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Sample records for acanthocephala

  1. Infestation caused by acanthocephala

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    Daniele Crotti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An on-line case of infestation caused by M. moniliformis is descripted. This rodents’ worm, belonging to acanthocephala, can be rarely responsible of human intestinal pathology. The case is the pretext for a brief revision on this parasitosis. So, biological, epidemiological, clinical and diagnostical findings are reported.

  2. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae)

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    Lilian Cristina Macedo; Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo; Teresa Cristina Sauer Ávila-Pires; Elane Guerreiro Giese; Jeannie Nascimento dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetolog...

  3. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Teiidae

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    Lilian Cristina Macedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  4. Acanthocephala Parasite (Profilicollis spp.) Loads in Correlation to Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) Size

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    Cheng, T.; Huang, S.; Galathe, M.; Jenkins, M.; Ramirez, A.; Crosby, L.; Barrera, J.; FitzHoward, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2002, San Francisco Bay students have been conducting marine ecosystem monitoring through a joint project with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS), in conjunction with the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Each year students collect population and demographic data on Pacific mole crabs (Emerita analoga), an indicator species that lives in the sandy beach habitat in temperate regions along the Pacific Ocean. Pacific mole crabs are filter feeding crustaceans that inhabit the intertidal swash zone and are known to be an intermediate host for parasitic ';spiny-headed' worms in the phylum Acanthocephala (Profilicollis spp.). Sampling takes place during their reproductive period, which occurs from spring to fall, and includes measuring total body length of the Pacific mole crabs and dissecting them to determine presence of Acanthocephalan parasites. We hypothesize that due to larger body mass, larger Pacific mole crabs will have a greater number of Acanthocephala parasites.We conducted several analyses using the LiMPETS long-term data. Specifically, we compared body length, crab gender, and parasite abundance from Pacific mole crabs sampled from four beaches located in the county and city of San Francisco. Our results indicated that larger Pacific mole crabs do not necessarily have more parasites, but are more likely to have at least one parasite, while female Pacific mole crabs carrying eggs, have more parasites than males or females without eggs. We also found that parasite loads per mole crab was highest in the spring. Further analysis will be conducted to determine factors affecting Pacific mole crab parasite loads. Studying Pacific mole crabs help evaluate the health of California's intertidal systems and how human activities, geologic changes, and climate changes all make huge impacts to the intertidal ecosystems.

  5. Nueva especie de Mediorhynchus (Acanthocephala, Gigantorhynchidae en Turdus chiguanco (Turdidae de Junín, Perú

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    Rocío Moya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Mediorhynchus (Acanthocephala, Gigantorhynchidae basada en 36 especímenes colectados de 4 individuos de Turdus chiguanco (Lafresnaye & D’Orbigny, 1837. Las aves fueron capturadas en el distrito de Muqui, provincia de Jauja, Junín, Perú. La nueva especie, Mediorhynchus peruensis se caracteriza por la armadura de la probóscide y la longitud de los lemniscos que se extienden hasta la parte media o posterior del testículo anterior en el macho y hasta la parte media anterior del cuerpo en la hembra.

  6. Checklist of the phyla Platyhelminthes, Xenacoelomorpha, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, Myxozoa, Tardigrada, Cephalorhyncha, Nemertea, Echiura, Brachiopoda, Phoronida, Chaetognatha, and Chordata (Tunicata, Cephalochordata, and Hemichordata) from the coasts of Turkey

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    ÇINAR, Melih Ertan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the current status of the species diversity of 13 phyla, namely Platyhelminthes, Xenacoelomorpha, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, Myxozoa, Tardigrada, Cephalorhyncha, Nemertea, Echiura, Brachiopoda, Phoronida, Chaetognatha, and Chordata (invertebrates, only Tunicata, Cephalochordata, and Hemichordata) along the coasts of Turkey is reviewed. Platyhelminthes was represented by 186 species, Chordata by 64 species, Nemertea by 26 species, Nematoda by 20 species, Xenacoelomorpha by 11 spe...

  7. Metazoan parasites of Mystus vittatus (Bloch) of River Godavari with description of a new species of Acanthocephala, Raosentis godavarensis sp. nov.

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    Vankara, Anu Prasanna; Vijayalakshmi, C

    2009-12-01

    A total of 9 metazoan parasitic species were identified from Mystus vittatus (Bloch) in river Godavari during 2005-2007 including 2 monogeneans, 2 digeneans, 3 acanthocephalans and 2 copepods. Two species of monogeneans (Bifurcohaptor indicus and Thaparocleidus tengra), digeneans (Haplorchoides macrones and metacercariae of Isoparorchis hypselobagri), an acanthocephalan (Raosentis podderi) found during the present study are of common occurrence in this fish. M. vittatus constitutes a new host record for an acanthocephalan, Raosentis thapari and 2 copepods, Argulus striatus and Lamproglena hospetensis. The occurrence of A. striatus represents unusual for M. vittatus. A new species of acanthocephala, Raosentis godavarensis sp. nov is reported, described and illustrated. PMID:23129893

  8. Ocorrência de Acanthocephala em Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840, cativos: aspectos clínico-patológicos. Callitrichidae-Primates Acanthocephala infections in captives lion tamarins Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840: clinical pathologic aspects. Callitrichidae-Primates

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    L. Pissinatti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se achados de necropsia de 454 espécimens de Leontopithecus. Quatorze (3,1% apresentaram-se infectados por acantocéfalos intestinais identificados como Prosthenorchis elegans (Diesing, 1861. Não foram observadas diferenças na ocorrência do parasito quanto à espécie, origem - cativos ou selvagens - e sexo. Clinicamente os animais apresentaram-se com o pelame eriçado, apatia, inapetência, dores abdominais e diarréia. Em dois animais parasitados (14,2%, observou-se perfuração da parede intestinal. As lesões encontradas caracterizaram-se por uma grave enterite ulcerativa. A ocorrência desses parasitos reforça a necessidade do estabelecimento de protocolos sanitários rígidos no manejo das espécies de primatas do neotrópico.This study assessed the autopsy findings of 454 Leontopithecus specimens, 14 of which (3.1% were infected by intestinal Acanthocephala identified as Prosthenorchis elegans (Diesing, 1861. No difference in the occurrence of the parasite was observed regarding the species, origin (captive or wild and sex of the lion tamarins. Clinically, the animals had spiked coat, apathy, inappetence, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Two of the parasitized animals (14.2% had perforation of the intestinal wall. The lesions found were characterized as a severe ulcerative enteritis. The occurrence of such parasites highlights the need for establishing strict sanitary protocols for the management of the neotropical primate species.

  9. Catalogue of type specimens of invertebrates in the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil: I. Acanthocephala, Nematoda, and Rotifera Catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de invertebrados da coleção do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brasil: I. Acanthocephala, Nematoda e Rotifera

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    Célio Magalhães

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The catalogue of type specimens of the phyla Acanthocephala, Nematoda and Rotifera deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to July, 2005. A total of three holotypes and six lots of paratypes of three species of Acanthocephala; nine holotypes and 16 lots of paratypes of nine species of Nematoda; and 12 holotypes, six lectotypes, nine lots of paratypes and five lots of paralectotypes of 23 species and subspecies of Rotifera are listed. Specific and subspecific names are listed alphabetically within family, followed by bibliographic citation, original genus name, status of type, collection number, locality data (host and site of infection for parasitic species, and remarks where appropriate. A list of references containing the papers in which the taxa were first described is furnished.É apresentado o catálogo dos espécimes-tipo dos filos Acanthocephala, Nematoda e Rotifera depositados na Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brasil, atualizado até julho de 2005. É relacionado um total de três holótipos e seis lotes de parátipos de três espécies de Acanthocephala; nove holótipos e 16 lotes de parátipos de nove espécies de Nematoda; e 12 holótipos, seis lectótipos, nove lotes de parátipos e cinco lotes de paralectótipos de 23 espécies e subespécies de Rotifera. São listados alfabeticamente em cada família os nomes das espécies e subespécies, seguidos da citação bibliográfica, nome original do gênero, categoria do tipo, número de registro na coleção, dados de localidade (hospedeiro e sítio de infecção no caso de espécies parasitas e comentários quando pertinentes. São relacionados, na lista de referências, os artigos nos quais a descrição original dos táxons foi publicada.

  10. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Molin, 1858) (Acanthocephala, Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae) from Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Teleostei) in Urbino ponds (Corsica Island).

