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Sample records for acanthopanax koreanum fruit

  1. Acanthopanax koreanum Fruit Waste Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Production of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

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    Eun-Jin Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Acanthopanax koreanum fruit is a popular fruit in Jeju Island, but the byproducts of the alcoholic beverage prepared using this fruit are major agricultural wastes. The fermentability of this waste causes many economic and environmental problems. Therefore, we investigated the suitability of using A. koreanum fruit waste (AFW as a source of antiinflammatory agents. AFWs were extracted with 80% EtOH. The ethanolic extract was then successively partitioned with hexane, CH2Cl2, EtOAc, BuOH, and water. The results indicate that the CH2Cl2 fraction (100 g/mL of AFW inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells by 79.6% and 39.7%, respectively. These inhibitory effects of the CH2Cl2 fraction of AFWs were accompanied by decreases in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 proteins and iNOS and COX-2 mRNA in a dose-dependent pattern. The CH2Cl2 fraction of AFWs also prevented degradation of IB- in a dose-dependent manner. Ursolic acid was identified as major compound present in AFW, and CH2Cl2 extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Furthermore using pure ursolic acid as standard and by HPLC, AFW and CH2Cl2 extracts was found to contain 1.58 mg/g and 1.75 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, we tested the potential application of AFW extracts as a cosmetic material by performing human skin primary irritation tests. In these tests, AFW extracts did not induce any adverse reactions. Based on these results, we suggest that AFW extracts be considered possible anti-inflammatory candidates for topical application.

  2. Monoterpenoids from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruits

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    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new acyclic monoterpenoids named (2E-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O-a-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1®6-b-D-glucopyranoside (1, (3Z,6E-3,7-dimethyl-3,6-octadiene-1,2,8-triol (2 and (6E-7-methyl-3-methylene-6-octene-1,2,8-triol (3 were isolated from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits, along with three known monoterpenoid compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS and chemical methods.

  3. Acanthopanax koreanum roots inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acanthopanax koreanum is a popular plant found on Jeju Island, Korea and is commonly used to prevent the side effects of consumption of alcoholic beverages. However, this plant has not been properly utilized as a medicinal material. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the 70% ethanol extract of A. koreanum roots (AKR-E. The results indicated that the AKR-E (200 μg/mL inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages by 41.2% and 78.9%, respectively. These effects were accompanied by concentration-dependent decreases in the expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 proteins. Additionally, the AKR-E inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL-6 (22.7% and IL-1β (74%. These data showed that the AKR-E had protective effects against the induction of LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  4. Anti-inflammatory Lignans from the Fruits of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus

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    Gye-Won Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new lignan, named acanthosessilin A (1, as well as eight known lignan and lignan glycosides 2-9 were isolated from an ethanolic extract of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits. The chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, including HR-EIMS, 1D NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT, 2D NMR (gCOSY, gHSQC, gHMBC, NOESY, and IR spectroscopy. All isolated compounds were tested for the ability to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages.

  5. 无梗五加果化学成分的研究%Studies on the Chemical Constituents of the Fruit of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Seem.

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    安琪; 杨春娟; 宋洋; 于凯; 熊志立; 李发美

    2008-01-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of the fruit of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus (Ru-pr. et Maxim.) Seem. ,which was fractionated on a macroporous resin column by 60% and 30% ethanol. They were i-dentified as scopoletin (1), protocatechuic acid methyl ester (2), quercetin (3), acanthoside B (4), hyperin (5), (-) -pinoresinol-4,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), chiisanoside (7), 22a-hydroxychiisanoside (8), niduloic acid (9), daucosterol (10) ,acopolin (11) ,and acanthoside D (12) ,by analysis of their spectroscopic data and by comparison with those reported on the literature. Compound 9 was a new natural product. 1,2,6 and 11 were isolated from Araliaceae for the first time and 3 was obtained from Acanthopanax genus for the first time.%从无梗五加(Acanthopanax sessiliflorus(Rupr.et Maxim.)Seem.)果70%乙醇提取物中分离鉴定了12个化合物.经波谱鉴定为东莨菪内酯(1),原儿茶酸甲酯(2),槲皮素(3),无梗五加苷B(4),金丝桃苷(5),(-)-pinoresinol-4,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(6),chiisanoside(7),22a.hydroxyehiisanoside(8),niduloic acid(9),胡萝卜苷(10),东莨菪苷(11)和无梗五加苷D(12).其中化合物9为新天然产物,化合物1,2,6和11是首次从五加科植物中分离得到,化合物3是首次从五加属植物中分离得到.

  6. 细柱五加果实化学成分的研究%Chemical Constituents in Fruits of Acanthopanax gracilistylus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王久粉; 张静岩; 张正光; 钱士辉; 濮社班

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the chemical constituents in the fruits of Acanthopanaxg racilistylus. METHODS The chemical components were isolated and purified by silica gel, ODS Cu , and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatogram. The chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. RESULTS Seven compounds were isolated and identified as chikusetsusaponin IV a methyl ester (1), chikusetsusaponin IV a butyl ester (2), cankoreoside D(3),acantrifoside A(4), daucosterol (5),3-epi-betulinic acid (6),ent-16a-hydroxykauran-19-oic acid (7).CONCLUSION Compoundsl,2 are obtained from the Acanthopanax for the first time,others are obtained from the fruits of the plant for the first time.%目的 研究细柱五加Acanthopanax gracilistylus果实的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱层析、反相柱层析、重结晶等方法分离纯化,根据理化性质和光谱数据鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从细柱五加果实中分离得到7个化合物,分别鉴定为竹节参苷Ⅳa甲酯(1),竹节参苷Ⅳa丁酯(2),Acankoreoside D(3),acantrifoside A(4),β-胡萝卜苷(5),3-epi-betulinic acid(6),16-α-羟-19-贝壳杉烷酸(7).结论 化合物1,2首次从该属植物中分离得到,其余均为首次从该植物果实中分离得到.

  7. Studies on the Chemical Constituents in Fruits of Acanthopanax gracilistylus%细柱五加果实化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静岩; 濮社班; 钱士辉; 刘丹; 王康才

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the chemical constituents in the fruits of Acanthopanax gracilistylus. Methods:The chemical components were isolated and purified by silica gel,ODS C-18,and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatogram. The chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Results: Ten compounds were isolated and identified as acankoreoside D ( 1 ), 3α, 11α-dihydroxylup-20 ( 29 ) -en-28-oic acid ( 2 ), 3β-( [ O-β-D-glucopyranuronosyl ] oxy ) -olean-12-ene-28-olc acid (3) ,3β- ( [ O-β-D-glucopyranuronosyl ] oxy) -28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-28-olc acid (4), oleanolic acid-3-O-6'-O-methyl-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (5), acantrifoside A (6), acankoreoside A ( 7 ), ( - ) -kaur-16-en-19-oic acid ( 8 ), protocatechuic acid ( 9 ) ,β-sitosterol(10). Conclusion:Compounds 2 ~5 are obtained from the fruits of the plant for the first time.%目的:研究细柱五加果实的化学成分.方法:采用硅胶柱层析、反相柱层析、重结晶等方法分离纯化,根据理化性质和光谱数据鉴定化合物的结构.结果:从细柱五加果实乙酸乙酯部位中分离得到10个化合物,分别鉴定为:acankoreoside D(1)、3a,11α-dihydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oie acid(2)、3β-([O-β-D-glucopyranuronosyl]oxy)-olean-12-ene-28-olc acid(3)、3β-([O-β-D-glucopyranuronosyl]oxy)-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-olean-12-ene-28-olc acid(4)、oleanolic acid-3-O-6'-O-methyl-β-D-glucumnopyranoside(5)、acantrffoside A(6)、acankore06ide A(7)、异贝壳杉稀酸(8)、原儿茶酸(9)、β-甾醇(10).结论:化合物2-5首次从该植物中分离得到.

  8. Effect of purification of polysaccharides from Acanthopanax Sessiliflorus Seem.fruits on bacteriostasis activity%纯化对无梗五加果多糖抑菌活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶晶; 孟宪军

    2011-01-01

    A kind of extracted and purified polysaccharide ASP from Acanthopanax sessiliplorus fruits was got. Comparing purified polysaccharide,which physical and chemical properties firstly were analyzed,with unpurified in antibacterial activity to bacteriums tested by the method of filter paper disk . The results indicated that ASP had evident antibacterial activity to Escherichia coli,Bacillus subtilis and Ahizopus. Unpurified polysaccharides also showed some degree of antibacterial activity to Bacillus subtilis and Ahizopus. And neither had antibacterial activity to Staphylococcus and Aspergillus niger.%以无梗五加果为原料,提纯获得多糖ASP,分析其理化性质,并采用琼脂扩散滤纸片法比较纯化前后的多糖对供试菌抑菌效果的影响。结果表明:无梗五加果多糖ASP对大肠杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌及根霉均有明显的抑制作用,未纯化粗多糖仅对枯草芽孢杆菌及根霉有一定的抑制作用,两种多糖对金黄色葡萄球菌和黑曲霉均没有抑制作用。

  9. 细柱五加果实提取物对免疫抑制小鼠的免疫调节作用%The Immunoregulation of Extracts from Fruits of Acanthopanax gracilistylus in Immunosuppressive Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正光; 黄厚才; 钱士辉

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究细柱五加果实乙醇提取物对免疫抑制小鼠的免疫调节作用.方法:将小鼠随机平均分为细柱五加果实的高、中、低3个剂量组(2.8,1.4,0.7 g·kg-1)、阳性对照组(20 mg·kg-1左旋咪唑)、空白对照组和模型对照组(各组n=10).各组小鼠均ig给药(20 mL·kg-1).连续10 d.空白对照组和模型对照组均ig同等剂量的蒸馏水.从第7天开始,除空白对照组外,其余各组小鼠均ip环磷酰胺(80 mg·kg-1)以制作免疫抑制小鼠模型.连续4d.采用免疫器官质量法和碳粒廓清法,以脾脏指数、胸腺指数、碳粒廓清指数及校正吞噬指数为指标来评价细柱五加果实乙醇提取物对免疫抑制小鼠非特异性免疫功能的影响;采用血清溶血素测定法,以血清溶血素含量为指标来评价细柱五加果实乙醇提取物对免疫抑制小鼠特异性免疫功能的影响.结果:细柱五加果实乙醇提取物对免疫抑制小鼠的脾脏指数和胸腺指数无显著性影响,但可以提高其碳粒廓清指数、校正吞噬指数和血清溶血素含量(P <0.05或P<0.01).结论:细柱五加果实乙醇提取物对免疫抑制小鼠的非特异性免疫功能和特异性体液免疫功能均有提高作用.%Objective; To study the immunoregulation of the ethanol extracts from fruits of Acanthopanax gracilistylus in immunosuppressive mice. Method; The mice were randomly divided into the fruits of A. gracilistylus high dose group, middle dose group, low dose group (2.8, 1.4, 0.7 g-kg"'), positive control group, control group and model control group. Each group was administrated intragastrically at 20 mL-kg"' for 10 days (n = 10) . The control group and model control group were administrated intragastrically with the same dose of distilled water. From the 7th day, except the control group, other groups were injected cyclophosphamide (80 rug' kg"1) intraperitoneally to produce the immunosuppressive mice model for 4 days. The weight of

  10. The protective effects of the extracts of the fruits of Acanthopanax gracilistylus on acute liver injury induced by carbon retrachloride in mice%细柱五加果实提取物对四氯化碳致小鼠急性肝损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正光; 钱士辉; 黄厚才

    2011-01-01

    目的研究细柱五加果实乙醇提取物对四氯化碳致小鼠急性肝损伤的保护作用。方法将60只小鼠随机分成细柱五加果实的高、中、低剂量组以及阳性对照组、模型对照组、空白对照组共6组。6组小鼠ig给药20 mL/(kg.d)。连续14 d。第14 d给药1 h后,除空白对照组外,其余各组均ip 0.1%CCl4 0.2 mL/20g。所有小鼠在ip CCl4 16 h后采用眼球取血并脱颈椎处死。然后离心取血清,剖腹取肝。分别将各组肝脏取出0.1 g,加0.9 mL生理盐水进行匀浆。检测血清中丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天门冬氨酸氨基转氨酶(AST)活性及肝匀浆中丙二醛(MDA)含量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性的变化。结果与模型对照组相比,不同剂量的细柱五加果实乙醇提取物均能显著降低血清中丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天门冬氨酸氨基转氨酶(AST)的活性及肝组织中丙二醛(MDA)的含量,提高超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性。结论细柱五加果实乙醇提取物对四氯化碳致小鼠的急性肝损伤有保护作用。%Objective: To study the protective effects of the ethanol extracts of the fruits of Acanthopanax gracilistylus on acute liver injury induced by carbon retrachloride in mice.Methods: Sixty mice were randomly divided into the fruits of Acanthopanax gracilistylus high dose group,middle dose group,low dose group,the positive control group,the model group and the normal group.Six groups of mice were administrated orally 20 mL/(kg·d) for 14 days.Except the normal group,other groups were injected 0.1% carbon retrachloride 0.2 mL/20g after 1 hour when the mice were administrated on the 14th day.After all the mice were filled with stomach Carbon tetrachloride 16 hours,blood were obtained by eyeballs and the mice were cervical killed off.Then the serum were separated by centrifuge and the livers were taken by cutting the belly.The livers of each group were cutted 0

  11. 刺五加果实中黄酮类成分的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Chemical Constituents of Flavones from the Fruits of Acanthopanax Senticosus Harms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂萍; 李智

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the chemical constituents of the extract from thefruits of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms.Methods: The chemical constituents were isolated by various isolation methods (silica gel, ODS and HPLC column chromatography) and their structures were elucidated by the analysis of spectral data(NMR and MS).Results:Five flavones compounds were obtained and elucidated as following: luteolin(1)luteolin-4’-O-β-D-glucoside (2), luteolin-3’-O-β-D-glucoside (3), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (4), luteolin-7,3’-O-β-D-di-glucoside (5).Compound 2-5 were isolated from the Acanthopanax genus for the first time.Conclusions:Results five flavones compounds were obtained and elucidated as following: luteolin(1), luteolin-4’-O-β-D-glucoside(2), luteolin-3’-O-β-D-glucoside (3), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (4), luteolin-7,3’-O-β-D-di-glucoside(5).%目的:比分离、鉴定刺五加果实提取物中的化学成分.方法:采用硅胶柱、ODS开放柱和制备液相等色谱方法分离,并通过NMR和MS等谱学技术确定结构.结果:从提取物中分离得到5个黄酮类化合物,分别鉴定为木犀草素(1)、木犀草素-4'-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(2)、木犀草素-3'-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(3)、木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(4),木犀草素-7,3'-O-β-D-二葡萄糖苷(5).其中化合物2~5为首次从五加属植物中分离得到.结论:从提取物中分离得到5个黄酮类化合物,分别鉴定为木犀草素(1)、木犀草素-4'-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(2)、木犀草素-3'-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(3)、木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(4),木犀草素-7,3'-O-β-D-二葡萄糖苷(5).

  12. HPLC-ELSD Determination of Content of Oleanane-type Triterpenoidal Saponins in the Fruits of Acanthopanax gracilistylus%HPLC-ELSD法测定细柱五加果实中齐墩果烷型三萜皂苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正光; 朱玲英; 钱士辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To establish an HPLC-ELSD method for the simultaneous determination of the content of chikusetsusaponin IV a and 3β-( [ O-β-D]-glucopyranuronosyl ] oxy ) -olean-12-ene-28-olc acid in the fruits of Acanthopanax gracilistylus. Method; The RP-HPLC-ELSD method was used. Chromatographic conditions: Alltima?-C18 chromatographic column (4. 6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) ; acetonitrile (A) -0.5% acetic acid water (B) as mobile phase; column temperature at 35℃. ELSD detector conditions; drift tube temperature: 106 °C ; carrier gas (nitrogen) flow rate; 2. 9 L ·min-1; amplification factor; 1; impactor:close. Result; The calibration curves showed good linear relationship in the range from 0. 535 to 8. 560 μg (r = 0. 996 5 ) for chikusetsusaponin Ⅳ a and 0. 515 to 8. 240 μg ( r = 0. 998 7 ) for 3β- ( [ 0-β-D-glucopyranuronosyl] oxy) -olean-12-ene-28-olc acid. The average recovery rates (n -6) were 98. 39% and 98. 97% , and RSDs were 1. 50% and 1.59%. Conclusion: This method is accurate, sensitive and can be used to determine the content of chikusetsusaponin ] Ⅳ a and 3β- ( [ 0-β-D-glucopyranuronosyl] oxy) -olean-12-ene-28-olc acid in the fruits of Acanthopanax gracilistylus.%目的:建立HPLC-ELSD法同时测定细柱五加果实中的竹节参苷Ⅳa和3β-([O-β-D-glucopyranuronosyl] oxy)olean-12-ene-28-olc acid含量的方法.方法:采用反相高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测法.色谱条件AlltimaTM-C18色谱柱(4.6mm× 250 mm,5μm),流动相乙腈(A)-0.5%乙酸水溶液(B),柱温35℃.ELSD检测器条件:漂移管温度106℃,载气氮气,流速2.9 L·min-1,放大系数1,撞击器关闭.结果:竹节参苷Ⅳa和3β-([ O-β-D-glucopyranu ronosyl] oxy)-olean-12-ene-28-olc acid的进样量分别在0.535~ 8.560 μg(r=0.996 5)和0.515~8.240 μg(r=0.9987)呈良好线性关系;平均回收率(n=6)分别为98.39%,98.97%,RSD分别为1.50%,1.59%.结论:方法准确、灵敏,可用于测定细柱五加果实中竹节参苷Ⅳa和3β-([ O

  13. Isolation and Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Epimedium Koreanum Nakai by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ming; ZHAO Xue-liang; LIU Zhi-qiang; XING Jun-peng

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper is reported the method for the isolation and extraction of total flavonoids of Epimedium Koreanum Nakai by means of supercritical fluid extraction(SFE). By examining pressure, temperature, amounts of modifier and extraction time, the optimized condition of SFE is confirmed as 30 MPa and 60 ℃, with 70% ethanol as the modifier. The samples were statically extracted for 30 min, followed by dynamic extraction for 120 min at a flow rate of 6 mL/min. The quantitative analysis of total flavonoids was performed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Compared with the conventional method, the SFE method is more efficient, more rapid and more friendly environmentally.

  14. Lupane-triterpene glycosides from the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Chang-Soo; Liu, Xiang-Qian; Chang, Seung-Yeup; Park, Sang-Yong; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2002-10-01

    A novel lupane-triterpene glycoside, called wujiapioside B (1), was isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus (Araliaceae) together with three known lupane-triterpene glycosides, acankoreoside C (2), acantrifoside A (3) and 3-epibetulinic acid 28-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4). Based on spectroscopic data, the chemical structure of 1 was determined as 3alpha,23-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid 28-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. Compounds 2-3 were obtained for the first time from this plant and compound 4 has not been isolated from Acanthopanax genus yet. PMID:12372869

  15. Three new compounds from the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Three new compounds named (2E)prenyl benzoate-4-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1→6) β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 7-methoxy-8-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl coumarin (2), and 3,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxy benzenepentanoic acid (3) were isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms. The structures of new compounds were determined by means of 2D NMR experiments and chemical methods.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism of Total Glycosides of Acanthopanax Giraldii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁芳; 陈杰; 许国敏; 郑加嘉; 龙启才

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of total glycosides of Acanthopanax Giraldii (TGA).Methods:The changes of prostaglandin E_2(PGE_2),tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α),nitric oxide(NO), and expressions of COX-1 mRNA and COX-2 mRNA in BALB/c mouse macrophages were observed by the radioimmunoassay,ELISA and nitric acid reduction and RT-PCR in the presence or absence of TGA.Results: (1) TGA could significantly decrease the production of PGE_2 and NO in mouse peritoneal macrophages.The inhibitory...

  17. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linzhang; Zhao, Hongfang; Huang, Baokang; Zheng, Chengjian; Peng, Wei; Qin, Luping

    2011-02-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (Araliaceae), also called Siberian Ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Ciwujia in Chinese, is a widely used traditional Chinese herb that could invigorate qi, strengthen the spleen, and nourish kidney in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. With high medicinal value, Acanthopanax senticosus (AS, thereafter) is popularly used as an "adaptogen" like Panax ginseng. In recent decades, a great number of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on AS have been carried out worldwide. Several kinds of chemical compounds have been reported, including triterpenoid saponins, lignans, coumarins, and flavones, among which, phenolic compounds such as syringin and eleutheroside E, were considered to be the most active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have persuasively demonstrated that AS possessed anti-stress, antiulcer, anti-irradiation, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, etc. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and clinical trials of AS. PMID:21434569

  18. 细柱五加中新的脑苷酯类成分%New Cerebrosides from Acanthopanax gracilistylus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静岩; 濮社班; 钱士辉; 刘丹

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the chemical constituents from the fruits of Acanthopanax gracilistylus. METHODS: Compounds were isolated and purified by various chromatography techniques and their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data. RESULTS: A mixture of cerebrosides, called acanthopanax cerebrosides were isolated and characterized as 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosides of phytosphingosine type ceramides comprised of a common long chain base (2S, 3S, 4R, 8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxydocosanosylamino]-8(E)-alkene-l, 3, 4-triol. The alkene chain is eicosene(1), nonadecene(2), octadecene (3, momor-cerebroside), heptadecene (4) and hexadecene (5).CONCLUSION: Compounds 1, 2 and 5 were new ones named as acanthopanx cerebroside A (1), acanthopanax cerebroside B (2), and acanthopanax cerebroside C (5), and compound 3, 4 were isolated from this plant for the first time.%目的:研究细柱五加Acanthopaturx gracilistylus果实的化学成分.为阐明其有效成分提供科学依据.方法:采用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20及Rp-18等柱层析色谱方法进行分离纯化,并根据理化性质和光谱数据鉴定其结构.结果:分离得到5个脑苷酯类同系物,分别鉴定为1-O-β-D-glucopyranose-(2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxydocosanosylamino]-8(E)-eicosene-1,3,4-triol(1),1-O-β-D-glucopyranose-(2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxydocosanosylamino]-8(E)-nonadecene-1,3,4-trios(2),1-O-,β-D-glucopyranose-(2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxydocosanosylamino]-8(E)-octadecene-1,3,4-triol(momor-cerebroside)(3),1-O-β-D-glucopyranose-(2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxydocosanosylamino]-8(E)-heptadecene-1,3,4-triol(4),1-O-β-D-glucopyranose-(2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxydocosanosylamino]-8(E)-hexadecene-1,3,4-triol(5).结论:化合物3和4苦瓜脑苷为首次从该属植物中分离得到,化合物1,2,5均为新化合物,分别命名为:细柱五加脑苷A(1)、细柱五加脑苷B(2)、细柱五加脑苷C(5).

  19. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Leaves of Acanthopanax Senticosus Harms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Introduction The herbal plant Acanthopanax Senticosus Harms[1,2] is natural herb of Changbaishan in Jilin Province of China, which belongs to the Araliaceae family. As the ingredients of folk medicine, it has long been used to treat a variety of human diseases, such as cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, tumor, isochemic heart diseases, hypertension, rheumatic arthritis,etc. [2,3].

  20. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Water Extract Exhibits Antiviral Activity against Porcine Epidermic Diarrhea Virus In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Kyung Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV causes diarrhea of pigs age-independently and death of young piglets, resulting in economic loss of porcine industry. We have screened 333 natural oriental herbal medicines to search for new antiviral candidates against PEDV. We found that two herbal extracts, KIOM 198 and KIOM 124, contain significant anti-PED viral effect. KIOM 198 and KIOM 124 were identified as Epimedium koreanum Nakai and Lonicera japonica Thunberg, respectively. The further plaque and CPE inhibition assay in vitro showed that KIOM 198 has much stronger antiviral activity than KIOM 124. Additionally, KIOM 198 exhibited a similar extent of antiviral effect against other subtypes of Corona virus such as sm98 and TGE viruses. Cytotoxicity results showed that KIOM 198 is nontoxic on the cells and suggest that it can be delivered safely for therapy. Furthermore, when we orally administered KIOM 198 to piglets and then infected them with PEDV, the piglets did not show any disease symptoms like diarrhea and biopsy results showed clean intestine, whereas control pigs without KIOM 198 treatment exhibited PED-related severe symptoms. These results imply that KIOM 198 contains strong antiviral activity and has a potential to be developed as an antiviral phytomedicine to treat PEDV-related diseases in pigs.

  1. Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its main constituent icariin suppress lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yunk-Yung; Song, Mi-Young; Hwang, Min-Sub; Hwang, Ji-Hye; Park, Yong-Ki; Jung, Hyo-Won

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is associated with a number of metabolic abnormalities such as type 2 diabetes and has become a major health problem worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Epimedium koreanum Nakai (Herba Epimedii, HE) and its main constituent icariin on the adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. HE extract and icariin significantly reduced lipid accumulation and suppressed the expressions of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1c in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. They also inhibited fatty acid synthase (FAS), acyl-Co A synthase (ACS1), and perilipin. Moreover, HE extract and icariin markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK. These results indicated that HE extract and icariin can inhibit the adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of the adipogenic transcription factors, suggesting that HE containing icariin may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:27667512

  2. A New ent-Kaurane Glycoside from the Stems of Acanthopanax gracilistylus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN Li-na; QIAN Shi-hui

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the stems of Acanthopanax gracilistylus.Methods Thechemical constituents of the plant were isolated and puried by column chromatography and their structures wereelucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data.Results A new ent-kaurane glycoside,named kaurane acid glycoside A { 16α,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic 19-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-Dglucopyranosyl]ester}(1),was isolated from the n-butanol part.Conclusion Compound 1 is a new one.

  3. A new lupane-triterpene glycoside from the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Qian; Chang, Seung-Yeup; Park, Sang-Yong; Nohara, Toshihiro; Yook, Chang-Soo

    2002-12-01

    A new and two known lupane-triterpene glycosides were isolated from the hot MeOH fraction of the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W. Smith. Based on the physical properties and spectroscopic data, their chemical structures were determined as acankoreoside A (1), acankoreoside D (2), and 3alpha-hydroxy-lup-23-al-20(29)-en-28-oic acid 28-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), respectively. To our best knowledge, compound 3 appears to be novel, which was named as wujiapioside A. PMID:12510834

  4. Quantitative determination of 15 bioactive triterpenoid saponins in different parts of Acanthopanax henryi by HPLC with charged aerosol detection and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Li, Zhi; Liu, Guo-Zhu; Wang, Xiang; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Whang, Wan-Kyunn; Liu, Xiang-Qian

    2016-06-01

    Triterpenoid saponins are difficult to analyze using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV/vis spectrophotometry due to their lack of chromophores. This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of 15 triterpenoid saponins from the leaves, stems, root bark, and fruits of Acanthopanax henryi, using a high-performance liquid chromatography with charged aerosol detection coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method. The separation was carried out on a Kinetex XB-C18 column with an acetonitrile/water gradient as the mobile phase, followed by charged aerosol detection. The operating conditions of charged aerosol detection were set at 24 kPa for nitrogen pressure and 100 pA for the detection range. Liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is described for the identification of compounds in plant samples. The electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method involved the use of the [M + Na](+) and [M + NH4 ](+) ions for compounds 1-15 in the positive ion mode with an extracted ion chromatogram. The developed method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability, and recovery, then subsequently applied to evaluate the quality of A. henryi. PMID:27121301

  5. Study on Yogurt with Acanthopanax senticosus%刺五加酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春艳; 孙迪; 张筠; 赵兴明; 李春; 赵琳

    2012-01-01

    The acidity from Acanthopanax senticosus was reduced by sodium bicarbonate solution and the sodium chloride solution, and followed drying. Its powder with skimmed milk, sugar and water were mixed for yogurt production. The result showed that the best way to reduce acidity was 4% sodium bicarbonate at 40 ℃ for 1 h, then 3% sodium chloride solution soaking for 2 h under normal temperature, following water soaking under normal temperature for 3 h. The best proportion for yogurt was 3% Acanthopanax senticocous powder, 11% skim milk powder, 8% sugar, and 3% culture starter.%以刺五加为研究对象,经碳酸氢钠溶液、氯化钠溶液降低其酸度后,干燥成粉末,与脱脂乳粉、白砂糖、水混合生产酸奶。研究发现,降低酸度的最佳方案为4%碳酸氢钠,40℃浸泡1 h,然后3%氯化钠溶液常温浸泡2 h,最后水常温浸泡3 h。酸乳调配的最佳配比为3%刺五加粉、11%脱脂乳粉、8%白砂糖、3%乳酸菌。

  6. 刺五加树莓果茶的研制%Study on the Acanthopanax and Raspberry Tea Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟

    2014-01-01

    首次把树莓与刺五加叶同时用做果茶的主要原料,采用浸提方法提取刺五加叶子的汁液同树莓汁混合调配,通过正交试验和感官评价方法,确定了产品最佳配方,制成一种富有良好感官性状及营养价值的保健型果茶饮品。%The productive process of use of acanthopanax and frozen raspberry was studied in this article ,through the extraction method to extract of acanthopanax senticosus leaf juice together with raspberry juice blend , through orthogonal experiments and sensory evaluation methods, to determine the product the best formula, made a and its nutritional value for the health care tea drinks.

  7. Radioprotective effects of active compounds from Acanthopanax senticosus of Lesser Khingan Mountain in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weihong; Sun, Yeqing; Shi, Jinming

    Bioactive compounds including polysaccharides, flavones, syringin and eleutheroside E were extracted from wild Acanthopanax senticosus and purified by chromatography. In vitro and in vivo anti-radiation activities of the compounds were compared. In vitro radical scavenging results showed that polysaccharides and flavones were more effective than syringin and eleutheroside E in In vivo study proved that polysaccharides and flavones were effective in protecting mice from heavy ion radiation induced oxidative damages. Also, the activity of polysaccharides and flavones in repressing expression changes of radiation response proteins including heat shock protein, disulfide-isomerase and glutathione S-transferase were also found by our results. Moreover, the radioprotective effects were more significant when polysaccharides and flavones were used together.

  8. α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from Acanthopanax senticosus Harm Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new triterpene glycoside, 3-O-[(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2]-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-O-methyl ester]-olean-12-ene-28-olic acid (1 and a new indole alkaloid, 5-methoxy-2-oxoindolin-3-acetic acid methyl ester (5 were isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms along with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of 2D-NMR experiments and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their glycosidase inhibition activities and compound 6 showed significant α-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  9. Protective effects of acanthopanax senticosus saponins on mice with irradiation damage induced by X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the protective effects of acanthopanax senticosus saponins (ASS) on mice with irradiation damage induced by X-rays. Methods: The mice were randomly divided into normal control group, irradiation control group and three experimental groups. Peripheral blood WBC and PLT were detected and accounted. The transformation test of lymphocytes was done and the spleen index (SI), thymus index (TI); the activities of superaxide dismulase (SOD) and GSH-Px in serum were determined. Results: Compared with the control group, Tl and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in serum in three experimental groups were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: ASS have protective effects on mice with irradiation damage induced by X-rays. (authors)

  10. Anti-inflammatory diterpenoids from the root bark of Acanthopanax gracilistylus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Yi-Bei; Zhu, Kong-Kai; Luo, Cheng; Zhang, Jing-Xian; Cheng, Chun-Ru; Feng, Rui-Hong; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Zeng, Feng; Wang, Yang; Xu, Ping-Ping; Guo, Ji-Ling; Liu, Xuan; Guan, Shu-Hong; Guo, De-An

    2014-11-26

    Five new ent-pimarane (1-3, 7, and 8) and three new ent-kaurane diterpenoids (4-6) and a new oleanane triterpene acid (9), together with 22 known compounds, were isolated from the root bark of the medicinal herb Acanthopanax gracilistylus. The structures of 1-9 were established based on the interpretation of high-resolution MS and 1D- and 2D-NMR data. The absolute configurations of 7 and 11 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism analysis. Compounds 7 and 8 represent rare naturally occurring structures based on the devinyl ent-pimarane skeleton. Compounds 3, 10, 14, 16, and 17 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on the release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:25338180

  11. Growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Epimedium koreanum Nakai in different habitats%不同生境朝鲜淫羊藿生长与光合特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永刚; 韩梅; 韩忠明; 刘翠晶; 杨利民

    2012-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai is a perennial herb of Berberidaceae, a common traditional Chinese herb officially listed in the pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China and distributed in Changbaishan Mountains, coast of Japan Sea and North Korea. From the beginning, the sources of traditional Chinese herbs are mainly wildly grown plants, but this situation cannot be maintained since the growing demand of the increasing population and higher dosage devastate the natural resources. So the agricultural cultivation and wild-simulated production are efficient methods for protecting the wild resource and meeting the supply. The optimal ecological factors are keys to production. The characteristics of morphology, photosynthesis, chlorophyll content and accumulation and allocation of biomass were studied in three habitats (the open land of forest edge, forest edge and forest understory, respectively) , differing mainly in light intensity and crown density. Samples and investigation were obtained on Cuocao Groove (126°39'E, 41°45'N), the Southeast foot of Changbaishan Mountains, Jilin Province, China. The parameters (Pn, Tr, Gs and Ci) of E. Koreanum in different habitats were tested by Lcpro+ portable photosynthesis. After testing, 20 entire plants in each habitat were grubbed up. The characteristics of morphology and the biomass of different organs in total plant were taken. The chlorophylls were extracted with acetone and the contents were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The results showed that the plant height, stem diameter,total leaf area and other morphological indexes decreased with the weakening of light intensity, the same as the Pn, WUE, Ls, Chl a/b and biomass accumulation of organs. On the contrary, the Ci, LUE, Chl b and total Chl increased. The differences at morphological indexes and biomass accumulation were significant at 0. 05 level ( P<0. 05) and 0. 01 level (P<0.01 ) in different habitats, respectively. The aboveground biomass at forest

  12. Chinese medicinal herb, Acanthopanax gracilistylus, extract induces cell cycle arrest of human tumor cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, B E; Zeki, K; Sugiura, T; Yoshida, Y; Yamashita, U

    2000-04-01

    We investigated the effect of a Chinese medicinal herb, Acanthopanax gracilistylus (AG), extract (E) on the growth of human tumor cell lines in vitro. AGE markedly inhibited the proliferation of several tumor cell lines such as MT-2, Raji, HL-60, TMK-1 and HSC-2. The activity was associated with a protein of 60 kDa, which was purified by gel-filtration chromatography. Cell viability analyses indicated that the treatment with AGE inhibits cell proliferation, but does not induce cell death. The mechanism of AGE-induced inhibition of tumor cell growth involves arrest of the cell cycle at the G(0) / G(1) stage without a direct cytotoxic effect. The cell cycle arrest induced by AGE was accompanied by a decrease of phosphorylated retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Furthermore, cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4 (Cdk2 and Cdk4), which are involved in the phosphorylation of Rb, were also decreased. These results suggest that AGE inhibits tumor cell growth by affecting phosphorylated Rb proteins and Cdks. PMID:10804285

  13. Suppressive effect of Chinese medicinal herb, Acanthopanax gracilistylus, extract on human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, B E; Yoshita, Y; Sugiura, T; Yamashita, U

    1999-10-01

    We studied the effect of a Chinese medicinal herb, Acanthopanax gracilistylus, extract (AGE), on human lymphocytes in vitro. AGE markedly suppressed the proliferative responses of human peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with mitogens concanavalin A (Con A) and Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC). Both T cell and B cell activities-production of interferon-gamma and immunoglobulin-were suppressed by AGE. The mechanism of AGE-induced suppression of lymphocytes is to arrest the cell cycle at the G0/G1 stage without a direct cytotoxic effect. AGE also suppressed the alloantigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response. However, natural killer cell activity was less sensitive to the suppressive activity of AGE. In contrast, AGE markedly enhanced monocyte function to produce cytokines. These activities of AGE were associated with a 60-kD protein which was sensitive to treatment with pronase E, but not with NaIO4. These results suggest that AGE has an immunomodulating activity on human lymphocytes and its properties could be clinically applied in the treatment of several diseases such as autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:10540158

  14. Clinical effect of a polysaccharide-rich extract of Acanthopanax senticosus on alcohol hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Joon Seok; Chung, Yoon Hee; Chung, Su Jin; Lee, Ho Sung; Song, Eun Ho; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Lee, Yu Jeung; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nam, Yunsung; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects polysaccharide-rich extract of Acanthopanax senticosus (PEA) on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hangover as well as blood lab parameters. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial was conducted. The PEA was orally administered before and after consuming alcohol 1.75 g/kg of pure alcohol. After alcohol consumption, BAC was measured for evaluation of alcohol pharmacokinetics. In the second day morning, subjects were asked to complete the Acute Hangover Scale (AHS) questionnarie. BAC results showed little difference between placebo and PEA groups, indicating that PEA does not have an effect on the pharmacokinetics of alcohol. However, several AHS items (i.e., tired, headache, dizziness, stomachache and nausea) and AHS total score were significantly improved by PEA. Blood lab parameters were significantly altered by alcohol in the placebo group. The alteration by alcohol of glucose and C-reactive protein (CRP) level was significantly attenuated by PEA. Therefore, PEA may have potential to reduce the severity of the alcohol hangover by inhibiting the alcohol-induced hypoglycemia and inflammatory response. PMID:26012258

  15. 细柱五加皮化学成分的研究%Chemical constituents of Acanthopanax gracilistylus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向前; 陆昌洙; 张承烨

    2004-01-01

    目的系统地研究五加属植物细柱五加皮Acanthopanax gracilistylus 的化学成分.方法用热甲醇分别对细柱五加皮的根进行提取后,采用Diaion HP-20P,Chromatorex ODS,Sephadex LH-20和硅胶色谱进行分离纯化,通过光谱分析以及直接和标准品对照进行结构确认.结果从根皮中得到二萜类等6 个化合物:五加酸(Ⅰ),异贝壳杉烯酸(Ⅱ),l-芝麻素(Ⅲ),豆甾醇(Ⅳ),β-谷甾醇(Ⅴ)和刺五加苷B(Ⅵ).结论化合物Ⅰ,Ⅳ,Ⅴ为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Object To study the chemical constituents of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W. Smith as the purpose of study continually on plants of Acanthopanax (Decne. et Planch.) Miq. Methods The leaves, roots, and stem barks of A. gracilistylus were extracted with hot MeOH and steam distillation respectively, and then, separated and purified by column chromatographies on Diaion HP-20P, Chromatorex ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and silica gel. All compounds were identified on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis including GC-MS, 1D and 2D NMR, MS and IR, or comparison with the reported data. Results Six compounds were obtained from the roots of A. gracilistylus. They are (-)-pimara-9 (11), 15-dien-19-oic acid (Ⅰ), (-)-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (Ⅱ), d-sesamin (Ⅲ), stigmasterol (Ⅳ), β-sitosterol (Ⅴ), and eleutheroside B (Ⅵ). Conclusion Compounds Ⅰ, Ⅳ, and Ⅴ are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  16. 五加的扦插繁殖研究%Study on Cuttage of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W. Smith

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仕玉; 郭凤根

    2001-01-01

    The influence of matrices and IBA treatments on cuttage of old and young branches of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W. Smith was studied by using Orthogonal Design with 3 factors and 2 levels. The results were as follows : Quicksets of 2 or 3 years old are better than those of 1 year old for cuttage. Mixed matrix of sand and red soil give better cuttage effects than that of perlite and humus. It can increase the radication and sprout rates of quicksets of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W. Smith dipped quicksets in 1 000 mg/kg IBA for 10 sec.%采用3因子2水平正交试验设计,探讨了不同扦插基质和IBA处理对五加老枝和嫩枝扦插繁殖的影响,结果表明:二年生或三年生插条优于当年生插条;河沙和红土的混合基质优于珍珠岩和腐殖土的混合基质;用1 000mg/LIBA蘸插条10 s(秒)能提高五加插条的生根率和发梢率。

  17. Protective effect of Acanthopanax gracilistylus-extracted Acankoreanogenin A on mice with fulminant hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-Xin; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zu-Ping; Liu, Hong-Bo; Zhou, Rong-Rong; Zhong, Bai-Yun; Zou, Ming-Xiang; Dai, Xia-Hong; Xiao, Mei-Fang; Liu, Xiang-Qian; Fan, Xue-Gong

    2011-08-01

    The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both acute (IL-1β and TNF-α) and chronic [high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)] phases, is thought to play important roles in the development of fulminant hepatitis (FH). Triterpenoid Acankoreanogenin A (AA) which is extracted from the leaves of the Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.W. Smith (AGS) has shown its inhibiting effect on TNF-α, IL-1β and HMGB1 release in vitro in our preliminary experiments. In present study, we investigated the effect of AA on mice with fulminant hepatitis in vivo. Fulminant hepatitis mice model was established by intraperitoneally injecting galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The levels of serum of TNF-α, IL-1β, ALT, AST and HMGB1 from AA-treated mice were measured at different time points. Our results demonstrated that pre-treatment of mice with AA markedly reduced the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, HMGB1, ALT and AST with the improvement in histological features. And the survival rate from AA-treated fulminant hepatitis mice was increased. Furthermore, delayed administration of AA after peak occurrence of the early pro-inflammatory cytokines still endowed significant protection against GalN/LPS-induced lethality. The post-treatment of AA could significantly attenuate the release of HMGB1, but not the TNF-α and IL-1β. These results indicate that AA inhibits the systemic release of pro-inflammatory cytokine HMGB1, and dose-dependently rescue the mice from lethal GalN/LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis, which suggests this component as a candidate therapy for fulminant hepatitis. PMID:21356341

  18. Protection of Acanthopanax Senticosus Saponin on Free Radical Injury Induced Aging of Nerve Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘永进; 顾永健; 顾小苏

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of Acanthopanax senticosus saponin (ASS) on free radical injury induced neuron aging. Methods: On day 7 of fetal mice, cortical neuron primary passage cultures were divided into the normal control group, model group and ASS groups. The model group using free radical (FeSO4 plus H2O2) injury mode prepared in vivo cultured ICR mice cortical neuron aging model; ASS groups: 24 hrs before and after treated with H2O2 and FeSO4, different concentration of ASS was added, according to biochemical parameters such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) etc. and histomorphologic change to observe the protection of ASS on aging neurons. Results: The LDH, SOD, MDA of the model group were compared with the normal group, P<0.01; ASS groups added 1.25 mg/100 ml, 2.5 mg/100 ml, 5 mg/100 ml concentration of ASS, their LDH, SOD, MDA compared with the model group P<0.05-0.01, the difference was significant. In medicated groups the SOD activity of oxidization injured nerve cells obviously elevated, LDH activity and MDA content apparently lowered. Microscope and scanning electron microscopic observation showed that supplemented with ASS to protect the nerve cell injury abated, part of the cellular structure tended to normalize. Conclusion: ASS could act against free radical toxic effect, increase the anti-oxidase activity, strengthen the protection of neuron cells. It is assumed that the effect against nerve cell aging was possibly through scavenging oxygen free radical, strengthening the stability of cell membrane, thus delaying the development of aging.

