derived from the various varieties of juniper. Because of the expected similarity in composition to the extract, these data were considered. Acute studies using animals show little toxicity of the oil or tar. The oils

  13. EFFECT OF CALITROPIS PROCERA AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR

    The hepatocurative effect of aqueous root extract of Calitropis Procera on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits was studied in groups of rabbit and the levels of liver enzymes; aspartate .... and inhibitors and presence of pyridoxine (vitamin.

  14. Novel Concept of the Magmatic Heat Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Labinov, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems are the primary sources of interest nowadays. The paper presents a novel concept for the extraction of the magmatic heat directly from the magma chamber by utilizing the thermodynamic Retrograde Condensation curve.

  15. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Flavonoids from Dandelion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the total flavonoids from dandelion was extracted by supercritical CO2 and the total flavonoids content in the extract was investigated by the sodium nitrite-aluminum nitrate method with Rutin as a standard product. Single-factor experiments were carried out to map the effects of extraction pressure, temperature, time and entrainer amount on the yield of flavonoids. The orthogonal experiments on the optimum technology parameters demonstrated that the influence of the experimental conditions over the yield from high to low was: (a pressure, (b temperature, (c entrainer amount, (d time. The optimization result showed that under the conditions of 50°C, 35 MPa, 80 min and 4.0 mL/g entrainer amount, the yield of the preparative supercritical fluid extraction was 4.974%.

  16. Biodiversity Risks from Fossil Fuel Extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N. Butt; H. L. Beyer; J. R. Bennett; D. Biggs; R. Maggini; M. Mills; A. R. Renwick; L. M. Seabrook; H. P. Possingham

    2013-01-01

    .... Although fossil fuel (FF) extraction has traditionally been seen as a temporary and spatially limited perturbation to ecosystems , even local or limited biodiversity loss can have large cascade effects on ecosystem function and productivity...

  17. Cryptographic Protocols Based on Root Extracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koprowski, Maciej

    In this thesis we design new cryptographic protocols, whose security is based on the hardness of root extracting or more speci cally the RSA problem. First we study the problem of root extraction in nite Abelian groups, where the group order is unknown. This is a natural generalization of the...... complexity of root extraction, even if the algorithm can choose the "public exponent'' itself. In other words, both the standard and the strong RSA assumption are provably true w.r.t. generic algorithms. The results hold for arbitrary groups, so security w.r.t. generic attacks follows for any cryptographic...... construction based on root extracting. As an example of this, we modify Cramer-Shoup signature scheme such that it becomes a genericm algorithm. We discuss then implementing it in RSA groups without the original restriction that the modulus must be a product of safe primes. It can also be implemented in class...

  18. Selective Extraction of Bioproducts by Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王键吉; 裴渊超; 赵扬; 张锁江

    2005-01-01

    Imidazolium based room temperature ionic liquids have been used to extract selectively L-tryptophan from fermentation broth. BF4 anion was found to enhance dramatically the partitioning of L-tryptophan into ionic liquid phase from aqueous solutions.

  19. Improved nematode extraction from carrot disk culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D T; Davis, E L

    1990-07-01

    Radopholus spp. were reared in carrot tissue culture via established procedures, with slight modification. Several plant tissue maceration enzymes and flotation media (salts and sucrose) were evaluated with regard to nematode toxicity and extraction efficiency. Best extraction of viable nematodes and eggs was attained when carrot tissue infested with Radopholus citrophilus or R. similis was macerated with a mixture of 0.50% driselase and 0.50% cellulysin, w/v each, with 2.5 ml of enzyme solution based for each gram of carrot tissue. Maceration slurries containing carrot tissue and nematodes were maintained in open flasks on a rotary shaker (175 rpm) at 26 C for 24 hours. Nematodes and eggs were extracted from resultant culture slurries by flotation with MgSO-7H0 (sp gr 1.1). A protocol is presented to extract large quantities of viable burrowing nematodes and their eggs from carrot disk cultures.

  20. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF SEA BUCKTHORN EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mihaela Topală

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of sea buckthorn oil is to incorporate the oil into foodstuffs such as milk, yoghurt, cheese, butter, juice and snacks which represents new opportunities for food manufacturers, food supplements and nutraceuticals providing nutritional supports. The FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful technique for assessing food production and studied materials provides fundamental information on the behavior of the spectral metabolites and bio product. The extracts were studied from two varieties of sea buckthorn oil Pitesti I and II. Oil obtained from peel and seeds by the Soxhlet extraction with hexane solvent and CO2 supercriticalwas analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The concentration of fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds and peels was similar in both extraction techniques.