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    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Dal Pos, N; Greani, S; Marchand, B

    2012-07-01

    This study deals with first ultrastructure features of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae), a parasite of the fish Anguilla anguilla, reported for the first time in a Mediterranean pond. The spermiogenesis of A. incrassatus shows original specificities which have never been pointed out to this day in ultrastructural studies on spermiogenesis: the centriolar derivative is divided into two parts of different densities: an electron-dense, and the other, electron-lucent; a ring form has been observed on each side of the axoneme; a centriole with one central element. After the elaboration of a flagellum of 9+2 pattern, the centriole migrates in a nuclear groove. Rapidly, the centriole disappears. Then, the flagellum migration occurs by a series of processes and gives rise to a spermatozoon. The spermatozoon of A. incrassatus presents its own specificities: it exhibits an evolution of the centriolar derivative characterized by only nine peripheral elements deprived of a central element in the anterior part, then nine peripheral and one central element, and finally, nine peripheral elements with two central elements. An assumption is emitted on a probable correspondence of the evolution of the derivative centriolar during the spermiogenesis and the evolution that occurs in the spermatozoon. Protein granules also show different sizes and forms, full or emptied of their contents compared with data on other Acanthocephala. PMID:22307764

  11. Post-cyclic transmission in Acanthocephalus tumescens (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae).

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    Rauque, Carlos A; Semenas, Liliana G; Viozzi, Gustavo P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the post-cyclic transmission of Acanthocephalus tumescens (von Linstow, 1896) from Galaxias maculatus Jenyns to Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Wild G. maculatus naturally infected with A. tumescens were fed to cultured rainbow trout, which were sacrificed at the second, third and fourth weeks post infection. Normally attached male and female acanthocephalans were recovered alive from the intestine of rainbow trout. Parasites survive at least four weeks post infection, growing and attaining full sexual maturity. Prevalence and mean intensity generally decreased after infection. A. tumescens is the eighth acanthocephalan species in which post-cyclic transmission has been proven. PMID:12194485

  12. First occurrence of Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques Primeira ocorrência de Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala no peixe ornamental Hyphessobrycon eques

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    Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to report the first seasonal occurrence of the acanthocephalan Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae, in the “Mato Grosso” Hyphessobrycon eques (Characidae (Steindachner, 1882, collected from the Chumucuí River, state of Pará, Brazil. The fish were collected between July 2006 (rainy season and June 2007 (dry season and were examined for parasites using pattern techniques. A total of 75 parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. Among 83 fish examined (50 in the dry season and 33 in the rainy season, 22 were parasitized by cystacanths of Q. nickoli. The importance of H. eques as a paratenic host for Q. nickoli is discussed. This is the first study on the biology of and infection by Q. nickoli occurring in the eastern Amazon region.O objetivo desse trabalho foi registrar a primeira ocorrência sazonal do acantocefala Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae no peixe “Mato Grosso”, Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882 (Characidae, capturados no Rio Chumucuí, região Bragantina, Pará, Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados no período de julho∕2006 a junho∕2007 e examinados com técnica padrão para detecção de parasitas. Um total de 75 parasitas foram encontrados no estômago e intestino. Dos 83 peixes capturados (50 na estação seca e 33 na chuvosa, 22 estavam parasitados por cistacantos de Quadrigyrus nickoli. No presente trabalho discute-se a importância do H. eques como hospedeiro paratênico para Quadrigyrus nickoli. Os presentes dados constituem o primeiro estudo sobre a biologia e a infecção de Q. nickoli na Amazônia oriental.

  13. Digenea and acanthocephala of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil

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    Knoff Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available New records for helminth species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established. Digenean and acanthocephalan parasites of elasmobranch fishes are reported from the southern coast of Brazil: Otodistomum veliporum (Creplin, 1837 Stafford, 1904 (Digenea: Azygiidae in the stomach and spiral valve of Dipturus trachydermus and in the spiral valve of Squatina sp. Cystacanths and juveniles of the acanthocephalans Corynosoma australe Johnston, 1937 and Corynosoma sp., in the spiral valve of Squatina sp., Galeorhinus galeus and Hexanchus griseus and in the stomach of Squalus megalops; a juvenile of Gorgorhynchus sp., in the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena. Dipturus trachydermus and Squatina sp. are new host records for O. veliporum. Digeneans and acanthocephalans are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranch fishes in Brazil.

  14. Mediorhynchus gallinarum (Acanthocephala: Gigantorhynchidae) in Helmeted guineafowls, Numida meleagris, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

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    Junker, K; Boomker, J

    2006-12-01

    Mediorhynchus gallinarum was recovered from the small intestines of 36 of 50 Helmeted guineafowls sampled from August 1988 to May 1989. The intensity of infection ranged from 1-141 worms per host, with a mean intensity of 23.2 (+/- 34) and a median intensity of 5. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test revealed no significant differences between the mean worm burdens of male and female birds at the 5% level (P > 0.05). Slightly more female than male acanthocephalans were collected. The majority (63.4%) of females had eggs with fully-developed embryos, 9% had immature eggs, 21.2% had no eggs and the egg status of 6.4% could not be determined. No seasonal pattern of intensity of infection emerged from the data, but worm burdens were markedly higher after good rains in February 1989. South Africa constitutes a new geographic record for M. gallinarum.

  15. Net fluxes of electrolytes in the rat intestine infected with Moniliformis dubius (Acanthocephala).

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    Mettrick, D F; Budziakowski, M E; Podesta, R B

    1979-08-01

    The effect of Moniliformis dubius on fluxes of Na+, K+, Cl-, and HCO3-in the rat intestine was determined using a conventional in vivo single-pass perfusion technique. Results for ion and water movements in the uninfected gut were in agreement with previous studies. In the parasitized intestine the jejunal pH was significantly lower than that in control animals, matching the restriction of the parasites to this region of the small intestine. While parasitism did not affect Na+ transport in the distal ileum, Na+ absorption was reduced (pH 7.0), or secretion enhanced (pH 6.0), in the two proximal regions. Cl-absorption was reduced in the distal ileum, but secretion was enhanced in the other two segments. Parasitism also enhanced K+ secretion in all segments. Net H2O absorption was reduced at pH 7.0; at pH 7.0; at pH 6.0 net secretion was also reduced. These changes clearly indicate that a parasite restricted to the jejunum may significantly affect the absorptive and secretory activity of the intestine distal to the site of infection. The results are discussed in the light of current concepts of electrolyte transport. The effect of the parasites on mucosal function distal to their site of attachment is discussed in terms of the release by the parasite of toxin-like substances, changes in the physical-chemical characteristics of the intestinal lumen, and interference with neurohormonal control of gastrointestinal function.

  16. Component population study of Acanthocephalus tumescens (Acanthocephala) in fishes from Lake Moreno, Argentina.

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    Rauque, Carlos A; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Semenas, Liliana G

    2003-03-01

    Seasonal samples of all fish species from Lake Moreno were taken in order to determine the presence of paratenia, to evaluate the status of the hosts and to characterise the transmission of Acanthocephalus tumescens (von Linstow, 1896) at the component population level. Prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity, numbers of gravid females, relative abundance of the different fish species, relative output of eggs and relative flow rates for each host species were computed. Acanthocephalus tumescens showed low host specificity, successfully parasitizing six out of eight fish species present in the lake. No paratenic infection was registered. If prevalence, mean abundance, and number of gravid females are considered, host species can be placed in a continuum from the most to least suitable as follows: Galaxias platei Steindachner, Diplomystes viedmensis (Mac Donagh), Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), Percichthys trucha (Cuvier et Valenciennes) and Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns). However, when parasite flow rates and egg output were calculated, including relative abundance of each fish species, the continuum was rearranged as follows: P. trucha, O. mykiss, G. platei / G. maculatus, S. fontinalis and D. viedmensis. The first four species would be the main contributors to the population of A. tumescens in this lake, P. trucha being the major one. Different regulatory and non-regulatory mechanisms are suggested. PMID:12735727

  17. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) in Southern Brazil.

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    Gallas, Moisés; da Silveira, Eliane Fraga; da Silvera, Eliane Fraga

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5) were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:23070447

  18. Review of species of the phylum Acanthocephala recorded from Vrachanska Planina Mountains

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    ZLATKA DIMITROVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of acanthocephalan species recorded from the Vrachanska Planina Mountains is presented. A total of 4 species were reported: 3 from birds and 1 from mammals and 1 species has been identified at the generic level only. As hosts, 4 vertebrate species were recorded: 3 avian and 1 mammalian species. A host-parasite list is presented. The acanthocephalan species recorded in the Vrachanska Planina Mts. represent 7.5% from the species recorded in Bulgaria.

  19. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae in Southern Brazil Patologias de Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae em Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae no sul do Brasil

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    Moisés Gallas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821 Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775 were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5 were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.Para o Brasil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821 Schmidt, 1972 foi registrada em cinco espécies de felídeos silvestres. No presente estudo, cinco gatos-do-mato-pequenos (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775, vítimas de atropelamento, foram coletados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Lesões crônicas causadas por O. pardalis foram observadas no intestino delgado de um dos espécimes. Cortes histológicos permitiram a identificação de um infiltrado leucocitário bem definido e uma área de fibrose do colágeno. Somente machos (n = 5 de O. pardalis foram encontrados, com prevalência de 20%. O ciclo biológico das espécies de Oligacanthorhynchus é pouco conhecido, no entanto, artrópodes foram considerados como hospedeiros intermediários. A baixa prevalência encontrada pode estar relacionada ao número de hospedeiros examinados, bem como, com a ingestão de poucos artrópodes infectados por larvas de O. pardalis. Este é o primeiro registro de O. pardalis parasitando L. tigrinus para o Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

  20. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) in Southern Brazil Patologias de Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) em Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) no sul do Brasil

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    Moisés Gallas; Eliane Fraga da Silvera

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n...