  19. 刺五加提取液抗NO2-的研究%The Clearance Function To NO2 -By Extraction In Acanthopanax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛长晖

    2015-01-01

    The clearance function to NO2 - by extraction from Acanthopanax was studied.The conditions that influence on the clearance to the NO2- was also studied.The results showed that the optimum clearance of Acanthopanax to the NO2- was at 30min,0.297 mg /ml,pH =3 and 37 ℃,the clearance rate can reach to 50%.%研究了反应时间、提取液浓度、pH 和温度对刺五加提取液抗 NO2-的作用的影响,结果发现:在反应30min,提取液浓度0.297 mg /ml 以上,pH =3,37℃条件下,清除率可达50%以上。

  20. 40. The in vitro Inhibitory Effects of Acanthopanax Giraldii Harms Var. Hispidus Hoo Plant Polysacchrides on Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line and the Molecular Mechanism of Inducing Apoptosis.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Araliaceal plant polysaccharides have wide biological effects. The antitumor activities of Acanthopanax Giraldii Harms Var.Hispidus Hoo plant polysaccharides (AGP) are becoming increasingly an interesting topic. In this thesis, some aspects of the efects of the AGP on the tumor have been studied, including the in vitro antitumor activity, the induction of apoptosis, the suppression of oncogene and/or the activation of antioncogene, and the modulation of cell factors.

  1. Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus on learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and protection against free radical injury to brain tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanji Xu; Chunji Han; Songji Xu; Xing Yu; Guozhe Jiang; Chunhua Nan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Acanthopanax senticosus,a plant of the Araliaceae family,is used in traditional Chinese medicine.It can be used to replenish Qi,strengthen the spleen,tonify the kidney,and relieve mental strain.OBJECTIVE:To observe effects ofAcanthopanax senticosus on learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and abnormal biochemical changes in the brain tissue.DESIGN:A completely randomized grouping,controlled animal experiment.SETTING:Department of Preventive Medicine,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Yanbian University.MATERIALS:A total of 50 Kunming mice,aged 1-1.5 months,equal numbers of males and females,were provided by the Laboratory Animal Center,Yanbian University Medical College.The study was performed in accordance with ethical guidelines for the use and care of animals.Acanthopanax was provided by Yanbian Chengda Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.Acanthopanax senticosus(0.5 kg)was soaked in water for 1 hour and transferred to 1.5 kg distilled water for extraction.It was boiled for 1 hour and extracted after 1 hour of boiling.The procedure was repeated 3 times.The extract was condensed to 500 mL and then adjusted to 500 and 1 000 g/L with water.Piracetam tablets were produced by Shandong Luoxin Pharmaceutical Corporation, China.Malonaldehyde(MDA),superoxide dismutase(SOD),and acetylcholinesterase(ACHE)kits were purchased from Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Co.,Ltd.,China. METHODS:This study was performed at the Department of Preventive Medicine,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Yanbian University from January to June 2007.All mice were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 mice in each:control group,model group,low-,and high-dose Acanthopanax senticosus-treated groups, and piracetam-treated group.All groups were administered 0.1 mL/10 g.In the control and model groups, mice were intragastrically administered saline each morning for 5 days prior to experimentation.Five days later,they were intraperitoneally perfused with saline and aluminum trichloride

  2. Lupane-triterpenoids from the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus%细柱五加叶中羽扇豆烷型三萜成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向前; CHANG Seung-Yeup; YOOK Chang-soo

    2006-01-01

    从细柱五加(Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.W.Smith)叶的热MeOH提取液中分离得到了4个lupane型三萜化合物,根据它们的理化性质和波谱数据,鉴定出其化学结构分别为acankoreagenin(1),3-epi-betulinic acid 28-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester(2),acantrifoside A(3)和acankoreoside C(4).其中化合物1是首次从天然植物中分离得到的新化合物,化合物2是首次从五加科植物中分离得到的化合物,且这4个化合物都是第一次从细柱五加中分离得到.%Four lupane-triterpenoids were isolated from the hot MeOH extract of the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W. Smith. Based on the physical properties and spectroscopic data,their chemical structures were determined as acankoreagenin(1),3-epi-betulinic acid 28-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester(2),acantrifoside A(3) and acankoreoside C(4).To our best knowledge,compound 1 was a new compound isolated from the natural source for the first time,compound 2 was isolated from Acanthopanax spp. For the first time,and compounds 1~4 were also obtained for the first time from this plant.

  3. Polysaccharides from Acanthopanax senticosus enhances intestinal integrity through inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-challenged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Liu, Lixia; Yu, Ning; Chen, Jing; Liu, Baoshan; Yang, Di; Shen, Guoshun

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of polysaccharide from Acanthopanax senticosus (ASPS) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury, mice in three treatments were administrated orally with or without ASPS (300 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days, followed by challenge with LPS or saline. At 4 h post-injection, blood and intestinal samples of six mice / treatment were collected. The results showed ASPS ameliorated LPS-induced intestinal morphological deterioration, proven by improved villus height (P mediators, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (P inflammation conditions connected with inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:26435041

  4. Ameliorative Effects of Acanthopanax trifoliatus on Cognitive and Emotional Deficits in Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice: An Animal Model of Depression and Cognitive Deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Sithisarn, Pongtip; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Jarikasem, Siripen; Tanaka, Ken; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2013-01-01

    Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a plant that has been traditionally used in Thailand as a vegetable and a tonic. This study investigated effects of the aqueous extract of its leaves (ATL) on cognitive and emotional deficits using an olfactory bulbectomized mouse (OBX) model. OBX mice were treated daily with ATL (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) 3 days after OBX. Antidementia drug tacrine (2.5 mg/kg/day) and antidepressant drug imipramine (10 mg/kg/day) were given i.p. as reference drugs. OBX significantl...

  5. Chemical constituents in leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus%细柱五加叶的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安士影; 钱士辉; 蒋建勤; 王康才

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究细柱五加Acanthopanax gracilistylus叶的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、重结晶等方法,根据理化性质和光谱数据鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从细柱五加叶中得到17个化合物,分别鉴定为异贝壳杉烷酸[(-)-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid,Ⅰ]、槲皮素(quercetin,Ⅱ)、山柰酚(kaempferol,Ⅲ)、原儿茶酸(protoeatechuic acid,Ⅳ)、acankoreoside A(Ⅴ)、acantrifoside A(Ⅵ)、3α,11α-dihydroxy-20(29)-lupen-23,28-dioic acid(Ⅶ)β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,Ⅷ)、胡萝卜苷(daucosterol,Ⅸ)、棕榈酸(palmitic acid,Ⅹ)、芦丁(rutin,Ⅺ)、stigmast-5,22-dien-3-O-α-D-glucopyranoside(Ⅻ)、acankoreagenin(ⅩⅢ)、3,11-dihydroxy-23-oxo-20(29)一lupen-28-oic acid(ⅪⅤ)、3-hydroxy-23-oxo-20(29)-iupen-28-oic acid(ⅩⅤ)、三肉豆蔻酸甘油酯(myristin,ⅩⅥ)、细柱五加酸(acanthopanaxgric acid,ⅩⅦ).结论 化合物Ⅱ~Ⅳ、Ⅶ、Ⅺ、Ⅻ、、ⅪⅤ、ⅩⅤ首次从该植物中分离得到,化合物ⅩⅦ为新化合物,命名为细柱五加酸(acanthopanaxgrjc acid).

  6. Effect of extract from roots and rhizomes of Acanthopanax senticosus on immune function of Drosophila melanogaster%刺五加提取物对果蝇免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文佳; 刘强; 金丽华

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of the extract from the roots and rhizomes of Acanthopanax senticosus (ERA) and extract especially here from the fruits of of A. senticosus (EFA) on innate immunity and gut immunity of Drosophila melanogaster. Methods D. melanogaster was infected by bacterial or fungal biological solution with or without ERA or EFA, and the effects of ERA or EFA on the survival rates of D. melanogaster with microbial infection and thermal stimulation were recorded. Cell apoptosis was observed using fluorescence microscopy after immunostaining gut tissue of D. melanogaster. The total RNA of spore-infected D. melanogaster was extracted and the expression of antimicrobial peptides was detected. Results ERA and EFA could improve the survival rate of bacteria-infected D. melanogaster, meanwhile alleviate the apoptosis of gut epithelial cells. The survival rate of spore-infected D. melanogaster was improved by ERA and EFA, and certain antimicrobial peptides were highly expressed in vivo. ERA and EFA could also improve the survival rate of D. melanogaster with thermal stimulation. Conclusion ERA and EFA could significantly improve the immune function of D. melanogaster.%目的 研究刺五加提取物对果蝇天然免疫和肠道免疫功能的影响.方法 用含或不含刺五加根或果实提取物的细菌或真菌生物溶液感染果蝇,观察刺五加根和果实提取物对感染细菌或真菌以及对热刺激果蝇生存率的影响;果蝇肠道组织免疫染色,荧光显微镜观察肠壁细胞凋亡情况;提取被真菌孢子感染的果蝇总RNA,检测抗菌肽表达量.结果 刺五加根和果实提取物能提高细菌感染后果蝇的生存率,缓解肠壁细胞凋亡,也可提高经真菌孢子感染后果蝇的生存率,使体内部分抗菌肽出现高表达,也能提高经热刺激处理果蝇的生存率.结论 刺五加根和果实提取物能显著提高果蝇机体免疫功能.

  7. Analysis of the volatile oil from the stem of acanthopanax senticosus(Rupr.et Maxim.)harms with several hyphenated methods of chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wanying; Zhang Hua; Huang Weidong; Chen Jiping; Liang Xinmiao

    2006-01-01

    Gas chromatography/quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/qMS),gas chromatography/Fourier transform infrared spectrometry(CC/FTIR)and gas chromatography/orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry(GC/oaTOFMS)were applied to analyze the volatile oil from the stem of Acanthopanax Senticosus(Rupr.et Maxim.)Harms.Based on the mass spectra search function of GC/qMS with the aid of the discriminability of the geometrical isomer by GC/FTIR and the ability to determine the accurate mass charge ratio(m/z)by GC/oaTOFMS,68 GC eluants were identified successfully.Compared with the results obtained by GC/qMS only,the analytical results obtained by these hyphenated methods of gas chromatography are more credible.

  8. Preliminary Study on Cuttage of Aralia chinensis and Acanthopanax gracilistylus%楤木和五加的扦插繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仕玉; 郭凤根; 张应华; 张丽梅

    2000-01-01

    @@ 楤木(Aralia chinensis Linn)又名刺苞菜、刺老苞、树头菜,五加(Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W. Smith)又名刺五加、五加皮、五叶路刺或戈哈(哈尼语),两者都是属于五加科(Araliaceae)的落叶灌木[1],根皮可入药,嫩芽和嫩茎叶可供食用,且营养丰富,味美可口,在市场上供不应求,是极有发展前途的野生木本蔬菜.为了大量繁殖这两种木本蔬菜供应市场,合理利用和保护野生资源,笔者开展了楤木和五加的扦插繁殖研究.

  9. Fruits irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this project in food irradiation are two-fold, to study the effect of irradiation in prolongation of useful storage life of fruits and to evaluate irradiation as a means of preserving fruits. However radiation is not intended to replace existing preservation processes but may be used in conjunction with current methods such as refrigeration, drying, fermentation etc. In fact radiation should combine with proper storage and packaging techniques in order to ensure maximum benefits. Ripening retardation of fruits by irradiation kinds of fruits: papaya, mango, rambutan, longan and durian. Changes in organoleptic properties of fruit flavor and taste, texture changes by taste panel estimation of significance level of results by statistical mathematical methods, chemical changes determination of climacteric peak in fruits by estimation of carbon dioxide evolution, vitamin C determination by Tillmann's method, carotenoid separation by thin layer chromatography, reducing sugars and acidity determination, volatile components of durian by gas-chromatography

  10. Enrichment and Purification of Syringin, Eleutheroside E and Isofraxidin from Acanthopanax senticosus by Macroporous Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen a suitable resin for the preparative simultaneous separation and purification of syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin from Acanthopanax senticosus, the adsorption and desorption properties of 17 widely used commercial macroporous resins were evaluated. According to our results, HPD100C, which adsorbs by the molecular tiers model, was the best macroporous resin, offering higher adsorption and desorption capacities and higher adsorption speed for syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin than other resins. Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests were carried out to optimize the process parameters. The optimal conditions were as follows: for adsorption, processing volume: 24 BV, flow rate: 2 BV/h; for desorption, ethanol–water solution: 60:40 (v/v, eluent volume: 4 BV, flow rate: 3 BV/h. Under the above conditions, the contents of syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin increased 174-fold, 20-fold and 5-fold and their recoveries were 80.93%, 93.97% and 93.79%, respectively.

  11. Structure Determination of Triterpene Saponin from the Seed of Acanthopanax Senticosus by 2D NMR%2D NMR对刺五加种子中的一个三萜皂苷进行结构解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 高慧媛; 吴斌; 吴立军

    2005-01-01

    A triterpene saponin was extracted from the seeds of Acanthopanax Senticosus, and determined to be hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranpside on the basis of MS and NMR measurements. The 1 H and 13C NMR chemical shift of this compound was assigned using 2D NMR spectroscopy.%通过质谱、核磁共振谱并结合文献对一个三萜皂苷hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranpside进行结构解析. 通过2D NMR(HMQC、HMBC)对其进行了NMR全归属.

  12. Clinical Observation of Acanthopanax Senticosus Injection in the Treatment of Insomnia%刺五加注射液治疗失眠症的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范昕; 刘锦森

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy ofAcanthopanax senticosus injection in the treatment of insomnia.METHODS: 80 insomnia cases were randomly divided into treatment group and control group (40 cases).Treatment group was given A.senticosus injection while control group was given Shengrnai injection.Curative effect, score of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Athens Sleep Quality Index and adverse drug reaction were compared between 2 groups.RESULTS: The total effective rate of treatment group was 92.5% and that of control group was 77.5%, there was significant difference between 2 groups (P<0.05); there were significant improvements in the PSQI, Athens Sleep Quality Index in both groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01),there was significant differences between 2 groups (P<0.05).No serious adverse drug reaction was found in 2 groups.CONCLUSION: A.senticosus injection is effective in the treatment of insomnia.%目的:观察刺五加注射液治疗失眠症的临床疗效.方法:将80例失眠患者随机分为治疗组和对照组各40例.治疗组采用刺五加注射液治疗,对照组采用生脉注射液治疗,比较2组临床疗效、匹兹堡睡眠质量指数评分、Atbens睡眠量表评分和不良反应.结果:治疗组总有效率为92.5%,对照组为77.5%,2组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05);2组匹兹堡睡眠质量指数评分和Athens睡眠量表评分治疗后较治疗前明显降低(P<0.05或P<0.01),2组间比较均有显著性差异(P<0.05).2组均未见严重不良反应发生.结论:刺五加注射液治疗失眠症疗效确切.

  13. 细柱五加茎中的一个新的贝壳杉烷型二萜苷%One new ent-kaurane glycoside from stems of Acanthopanax gracilistylus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    咸丽娜; 李振麟; 钱士辉

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究细柱五加Acanthopanax gracilistylus茎的化学成分.方法 应用色谱方法分离纯化,通过波谱技术结合理化性质的方法鉴定化合物结构.结果 从正丁醇部位分离并鉴定了1个新的贝壳杉烷型二萜苷,命名为贝壳杉烷酸苷A(16α,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oie 19-[-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]ester)(1).结论 化合物1为新化合物.

  14. Process Optimization for Ultrasonic Extraction of Total Saponins from Jilin Changbaishan Wild Acanthopanax senticosus%吉林长白山刺五加总皂苷超声提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜琨; 陈锦屏

    2012-01-01

    以吉林长白山野生刺五加果实为原料,采用正交试验设计通过香草醛—高氯酸显色法对不同超声处理条件下刺五加果实粗提物中总皂甙得率进行测定,优化野生刺五加果实总皂甙超声提取工艺.结果表明:超声提取吉林长白山野生刺五加果实总皂甙的最佳工艺条件为料液比1∶20、乙醇体积分数70%、超声波功率450W、超声提取时间50 min,测得刺五加粗提物中总皂甙含量为3.57 mg/g,该提取方法简便、快捷,可用于长白山野生刺五加果实总皂甙提取和测定.%Total saponins from Jilin Changbaishan wild Acanthopanax senticosus were extracted by an orthogonal array design and determined by color development reaction with vanillin and perchloric acid. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: 1:20 of ratio of raw material to liquid, 70% of ethanol concentration ,450 of ultrasonic power,and 50 min extraction time. The content of total saponins in the crude extract obtained under the above conditions was 3.57 mg/g. This method was convenient and quick,which can be applied on the extraction of total saponins from Jilin Changbaishan wild Acanthopanax Senticosus.

  15. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide nutrients vital for health, such as potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, and folate (folic acid). Most fruits ... fruit, rather than juice, for the benefits that dietary fiber provides. 6 include fruit at breakfast At breakfast, ...

  16. 中药五加皮提取成分抗肿瘤活性作用机理研究%Study on Mechanism of the Anti-tumor Activity of Acanthopanax Gracilistylus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单保恩; 付小梅; 华正祥; 李巧霞; 梁文杰; 刘冀琴; 张华; 刘刚叁

    2005-01-01

    目的研究五加皮提取成分(Acanthopanax gracilistylus extract,Age)对肿瘤细胞的作用机理.方法采用[3H]-TdR掺入法测定肿瘤细胞增殖反应;用流式细胞技术分析Age对肿瘤细胞周期的影响;用蛋白印迹技术检测Age对肿瘤细胞Rb(retinoblastoma)、Cdk(cyclin-dependent kinases)等酶类的影响.结果体外细胞活力试验证明,Age仅抑制肿瘤细胞增殖,并不导致细胞死亡.在Age的作用下,肿瘤细胞增殖停止在细胞周期的G0/G1期,而未见直接的细胞毒效应.Age可诱导Rb、Cdk2和Cdk4表达降低,使细胞停止增殖.结论Age对肿瘤细胞的作用机制是通过调节控制细胞周期的酶类而发挥作用的.

  17. Study on Antioxidative Properties of Different Fractions from Acanthopanax Senticosus(Rupr.etMaxim.) Harms Leaves%刺五加叶不同部位抗氧化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊标; 赵红丹; 徐春玲; 陈秋连; 梁彩霞; 郑友兰

    2012-01-01

    目的研究刺五加叶不同部位在不同浓度下的体外抗氧化活性。方法采用清除ABTS+自由基、DPPH自由基评价法和测定还原性法,利用紫外分光光度计法测定刺五加叶的总提液、10%、30%和50%大孔吸附树脂醇洗脱部位在不同浓度下的抗氧化能力。结果刺五加叶不同部位抗氧化活性的强弱顺序为:30%部位〉10%部位〉总提液〉50%部位,随着各部位浓度的增加,抗氧化能力增强。ABTS+自由基和DPPH自由基模型中,在浓度为0.64mg/mL时,30%的部位对ABTS+DPPH自由基模最大清除率分别达到99.541%、95.331%,与同浓度VC的清除率接近,其次浓度0.64mg/mL的10%部位的最大清除率分别达到96.324%、88.033%。在还原性法测定中30%部位在浓度为0.64mg/mL时,吸光度为2.269,与VC较接近,同浓度时10%部位的吸光度为2.155,次于30%部位。结论刺五加叶抗氧化能力较好,各种评定方法结合分析,其30%部位最好,可以开发为抗氧化剂,为进一步研究和开发刺五加叶提供了科学依据。%Objective Study on different Fractions of Acanthopanax Senticosus(Rupr.etMaxim.) Harms Leaves at different concentrations,and determine its antioxidative activities.Methods The antioxidative activities of Acanthopanax Senticosus compared with VC were investigated employing various methods established in vitro systems such as DPPH(1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical ABTS(2,2-azo-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging assay and reducing power assay measured by ultraviolet spectro-photometer.Results The elution fractions of Acanthopanax Senticosus exhibited significant antioxidant properties on ABTS free radical,DPPH radical scavenging systems,and good reduction.The inhibition of freeing radical scavenging ability of the different elution fractions from strong to weak is: 30%fraction10%fraction the total extracts50%fraction.The antioxidant properties of different fractions depended

  18. Seedless Fruit Production by Hormonal Regulation of Fruit Set

    OpenAIRE

    Tiziana Pandolfini

    2009-01-01

    Seed and fruit development are intimately related processes controlled by internal signals and environmental cues. The absence of seeds is usually appreciated by consumers and producers because it increases fruit quality and fruit shelf-life. One method to produce seedless fruit is to develop plants able to produce fruits independently from pollination and fertilization of the ovules. The onset of fruit growth is under the control of phytohormones. Recent genomic studies have greatly contribu...

  19. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  20. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n = 42

  1. Consumer acceptance of novel fruits and fruit products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Benninga, J.; Rakowska, J.; Bartels, J.

    2010-01-01

    The task of the Deliverable 1.3.7 Report on case studies of fruit innovations is to provide information on consumers' acceptance of innovative fruit and fruit products selected for case studies in Deliverable 1.3.2 List of selected fruit innovations, and to validate findings from previous stages of

  2. Seedless Fruit Production by Hormonal Regulation of Fruit Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Pandolfini

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed and fruit development are intimately related processes controlled by internal signals and environmental cues. The absence of seeds is usually appreciated by consumers and producers because it increases fruit quality and fruit shelf-life. One method to produce seedless fruit is to develop plants able to produce fruits independently from pollination and fertilization of the ovules. The onset of fruit growth is under the control of phytohormones. Recent genomic studies have greatly contributed to elucidate the role of phytohormones in regulating fruit initiation, providing at the same time genetic methods for introducing seedlessness in horticultural plants.

  3. Study on the HPLC-ELSD Fingerprints of Triterpenoid Saponins in Acanthopanax gracilistylus Fruits%江苏细柱五加果实指纹图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲英; 张正光; 钱士辉

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究建立江苏细柱五加果实中三萜皂苷类成分HPLC-ELSD指纹图谱分析方法,为其质量控制和药材鉴别提供依据.方法:采用HPLC-ELSD色谱法,使用AlltimaTM-C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈-甲醇-0.5%醋酸水,梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL· min-,柱温为35℃.ELSD检测器条件:漂移管温度106℃,载气为氮气,流速为2.9 L·min-1,进样20 μL.结果:在选定的色谱条件下确定14个共有峰,各批次药材均具有上述特征,但特征峰的相对含量分布差异导致色谱概貌存在一定差异.确定了细柱五加果实中2个三萜皂苷类成分,相对保留时间31 min为chikusetsusaponinⅣa峰(10号),相对保留时间50 min为3β-([O-β-D-glucopyranu-ronosyl]oxy)-olean-12-ene-28-olc acid峰(14号),不同批次的10批细柱五加果实中HPLC-ELSD指纹图谱特征峰分离度好,谱峰匹配一致.结论:该方法准确、简单、稳定,其色谱指纹图谱可用于江苏细柱五加果实的鉴别和质量控制.

  4. FRUIT NUTRITIVE FACTOR NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqing QU; Yumei JIANG; Daren HE

    2009-01-01

    As an research example of the widely existing cooperation-competition systems, the authors present an empirical investigation on a fruit nutritive factor network. It is described by a node-weighted bipartite graph. The fruit nutritive factors are defined as the nodes, and two nodes are connected by an edge if at least one fruit contains these two nutritive factors. The fruits are defined as the collaboration acts. The node-weight Writ, which signifies the "importance degree" of each actor node, is defined as the content of a nutritive factor in a fruit. The empirical investigation results show some unique features.The node-weight distributions take so-called "shifted power law" function forms, but the act-weight distribution takes a normal form. The degree and act-degree distributions show impulsive-spectrum like forms. These observations may be helpful for the study of fruits. The network description method proposed in this article may be universal for a kind of cooperation-competition systems.

  5. 细柱五加叶甲醇提取物中的羽扇豆烷型三萜成分%Lupane-triterpenoids from the methanol extracts of leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.W.Smith

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹亲朋; 刘向前; 李炯奎; 吴眸真

    2011-01-01

    Nine lupane-triterpeniods were isolated from hot methanol extract of the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.W. Smith. Based on the chemical-physical properties and spectroscopic data including HR.-MS, ID and 2D-NMR, their chemical structures were determined as impressic acid(l), 3α, 11α-dihydroxy-23-oxo-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid(2), 3a, lla, 23-trihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid(3), acankoreagenin(4), 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl 3a, lla-dihydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid(5), acantrifoside A(6), acankoreoside D(7), acankoreoside B(8), acankoreoside A(9), respectively. To our best knowledge, compounds 1-3 and compound 5 were obtained for the first time from this plant.%从细柱五加叶中分离得到了四个羽扇豆烷型三萜苷元及五个对应的苷类化合物.根据其理化性质和波谱数据,鉴定出其化学结构分别为impressic acid (1),3α,11α-dihydroxy-23-oxo-lup-20 (29)-en-28-oic acid(2),3α,11α,23-trihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid(3),五加苷元(acankoreagenin,4),3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl 3α,11α-dihydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid(5),acantrifoside A(6),acankoreoside D(7),acankoreoside B(8)和五加苷(acankoreoside A,9),其中化合物1-3和化合物5是首次从细柱五加中分离得到.

  6. Gamma irradiation of fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) meeting held in 1976, recommendations were made to rationalize the unnecessarily elaborate wholesomeness evaluation procedures for irradiated foodstuffs. Irradiation at the commercially recommended doses did not adversely affect the constituents of mangoes, papayas, litchis and strawberries at the edible-ripe stage. These favourable radiation-chemical results justified the development of a theoretical model mango which could be used for extrapolation of wholesomeness data from an individual fruit species to all others within the same diet class. Several mathematical models of varying orders of sophistication were evolved. In all of them, it was assumed that the radiant energy entering the system reacted solely with water. The extent of the reaction of the other components of the model fruit with the primary water radicals was then determined. No matter which mathematical treatment was employed, it was concluded that the only components which would undergo significant modification would be the sugars. In order to extrapolate these data from the mango to other fruits, mathematical models of three fruits containing less sugar than the mango, viz. the strawberry, tomato and lemon, were compiled. With these models, the conclusion was reached that the theoretical degradation spectra of these fruits were qualitatively similar to the degradation pattern of the model mango. Theory was again substantiated by the practical demonstration of the protective effect of the sugars in the tomato and lemon. The decrease in radiation damage was enhanced by the mutual protection of the components of the whole synthetic fruits with ultimate protection being afforded by the biological systems of the real fruits

  7. Fruit and vegetable allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable allergies are the most prevalent food allergies in adolescents and adults. The identification of the allergens involved and the elucidation of their intrinsic properties and cross-reactivity patterns has helped in the understanding of the mechanisms of sensitisation and how the allergen profiles determine the different phenotypes. The most frequent yet contrasting fruit and vegetable allergies are pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) syndrome. In PFS, fruit and vegetable allergies result from a primary sensitisation to labile pollen allergens, such as Bet v 1 or profilin, and the resulting phenotype is mainly mild, consisting of local oropharyngeal reactions. In contrast, LTP syndrome results from a primary sensitisation to LTPs, which are stable plant food allergens, inducing frequent systemic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Although much less prevalent, severe fruit allergies may be associated with latex (latex-fruit syndrome). Molecular diagnosis is essential in guiding the management and risk assessment of these patients. Current management strategies comprise avoidance and rescue medication, including adrenaline, for severe LTP allergies. Specific immunotherapy with pollen is not indicated to treat pollen-food syndrome, but sublingual immunotherapy with LTPs seems to be a promising therapy for LTP syndrome. PMID:26022876

  8. Medicinal Fruits in Holy Quran

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Farhangi; Maryam Ajilian; Masumeh Saeidi; Gholam Hasan Khodaei

    2014-01-01

    Fruits are one of the oldest forms of food known to man. There are many references to fruits in ancient literature. According to Quran, the fruits like grape, date, fig, olive and pomegranate are gifts and heavenly fruits of God.  Fresh and dry fruits are the natural staple food of man. They contain substantial quantities of essential nutrients in a rational proportion. Persons subsisting on this natural diet will always enjoy good health. Moreover, fresh and dry fruits are thus not only a go...

  9. Fruits and Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Alexandra Deaquiz-Oyola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth and fruit development are conditioned by environmental factors such as solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, affecting phenology and metabolic processes, which are reflected in its quality and  size. Besides the variety, the age of the plant species, cultural practices, the amount of CO2, plant growth regulators and nutrition also influence this process of maturation. Moreover, the photosynthetic process occurs in immature fruits same manner as in the leaves, however, when the ripening process starts it changes because chlorophyll is degraded and other pigments intervene such as carotenoids, α-carotene and β-carotene, which contain antioxidants good for human health.

  10. Influence of Phenobarbital and Topiramate on long-term learning and memory in Rats with immature brain and the protection effect of Acanthopanax%PB和TPM对未成熟脑大鼠远期学习记忆的影响及刺五加的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛利吉; 杨琳; 韩玲; 刘宇; 齐薛浩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of Phenobarbital ( PB) and Topiramate ( TPM) on long-term learning and memory of newly-born rats by short-term administration and the protection effect of Acanthopanax.Methods There were two batches of rats.Among the first batch, 30 3-day old healthy Sprague-Dawley ( SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, control group, PB group and PB combined with Acanthopanax group.Among the second batch, 30 3-day old healthy Sprague-Dawley ( SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 rats in each, control group, TPM group and TPM combined with acanthopanx group.Hypertonic saline (10mL・ kg-1・ d-1 ) was given to the control group, PB group was injected with PB (62.5mg・ kg-1・ d-1), and PB (62.5mg・ kg-1・ d-1) and Acanthopanax (5.6g・ kg-1・ d-1 ) were injected to PB combined with Acanthopanax group.TMP was injected to TMP group with the dose of 62.5mg・kg-1・ d-1 , and TMP combined with Acanthopanax group were given 62.5mg・ kg-1・ d-1 of TMP and 5.6g・ kg-1・ d-1 of Acanthopanax.The rats were injected after weighed for three continuous days.They were regularly fed till they were one month old.Finally 8 out of each group were selected to attend the game of Morris water maze.Results The incubation period for searching underwater platform in PB group was longer than the control group, and the difference was significant ( t=-3.542,P=0.005) .The times passing through the effective area reduced in PB group compared with the control group (t=3.352,P=0.005).However, after adding Acanthopanax, the incubation period (t=1.313,P=0.210) and the times passing through the effective area (t =0.051,P=0.128) had no significant difference from the control group.The incubation period for searching underwater platform in TPM group was significantly longer than the control group (t=-1.920,P=0.075), but the times passing through the effective area was less than the control group (t=1.915,P=0.076) .However, TPM group was not

  11. 江苏地区3个居群细柱五加叶片显微结构及光合特性研究%Leaf morphology and photosynthetic characteristics of different populations of Acanthopanax gracilistylus in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康才; 王立会; 汤兴利; 罗春红

    2011-01-01

    Three populations(Tangshan, Baohuashan, Tieshansi) of Acanthopanax gracilistylus were used as materials to analyze chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and leaf microstructure so as to study their physiological characteristics and provide a theoretical basis for artificial cultivation. The results showed that the diurnal variation of net photosynthesis rate(Pn) in three populations all took a single peak curve. The light compensation point(LCP) of three populations were 24, 18 and 21 μmol·m-2·s-1 , respectively; light saturation point(LSP) of three populations were 555, 309 and 348 μmol·m-2·s-1; CO2 compensation point of three populations were 72.5,82.5 and 67.6 μmol·mol-1; CO2 saturation point of three populations were 1 500, 2 550 and 1 490 μmol·mol-1 correspondingly. The chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and leaf morphology of three populations of Acanthopanax gracilistylus were significantly different. It comes to a conclusion that the three populations of Acanthopanax gracilistylus have typical characteristics of shade plants, and it is better to provide shading treatment for artificial cultivation.%以江苏地区3个细柱五加居群(汤山、宝华山、铁山寺)为材料,分别观察叶片形态结构,测定叶绿素含量及光合特性,为细柱五加人工栽培提供技术依据.结果表明,3个居群叶片结构均具阴生植物特征;光补偿点分别为24、18和21 μmol·m-2·s-1,光饱和点分别为555、309和348μmol·m-2·s-1;CO2补偿点分别为72.5、82.5和67.6 μmol·mol-1,CO2饱和点分别为1 500、2 550和1 490 μmol·mol-1;叶绿素a/b均较低.认为3个居群细柱五加均为阴生植物,人工栽培需遮阴处理.

  12. Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (Papple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (Pbrand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (Pbrand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. PMID:23810279

  13. Emerging fruit crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  14. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  15. Chilling injury in mangosteen fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choehom, R.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Major components of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit quality include pericarp hardening, and shrinkage of both the stem and the sepals (calyx). At room temperature in South-East Asia (29±308C) the fruit remains acceptable for about 6±8.d. To determine optimum storage temperature, fruit were

  16. Clinical Experience of Acanthopanax Senticosus Injection in the Treatment of 60 Cases of Insomnia%刺五加注射液治疗失眠症60例临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋琴; 祝红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of Acanthopanax senticosus injection in the treatment of insomnia. Methods 60 insomnia cases were randomly divided into two groups: treatment group and control group (30 cases in each' group) . Patients in the treatment group were given A. Senticosus injection while thoese in the control group were given Glu injection. The curative effect, score of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) , Athens sleep quality score and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups. Results The total effective rate of treatment group was 76.67% and that of control group was 30% , there was significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). There were significant improvement in the PSQI scores in both groups (P<0.05) and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). No serious adverse reactions were found in both groups. Conclusion A. Senticosus injection is effective in the treatment of insomnia.%目的 观察刺五加注射液治疗失眠症的临床疗效.方法 将60例失眠患者随机分为治疗组和对照组各30例,治疗组采用刺五加注射液治疗,对照组采用5%葡萄糖注射液治疗,比较两组临床疗效、匹兹堡睡眠质量指数评分、Athens睡眠量表评分和不良反应.结果 治疗组总有效率为76.67%,对照组为30%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组匹兹堡睡眠质量指数评分治疗后较治疗前明显降低(P<0.05),两组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组均未见严重不良反应发生.结论 刺五加注射液治疗失眠症疗效确切.

  17. 细柱五加叶多糖提取分离纯化及保湿性能研究%Extraction, isolation, and purification of polysaccharides from leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus and property of their moisture retention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜舞; 郑礼胜; 谢霞; 戴玲; 刘向前

    2015-01-01

    目的 优化细柱五加Acanthopanax gracilistylus(AGS)叶(AGSL)多糖(AGSL-P)闪式提取工艺,然后将其进行分离纯化,并对其吸湿和保湿性能进行研究.方法 运用球面对称设计试验,优化AGSL-P闪式提取工艺;采用醇沉、Sevage法除蛋白、脱色、透析、琼脂糖凝胶色谱、葡聚糖凝胶分离等方法对AGSL-P进行分离纯化,通过化学实验及红外光谱、核磁共振等方法对其结构进行初步鉴定;对AGSL-P、AGSL-P-1和AGSL-P-2的吸湿和保湿性能进行了初步研究,并与常用保湿剂(聚乙二醇400等)在相对湿度43%和75%条件下进行对比.结果 AGSL-P闪式提取最佳工艺为固液比为1:14.5,提取温度为71℃,提取时间为257 s,在此条件下,AGSL-P提取率为1.62%;AGSL-P精制产物AGSL-P-1-1为均一多糖,经过红外光谱和核磁共振检测结果推测,AGSL-P-1-1的构型为α构型,可能含有葡萄糖、鼠李糖和半乳糖.吸湿和保湿性能研究结果表明,AGSL-P-1和AGSL-P-2的吸湿能力优于常用保湿剂聚乙二醇400,而AGSL-P-2保湿能力与聚乙二醇400相当.结论 建立了稳定、简便的AGSL-P闪式提取工艺方法;AGSL-P-1-1均一多糖为首次从AGSL中分离得到;AGSL-P-2可能是一种优良的天然保湿剂.

  18. Parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorguet, B; van Heusden, A W; Lindhout, P

    2005-03-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development is a very attractive trait for growers and consumers. In tomato, three main sources of facultative parthenocarpy, pat, pat-2, pat-3/pat-4, are known to have potential applications in agriculture. The parthenocarpic fruit development in these lines is triggered by a deregulation of the hormonal balance in some specific tissues. Auxins and gibberellins are considered as the key elements in parthenocarpic fruit development of those lines. An increased level of these hormones in the ovary can substitute for pollination and trigger fruit development. This has opened up genetic engineering approaches for parthenocarpy that have given promising results, both in quality and quantity of seedless fruit production. PMID:15822008

  19. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  20. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569

  1. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  2. Dried fruit and dental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Michèle Jeanne

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature has found that the common perceptions that dried fruits are "sticky", adhere to teeth, and are detrimental to dental health on account of their sugar content are based on weak evidence. There is a lack of good quality scientific data to support restrictive advice for dried fruit intake on the basis of dental health parameters and further research is required. A number of potentially positive attributes for dental health, such as the need to chew dried fruits which encourages salivary flow, and the presence of anti-microbial compounds and of sorbitol, also require investigation to establish the extent of their effects and whether they balance against any potentially negative attributes of dried fruit. Advice on dried fruit consumption should also take account of the nutritional benefits of dried fruit, being high in fibre, low in fat and containing useful levels of micronutrients.

  3. Fruit protected cultivation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Huajun; Wang Saoming; Wang Jiaxi

    2003-01-01

    Protected fruit cultivation in China has developed very quickly from the early 1990s, and now it is animportant branch in fruit cultivation. A brief review including fruit species, developing history, growing area, output, anddistribution in the whole country is made in the paper. Characteristics of the dominant kinds of greenhouse,environmental control methods, and standards of temperature, humidity, light and CO2 for different fruit species arepresented. Information on varieties, growing benefits, special management practices and other aspects of the main fruitspecies used for protected cultivation are also presented.

  4. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. PMID:26706059

  5. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently.

  6. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  7. Illuminating tomato fruit enhances fruit Vitamin C content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntagkas, N.; Min, Q.; Woltering, E.J.; Labrie, C.; Nicole, C.C.S.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    L-ascorbate (AsA; Vitamin C) is an anti-and pro-oxidant phytochemical essential for the proper functioning of the human body. Field grown tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) contain substantial amounts of AsA. When grown in the greenhouse, tomato fruit typically have low levels of AsA. Light is t

  8. 红毛五加叶水提液对羟自由基清除率的测定%Determination on Scavenging Activity of Acanthopanax gimldiiLeaves Aqueous Extract to Hydroxyl Radicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鑫嵎; 杨文宇; 叶强

    2011-01-01

    [目的]测定红毛五加叶水提液对羟自由基的清除率并评价其抗氧化活性.[方法]利用Fenton反应产生羟自由基,用二甲亚砜(DMSO)捕获羟自由基并与之反应生成甲醛,甲醛经2,4-二硝基苯肼衍生成相应的苯腙,通过HPLC检测加或不加样品时该苯腙的峰面积的变化,从而计算红毛五加叶水提液对羟自由基的清除率.色谱条件:色谱柱为Diamonsil C18(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈-水(65:35,V/V),流速为0.8 ml/min,检测波长为365 nm.[结果]Fenton反应体系为2.0 mmol/L Fe2++ 107.7 mmol/L H2 O2+225.2 mmol/L DMSO;在该反应体系中红毛五加叶水提液清除羟自由基的IC50为0.67 mg/ml(即每1ml含药材量为0.67 mg);红毛五加叶总皂苷是清除羟自由基的活性成分.[结论]红毛五加叶水提液能够清除Fenton反应产生的羟自由基,具有较强的抗氧化活性.%[Objective] The aim was to determine the hydroxyl radicals scavenging capacity by the leaves aqueous extract of Acanthopanax giraldii Harms. For its antioxidant activity evaluation. [Method] The proposed method employed the reaction between hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton system and dimethyl sulfoxid ( DMSO) to form formaldehyde,which then reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine ( DNPH) to produce the corresponding hydrazone ( HCHO-DNPH). The hydroxyl radicals scavenging rate was calculated by the HPLC peak areas of HCHO-DNPH in the above reaction system with or without A. Giraldii as a scavenger. The chromatographic conditions included a Diamonsil C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μm) ,a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water (65:35, V/V) ,a flow rate of 0. 8 ml/min and ultraviolet detection at 365 nm. [Result] The optimized Fenton system for HCHO-DNPH generation was 2.0 mmol/L Fe2+ + 107.7 mmol/L H2O2 + 225.2 mmol/L DMSO. The half-scavenging concentration (IC50) of the A. Giraldii leaves aqueous extract was 0.67 mg/ml (I. E. 0.67 mg crude leaves to 1 ml volumes

  9. Anthocyanins Present in Some Tropical Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many tropical fruits are rich in anthocyanins, though limited information is available about the characterization and quantification of these anthocyanins. The identification of anthocyanin pigments in four tropical fruits was determined by ion trap mass spectrometry. Fruits studied included acero...

  10. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(∗); (∗)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented.

  11. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  12. Fruit and vegetable consumption today

    OpenAIRE

    Rabenberg, Martina; Mensink, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This issue will focus the consumption of fruit and vegetable in Germany. One of the questions answered by this article is, if the recommened intake of fruit and vegetable is achieved within the population. The data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) and EsKiMo, a representative survey on food intake among children and adolescents, provide the answers.

  13. Parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorguet, B.J.M.; Heusden, van A.W.; Lindhout, P.

    2005-01-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development is a very attractive trait for growers and consumers. In tomato, three main sources of facultative parthenocarpy, pat, pat-2, pat-3/pat-4, are known to have potential applications in agriculture. The parthenocarpic fruit development in these lines is triggered by a d

  14. 刺五加对睡眠剥夺大鼠学习记忆及海马单胺类神经递质的影响%Effects of Acanthopanax on Learning and Memory andMonoamine Neurotransmitters in Hippocampus of Sleep Deprived Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱蕾; 张茹; 李廷利

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective mechanism of acanthopanax on learning and memory and monoamine neurotransmitters acetylcholinesterase ( AchE ) , serotonin ( 5-HT ) , norepinephrine ( NE ) , 5-hydroxindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) of hippocampus in sleep deprivation rats. Method: Total of 75 male wistar rats were randomized into 5 groups, large platform group, sleep deprivation group, three treatment groups (high, middle and low dose). Treatment groups were given Acanthopanax solution (11.2, 5.6, 2. 8 g·kg-1) for 7 days. The others were given distilled water. A small platform was used to establish rapid eye movement sleep ( REMS) deprivation model in rats. After 4 days, the ability of learning memory and space exploration was tested by Hexagonal maze in rats. The level of AchE, 5-HT, NE, 5-HIAA in hippocampus homogenate were measured. Result: Compared with a large platform, the number of errors of sleep deprivation group increased, the rate of cognitive reduced ( P < 0. 01 ) , but finding time was shorten ( P < 0. 05 ) . After administration of Acanthopanax solution, the number of errors reduced significantly, the rate of cognitive increased(P <0. 01 ) , finding time was shorten(P <0. 01 ) , the level of 5-HT, NE. 5-HIAA was higher in Acanthopanax solution than sleep deprivation group (P <0. 05 or P <0. 01). The AchE level in treatment groups was lower thanthat in sleep deprivation groupbut higher than large platform group (P <0. 05 or P <0. 01) . Conclusion: Acanthopanax can improve learning and memory ablity in sleep deprived rats, and the mechanism may involve regulating the sleep deprivation caused by disorders of monoamine neurotransmitter, accelerating the metabolic conversion of 5-HT, regulating NE, and AchE activity in the hippocampus.%目的:探讨刺五加对睡眠剥夺大鼠学习记忆能力及对海马单胺类神经递质AchE(乙酰胆碱酯酶),5-HT(5-羟色胺)、NE(去甲肾上腺素)、5-HIAA(5-羟吲哚乙酸)的影响.方法:将75

  15. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  16. The role of fruit colour in avian fruit selection: an objective approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Veronika

    2002-01-01

    To explain the prevalence of red and black fruits in fruit colour patterns, the following hypotheses were addressed, using reflectance spectra of fruits as colour assessment: 1. Birds prefer red and black fruits, or these hues are cues for food recognition in migrants or fledglings. 2. Fruit colours correlate with chemical compounds. 3. Fruit colours serve as advertisement for ripe fruits. Reflectance spectra are the most objective colour assessment currently possible. Birds show no colour pr...

  17. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  18. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the...

  19. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  20. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit. 905.4 Section 905.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.4 Fruit. Fruit means any or...

  1. Glucides of Cnidium monnieri fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, J; Ishikawa, T; Aoki, Y

    2001-10-01

    From the fruit of Cnidium monnieri Cusson (Umbelliferae), two glucides were isolated together with other known glucides. Their structures were clarified as glycerol 2-O-alpha-L-fucopyranoside and D-quinovitol (6-deoxy-D-glucitol), respectively.

  2. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Joanne L; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and...

  3. Association of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study1234

    OpenAIRE

    Oude Griep, Linda M.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Chan, Queenie; Van Horn, Linda; Steffen, Lyn M; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okuda, Nagako; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L; Elliott, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that fruit consumption may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases through blood pressure (BP)–lowering effects; little is known on the independent effect of raw fruit and fruit juice on BP.

  4. Freeze-frame fruit selection by birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mercedes S.

    2008-01-01

    The choice of fruits by an avian frugivore is affected by choices it makes at multiple hierarchical levels (e.g., species of fruit, individual tree, individual fruit). Factors that influence those choices vary among levels in the hierarchy and include characteristics of the environment, the tree, and the fruit itself. Feeding experiments with wild-caught birds were conducted at El Tirol, Departamento de Itapua, Paraguay to test whether birds were selecting among individual fruits based on fruit size. Feeding on larger fruits, which have proportionally more pulp, is generally more efficient than feeding on small fruits. In trials (n = 56) with seven species of birds in four families, birds selected larger fruits 86% of the time. However, in only six instances were size differences significant, which is likely a reflection of small sample sizes.

  5. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  6. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-04

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  7. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  8. Molecular Regulation of Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eOsorio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed.

  9. Fruit biomechanics based on anatomy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Yang, Hongling; Li, Pingping; Liu, Jizhan; Wang, Jizhang; Xu, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Fruit biomechanics is needed for quality determination, multiscale modelling and engineering design of fruit processes and equipments. However, these determined fruit biomechanics data often have obvious differences for the same fruit or tissue. In order to investigate it, the fruit biomechanics based on anatomy was reviewed in this paper. First, the anatomical characteristics of fruit biomaterials were described at the macroscopic `tissue' level and microscopic `cellular' level. Subsequently, the factors affecting fruit biomechanics based on anatomy and the relationships between fruit biomechanics, texture and mechanical damage were summarised according to the published literature. Fruit biomechanics is mainly affected by size, number and arrangement of cells, quantity and volume of intracellular spaces, structure, thickness, chemical composition and permeability of cell walls, and pectin degradation level and turgor pressure within cells based on microanatomy. Four test methods and partial determined results of fruit biomechanics were listed and reviewed. The determined mechanical properties data of fruit are only approximate values by using the existing four test methods, owing to the fruit biomaterials being non-homogeneous and living. Lastly, further aspects for research on fruit biomechanics were proposed for the future.

  10. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be ...

  11. Gezond fruit ook goed voor economie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Als mensen meer fruit gaan eten, gaat naast hun gezondheid ook de sector erop vooruit. Dus moet er meer aanbod komen van gezond, duurzaam, kwalitatief hoogstaand en betaalbaar fruit in Europa. Dat kan onder meer door betere rassen te veredelen.

  12. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin;

    2013-01-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatures...... in Antidesma velutinum. Potassium was the highest in Wood apple followed by in Moneky jack. It was noted that most of the minor fruits have much higher amount of ascorbic acid than the national fruit – Jack fruit ripe, the king fruit – Mango ripe of Bangladesh and exotic fruits – Apple and Grapes. The nutrient...... values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity....

  13. Parthenocarpic fruit development in Capsicum annuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.

    2011-01-01

      Key words: Parthenocarpy, Capsicum, fruit set, hormones, cell division, cell expansion, auxin, gibberellin, temperature, carpel-like structures, genotype   Parthenocarpy (fruit set without fertilization) is a much desired trait in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) production as it mini

  14. Fruit Volatile Analysis Using an Electronic Nose

    OpenAIRE

    Vallone, Simona; Lloyd, Nathan W.; Ebeler, Susan E.; Zakharov, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening, including the development of a specific volatile blend that characterizes fruit aroma. Maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavor quality of fruits and vegetables1. The validation of robust methods that rapidly assess fruit maturity and aroma quality would allow improved management of advanced breeding programs, production practices and postharvest handling. Over the last three decades, much rese...

  15. Rubus fruit myths vs. reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This factsheet corrects several popular media inaccuracies about Rubus fruit. Supplying the public with scientific facts is part of our continued efforts to assist consumers in making sound health conscious decisions. This project was partially funded by a Specialty Crop Research Initiative grant fr...

  16. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from tree

  17. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried fruit. 24.202... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.202 Dried fruit. In the production of wine from dried fruit, a quantity of water sufficient to restore the moisture content to that...

  18. Residuen op groenten en fruit ter discussie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    De nVWA en het RIVM doen al jaren onderzoek naar residuen van giftige stoffen op groenten en fruit. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat met name peuters en baby’s meer groenten en fruit binnenkrijgen dan eerder werd gedacht. Met meer groenten en fruit zouden ze ook meer residuen binnenkrijgen. Ernst Woltering

  19. Increasing tomato fruit quality by enhancing fruit chloroplast function. A double-edged sword?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaliadis, Maria Florencia; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Pons, Clara; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Fruits are generally regarded as photosynthate sinks as they rely on energy provided by sugars transported from leaves to carry out the highly demanding processes of development and ripening; eventually these imported photosynthates also contribute to the fruit organoleptic properties. Three recent reports have revealed, however, that transcriptional factors enhancing chloroplast development in fruit may result in higher contents not only of tomato fruit-specialized metabolites but also of sugars. In addition to suggesting new ways to improve fruit quality by fortifying fruit chloroplasts and plastids, these results prompted us to re-evaluate the importance of the contribution of chloroplasts/photosynthesis to fruit development and ripening.

  20. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis.

  1. Biochemical changes in chaenomeles fruits and fruit juice during ripening and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Vila, Roser; Granados, M.V.; Hellin, P.; Kauppinen, S.; Laencina, J.; Rumpunen, Kimmo; Ros, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, studies on the changes in characteristics and chemical composition of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica) fruits and fruit juice during fruit ripening and storage are reported. Juice was extracted from unripe, mature and stored fruits, respectively, and pH, density, viscosity, turbidity, content of soluble and insoluble solids, titratable acidity and content of vitamin C and phenols were analysed. Fruit biochemistry was clearly influenced by genotype and site of cultivation ...

  2. Socioeconomic gradient in consumption of whole fruit and 100% fruit juice among US children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The consumption of fruit is generally associated with better health, but also higher socioeconomic status (SES). Most previous studies evaluating consumption of fruits have not separated 100% fruit juice and whole fruit, which may conceal interesting patterns in consumption. Objective To estimate demographic and socioeconomic correlates of whole fruit versus 100% juice consumption among children and adults in the United States. Design Secondary analyses of two cycles of the nationa...

  3. Assessment of fruit density and leaf number: fruit to optimize crop load of mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Sdoodee

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available To optimize crop load of mangosteen, fruit density and leaf number: fruit were assessed using a framework of quadrat cube (0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m in 2 consecutive years (2004-2005. Twenty-four 14-year-old uniform trees, field grown at Songkhla province, were selected to arrange 4 levels of crop loads: 1 Extremely low crop load (T1 = 264±5 fruit pt-1, 2 Low crop load (T2 = 826±36 fruit pt-1, 3 Medium crop load (T3 = 1190±27 fruit pt-1 and 4 High crop load (T4 = 1719±36 fruit pt-1. By placing the quadrat cube on the tree canopy, leaves quadrat-1 and fruits quadrat-1 were counted. Relationship between fruits quadrat-1 and fruit number pt-1 was found, and leaf number: fruit was also related to fruit yield pt-1. These results indicate that the assessment of fruit density and leaf number: fruit is of benefit for crop load management. Thus, 9 fruits quadrat-1 and 18 leaves: fruit are recommended to optimize crop load of mangosteen.

  4. Phenolic constituents in irradiated banana fruit tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Hom Tong'' banana fruits grown in Thailand irradiated at 10, 20, 30 and 40 Krad and stored at 170C were used for analyses. The total phenolic compounds observed in irradiated fruits were higher than non-irradiated ones after harvested and 7 days of storage. The total phenolic components in the pulp of banana fruits were decreased during ripening when stored from 7-35 days. However, the phenolic constituents become increased again after 21 days of storage at the doses of 20 and 40 Krad due to the infected fruits by the fungus during the fruits approached to over ripe

  5. International Project on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To extend the application of irradiation to food preservation in a more general way, and to obtain the best conditions for this new technique, more fundamental research is needed. The main problem is to reduce the dose as much as possible. Reducing to the minimum the degradation due to radiation of the constituents of food assures organoleptic quality and wholesomeness and renders the product economic. Fruit juice was selected as a model substance for fundamental studies for the following reasons: (a) The components are representative for most foods; (b) The components can be easily separated; (c) The microorganism spoiling the fruit juice is mainly yeast, on which extended research work has been done; and (d) The item has economic value. The programme includes the following lines of research; Fundamental research. This has dealt mainly with the radiosensitization of microorganisms, that is, yeast in the case of fruit juice and, to a certain extent, mould. Technological studies. Based on the results of the basic research, studies on technological feasibility have been undertaken, including organoleptic and microbiological analysis of volatile and non-volatile substances. The results on apple juice are promising. Wholesomeness tests. Animal feeding studies on rats, mice and pigs started with tests of the amount of apples and apple juice which can be tolerated by the animals. Tissue cultures have been cultivated for the biological screening of degradation products. Irradiation facility. An irradiation plant of a new design for about 30 to 40 000 Ci and 10 000 Ci 60Co is under construction. (author)

  6. On Modern Fruit Production in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanhua; ZHAO; Yilong; PIAO

    2015-01-01

    Japan’s fruit tree production technology is in the world leading level. In order to understand Japan’s fruit tree production,by through visits to Japan and data collection,this paper analyzes the changes in Japan’s fruit tree cultivation area,regional distribution of fruit tree cultivation,main cultivars and market circulation in recent years. The results show that Japan’s fruit tree cultivation area underwent great volatility in the 1980 s and 1990 s and it has been stabilized in recent years; the cultivation area of principal fruit tree is reduced,while the cultivation area of new fruit trees and characteristic fruit tree varieties is increased; the regionalization of fruit tree is obvious and the main cultivars are clear. Japan’s principal fruit price goes through slight fluctuations during the year while the price of cherries and peaches goes through great fluctuations. It is concluded that Japan’s fruit tree industry is stably developed.

  7. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  8. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin

    2016-09-01

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed, their anthocyanin profiles (based on high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] separation) indicated if products' fruit origin listings were authentic. Over 30% of the Vaccinium fruit (cranberry, lingonberry, bilberry, and blueberry; 14 of 45) products available as dietary supplements did not contain the fruit listed as ingredients. Six supplements contained no anthocyanins. Five others had contents differing from labeled fruit (e.g., bilberry capsules containing Andean blueberry fruit). Of the samples that did contain the specified fruit (n = 27), anthocyanin content ranged from 0.04 to 14.37 mg per capsule, tablet, or teaspoon (5 g). Approaches to utilizing anthocyanins in assessment of sample authenticity, and a discussion of the challenges with anthocyanin profiles in quality control are both presented. PMID:27625778

  9. Inhibitory Activity of Kaurane-Type Diterpenes Isolated from Acanthopanax senticosus Harms on Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B%刺五加贝壳杉烷型二萜类化合物及其抑制蛋白酪氨酸磷酸酶1B(PTP1B)的活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 张南; 李佳琳; 邢姗姗; 马坤; 崔龙

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究刺五加(Acanthopanax senticosus Harms)的化学成分及其抑制蛋白酪氨酸磷酸酶1B(PTP1B)活性.方法 利用生物活性导向分离方法分离得到具有蛋白酪氨酸磷酸酶1B抑制活性的贝壳杉烷型二萜类化合物.结果 9个化合物分别鉴定为17-isobutyryloxy-16αH-kauran-19-oic acid(1),17-hydroxy-16αH-kauran-1 9-oic acid (2),17-acetoxy-18-isobutyryloxy-16αH-kauran-19-oic acid(3),ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (4),ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid(kaurenoic acid (5),4-epirulopezol(6),16α-hy-droxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid(7),16αH,17-isovaleryloxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid(8)和16α-hydroxy-17-isovaleryloxyent-kauran-19-oic acid(9).结论 化合物1~3、5和6为首次从该植物中分离得到.化合物1、3~6和8,对PTP1 B活性具有抑制作用,其IC50值在(5.6±0.8)到(22.8±1.2) μmol·L-1之间.

  10. Irradiation of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is likely to be less economic incentive to irradiate fruits and vegetables compared with applications which increase the safety of foods such as elimination of Salmonella or decontamination of food ingredients. Of the fruit and vegetable applications, irradiation of mushrooms may offer the clearest economic benefits in North-Western Europe. The least likely application appears to be sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, because of the greater efficiency and flexibility of chemical sprout inhibitors. In the longer-term, combinations between irradiation/MAP/other technologies will probably be important. Research in this area is at an early stage. Consumer attitudes to food irradiation remain uncertain. This will be a crucial factor in the commercial application of the technology and in the determining the balance between utilisation of irradiation and of technologies which compete with irradiation. (author)

  11. Proteomics in the fruit tree science arena: new insights into fruit defense, development, and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Athanassios; Tanou, Georgia; Filippou, Panagiota; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-06-01

    Fruit tree crops are agricultural commodities of high economic importance, while fruits also represent one of the most vital components of the human diet. Therefore, a great effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms covering fundamental biological processes in fruit tree physiology and fruit biology. Thanks to the development of cutting-edge "omics" technologies such as proteomic analysis, scientists now have powerful tools to support traditional fruit tree research. Such proteomic analyses are establishing high-density 2DE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases that can lead fruit science into a new postgenomic research era. Here, an overview of the application of proteomics in key aspects of fruit tree physiology as well as in fruit biology, including defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress factors, is presented. A panoramic view of ripening-related proteins is also discussed, as an example of proteomic application in fruit science.

  12. Are Fruit Juice Categories Separable?

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Erika P.; House, Lisa; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Thomas H. Spreen

    2008-01-01

    Supermarket shelves are saturated with numerous varieties and brands of juice beverages. This high level of assortment has dramatically changed beverage consumption patterns and trends throughout the United States. In fact, during 2004-2005, energy and sport drinks experienced significant increases in sales, 65.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. During the same period of time, refrigerated juice sales increased a mere 2.2%, shelved non-fruit drinks decreased 0.9%, bottled juices and cocktails both ...

  13. Folate biofortification of tomato fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I; Gregory, Jesse F.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    Folate deficiency leads to neural tube defects and other human diseases, and is a global health problem. Because plants are major folate sources for humans, we have sought to enhance plant folate levels (biofortification). Folates are synthesized from pteridine, p-aminobenzoate (PABA), and glutamate precursors. Previously, we increased pteridine production in tomato fruit up to 140-fold by overexpressing GTP cyclohydrolase I, the first enzyme of pteridine synthesis. This strategy increased fo...

  14. Why fruits go to the dark side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. Martin

    2011-11-01

    The colours of fleshy fruits are usually attributed to attract seed dispersers to the plant. A cursory look at the gaudy colours of fleshy fruits on offer in a local fruit stall gives the impression that plants use primarily bright colours to attract fruit consumer. This impression is misleading; many small fruits 'go to the dark side' and become dark purple or black when ripe. Intermingled in foliage, these colours, which are produced by anthocyanins, can be fairly inconspicuous and are thus not easily reconciled with a signalling function to attract seed dispersers. In this review I therefore discuss complementary hypotheses on the function and evolution of fruit colouration. First, I focus on the evidence that fruit colours indeed function as signals to attract seed dispersers. I then show that anthocyanins, the most prevalent fruit pigments, are important dietary antioxidants that can be selected by blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) which are important avian seed dispersers of many European plants. Moreover, the consumption of anthocyanins increases the likelihood that blackcaps mount an immune response during immune challenges. As a next step, I review evidence that anthocyanins accumulate in fruit skin in response to abiotic factors, in particular high illumination coupled with low temperature favour the increase of anthocyanins. Finally, I show that anthocyanins can also be selected for by fruit antagonists, consumers that do not disperse seeds. In particular, high contents of anthocyanins strongly reduce fungal growth in fruit tissue. Taken together, there are various selective pressures which likely influence fruit colour evolution. Currently, the relative importance of each of these selective agents is unknown. There is consequently a need to develop a more encompassing framework on fruit colour evolution.

  15. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  16. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velu Sivankalyani

    Full Text Available Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags, methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C. A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  17. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  18. Biologically active substances of stone crop fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Makarkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stone fruit crops are successfully cultivated in many regions of Russia. Their fruits contain a great diversity of biologically active and mineral substances. The stone fruit varietal collection of the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding has been estimated on the content of biologically active substances (ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in fruits: 80 sour cherry varieties, 28 sweet cherry varieties, 29 plum varieties and 24 apricot varieties. High cultivar variability of the content of ascorbic acid and P-active sub-stances in fruits has been determined in each crop. The best genotypes have been singled out according to each biochemical component and a complex of characters.

  19. Molecular regulation of seed and fruit set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yong-Ling; Patrick, John W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2012-11-01

    Seed and fruit set are established during and soon after fertilization and determine seed and fruit number, their final size and, hence, yield potential. These processes are highly sensitive to biotic and abiotic stresses, which often lead to seed and fruit abortion. Here, we review the regulation of assimilate partitioning, including the potential roles of recently identified sucrose efflux transporters in seed and fruit set and examine the similarities of sucrose import and hydrolysis for both pollen and ovary sinks, and similar causes of abortion. We also discuss the molecular origins of parthenocarpy and the central roles of auxins and gibberellins in fruit set. The recently completed strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genomes have added to the existing crop databases, and new models are starting to be used in fruit and seed set studies. PMID:22776090

  20. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    OpenAIRE

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red ...

  1. ARTICLE ON WINE PRODUCTION FROM DIFFERENT FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruits. Many tropical fruits such as mango, jackfruit, litchi, banana and cashew apple have been shown to be suitable for fermentation, mainly because of their appropriate taste, flavour, availability, high sugar and water content and overall chemical composition (Muniz et al. 2008). The natural chemical balance of these fruits  lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients. Ye...

  2. Advances in transgenic vegetable and fruit breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, João Silva; Ortiz Rios, Rodomiro Octavio

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables and fruits are grown worldwide and play an important role in human diets because they provide vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Vegetables and fruits are also associated with improvement of gastrointestinal health, good vision, and reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases such as diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Vegetable and fruit production suffers from many biotic stresses caused by pathogens, pests, and weeds and requires high amounts of p...

  3. Proximate Analysis of Dragon Fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzainah A. Jaafar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dragon fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus is well known for the rich nutrient contents and it is commercially available worldwide for improving many health problems. Several studies show the proximity value of red pitaya fruits but the nutrient composition of the stem has not been extensively studied. Approach: This study was carried out to measure the proximate analysis of moisture content, water activity, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, glucose and ascorbic acids content in premature and mature of dragon fruit. The dried powder was produced from the stem of dragon fruit and the proximate analysis of dragon fruit stem was compared between freeze drying process and drying oven process. Results: Results of this study showed that 96% moisture; 0.270 g of protein; 0.552 g L-1 glucose and 132.95 mg L-1 ascorbic acid of dragon fruit stem found higher than the fruit flesh of the dragon fruit. Conclusion: The premature stem had higher values than the mature stem of the dragon fruit which may helpful in preventing the risk factors of certain diseases.

  4. Molecular Progress in Research on Fruit Astringency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Astringency is one of the most important components of fruit oral sensory quality. Astringency mainly comes from tannins and other polyphenolic compounds and causes the drying, roughening and puckering of the mouth epithelia attributed to the interaction between tannins and salivary proteins. There is growing interest in the study of fruit astringency because of the healthy properties of astringent substances found in fruit, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiallergenic, hepatoprotective, vasodilating and antithrombotic activities. This review will focus mainly on the relationship between tannin structure and the astringency sensation as well as the biosynthetic pathways of astringent substances in fruit and their regulatory mechanisms.

  5. Morocco - Fruit Tree Productivity, Extension Component

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The emphasis of this performance evaluation is primarily on the economic and financial assessment of one specific activity of the Fruit Tree Productivity Project,...

  6. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Alvaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon

  7. Roles of Abscisic Acid in Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthiwal SETHA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant growth regulator, and it plays a variety of important roles throughout a plant’s life cycle. These roles include seed development and dormancy, plant response to environmental stresses, and fruit ripening. ABA concentration is very low in unripe fruit, but it increases as a fruit ripens, so it is therefore believed that ABA plays an important role in regulating the rate of fruit ripening. This article reviews the effect of ABA on ripening and quality of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The effects of ABA application on fruit ripening are subsequently discussed. Moreover, it is found that during fruit ripening, ABA also contributes to other functions, such as ethylene and respiratory metabolism, pigment and color changes, phenolic metabolism and nutritional contents, cell wall metabolism and fruit softening, and sugar and acid metabolism. These processes are all discussed as part of the relationship between ABA and fruit ripening, and the possibilities for its commercial application and use are highlighted.

  8. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay; Ersin Atay; Serdal Oğüt

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey) were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the resul...

  9. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    OpenAIRE

    Mann Julie; Payne Mark J; Hurst Jeffrey W; Preston Amy G; Crozier Stephen J; Hainly Larry; Miller Debra L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder...

  10. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    OpenAIRE

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered ...

  11. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  12. "FruitZotic": A Sensory Approach to Introducing Preschoolers to Fresh Exotic Fruits at Head Start Locations in Western Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Srimathi; Smith, Rebecca; Foley, Christine; Del Sole, Sarah; White, Alissa; Sheldon, Lisa A.; Mietlcki-Floyd, Shirley; Severin, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    FruitZotic incorporated fruit stories (exotic-fruits-literacy), a "See, Smell, Hear, Touch and Taste" (sensory) segment and a question-prompted discussion. Three take-home components incorporating the exotic fruits were: Coloring Activity, Recipes, and Fact Sheets. Sensory based nutrition education can increase familiarity with exotic fruits among…

  13. Fruit ripening phenomena--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, V; Prabha, T N; Tharanathan, R N

    2007-01-01

    Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. Fruits are widely distributed in nature. One of the limiting factors that influence their economic value is the relatively short ripening period and reduced post-harvest life. Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated, genetically programmed, and an irreversible phenomenon involving a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes, that finally leads to the development of a soft edible ripe fruit with desirable quality attributes. Excessive textural softening during ripening leads to adverse effects/spoilage upon storage. Carbohydrates play a major role in the ripening process, by way of depolymerization leading to decreased molecular size with concomitant increase in the levels of ripening inducing specific enzymes, whose target differ from fruit to fruit. The major classes of cell wall polysaccharides that undergo modifications during ripening are starch, pectins, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. Pectins are the common and major components of primary cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to the texture and quality of fruits. Their degradation during ripening seems to be responsible for tissue softening of a number of fruits. Structurally pectins are a diverse group of heteropolysaccharides containing partially methylated D-galacturonic acid residues with side chain appendages of several neutral polysaccharides. The degree of polymerization/esterification and the proportion of neutral sugar residues/side chains are the principal factors contributing to their (micro-) heterogeneity. Pectin degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, lyase, and rhamnogalacturonase are the most implicated in fruit-tissue softening. Recent advances in molecular biology have provided a

  14. Fruit polyphenols, immunity and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gallego, Javier; García-Mediavilla, M Victoria; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia; Tuñón, María J

    2010-10-01

    Flavonoids are a large class of naturally occurring compounds widely present in fruits, vegetables and beverages derived from plants. These molecules have been reported to possess a wide range of activities in the prevention of common diseases, including CHD, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and others. The effects appear to be related to the various biological/pharmacological activities of flavonoids. A large number of publications suggest immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds. However, almost all studies are in vitro studies with limited research on animal models and scarce data from human studies. The majority of in vitro research has been carried out with single flavonoids, generally aglycones, at rather supraphysiological concentrations. Few studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of physiologically attainable flavonoid concentrations in healthy subjects, and more epidemiological studies and prospective randomised trials are still required. This review summarises evidence for the effects of fruit and tea flavonoids and their metabolites in inflammation and immunity. Mechanisms of effect are discussed, including those on enzyme function and regulation of gene and protein expression. Animal work is included, and evidence from epidemiological studies and human intervention trials is reviewed. Biological relevance and functional benefits of the reported effects, such as resistance to infection or exercise performance, are also discussed.

  15. 76 FR 37312 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee... Agriculture (USDA) Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee and a Request for Nominations. SUMMARY: The USDA intends to reestablish the Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee (Committee)....

  16. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satya P.; Chung, Hea J.; Kim, Hyeon J.; Hong, Seong T.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight. PMID:27754404

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF RIPENING STAGES OF MYRTLE FRUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DYALLA RIBEIRO DE ARAUJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The myrtle (Eugenia gracillima Kiaersk. is a native fruit species in the Chapada of Araripe, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The fruits are collected from the wild and are consumed fresh or processed as pulp, juice, jelly, liquor or desserts. Myrtle fruit production is of significant socioeconomic value for the region and, therefore, the description of myrtle fruit ripening stages may contribute to the development of its production chain. As a result, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the physical, quality and ripening changes of myrtle fruits at different developmental stages. The fruits were picked at five distinctive stages and evaluated for longitudinal and transverse diameters; fresh, dry and water mass; water contents; soluble solids (SS; titratable acidity (TA; pH; SS/TA ratio; carbohydrates (starch, total, reducing and nonreducing sugars; ascorbic acid; total pectin, soluble pectins and percentage of pectin solubilization; polymeric, oligomeric and dimeric phenolics; total anthocyanins, carotenoids and chlorophyll; and yellow flavonoids. Along fruit ripening processes increases in SS, anthocyanins and carotenoids, in the SS/TA ratio and of percentages of pectin solubilization were determined. On the other hand, decreases in TA and total chlorophyll were observed. The ripening stage at which peel color is completely dark red (ripening stage 4 is most appropriate to harvest myrtle fruits for human consumption.