  1. Brasacanthus sphoeroides gen. n., sp. n. (Acanthocephala, Echinorhynchidae from a coastal marine fish of Paraná State, Brazil

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    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Brasacanthus sphoeroides gen. n.. sp. n. is described from the marine fish, Sphoeroides greeleyi (Steindachner, taken in Paranaguá Bay, Paraná State, Brazil. The new genus differs from Acanthocephalus Koelreuter, 1771, the nearest genus in the family Echinorhynchidae, by having very flat and variable lemnisci in both sexes and a uterine egg reservoir in the female. The species is characterized by its spherical body form and in having parallel or diagonal testes.

  2. Water balance and its relation to fermentation acid production in the intestinal parasites Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) and Moniliformis moniliformis (Acanthocephala).

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    Uglem, G L

    1991-12-01

    Water balance and its relation to carbohydrate metabolism was examined in Hymenolepis diminuta in parallel with the putative osmoconformer Moniliformis moniliformis. Worms were removed from rat intestines, weighed, and incubated (37 C) 1 hr in rat serum and various salines, some with mannitol to vary osmotic concentration from 150 to 400 mOsm/L. Worms were removed at 15-min intervals, weighed, and returned to the test solution. Rat serum and a Ringer's saline (pH 7.4 and 300 mOsm/L) with or without 5 mM glucose were isotonic to M. moniliformis, which behaved like an osmometer, shrinking, or swelling in proportion to external osmotic changes. Hymenolepis diminuta rapidly lost 20-25% wet weight in these solutions and regained lost water when 5 mM glucose was added to the saline. Tapeworms maintained constant body weight between 210 and 335 mOsm/L, but they rapidly gained or lost water outside of this range. Glucose metabolism and uptake of [3H]glucose from the medium increased progressively between 210 and 310 mOsm/L, whereas uptake rates of [3H]leucine, 22Na+, and 36Cl- were not affected. Unbuffered saline (initial pH 6.5 and 300 mOsm/L) had a lower pH (5.0) and higher osmolality (307 mOsm/L) after a 1-hr incubation with tapeworms. Such saline was less hypertonic than unconditioned saline to freshly obtained worms. A Ringer's saline (300 mOsm/L) containing 50 mM acetate- was also hypertonic (greater than 20% weight loss) to tapeworms at pH 7.4, but it was hypotonic (greater than 20% weight gain) at pH 5.0. Isotonicity at 300 mOsm/L was achieved with pH 5.0 and 20 mM acetate-, the approximate pH and fermentation acid concentration in an infected rat intestine. Rats infected with tapeworms (12 days old) were fasted for 2 days. Starved worms were smaller but had the same percentage of body water and internal osmolality as controls. These results show that H. diminuta can regulate its body water content and that water balance is closely related to the fermentation acid concentration and pH of the bathing medium. PMID:1779290

  3. Porrorchis nickoli n. sp. (Acanthocephala:: Plagiorhynchidae) from mammals in southeastern Mexico, first known occurrence of Porrorchis in the western hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Cruz-Reyes, Alejandro

    2002-02-01

    Porrorchis nickoli n. sp. is described from the intestine of the gray four-eyed opossum Philander opossum (type host), the Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, the common opossum Didelphis marsupialis, and the white-nosed coati Nasua narica. Hosts were collected in southeastern Mexico in the Los Tuxtlas region of the state of Veracruz (type locality) and in the states of Tabasco and Chiapas. This new species is distinguished from other Porrorchis species by its small proboscis (0.286-0.428 mm long x 0.273-0.438 mm wide), a proboscis armature consisting of 22-24 vertical rows of 7 or 8 hooks per row, and the male reproductive system extending postequatorially and occupying only half of the trunk. This is the first known occurrence of a Porrorchis species in the Western Hemisphere. PMID:12058721

  4. Occurrence of Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala in Atelocynus microtis (Canidae from the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Madre de Dios, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tantaleán

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During a large survey of mammals and their parasites, which took place in the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Madre de Dios, Peru, two specimens of Atelocynus microtis, short eared dog, were captured from which some acanthocephalan specimens were collected. Albeit it was not possible to identify them up to species level basically due to their immature condition, all of them were diagnosed as members of the genus Oncicola Travassos, 1916.

  5. Sexual segregation of Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (Acanthocephala) in the gut of burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Arto; Tellervo Valtonen, E; Benesh, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    Helminths often occupy defined niches in the gut of their definitive hosts. In the dioecious acanthocephalans, adult males and females usually have similar gut distributions, but sexual site segregation has been reported in at least some species. We studied the intestinal distribution of the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (syn. of E. cinctulus Porta, 1905) in its definitive host, burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus). Over 80% of female worms were found in the pyloric caeca, whereas the majority of males were in the anterior two-thirds of the intestine. This difference was relatively consistent between individual fish hosts. Worms from different parts of the gut did not differ in length, so site segregation was not obviously related to worm growth or age. We found proportionally more males in the caeca when a larger fraction of the females were found there, suggesting mating opportunities influence gut distribution. However, this result relied on a single parasite infrapopulation and is thus tentative. We discuss how mating strategies and/or sexual differences in life history might explain why males and females occupy different parts of the burbot gut. PMID:26580557

  6. The genus Rhadinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from marine fish in Australia with the description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smales, Lesley R

    2014-10-01

    Species of Rhadinorhynchus, collected from Australian waters were examined. Specimens of Rhadinorhynchus from Scorpis aequipinnis, Girella tricuspidata, Johnius australis and Grammatobothus polyophthalmus could not be identified further. New host and locality records are reported for R. bicircumspinus found in Trachurus declivis and Rexea solandri from the east coast of Tasmania; R. carangis found in Trachinotus bailonii and T. copperingi from Queensland and Western Australian coasts; R. polynemi from Queensland; R. seriolae found in Seriola lalandi from the east coast of Australia. An immature female specimen of R. johnstoni provided no additional data on the species. Rhadinorhynchus biformis sp. nov., described from Pelates quadrilineatus and a trumpeter from Moreton Bay, Queensland differs from all its congeners in the pattern of the trunk spines, a single field of numerous small spines ventro-laterally, overlapping with irregular rows and circles of larger spines extending posteriorly. Rhadinorhynchus pichelinae sp. nov. described from Upeneichthys vlamingi from Point Peron, Western Australia differs from all its congeners in having proboscis armature of 10 longitudinal rows of 24-28, usually 26-27 hooks up to 87 long and a single field of 21-24 irregular circles of spines on the anterior trunk, with the posterior circles incomplete dorsally. Rhadinorhynchus polydactyli sp. nov. described from Polydactylus sp. from Moreton Bay is differentiated from all congenerics by the elongated neck of the females and having a proboscis armature of up to 34 hooks in 10 longitudinal rows. Rhadinorhynchus pomatomi sp. nov. found in Pomotomus saltrix differs from its most similar congeners, those without dorsal trunk spines, in having a proboscis armature of 12-15 rows of 20-22 hooks up to 73.5-80.5 long. Rhadinorhynchus bicircumspinus, R. biformis, R. pichelinae, R. polydactyli and R. pomatomi are known only from Australian waters while R. carangis and R. seriolae are also known from Japanese waters, R. johnstoni from the western Pacific and R. polynemi from the Indian coast. PMID:25236286

  7. Profilicollis altmani (Perry, 1942) Van Cleave, 1947 (Acanthocephala) en el Perú. Con notas sobre la infección experimental de mamiferos terrestres

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Tantaleán; Jorge Cárdenas; Rosario Güere

    2013-01-01

    Entre los meses de enero y febrero de 2001, se hizo el estudio parasitológico de Emerita analoga Stimpson (Hippidae) procedentes de la playa Bujama (Mala, Lima), encontrando que de 37 a 48% de ellos estaban infectados con cistacantos identificados como de Profilicollis altmani (Perry, 1942) Van Cleave, 1947. Estos cistacantos se inocularon en ratas, ratones, hamsters y un cachorro de perro, que resultaron todos infectados. Los parásitos se localizaron principalmente en la cavidad abdominal y/...