  18. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

  19. World temperate fruit production: characteristics and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years world population has increased 70% but per capita global fruit consumption is only 20% higher. Even though tropical and temperate fruit have similar contributions to the 50 kg/person/year of US consumption of fresh fruit, in the last 30 years this has been slightly greater for temperate fruit. Within fruit consumption, the largest expansion has been for organic fruit which increased more than 50% in the 2002-2006 period. The largest expansion of area planted in the 1996-2006 has been for kiwi (29% and blueberries (20%, while apples (-24% and sour cherries (-13% have had the largest reductions. Nearly 50% of the total global volume of fruit is produced by 5 countries: China, USA, Brazil, Italy and Spain. The main producer (China accounts for 23% of the total. While the main exporters are Spain, USA and Italy, the main importers are Germany, Russia and UK. Demands for the industry have evolved towards quality, food safety and traceability. The industry faces higher productions costs (labor, energy, agrichemicals. The retailers are moving towards consolidation while the customers are changing preferences (food for health. In this context there is greater pressure on growers, processors and retailers. Emerging issues are labor supply, climate change, water availability and sustainability. Recent developments in precision agriculture, molecular biology, phenomics, crop modelling and post harvest physiology should increase yields and quality, and reduce costs for temperate fruit production around the world.

  20. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  1. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomáscolo, Silvia B; Levey, Douglas J; Kimball, Rebecca T; Bolker, Benjamin M; Alborn, Hans T

    2010-08-17

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant-animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous animals. Even though plant reproduction depends largely on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurring traits in fruits with differences in behavior, physiology, and morphology of fruit-eating vertebrates. Hence, the origin and maintenance of fruit diversity remains largely unexplained. Using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative test with unbiased estimates of odor and color in figs, we demonstrate that fruit traits evolve in concert and as predicted by differences in the behavior, physiology (perceptive ability) and morphology of their frugivorous seed dispersers. The correlated evolution of traits results in the convergence of general appearance of fruits in species that share disperser types. Observations at fruiting trees independently confirmed that differences in fig traits predict differences in dispersers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that differences among frugivores have shaped the evolution of fruit traits. More broadly, our results underscore the importance of mutualisms in both generating and maintaining biodiversity.

  2. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  3. The radurisation of Sub-tropical fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radurisation commercially today has meant not only the creation of a more stable longer lasting fruit, but has made the more distant markets economically attainable to sub-tropical fruit growers, as well as ensuring the consumer of a regular supply of good quality produce

  4. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eat Fruits Food Gallery Vegetables All About the Vegetable Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Vegetables Beans ... Updated: Jul 11, 2016 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils ONLINE TOOLS SuperTracker ...

  5. A Study of Germination Inhibition in Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, John

    1982-01-01

    Describes a method for the extraction and bioassay of natural germination inhibitors, requiring only inexpensive equipment and minimal experimental skill. The method has been used to demonstrate qualitative/quantitative differences in germination inhibitor levels in a variety of different fruits or in different tissues within a single fruit.…

  6. Fruits, vegetables and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Luc; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Diet plays an important part in the maintenance of optimal cardiovascular health. This Review summarizes the evidence for a relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and the occurrence of coronary heart disease. This evidence is based on observational cohort studies, nutrition prevention trials with fruit and vegetables, and investigations of the effects of fruit and vegetables on cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the evidence supporting a cardioprotective effect comes from observational epidemiological studies; these studies have reported either weak or nonsignificant associations. Controlled nutritional prevention trials are scarce and the existing data do not show any clear protective effects of fruit and vegetables on coronary heart disease. Under rigorously controlled experimental conditions, fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a decrease in blood pressure, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor. However, the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma lipid levels, diabetes, and body weight have not yet been thoroughly explored. Finally, the hypothesis that nutrients in fruit and vegetables have a protective role in reducing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and preventing complications of atherosclerosis has not been tested in prevention trials. Evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease remains scarce thus far.

  7. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation...

  8. Lepidoptera associated with avocado fruit in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of about 1,098 specimens representing 10 moth species from four families were reared from harvested avocado fruit in Guatemala. Two species were reared from small immature avocados and grown to maturity on unopened avocado flower clusters after small fruit desiccated: (1) Argyrotaenia urbana...

  9. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  10. Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khuyen T H; Singh, Zora; Swinny, Ewald E

    2008-02-27

    The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), Semperfresh (0.6%), Aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or A. vera gel (100%). Untreated fruit served as the control. Following the coating, fruits were allowed to dry at room temperature and packed in soft-board trays to ripen at 21+/-1 degrees C and 55.2+/-11.1% relative humidity until the eating soft stage. Mango carnauba was effective in retarding fruit ripening, retaining fruit firmness, and improving fruit quality attributes including levels of fatty acids and aroma volatiles. Semperfresh and A. vera gel (1:1 or 100%) slightly delayed fruit ripening but reduced fruit aroma volatile development. A. vera gel coating did not exceed the commercial mango carnauba and Semperfresh in retarding fruit ripening and improving aroma volatile biosynthesis. PMID:18247535

  11. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis During Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Joanna; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Rodrigo, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are recognized as the main pigments in most fruit crops, providing colours that range from yellow and pink to deep orange and red. Moreover, the edible portion of widely consumed fruits or their derived products represent a major dietary source of carotenoids for animals and humans. Therefore, these pigments are crucial compounds contributing to fruit aesthetic and nutritional quality but may also have protecting and ecophysiological functions in coloured fruits. Among plant organs, fruits display one of the most heterogeneous carotenoids patterns in terms of diversity and abundance. In this chapter a comprehensive list of the carotenoid content and profile in the most commonly cultivated fleshy fruits is reported. The proposed fruit classification systems attending to carotenoid composition are revised and discussed. The regulation of carotenoids in fruits can be rather complex due to the dramatic changes in content and composition during ripening, which are also dependent on the fruit tissue and the developmental stage. In addition, carotenoid accumulation is a dynamic process, associated with the development of chromoplasts during ripening. As a general rule, carotenoid accumulation is highly controlled at the transcriptional level of the structural and accessory proteins of the biosynthetic and degradation pathways, but other mechanisms such as post-transcriptional modifications or the development of sink structures have been recently revealed as crucial factors in determining the levels and stability of these pigments. In this chapter common key metabolic reactions regulating carotenoid composition in fruit tissues are described in addition to others that are restricted to certain species and generate unique carotenoids patterns. The existence of fruit-specific isoforms for key steps such as the phytoene synthase, lycopene β-cyclases or catabolic carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases has allowed an independent regulation of the pathway in fruit tissues

  12. Volatile host fruit odors as attractants for the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, M L; Duan, J J; Messing, R H

    2000-02-01

    We examined the responses of oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, to the odors of different stages and types of fruit presented on potted trees in a field cage. Females were most attracted to odors of soft, ripe fruit. Odors of common guava were more attractive to females than papaya and starfruit, and equally as attractive as strawberry guava, orange, and mango. In field tests, McPhail traps baited with mango, common guava, and orange captured equal numbers of females. Traps baited with mango were compared with 2 commercially available fruit fly traps. McPhail traps baited with mango captured more females than visual fruit-mimicking sticky traps (Ladd traps) and equal numbers of females as McPhail traps baited with protein odors. Results from this study indicate that host fruit volatiles could be used as lures for capturing oriental fruit flies in orchards.

  13. A workplace feasibility study of the effect of a minimal fruit intervention on fruit intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using workplaces to increase the fruit consumption of participants by increasing fruit availability and accessibility by a minimal fruit programme. Furthermore, it was investigated whether a potential increase in fruit...... intake would affect vegetable, total energy and nutrient intake. Design: A 5-month, controlled, workplace study where workplaces were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). At least one piece of free fruit was available per person per day in the IG. Total fruit and dietary...... recruited. Results: Mean daily fruit intake increased significantly from baseline to endpoint only in the IG by 112 (SE 35) g. In the IG, mean daily intake of added sugar decreased significantly by 10?7 (SE 4?4) g, whereas mean daily intake of dietary fibre increased significantly by 3?0 (SE 1?1) g...

  14. Fruit shape detection by level set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach for fruit shape detection in RGB space was proposed, which was based on fast level set and Chan-Vese model named as Modified Chan-Vese model (MCV). This new algorithm is fast and suitable for fruit sorting because it does not need re-initializing. MCV has three advantages compared to the traditional methods. First, it provides a unified framework for detecting fruit shape boundary, and does not need any preprocessing even though the raw image is noisy or blurred.Second, if the fruit has different colors at the edges, it can detect perfect boundary. Third, it processed directly in color space without any transformations that may lose much information. The proposed method has been applied to fruit shape detection with promising result.

  15. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes. PMID:21119663

  16. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes.

  17. A multilevel analysis of fruit growth of two tomato cultivars in response to fruit temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Robert C O; de Visser, Pieter H B; Heuvelink, Ep; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Struik, Paul C; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-03-01

    Fruit phenotype is a resultant of inherent genetic potential in interaction with impact of environment experienced during crop and fruit growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic and physiological basis for the difference in fruit size between a small ('Brioso') and intermediate ('Cappricia') sized tomato cultivar exposed to different fruit temperatures. It was hypothesized that fruit heating enhances expression of cell cycle and expansion genes, rates of carbon import, cell division and expansion, and shortens growth duration, whereas increase in cell number intensifies competition for assimilates among cells. Unlike previous studies in which whole-plant and fruit responses cannot be separated, we investigated the temperature response by varying fruit temperature using climate-controlled cuvettes, while keeping plant temperature the same. Fruit phenotype was assessed at different levels of aggregation (whole fruit, cell and gene) between anthesis and breaker stage. We showed that: (1) final fruit fresh weight was larger in 'Cappricia' owing to more and larger pericarp cells, (2) heated fruits were smaller because their mesocarp cells were smaller than those of control fruits and (3) no significant differences in pericarp carbohydrate concentration were detected between heated and control fruits nor between cultivars at breaker stage. At the gene level, expression of cell division promoters (CDKB2, CycA1 and E2Fe-like) was higher while that of the inhibitory fw2.2 was lower in 'Cappricia'. Fruit heating increased expression of fw2.2 and three cell division promoters (CDKB1, CDKB2 and CycA1). Expression of cell expansion genes did not corroborate cell size observations.

  18. A multilevel analysis of fruit growth of two tomato cultivars in response to fruit temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Robert C O; de Visser, Pieter H B; Heuvelink, Ep; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Struik, Paul C; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-03-01

    Fruit phenotype is a resultant of inherent genetic potential in interaction with impact of environment experienced during crop and fruit growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic and physiological basis for the difference in fruit size between a small ('Brioso') and intermediate ('Cappricia') sized tomato cultivar exposed to different fruit temperatures. It was hypothesized that fruit heating enhances expression of cell cycle and expansion genes, rates of carbon import, cell division and expansion, and shortens growth duration, whereas increase in cell number intensifies competition for assimilates among cells. Unlike previous studies in which whole-plant and fruit responses cannot be separated, we investigated the temperature response by varying fruit temperature using climate-controlled cuvettes, while keeping plant temperature the same. Fruit phenotype was assessed at different levels of aggregation (whole fruit, cell and gene) between anthesis and breaker stage. We showed that: (1) final fruit fresh weight was larger in 'Cappricia' owing to more and larger pericarp cells, (2) heated fruits were smaller because their mesocarp cells were smaller than those of control fruits and (3) no significant differences in pericarp carbohydrate concentration were detected between heated and control fruits nor between cultivars at breaker stage. At the gene level, expression of cell division promoters (CDKB2, CycA1 and E2Fe-like) was higher while that of the inhibitory fw2.2 was lower in 'Cappricia'. Fruit heating increased expression of fw2.2 and three cell division promoters (CDKB1, CDKB2 and CycA1). Expression of cell expansion genes did not corroborate cell size observations. PMID:24957883

  19. Comparative analysis on surface activity of leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.W.Smith and its main triterpenoids%细柱五加叶及其两种主要三萜成分的表面活性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玲; 张晓青; 刘向前

    2013-01-01

    目的 为进一步开发利用细柱五加叶植物资源,对细柱五加叶及其主要三萜成分的表面活性进行了比较研究.方法 在恒温条件下,采用最大泡压法测定五加苷A、五加苷元及细柱五加叶的不同质量浓度溶液的表面张力.结果 五加苷A、五加苷元及细柱五加叶水煎液表面张力分别为63、70、50 mN/m2;而水在该温度下的表面张力是71 mN/m2.结论 细柱五加叶水煎液的表面活性较五加苷A、五加苷元的表面活性好,是多种皂苷及其他成分贡献的结果.%Objective To develop and utilize the resource of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.W.Smith,the surface activity of leaves of A.gracilistylus W.W.Smith and its main triterpenoids were compared in this manuscript.Methods The maximal bubble pressure method was used to determine the surface tension of the aqueous solutions of acankoreanogenin,acankoreoside A and leaves of A.gracilistylus W.W.Smith extract.Results The surface tentions of acankoreanogenin,acankoreoside A and leaves of A.gracilistylus W.W.Smith extract were 63 mN/m2,70 mN/m2 and 50 mN/m2,respectively and that of water was 71 mN/m2 in the constant temperature.Conclusion The surface activity of the solution of A.gracilistylus W.W.Smith is better than acankoreoside A and acankoreanogenin.There are other components which contribute to the surface activity of A.gracilistylus extract.

  20. Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

    2003-01-01

    The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health.

  1. A non-climacteric fruit gene CaMADS-RIN regulates fruit ripening and ethylene biosynthesis in climacteric fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Dong

    Full Text Available MADS-box genes have been reported to play a major role in the molecular circuit of developmental regulation. Especially, SEPALLATA (SEP group genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SEP genes to non-climacteric fruits ripening are still unclear. Here a SEP gene of pepper, CaMADS-RIN, has been cloned and exhibited elevated expression at the onset of ripening of pepper. To further explore the function of CaMADS-RIN, an overexpressed construct was created and transformed into ripening inhibitor (rin mutant tomato plants. Broad ripening phenotypes were observed in CaMADS-RIN overexpressed rin fruits. The accumulation of carotenoid and expression of PDS and ZDS were enhanced in overexpressed fruits compared with rin mutant. The transcripts of cell wall metabolism genes (PG, EXP1 and TBG4 and lipoxygenase genes (TomloxB and TomloxC accumulated more abundant compared to rin mutant. Besides, both ethylene-dependent genes including ACS2, ACO1, E4 and E8 and ethylene-independent genes such as HDC and Nor were also up-regulated in transgenic fruits at different levels. Moreover, transgenic fruits showed approximately 1-3 times increase in ethylene production compared with rin mutant fruits. Yeast two-hybrid screen results indicated that CaMADS-RIN could interact with TAGL1, FUL1 and itself respectively as SlMADS-RIN did in vitro. These results suggest that CaMADS-RIN affects fruit ripening of tomato both in ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent aspects, which will provide a set of significant data to explore the role of SEP genes in ripening of non-climacteric fruits.

  2. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Nordey

    Full Text Available Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  3. Inheritance of warty fruit texture and fruit color in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Emina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.] is one of the most interesting species in the plant kingdom, due to the diversity of fruit shapes, sizes and ways of use. Warty genotypes are rare compared to non warty genotypes. Considering unusual external appearance of warty fruits, we focused our research on the investigation of its inheritance patterns. By crossing different bottle gourd phenotypes, we studied the mode of inheritance and identified and verified genes responsible for the fruit skin color and warty phenotype segregation. Two parental lines, LAG 70 (with warty fruit of light green color and LAG 71 (smooth fruit, variegated, F1, F2 and backcrosses populations along with both parents were evaluated. Genetic analysis indicated that warty fruit type is a result of monogenic inheritance, whereby the warty fruit type is dominant (Wt trait over to the non-warty fruit type (wt. The mode of inheritance of fruit color was controlled by recessive epistasis, with a ratio of 9 variegated (A-, B-, 3 dark green colored (aaB- and 4 light green colored (aabb fruits in the F2 generation.

  4. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

    1996-10-01

    In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented.

  5. Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates.

  6. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  7. ACUTE AND SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF MULBERRY FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the application of phytomedicine worldwide is substantial increase. The data of the acute and subchronic toxicity studies on medicinal plants or fruits and vegetables used for medicinal purposes should be obtained in order to increase the confidence in its safety to human, particularly for the application as functional food. Despite the widely consumption of mulberry (Morus alba L, Maraceae family fruits both as fruit and as medicine, no systematic evaluation of the toxicity of mulberry fruits is available until now. This study aimed to determine the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of mulberry fruits in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute mulberry fruits extract dose of 2000 mg kg-1 dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 2, 10 and 500 mg kg-1 day-1 were also administered the same way for 90 days. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights and histopathological examinations. In addition, we also examined hematological and clinical chemistry values. The results showed no abnormalities in treated groups as compared to the controls. Although significantly different BUN and glucose were also observed, all of the values were within normal limits. Neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. The results suggest that mulberry fruits do not produce acute or subchronic toxicity in either female or male rats. Therefore mulberry fruits have the potential to be use as functional food. However, a chronic toxicity study should be further carried out to assure the safety for repetitive administration of this fruit before the application of functional food.

  8. Import of fruits from Spain to Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Hardi

    2012-01-01

    The research is made for company named Karamelo Citrus S.L.L. It has already business links to many countries and they are working on the link to Finland when my help was needed to finish this project. As the project is huge it was divided in two parts. My part is registering company and start import fruits/vegetables to Finland. This is part number two and it will show how to import fruits/vegetables from Spain to Finland and what techniques are needed to provide fruits for the Finnish ma...

  9. Characteristics and composition of chaenomeles fruit juice

    OpenAIRE

    Hellin, P.; Vila, Roser; Jordan, M J; Laencina, J.; Rumpunen, Kimmo; Ros, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, characteristics and chemical composition of chaenomeles fruit juice are reported for different taxa in the genus Chaenomeles (C. japonica, C. speciosa, C. cathayensis, C. japonica x C. speciosa, and C. x superba). Average fruit weight was 27–211 g and the juice yield was 42–50% based on fresh weight of fruits. The chaenomeles juice was very acidic, with a pH of 2.5–2.8, and the titratable acidity was at most 4.2% calculated as anhydrous citric acid. The content of vitamin C and...

  10. Avian fruit removal: effects of fruit variation, crop size, and insect damage

    OpenAIRE

    Jordano, Pedro

    1987-01-01

    Avian dispersal of seeds of the wild olive tree (Olea europaea var. sylvestris) was studied in Mediterranean shrubland, southern Spain. Fourteen species of small fru­ givorous birds in the genera Sylvia, Turdus, Sturnus, and Erithacus accounted for 97.4% of the fruits consumed by birds. The significance of each bird species as an Olea fruit consumer was closely related to its abundance in the area and was not associated with its dependence on the fruit for food; this resu...

  11. Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McArtney Steve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development.

  12. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2009, brown rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreened with 5 ppm et...

  13. Application of comptuter technology in fruit science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Xiaoming; Wan Shuyuan; Hu Chungen

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarized the application of computer technology in fruit science, including crop modelling,expert system, decision support system (DSS), computer vision (CV), the Internet, 3 "S" technology, etc. The existingproblems and prospects are also discussed in the paper.

  14. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  15. Europeanen aan het fruit door keteninnovatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeldam, R.; Wiersinga, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Europeanen eten te weinig fruit. Om de fruitconsumptie te stimuleren en de volksgezondheid te verbeteren, werken ruim zestig kennispartners en bedrijven samen in het Europese onderzoeksprogramma ISAfruit. Wageningen UR participeert hierin met onder meer onderzoek naar trends en consumentgedreven ket

  16. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment of fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disinfestation treatment of fresh is often necessary to permit transport of fresh produce to markets otherwise unavailable due to plant quarantine regulations. For many years, chemical fumigation treatments were successfully applied for this purpose. However, concern over the human health risks associated with their continued use has seen the removal of such chemicals from the international fresh fruit trade. Injury to many fruits by such alternative physical treatments as cold storage has led to renewed interest in irradiation as a commoditytreatment. Low dose irradiation of eggs and larvae will stop the emergence of adult fruit flies and therefore, by breaking the life-cycle of these insects, overcome quarantine barriers. Since most fruit will tolerate these low irradiation doses, such a treatment is technically not only a feasible alternative to chemical fumigation but a viable quarantine treatment in it own right

  17. Effects of acute ozone stress on reproductive traits of tomato, fruit yield and fruit composition

    OpenAIRE

    Vercambre, Gilles; Gautier, Helene; Gay, Frédéric; Phattaralerphong, Jessada; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2014-01-01

    Tomato is sensitive to ozone. Fruit growth and composition is altered under ozone stress by modification of reproductive development. . Fifty-one-day-old plants were exposed to three concentrations of ozone (200, 350 and 500 µg m(-3) ) for four hours. Ozone reduced well-developed fruit number and fruit size, but it did not significantly affect flowering rate and fruit setting rate. The effect of ozone depends on organ developmental stage at the time of ozone application, as flowers and you...

  18. Hygroscopic behavior of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa) fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Wellington dos Santos Melo; Rosinelson da Silva Pena; Antonio Manoel da Cruz Rodrigues; Luiza Helena Meller da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform an analysis of the characterization of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa). Each part of the fruit (peel, pulp, and fibrous part) was analyzed and their hygroscopic behavior was evaluated to establish the drying and storage conditions. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained at 25 °C to the monolayer value was estimated, and the application of the Halsey, Handerson, Kuhn, Mizrahi, Oswin, Smith, BET, and GAB models was evaluated to the predicti...

  19. FRUIT CONSUMPTION: DIETARY HEALTH AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Luis

    2001-01-01

    Health benefits of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables has been emphasized in the U.S. However, consumption of fruits more than for vegetables has remained well below recommended amounts. Efforts to influence eating habits will be enhanced if socio-demographic factors and the nature of their interaction are better understood. This study uses logistic regression to determine the role of age, sex, race and place of residency to investigate this question. The analysis identifies that sex, social...

  20. An overview of quarantine for fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What is meant by 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The Collins dictionary describes 'quarantine' as a period of isolation or detention, especially of persons or animals arriving from abroad, to prevent the spread of disease. In providing an overview of quarantine for fruit flies, a broader definition needs to be applied, that is, the combination of activities required to maintain the fruit fly status of a particular geographical area - perhaps better referred to as a 'quarantine system'. Familiarity with New Zealand's quarantine system for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provides a useful basis for subsequent comparison with other countries' systems where some fruit fly species may be present. But, why have 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The multivoltine life history of many species. combined with a relatively long-lived adult stage and highly fecund females, results in a high potential for rapid population increase (Bateman 1979, Fletcher 1987). These factors and the close association of fruit flies with harvested fruit or vegetables explain the high quarantine profile of these insects. However, there is no international requirement for a country to have a quarantine system and unless there are natural quarantine barriers (e.g., mountain range, oceans, deserts) that can be utilised, effective quarantine by an individual country may be an impossible task. The implementation of a successful quarantine system is very expensive and therefore, it would be expected that any benefits attained outweigh the costs (Ivess 1998). Ivess (1998) listed the following benefits from the implementation of an effective quarantine system: minimising production costs (including post harvest treatments), maintaining competitive advantages for market access due to the ongoing freedom from particular pests of quarantine significance, an environment free from many pests harmful to plant health, the maintenance of ecosystems

  1. Investigation of fruit irradiation: bibliographical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was carried out a bibliographical review that embraces the years 1984-1987, on the relating works to the irradiation of some fruits like the apple, date, peach, plum, cherry, papaya, grape, banana, pear and strawberry. The purpose is to have a reference on the doses and the conditions used by several investigators for some fruits, as for its disinfestation and extension of shelf life. (Author)

  2. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Selladurai Pirasath; Kulasingam Thayananthan; Sandrasekarampillai Balakumar; Vasanthy Arasaratnam

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI) values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain), ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain), and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain) varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public t...

  3. Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, J; Lechner, L; De Vries, H

    1995-12-01

    Psychosocial correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption were studied in an adult Dutch population (n = 367) based on the ASE model of attitudes, social influence and self-efficacy. Attitudes were a summation of beliefs about taste, different health consequences, and costs in time and money. Social influences were measured through the social stimulation respondents expected to get from important others to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables and by asking the subjects about the behaviour of important others. Self-efficacy reflected the respondents' ability to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables in various situations. Self-efficacy and attitudes were consistently and significantly associated with consumption of boiled or otherwise heated vegetables, of salads, and of fruit. Furthermore, respondents reporting low consumption of these food groups had lower self-efficacy expectations and less positive attitudes than subjects with relatively high consumption of fruit and vegetables. It is concluded that nutrition education aimed at stimulating fruit and vegetable consumption should focus especially on changing attitudes and self efficacy expectations.

  4. Characterization of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) components with valorization potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liaotrakoon, Wijitra

    2013-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), also known as pitaya or pitahaya, is increasingly gaining interest in many countries, including Thailand which is a country with a climate ideal for breeding different varieties of tropical and subtropical fruits in general, and dragon fruit more specifically. The benefits of dragon fruit for human health can be explained by its essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, dietary fibres and antioxidants. Dragon fruit is also an essent...

  5. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN INNOVATION ADOPTION PROCESS ON FRUIT MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Adamowicz, Mieczyslaw

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that regular consumption of fresh fruit contributes to health and well being of people. However, fruit on the market does not always meet consumer expectations. Fresh as well as processed fruit consumption does not increase in Europe and even falls down in some countries. Innovations are one of the factors which can positively influence fruit consumption. Consumers’ choice and acceptance of fruit innovations are the topic of studies in ISAFRUIT integrated project within ...

  6. Nutritional and nutraceutical characteristics of Sageretia theezans fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Kyung Hyun; Sang Churl Song; Chang-Khil Song; Ju-Sung Kim

    2015-01-01

    The fruit of Sageretia theezans is one of many underutilized edible fruits that grow along the southern seashores of East Asia. In this study, to evaluate the nutritional and nutraceutical values of S. theezans fruit, the composition of minerals, organic acids, and proximate and fatty acids, the total phenolic, total flavonoid, and total anthocyanin content, and the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of S. theezans fruit were analyzed. The results indicate that S. theezans fruit could be...

  7. Fresh fruit marbles: desenvolvimento de um produto inovador para confeitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Chiché, Avril Flores

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Alimentar - Instituto Superior de Agronomia The aim of this work was the development of an appealing fresh fruit translucent candy, with gelling agents, alternative to the natural fruit pectin. Three fruit gel formulations were developed, named Fresh Fruits Marbles (FFM), two apple based and one lemon juice based. These were inspired on the traditional French patisserie products Patê de Fruits. At first, high methoxyl (HM) pectin (1.5%) was used as a gelling agent...

  8. Molecular dissection of the role of auxin in fruit initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfini, Tiziana; Molesini, Barbara; Spena, Angelo

    2007-08-01

    Fruit set and growth usually requires fertilization. Fruit set and development without fertilization is called parthenocarpy. Feeding auxin to virgin flowers induces fruit development without fertilization. Recent studies by Hua Wang et al. and Marc Goetz et al. have identified molecular events leading to fruit initiation in the absence of fertilization, showing that parthenocarpy can be achieved by altering different steps of the auxin signaling pathway. Thus, independent evidence indicates that auxin plays a key role in fruit initiation. PMID:17629541

  9. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selladurai Pirasath

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain, ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain, and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public to decide the benefits ofthe consumption of fruits, particularly by diabetic and coronary heart disease patients.Methods: Healthy volunteers (20 Nos. of 21.05(±0.92 years, 53.90 (±9.36 kg body weights, 153.92 (±9.15 m heights, and 20.55 (±2.22 kgm-2body mass indexes were selected with their written consent. After overnight fasting, 75g glucose and each test fruit containing 75g digestible carbohydrate were administered at different instances and blood glucose levels were measured half hourly for two hours. The glycemic response and GI values were calculated and analyzed by Randomized Complete Block Design using SAS analytical package.Results: The mean GI values of the ‘Kathali’, ‘Kappal’, ‘Itharai’ varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya were 54.45 (±9.26, 50.43 (±5.79, 48.47 (±10.13, 65.36 (±8.00 and 34.80 (±12.78 % respectively. The GI value of papaya differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits. The GI value of ‘Itharai’ variety of plantain differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits except the ‘Kappal’ varietyof plantain.Conclusion: The three varieties of plantains and papaya were low GI fruits, and jack fruit was found to be an intermediate GI fruit. The presence of dietary fiber, esp. soluble fiber, reduces the glycemicresponse and glycemic index of foods.

  10. Empowerment Strategy Through Salak Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucihatiningsih Dian Wisika Prajanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This articles aims to understand the practice of empowerment through assistance to salak farmers. The study includes 60 salak fruit farmers which are taken as the samples. Descriptive analysis is used to analyze the obtained data from the study. The research result shows that most respondents have the relative low level of empowerment. The empowerment level from business aspect explain that most of the respondent (73% are never and could not got the financial assistant to develop their business. Likewise, it could be happen in the technological access, most of the respondent (56,7% explain that in the production process the technology that used is base on traditional and hereditary. So, it is depend on labour relieves when the production and harvest process. Furthermore, the research shows that a low level of a capability to access the market information. It could be seen that most of the farmers (38,3% directly selling their product to the consumers and 33,3% sell their product to the broker. The empowerment from non economic aspect could be seen from the low ability of lobbying aspect, like the asking for a relieves from their colleagues at the local government officer (10%, financial institution like cooperation, bank and etc (25%, society figures (32,1%, employees (32,1%, non government institution/ academision (10% and a families (93,3%. To empower the farmers in order to make them sustainable, it is necessary to built a partnership by empowerment strategy. The empowerment strategy that involves industry as the farmers’ partner is carried out to improve the empowerment of the farmers of salak fruits.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeksplorasi praktek pemberdayaan melalui pendampingan petani buah salak. Sebanyak 60 orang petani salak diambil sebagai sampel. Analisis deskriptif telah digunakan untuk menganalisis data dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar masyarakat di daerah penelitian mengaku pada

  11. Deliverable 5.2 Study report on consumer motivations and behaviours for fruits and fruit products in the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether fruit consumption in Western Balkan countries (WBC) meets recommended levels from a health perspective. A better understanding consumers' perception of health and motives and barriers of fruit is necessary to get insight in the fruit consumption. The aim of WP 5 is therefore to explore, analyze and understand perceptions, motivations and barriers of consumers in WBC towards fruit and fruit products and their nutritional balance. In this WP 5 the focus is on consumption o...

  12. Using implicit associations towards fruit consumption to understand fruit consumption behaviour and habit strength relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.-J. de Bruijn; M. Keer; M. Conner; R. Rhodes

    2012-01-01

    An implicit association test (IAT) was used to investigate how habit strength, implicit attitudes and fruit consumption interrelate. Fifty-two participants completed a computerized IAT and provided measures of fruit consumption and related habit strength. Implicit attitudes moderated the habit stren

  13. Assessment of the strategies of organic fruit production and fruit drying in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Pillot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture in Uganda is developing at a fast pace and despite this trend Uganda is still unable to produce enough fresh and dry organic fruits mainly pineapple to meet the exporters demand. This current research investigated the strategies of farmers at production level by assessing the pros and cons of fruit growing, organic agriculture and fruit drying in order to understand the underlying causal factor for the low production of organic dry fruits in a major fruit producing district of Uganda.The study was carried out in two separate and distinctive areas; one which only produces and export fresh organic pineapple and the other which exports dried fruits (mainly pineapple and papaya. About 10% of the farmers in the two study areas were surveyed using questionnaires which were further followed by semi-structured interviews and participatory rural appraisals activities with various types of farmers in order to understand the different decisions and strategies of farmers.82% and 74% of farmers in the two study areas grew fruits as it gave better economic returns and for 77% and 90% respectively in the two study areas, the reasons for growing fruit was the ease of selling compared to other crops. All the farmers were relying on coffee husk for growing organic pineapples. However, 50% of the farmers want to grow pineapples (either organic or conventional but couldn't afford to buy coffee husk. Fruit drying was mainly a strategy to utilize cheap fruits during harvesting seasons for value addition. 71% and 42% of farmers in the two study areas wanted to dry fruits but it was beyond their economic capacity to buy the driers.Decision of the farmers whether to grow fruits or cereals, organic or conventional agriculture and selling the fruits as fresh or dry were dependent mainly on the economic, knowledge and resource availability of each type of practices. It is concluded that the main barrier for an increase in the production of organic dried

  14. Influence of fruit ripening acceleration measures on flowering and fruiting of small-sized tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobromilska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were carried out in 2001-2003 at the Horticulture Experimental Station, University of Agriculture in Szczecin. The influence of truss cutting and application of Ethrel preparation on the flowering and acceleration of ripening of small-sized tomato fruit was studied. The experiment focused on the following factors: methods of acceleration of tomato fruit ripening (truss cutting, Ethrel preparation, truss cutting + Ethrel preparation and tomato cultivars ('Cheresita F1', 'Favorita F1'. The applied methods had no influence on the number of flowers and germs of the small-sized tomato. The truss cutting increased the percentage of set fruits compared to the number of flowers. The application of Ethrel preparation along with truss cutting significantly increased the early yield of tomato fruits. The Ethrel and truss cutting accelerated the small-sized tomato harvesting by 12 days. Cv. 'Cheresita F1' produced a larger number of flowers, germs and fruits than 'Favorita F1'.

  15. Genetic differences in fruit-set patterns are determined by differences in fruit sink strength and a source : sink threshold for fruit set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Ma, Y.T.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims: Fruit set in indeterminate plant species largely depends on the balance between source and sink strength. Plants of these species show fluctuations in fruit set during the growing season. It was tested whether differences in fruit sink strength among the cultivars explained the

  16. Leaf and Fruit Yield Performance of Telfairia occidentalis Hook F. (Fluted Pumpkin as Influenced by Fruit Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchechukwu Paschal CHUKWUDI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment to ascertain the influence of fruit size on the yield of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F. was conducted in 2011 and 2012 at Nsukka. The mature fruits of T. occidentalis were graded into three length groups: large (more than 50 cm, medium (34-50 cm and small (less than 34 cm. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with six replications. The following data were collected: length of the longest vine, number of leaves/plant, vine diameter, marketable leaf and fruit yield. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance while Genotype by Genotype x Environment interaction biplot was used to show which-won-where among the groups. Significant means were separated using Fisher’s least significant differences. Medium sized fruits gave the highest marketable leaf yield that was significantly higher than the small sized fruits in both years. Small sized fruits were significantly (p<0.05 lower in total leaf yield, fruit weight/hectare, fruit circumference (33.9 cm and length (22 cm. The biplot explained 100% of the variation in the fruit sizes. Large sized fruits were the best performer in fruit length, while medium sized fruits performed better in total marketable leaf yield, average fruit weight, number of fruits/hectare and total fruit weight/hectare. The highest Benefit Cost Ratio of 1.2 and 2.6 in 2011 and 2012, respectively were obtained from medium sized fruits Medium sized fruit are recommended in favour of small sized fruit for leaf and fruit production, having higher economic returns.

  17. Hygroscopic behavior of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington dos Santos Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to perform an analysis of the characterization of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa. Each part of the fruit (peel, pulp, and fibrous part was analyzed and their hygroscopic behavior was evaluated to establish the drying and storage conditions. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained at 25 °C to the monolayer value was estimated, and the application of the Halsey, Handerson, Kuhn, Mizrahi, Oswin, Smith, BET, and GAB models was evaluated to the prediction of the isotherms. The fruit pulp was classified as rich in high quality oil, and like the peel and the fibrous part, it was also considered as rich in dietary fiber. The isotherms of the fruit parts were classified as type II, and their microbiological stability (a w < 0.6 can be maintained at 25 °C if the moisture content is lower than 8.5, 7.3, and 11.0 g H2O.100 g-1 of dry matter (d.m., respectively. The hygroscopic behavior showed that in order to ensure stability, the fruit parts should be packaged with low water vapor permeability. The monolayer demonstrated that the peel, pulp, and the fibrous part cannot be dried under moisture content lower than 5.9, 5.0, and 6.4 g H2O.100 g-1 d.m., respectively. GAB was the most adequate model to describe their isotherms.

  18. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Chu, Yi-Fang; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2002-12-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.

  19. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    Most validation studies show that the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is rather low in precision and accuracy, and there is an ongoing debate regarding the applicability of such self-reported data with regard to diet-disease relationships. However, no other method has so far been able to repla....... Collection of 24h urine is difficult and time consuming, and therefore morning spot urine may be a more convenient tool than 24h urine for validating the fruit and vegetable consumption in large population studies....... of fruit and vegetable intake (Nielsen et al. 2002). The overall aim of the present Ph.D. thesis was to further develop and validate this potentially new fruit and vegetable biomarker and furthermore use it for the validation of self-reported dietary intake of fruits and vegetables in intervention...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...

  20. Technological quality of irradiated Moroccan citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation at doses of 125, 250, 375, and 500 Gy, commonly used for quarantine treatment, on the quality of Maroc-late orange, the most common export variety of Morocco was investigated. In the first study fruits were irradiated without any previous cold conditioning treatment as practiced by the export trade for quarantine purposes. In the second study fruits obtained from the normal chain after conditioning was irradiated. Storage of irradiated fruits was studied at room temperature and 10 deg. C at 0 deg. C in case of control fruits. The parameters studied included juice yield, total solids, reducing and total sugars, total acids and volatile acids, dry weight and weight loss. The results showed that irradiation did not affect the technological quality of citrus fruits during four weeks storage. The result thus far points to the possibility for the successful application of irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to the classical methods, which result in browning of the peel. The browning phenomenon could be controlled by waxing and will be the subject of a future study. (author)

  1. Gene regulation in parthenocarpic tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Reagan, Russell L; Chen, Ying; Tricoli, David; Fiehn, Oliver; Rocke, David M; Gasser, Charles S; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2009-01-01

    Parthenocarpy is potentially a desirable trait for many commercially grown fruits if undesirable changes to structure, flavour, or nutrition can be avoided. Parthenocarpic transgenic tomato plants (cv MicroTom) were obtained by the regulation of genes for auxin synthesis (iaaM) or responsiveness (rolB) driven by DefH9 or the INNER NO OUTER (INO) promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana. Fruits at a breaker stage were analysed at a transcriptomic and metabolomic level using microarrays, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a Pegasus III TOF (time of flight) mass spectrometer. Although differences were observed in the shape of fully ripe fruits, no clear correlation could be made between the number of seeds, transgene, and fruit size. Expression of auxin synthesis or responsiveness genes by both of these promoters produced seedless parthenocarpic fruits. Eighty-three percent of the genes measured showed no significant differences in expression due to parthenocarpy. The remaining 17% with significant variation (P parthenocarpy with ovule-specific alteration of auxin synthesis or response driven by the INO promoter could be effectively applied where such changes are commercially desirable. PMID:19700496

  2. 刺五加增强小鼠睡眠剥夺模型免疫功能和抗疲劳能力的实验研究%Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus on Immune Function and Anti-fatigue Ability in Sleep Deprivated Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许光辉; 吴艳萍; 罗友华; 黄亦琦; 李廷利

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To study the effects of Acanthopanax senticosus (500, 1 000 mg -kg-1) on immune function and anti-fatigue ability in sleep deprivated mice. Method; Sleep-deprivated mice model was induced by single platform technique, the immune function of sleep-deprivated mice was tested by the clearance rate of charcoal particles and the level of serum, and anti-fatigue ability was measured by the weight-loaded swimming method and the rotated performance test. Result; A. senticosus could significantly enhance the clearing index and the correction clearing index of sleep deprivated mice, the time of loaded-swimming and the residence time on the rotated sticks deprivation mice were extended significantly. Conclusion; A. senticosus can increase immune functions and anti-fatigue ability of sleep deprivated mice.%目的:探讨刺五加对小鼠睡眠剥夺模型免疫功能和抗疲劳能力的影响.方法:将小鼠随机分为正常对照组、模型组和刺五加低、高剂量组.刺五加低、高剂量组分别按照500,1000 mg· kg-1的剂量ig,连续给药10 d,正常对照组和模型组每天ig等体积的蒸馏水.在第11d,将模型组和刺五加低、高剂量组的小鼠采用单平台水环境法进行睡眠剥夺(sleep deprivation,SD),在SD期间,继续给予实验药物.SD连续3d后,采用炭粒廓清实验观察药物对SD小鼠免疫功能的影响,通过负重游泳实验和转棒疲劳实验观察药物对SD小鼠抗疲劳能力的影响.结果:炭粒廓清实验中,刺五加500,1000 mg·kg-1的K值和α值为(0.0214±0.0083,0.0307±0.0059),(4.0±0.2,4.6±0.2),与SD组相比均显著增加;抗疲劳实验中,刺五加500,1000 mg·kg-1的游泳时间和转棒时间为(828±83),(990±64)S,(330±63),(665±170)s,与SD组相比均显著延长.结论:刺五加具有增强睡眠剥夺小鼠免疫功能和抗疲劳能力的作用.

  3. Induced mutation in tropical fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is based on an FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and provides insight into the application of induced mutation and in vitro techniques for the improvement of well known fruit trees such as citrus, mango, avocado and papaya, as well as more exotic fruit trees such as litchi, annona, jujube, carambola, pitanga and jaboticaba. The latter are of particular importance due to their adaptation to harsh environments and their high potential as basic food and micronutrient providers for populations in poorer and more remote regions. The findings of the CRP show that application of radiation induced mutation techniques in tropical and subtropical fruit trees can contribute to improving nutritional balance food security, and to enhancing the economic status of growers

  4. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  5. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leenders, Max; Sluijs, Ivonne; Ros, Martine M;

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality was investigated within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. Survival analyses were performed, including 451,151 participants from 10 European countries, recruited between 1992 and 2000...... body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death....... be prevented if all participants would shift their consumption 1 quartile upward. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 0.94), with a rate advancement period of 1.12 years (95...

  6. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Krath, B.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte;

    2006-01-01

    A strong and persistent effect of plant-derived foods on the prevention of lifestyle diseases has emerged from observational studies. Several groups of constituents in plants have been identified as potentially health promoting in animal studies, including cholesterol-lowering factors, antioxidants......, providing 600hairspg fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit...... and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes...

  7. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Inkyu; Ge, Zongyuan; Dayoub, Feras; Upcroft, Ben; Perez, Tristan; McCool, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN). We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB) and Near-Infrared (NIR). Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR) information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0 . 807 to 0 . 838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform). The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit.

  8. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inkyu Sa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN. We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB and Near-Infrared (NIR. Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0 . 807 to 0 . 838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform. The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit.

  9. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Inkyu; Ge, Zongyuan; Dayoub, Feras; Upcroft, Ben; Perez, Tristan; McCool, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN). We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB) and Near-Infrared (NIR). Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR) information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0 . 807 to 0 . 838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform). The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit. PMID:27527168

  10. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Inkyu; Ge, Zongyuan; Dayoub, Feras; Upcroft, Ben; Perez, Tristan; McCool, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN). We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB) and Near-Infrared (NIR). Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR) information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0.807 to 0.838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform). The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit. PMID:27527168

  11. Ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purposes of the ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit are: the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a direct physiological effect on the particular product; the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a reduction in the development of moulds and rots which would normally render the product worthless; and the killing of insect pests of quarantine significance, to allow for normal marketing of fresh fruit without the risk of introducing insect pests to previously pest-free areas

  12. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-10-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning. PMID:20889713

  13. Storage ability of gamma irradiated mango fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extension of shelf-life have been achieved by many methods. the most modern one is using gamma irradiation as a promising technology for the developing nations. The aim of this investigation is to study the effects of gamma irradiation either alone or in combination with Alar or Benlate on 'Hindi Be Senara' mature green fruits and also to determine the optimum treatment and maximum extension in shelf - life. Mature-green 'Hindi be sinara' mango fruits were taken from trees planted in commercial orchard in 'kerdasa'Giza

  14. Fruit and vegetable intake in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Mensink, Gert; Truthmann, Julia; Rabenberg, Martina; Heidemann, Christin; Haftenberger, Marjolein; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Richter, Almut

    2013-01-01

    To date, the recommendations of the German Nutrition Society on fruit and vegetable intake have not been met by the majority of the population. In the first wave of the “German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults” (DEGS1), which was conducted from 2008 to 2011, food consumption was determined with a validated food frequency questionnaire in a representative random sample of the 18–79-year-old resident population of Germany (n=7,116). The number of portions of fruit and vegetabl...

  15. Prepregnancy Consumption of Fruits and Fruit Juices and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liwei; Hu, Frank B.; Yeung, Edwina; Tobias, Deirdre Kay; Willett, Walter C.; Zhang, Cuilin

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Examine the association of prepregnancy habitual consumption of fruits and fruit juices and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective study among women with at least one singleton pregnancy in the Nurses’ Health Study II from 1991 to 2001. RESULTS Among 13,475 women, 860 reported a first diagnosis of GDM. The adjusted relative risks (RRs) for GDM from the lowest to highest quintile of whole fruit consumption were 1.00 (referent), 0.80 (95% C...

  16. Gamma irradiation as a commodity treatment against the Queensland fruit fly in fresh fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third instars of the Queensland fruit fly, Batrocera tryoni (Froggatt), were more tolerant to gamma irradiation than other stages that infest fresh fruit from Australia. A dose of 75 Gy prevented the development of adults when the eggs or larvae were irradiated in apples (Malus domestica L.), oranges (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) avocados (Persea americana Mill.), mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and cherries (Prunus avium L.). The proventriculus of the treated larvae developed normally, while development of the supraoesophageal ganglion was retarded. All the fruits, with the exception of avocados, tolerated 100 Gy without developing injury symptoms. 54 refs, 4 figs, 14 tabs

  17. Fruit tree model for uptake of organic compounds from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rasmussen, D.; Samsoe-Petersen, L.

    2003-01-01

    rences: 20 [ view related records ] Citation Map Abstract: Apples and other fruits are frequently cultivated in gardens and are part of our daily diet. Uptake of pollutants into apples may therefore contribute to the human daily intake of toxic substances. In current risk assessment of polluted s...... soils, regressions or models are in use, which were not intended to be used for tree fruits. A simple model for uptake of neutral organic contaminants into fruits is developed. It considers xylem and phloem transport to fruits through the stem. The mass balance is solved for the steady......-state, and an example calculation is given. The Fruit Tree Model is compared to the empirical equation of Travis and Arms (T&A), and to results from fruits, collected in contaminated areas. For polar compounds, both T&A and the Fruit Tree Model predict bioconcentration factors fruit to soil (BCF, wet weight based...

  18. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  19. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race.

  20. Cultivar, harvest location and cold storage influence fruit softening and antioxidative activities of peach fruit (prunus persica (l.) batsch.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit softening and quality management is very important to reduce postharvest losses in peach. Present study was conducted to observe the effect of cultivars and harvest locations on peach fruit softening and quality during ripening following cold storage. Fruits of two peach cultivars Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., harvested from two different locations were evaluated at ripening for their postharvest fruit softening and quality after 28 days of low temperature storage. Fruit harvested from Sillanwali exhibited significantly higher ethylene production, respiration rate, fruit weight loss, ascorbic acid contents, activities of fruit softening enzymes (endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG), exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG)) and significantly lower fruit firmness, ground colour, soluble solid contents (SSC), SSC:TA, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant scavenging activity (ASA), activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and pectin esterase (PE) enzymes as compared to fruit harvested from Soan Valley. Peach cv Early Grand showed significantly higher ethylene production, respiration rate, ascorbic acid contents, activities of CAT, endo-PG and exo-PG enzymes, whereas lower fruit weight loss, fruit firmness, SSC, SSC:TA, TPC, ASA, activities of POD, SOD, PE and enzymes than Flordaking. Harvest location and cultivar significantly influenced various physico-chemical attributes including activities of various fruit softening and antioxidative enzymes in peach fruit during ripening after low temperature storage. (author)

  1. Increases in fruit intakes in older low consumers of fruit following two community-based repeated exposure interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, K M

    2013-03-14

    The present study investigated the value of two repeated exposure interventions for increasing intakes of fruit in older people. A total of ninety-five participants (aged 65 years and over) were randomised to receive either one (E1), five (E5) or five plus (E5+) exposures to fruit over a 5-week period. Fruit exposures occurred in community-based church and social groups, through fruit-tasting sessions involving familiar fruits and novel fruit products and dishes (E1, E5, E5+), and through fruit provision (E5+). Daily intakes of fruit and vegetables were assessed before and after all interventions. Liking for all fruits was also measured during repeated exposure (E5, E5+). In low consumers of fruit (one portion/d or less), fruit intakes increased significantly in the repeated exposure groups (E5, E5+) (t(30) = 5·79, Polder low consumers of fruit, although no benefits of additional fruit provision were found. Repeated exposure was also easy to implement, of low cost and enjoyable.

  2. Evaluation of Methods to Estimate Understory Fruit Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Lashley, Marcus A.; Thompson, Jeffrey R.; M Colter Chitwood; Christopher S DePerno; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Fleshy fruit is consumed by many wildlife species and is a critical component of forest ecosystems. Because fruit production may change quickly during forest succession, frequent monitoring of fruit biomass may be needed to better understand shifts in wildlife habitat quality. Yet, designing a fruit sampling protocol that is executable on a frequent basis may be difficult, and knowledge of accuracy within monitoring protocols is lacking. We evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of 3 methods t...

  3. FRUITS IN DIVAN OF NEDIM / NEDIM DIVANI’NDA MEYVELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilet ÇÖPLÜOĞLU (M.A.H.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study fruit names in Nedim’s divan weredetermined and the similes of fruit names wereexamined. In Nedim’s divan fruit names on the wholewere used for expressing the lover’s body. In this respect,similies were made between almond – eye, apple – chin,pistachio – lip, cherry – lip, pomegranate – breast, orange– chin, breast; peach – cheek. The couplets whichcontain fruit names are given and also an index of thefruit names.

  4. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Koia Jonni H; Moyle Richard L; Botella Jose R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 e...

  5. Seed dispersal anachronisms: rethinking the fruits extinct megafauna ate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R Guimarães

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals > 10(3 kg, yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10-15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4-10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits > 10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size with either a single or few ( 100 seeds. Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic variation and increased among

  6. Barriers to fruit consumption: Driving forces behind consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Briz, T.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Jasiulewicz, A.; Kyriakidi, A.; Dolors Guàrdia, M.; Berg, van den, W.; Lans, van der, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study gives more insight in motives and barriers, i.e. positive and negative drivers, for European fruit consumption, as a basis to meet consumer requirements in developing new types of fruits and fruit products and to develop interventions. For that purpose, focus group discussions were held in Spain, Greece, Poland, and The Netherlands. Consistent with existing literature, healthiness, (sensory) pleasure, and (lack of) convenience emerged as major drivers of fruit consumption,...

  7. A STUDY OF MICROBES IN FRUIT JUICES, KIMS-AMALAPURAM

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraja,; Nageswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Fruit and sugarcane juices are nutritious drinks with great taste and health benefits. Food borne illnesses associated with consumption of Fruit and sugarcane juices at several places in India and elsewhere. Fruit juices were served with added ice pieces. Hygienic standards are not maintained while transporting from the field to the place of extraction and preparation. Hence a rapid review of the fruit juices from street vendors has been undertaken along with suga...

  8. The Production Base for Organic Temperate Fruit, Berries and Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Granatstein, David; Kirby, Elisabeth; Willer, Helga

    2009-01-01

    Fresh fruit consumption is being promoted for health reasons in North America, Europe and other regions. Consumers are responding, as evidenced by the 20 percent increase in per capita fruit consumption in the past 30 years. US consumers have increased fruit consumption by 23 percent, but they still consume half the amount recommended by the dietary guidelines of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Fruit production often requires significant intervention with pesticides to con...

  9. Consumer perception and behaviour towards tropical fruits in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbe, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Increased health consciousness and growing importance consumers attach to fruit in the diet lead to an increasing demand for various tropical fruits in Europe. Also food industries are making greater use of novel tropical fruits to meet the growing interest in innovations in healthy food products. The introduction of food products with novel tropical fruits in Europe can only be successful if consumers’ demand are taken into consideration. This PhD gains insight in perceptions and consumpt...

  10. Electronic nose for detecting strawberry fruit maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    An electronic nose (e-nose) composed of eighteen different metal oxide gas sensors was used to characterize the volatile patterns of ‘Strawberry Festival’ and ‘Florida Radiance’ strawberry fruit at five developmental stages: white, half red, three-quarter red, full ripe, and overripe. Strawberry sam...

  11. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  12. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  13. Growth, ripening and storage of tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenvers, N.

    1976-01-01

    Publication IA non-destructive, automated, fast and portable softness measuring device is described. The non-destructivity of the meter was established.Factors that might influence the variation in softness-readings, e.g., temperature, relative humidity, the point of compression on the fruit, sampli

  14. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure t

  15. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant-animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous vertebrates. Even though plant reproduction largely depends on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurr...

  16. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  17. Polyprenylated benzophenones derivatives from Cluisa minor fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Mangas Marín, Raisa; Bello Alarcón, Adonis; Cuesta Rubio, Osmany; Piccinelli, Anna L.; Rastrelli, Luca

    2008-01-01

    Clusia minor fruits were investigated and three polyprenylated benzophenones were isolated using several chromatographic techniques. All the structures assigned (propolone D, hyperibone B and garcinielliptone I), including relative configuration, were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. These three benzophenones are reported for the first time in Clusia genus.

  18. The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

    2014-01-15

    Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage.

  19. Degradation of apple fruit xyloglucan by endoglucanase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, J.P.; Beldman, G.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    A purified, alkali-extractable apple fruit xyloglucan (APfxg) was treated by endoglucanase (endoIV) from Trichoderma viride. The degradation products were fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography on BioGel P-2; the pentamer to dodecamer fractions were further fractionated by semi-preparative hi

  20. Irradiation of Tropical Fruits and Vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been carried out on delayed ripening, through the use of cobalt-60 gamma radiation of mangoes, showing a delay of up to six days by an optimum dose of 25 krad when irradiated in air, carbon dioxide or, preferably, nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of radiation on the skin of the fruit is more prominent in terms of inhibition in chlorophyll disappearance and carotenoid formation than in ripening changes in the meat of the fruit. These studies have been extended to mangoes skin-coated with an emulsion made of an acetylated mono-glyceride preparation. Skin-coated fruits show physiological damage due to the excessive inhibition of respiration, which is offset by a spurt in respiratory activity when irradiated in air or nitrogen. An added delay of six days in ripening is achieved by combined skin-coating and irradiation. Other fruits studied include guavas, sapotas (sapodillas) and tomatoes, with all of which a delay in ripening of about five days could be effected with a dose of 20-25 krad. Fruit like chillies, bananas and oranges do not show any delay in ripening on exposure to radiation, there being slight enhanced ripening with oranges. Semi-dried bananas (40% moisture), irradiated by 0.5 Mrad, keep well for at least three months, compared with the dehydrated (10% moisture) product which, besides being highly susceptible to mould infection, possesses poor attributes of colour, flavour, retention of nutrients and reconstitutability. Suitable combinations of heat treatment and irradiation have been successfully employed for the sterilization of mangoes, guavas, sapotas and apples where, usually, canned products with better texture, flavour and retention of nutritive qualities, could be obtained with treatment at 70°C for 10 min and 400 krad. Likewise, excellent-quality canned peas are obtainable with the combined use of 800 krad and 100°C for 5 min. Orange juice could be radiation-sterilized by a combination of 400 krad and subsequent mild heat

  1. The Variability of Fruit Characteristics of Traditional Pear Karamanka in Different Ecological Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Selamovska, A; Miskoska – Milevska, E; Dimovska, Violeta; Najdenovska, O

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of the phenological characteristics (flowering and ripening time), fruit characteristics (fruit mass, fruit length, fruit width, fruit hardness, length of fruit stalk and number of seeds in fruit) and chemical characteristics of fruits (soluble dry matter, total sugar and total acids) of a traditional pear variety ‘Karamanka’. For this study, a survey was undertaken in different ecological regions of Macedonia i.e. Skopje, Kumanovo, Kratovo, Kriva Pala...

  2. 76 FR 5779 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry...) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...

  3. 75 FR 8038 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry...) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...

  4. 75 FR 47535 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry...) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...

  5. State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009" provides for the first time information on fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and policy and environmental support within each state. Fruits and vegetables, as part of a healthy diet, are important for optimal child growth, weight management, and chronic disease prevention. Supporting…

  6. Parent outcome expectancies for purchasing fruit and vegetables: a validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To validate four scales – outcome expectancies for purchasing fruit and for purchasing vegetables, and comparative outcome expectancies for purchasing fresh fruit and for purchasing fresh vegetables versus other forms of fruit and vegetables (F&V). Design: Survey instruments were administ...

  7. Diospyros and the myth of the forbidden fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, F.S.P.

    2001-01-01

    In the genus Diospyros (Greek for ‘grain ∞ food of the gods’) there are fruits (persimmons) that are highly valued for eating, fruits used to poison fish, and fruits that are reputed to have poisoned people. To the last category belong the terrible trio of D. demona Bakh. (‘daemona’), D. insidiosa B

  8. 21 CFR 145.135 - Canned fruit cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned fruit cocktail. 145.135 Section 145.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits §...

  9. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the...

  10. Apple fruit responses following exposure to nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exogenous nitric oxide (.NO) applied as gas or generated from .NO releasing compounds has physiological activity in cut apple fruit tissues. Studies were conducted to characterize .NO production by whole fruit as well as to assess responses of whole fruit to exogenous .NO. .NO and ethylene product...

  11. Application of Trend Impact Analysis for predicting future fruit consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennen, W.H.G.J.; Benninga, J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of those aspects that motivate consumers towards more fruit consumption is necessary in order to implement policies to stimulate fruit consumption. To predict future fruit consumption based on such knowledge from experts, and based on historic consumption data, the method of Trend Impact A

  12. Association of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Griep, Linda M; Stamler, Jeremiah; Chan, Queenie; Van Horn, Linda; Steffen, Lyn M; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okuda, Nagako; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L; Elliott, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that fruit consumption may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases through blood pressure (BP)–lowering effects; little is known on the independent effect of raw fruit and fruit juice on BP. Objective: The objective was to quantify associations of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with BP by using cross-sectional data from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) of 4680 men and women aged 40–59 y from Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Design: During 4 visits, 8 BP, four 24-h dietary recalls, and two 24-h urine samples were collected. Country-specific multivariate-controlled linear regression coefficients, including adjustment for urinary sodium excretion, were estimated and pooled, weighted by inverse of their variance. Results: The average total raw fruit consumption varied from a mean ± SD of 52 ± 65 g/1000 kcal in the United States to 68 ± 70 g/1000 kcal in China. Individual raw fruit intake was not associated with BP in pooled analyses for all countries or in participants from Western countries, although a positive association with diastolic BP was observed in East Asian participants (per 50 g/1000 kcal; 0.37 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.71). Positive relationships with diastolic BP were found for citrus fruit intake in Western consumers (per 25 g/1000 kcal; 0.47 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.81) and for apple intake in East Asian consumers (0.40 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.78). Among East Asian banana consumers, banana intake was inversely associated with diastolic BP (−1.01 mm Hg; 95% CI: −1.88, −0.02). Fruit juice intake, which was negligible in Asia, was not related to BP in Western countries. Conclusion: Consistent associations were not found between raw fruit and fruit juice consumption of individuals and BP. This observational study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005271. PMID:23553162

  13. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons.

  14. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons. PMID:20030384

  15. Exposure to captan in fruit growing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cock, J; Heederik, D; Kromhout, H; Boleij, J S; Hoek, F; Wegh, H; Tjoe Ny, E

    1998-03-01

    This study characterized occupational exposure to pesticides in fruit growing in The Netherlands to assess determinants of exposure. Large-scale exposure surveys were carried out during application of pesticides and during reentry activities. Data on contamination inside the fruit growers' homes were obtained, and total potential exposure for the fruit grower and his family during the growing and harvesting season was estimated. Repeated measurements on the same subject were collected to study components of exposure variability. Relative contribution of the respiratory route and different skin sites to total exposure were assessed. Captan was used as a marker for exposure. Inhalable dust exposure was measured with a personal monitor and potential dermal exposure with skin pads and hand rinsing. Dislodgeable foliar residue was measured by taking leaf punches. For respiratory exposure and potential dermal exposure, differences were observed between several tasks. Workers were categorized according to tasks performed depending on the exposure measure(s) (e.g., hands, forehead, inhalable dust) considered relevant for a specific study purpose. In general, within-worker variability of all exposure measurements was larger than between-worker variability. Variability in dermal exposure on the same body location was small relative to variability between different body locations. Differences in total exposure, including exposure inside the home, between the fruit grower and the son were small. Exposure of the wife was two to three times lower than for the fruit grower and the son. As exposure per unit of time was in the same order of magnitude for different tasks, individual time spent on these tasks is crucial for estimating total potential exposure. Repeated measurements are necessary to estimate individual exposure accurately because of the large within-worker variability.

  16. Semi-Dried Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Uysal Seçkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, the preservation of fruit and vegetables is an ancient method of drying. Sun drying method has been used more widely. In general, consumer-ready products are dried fruits, while the dried vegetables are the foods subjected to the rehydration processes such as boiling, heating and baking before consumption. In recent years, new products with high eating quality have been attempted to achieve without losing characteristic of raw material. With the improving of food technology, using developed methods (pH reduction with reducing aw, slight heating, preservatives use etc. as protective agent, and using a combination of a low rate as an alternative to traditional food preservation process, products have been obtained without changing original characteristics of food. ‘Semi-dried 'or 'medium moist 'products with little difference between the taste and texture of the product with a damp have gained importance in recent years in terms of consumer preferences. Vegetables or fruits, which have water activity levels between 0.50 and 0.95 and the moisture content of between 26% and 60%, are called 'medium moist fruit or vegetables'. Two different manufacturing process to obtain a semi-dried or intermediate moisture products are applied. First, fully dried fruits and vegetables to be rehydrated with water are brought to the desired level of their moisture content. Second, in the first drying process, when the product moisture content is reduced to the desired level, the drying process is finished. The semi-dried products are preferred by consumers because they have a softer texture in terms of eating quality and like fresh products texture.

  17. Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities.

  18. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit : implications for cell wall adhesion and fruit softening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, W.G.T.; Alebeek, van G.J.W.M.; Schols, H.A.; Seymour, G.B.; Knox, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic

  19. Changes of Endogenous Hormone Contents in Fruit, Seeds and Their Effects on the Fruit Development of Rosa roxburghii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wei-guo; AN Hua-ming; LIU Guo-qin; HE Song-tao; LIU Jin-ping

    2003-01-01

    The fruit of cultivar Guinong5 (Rosa roxburghii Tratt. ) was used to investigate the regularity of its growth and development, and the changes of endogenous hormone contents during the period of the growth and development. The result showed that contents of GA1+3, IAA and ZRs in the flower receptacle of young fruit were high and then decreased, contents of GA1+3 and IAA in seeds increased with its development until maturity. The contents of ZRs and ABA in the flower receptacle of young fruits and seeds were high, and then had a tendency of descent with the development of fruits. The contents of GA1+3, IAA, ZRs and ABA in flower receptacle of young fruit with normal fertilization were much higher than those of in non-fertilization fruits. In the flower receptacle of malformed fruits, the contents of GA1+3, IAA and ZRs in normally developing flower receptacle were significantly higher than those in malformed fruits. The growth and development of fruits depended largely on the seeds, development because the seeds in the fruits with non-fertilization failed to be formed or even formed but irreproducible, which would lead to the decrease of GA1+3, IAA contents and the abnormal development of fruits. Therefore the fruits deformed and dropped inevitably.

  20. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Gadaga, T.H.; Theelen, R.M.C.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarab

  1. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... fly and that any fruit fly finds are reported to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 301 and 319 RIN 0579-AD34 Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist...

  2. Deliverable 5.2 Study report on consumer motivations and behaviours for fruits and fruit products in the Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether fruit consumption in Western Balkan countries (WBC) meets recommended levels from a health perspective. A better understanding consumers' perception of health and motives and barriers of fruit is necessary to get insight in the fruit consumption. The aim of WP 5 is therefore to

  3. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  4. The ripening of gamma irradiated fruits of jujube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mature green jujube fruits of cv. Zaytoni were subjected to gamma radiation doses of 0, 10, 30 and 50 krad. The irradiated and unirradiated fruits were then kept at 20°C and 85–90% r.h., and changes in weight loss, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content were determined. Fruits subjected to 30 krad were firmer and greener than unirradiated control fruits after six days of storage, and this treatment delayed ripening by three days. There was no significant loss in the nutritive value of the fruit due to irradiation

  5. Fruit growth of Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gibberellic acid (GA₃ on the fruit growth pattern of the Minneola tungelo was investigated. The growth pattern follows a S-curve, similar to other citrus cultivars but the growth rate differs. GA₃, applied at low concentrations caused a slightly slower fruit growth rate compared to controls, resulting in smaller fruit. In the case of GA₃ , applied at 15ppm, fruit numbers exceeded those of the control. GA₃ treatment of fruit resulted in a slight decrease in average seed con­tent. GA₃, had no significant effect on juice quality.

  6. Functional Genomics of Allergen Gene Families in Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Maghuly

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit consumption is encouraged for health reasons; however, fruits may harbour a series of allergenic proteins that may cause discomfort or even represent serious threats to certain individuals. Thus, the identification and characterization of allergens in fruits requires novel approaches involving genomic and proteomic tools. Since avoidance of fruits also negatively affects the quality of patients’ lives, biotechnological interventions are ongoing to produce low allergenic fruits by down regulating specific genes. In this respect, the control of proteins associated with allergenicity could be achieved by fine tuning the spatial and temporal expression of the relevant genes.

  7. Irradiation of Fruit and Vegetables in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France, thanks to its varied and temperate climate and the features of its soils, affords favourable conditions for the production of fruit and vegetables. In certain cases these conditions permit harvests covering a fairly long period of time. As a result of work on the choice of varieties, on specialization and on the improvement of growing techniques, fruit and vegetable production has expanded and yields have increased. Techniques for increasing keeping periods and preserving quality are being developed, mainly on the basis of refrigeration. In some cases these techniques are inadequate, while in others their action is restricted. Irradiation seems capable of bringing new improvements, principally with regard to halting the germination of tubers, bulbs and rhizomes, to the conservation of fruit and vegetables when applied together with freezing or, possibly, in a controlled atmosphere - and to the disinfestation of certain commodities. Work carried out in various countries, including France, shows the advantages of irradiation and the possibility of using it for French fruit and vegetables (strawberries, peaches, apricots, tomatoes, potatoes, garlic, onions). The introduction of irradiation will lead to changes in the production and distribution of fruit and vegetables. Distribution will be improved and more distant sales points may be reached. The use of irradiation will not alter operations required to prepare the products for commercial purposes. The characteristics of these installations (usually gamma facilities) will depend, on many variable factors. In the light of the results obtained, the cost of irradiation would appear to lie within economic limits. The irradiation installations will operate mainly by radioisotope sources. The annual utilization factors of the installations play an important part in the cost of irradiation. Several procedures are envisaged to render them more economic, since their operation will necessarily be seasonal. The siting of

  8. Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence

  9. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed.

  10. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent. PMID:16775394

  11. Evaluations of the health benefits of eating more fruit depend on the amount of fruit previously eaten, variety, and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Rachel J; Rothman, Alexander J

    2016-10-01

    Though research has demonstrated that people generally perceive fruits to be healthy foods, little is known about how people think about the health benefits associated with eating increasing quantities of fruit. The purpose of this paper is to examine how evaluations of healthiness change as participants consider eating increasing quantities of fruit, and to explore how additional contextual features (i.e., variety and timing) can be leveraged to improve evaluations. In two within-subjects experiments, participants rated how good or bad for one's health it would be to eat increasing quantities of either the same fruit or a variety of fruits. In study 1, all participants were instructed to imagine eating the fruit over the course of the day. In study 2, the temporal distribution of the fruit (throughout the day, during a single meal) was manipulated. In general, both studies demonstrated that evaluations of overall healthiness for eating increasing quantities of the same fruit tended to diminish beyond two pieces of fruit, whereas the overall healthiness of eating increasing quantities of a variety of fruit remained stable. Study 2 demonstrated that evaluations of healthiness increased as additional fruit was considered when a variety of fruit was imagined to be eaten throughout the day. Thus, the health benefits that people assign to eating increasing quantities of fruit seem to increase, but only if eating a variety of fruits throughout the day is considered. This study suggests that evaluations of the healthiness of fruit are not made in isolation; evaluations of healthiness are contextualized by what has been eaten previously and when it was eaten.

  12. Evaluations of the health benefits of eating more fruit depend on the amount of fruit previously eaten, variety, and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Rachel J; Rothman, Alexander J

    2016-10-01

    Though research has demonstrated that people generally perceive fruits to be healthy foods, little is known about how people think about the health benefits associated with eating increasing quantities of fruit. The purpose of this paper is to examine how evaluations of healthiness change as participants consider eating increasing quantities of fruit, and to explore how additional contextual features (i.e., variety and timing) can be leveraged to improve evaluations. In two within-subjects experiments, participants rated how good or bad for one's health it would be to eat increasing quantities of either the same fruit or a variety of fruits. In study 1, all participants were instructed to imagine eating the fruit over the course of the day. In study 2, the temporal distribution of the fruit (throughout the day, during a single meal) was manipulated. In general, both studies demonstrated that evaluations of overall healthiness for eating increasing quantities of the same fruit tended to diminish beyond two pieces of fruit, whereas the overall healthiness of eating increasing quantities of a variety of fruit remained stable. Study 2 demonstrated that evaluations of healthiness increased as additional fruit was considered when a variety of fruit was imagined to be eaten throughout the day. Thus, the health benefits that people assign to eating increasing quantities of fruit seem to increase, but only if eating a variety of fruits throughout the day is considered. This study suggests that evaluations of the healthiness of fruit are not made in isolation; evaluations of healthiness are contextualized by what has been eaten previously and when it was eaten. PMID:27311377

  13. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert;

    2014-01-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen....... The effects of Ogal on respiration and ATP levels were also studied in tissue samples. Oxygen uptake of mature green fruit and leaf tissues was not affected by Ogal, but was inhibited increasingly in fruit pericarp throughout ripening (up to 26% in red fruit). Similarly, Ogal caused a significant decrease...... in ATP content of red fruit pericarp. The number of energized mitochondria, as determined by confocal microscopy, strongly decreased in fruit tissue during ripening. Therefore, the contribution of chromoplasts to total fruit respiration appears to increase in late ripening stages....

  14. Growth and maturation of pequi fruit of the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the development of pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense of the Brazilian cerrado. It takes 84 days (12 weeks for pequi to develop with the onset of flowering in September and early fruit set in January. Pequi fruit showed a simple sigmoid growth curve, and its growth was characterized based on fresh mass and longitudinal and transverse diameters. The contents of titratable acidity, soluble solids, β-carotene, and vitamin C increased during fruit growth, reaching their maximum values at the 12th week (84 days after anthesis. Pequi is a fruit with an extremely high respiratory activity; its respiratory rate decreased during its development. Pequi fruit has been classified as a non-climacteric fruit due to the decrease of both respiration and ethylene production rates during maturation and ripening.

  15. The role of auxin and gibberellin in tomato fruit set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H

    2009-01-01

    The initiation of tomato fruit growth, fruit set, is very sensitive to environmental conditions. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms that regulate this process can facilitate the production of this agriculturally valuable fruit crop. Over the years, it has been well established that tomato fruit set depends on successful pollination and fertilization, which trigger the fruit developmental programme through the activation of the auxin and gibberellin signalling pathways. However, the exact role of each of these two hormones is still poorly understood, probably because only few of the signalling components involved have been identified so far. Recent research on fruit set induced by hormone applications has led to new insights into hormone biosynthesis and signalling. The aim of this review is to consolidate the current knowledge on the role of auxin and gibberellin in tomato fruit set. PMID:19321650

  16. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.

  17. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  18. RAPD analysis of natural populations of Acanthopanax brachypus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANHUAJUN; SILANDAI; 等

    1997-01-01

    Random amplified Polymorphic DNA(RAPD) analysis is a new technology of molecular marking which has proved very powerful in detecting genetic diversity at the level of population.The genomic DNAs used in our experiment were extracted from fresh leaves taken from 59 individuals sampled from three natural populations in Yan an,Shanxi Province.Through more than 2,000 PCRs,deep-going RAPD analysis was carried out on DNA samples from 49 inviduals.The percentage of polymorphic RAPD loci found in these three populations were respectively 27.2%,18.6% and 5.4%;the average genetic distances within population,0.055,0.026 and 0.008;the average genetic distances between populations (I-II),(I-III) and (II-III),0.105,0.096 and 0.060.The genetic diversity of A.brachypus within and between populations was found,for the first time,to be rather poor,thus revealing innate factors as the cause contributing to its endangered status.In addition,our work also provides basic materials for elucidating the underlying cause of its endangerment and for its protection biology.

  19. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly's orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly's orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly's flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment.

  20. PRICE TRANSMISSION IN SELECTED MALAYSIAN FRUITS MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Mohamed Arshad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for fresh produce such as fruits in Malaysia is alleged to be inefficient due to poor flow of information between market levels and uncompetitive market particularly at the wholesale and retail levels. Due to these structural problems, pricing efficiency is questionable, in that they are not integrated. This study intends to examine the cointegration and causality relationships between the farm and retail prices in the Malaysian market of fruits. To that end, the bivariate cointegration approach, using Granger causality tests, is applied. The study uses monthly data from January 2000 through December 2010. The results show that there is evidence of long run bidirectional causal relationship between farm and retail prices for banana and watermelon. However, the analysis revealed a long run unidirectional relationship from farm prices to retail prices with no evidence of reverse or feedback causality running from farm price to retail prices for jackfruit and durian.

  1. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana, calcination (Māraṇa etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  2. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in relation to region, trap type, season, and availability of fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T; Stewart-Leslie, Judy; Rice, Richard E; Phillips, Phil A

    2006-12-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was monitored with adult captures by season and trap type, and was related to fruit volume and nonharvested fruit to elucidate the occurrence of the newly introduced pest in California. The highest numbers of adults captured in ChamP traps in olive trees, Olea europaea, were in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Comparisons of trap types showed that the number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon AM traps in a commercial orchard was significantly greater than in ChamP traps. A significantly greater number of females were captured in Pherocon AM traps with bait packets and pheromone lures than traps with pheromone lures alone, while a significantly greater number of adults and males were captured in traps with pheromone lures alone. Significantly more adults were captured in ChamP traps with bait packets and pheromone lures versus traps with bait packets alone. Fruit volume increased by four times from mid-June to mid-November. Olive fruit fly was found to oviposit on small olive fruit fruit set, the maximum number of ovipositional sites per fruit occurred in October, and the greatest number of pupae and adults were reared from fruit collected in September and October. The highest numbers of pupae were collected from nonharvested fruit in March when high numbers of adults were captured in the same orchard.

  3. Effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit calcium concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit Ca concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). No difference was noted in fruit Ca concentration among bagging materials during the growing season. And also, there was no difference in fruit Ca concentration between bagged and non-bagged fruits. The fruit flesh Ca concentration of bagged fruits was significantly lower than that of non-bagged fruits in the same tree, which 0.5 % CaCl2 was sprayed 5 times in the late growing season. The radioactivity of 45Ca was highest in the sprayed shoot leaves and bark, while only a trace amount was detected in the fruit and shoot proximate to the treated shoot 3 weeks after 3 times application of 45CaCl2 (5 micro Ci/ml). As a result, it is confirmed that the Ca once accumulated in a specific part is hardly retranslocated. Therefore, it is concluded that Ca foliar spray to the fruit-bagged tree has no influence on Ca concentration in the fruit

  4. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure treatment can be used for product modification through pressure gelatinization of starch and pressure denaturation of proteins. Key pressure–thermal treatment effects on vitamin, enzymes, flavor, co...

  5. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão; Ivano Alessandro Devilla; Edemilson Cardoso da Conceição; Leonardo Luiz Borges

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provi...

  6. Ultrastructure of Quinoa Fruit (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    OpenAIRE

    Varriano-Marston, E.; DeFrancisco, Alicia

    1984-01-01

    The structure of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) fruit before and after germination was studied using electron microscopy. Protective coverings include a perianth consisting of loosely adhering cell s which are readily removed by washing, a pericarp and two seed coat layers. Starch granules fill the perispenn cells and are arranged in 18 to 20 oblong aggregates. Limited hydrolysis of the starch occurs after 24 hrs of germination, with amylolytic erosion of large granules occurring at the hilum an...