  8. Infrapopulations of Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jahdali, M O; Hassanine, R M El-Said

    2012-03-01

    In infrapopulations of helminth parasites, density-dependent effects, through some form of intra- and interspecific competition, play an important role in shaping and regulating the infrapopulations. The mechanisms responsible for these processes have often been observed in laboratory studies and rarely studied under natural conditions. Here, 24 natural infrapopulations (77-447 individuals) of the acanthocephalan Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisted of cystacanths, newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms, distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 60% of the intestine). Each of these stages exhibited a significantly different longitudinal distribution within this niche. In small infrapopulations, cystacanths and newly excysted juveniles were found in the sixth 10% of the intestine, immature worms in the fifth 10% and mature worms in the anterior 40% of the intestine. However, their proportions followed a clear ascending order in each infrapopulation, and the female-male ratios of both immature and mature worms were distinctly female-biased. In large infrapopulations, mature worms existed partially in the site of immature ones, where a differential mortality among immature females was constantly observed. However, the proportions of immature worms increased significantly and those of mature worms decreased significantly, the mean lengths of immature and mature females decreased dramatically and the female-male ratios were distinctly male-biased. The mean sizes of immature and mature males seemed stable through all infrapopulations. The distribution of mature males and females suggests intense male-male competition for access to females, and reveals that larger females are copulated prior to the smaller ones. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is through density-dependent mechanisms, in which immature females may play a key role.

  9. The intestinal parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala) from barbel as a bioindicator for metal pollution in the Danube River near Budapest, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of As, Al, Ag, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Tl, V and Zn were analyzed by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the intestinal helminth Pomphorhynchus laevis and its host Barbus barbus. The fish were caught in the Danube river downstream of the city of Budapest (Hungary). Ten out of twenty one elements analyzed were found at higher concentrations in the acanthocephalan than in different tissues (muscle, intestine, liver and kidney) of barbel. Considering the fish tissues, most of the elements were present at highest concentrations in liver, followed by kidney, intestine and muscle. Spearman correlation analyses indicate that there is competition for metals between the parasites and the host. The negative relationships between parasite number and metal levels in organs of the barbel support this hypothesis. The bioconcentration factors for Ag, As, Ba, Bi, Cu, Ga, Mn, Pb, Sr, Tl, and Zn showed that the parasites concentrated metals to a higher degree than the fish tissues. They accumulated the metals As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn even better than established bioindicators such as the mussel Dreissena polymorpha as revealed by data from the literature. The results presented here emphasize that acanthocephalans of fish are very useful as sentinels for metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Ratio of metal concentrations in the parasites and the host tissues provide additional information. Not including acanthocephalans in accumulation bioindication studies with fishes (as still customarily done) may lead to false results. - Acanthocephalans of fish may be useful as sentinels of metal pollution in aquatic systems

  10. Metazoan parasites of Mystus vittatus (Bloch) of River Godavari with description of a new species of Acanthocephala, Raosentis godavarensis sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Vankara, Anu Prasanna; Vijayalakshmi, C.

    2009-01-01

    A total of 9 metazoan parasitic species were identified from Mystus vittatus (Bloch) in river Godavari during 2005–2007 including 2 monogeneans, 2 digeneans, 3 acanthocephalans and 2 copepods. Two species of monogeneans (Bifurcohaptor indicus and Thaparocleidus tengra), digeneans (Haplorchoides macrones and metacercariae of Isoparorchis hypselobagri), an acanthocephalan (Raosentis podderi) found during the present study are of common occurrence in this fish. M. vittatus constitutes a new host...

  11. Morphological and molecular differentiation of two new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus Petrochenko, 1958 (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from amphibians and reptiles in the Philippines, with identification key for the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Vasyl V; Lisitsyna, Olga I; Crossley, Janna L; Binh, Tran Thi; Bush, Sarah E

    2013-05-01

    The genus Pseudoacanthocephalus Petrochenko, 1958 currently includes 14 species of acanthocephalans parasitic in amphibians and reptiles worldwide. This work describes two new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus from amphibians and reptiles collected in several localities on Luzon Island, Philippines. Pseudoacanthocephalus nickoli n. sp. was found in two species of frogs, Rana luzonensis Boulenger and Rana similis (Günther), and Pseudoacanthocephalus smalesi n. sp. was found in a scincid lizard, Sphenomorphus abdictus Brown & Alcala. Differential diagnoses of the two new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus from their congeners are provided. Comparative analysis of nuclear ribosomal rRNA sequences encompassing the 3' end of 18S nuclear rDNA gene, internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1+5.8S+ITS2), and 5' end of the 28S gene strongly corroborated the morphological evidence and demonstrated significant differences between the two new species as well as between these species and closely related species from continental China and Vietnam. No intraspecific sequence variability was detected among different individuals representing each of the examined species. This is the first report of Pseudoacanthocephalus in the Philippines. A key to known species of Pseudoacanthocephalus is provided.

  12. Utilisation of brown trout by Acanthocephalus clavula (Acanthocephala) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) in an Irish lake: is this evidence of a host shift?

    OpenAIRE

    HOLLAND, CELIA

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED The population biology of the fish acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus clavula was described from 161 wild brown trout, Salmo trutta sampled over a two-year period in Clogher Lake in the west of Ireland. Overall prevalence of the parasite was 86% and the mean abundance was 53 worms per fish. Despite the presence of large numbers of worms in the trout very few females (2%) attained full reproductive maturity. This suggests that trout is an accidental host. A sample of yellow eels, Ang...

  13. The systematics of Echinorhynchus Zoega in Müller, 1776 (Acanthocephala, Echinorhynchidae elucidated by nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data from eight European taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Wayland

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The acanthocephalan genus Echinorhynchus Zoega in Müller, 1776 (sensu Yamaguti 1963 is a large and widespread group of parasites of teleost fish and malacostracan crustaceans, distributed from the Arctic to the Antarctic in habitats ranging from freshwaters to the deep-sea. A total of 52 species are currently recognised based on the conventional morphological species concept; however, the true diversity in the genus is masked by cryptic speciation. The considerable diversity within Echinorhynchus is an argument for subdividing the genus if monophyletic groups with supporting morphological characters can be identified. With this objective in mind, partial sequences of two genes with different rates of evolution and patterns of inheritance (nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among eight taxa of Echinorhynchus. These included representatives of each of three genus group taxa proposed in a controversial revision of the genus based on cement gland pattern, namely Echinorhynchus (sensu stricto, Metechinorhynchus Petrochenko, 1956 and Pseudoechinorhynchus Petrochenko, 1956. These groupings have previously been rejected by some authorities, because the diagnostic character is poorly defined; this study shows that Echinorhynchus (sensu stricto and Metechinorhynchus are not natural, monophyletic groups. A revision of Echinorhynchus will require tandem molecular phylogenetic and morphological analyses of a larger sample of taxa, but this study has identified two morhological characters that might potentially be used to define new genera. The estimated phylogeny also provides insight into the zoogeographical history of Echinorhynchus spp. We postulate that the ancestral Echinorhynchus had a freshwater origin and the genus subsequently invaded the sea, probably several times. The freshwater taxa of the E. bothniensis Zdzitowiecki & Valtonen, 1987 clade may represent a reinvasion of freshwater by one or more ancestral marine species.

  14. Profilicollis altmani (Perry, 1942 Van Cleave, 1947 (Acanthocephala en el Perú. Con notas sobre la infección experimental de mamiferos terrestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tantaleán

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre los meses de enero y febrero de 2001, se hizo el estudio parasitológico de Emerita analoga Stimpson (Hippidae procedentes de la playa Bujama (Mala, Lima, encontrando que de 37 a 48% de ellos estaban infectados con cistacantos identificados como de Profilicollis altmani (Perry, 1942 Van Cleave, 1947. Estos cistacantos se inocularon en ratas, ratones, hamsters y un cachorro de perro, que resultaron todos infectados. Los parásitos se localizaron principalmente en la cavidad abdominal y/o adheridos a la mucosa del intestino delgado y grueso. El hombre puede infectarse con estos parásitos al ingerir E. analoga infectados.