  7. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, K.N. [Post-harvest Technology Institute, 4, Ngo Quyen-Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Lam, N.D. [Ha Noi Radiation Center, VAEC, 5T-160, Nghiado, Tuliem, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Preliminary test of mango (Mangifera indica) preservation by irradiated chitosan coating has been investigated. The coating by using irradiated chitosan in 1.5% solution has extended the shelf life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango coated by irradiated chitosan has been keeping good color, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the mango without coating was spoiled completely and the coating of fruit with unirradiated chitosan inhibited the ripening. (author)

  8. Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J. Brent; Webster, Donna; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B.; Wang, Z. Jim; Fong, Harry H.S.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2011-01-01

    A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic method (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding. PMID:21163339

  9. Phenolic Compounds and Uses in Fruit Growing

    OpenAIRE

    Sulusoglu, Melekber

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are a class of chemical compounds in organic chemistry which consist of a hydroxyl group directly bonded to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. Phenolic compounds find in cell wall structures and play a major role in the growth regulation of plant as an internal physiological regulators or chemical messengers. They are used in the fruit growing field. They are related with defending system against pathogens and stress. They increase the success of tissue culture; can be helpful ...

  10. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  11. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  12. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  13. A comprehensive survey of fruit grading systems for tropical fruits of Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoje, Suchitra A; Bodhe, S K

    2015-01-01

    It is said that the backbone of Indian economy is agriculture. The contribution of the agriculture sector to the national GDP (Gross Domestic Products) was 14.6% in the year 2010. To attain a growth rate equivalent to that of industry (viz., about 9%), it is highly mandatory for Indian agriculture to modernize and use automation at various stages of cultivation and post-harvesting techniques. The use of computers in assessing the quality of fruits is one of the major activities in post-harvesting technology. As of now, this assessment is majorly done manually, except for a few fruits. Currently, the fruit quality assessment by machine vision in India is still at research level. Major research has been carried out in countries like China, Malaysia, UK, and Netherlands. To suit the Indian market and psychology of Indian farmers, it is necessary to develop indigenous technology. This paper is the first step toward evaluating the research carried out by the research community all over world for tropical fruits. For the purpose of survey, we have concentrated on the tropical fruits of the state of Maharashtra, while keeping in focus of the review image processing algorithms. PMID:24915312

  14. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  15. Yucca brevifolia fruit production, predispersal seed predation, and fruit removal by rodents during two years of contrasting reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Mark I.; DeFalco, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The distribution of Yucca brevifolia, a keystone species of the Mojave Desert, may contract with climate change, yet reproduction and dispersal are poorly understood. We tracked reproduction, seed predation, and fruit dispersal for two years and discuss whether Y. brevifolia is a masting species. METHODS: Fruit maturation, seed predation (larval yucca moths), and fruit dispersal (rodents) were monitored on a random sample of panicles during 2013 and 2014, which were years of high and low reproduction, respectively. Fates of fruits placed on the ground and in canopies were also tracked. Rodents were live-trapped to assess abundance and species composition. KEY RESULTS: In 2013, 66% of inflorescences produced fruit of which 53% escaped larval predation; 19.5% of seeds were destroyed in infested fruits. Total seed production was estimated to be >100 times greater in 2013 than 2014. One-third of the fruit crop fell to the ground and was removed by rodents over the course of 120 d. After ground fruits became scarce, rodents exploited canopy fruits. Rodent numbers were low in 2013, so fruits remained in canopies for 370 d. In 2014, fruit production was approximately 20% lower. Larvae infested the majority of fruits, and almost twice the number of seeds were damaged. Fruits were exploited by rodents within 65 d. CONCLUSIONS: High fertilization, prolific seed production, and low predispersal predation in 2013 suggests that pollinator attraction and satiation of seed predators influence masting in Y. brevifolia. Abundant, prolonged fruit availability to seed-dispersing rodents likely extends recruitment opportunities during mast years.

  16. Area-wide management of fruit flies in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Commonwealth of Australia is comprised of six States and several Territories. Each State and Territory Government maintains quarantine activities for its borders under the guidance of the Commonwealth Government. These activities, with regard to fruit flies, include quarantine at airports and harbours, compliance with import and export regulations and monitoring for, and action against, incursions of exotic fruit fly pests. There are about eighty species of fruit fly that are native to Australia that infest mainly native fruit and vegetables but, of these, six are classed as pests of horticultural significance. The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) is by far the most destructive of these native Australian fruit fly species. Another, non-native species, now endemic to parts of Western Australia, which arrived in Australia in the 1890's, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), is just as damaging and it, too, is a critical quarantine pest. The distribution of these flies in Australia is such that not all pest species inhabit the same region. Quarantine restrictions are placed by States and fruit fly free-areas within States due to pest fruit fly species that are not native there. For example the State of Tasmania, to the southeast of Australia, is classified as entirely free from pest fruit flies. Fruit fly host produce exported to Tasmania from the rest of Australia is either prohibited or allowed entry following various quarantine requirements such as an approved postharvest disinfestation treatment. The State of Western Australia is free from Queensland fruit fly, but the eastern States of New South Wales and Queensland are not. while the eastern states are free from Mediterranean fruit fly and Western Australia is not. Quarantine restrictions are in place on trade between eastern and western Australia. Mediterranean fruit fly is now endemic to parts of Western Australia and nowhere else in Australia. It is a most destructive pest

  17. The Physiological Mechanism of Postphloem Sugar Transport in Citrus Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun-wei; ZHANG Shang-long; ZHANG Liang-cheng; Ruan Yong-ling; XIE Ming; TAO Jun

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of translocation and partitioning of 14C-phothsynthates, the concentration of sucrose in fruit tissues and the effects of the membrane carrier- and ATPase-specific inhibitors on 14C-sucrose uptake by juice sacs of the satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa wase) fruit were examined at the stage of fruit enlargement and fruit full ripe. Kinetic data of 14C-photosynthate translocation indicated that the rate of photosynthate transport into juice sacs decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. Along the photosynthate translocation path, i.e. from vascular bundles to segment epidermis then to juice sacs, a descending sugar gradient was observed. With fruit maturation and sugar accumulation in juice sacs, the 14C photosynthate gradient increased, whereas the static sucrose concentration gradient decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. The higher gradient of specific 14C radioactivity was considered to favor diffusion and sugar transport into juice sacs at the later stage of fruit development. The rate of uptake 14C-sucrose by juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit was markedly reduced by PCMBS, EB, DNP and NO-3 treatment. The above results suggested the participation of a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent sugar active transport process in juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit.

  18. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Reduit, Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  19. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  20. Fruit volatile analysis using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Simona; Lloyd, Nathan W; Ebeler, Susan E; Zakharov, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening, including the development of a specific volatile blend that characterizes fruit aroma. Maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavor quality of fruits and vegetables. The validation of robust methods that rapidly assess fruit maturity and aroma quality would allow improved management of advanced breeding programs, production practices and postharvest handling. Over the last three decades, much research has been conducted to develop so-called electronic noses, which are devices able to rapidly detect odors and flavors. Currently there are several commercially available electronic noses able to perform volatile analysis, based on different technologies. The electronic nose used in our work (zNose, EST, Newbury Park, CA, USA), consists of ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW). This technology has already been tested for its ability to monitor quality of various commodities, including detection of deterioration in apple; ripeness and rot evaluation in mango; aroma profiling of thymus species; C(6) volatile compounds in grape berries; characterization of vegetable oil and detection of adulterants in virgin coconut oil. This system can perform the three major steps of aroma analysis: headspace sampling, separation of volatile compounds, and detection. In about one minute, the output, a chromatogram, is produced and, after a purging cycle, the instrument is ready for further analysis. The results obtained with the zNose can be compared to those of other gas-chromatographic systems by calculation of Kovats Indices (KI). Once the instrument has been tuned with an alkane standard solution, the retention times are automatically converted into KIs. However, slight changes in temperature and flow rate are expected to occur over time, causing retention times to drift. Also, depending on the polarity of the column stationary phase, the

  1. Characterization of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum fruits from outstanding mexican selections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Guadalupe Hernández Arenas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of five regional selections of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. were characterized to identify those with international marketing quality to promote their propagation in Mexico, improvement and conservation in germoplasm bank. The fruits were harvested in June, July, and August 2008 and, after each harvest, were assessed for shape (length/diameter, firmness, fruit weight, number of fruits per kilogram, weight and percentage of pericarp, seed and aril, total soluble solids, total sugars, vitamin C content, pH, and titratable acidity. In addition, a sensorial evaluation was carried out with 31 panelists who graded each selection for color, sweetness, and acidity. Fruits of five selections were ovoid, and with the following characteristics: firmness values from 43.7 to 51.0 N, fruit weight ranged from 22.4 to 34.7 g, registering from 28.9 to 45.0 fruits per kg; pericarp weight from 10.5 to 17.3 g (45.9 to 49.9% of the total fruit weight; total seed weight from 2.2 to 2.5 g (7.0 to 10.0%; average arils weight from 8.9 to 13.1 g (37.5 to 41.4%. The fruits had high contents of total soluble solids (17.8 to 20.4 ºBrix, total sugars (211.95 to 242.70 mg/100g in the edible portion, vitamin C (37.9 to 69.1 mg/100 g, pH 5.0, and titratable acidity of 0.20 to 0.28%. The fruits from the RT-01 and RT-05 selections had better attributes in fruit weight, total soluble solids and titratable acidity and were better accepted by the panelists. Harvest date significantly affects rambutan fruit quality; at the middle and end of the season harvested fruits had better qualitative characteristics for the marketing.

  2. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  3. Engineering Melon Plants with Improved Fruit Shelf Life Using the TILLING Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Dahmani-Mardas; Christelle Troadec; Adnane Boualem; Sylvie Lévêque; Abdullah A. Alsadon; Aldoss, Abdullah A.; Catherine Dogimont; Abdelhafid Bendahmane

    2010-01-01

    Background: Fruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes that control fruit ripening. [br/] Methodology/Principal Findings: To engineer melon fruit...

  4. Yeast profilin complements profilin deficiency in transgenic tomato fruits and allows development of hypoallergenic tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lien Q; Mahler, Vera; Scheurer, Stephan; Foetisch, Kay; Braun, Yvonne; Weigand, Daniela; Enrique, Ernesto; Lidholm, Jonas; Paulus, Kathrin E; Sonnewald, Sophia; Vieths, Stefan; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2010-12-01

    Gene silencing of Lyc e 1 leads to reduced allergenicity of tomato fruits but impaired growth of transgenic tomato plants. The aim of the study was to restore growth of Lyc e 1-deficient tomato plants while retaining reduced allergenicity by simultaneous complementation of profilin deficiency by expression of nonallergenic yeast profilin. Transgenic plants were generated and tested by RT-PCR and immunoblotting; allergenicity of yeast profilin and transgenic fruits was investigated by IgE binding, basophil activation, and skin-prick tests. Lyc e 1 content of transgenic tomato fruits was foods with reduced allergen accumulation, can be generated even if the allergen fulfills an essential cellular function in the plant. In summary, our findings of efficiently complementing profilin-deficient tomato plants by coexpression of low allergenic yeast profilin demonstrate the feasibility of creating low-allergenic food even if the allergen fulfills essential cellular functions.

  5. Control of fruit flies pest on guava fruit by using organic insecticide

    OpenAIRE

    Kardinan, Agus

    2014-01-01

    Guava fruit (Psidium guajava) is a mainstay commodity in Bogor and Bogor district is a supplier of guava into surrounding towns. In Bogor, population of guava fruit is around 160,000 trees that reaches an area of about 800 ha and scattered in several places, including in the Village of Kencana, Sukadamai, Mekarwangi and Sukaresmi that reaches an area of about 80 ha with a population of about sixteen thousand trees. Production during the harvest reaches 15 tones per ha at each harvest, and th...

  6. Expression of ipt gene driven by tomato fruit specific promoter and its effects on fruit development of tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fruit specific promoter (2A12) from Lycopersicom esculentum and cDNA of isopentenyl-transferase (ipt) from Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumerfaciens C58 were cloned by PCR procedure respectively. Two plant expression vectors with 2A12/gus or 2A12/ipt were respectively constructed. These two chimeric genes were transferred into tomato by Agrobacterium mediated procedure. The results of Southern hybridization showed that the fusion genes had been integrated into tomatoes. The result of gus histochemical staining showed that 2A12 had high fruit specific expressive capability in transgenic tomato. The ipt expression resulted in accumulation of high level of cytokinins (CTKs) in fruit lead to developmental changes in fruits and seeds. The fruit of ipt transformed tomato had the hyperplastic placenta with very few seeds or even seedless. The shelf life of transgenic fruits elongated for 1-2 weeks. The ratio of fruit set, the dry weight of fruit and the crude protein content in fruit were increased, while the soluble sugar of fruits decreased.

  7. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) on the plant growth, fruit yield, and fruit quality of cucumber under salt stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Guo, Shi-Rong; He, Chao-Xing; Yan, Yan; Yu, Xian-Chang

    2012-01-01

    By adopting organic substrate culture, and salt-sensitive cucumber variety 'Jinchun No. 2' was used as test material, this paper studied the effects of inoculating arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) on the plant growth, fruit yield, and fruit quality of cucumber under salt stress. AMF-inoculation could effectively promote the plant growth and nutrient uptake, and improve the fruit yield and fruit nutrient quality, compared with ordinary cultivation. Under salt stress, the plant growth was inhibited, and the plant N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents and K+/Na+ ratio, fruit yield, and fruit soluble protein, total sugar, vitamin C, and nitrate contents decreased, while inoculation with AMF could mitigate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on the plant growth, made the plant N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents increased by 7.3%, 11.7%, 28.2%, 13.5%, and 9.9%, respectively, and made the plant K+/Na+ ratio, fruit yield, and fruit soluble protein, total sugar, and vitamin C contents have an obvious increase and the fruit nitrate content have a significant decrease. It was suggested that AMF could promote the plant growth and nutrient uptake of cucumber under salt stress, increase the plant salt-tolerance, and improve the fruit yield and its nutrient quality.

  8. Regularities in the supply of young peach fruits with 14C assimilates within a fruit-bearing branchlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A well expressed independence may be observed in nurturing young fruits of the Rio Ozo Gem variety with newly produced 14C assimilates within a fruit-bearing branchlet. For an effective link between the individual lateral shoots and fruits both their around location and linear nearness to each other are of importance. Since the phloem fibre direction within several internaodes is nearly parallel to the branchlet axis, as a rule fruits are supplyed by the shoots situated on the same branchlet side. The negative influence of the distance between fruit and shoot is due mainly to the competition of near fruits located on the same phloem strip. Under the complex effect of these factors certain specialization is formed of the shoots arranged along the fruit-bearing branchlet, namely the upper shoots do service mainly to the upper part and the bottom ones to the basic part of it. At the same time, shoot removal tests showed that the said independence is not absolute in the carbohydrate nurture of the young fruits within the fruit-bearing branchlet. The function of an absent donor organ (a shoot) is taken over in this case by other donor organs to a greater degree than in a vegetative growth even if it would be exigently to go over from a longitudinal to a transversal transport. This shows that the young peach fruits about a month after blossoming have a greater mobilizing strength than the young growing leaves. (author)

  9. Mitigation of effects of extreme drought during stage III of peach fruit development by summer pruning and fruit thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gerardo; Mata, Mercè; Arbones, Amadeu; Solans, Josep R; Girona, Joan; Marsal, Jordi

    2006-04-01

    A water deficit during stage III of fruit growth was established with the aim of determining if it is possible to achieve an improvement in tree water status by summer pruning and fruit thinning. The experiment was set up as a randomized block split-plot design across trials (irrigation) where pruning was assigned to the main plot and fruit thinning to the sub-plots. The irrigation treatments were (1) standard full irrigation (FI), and (2) suppression of irrigation during stage III of fruit growth until leaves visibly withered (LWI); the pruning treatments were (1) experimental summer pruning (EP), and (2) standard summer pruning (CP); and three fruit thinning intensities were applied to facilitate analysis of the effects of the treatments in relation to fruit load. Changes in amount of light intercepted and in tree stem water potential (Psi stem) were evaluated. The EP treatment reduced the amount of light intercepted by the tree. In the FI treatment, there was a significant reduction in fruit growth measured as both water accumulation and dry mass accumulation. Under FI conditions, reductions in fruit load as a result of EP were not accompanied by a significant improvement in Psi stem. In the LWI treatment, EP produced a significant improvement of 0.17 MPa in Psi stem, but there was no improvement in fruit growth compared with CP trees. A reduction in fruit load from 350 (commercial load) to 150 per tree significantly improved Psi stem by 0.3 MPa at the end of stage III of fruit growth. These results indicate that improvements in water status in response to pruning may be insufficient to promote fruit growth if the pruned trees are unable to provide an adequate supply of assimilates to the developing fruits.

  10. Over-expression ofGhDWF4 gene improved tomato fruit quality and accelerated fruit ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Shu-e; LUO Ming; LI Fang; LI Xian-bi; HONG Qi-bin; ZHAI Yun-lan; HU Ming-yu; WEI Ting; DENG Sha-sha; PEI Yan

    2015-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs), a class of steroidal phytohormones are essential for many biological processes in plant. However, little is known about their roles in fruit development. Tomato is a highly valuable vegetable and has been adopted as the model species for studying fruit growth, development, and ripening. To understand the role of endogenous BRs in the de-velopment of tomato fruit, the expression patterns of three homologues ofDWF4 gene were investigated and the transgenic tomato plants were generated in which theGhDWF4 gene from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was ectopicaly expressed. The contents of main quality components were analyzed in fruits of transgenic tomato line and non-transgenic line (control plant, CP) when the fruit was mature.SlCYP90B3 that possesses high homology withGhDWF4 preferentialy expressed in mature fruit. Signiifcantly higher contents of soluble sugar, soluble proteins, and vitamin C were obtained in fruit of transgenic tomato lines compared with those in the CP. Furthermore, overexpressingGhDWF4 promoted fruit growth and ripening. The weight per fruit was increased by about 23% in transgenic lines. In addition, overexpressingGhDWF4 promoted the germination of transgenic tomato seeds and hypocotyl elongation of seedlings. These results indicated that overexpressingGhDWF4 gene in tomato could increase the contents of many nutrients in fruit and accelerate fruit ripening. It is suggested that increased endogenous BRs in fruit affect the growth and development of tomato fruit and therefore improved the nutrient quality of tomato.

  11. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A;

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  12. Avocado fruit protoplasts: a cellular model system for ripening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, F W; Cass, L G; Bozak, K R; Christoffersen, R E

    1991-12-01

    Mesocarp protoplasts were isolated from mature avocado fruits (Persea americana cv. Hass) at varying stages of propylene-induced ripening. Qualitative changes in the pattern of radiolabel incorporation into polypeptides were observed in cells derived from fruit at the different stages. Many of these differences correlate with those observed during radiolabeling of polypeptides from fresh tissue slices prepared from unripe and ripe fruit. Protoplasts isolated from fruit treated with propylene for one day or more were shown to synthesize cellulase (endo-ß-1,4-glucanase) antigen, similar to the intact propylene-treated fruit. These results suggest that the isolated protoplasts retain at least some biochemical characteristics of the parent tissue. The cells may also be used in transient gene expression assays. Protoplasts isolated from preclimacteric and climacteric fruit were equally competent in expressing a chimeric test gene, composed of the CaMV 35S RNA promoter fused to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, which was introduced by electroporation.

  13. Technology for production of shelf stable fruit cubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technology has been developed for the production of intermediate moisture fruit cubes using a combination of osmotic dehydration and infrared drying. Fruits like pineapple, papaya, mango, banana and apple can be successfully converted into intermediate moisture products in the form of fruit cubes using this technology. The fruit cubes can blend very well as natural nutritious supplements with breakfast cereals and in certain food preparations like ice creams, milk shakes, jellies and custards. The product is microbiologically safe for consumption and can be stored at ambient storage condition for more than six months. This technology is an effective alternative for post harvest processing and preservation of ripened fruits. Fruit jam is an additional by-product generated by the process. This technology has been transferred to TT and CD, BARC

  14. Preformed antifungal compounds in strawberry fruit and flower tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, Leon A.; Joyce, Daryl C.; Adikaram, Nimal K. B.; Khambay, Bhupinder P. S.

    2004-01-01

    Antifungal activity against the pathogen, Botrytis cinerea, and a bioassay organism, Cladosporium cladosporioides, declined with advancing strawberry fruit maturity as shown by thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioassays. Preformed antifungal activity was also present in flower tissue. The fall in fruit antifungal compounds was correlated with a decline in natural disease resistance (NDR) against B. cinerea in-planta. Crude extracts of green stage I fruit (7 days after anthesi...

  15. Optical and mechanical nondestructive tests for measuring tomato fruit firmness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivel-Chávez, Ricardo A.; Garnica-Romo, M. G.; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Aranda-Sánchez, Jorge I.

    2011-08-01

    Ripening is one of the most important processes to occur in fruits which involve changes in color, flavor, and texture. An important goal in quality control of fruits is to substitute traditional sensory testing methods with reliable nondestructive tests (NDT). In this work we study the firmness of tomato fruits by using optical and mechanical NDT. Optical and mechanical parameters, measured along the tomato shelf life, are shown.

  16. Compal Essencial brand extension : the new category of fruit portions

    OpenAIRE

    Maury, Maria Margarida Pintado

    2013-01-01

    Compal was a well-known Portuguese company in the industry of soft drinks. It launched Compal Essencial in 2006, which introduced consumers to a new category of fruit portions. Essencial was equivalent to a fruit portion and aimed to improve people’s fruit consumption habits by providing a quality and convenient product. This dissertation provides an overview of how Compal Essencial’s development process led to its success, translated in high sales levels, penetration rates and market shar...

  17. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  18. Colour Design for Carton-Packed Fruit Juice Packages

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shuo-Ting; Ou, Li-Chen; Luo, M. Ronnier

    2009-01-01

    The present research studies the relationships between observers’ expectations for 7 fruit juice packages and the colour design of the package. To do this, a two-stage experiment was conducted. At the first stage, we studied perceived colours for the fruit images shown on each package. At the second stage, fruit juice packages with 20 package colours were rated using 5 bipolar scales: colour harmony, preference, freshness, naturalness and product quality. The experimental results show that th...

  19. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  20. Resistance to Gas Diffusion in Internal Tissues of Citrus Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Dirpan, Andi

    2015-01-01

    Japan is a major citrus fruit-producing country, and Ehime Prefecture is one of the main citrus fruit producing regions in Japan. As many as 20 major citrus varieties are cultivated in Ehime. To further develop postharvest technology for quality preservation such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, creating an optimum gas concentration around fruit and vegetables have to be precisely achieved. However, the external atmosphere of fresh products in MAP...

  1. Performance of mushroom fruiting for large scale commercial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper described the determination of mushroom fruiting yield, which is vital to economics of mushroom production. Consistency in mushroom yields enabling an estimation to be made for revenues and hence profitability could be predicted. It has been reported by many growers, there are a large variation in mushroom yields over different times of production. To assess such claims we have run four batches of mushroom fruiting and the performance fruiting body productions are presented. (author)

  2. Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

  3. Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Yueming Jiang; Amin Ismail; Kin-Weng Kong; Hock-Eng Khoo; K. Nagendra Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as ‘functional food ingredients’. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables d...

  4. Fruit Pod Extracts as a Source of Nutraceuticals and Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Azrina Azlan; Azila Abdul Karim

    2012-01-01

    Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacteri...

  5. Tinned Fruit Consumption and Mortality in Three Prospective Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Aasheim, Erlend T.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Appleby, Paul N.; Shipley, Martin J.; Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; Kay-Tee Khaw; Eric Brunner; Key, Tim J.; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Dietary recommendations to promote health include fresh, frozen and tinned fruit, but few studies have examined the health benefits of tinned fruit. We therefore studied the association between tinned fruit consumption and mortality. We followed up participants from three prospective cohorts in the United Kingdom: 22,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort (1993-2012), 52,625 participants from the EPIC-Oxford cohort (1993-20...

  6. Examining College Students' Daily Consumption of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    McLean-Meyinsse, Patricia E.; Harris, Edith G.; Taylor, Shervia S.; Gager, Janet V.

    2013-01-01

    Results from a random sample of 305 college students suggest that consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is independent of gender, academic ranks, and places of residence, but depends on perceptions of health status. Despite the statistically significant associations between perceptions of health and consumption of fruits and vegetables, 82 percent of the respondents who perceived their health status as poor or fair ate no fresh fruits or vegetables.

  7. DRIS: concepts and applications on nutritional diagnosis in fruit crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourão Filho Francisco de Assis Alves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition and fertilization are important factors in determining fruit yield and fruit quality. There are several methods for plant nutritional status diagnosis, among them, two are relevant and named as Sufficiency Range Approach (SRA and Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS. This research reports the main concepts and applications of DRIS in nutritional diagnosis of fruit crops, comparing it with current nutritional diagnosis methods, indicating advantages and disadvantages, and possible limitations to be investigated.

  8. Water stress on citric fruit (Citrus spp.): a review

    OpenAIRE

    Javier E. Vélez; Javier G. Álvarez-Herrera; Oscar H Alvarado-Sanabria

    2012-01-01

    Citric fruit represent the main fruit product worldwide due to their advantages and benefits Adequate and homogenous moisture in the soil ensures consistent fruit quality and production, even in subtropical countries having patterns Most citric-growing areas have drip irrigation infrastructure, thereby increasing water-use efficiency However, pressure on water resources means that water use in adverse conditions must continue to be studied to ensure efficient irrigation scheduling This pap...

  9. Fruit Detachment and Classification Method for Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Feng; Nagata Masateru; Cao Qixin

    2008-01-01

    Fruit detachment and on-line classification is important for the development of harvesting robot. With the specific requriements of robot used for harvesting strawberries growing on the ground, a fruit detachment and classification method is introduced in this paper. OHTA color spaces based image segmentation algorithm is utilized to extract strawberry from background; Principal inertia axis of binary strawberry blob is calculated to give the pose information of fruit. Strawberry is picked se...

  10. Postharvest biochemical and physiological characterisation of imported avocado fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Donetti, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties in controlling and forecasting avocado fruit ripening and the highly perishable nature of the crop once harvested, are the major causes of concern for avocado traders. In particular, the simultaneous presence of many suppliers may account for increased fruit variability during ripening. Avocado is a climacteric fruit with consistent ethylene production after harvest which is also related to high perishability. However, the mechanisms regulating ethylene biosynthesi...

  11. ANTHOCYANINS OF SOME HAWTHORN SPECIES (CRATAEGUS L., ROSACEAE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Иванович Дейнека

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins of two hawthorn species fruits: C. chlorosarca Maxim. and C. pentagyna Waldst. et Kit., were investigated by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method. Cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidine-3-glucoside, cyanidine-3-arabinoside and cyanidine-3-xiloside were found. Overall anthocyanins accumulation was the highest in the case of C. chlorosarca fruits: 0.460÷0.620 g per 100 g of fresh fruits as cyanidine-3-glucoside chloride equivalent. It has been found that according to anthocyanins accumulation as well as to the antioxidant activity C. chlorosarca fruits are rather comparable to dried hibiscus subdariffa calyces and may be used for another tea preparation at some acidification.

  12. The isolation of RNA from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C S; Iannetta, P P; Woodhead, M; Davies, H V; McNicol, R J; Taylor, M A

    1997-12-01

    Previous attempts to extract high-quality, total RNA from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits using published protocols have proven to be unsuccessful. Even the use of protocols developed for the extraction of RNA from other fruit tissue has resulted in low yields (1) or the isolation of degraded RNA (2). Here, we report on the development of a quick and simple method of extracting total RNA from raspberry fruit. Using this method, high yields of good quality, undegraded RNA were obtained from fruit at all stages of ripening. The RNA is of sufficient quality for northern analysis and cDNA library construction.

  13. Cytokinin Activity in Avocado Seeds during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, A; Gazit, S

    1970-08-01

    The soybean callus bioassay was used to determine levels of cytokinin activity in avocado (Persea americana) seeds.In the embryo, levels are high during the early stages of development, but diminish as the fruit grows. The level of cytokinin activity in the endosperm is very high throughout the period that this tissue exists. The seed coats have very high activity levels while the fruit is young, reaching values comparable with those found in the endosperm. The activity level falls as the rate of fruit growth slows down and disappears completely by the time the seed coats shrivel at approximately the same time the fruit reaches "horticultural maturity".

  14. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits.

  15. Potassium incorporation in fruits of South American tropical species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, Alberto S.; Anjos, Roberto M.; Macario, Kita D.; Veiga, Rodrigo; Lacerda, Thiago [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Velasco, Hugo; Rizzoto, Marcos; Valladares, Daniel [Univesidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina); Zamboni, Cibelle B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This work proposes the use of a new mathematical model liable for describing the temporal evolution of potassium concentration in fruits of tropical species. Studies of the potassium incorporation are important for two main reasons: a) from the physiological point of view, this flux characterizes the dynamics of the demand of this essential macro nutrient during the gestation period of the fruit; and b) from a radioecological perspective, potassium is a chemical analogue of cesium, particularly of {sup 137}Cs, one of the most important contaminant deposited after accidental releases of radionuclides into the environment. Therefore, describing the potassium incorporation, we can obtain crucial information on how this radionuclide can enter to the human food chain trough fruits. Nutrients accumulation by fruits has been extensively studied for different trees. These investigations have been addressed to evaluate the nutritional status at different stages of the fruit development, estimating the amount of the soil nutrient removal and then to know the better time to program the control and supply of fertilizers. The fruit quality and its aptitude to the conservation are closely related with de nutrient content and the equilibrium between them. The rate of the weight increment in fruit is not uniform. The dry mass accumulation is small in the initial period, later a more expressive increment is observed and, finally during the maturation period, a lower dry mass accumulation was observed. The lengths in days of each one of these grown phases depend of the fruit type. A sigmoid grown model appears to be a very good approximation. The nutrient accumulations follow characteristics patterns along these fruit grown phases. When food-chain model are used to describe the radionuclide key transfer processes for dose assessment, the steady state radionuclide concentration is assumed in each compartment. In many cases that could be a strict simplification of the

  16. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered.

  17. Forest fruit production is higher on Sumatra than on Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can explain these patterns. Here we present a large-scale comparison of forest fruit production between the islands to test this hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on fruit production were collated from Sumatran and Bornean sites. At six sites we assessed fruit production in three forest types: riverine, peat swamp and dryland forests. We compared fruit production using time-series models during different periods of overall fruit production and in different tree size classes. We examined overall island differences and differences specifically for fruiting period and tree size class. The results of these analyses indicate that overall the Sumatran forests are more productive than those on Borneo. This difference remains when each of the three forest types (dryland, riverine, and peat are examined separately. The difference also holds over most tree sizes and fruiting periods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that forest fruit productivity is higher on Sumatra than Borneo. This difference is most likely the result of the overall younger and more volcanic soils on Sumatra than Borneo. These results contribute to our understanding of the determinants of faunal density and the evolution of body size on both islands.

  18. Chemical inhibitors of viviparous germination in the fruit of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that the seeds of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai] have a high potential to germinate when the fruit has ripened. When removed from the mature fruit, the seeds can germinate under appropriate conditions. However, it is unclear why they cannot germinate in the flesh of the fruit. Here, we show that cis-ABA and its β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-β-GE) accumulate in the flesh of the fruit at levels high enough to inhibit seed germination. This result indicates the existence of chemical factors that inhibit viviparous seed germination of watermelon. PMID:20630986

  19. Seeking optimality in fruit pulping schedules: A case study*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Van Vuuren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of scheduling fruit pulping for the production of fruit juices is of great importance in the beverage industry. Decisions have to be made regarding available processing time, the disposal of fruit that will not be pulped before stock loss due to spoilage, the fulfilment of customer demand and an optimal financial position. Sheduling depends on the capacity of the work force, pulping machine limitations and delivery deadlines. However, the situation is often encountered where the plant manager has to decide which fruit batches (usually from stock piles of overwhelming proportions during the harvesting season are to be pulped in order to minimize losses due to fruit deterioration. Such decisions are usually done manually, based on intuition and experience. A mathematical model is presented here which constructs a pulping strategy while minimising cascading financial losses associated with fruit grade drops within the stock pile. It is shown in particular that a minimisation of fruit losses is not a good criterion for optimality, and that substantial financial gains may be accomplished when minimising financial losses in stead of fruit losses, which is currently standard practice at most fruit pulping plants.

  20. Radiation preservation of some fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelf life extension and sterilization processing by irradiation of certain tropical fruits were studied in the laboratory. It was demonstrated that alfonso mangoes and sapota slices could be kept for one year by first inactivating the enzymes by mild heat treatment and then irradiating to a dose of 4 x 105 rad. The irradiated products were equal in acceptance to thermally sterilized controls. Oxidative flavour changes in canned mangoes were minimized when the removal of oxygen by exhausting was efficient. Vitamin losses in mangoes and sapotas were no more than in thermally sterilized controls. By using a combined treatment in sterilizing orange juice the radiation dose could be lowered from 800 to 400 krad by a post-heat treatment of 15 min at 50 deg. C. Better retention of ascorbic acid, thiamine and riboflavin were obtained. Peas in brine sterilized by irradiation at 850 krad were found to be superior in flavour, colour, texture, and overall quality to thermally processed controls. Shelf-like extension of mangoes by delaying the ripening with irradiation was found to be effective at doses between 1200 and 2500 rad. Such a treatment would be useful in regulating ripening of such fruit for canning factory purposes. No difference could be found between irradiated and non-irradiated canned mangoes. In studying the inhibition of the sprouting of potatoes and onions by irradiation it was found that different varieties required different doses and those products approaching the break in dormancy required higher doses. Other work in radiation preservation showed that certain microorganisms were more sensitive to radiation when previously subjected to ultrasonic treatment. With yeasts there seemed to be a different mode of action in killing the cells at high and low frequencies. Research on combining radiation treatment with cold storage of fruits to extend shelf life shows promise. Work is also being done on the use of irradiation treatment to reduce microbial

  1. Characteristics of fruiting of Catalpa bignonioides under conditions of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. V. Leppik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the industrial air pollution on traits of Catalpa bignonioides Walt. fruiting has been studied. The fruiting quality of C. bignonioides plantsbecame worse under environmental contamination by emissions of pipe factory and motor transport. The coefficient of fruiting was reduced owing to diminution of the fruits quantity. Moreover the dimensions and form of fruits changed.

  2. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department of... grower shall apply to ship tree run fruit using a Grower Tree Run Certificate Application, furnished...

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF FRUITING OF CATALPA BIGNONIOIDES UNDER CONDITIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    М. V. Leppik

    2008-01-01

    Influence of the industrial air pollution on traits of Catalpa bignonioides Walt. fruiting has been studied. The fruiting quality of C. bignonioides plants became worse under environmental contamination by emissions of pipe factory and motor transport. The coefficient of fruiting was reduced owing to diminution of the fruits quantity. Moreover the dimensions and form of fruits changed.

  4. Characterizing culturable microflora of nectarines: bacteria and their potential for biological control of postharvest fruit decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microorganisms isolated from fruit surfaces have been used to control postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine fruit surfaces during fruit ...

  5. Increasing portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school lunch program can increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nicole; Reicks, Marla; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Vickers, Zata

    2015-08-01

    Increasing portion size can increase children's consumption of food. The goal of this study was to determine whether increasing the portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school cafeteria environment would increase children's consumption of them. We measured each child's consumption of the fruit and vegetables served in a cafeteria line on a control day (normal cafeteria procedures) and on two intervention days. When we increased the portion size of 3 of the 4 fruits and vegetables by about 50%, children who took those foods increased their consumption of them. Although this was an effective strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among students who took those foods, many children chose not to take any fruits or vegetables. Further efforts are needed to increase children's selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables in an environment of competing foods of higher palatability.

  6. Inhibitors of platelet lipoxygenase from Ponkan fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogata, Y; Sekiya, K; Ohta, H; Kusumoto, K; Ishizu, T

    2001-04-01

    An activity-guided separation for inhibitors of rat platelet 12-lipoxygenase led to the isolation of two compounds, 4-O-feruloyl-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (IC50; 5.5 microM) and methyl 4-O-feruloyl-5-O-caffeoylquinate (IC50; 1.9 microM) from the peel of Ponkan fruit (Citrus reticulata). The complete structure of each phenolic ester was determined by NMR spectroscopy [1H and 13C NMR spectra, 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), 1H-detected heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC) spectroscopies] and other spectral methods. PMID:11314960

  7. Development of organic fruit in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Weibel, F.P.; Daniel, C.; Tamm, L.; Willer, H.; Schwartau, H.

    2013-01-01

    Europe is both a leading world market for and world producer of organic food. Growth of organically managed land and of domestic market values was strong in the past and continued during the financial recession, although at a slower rate. Many countries have specific plans for priority organic research and investment. Europe is a major producer of organic fruit crops, including a total of more than 900,000 ha consisting of 367,000 ha of olives, 92,700 ha of grapes, 187,000 ha of nuts, 94,800 ...

  8. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    U. G. AKPAN; A. S. KOVO

    2005-01-01

    Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The ...

  9. Triterpenoids from the fruit of Schisandra glaucescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Heng-Yi; Li, Juan; Liu, Ye; Wu, Wen-Ming; Ruan, Han-Li

    2016-09-01

    Five new triterpenoids, named schiglausins P-T (1-5), together with twelve known analogues (6-17), were isolated from the fruit of Schisandra glaucescens Diels. Their structures were determined by various spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra and CD experiment. Additionally, all these compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against B16 mouse melanoma cell line. Compounds 8, 11, 14, and 15 exhibited moderate anti-proliferative effects against B16 cells with IC50 values ranging from 3.64 to 27.00μM. PMID:27425445

  10. Exporting fruit from low fruit fly prevalence zones with a multiple mitigation systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the increase emphasis on trade of fresh fruits and vegetables worldwide, systems approaches have become part of an international effort to reduce risk of establishing new pests while providing a biological basis to risk assessment. Areawide pest management programs have been shown to be success...

  11. Management of primocane-fruiting blackberry – impacts on yield, fruiting season, and cane architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primocane management systems were compared for ‘Prime-Jan’® and ‘Prime-Jim’®, primocane-fruiting blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus, Watson), grown in a field planting in Aurora, OR. Treatments studied were: 1) no manipulation of primocanes (un-tipped; no floricanes); 2) un-tipped primocanes growin...

  12. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  13. 77 FR 71746 - Artificially Sweetened Fruit Jelly and Artificially Sweetened Fruit Preserves and Jams; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... fruit preserves and jams (artificially sweetened preserves and jams) (21 CFR 150.161) (24 FR 8896... for their use in food labeling (58 FR 2302; January 6, 1993). FDA also prescribed at the same time in... a traditional standardized food term (58 FR 2431; January 6, 1993). A nutrient content claim...

  14. Young fruits pull so hard, flowers above abort : developing fruits function too strongly as sink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Kierkels, T.

    2016-01-01

    Sweet peppers arrive in waves. New fruits lure so many assimilates towards them that the flowers above them abort. This article provides various suggestions about how to flatten out the peaks and troughs. In the long term, breeding can also play an important role.

  15. The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballot, D; Baynes, R D; Bothwell, T H; Gillooly, M; MacFarlane, B J; MacPhail, A P; Lyons, G; Derman, D P; Bezwoda, W R; Torrance, J D

    1987-05-01

    The effects of the chemical composition of fruit juices and fruit on the absorption of iron from a rice (Oryza sativa) meal were measured in 234 parous Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method. The corrected geometric mean Fe absorptions with different juices varied between 0.040 and 0.129, with the variation correlating closely with the ascorbic acid contents of the juices (rs 0.838, P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid was not the only organic acid responsible for the promoting effects of citrus fruit juices on Fe absorption. Fe absorption from laboratory 'orange juice' (100 ml water, 33 mg ascorbic acid and 750 mg citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml water and 33 mg ascorbic acid alone (0.097 and 0.059 respectively), while Fe absorption from 100 ml orange juice (28 mg ascorbic acid) was better than that from 100 ml water containing the same amount of ascorbic acid (0.139 and 0.098 respectively). Finally, Fe absorption from laboratory 'lemon juice' (100 ml orange juice and 4 g citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml orange juice (0.226 and 0.166 respectively). The corrected geometric mean Fe absorption from the rice meal was 0.025. Several fruits had little or no effect on Fe absorption from the meal (0.013-0.024). These included grape (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), apple (Malus sylvestris) and avocado pear (Persea americana). Fruit with a mild to moderate enhancing effect on Fe absorption (0.031-0.088) included strawberry (Fragaria sp.) (uncorrected values), plum (Prunus domestica), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), banana (Musa cavendishii), mango (Mangifera indica), pear (Pyrus communis), cantaloup (Cucumis melo) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) (uncorrected values). Guava (Psidium guajava) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) markedly increased Fe absorption (0.126-0.293). There was a close correlation between Fe absorption and the ascorbic acid content of the fruits tested (rs 0.738, P less

  16. 'Movers and shakers' in the regulation of fruit ripening: a cross-dissection of climacteric versus non-climacteric fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Sam; Figueroa, Carlos R; Nair, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex and highly coordinated developmental process involving the expression of many ripening-related genes under the control of a network of signalling pathways. The hormonal control of climacteric fruit ripening, especially ethylene perception and signalling transduction in tomato has been well characterized. Additionally, great strides have been made in understanding some of the major regulatory switches (transcription factors such as RIPENING-INHIBITOR and other transcriptional regulators such as COLOURLESS NON-RIPENING, TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs), that are involved in tomato fruit ripening. In contrast, the regulatory network related to non-climacteric fruit ripening remains poorly understood. However, some of the most recent breakthrough research data have provided several lines of evidences for abscisic acid- and sucrose-mediated ripening of strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit model. In this review, we discuss the most recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of fleshy fruit ripening and their cross-talk and the future challenges taking tomato as a climacteric fruit model and strawberry as a non-climacteric fruit model. We also highlight the possible contribution of epigenetic changes including the role of plant microRNAs, which is opening new avenues and great possibilities in the fields of fruit-ripening research and postharvest biology.

  17. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin M; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2014-04-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants' (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  18. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  19. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koia Jonni H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Results Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. Conclusions This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study

  20. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p <0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p <0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p <0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p <0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p <0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. PMID:25278432

  1. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in 'omics' sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  2. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of irradiated chitosan has been investigated for coating of fruit preservation. Anti-fungal activity of chitosan was induced by γ-ray irradiation in dry condition at 25 kGy. The irradiated chitosan can suppress the growth of Aspergillus. spp. and Fusarium. spp. isolated from Vietnam mango. Fusarium. spp. was sensitive for irradiated chitosan than the other strains. The coating from irradiated chitosan solution at dose 31 kGy has prolonged the storage life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango keeps good colour, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the control is spoiled completely and the sample of fruit with unirradiated chitosan coating could not ripe. The effect is due to the anti-fungal activity and change in physico-chemical properties of chitosan by irradiation. Radiation causes the decrease in viscosity affecting the gas permeability of coating film. The irradiated chitosan coating has positive effect on mango that is susceptible to chilling injury at low storage temperature. (author)

  3. TRACE ELEMENTS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Papa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of six different trace metals [vanadium (V, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr,  lead (Pb, copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd] were determined in various fruit and vegetables [peach (Prunus persica L., plum (Prunus domestica L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., courgette or marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.] provided by diverse farms. Metal distribution was also separately evaluated, in skin and pulp, where it was possible. Their contributions to human daily intake of trace metals were investigated. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these metals in the fruit and vegetables. All traces of elements tested in peaches and tomatoes were higher in the skin than in the pulp except for Cd in the peaches; all traces of elements tested in plums and marrows were higher in the pulp than in the skin. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in lettuce were 1.3 and 2.7 times above the permissible levels, respectively. It is concluded that the regular monitoring of food trace metals is very important to prevent diseases that depend on their excessive accumulation in the human food chain.

  4. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit. PMID:14506000

  5. Investigation on the Seasonal Trend of Fruit Markets in Changsha, Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This investigation on the seasonal trend of fruit markets in Changsha indicated that the fruit varieties on the market in Changsha were abundant, up to 49 varieties; seasonal fresh fruits were continuously provided around the year; most fruits were domestic produce from all over the country, and about 39% of the varieties were imported mainly from southeast Asia, America, New Zealand and Brazil; the imported fruits and a few kinds of domestic fruits were higher in the quality grades than most domestic fruits, which accounted for approximately half of the total fruit volume; and fruit prices varied markedly with fruit varieties, quality grades and time of marketing. In a word, the Hunan fruit industry must increase fruit quality and diversity in order to achieve a favourable position in the strong international competition.

  6. Free school fruit - Sustained effect three years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Bere (Elling); M.B. Veierød (Marit); Ø. Skare; K.I. Klepp (Knut-Inge)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Norwegian children consume less fruit and vegetables (FV) than recommended. In order to increase the intake, a School Fruit subscription programme is now offered to all Norwegian elementary and junior high schools. This programme has limited effect due to low participation by

  7. FaPYR1 is involved in strawberry fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ye-Mao; Jia, Hai-Feng; Li, Chun-Li; Dong, Qing-Hua; Shen, Yuan-Yue

    2011-10-01

    Although the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a role in the ripening of non-climatic fruit, direct genetic/molecular evidence is lacking. In the present study, a strawberry gene homologous to the Arabidopsis ABA receptor gene PYR1, named FaPYR1, was isolated and characterized. The 627 bp cDNA includes an intact open reading frame that encodes a deduced protein of 208 amino acids, in which putative conserved domains were detected by homology analysis. Using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), the FaPYR1 gene was silenced in strawberry fruit. Down-regulation of the FaPYR1 gene not only significantly delayed fruit ripening, but also markedly altered ABA content, ABA sensitivity, and a set of ABA-responsive gene transcripts, including ABI1 and SnRK2. Furthermore, the loss of red colouring in FaPYR1 RNAi (RNA interference) fruits could not be rescued by exogenously applied ABA, which could promote the ripening of wild-type fruits. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the putative ABA receptor FaPYR1 acts as a positive regulator in strawberry fruit ripening. It was also revealed that the application of the VIGS technique in strawberry fruit could be used as a novel tool for studying strawberry fruit development.

  8. Fruit and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Allan Stubbe; Viggers, Lone; Gregersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals often advise subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) to restrict fruit intake. We show here that there is no supportive scientific evidence for this. At least 19 studies have tested intake of fruit on postprandial glucose in T2D. Only two long-term intervention studies have...

  9. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... shipments of litchi fruit from Australia into the continental United States, except Florida. As a condition... into the continental United States. As part of our evaluation of Australia's request, we prepared a... litchi fruit with up to 5 millimeters of stem into the continental United States from Australia....

  10. The cryogenic collection of fruit biodiversity in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation of the biodiversity of fruit crops is important to the future of horticulture in Kazakhstan. A field collection of fruit germplasm with more than 4000 cultivars and wild selections is grown in the Pomological Garden of the Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture near Almaty, to preser...

  11. Transcriptional control of fleshy fruit development and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlova, R.B.; Chapman, N.; David, K.; Angenent, G.C.; Seymour, G.B.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fleshy fruits have evolved to be attractive to frugivores in order to enhance seed dispersal, and have become an indispensable part of the human diet. Here we review the recent advances in the understanding of transcriptional regulation of fleshy fruit development and ripening with a focus on tomato

  12. Optical properties, ethylene production and softening in mango fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Grassi, M.; Meirelles de Azevedo Pementel, A.; Spinelli, L.; Torricelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Firmness decay, chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation, controlled by ethylene, are major ripening events in mango fruit. Pigment content and tissue structure affect the optical properties of the mesocarp, which can be measured nondestructively in the intact fruit by time-resolved reflect

  13. Research on the Development Issues of Fruit Industrialization of Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The thesis expounds the status quo of the fruit industrial development in Shaanxi Province:the first is the output and distribution of fruits;the second is the status quo of fruit industrial development.The planting layout of fruit is continuously optimized;the industrial scale and the brand reputation are increasingly promoted;the process of fruit industrialization develops rapidly.The problems existing in the fruit industrial chain of Shaanxi Province are analyzed:firstly,in the chain of preproduction service and support system,the capital input is scanty,the production standard is not unified,and the matching service system is not sound;secondly,in the chain of cultivation and plucking,the regional layout is not reasonable and the variety structure is not balanced;thirdly,in the chain of post-plucking disposal and enterprise scale,the post-plucking disposal ability is not enough and the enterprise scale of fruit industry is small;fourthly,in the chain of products sales,the awareness of famous brand is not strong,the marketing ways are outdated and the sales structure is not reasonable.The countermeasures and suggestions for promoting fruit industrial development of Shaanxi Province are put forward:firstly,perfect preproduction service and support system;secondly,promote the scientific technology of cultivation and plucking;thirdly,strengthen the commercialization disposal after plucking;fourthly,reinforce the degree of marketing.

  14. Fruit body formation on silkworm by Cordyceps militaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injection inoculation protocols for fruit body formation of Cordyceps militaris were investigated to improve the incidence of infection in the silkworm species Bombyx mori. Injection, with suspensions of C. militaris hyphal bodies into living silkworm pupae, was used to test for fruit body productio...

  15. Native protein recovery from potato fruit juice by ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenberg, Harmen J.; Kemperman, Antoine J.B.; Boerrigter, Marcel E.; Lotz, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan F.; Poulsen, Poul Emil; Koops, Geert-Henk

    2002-01-01

    Potato fruit juice, i.e. the stream resulting after the extraction of the starch from the potato, contains up to 2.5% [w/w] of proteins that are potentially valuable for the food market. However, today the recovery of protein from the potato fruit juice with reverse osmosis membranes results in a pr

  16. Status of Fruit Farming in Central Valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ali Shah,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was conducted in four districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa namely Charsadda, Nowshera, Mardan and Peshawar during January February, 2013 to examine the status and factors affecting fruit orchards. A total of Sixty four fruit orchards growers were interviewed on the basis of land acquisition. Data indicates that farmer areas for citrus and planted Stone fruit such as peach, plum and apricot were declined in the last 10 years while the area under pear and loquat were increased. The study results also indicate that a number of factors were affecting fruit orchards. These problems were ranked as (1 diseases/insects, followed by (2 high price, (3 water shortage problem, (4 adulteration in inputs, (5 marketing problem and (6 non-availability of credit. It is concluded that various factors are responsible for the decline in production of fruit orchards. It is thus, recommended that agriculture department should regularly disseminate technical-know-how regarding improved fruit orchards management practices through training, field days and workshop and other awareness programmes for fruit orchards growers. The government should also keep check and balance on price and quality of inputs to encourage fruit orchard growers to increase their production.

  17. Liven Up Your Meals with Vegetables and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sliced fruit from the salad bar as your dessert when dining out. This will help you avoid any baked desserts that are high in calories. 6 get in ... treat. 9 make a tasty fruit smoothie . For dessert, blend strawberries, blueberries, or raspberries with frozen bananas ...

  18. Ostreolysin enhances fruiting initiation in the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berne, S.; Pohleven, J.; Vidic, I.; Rebolj, K.; Pohleven, F.; Turk, T.; Macek, P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Sepcic, K.

    2007-01-01

    Fruiting initiation in mushrooms can be triggered by a variety of environmental and biochemical stimuli, including substances of natural or synthetic origin. In this work ostreolysin, a cytolytic protein specifically expressed during the formation of primordia and fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus

  19. THE POMEGRANATE: A NEW LOOK AT THE FRUIT OF PARADISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pomegranate, Punica granatum, is one of 2 members of the Punicaceae family. The plant was first domesticated approximately 10,000 years ago in Iran, where it is native, and Turkey. The fruit may have been the “apple” that Eve was deceived by the snake into partaking. Cultivation of the fruit q...

  20. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48- Blackberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars is a listing of cultivars that have been released from around the world. List 48 reports on the releases for 24 crops from. The blackberry section gives a description of the origin, and the fruit and plant characteristics for the following cultivars: Amar...

  1. Effect of Nitrogen on Apple Fruit Development in Different Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Fu-tian; JIANG Yuan-mao; GU Man-ru; SHU Huai-rui

    2002-01-01

    The experiments including soil application N, thinning and priming leaf treatment, using eight -year-old apple trees (M. domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji/M. hupenensis Rhed) as materials were carried out to study the effect of N on fruit development. The main results were as follows: on heavily thinned trees, SS activity was independent of N and priming leaves treatments. The results show that the carbohydrate restriction of source to sink activity did not exist, and N application did not stimulate fruit growth rates relative to those on nonfertilized trees; however, N fertilization resulted in a longer fruit development period and increased the growth potential of individual fruit by 20.8% (fresh weight) and 14.1% (dry weight) vs. controls; in unthinned trees, SS activity was increased by N fertilization but decreased by priming leaves treatment, so the carbohydrate restriction of source to sink activity existed, N fertilization increased the average single fruit weight both by extending the fruit development period and by increasing fruit growth rate, and the increasing rates were 28.2% (fresh weight) and 19.4 % (dry weight) compared to the unthinned nonfertilized controls. Fruit soluble sugar and pericarp anthocyanin concentration was decreased by N fertilization.

  2. 78 FR 58154 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD56 Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are... shipments of litchi fruit from Australia into the continental United States, except Florida. As a...

  3. The role of fruit consumption in the prevention of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Alinia, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    not apply to subjects of normal weight. Intervention studies targeted at school children showed that such schemes call be effective in increasing fruit intake, but a convincing role for increased fruit intake in the prevention of overweight and obesity in children still needs to be established. The present...

  4. Tree fruit breeding for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit producers world-wide are facing challenges including climate change, reductions in available labor, the need for reduced chemical inputs, the spread of native and exotic pests and pathogens, and consumer demands for improved fruit quality and health benefits. Over the past quarter century, ou...

  5. Characterization and manipulation of fruit susceptibility to Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an economic pest of small fruits and cherries that attacks intact ripening fruits. Host susceptibility is influenced by characteristics such as flesh firmness, penetration force of the skin, total soluble solids (TSS, also known as °Brix) and pH. Improved knowledge ...

  6. Fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Griep, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prospective cohort studies have shown that the consumption of total fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. It is not known which aspects of fruit and vegetable consumption contribute to these beneficial associatio

  7. Seasonality of nutrients in leaves and fruits of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachtigall Gilmar Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient accumulation curves of apple trees are good indicators of plant nutrient demand for each developmental stage. They are also a useful tool to evaluate orchard nutritional status and to estimate the amount of soil nutrient removal. This research aimed at evaluating the seasonality of nutrients in commercial apple orchards during the agricultural years of 1999, 2000, and 2001. Therefore, apple tree leaves and fruits of three cultivars 'Gala', 'Golden Delicious' and 'Fuji' were weekly collected and evaluated for fresh and dry matter, fruit diameter and macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations. Leaf and fruit sampling started one or two weeks after full bloom, depending on the cultivar, and ended at fruit harvest or four weeks later (in the case of leaf sampling. In general, leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Cu, and B decreased; Ca increased; and Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn did vary significantly along the plant vegetative cycle. In fruits, the initial nutrient concentrations decreased quickly, undergoing slow and continuous decreases and then remaining almost constant until the end of fruit maturation, indicating nutrient dilution, once the total nutrient accumulation increased gradually with fruit growth. Potassium was the nutrient present in highest quantities in apple tree fruits and thus, the most removed from the soil.

  8. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Simic, A.; Uitdewilligen, J.; Arkel, van J.; Vos, de C.H.; Jonker, H.H.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Sibbesen, O.; Qvist, I.; Mikkelsen, J.D.; Hall, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as ¿-ionone and ß-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry

  9. Towards consumer driven and innovative fruit supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, R.C.; Hiller, S.R.C.H.; Zimmerman, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to identify supply chain organization and management structures that maximize innovation in consumer driven fruit supply chains with the ultimate goal of increasing European fruit consumption. Data was collected on the chain organization, management structures and innovativeness of t

  10. Evaluation of Fruit Intake and its Relation to Body Mass Index of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Eunah; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Diets high in fruits and vegetables are recommended to maintain health. However, accurate fruit intake evaluation is hard and high sugar content in most of the fruits suggest possible negative relationships with health indices. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the fruit intake status of adolescents and to examine the relationship between fruit intake and body mass index (BMI). For this, 400 middle and high school students were surveyed for their fruit eating attitude, preferen...

  11. Antioxidant properties of different fruit seeds and peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Duda-Chodak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigations performed was to assess the antioxidant properties of the seeds and peels of selected fruits. The antioxidant activity as well as total polyphenol and tannin content were determined. The results obtained revealed essential diversities of the analysed parameters among the material examined. The peels were characterized by higher ability to scavenge free radicals and higher polyphenols concentration than the seeds, particularly those of citrus fruits imported to Poland. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the peels of the Šampion cultivar of apples and white grapes, and in the seeds of the Idared cultivar apples and oranges. Tannins play a meaningful role as antioxidants in grape, apple and goosberry fruits. The peels and seeds of various fruits, which are waste products in fruit and vegetable industry, may be a potential source of antioxidants.

  12. Evaluation of fruit leather made from two cultivars of papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUHAIR RADHI ADDAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two papaya cultivars were used to manufacture fruit leather. The objective of this study was to formulate papaya leather from locally grown papaya using natural ingredients like pectin, honey and citric acid. The fresh fruits were pureed and mix with natural ingredients, and dried in an oven at 60°C for 12 hours. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity were determined.The results showed that fruit leather made from Hongkong cultivar is significantly (P<0.05 higher in sensory parameters as well as physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity. The phenolics content and antioxidant activity increased by process of drying the fruit leather compared to fresh fruits in both papaya cultivars. Therefore, the consumer requirements for healthy and safe food products were respected.

  13. Fruit and vegetable intake among older adults: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklett, Emily J; Kadell, Andria R

    2013-08-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world population. Older adults are also at heightened risk of chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) and specific geriatric conditions (such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and falls). Research studies have examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and subsequent health outcomes and the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in the U.S. population. However, relatively few studies have specifically examined health impacts and correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among older adults, who have unique biophysical and socioeconomic circumstances. Evidence is reviewed to (1) describe findings related to consumption and chronic, geriatric, and other health outcomes among older adults and (2) describe patterns in fruit and vegetable consumption among older adults and how these patterns vary within and among populations. This review addresses specific barriers faced by older adults in obtaining and consuming fruits and vegetables in community settings. Recommendations for practice and policy are discussed.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Indonesian Snake Fruits as Food Diversification Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Budiyanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the megabiodivesity, which is rich with germplasms including tropical fruit. Snake fruit (Salacca spp. is a native fruit of Indonesia with a scaly peel and sweet-tart taste. The genetic diversity of 17 accessions of Indonesian snake fruit was resolved using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction with 5 primers. The study demonstrated that the samples were grouped in six different clusters with coefficient of similarity ranged from 0.12 to 0.71. The value indicated the wide range of genetic variability among the tested plants. This variability was an important resources for the snake fruit breeding program in developing the consumer‘s preferred product which by the end supports the plant diversification program.

  15. Development of ultrasonic transducer for nondestructive testing of fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the ultrasonic transducers for contact measurement of whole fruits were developed. The design parameters for ultrasonic transducer such as acoustical impedance of fruits, kinds of piezoelectric materials, ultrasonic wave frequency, and transducer diameter were investigated. In order to match the impedance between piezoelectric material and fruit, various wear plates were fabricated and evaluated. And to control the bandwidth of ultrasonic wave of the transducer, various backing materials were fabricated and evaluated. The wear plate of the transducer was specially designed and fabricated considering the curvature of fruit. Two kinds of transducers such as 100 kHz of central frequency with 40 mm of transducer diameter and 200 kHz of central frequency with 20 mm diameter were developed. Nondestructive evaluation of the fruit will be possible with the developed ultrasonic transducers.

  16. Omics studies of citrus, grape and rosaceae fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratake, Katsuhiro; Suzuki, Mami

    2016-01-01

    Recent advance of bioinformatics and analytical apparatuses such as next generation DNA sequencer (NGS) and mass spectrometer (MS) has brought a big wave of comprehensive study to biology. Comprehensive study targeting all genes, transcripts (RNAs), proteins, metabolites, hormones, ions or phenotypes is called genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, hormonomics, ionomics or phenomics, respectively. These omics are powerful approaches to identify key genes for important traits, to clarify events of physiological mechanisms and to reveal unknown metabolic pathways in crops. Recently, the use of omics approach has increased dramatically in fruit tree research. Although the most reported omics studies on fruit trees are transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, and a few is reported on hormonomics and ionomics. In this article, we reviewed recent omics studies of major fruit trees, i.e. citrus, grapevine and rosaceae fruit trees. The effectiveness and prospects of omics in fruit tree research will as well be highlighted.

  17. Potential use of irradiation to increase fruits export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some kinds of Indonesian fruits have a good market in foreign countries, therefore its produce can be developed for export. Some supporting factors which have to be settled are: regular supply of the commodity, improvement of quality, availability of transportation facility, and improvement of quarantine treatment to be used. Some of the problems can be solved by irradiation, as presented in this paper. Irradiation can extend the keeping quality of fruits due to its ability in delaying the ripening of fruit, destroying insects infesting fruits, and retarding microbial spoilage. Advantages obtained from the application of this technology, are: no effect on the freshness of fruoaits no chemical residue which can cause health hazard to consumer, and low energy consumption. Moreover, irradiation can be simultaneously used for quarantine treatment because of its effectiveness on disinfestation of insects infesting fruits. (author)

  18. Dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijun; Jiao, Bining; Su, Xuesu; Zhao, Qiyang; Qin, Dongmei; Wang, Chengqiu

    2013-06-01

    Field trials were carried out in three provinces of China to study the dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. The results had shown that the degradation rate of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits followed the first-order kinetics equation C = A∙eBt. The half-lives of forchlorfenuron were 15.8-23.0 days, the final residues of forchlorfenuron in pulp were all ≤0.002 mg/kg, and most of the residues were concentrated in the peel. The risk assessment revealed that no significant potential health risk would be induced by forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. Therefore, it could be safe to apply forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits, and the results of this study could also be regarded as a reference to the setting of maximum residue limit for forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits in China.

  19. Comparative transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of citrus fruit, to improve understanding of the effect of low temperature on maintaining fruit quality during lengthy post-harvest storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Ze; Jin, Shuai; Ding, Yuduan; Wang, Zhuang; Gao, Huijun; Pan, Zhiyong; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit quality is a very complex trait that is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Generally, low temperature (LT) is used to delay fruit senescence and maintain fruit quality during post-harvest storage but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hirado Buntan Pummelo (HBP; Citrus grandis × C. paradis) fruit were chosen to explore the mechanisms that maintain citrus fruit quality during lengthy LT storage using transcriptome and proteome studies based on digital...

  20. Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity Assays of Selected Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Dragović-Uzelac

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The biologically active compounds, especially fruit phenolics, are responsible for reduced risk of developing chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, etc., due to their antioxidant activities. Th is study summarized some chemical principles of antioxidant capacity assays and the antioxidant capacity of selected fruit varieties (strawberry, sour cherry, cornelian cherry, blackthorn. We determined the contents of total phenolics (TPC, total flavonoids (TF, total non-flavonoids (TNF and total anthocyanins (TA in selected fruits. The content of TPC, TF and TNF in fruits was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, while the TA content of extracts was determined by bisulphite bleaching method. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC of selected fruits were analyzed using 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid radical cation (ABTS, 2,2-diphenil-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. Cornelian cherry had the highest content of TPC, while sour cherry cv. Marasca had the highest content of TA. TAC was the highest in cornelian cherry fruits and decreased in other fruits as follow: sour cherry, blackthorn and strawberry. The fruit extracts had different TAC in relation to the method applied, and the different TAC of fruits can be ascribed to their TPC, TF, TNF or TA content. There was a direct correlation between the TAC determined using DPPH and ORAC methods and the TA content of fruit extracts. Using FRAP method correlation was weaker, but using ABTS method correlation was not observed. The ripping correlation between TF or TNF and TAC was observed using ABTS and ORAC methods.

  1. Ionizing radiation quarantine treatments against tephritid fruit flies: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae are considered the most important insect pest risk carried by exported fruits worldwide. Fruits suspected of harboring fruit fly eggs and larvae must be treated to control virtually 100% of any tephritids present. Irradiation is unique among quarantine treatments in that it is the only treatment used which does not cause acute mortality; instead, insects are prevented from maturing or are sterilized. Tephritids have been the most studied group of quarantined pests as far as irradiation; minimum absorbed doses confirmed with large-scale testing to provide control to the probit 9 level (99.9968%) have ranged from 50 to 250 Gy. Considerable work has been done with the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), one of the most important quarantined pests worldwide, and doses suggested to provide quarantine security have varied widely. The fact that insects are still alive for some time after irradiation has been one of the major obstacles to its use. Irradiation may be the most widely applicable quarantine treatment from the standpoint of fruit quality. However, some important fruits shipped across quarantine barriers (mangoes, Mangifera indica L., and citrus) may suffer from doses as low as 150 Gy when applied on a commercial scale where much of the fruit load may receive 300 Gy. Fortunately, some of the important tephritids attacking these fruits, such as Anastrepha spp., can be controlled with lower doses. Mainland USA has begun to use irradiation as a quarantine treatment for some fruits imported from Hawaii since April 1995 and remains the only country using irradiation as a quarantine treatment, although on a very limited basis. Irradiation offers some additional risk abatement advantages over other quarantine treatments. © 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. (author)

  2. Personal, Social and Environmental Factors regarding Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Schoolchildren in Nine European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Camilla; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Due, Pernille;

    2005-01-01

    European schoolchildren, psychosocial correlates, environmental correlates, fruit intake, vegetable intake, pro children study......European schoolchildren, psychosocial correlates, environmental correlates, fruit intake, vegetable intake, pro children study...

  3. Replacing 100% fruit juice with whole fruit results in a trade off of nutrient in the diets of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of replacing 100% fruit juice (FJ) with whole fruit (WF) on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets is unclear. The objective of this study was to model the effect of replacing FJ with WF in children's diets. Data from children 2-18 years of age (n=6,090) participating in the Na...

  4. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... conducted. On April 4, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010... document published in the Federal Register on May 9, 2011 (76 FR 26654-26655). We received 30 comments by... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal...

  5. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ..., 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0127) a proposal... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... regarding the movement of fresh Hass variety avocados. This action will allow interested persons...

  6. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity ofMespilus germanica L. fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hale Seilmi Canbay; Ersin Atay; Serdal Ot

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first culturedMespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees.Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey) were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs), and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20)%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70)% and(8.53 ± 0.25)%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2) mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  7. 7 CFR 305.32 - Irradiation treatment of regulated fruit to be moved interstate from areas quarantined for fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... barrier such as a wall or chain link fence 6 or more feet high to prevent transfer of cartons; (3... fruit flies into the fruit in the carton. 7 7 See footnote 3 of this subpart. (2) The pallet-load of... of the pallet load is constrained by a metal or plastic strap. (3) Packaging must be labeled...

  8. Effect of Fresh Fruit Availability at Worksites on the Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of Low-Wage Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Desiree; Gonzaga, Gian; Sugerman, Sharon; Francis, Dona; Cook, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of fresh fruit availability at worksites on the fruit and vegetable consumption and related psychosocial determinants of low-wage employees. Design: A prospective, randomized block experimental design. Setting: Seven apparel manufacturing and 2 food processing worksites. Participants: A convenience sample of 391…

  9. Correlation of Diplodia (Lasiodiplodia theobromae) infection, huanglongbing, ethylene production, fruit removal force and pre-harvest fruit drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    One symptom of citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease is excessive pre-harvest fruit drop. As the severity of HLB has progressed through commercial citrus groves in Florida, pre-harvest fruit drop has increased, resulting in significant loss of yield. A greater incidence of Diplodia infection was recent...

  10. Prenylated flavonoids from maclura tinctoria fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuri de Oliveira Oyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical investigation of Maclura tinctoria fruits yielded five flavonoids, including one prenylated flavonol (licoflavonol and four prenylated isoflavones (wighteone, derrone, alpinum isoflavone, and 6-(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl-2,3-dihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-5-one. The structures of the isolates were established by analyzing their spectroscopic data. Compound 6-(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl-2,3-dihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-5-one is new and the other isolates are described for the first time in this species.

  11. Genetic sexing of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1980s, it was recognized by the FAO and the IAEA that a genetic sexing method for the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) would greatly improve the efficacy of the medfly sterile insect technique (SIT) and reduce its costs. These Proceedings summarize the research and development findings of the Agency's co-operators in the co-ordinated research programme to develop a genetic sexing method for the medfly. Great progress has been made in many aspects of medfly genetics. including the development of a number of genetic sexing strains. Contents: Genetics, Cytogenetics and Population Genetics. Genetic Sexing of Ceratitis Capitata by Morphological, Biochemical and other means. Recommendations. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Prenylated flavonoids from maclura tinctoria fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Sayuri de Oliveira; Souza, Luiz Antonio de [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil); Baldoqui, Debora Cristina; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil); Silva, Adriano Antonio, E-mail: aasilva@ufac.br [Departamento de Ciencias da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Acre, AC (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Maclura tinctoria fruits yielded five flavonoids, including one prenylated flavonol (licoflavonol) and four prenylated isoflavones (wighteone, derrone, alpinum isoflavone, and 6-(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl) -2,3-dihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-5-one). The structures of the isolates were established by analyzing their spectroscopic data. Compound 6-(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl) -2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2,3-ihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-5-one is new and the other isolates are described for the first time in this species. (author)

  13. Improving and Conserving Sahelian Fruits Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouedraogo, Moussa

    in West Africa Sahel during the food shortage period, lasting 6-8 months a year in this region. However, the availability of fruit trees is declining due to increased demographic pressure and climate variability (drought) that is occurring with increasing frequency and intensity. Besides compromising...... of provenances in field trials; •Genetic structure of P. biglobosa in its natural range in West and Central Africa based on leaf morphology and molecular markers; •Variation between provenances in phenology; •An approach for utilisation of P. biglobosa genetic resources and a conservation strategy in Burkina...... studies populations within West Africa is provided. The findings support a hypothesis of a continuum of locally adapted populations that allows the species to thrive under quite different climatic conditions across West Africa. New insights are presented on the genetic structure of P. biglobosa through...

  14. Gene expression during fruit ripening in avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R E; Warm, E; Laties, G G

    1982-06-01

    The poly(A) (+)RNA populations from avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill cv. Hass) at four stages of ripening were isolated by two cycles of oligo-dT-cellulose chromatography and examined by invitro translation, using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of the resulting translation products. Three mRNAs increased dramatically with the climacteric rise in respiration and ethylene production. The molecular weights of the corresponding translation products from the ripening-related mRNAs are 80,000, 36,000, and 16,500. These results indicate that ripening may be linked to the expression of specific genes.

  15. Change of juice color during raspberry processing in fruit juice and fruit juice concentrate

    OpenAIRE

    Vukosavljević Predrag; Bukvić Branka; Janković Miodrag; Petrović Tanja; Stevanović Snežana

    2006-01-01

    A change of anthocyanins under different conditions of enzymatic treatments, clarification and concentration was determined. A pectin preparation Klerzyme®120, manufactured by DSM, France, specific for "sour fruits" with pH below 3.2, was used for maceration and depectinization. Experiments were carried out by a laboratory hydraulic press. Raw raspberry juice was clarified either by membranes separation processes or by traditional treatments using gelatin and bentonite. For microfiltration an...

  16. Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo; Marteau, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Background. There are well-documented inequalities in food consumption, with those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) having less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess the extent to which differences in motivations for particular foods might explain socioeconomic differences in self-reported food consumption. Methods. Participants (n=732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of (enjoyment when consuming) fruit, cake and cheese. They also ...

  17. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasui Liana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.  

  18. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Nasui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.

  19. PAPITA FRUIT: A DELICIOUS REMEDY FOR DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Papita, a fibrous, juicy and tasty fruit, belonging to family Caricaceae is scientifically known as Carica papaya L. Traditionally, Papaya is used as an abortifacient and as a wound-healer. Furthermore, Papaya possesses several medicinal properties such as anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-fertility, hypo-lipidaemic, anthelmintic, nephro-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-amoebic, anti-bacterial and anti-sickling property. There are no reports in literature pertaining to CNS actions of Carica papaya. In the light of above, the present study was undertaken to test the antidepressant potential of Carica papaya fruit. Carica papaya pulp (CPP was administered at various concentrations ranging from 4% to 16% w/v, p.o. to Swiss mice for 15 days and Wistar rats for 6 successive days. The antidepressant activity was measured using forced swim test (FST, tail suspension test (TST and reserpine induced hypothermia model. The efficacy of Papaya was compared with standard antidepressant drugs such as fluoxetine (20mg/kg, p.o., imipramine (15mg/kg, p.o. and phenelzine (20 mg/kg, p.o.. The results of the present study showed that Papaya pulp significantly decreased immobility time in both FST and TST models. It also reversed the hypothermia induced by reserpine. The efficacy of Papaya was found to be comparable to fluoxetine, imipramine and phenelzine. Furthermore, Carica papaya juice inhibited the monoamine oxidase MAO-A and MAO-B activity and reduced significantly malondialdehyde (MDA levels. These findings reveal the antidepressant potential of Papaya. The probable mechanism of action for the beneficial effect of Papita in depression appears to be related to its i MAO inhibitory activity ii tyrosine, phenylalanine (NE precursors and tryptophan (5-HT precursor content and iii antioxidant property.

  20. Metabolomic analysis of avocado fruits by GC-APCI-TOF MS: effects of ripening degrees and fruit varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Fernández, E; Pacchiarotta, T; Mayboroda, O A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Carrasco-Pancorbo, A

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate avocado fruit ripening, nontargeted GC-APCI-TOF MS metabolic profiling analyses were carried out. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to explore the metabolic profiles from fruit samples of 13 varieties at two different ripening degrees. Mannoheptulose; pentadecylfuran; aspartic, malic, stearic, citric and pantothenic acids; mannitol; and β-sitosterol were some of the metabolites found as more influential for the PLS-DA model. The similarities among genetically related samples (putative mutants of "Hass") and their metabolic differences from the rest of the varieties under study have also been evaluated. The achieved results reveal new insights into avocado fruit composition and metabolite changes, demonstrating therefore the value of metabolomics as a functional genomics tool in characterizing the mechanism of fruit ripening development, a key developmental stage in most economically important fruit crops.