  15. Relationship between biomass and parasite density of Mediorhynchus emberizae (Acanthocephala: Gigantorhynchidae parasites of Paroaria dominicana (Passeriformes: Emberizidae of the State of Bahia, Brazil Relação entre biomassa e densidade parasitária de Mediorhynchus emberizae (acanthocephala: gigantorhynchidae parasito de Paroaria dominicana (passeriformes: emberizidae do estado da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano R. Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available During the study of the metazoan parasites of Paroaria dominicana (Linnaeus, 1758, eight infrapopulations of Mediorhynchus emberizae (Rudolphi, 1819, were collected in the medium third of the small intestine, with parasite intensities ranging from one to ten specimens. Differences among the average values of the biomass, volume of the eggs, volume of the testicles and the parasite density of the infrapopulations were statistically tested in order to detect variations of these parameters in function of parasite density. Was observed that the acanthocephalans biomass increased with the volume of the intestine and also that the parasite density increased with the parasite intensity in the infrapopulations. It was verified that the increase of the parasite intensity was accompanied by the decrease of the mean biomass of the parasites. Decrease of the volume of the eggs was verified with the increase of the density and of the parasite intensity. The results of the present work could suggested the occurrence of density-dependent factors and the decrease of testicles volume and the biomass of the males with the increase of the parasite density in the infrapopulations of M. emberizae in the intestine of P dominicana.Durante o estudo dos metazoários parasitos de Paroaria dominicana (Linnaeus, 1758, oito infrapopulações de Mediorhynchus emberizae (Rudolphi, 1819, foram coletadas no terço médio do intestino delgado, com intensidades parasitárias variando de um a dez espécimes. Diferenças entre os valores médios da biomassa, volume dos ovos, volume dos testículos e da densidade parasitária das diferentes infrapopulações foram estatisticamente testadas com o objetivo de detectar variações desses parâmetros em função da densidade parasitária. Foi observado que a biomassa de acantocéfalos aumentou com o volume do intestino e também que a densidade dos parasitos aumentou com a intensidade parasitária nas infrapopulações. Verificou-se que o aumento da intensidade parasitária foi acompanhada pela diminuição da biomassa média dos parasitos. Constatou-se diminuição do volume dos ovos com o aumento da densidade e da intensidade parasitária. Os resultados do presente trabalho parecem dar indícios da ocorrência de fatores dependentes da densidade e da diminuição do volume testicular e a biomassa dos machos com o aumento da densidade parasitária nas infrapopulações de M. emberizae no intestino de P. dominicana.

  16. El rol de Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura en los ciclos de vida de Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: algunos aspectos de su ecologia parasitaria The role of Cytograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura in the life cycles of Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: some aspects of their ecological parasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. Martorelli

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos se pudo concluir que: a C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati.Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977, from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host the following conclusions have been reached: a C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations in the females (Spivak & Politis, in press appeared correlated with prevalence; c in the studied crabs the pervalence fo F. chasmagnathi is higher in males than in females; d the intensity did not appear correlated with size and sex of the intermediate host; e M. szidati and F. chasmagnathi are closely associated with the intermediate host; f C. angulatus and Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae are reported as new intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively, for F. chasmagnathi; g Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 (Cruscea; Brachyura is reported as new intermediate host for M. szidati.

  17. Catalogue of the Coreidae in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie : Part IV. Coreinae, third Part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blöte, H.C.

    1938-01-01

    ACANTHOCEPHALINI Acanthocephala (A.) declivis Say. 1-4. Mexico, Klug. Var. panamensis Dist. 5-6. Chiriqui, Panama. Acanthocephala (A.) latipes Drury. 1-3. Brazil, Calkoen. — 4. Brazil, van Eyndhoven. — 5. Central Brazil, van Vollenhoven. — 6. Brazil. — 7. ?. — 8. Post Groningen, Surinam, W. C. van H

  18. Morphological and molecular descriptions of Moniliformis saudi sp. n. (Acanthocephala: Moniliformidae) from the desert hedgehog, Paraechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg) in Saudi Arabia, with a key to species and notes on histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Osama, Mohammed; Evans, R Paul

    2016-01-01

    A new acanthocepohalan species, Moniliformis saudi sp. n. is described from the desert hedgehog, Paraechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg), in central Saudi Arabia. Fourteen other valid species of Moniliformis Travassos, 1915 are recognised. The new species of Moniliformis is distinguished by having a small proboscis (315-520 µm long and 130-208 µm wide) with two apical pores, 14 rows of 8 hooks each and small hooks, thre largest being 25-31 µm long anteriorly. Distinguishing features are incorporated in a dichotomous key to the species of Moniliformis. The description is augmented by scanning electron microscopical (SEM) observation and DNA analysis of nuclear (18S rRNA) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1; cox1) gene sequences. Attached worms cause extensive damage to the immediate area of attachment in the host intestine. This includes tissue necrosis and blood loss due to damage to capillary beds. Worms also obstruct essential absorbing surfaces. PMID:27189420

  19. Records of Copiatestes filiferus (Leukart, in Sars, 1885 Gibson and Bray, 1977 (Digenea and Gorgorhynchus sp. (Acanthocepahala of marine fish from peruvian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tantaleán V

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Copiatestes filiferus (Leukart, in Sars, 1885 Gibson and Bray, 1977 (Digenea and Gorgorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala parasites of Hemilutjanus macrophthalmos (Teleostei, both parasites are new records from Peru and the fish is a new host.

  20. Ecological study of some parasitic helminths of aquatic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Geets, A.; P. Van Damme; Hamerlynck, O.

    1988-01-01

    Except for Monogenea, most other helminth parasites (Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Acanthocephala) of aquatic organisms have a rather complex life cycle, which includes one or more intermediate hosts. Studies have been carried out on the elucidation of helminth life cycles and on parasite-host relationships. Knowledge of the feeding behaviour of the host is a very useful starting-point for elucidation of the life cycles of its' parasites. Asymphylodora demeli, a trematode of two sympatric go...

  1. [Helminth fauna of amphibians (Vertebrata: Amphibia) in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Historical review of the investigations of helminth fauna in amphibians from Belarus is presented. In 12 amphibian species examined by different authors 46 helminth species were found, including 29 Trematoda, 13 Nematoda, 1 Monogenea, 2 Cestoda, and 1 Acanthocephala. Original data on helminths parasitizing Amphibia in Byelorussian Polesie, by the results of long-term investigations in 1986-2004 are given. Distribution of 40 helminth species by hosts and respective infestation rates are reported.

  2. 有袋目と貧歯目を中心とするペット用輸入哺乳類の寄生蠕虫類保有状況

    OpenAIRE

    井手, 百合子; 稲葉, 智之; 浅川, 満彦

    2000-01-01

    The survey of the parasitic helminths has been carried out on the pet animals belonging to orders Marsupialia(Philandar opossum, Trichosurus vulpecula, Dactylopsila trivirgata and Macropus eugenii), Edentata(Tamandua tetradactyla and Euphractus sexcinctus), Rodentia(Spermophilus erythrogenys and S.spilosoma)and Lagomorpha(Ochotona sp.). One acanthocephala, Giganthorhynchus sp.from T.tetradactyla, and 10 nematodes, viz., Filarinema sp.from T.vulpecula, Mackerrastrongylidae gen.sp.and Paraustro...

  3. Northeast India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID): Knowledge Base for Helminth Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Most metazoan parasites that invade vertebrate hosts belong to three phyla: Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Many of the parasitic members of these phyla are collectively known as helminths and are causative agents of many debilitating, deforming and lethal diseases of humans and animals. The North-East India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID) project aimed to document and characterise the spectrum of helminth parasites in the north-eastern region of India, providin...

  4. EST based phylogenomics of Syndermata questions monophyly of Eurotatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucher Gregor

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metazoan taxon Syndermata comprising Rotifera (in the classical sense of Monogononta+Bdelloidea+Seisonidea and Acanthocephala has raised several hypotheses connected to the phylogeny of these animal groups and the included subtaxa. While the monophyletic origin of Syndermata and Acanthocephala is well established based on morphological and molecular data, the phylogenetic position of Syndermata within Spiralia, the monophyletic origin of Monogononta, Bdelloidea, and Seisonidea and the acanthocephalan sister group are still a matter of debate. The comparison of the alternative hypotheses suggests that testing the phylogenetic validity of Eurotatoria (Monogononta+Bdelloidea is the key to unravel the phylogenetic relations within Syndermata. The syndermatan phylogeny in turn is a prerequisite for reconstructing the evolution of the acanthocephalan endoparasitism. Results Here we present our results from a phylogenomic approach studying i the phylogenetic position of Syndermata within Spiralia, ii the monophyletic origin of monogononts and bdelloids and iii the phylogenetic relations of the latter two taxa to acanthocephalans. For this analysis we have generated EST libraries of Pomphorhynchus laevis, Echinorhynchus truttae (Acanthocephala and Brachionus plicatilis (Monogononta. By extending these data with database entries of B. plicatilis, Philodina roseola (Bdelloidea and 25 additional metazoan species, we conducted phylogenetic reconstructions based on 79 ribosomal proteins using maximum likelihood and bayesian approaches. Our findings suggest that the phylogenetic position of Syndermata within Spiralia is close to Platyhelminthes, that Eurotatoria are not monophyletic and that bdelloids are more closely related to acanthocephalans than monogononts. Conclusion Mapping morphological character evolution onto molecular phylogeny suggests the (partial or complete reduction of the corona and the emergence of a retractable

  5. Helminths of two anuran species, Atelopus spurrelli (Bufonidae) and Dendrobates histrionicus (Dendrobatidae), from Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Stephen R; Bursey, Charles R

    2003-09-01

    Two species of anurans from Colombia, South America, Atelopus spurrelli and Dendrobates histrionicus, were examined for helminths. A. spurrelli was found to harbor three species of Nematoda, adults of Cosmocerca podicipinus and larvae of Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. D. histrionicus was found to harbor, in addition to C. podicipinus, Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. and cystacanths of three species of Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchus sp., Onicola sp. and Polymorphus sp. A. spurrelli and D. histrionicus represent new host records for these helminths. PMID:14550481

  6. Endoparasites of some economically important food fishes of River Jhelum, Kashmir (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Taqdees; Khan, Imran; Tak, Irfan-Ur-Rauf; Dar, Shoaib Ali; Yousuf, A R

    2016-09-01

    During the present study endo-parasitic fauna of fish at different sites of River Jhelum were analysed. Four different species of endoparasites were recovered from Schizothorax species which include Adenoscolex kashmirensis Mehra, 1930, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, Echinorhynchus sp., Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw, 1941, belong to Phylum Platyhelminths and Phylum Acanthocephala. Prevalence and generation time were inversely proportional to each other. Prevalence and mean abundance were highest at Qamarwari. Diversity was more at Tengpora. Cestodes including Adenoscolex kashmirensis and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi were more dominant than Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis and Echinorhynchus sp.