  1. Metabolomic analysis of avocado fruits by GC-APCI-TOF MS: effects of ripening degrees and fruit varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Fernández, E; Pacchiarotta, T; Mayboroda, O A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Carrasco-Pancorbo, A

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate avocado fruit ripening, nontargeted GC-APCI-TOF MS metabolic profiling analyses were carried out. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to explore the metabolic profiles from fruit samples of 13 varieties at two different ripening degrees. Mannoheptulose; pentadecylfuran; aspartic, malic, stearic, citric and pantothenic acids; mannitol; and β-sitosterol were some of the metabolites found as more influential for the PLS-DA model. The similarities among genetically related samples (putative mutants of "Hass") and their metabolic differences from the rest of the varieties under study have also been evaluated. The achieved results reveal new insights into avocado fruit composition and metabolite changes, demonstrating therefore the value of metabolomics as a functional genomics tool in characterizing the mechanism of fruit ripening development, a key developmental stage in most economically important fruit crops. PMID:25381615

  2. Ecohormones for the management of fruit fly pests: Understanding plant-fruit-fly-predator interrelationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strong attractancy of fruit flies to certain lures can now be explained by demonstrating: (1) an anti-predation mechanism in several species of fruit fly through the endogenous production and secretion of allomone(s); and (2) chemical(s) responsible for male aggregation in a lek formation, after pharmacophagy. Compulsive feeding of methyl eugenol (ME) by male flies produced a feeding deterrent effect on the house lizard, Hemidactylus frenatus. Lizards did not attempt to feed on fruit flies after initial exposure to flies that had fed on ME. On the other hand, sequestration of raspberry ketone may not play an anti-predation role in the melon fly, but functions as a male aggregation pheromone. The anti-predation mechanism in the melon fly is the result of the endogenous synthesis of ethyl-hydroxybenzoate and 1,3-nonandiol in the male rectal gland at sexual maturity. Most mature male flies undergo reflex ejaculation of rectal gland content when they are under stress, e.g. when they are being anaesthetized with carbon dioxide or when they are being held by a feather forceps. 24 refs

  3. Fruit Quality Characters and Their Relation With Weight Per Fruit in Mango Over Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Yadav

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight genotypes including 31 landraces of Bhopal division, 15 commercial varieties and 2 hybrids were evaluated for quality traits in mango in two subsequent years. Amrapali, Dashehari, Alphonso, Mallika, Chousa, Bombay Green, Sehroli, SBM 01-1, SBM 01-9, SBM 01-10, SBM 01-11, SBM 01-12, SBM 01-35, SBM 01-36 possessed better skin and pulp colour, high total soluble solids, reducing and non-reducing sugars, low acidity and high ascorbic acid contents, thus, appeared promising for table consumption. SBM 01-2, SBM 01-3, SBM 01-4, SBM 01-20 and SBM 01-22 having high total acidity and high total chlorophylls were found suitable for pickle purpose. Reducing sugar and total soluble solids were positive and significantly correlated with fruit weight. Similarly, total soluble solids were positively and significantly associated with reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, total sugars and total sugars to total acidity ratio. Reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar and total sugars were also positively and significantly associated among themselves. Among these characters, total soluble solids, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, total sugars to total acidity ratio exerted direct positive bearing on the fruit weight in mango. Thus, these quality traits can be modified genetically and simultaneously along with fruit weight in mango.

  4. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Fruit Softening Related Gene Mannanase from Banana Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Jun-ping; SU Jing; CHEN Wei-xin

    2006-01-01

    A 1 250 bp cDNA fragment encoding β-mannanase, named MaMAN, was cloned from banana (Musa spp cv. Baxi) fruit using degenerate primers designed with reference to the conserved nucleic acid sequences of known β-mannanase genes by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that MaMAN cDNA encompassed a 1 085 bp open-reading frame (ORF), encoding a predicted polypeptide of 395 amino acids. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of MaMAN and other putative β-mannanases showed that MaMAN has an identity of 86, 70, 69, 54, and 57%, respectively, to β-mannanases from tomato, lettuce, arabidopsis, carrot and oryza sativa. The catalytic residues: Asn203, Glu204, Glu318 and the active site residues: Arg86, His277, Tyr279, and Trp360, which were strictly conserved in the glycoside hydrolase family 5 to which all 3-mannanases belonged, were found in MaMAN. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the level of MaMAN transcript in the pulp increased during banana fruit ripening, suggesting that MaMAN was likely to be involved highly in banana fruit softening.

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Fruit Bending in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-li; ZHANG Peng; QIN Zhi-wei; ZHOU Xiu-yan

    2014-01-01

    In cucumber, fruit shape is an important quality criterion, and fruit bending is known to limit growth, yield, and taste. To investigate the post-transcriptional changes that regulate fruit bending and to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, we generated a proteomic proifle of the abdomen and back of cucumber bending fruit. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) allowed the detection of approximately 900 distinct protein spots in each gel, 32 of which were differentially expressed in the abdomen and back of bending cucumber fruit. Ten of the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser ionization time of lfight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A search of primary databases showed that the identiifed proteins are involved in various metabolic processes and cellular responses, including photosynthesis metabolism, energy metabolism, defense and stress response, and regulation. The identiifed proteins included large subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, which are involved in photosynthesis and photorespiratory metabolism, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, which is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is possible that imbalances in catabolic and anabolic processes directly affect the bending of cucumber fruit. The predicted function of the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase isozyme is closely related to ethylene biosynthesis; fruit bending may be regulated by ethylene, or by ethylene signaling crosstalk during fruit development. The 14-3-3 protein is usually considered to be a regulation-related protein, which plays a role in regulating cell hyperplasia, cell differentiation during growth, and apoptosis during senescence. Involvement of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins in signal transmission is known to regulate the development of cells in cucumber fruits and to play a role in fruit shape variation. Patterns of protein expression showed high repeatability. We hypothesize

  6. Fruit production in Chile: bright past, uncertain future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 (the last agricultural census, Chile had 308, 445 ha of fruit orchards: an increase of almost 32% from the previous census (1997. The most important species were table grapes (20%, avocados (13% and apples (12%. Some 22% of the fruit crops growing area corresponded to juvenile orchards; within the species with higher proportion of juvenile orchards were prunes (42% and blueberries (56%. Most orchards are located between latitude 27º18` S (Copiapó and 40º36´S (Puerto Varas. The industry is driven by the export component which accounts for more than 50% of the fruits produced. In the crop season 2009-2010, approximately 254 million boxes (around 2.5 million tons were exported, representing over US$ 3.5 million. Processed and fresh fruits represented 8.2 and 26.7% of the total forest and agricultural Chilean exports in 2008, respectively. The main markets for this fruits were USA/Canada (42% and Europe (32%. The fruit grower receives, on average, 12-16% of the total price of the fruit in its final destination. Each year the fruit industry employs 450.000 people directly, of which 1/3 are permanent. Even though the fruit industry employs the highest proportion of the agricultural labor and the growing area has increased in the last 20 years, the proportion of agricultural employment has decreased from 19.5% in 1989 to 10.8% in 2008. It might also be noted that Chile invests only 0.7% of the GDP in research. In the last 40 years, the fruit industry has been a motor for the Chilean economic development, but the lower rates of currency exchange, the rising costs of energy (oil, electricity, and the increasing scarcity of hand labor have drastically reduced the profitability and are putting at risk the viability of a large proportion of the fruit orchards in Chile. It is estimated that this season around 65% of the orchards will have a negative economic balance in their operations. Higher investment in research, improvements in fruit quality

  7. Urinary metabolomics study on potential protective and toxic effects of Acanthopanax senticosus harms intervention in rats%刺五加干预对大鼠潜在保护/毒性作用的尿代谢组学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帅男; 李煦照; 王宇; 卢芳; 刘树民

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the potential protective and toxic effects of Acanthopanax senticosus harms(AS)in rats. Methods Twenty male SD rats were divided into the AS-treated and control groups by random number table method. Each group comprised 10 rats. The rats in the AS-treated group were gavage-fed with AS extracts 31. 6 mg/ kg(equivalent to crude drug 0. 386 g/ kg in human)once daily for 20 days and the volume of the drug was 10 ml/ kg. The rats in the control group received an equal volume of saline once daily for 20 days. The urinary samples of 24 h from rats in the 2 groups which were gavage-fed for 1,5,10,15,and 20 days were collected respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry was used to detect the ion intensities of metabolites from urinary samples. The ion intensities of urinary metabolites at different time points in the 2 groups were compared. The ion intensity of each metabolite was normalized with respect to the total ion intensities to generate a data matrix. The data matrix at different time points were processed by partial least-squares-discrimination analysis(PLS-DA)of EZinfo software. Characteristic metabolites were screened according to the PLS-DA score plot. Two sets of data matrix with relatively large distance were further processed by orthogonal partial least-squares-discrimination analysis(OPLS-DA)and the variable importance of project(VIP)scores were calculated. Characteristic metabolites induced by AS intervention were screened from variables with VIP > 1 and P 1 and P < 0. 05 were screened and identified as 3-methylguanine,3-methylglutarylcarnitine,3-hydroxydodecanedioic acid, tiglylcarnitine, kynurenic acid,and 13-cis-retinoic acid by comparing with the information of HMDB. At the 20 d of AS-treated group, the expression of 3-methylguanine,kynurenic acid,and 3-hydroxydodecanedioic acid were up-regulated and the expression of tiglylcarnitine,3-hydroxydodecanedioic acid,and 13-cis

  8. Fruit Pod Extracts as a Source of Nutraceuticals and Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrina Azlan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components.

  9. Changeability of consumer preferences concerning the methods of fruit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Czernyszewicz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to establish and compare consumer preferences concerning the methods of fruit production (traditional or organic ones in the years 2001, 2003 and 2006 and the relations between the preferences and the socio-economic and demographic features of the consumers. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the data from surveys carried out among the inhabitants of Lublin. Results of those surveys point out that certain features of the consumers such as the sex, incomes and the family type significantly differentiated preferences concerning the method of fruit production. Increased incomes were connected with greater acceptance of the organic method, and their decrease was related to greater frequency of indicating the conventional method. Interest in the method of production, while buying the fruit was significantly higher among men than among women. Declaring the willingness to pay more for organic fruit was also correlated with the consumers’ sex. Besides, in 2006 it was not too strongly related to the incomes of the respondents. In the years 2001 and 2006 changeability of preferences con-cerning the willingness to pay a higher price for organic fruit and no change in the interest in the technology of fruit production while purchasing the fruit were shown.

  10. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation. - Highlights: • The EPR analysis of juices, nectars and syrups proves that the sample has been irradiated. • Two sample preparation procedures were used. • The stability of the radiation induced EPR signals was studied over 2 months. • Application of European standards can be extended for irradiated juices and syrups

  11. Bacterial communities in the fruit bodies of ground basidiomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagryadskaya, Yu. A.; Lysak, L. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Fruit bodies of basidiomycetes at different stages of decomposition serve as specific habitats in forest biocenoses for bacteria and differ significantly with respect to the total bacterial population and abundance of particular bacterial genera. A significant increase in the total bacterial population estimated by the direct microscopic method with acridine orange staining and in the population of saprotrophic bacteria (inoculation of glucose peptone yeast agar) in fruit bodies of basidiomycetes Armillaria mellea and Coprinus comatus was recorded at the final stage of their decomposition in comparison with the initial stage. Gramnegative bacteria predominated in the tissues of fruit bodies at all the stages of decomposition and were represented at the final stage by the Aeromonas, Vibrio, and Pseudomonas genera (for fruit bodies of A. mellea) the Pseudomonas genus (for fruit bodies of C. comatus). The potential influence of bacterial communities in the fruit bodies of soil basidiomycetes on the formation of bacterial communities in the upper soil horizons in forest biocenoses is discussed. The loci connected with the development and decomposition of fruit bodies of basidiomycetes on the soil surface are promising for targeted search of Gram-negative bacteria, the important objects of biotechnology.

  12. Quantification by UHPLC of total individual polyphenols in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, M C; Obón, J M; Castellar, M R; Collado, J; Alacid, M

    2013-06-01

    The present work proposes a new UHPLC-PDA-fluorescence method able to identify and quantify the main polyphenols present in commercial fruit juices in a 28-min chromatogram. The proposed method improve the IFU method No. 71 used to evaluate anthocyanins profiles of fruit juices. Fruit juices of strawberry, American cranberry, bilberry, sour cherry, black grape, orange, and apple, were analysed identifying 70 of their main polyphenols (23 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 6 hydroxybenzoic acids, 14 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 flavanones, 2 dihydrochalcones, 4 flavan-3-ols and 2 stilbenes). One standard polyphenol of each group was used to calculate individual polyphenol concentration presents in a juice. Total amount of polyphenols in a fruit juice was estimated as total individual polyphenols (TIP). A good correlation (r(2)=0.966) was observed between calculated TIP, and total polyphenols (TP) determined by the well-known colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method. In this work, the higher TIP value corresponded to bilberry juice (607.324 mg/100mL fruit juice) and the lower to orange juice (32.638 mg/100mL fruit juice). This method is useful for authentication analyses and for labelling total polyphenols contents of commercial fruit juices. PMID:23411199

  13. Using short-wave infrared imaging for fruit quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    Quality evaluation of agricultural and food products is important for processing, inventory control, and marketing. Fruit size and surface quality are two important quality factors for high-quality fruit such as Medjool dates. Fruit size is usually measured by length that can be done easily by simple image processing techniques. Surface quality evaluation on the other hand requires more complicated design, both in image acquisition and image processing. Skin delamination is considered a major factor that affects fruit quality and its value. This paper presents an efficient histogram analysis and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time surface quality evaluation of Medjool dates. This approach, based on short-wave infrared imaging, provides excellent image contrast between the fruit surface and delaminated skin, which allows significant simplification of image processing algorithm and reduction of computational power requirements. The proposed quality grading method requires very simple training procedure to obtain a gray scale image histogram for each quality level. Using histogram comparison, each date is assigned to one of the four quality levels and an optimal threshold is calculated for segmenting skin delamination areas from the fruit surface. The percentage of the fruit surface that has skin delamination can then be calculated for quality evaluation. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production and proven to be efficient and accurate.

  14. Silencing of DELLA induces facultative parthenocarpy in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Cristina; Orzáez, Diego; Ellul, Philippe; Moreno, Vicente; Carbonell, Juan; Granell, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    DELLA proteins are plant nuclear factors that restrain growth and proliferation in response to hormonal signals. The effects of the manipulation of the DELLA pathway in the making of a berry-like fruit were investigated. The expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana gain-of-function DELLA allele Atgai (del) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) produced partially sterile dwarf plants and compacted influorescences, as expected for a constitutively activated growth repressor. In contrast, antisense silencing of the single endogenous tomato DELLA gene homologue (SlDELLA) produced slender-like plants with elongated flower trusses. Interestingly, the depletion of SlDELLA in tomato was sufficient to overcome the growth arrest normally imposed on the ovary at anthesis, resulting in parthenocarpic fruits in the absence of pollination. Antisense SlDELLA-engineered fruits were smaller in size and elongated in shape compared with wild type. Cell number estimations showed that fruit set, resulting from reduced SlDELLA expression, arose from activated cell elongation at the longitudinal and lateral axes of the fruit pericarp, bypassing phase-II (post-pollination) cell divisions. Parthenocarpy caused by SlDELLA depletion is facultative, as hand pollination restored wild-type fruit phenotype. This indicates that fertilization-associated SlDELLA-independent signals are operational in ovary-fruit transitions. SlDELLA was also found to restrain growth in other reproductive structures, affecting style elongation, stylar hair primordial growth and stigma development. PMID:17883372

  15. In vitro auxin binding to cellular membranes of cucumber fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, K R; Mudge, K W; Poovaiah, B W

    1981-04-01

    Specific binding of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to crude membrane preparations from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was demonstrated. This in vitro binding had a pH optimum of 3.75 and an equilibrium dissociation constant of 10 to 20 micromolar with 1250 picomoles binding sites per gram fresh weight. The NAA-binding sites were pronase sensitive. The supernatant from the fruit partially inhibited the in vitro NAA binding to fruit membranes. NAA, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 3-indoleacetic acid, 2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, which are reported to be very good inducers of parthenocarpy in cucumber, showed a high degree of specific binding to cucumber fruit membranes. In comparison, 2-naphthaleneacetic acid and indolepropionic acid, which are reported to be very weak auxins in corn coleoptile, pea stem, and strawberry fruit growth bioassays, did not bind efficiently to cucumber fruit membranes. In vitro binding studies with fruit membranes suggest that auxin stimulated fruit growth may be mediated by membrane-associated, auxin-binding protein(s). PMID:16661764

  16. Fruit pod extracts as a source of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Azila Abdul; Azlan, Azrina

    2012-10-10

    Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components.

  17. [Study on exogenous hormones inducing parthenocarpy fruit growth and development and quality of Siraitia grosvenorii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Tu, Dong-ping; Ma, Xiao-jun; Mo, Chang-ming; Pan, Li-mei; Bai, Long-hua; Feng, Shi-xin

    2015-09-01

    To explore the growth and development and analyze the quality of the parthenocarpy fruit induced by exogenous hormones of Siraitia grosvenorii. the horizontal and vertical diameter, volume of the fruit were respectively measured by morphological and the content of endogenous hormones were determined by ELISA. The size and seed and content of mogrosides of mature fruit were determined. The results showed that the fruit of parthenocarpy was seedless and its growth and development is similar to the diploid fruit by hand pollination and triploid fruit by hand pollination or hormones. But the absolute value of horizontal and vertical diameter, volume of parthenocarpy fruit was less than those of fruit by hand pollination, while triploid was opposite. The content of IAA, ABA and ratio of ABA/GA was obviously wavy. At 0-30 d the content of IAA and ABA of parthenocarpy fruit first reduced then increased, content of IAA and GA parthenocarpy fruit was higher than that of fruit by hand pollination. Mogrosides of parthenocarpy fruit was close to pollination fruit. Hormones can induce S. grosvenorii parthenocarpy to get seedless fruit and the fruit shape and size and quality is close to normal diploid fruit by hand pollination and better than triploid fruit by hormone or hand pollination. PMID:26983201

  18. Farm and product carbon footprints of China's fruit production--life cycle inventory of representative orchards of five major fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Cheng, Kun; Yue, Qian; Yan, Yu; Rees, Robert M; Pan, Genxing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the environmental impacts of fruit production will provide fundamental information for policy making of fruit consumption and marketing. This study aims to characterize the carbon footprints of China's fruit production and to figure out the key greenhouse gas emissions to cut with improved orchard management. Yearly input data of materials and energy in a full life cycle from material production to fruit harvest were obtained via field visits to orchards of five typical fruit types from selected areas of China. Carbon footprint (CF) was assessed with quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the individual inputs. Farm and product CFs were respectively predicted in terms of land use and of fresh fruit yield. Additionally, product CFs scaled by fruit nutrition value (vitamin C (Vc) content) and by the economic benefit from fruit production were also evaluated. The estimated farm CF ranged from 2.9 to 12.8 t CO2-eq ha(-1) across the surveyed orchards, whereas the product CF ranged from 0.07 to 0.7 kg CO2-eq kg(-1) fruit. While the mean product CFs of orange and pear were significantly lower than those of apple, banana, and peach, the nutrition-scaled CF of orange (0.5 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc on average) was significantly lower than others (3.0-5.9 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc). The income-scaled CF of orange and pear (1.20 and 1.01 kg CO2-eq USD(-1), respectively) was higher than apple, banana, and peach (0.87~0.39 kg CO2-eq USD(-1)). Among the inputs, synthetic nitrogen fertilizer contributed by over 50 % to the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, varying among the fruit types. There were some tradeoffs in product CFs between fruit nutrition value and fruit growers' income. Low carbon production and consumption policy and marketing mechanism should be developed to cut down carbon emissions from fruit production sector, with balancing the nutrition value, producer's income, and climate change mitigation. PMID:26527344

  19. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, is the most common and economically important pest for the fruit-bearing species in the Neotropical region. However, there are some species that are close to A. fraterculus and, sometimes they can be erroneously identified as A. fraterculus. The separation of A. fraterculus from A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae, species closely related to South American fruit fly, is discussed. Also, information on the host plants and braconid parasitoids for A. fraterculus in Brazil is presented. (author)

  20. Antioxidant activity and phytochemical compounds of snake fruit (Salacca Zalacca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suica-Bunghez, I. R.; Teodorescu, S.; Dulama, I. D.; Voinea, O. C.; imionescu, S.; Ion, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    Snake fruit (Salacca zalacca) is a palm tree species, which is found in Malaysia and Indonesia. This study was conducted to investigate and compare the composition, total phenolic, flavonoid, tanins and monoterpenoids contents in the core and shell fruits. Concentration values of extracts were obtained from standard curves obtained. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method. For all methods it was used the UV-VIS Specord M40, using different wavelength. The infrared spectral analysis was carried out to caracterized the type of functional group existent in snake fruit parts (shell and core).

  1. The surface properties of biopolymer-coated fruit: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cristina Moncayo Martinez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conservation concerns have led to research and development regarding biodegradable materials from biopolymers, leading to new formulations for edible films and coatings for preserving the quality of fresh fruit and vegetables. Determining fruit skin surface properties for a given coating solution has led to predicting coating efficiency. Wetting was studied by considering spreading, adhesion and cohesion and measuring the contact angle, thus optimising the coating formulation in terms of biopolymer, plasticiser, surfactant, antimicrobial and antioxidant concentration. This work reviews the equations for determining fruit surface properties by using polar and dispersive interaction calculations and by determining the contact angle.

  2. Deuterium/hydrogen natural isotopic abundance in fruit juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotopic analyses of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are currently applied for the authentification of naturalness of fruit juices. Deuterium is particularly of interest because of the wide variation of its abundance. Due to evaporation-transpiration the deuterium content of the water in fruit juices is enriched compared to local ground water. In the case of our investigation on apple, another fractionation, originating in technological process, was observed. The concentrated juice water is enriched by 6o/oo as compared to natural fruit juice water. (authors)

  3. Study of detection of irradiated dried fruits by ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We focus on dried fruits containing crystalline sucrose chiefly, and study a method for identification of sucrose-radicals in ESR spectra of irradiated dried fruits. We evaluated g-values and widths of ESR signals of irradiated dried fruits and sucrose respectively. The result showed it might be possible to identify sucrose-radicals by g-values and widths. We tried the establishment of criteria for the judgment that the sample has been irradiated. As a result, criteria may be established by normalized peak height of ESR signals. The peak height can be normalized by using standard irradiated alanine pellets. (author)

  4. Economics of Organic Top Fruit Production (OF0305)

    OpenAIRE

    Firth, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Of all the organic food sectors in the UK, top fruit is one of the least developed. Despite strong consumer demand and high prices for organic fruit there are, at present, only a handful of commercial organic dessert apple and pear growers. One of the barriers to conventional growers converting to organic production has been the lack of robust data on the economics of organic fruit growing. Therefore the overall aim of this study and benefit to the sector was the collection and assessment of ...

  5. Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Subash; Musthafa Mohamed Essa; Samir Al-Adawi; Mushtaq A.Memon; hTamilarasan Manivasagam; Mohammed Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical research has demonstrated that berry fruits can prevent age-related neurodegen-erative diseases and improve motor and cognitive functions. The berry fruits are also capable of modulating signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cell survival, neurotransmission and enhancing neuroplasticity. The neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases are related to phytochemicals such as anthocyanin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, kae-mpferol and tannin. In this review, we made an attempt to clearly describe the beneifcial effects of various types of berries as promising neuroprotective agents.

  6. Leaf Photosynthesis in Response to Removing Fruit During Different Phenological Stages of Fruit Development in Peach Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-dong; LI Shao-hua; WU Ben-hong; YANG Jian-min; WANG Hong-qing

    2005-01-01

    Removing fruit (RF) and retaining fruit (CK) were carried out during different phenological stages of fruit development on one-year-old shoot of Okubo peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] under preventing exportation of the assimilates to the non experimental parts of the tree by girdling one-year-old shoot and keeping the same leaves between RF and CK.The results showed that fruit removal significantly decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs)and transpiration rate (E), but significantly increased leaf surface temperature (TLeaf) at about midday as compared with CK.Internal CO2 concentration, soluble sugar content, reductive sugar content, starch content except that during the final rapid fruit growth stage, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and amylase activities in source leaves were not significantly affected by fruit removal. There was a significantly positive parabolic correlation between Pn and Gs, and a strong positive linear correlation between Pn and E. Moreover, Pn increased with increased TLeaf if Tieaf was below 38℃, then decreased sharply when TLeaf exceeded the above critical temperature for both RF and CK. Pn of RF was lower, however,than that of CK in the same TLea, especially if TLeaf exceeded 38℃. It is suggested that the decreased stomatal aperture and increased TLeaf may be the important mechanism in regulating photosynthesis under a decreased strength of sink demand by RF in fruit trees.

  7. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Heritability of Fruit Traits in Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, Rachel P; Mitchell, Jenna; Hausbeck, Mary K

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungency, and color, and often lack resistance traits. Fruit characteristics (e.g. shape and pericarp thickness) are major determinants for cultivar selection, and their association with disease susceptibility can reduce breeding efficacy. This study evaluated a diverse collection of peppers for mature fruit phenotypic traits, correlation among fruit traits and Phytophthora fruit rot resistance, genetic diversity, population structure, and trait broad sense heritability. Significant differences within all fruit phenotype categories were detected among pepper lines. Fruit from Europe had the thickest pericarp, and fruit from Ecuador had the thinnest. For fruit shape index, fruit from Africa had the highest index, while fruit from Europe had the lowest. Five genetic clusters were detected in the pepper population and were significantly associated with fruit thickness, end shape, and fruit shape index. The genetic differentiation between clusters ranged from little to very great differentiation when grouped by the predefined categories. Broad sense heritability for fruit traits ranged from 0.56 (shoulder height) to 0.98 (pericarp thickness). When correlations among fruit phenotypes and fruit disease were evaluated, fruit shape index was negatively correlated with pericarp thickness, and positively correlated with fruit perimeter. Pepper fruit pericarp, perimeter, and width had a slight positive correlation with Phytophthora fruit rot, whereas fruit shape index had a slight negative correlation. PMID:27415818

  8. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Spain, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Gowan Comércio Internacional e Serviços Ltda to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of phosmet, Spain proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.4 mg/kg in oranges and grapefruits and 0.6 mg/kg in the other fruits of the citrus g...

  9. Occurrence of poly-winged fruits on cultivated sycamore maples - Acer pseudoplatanus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivetić Vladan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of polycarpous fruits on six out of 100 sycamore maples, i e. with 3, 4 and 8 fruits on one carpophore is described. Eight-carpous fruits have not been recorded to date in the region of the Serbia and Montenegro, and wider. The cause of the development of polycarpous fruits has been hypothesized.

  10. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and water loss in a diverse collection of pepper (capsicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits are covered by a relatively thick coating of cuticle that limits fruit water loss, a trait previously associated with maintenance of post-harvest fruit quality during commercial marketing. We’ve examined the fruit cuticles from 50 diverse pepper genotypes from a world c...

  11. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  12. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  13. Single-base resolution methylomes of tomato fruit development reveal epigenome modifications associated with ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruits are differentiated floral tissues evolved to aid seed dispersal, and have become an important part of human diets. Ethylene triggers tomato fruit ripening, but its effect is restricted to matured fruits with viable seeds by an unknown developmental cue. We show that fruits ripen prematurely w...

  14. Tomato fruit growth : integrating cell division, cell growth and endoreduplication by experimentation and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanwoua, J.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: cell division, cell growth, cell endoreduplication, fruit growth, genotype, G×E interaction, model, tomato. Fruit size is a major component of fruit yield and quality of many crops. Variations in fruit size can be tremendous due to genotypic and environmental factors. The mechanisms

  15. 7 CFR 457.119 - Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fruit caused by low air temperatures. Harvest. The severance of mature citrus fruit from the tree by... of trimming the sides of the citrus trees for better or more fruitful growth of the citrus fruit... you must report by type: (1) The number of trees damaged, topped, hedged, pruned or removed;...

  16. 77 FR 75509 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... final rule. Comment: A commenter stated the insurability of younger trees (fruit) should be addressed. Presently, trees have to be in the fifth growing season (for their fruit) to be insured. The commenter... fruit. Unless the fruit from the younger trees is appraised and excluded from production and losses,...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-3 - General requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-3 General requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables. All fruits and... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements for all imported fruits...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits and vegetables may be imported... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables....

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-10 Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits and... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada....

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... melo var. cantaloupensis Fruit (b)(1)(v), (b)(3). Cassava Manihot esculenta Fruit (b)(2)(vii). Honeydew...), (b)(5)(vi). Togo Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Trinidad and Tobago Cassava Manihot... consignment and the tomatoes were packed into fruit-fly-proof containers within 24 hours after harvesting....

  1. Inheritance of the Quantity of ß-carotene and Fruit Maturity of Melon (Cucumis Melon L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit production in U.S. can be improved through the introgression of early fruit maturity (FM) and the enhancement of fruit color [i.e., quantity of ß-carotene (QßC); orange fruit mesocarp]. However, the genetics of FM and QßC have not been clearly defined in U.S. Western Sh...

  2. Plants: Partners in Health?: Vegetables, Fruits, Herbs, and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Plants: Partners in Health? Vegetables, Fruits, Herbs, and You ... fresh herbs and spices? Growing your own edible plants—whether in a backyard garden or a few ...

  3. Investigation of major phenolic antioxidants from Camellia sinensis fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Rana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study unveils major phenolic antioxidant compounds from Camellia sinensis fruits, followed by their investigation, purification and characterization using HPLC, ESI-MS and NMR studies. The spectrophotometric estimation results have clearly demonstrated that C. sinensis (tea fruits contain up to 14% of total polyphenols (as gallic acid equivalent and 7% of flavonoids (as quercetin equivalent on dry weight basis. Differential solvent-mediated extractions have been performed for quantitative assessment of major phytoconstituents by RP-HPLC analysis. And the results have revealed that these fruits contain adequate amount of tea catechins (4% along with caffeine (1% and theanine (0.4% on dry weight basis. Moreover, purification and characterization of major phytoconstituents such as epigallocatechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate along with caffeine have been accomplished. Thus, it is clearly demonstrated that tea fruits could act as a possible and reliable source for obtaining major phenolic antioxidants.

  4. Antifungal activity of fruit pulp extract from Bromelia pinguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Hernández, I L; Chávez-Velázquez, J A; Uribe-Beltrán, M J; Ríos-Morgan, A; Delgado-Vargas, F

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Bromelia pinguin was evaluated for its antifungal activity. The extract showed a significant activity against some Trichophyton strains, although Candida strains were generally insensitive.

  5. Life cycle assessment application in the fruit sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerutti, Alessandro K.; Beccaro, Gabriele L.; Bruun, Sander;

    2014-01-01

    international journals and conference proceedings have been considered and the review has covered all main aspects for conducting an LCA in fruit production systems. The particular characteristics considered were objectives, system boundaries, the product considered, the functional unit, data origin...

  6. Monitoring Plan for Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power point presentation has as objective of the study is monitoring in fruits and vegetables species, chemical submit higher risk for the consumer and for the purpose of establishing an order of priority in the products sampled

  7. Gamma radiation effects on pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcio Ramatiz L.; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia], e-mail: mramatiz@eafce.gov.br, e-mail: vaarthur@cena.usp.br; Salgado, Jocelem M.; Spoto, Marta H. Fillet; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: jmsalgad@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: mhfspoto@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on characteristics of pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.). Just now, they are gained attention of researchers due their nutritional properties, between then is the pequi fruits. Fruits come from Goias State was classified, washed and processed to separate the endocarp (edible part) from pericarp. The endocarps were packing in polyethylene bags with 150 g, labeled and submitted to radiation process (0.0, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy doses) on multipurpose irradiator located in IPEN/USP. The samples were analyzed to chemical (pH, trititable acidity, deg Brix, ratio TSS/TTA, lipids, ash, humidity, protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity) and physical properties (loss weight, texture and color). The irradiation process using gamma rays from Co{sup 60} was effective to protect pequi fruits in postharvest period. (author)

  8. Reduction of virgin olive oil bitterness by fruit cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Khaled; Cayuela, José A; García, José M

    2008-11-12

    Green mature olives (Olea europaea L. cv. 'Manzanilla', 'Picual', and 'Verdial') were stored at 5 degrees C, and the oil extracted from them showed a middle intensity level of sensory-evaluated bitterness. The storage times necessary for this reduction were different for the three varieties tested, requiring 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively, for 'Manzanilla', 'Picual', and 'Verdial' olives. The level of commercial quality of the extracted oil did not deteriorate as a consequence of previous fruit storage. Olives matured during refrigeration at 5 degrees C, as the increase of maturation index and the decrease of color index and fruit firmness indicated. Similarly, as the fruit storage period progressed, the total phenolic compound content of the extracted oils decreased. Although the use of green mature olives may require a more prolonged storage time, it allows for a better postharvest handling of the fruits, which are more resistant to physical damage or fungal infections than the riper ones. PMID:18937491

  9. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in California Residents, 2012/2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Percentage of California residents who consumed five or more servings of fruits and vegetables a day. These data are from the 2013 California Dietary Practices...

  10. Reducing Childhood Obesity by Eliminating 100% Fruit Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture’s Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423

  11. Can fruit seeds and undigested plant residuals cause acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Engin

    2011-04-01

    Conclusions: The ratio of acute appendicitis caused by plants is minimal among all appendectomised patients, but avoidence of eating undigested fruit seeds and chewing plants well may help to prevent appendicitis.

  12. Analysis of sulfur in dried fruits using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the amount of elemental sulfur in some dried fruits, available commercially, was analyzed using INAA. Apple, apricot and raisin (dried fruits) were investigated due the application of sulfur dioxide for keeping the color and to protect the flavor from oxidation. The samples of dried fruits (apple, apricot and raisin) that are consumed by local population were obtained from the supermarket of Sao Paulo city (SP, Brazil). The sulfur concentration values for apple (0.32 ± 0.04 gkg-1) and raisin (0.30 ± 0.08 gkg-1) are similar but they are significantly lower when compared with the apricot (1.55 ± 0.12 gkg-1). This analysis is important due to an increase in the consumption of dried fruit by Brazilian population and also for its nutritional relevancy. (author)

  13. Characteristics of Gouda cheese supplemented with fruit liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Young; Yang, Chul Ju; Choi, Kap Seong; Bae, Inhyu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the quality characteristics of Gouda cheeses supplemented with fruit liquor (Prunusmume or Cornus officinalis). Fruit liquor was supplemented to Gouda cheeses during preparation. Changes in chemical composition, lactic acid bacterial population, pH, water-soluble nitrogen, sensory characteristics, and proteolysis were monitored in the prepared ripened cheese. The electrophoresis patterns of cheese proteins, fruit liquor functional component concentrations, and the flavonoid content of the cheeses were also determined. The addition of fruit liquor did not affect (p> 0.05) the appearance or sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Higher amounts of crude ash, mineral, and flavonoids (psupplemented cheese than in the control cheese. Findings from this study suggest that wine supplemented Gouda could provide additional nutrients while maintaining flavor and quality.

  14. Fruit-induced FPIES masquerading as hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Cotugno, Giovanna; Koch, Pierluigi; Dahdah, Lamia

    2014-08-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) symptoms develop at first introduction of fruit during weaning. We report on an infant with suspected HFI who presented with repeated episodes of vomiting and hypotension after ingestion of fruit-containing meals. The first episode occurred at age 4 months. Despite negative genetic testing for HFI, strict avoidance of fruit ingestion resulted in lack of recurrence of symptoms. Oral-fructose-tolerance testing conducted with an apple mousse did not determine hypoglycemia or fructosuria but caused severe hypotension. Allergy evaluations were negative, and the history was diagnostic for fruit-induced food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Because this non-immunoglobulin E-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity manifests as profuse, repetitive vomiting, often with diarrhea, leading to acute dehydration and lethargy, it may be misinterpreted as HFI. We advise pediatricians to consider food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the differential diagnosis when there is a suspicion of HFI.

  15. Modelling the South African fruit export infrastructure: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Ortmann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A description is provided of work performed as part of the fruit logistics infrastructure project commissioned by the South African Deciduous Fruit Producers’ Trust and coordinated by the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, as described in [Van Dyk FE & Maspero E, 2004, An analysis of the South African fruit logistics infrastructure, ORiON, 20(1, pp. 55–72]. After a brief introduction to the problem, two models (a single-commodity graph theoretic model and a multi-commodity mathematical programming model are derived for determining the maximal weekly flow or throughput of fresh fruit through the South African national export infrastructure. These models are solved for two extreme seasonal export scenarios and the solutions show that no export infrastructure expansion is required in the near future - observed bottlenecks are not fundamental to the infrastructure and its capacities, but are rather due to sub-optimal management and utilisation of the existing infrastructure.

  16. Implementing a free school-based fruit and vegetable programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Krølner, Rikke; Suldrup Jørgensen, Thea;

    2014-01-01

    Multi-component interventions which combine educational and environmental strategies appear to be most effective in increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in adolescents. However, multi-component interventions are complex to implement and often poorly implemented. Identification of barriers...

  17. Kiwifruit: taking its place in the global fruit bowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carol; Courtney, David

    2013-01-01

    While the world total production of kiwifruit has increased by over 50% during the last decade, the kiwifruit remains a niche fruit, taking up an estimated 0.22% of the global fruit bowl, which is dominated by apples, oranges, and bananas. Even though kiwifruit's share of the global fruit bowl has remained largely unchanged over the past 15 years, the scope for growth in the category is significant, with the nutritional and production characteristics of kiwifruit being on the right side of key global consumer trends around health and sustainability. Taking advantage of these consumer trends is one of two key challenges for the global kiwifruit industry. The second challenge is to harness the diverse natural and cultivated range of kiwifruit varieties (colors, flavors, sizes, and shapes) to stimulate the interest of consumers and grow the share of kiwifruit in the fruit basket through selecting cultivars that can develop meaningful market segments and meet consumer demand. PMID:23394979

  18. Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as ‘functional food ingredients’. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.

  19. A new isoflavone from the fruits of Madhuca latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Khan, Shazia; Nadeem Kardar, M

    2010-01-01

    A new isoflavone, 3',4'-dihydroxy-5,2'-dimethoxy-6,7-methylendioxy isoflavone, was isolated from the Madhuca latifolia fruit coatings. The structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. PMID:20013476

  20. Phenolic contents of myrtle (Myrtus communis L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu BAYIR YEĞİN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Myrtle is one of the important natural plant of the Mediterranean region. Fruits are in black and white colour. The earlier studies are mostly focused on the essential oil content of leaves in myrtle plant, whereas the latest studies are dealing with the phenolic compounds of leaves and fruits with their effects on human health. The aim of the study was to determine the phenolic content of the myrtle fruit and to investigate the differences between the genotypes. Myrtle fruits were collected from Antalya district. Phenolic content was determined by HPLC. Gallic acid (GA, catechin (CT, epicatechin (ECT, epicatechin-3-0-gallate (ECG, procyanidin B1 (B1, procyanidin B2 (B2, quercetin (Q, kamferol (K and myricetin (M were calculated as phenolic compounds. Epicatechin-3-0-gallate (in flavan-3-ol group and myricetin (in flavonol group were detected in large amounts.