  7. Helminths parasites of whales in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Muniz-Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 captured in the Brazilian coast were necropsied for helminths. Balaenoptera borealis and B. physalus were infected by Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Tetrameridae and Ogmogaster antarcticus (Digenea: Notocotylidae, which are referred for the first time in Brazil. Balaenoptera borealis was also infected by Lecithodesmus goliath (Digenea, Campulidae and Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae. Physeter catodon was infected by Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda, Anisakidae, which is a new record to this host in Brazilian waters.

  8. Helminthofauna of Ohrid gudgeon (Gobio ohridanus Karaman, 1924) from the Lake Ohrid, Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Stojmir; Blažekovic-Dimovska, Dijana; Karabolovski, Nikola; Velkova-Jordanoska, Lidija; Rokicki, Jerzy; Smiljkov, Stoe

    2015-01-01

    Total, 94 specimens of gudgeon (Gobio ohridanus Karaman, 1924) from the Macedonian part of the Lake Ohrid were examined and 61 fishes (64.89%) were infected with parasites. The presence of 4 parasite species was established: Dactylogyrus cryptomeres f. typica (Monogenea), Cystidicoloides tenuissima and Philometra ovata (Nematoda), and Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The highest prevalence and intensity of infection was with Dactylogyrus cryptomeres f. typica (59.57%; mean intensity 6.07). The lowest one was with Cystidicoloides tenuissima and Philometra ovata (2.13%; 1.0). Dactylogyrus cryptomeres f. typica is recorded for the first time in the ichthyoparasitofauna of Lake Ohrid and Macedonia. PMID:25911039

  9. Studies on endangered and rare non-commercial fish species recorded in the Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea) in 2010-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więcaszek, Beata; Sobecka, Ewa; Keszka, Sławomir; Stepanowska, Katarzyna; Dudko, Stanisław; Biernaczyk, Marcin; Wrzecionkowski, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on endangered and rare non-commercial fish species ( Spinachia spinachia, Nerophis ophidion, Syngnathus typhle, Agonus cataphractus, Pholis gunnellus, Enchelyopus cimbrius, Cyclopterus lumpus) and one lamprey species ( Lampetra fluviatilis), recorded as bycatch during monitoring surveys in 2010-2013 in the Pomeranian Bay. Two species were observed for the first time in the Pomeranian Bay: A. cataphractus and E. cimbrius. Descriptions of parasite fauna are provided for C. lumpus and E. cimbrius, which were infected with four pathogenic species from Neomonada, Digenea, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala. Almost all parasite species were new in the hosts examined.

  10. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Camacho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis.

  11. Helmintos parasitos do pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae, no rio Araguaia, estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Helminth parasites of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. C. dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 65 exemplares de pirarucu em agosto de 2004, provenientes do rio Araguaia, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil para o estudo dos seus helmintos parasitos. Cinco espécies foram registradas parasitando Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea nas brânquias, Nilonema senticosum e Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda na vesícula gasosa e no estômago respectivamente; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea e Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala no intestino. Os valores mais altos de prevalência foram observados para D. cycloancistrium (100% and P. rhopalorhynchus (96,9%. Os maiores valores de intensidade e abundância média foram calculados para C. brasiliense e N. senticosum (61 e 46,9, respectivamente. Todas estas espécies são registradas pela primeira vez na Bacia do Rio Araguaia.Sixty-five specimens of pirarucu collected in August 2004 from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were examined to study their helminth parasites. Five species were recorded parasitic Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea in gills, Nilonema senticosum and Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda in the swimbladder and stomach, respectively; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea and Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala in the intestine. Highest prevalence values were detected for D. cycloancistrium (100% and P. rhopalorhynchus (96.9%. Highest values of mean intensity and mean abundance were detected for C. brasiliense and N. senticosum (61 and 46.9, respectively. All these species are recorded by the first time in the Araguaia River basin.

  12. Fish parasites in the Arctic deep-sea: Poor diversity in pelagic fish species vs. heavy parasite load in a demersal fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpel, Sven; Palm, Harry Wilhelm; Busch, Markus Wilhelm; Kellermanns, Esra; Rückert, Sonja

    2006-07-01

    A total of 219 deep-sea fishes belonging to five families were examined for the parasite fauna and stomach contents. The demersal fish Macrourus berglax, bathypelagic Bathylagus euryops, and mesopelagic Argentina silus, Borostomias antarcticus, Chauliodus sloani, and Lampanyctus macdonaldi were caught at 243-708 m trawling depth in the Greenland and the Irminger Sea in 2002. A total of 21 different parasite species, six Digenea, one Monogenea, two Cestoda, seven Nematoda, one Acanthocephala, and four Crustacea, were found. The parasite diversity in the meso- and bathypelagic environment was less diverse in comparison to the benthal. Macrourus berglax had the highest diversity (20 species), usually carrying 4-10 different parasite species (mean 7.1), whereas Bathylagus euryops harbored up to three and Argentina silus, Borostomias antarcticus, Chauliodus sloani and Lampanyctus macdonaldi each up to two species. Most Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, and Crustacea are known from a wide host range. Several of the encountered parasites occurred at a very low prevalence (nematodes and cestodes, resulting in low infestation rates even of widely distributed, non-specific species. In contrast, the higher biomass in the benthic deep-sea environment increases the availability of potential intermediate hosts, such as molluscs for the digeneans, resulting in increased parasite diversity. Because many deep-sea fish have a generalistic feeding behavior, the observed different parasite diversity reflects a different depth range of the fish and not necessarily a specific fish feeding ecology.

  13. Metazoan Parasite Infracommunities in Five Sciaenids from the Central Peruvian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Marcelo E

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Perú yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea. Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ectoparasites. The Brillouin index (H and evenness (J´ were applied to the fully sampled metazoan parasite infracommunities. High values of prevalence and mean abundance of infection are associated to the polyonchoinean monogeneans; the low values of J' reinforce the strong dominance of this group in the studied communities. The paucity of the endoparasite fauna may be a consequence of the unstable environment due to an upwelling system, aperiodically affected by the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena.

  14. Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne De Melo; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2014-07-30

    Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies. 

  15. Helminth parasites of small mammals in Kerman province, southeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Madjdzadeh, Seyed Massoud; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-one specimens of small mammals were collected from different locations of Kerman province, southeastern Iran during 2007 and 2009. They constitute six species of rodents (Meriones persicus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica, Dryomys nitedula and Mus musculus), one species of Erinaceomorpha (Paraechinus hypomelas) and one species of hare (Lepus europeus). The rate of helminthic infection was 45.1 % among all trapped specimens. In 28 out of 51 hunted specimens no intestinal helminth parasite was found. Of all mammals examined, 15 (29.4 %) had nematodes, 5 (9.8 %) had cestodes, and 3 (5.9 %) were infected with Acanthocephala. Five different species of parasites were isolated: Trichuris muris, Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Mastophorus muris. Results of the present study indicate the potential of small mammals in the transmission of zoonotic helminthic infection.

  16. How to catch a parasite: Parasite Niche Modeler (PaNic) meets Fishbase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Parasite Niche Modeler (PaNic) is a free online software tool that suggests potential hosts for fish parasites. For a particular parasite species from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda), PaNic takes data from known hosts (maximum body length, growth rate, life span, age at first maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) and hypothesizes similar fish species that might serve as hosts to that parasite. Users can give varying weights to host attributes and create custom models. In addition to suggesting plausible hosts (with varying degrees of confidence), the models indicate known host species that appear to be outliers in comparison to other known hosts. These unique features make PaNic an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in fish parasitology. PaNic can be accessed at .

  17. Gastrointestinal helminthes of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) from north of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Navid Rahmani; Mohammad Asadi Iraee; Mohammad Reza Youssefi

    2016-01-01

    The parasitic infection of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulate) in north of Iran, Golestan Province was reported in this study. The carcass of a male houbara bustard about 2 years old with 2.5 kg body weight, was forfeited from impermissible hunters by the Department of Environment in Gorgan,Golestan Province during January 2015. The gastrointestinal tracts was dissected and examined for helminth infection. Species of Nematoda, Cestoda and Acanthocephala were found which were as following:Hartertia obesa,Idiogenes otidis, Mediorhynchus taeniatus, respectively from small intestine. Based on the results obtained from the present study, it can be concluded thatChlamydotis undulata may play an important role in the transmission of the mentioned parasites. In addition, this is the first report ofHartertia obesa,Idiogenes otidis,Mediorhynchus taeniatus in Iran.

  18. Gastrointestinal helminthes of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata from north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Rahmani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic infection of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulate in north of Iran, Golestan Province was reported in this study. The carcass of a male houbara bustard about 2 years old with 2.5 kg body weight, was forfeited from impermissible hunters by the Department of Environment in Gorgan, Golestan Province during January 2015. The gastrointestinal tracts was dissected and examined for helminth infection. Species of Nematoda, Cestoda and Acanthocephala were found which were as following: Hartertia obesa, Idiogenes otidis, Mediorhynchus taeniatus, respectively from small intestine. Based on the results obtained from the present study, it can be concluded that Chlamydotis undulata may play an important role in the transmission of the mentioned parasites. In addition, this is the first report of Hartertia obesa, Idiogenes otidis, Mediorhynchus taeniatus in Iran.

  19. Gastrointestinal parasites of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) – Seasonal, geographical and host related variations in the parasite burdens of two distinct Danish populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Stengaard; Chriél, Mariann; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman;

    during the nesting period. The study is ongoing, and so far most parasites have only been identified to the family level. Eight trematode families, two nematode families, one acanthocephala and one cestode family were identified. Intensities of infections were primarily influenced by age of the birds......Due to a recent decline in number of Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima) in Denmark, prevalence, intensity and composition of the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of Common Eiders from two distinct colonies were examined to establish reference data of the helminth fauna of apparently healthy birds....... Furthermore, seasonal, geographical and host related variations in helminth composition were studied. The birds were collected November 2010 to January 2012. Included were a total of 157 eiders from Jutland (N=103) and Zealand (N=54) respectively, comprising 54 males and 102 females of which 20 were gathered...

  20. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the acanthocephalan Prosthenorchis elegans in Colombia based on cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene sequence

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    Ana Carolina Falla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosthenorchis elegans is a member of the Phylum Acanthocephala and is an important parasite affecting New World Primates in the wild in South America and in captivity around the world. It is of significant management concern due to its pathogenicity and mode of transmission through intermediate hosts. Current diagnosis of P. elegans is based on the detection of eggs by coprological examination. However, this technique lacks both specificity and sensitivity, since eggs of most members of the genus are morphologically indistinguishable and shed intermittently, making differential diagnosis difficult, and coprological examinations are often negative in animals severely infected at death. We examined sequence variation in 633 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI sequence in 37 isolates of P. elegans from New World monkeys (Saguinus leucopus and Cebus albifrons in Colombia held in rescue centers and from the wild. Intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 1.6% and was comparable with corresponding values within other species of acanthocephalans. Furthermore, comparisons of patterns of sequence divergence within the Acanthocephala suggest that Prosthenorchis represents a separate genus within the Oligacanthorhynchida. Six distinct haplotypes were identified within P. elegans which grouped into one of two well-supported mtDNA haplogroups. No association between haplogroup/haplotype, holding facility and species was found. This information will help pave the way to the development of molecular-based diagnostic tools for the detection of P. elegans as well as furthering research into the life cycle, intermediate hosts and epidemiological aspects of the species.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the acanthocephalan Prosthenorchis elegans in Colombia based on cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Ana Carolina; Brieva, Claudia; Bloor, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Prosthenorchis elegans is a member of the Phylum Acanthocephala and is an important parasite affecting New World Primates in the wild in South America and in captivity around the world. It is of significant management concern due to its pathogenicity and mode of transmission through intermediate hosts. Current diagnosis of P. elegans is based on the detection of eggs by coprological examination. However, this technique lacks both specificity and sensitivity, since eggs of most members of the genus are morphologically indistinguishable and shed intermittently, making differential diagnosis difficult, and coprological examinations are often negative in animals severely infected at death. We examined sequence variation in 633 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequence in 37 isolates of P. elegans from New World monkeys (Saguinus leucopus and Cebus albifrons) in Colombia held in rescue centers and from the wild. Intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 1.6% and was comparable with corresponding values within other species of acanthocephalans. Furthermore, comparisons of patterns of sequence divergence within the Acanthocephala suggest that Prosthenorchis represents a separate genus within the Oligacanthorhynchida. Six distinct haplotypes were identified within P. elegans which grouped into one of two well-supported mtDNA haplogroups. No association between haplogroup/haplotype, holding facility and species was found. This information will help pave the way to the development of molecular-based diagnostic tools for the detection of P. elegans as well as furthering research into the life cycle, intermediate hosts and epidemiological aspects of the species. PMID:26759793

  2. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the acanthocephalan Prosthenorchis elegans in Colombia based on cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Ana Carolina; Brieva, Claudia; Bloor, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Prosthenorchis elegans is a member of the Phylum Acanthocephala and is an important parasite affecting New World Primates in the wild in South America and in captivity around the world. It is of significant management concern due to its pathogenicity and mode of transmission through intermediate hosts. Current diagnosis of P. elegans is based on the detection of eggs by coprological examination. However, this technique lacks both specificity and sensitivity, since eggs of most members of the genus are morphologically indistinguishable and shed intermittently, making differential diagnosis difficult, and coprological examinations are often negative in animals severely infected at death. We examined sequence variation in 633 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequence in 37 isolates of P. elegans from New World monkeys (Saguinus leucopus and Cebus albifrons) in Colombia held in rescue centers and from the wild. Intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 1.6% and was comparable with corresponding values within other species of acanthocephalans. Furthermore, comparisons of patterns of sequence divergence within the Acanthocephala suggest that Prosthenorchis represents a separate genus within the Oligacanthorhynchida. Six distinct haplotypes were identified within P. elegans which grouped into one of two well-supported mtDNA haplogroups. No association between haplogroup/haplotype, holding facility and species was found. This information will help pave the way to the development of molecular-based diagnostic tools for the detection of P. elegans as well as furthering research into the life cycle, intermediate hosts and epidemiological aspects of the species. PMID:26759793

  3. Fauna de parasitos metazoários de Pimelodus maculatus La Cépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.130 Metazoan parasite fauna of Pimelodus maculatus La Cépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae from the Guandu river, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Lima de Castro Lemos Pita

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Sessenta espéimes de Pimelodus maculatus provenientes do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de janeiro, foram examinados para estudo de sua parasitofauna, no perído de agosto de 1999 a fevereiro de 2001. Foram coletados espéimes de doze espécies de parasitos metazoários alocados em sete grupos taxonômicos - Monogenoidea: Demidospermus uncusvalidus Gutiérez and Suriano, 1992, D. paravalenciennesi Gutiérez and Suriano, 1992, D. majusculus Kritsky and Gutiérez, 1998 e Scleroductus sp.; Digenea: Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928; Eucestoda: Nomimoscolex sp.; Nematoda: Cucullanus pinnai Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 e Procamallanus sp. (jovem; Hirudinea: Helobdella sp.; Myxozoa: Henneguya sp. e Myxobolus absonus Cellere, Cordeiro e Adriano, 2002, al駑 de uma esp馗ie de Acanthocephala (cistacanto não identificada. Houve correlação entre o sexo do hospedeiro com a preval麩cia e com a abundâcia de D. paravalenciennesi. A espéie mais dominante na comunidade parasitáia de P. maculatus do rio Guandu foi D. uncusvalidus (50%, seguida de C. pinnai (18,3%. Demidospermus majusculus e Henneguya sp. constituem primeiro registro em P. maculatus. Demidospermus uncusvalidus, D. paravalenciennesi, D. majusculus, Scleroductus sp., Nomimoscolex sp., C. pinnai, Procamallanus sp., Helobdella sp., Henneguya sp. e M. absonus apresentam ampliada sua distribui鈬o geogr畴ica conhecida.Sixty specimens of Pimelodus maculatus from the Guandu River in Rio de Janeiro State were examined to describe their parasitofauna, in the period from August 1999 to February 2001. Specimens of twelve metazoan parasite species were collected, allocated into seven taxonomic groups - Monogenoidea: Demidospermus uncusvalidus Gutiérez and Suriano, 1992, D. paravalenciennesi Gutiérez and Suriano, 1992, D. majusculus Kritsky and Gutiérez, 1998 and Scleroductus sp.; Digenea: Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928; Eucestoda: Nomimoscolex sp.; Nematoda: Cucullanus pinnai

  4. Metazoan parasite fauna of Pimelodus maculatus La Cépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae from the Guandu river, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil = Fauna de parasitos metazoários de Pimelodus maculatus La Cépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Daniele dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty specimens of Pimelodus maculatus from the Guandu River in Rio de Janeiro State were examined to describe their parasitofauna, in the period from August 1999 to February 2001. Specimens of twelve metazoan parasite species were collected, allocated into seventaxonomic groups - Monogenoidea: Demidospermus uncusvalidus Gutiérrez and Suriano, 1992, D. paravalenciennesi Gutiérrez and Suriano, 1992, D. majusculus Kritsky and Gutiérrez, 1998 and Scleroductus sp.; Digenea: Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928; Eucestoda: Nomimoscolex sp.; Nematoda: Cucullanus pinnai Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 and Procamallanus sp. (young specimen; Hirudinea: Helobdella sp.; Myxozoa: Henneguya sp. and Myxobolus absonus Cellere,Cordeiro and Adriano, 2002, along with one unidentified species of Acanthocephala (cystacanth. There was a correlation between the host sex and the prevalence and abundance of D. paravalenciennesi. The most dominant species in the parasite community of P. maculatus from the Guandu River was D. uncusvalidus (50%, followed by C. pinnai (18,3%. This study is the first report of D. majusculus and Henneguya sp. in P. maculatus, while it expands the known geographicdistribution of D. uncusvalidus, D. paravalenciennesi, D. majusculus, Scleroductus sp., Nomimoscolex sp., C. pinnai, Procamallanus sp., Helobdella sp., Henneguya sp. and M. absonus.Sessenta espécimes de Pimelodus maculatus provenientes do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de janeiro, foram examinados para estudo de sua parasitofauna, no período de agosto de 1999 a fevereiro de 2001. Foram coletados espécimes de doze espécies de parasitos metazoáriosalocados em sete grupos taxonômicos - Monogenoidea: Demidospermus uncusvalidus Gutiérrez and Suriano, 1992, D. paravalenciennesi Gutiérrez and Suriano, 1992, D. majusculus Kritsky and Gutiérrez, 1998 e Scleroductus sp.; Digenea: Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz,1928; Eucestoda: Nomimoscolex sp.; Nematoda: Cucullanus pinnai

  5. Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of freshwater fishes of Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, M Razia; Radhakrishnan, S

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence and mean intensity of metazoan parasite infection, the community characteristics (richness index, dominance index, evenness index and Shannon index of diversity) and the qualitative similarity of the metazoan parasite fauna among the species and families of the fishes were determined of 13 fish species of freshwater fishes of Kerala belonging to seven families. The metazoan parasite fauna of this geographical area is very diverse; it consisted of 33 species of parasites belonging to seven major taxa: ten species of Monogenea, nine Digenea, two Cestoda, six Nematoda, three Acanthocephala, two Copepoda and one Isopoda. Prevalence of infection ranged from 32.9% (Puntius vittatus) to 87.1% (Mystus oculatus) and mean intensity from 3.8 (Puntius vittatus) to 27.6 (Aplocheilus lineatus). The infra- and component communities of parasites were somewhat characteristic. The dominance pattern of the major taxa was in the order Digenea > Nematoda > Monogenea = Acanthocephala > Cestoda = Copepoda > Isopoda. Macropodus cupanus harboured the richest fauna and Puntius vittatus had the least rich fauna. The parasite fauna of A. lineatus was the most heterogeneous and that of M. cavasius, the most homogeneous. The diversity of the parasite fauna was the greatest in M. cavasius and the least in A. lineatus. The parasite faunas of A. lineatus and M. cupanus and of M. cavasius and M. oculatus were similar. However, in spite of the taxonomic nearness and the similarity of the habits and habitats of the four species of cyprinids (P. amphibius, P. filamentosus, P. sarana and P. vittatus), their parasite fauna were qualitatively very dissimilar-of the seven species of parasites encountered in them only one was shared by the four host species. The cyprinid, Rasbora daniconius, had its own characteristic component community of parasites consisting of six species none of which was shared by the other four cyprinids. The richest parasite fauna was that of the family

  6. [Is the parasite fauna of Poland well recognized?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojmańska, Teresa; Niewiadomska, Katarzyna

    2003-01-01

    The studies of parasite fauna have in Poland a long tradition. Generally the helmint fauna of all groups of vertebrates was more or less examined and as much as over 100 species of Monogenea, almost 400 Digenea, over 250 Cestoda, about 500 Nematoda and 32 Acanthocephala have been recorded. The best recognized are the helminths of fish (especially those of Cyprinidae, Esocidae, Percidae and Salmonidae), frogs examined in various regions of Poland, some birds (especially connected with water environment: Anseriformes, Ciconiformes, Podicipediformes), most of insectivores (although examined only in few localities), European bisons, deers, foxes and wild boars (all under permanent monitoring), as well as domestic animals (cattle, horses, sheeps) and pets. Such groups like some amphibians, reptiles, bats, carniwores, some birds (especially Passeriformes, Charadriiformes, falcons and eagles) need further exploration, as some host species were not the subject of parasitological investigation. In some cases it will be rather difficult goal, as most of these animals are under strict preservation, and only dead (naturally or accidentally) specimens can be autopsied. PMID:16888930

  7. Metazoan Parasite Infracommunities of the Freshwater Eel, Mastacembelus armatus Lacpde, 1800 from River Godavari, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastacembelus armatus is considered to be the delicacy of Southern India. Four hundred ninety four specimens of M. armatus collected from river Godavari from August 2005 to September 2007 were analyzed in order to study their metazoan parasite infracommunities. Twelve species of parasites were collected, 6 digenea, 2 cestodes, 1 monogenea, 1 copepoda, 1 nematoda and 1 acanthocephala; 78% of the fishes were parasitized by one or more than one metazoan, with a mean of 67 parasites/fish. The endoparasites represents 98.3% of the total parasites collected. The digenean Tetracotyle sp. and Circumonchobothrium shindei occupy the position of secondary species and the remaining were satellite species. Relationships between total body length of fish and both total parasite abundance and mean parasite species richness were observed. A new copepod species, Neoergasilus indicus is also encountered in the present investigation. The metazoan parasite infracommunities of M. armatus presented dominance of larval endoparasites; correlation of parasite burden, diversity and species richness with host total length; and no influence of host sex on parasitisation.

  8. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic

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    David Gibson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.

  9. Corynosoma acanthocephalans in their paratenic fish hosts in the northern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisalo T.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cystacanth stages of three Corynosoma (Acanthocephala species, C. strumosum and C. semerme, and a new species in the Bothnian Bay, C. magdaleni, were studied in the fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis in 1996-1997. The length of the trunk and proboscis differentiated the three species in the fish. The stability of the Corynosoma infection was studied by comparing the present results with those collected from the same areas (central and coastal in 1977-1982 (Valtonen, 1983a. As C. magdaleni and C. strumosum were not separated at that time, the joint infections of these two species (called "C. slrumosum" were compared. The stability of infection with C. semerme in the central Bothnian Bay was noticeable (prevalences were 82.9 in earlier period and 81.9 % in later period, while the prevalences of "C. strumosum" in the same areas had decreased (21 and 1 3.5 %, respectively. This is suggested to be due to the disappearance of the marine bull-rout, Myoxocephalus scorpius, from the Bothnian Bay during the 1990s due to an overall decline in salinity throughout the Baltic Sea. In the coastal area Corynosoma infection was clearly lower than in central area in both periods.

  10. Parasitic zoonoses in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    2005-03-01

    Relatively few species of zoonotic parasites have been recorded in humans in Papua New Guinea. A greater number of potentially zoonotic species, mostly nematodes, occur in animals but are yet to be reported from humans. Protozoa is the best represented group of those infecting man, with Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Entamoeba polecki, Balantidium coli and, possibly, Blastocystis hominis. The only zoonotic helminths infecting humans include the trematode Paragonimus westermani, the cestodes Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and the sparganum larva of Spirometra erinacea, and the nematodes Trichinella papuae and Angiostrongylus cantonensis and, possibly, Ascaris suum. Other groups represented are Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus)), insects (Chrysomya bezziana, Cimex sp., Ctenocephalides spp.), and mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and, possibly Sarcoptes scabiei, and Demodex sp.). One leech (Phytobdella lineata) may also be considered as being zoonotic. The paucity of zoonotic parasite species can be attributed to long historical isolation of the island of New Guinea and its people, and the absence until recent times of large placental mammals other than pig and dog. Some zoonotic helminths have entered the country with recent importation of domestic animals, in spite of quarantine regulations, and a few more (two cestodes, one nematode and one tick) are poised to enter from neighbouring countries, given the opportunity. Improvement in water supplies, human hygiene and sanitation would reduce the prevalence of many of these parasites, and thorough cooking of meat would lessen the risk of infection by some others. PMID:15831107

  11. Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

    2014-12-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax.

  12. The effect of urbanization on helminth communities in the Eurasian blackbird (Turdus merula L.) from the eastern part of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, J; Zaleśny, G

    2014-03-01

    In the present study we investigated two ecologically distinct populations of T. merula for the presence of helminths. We wished to determine whether urban populations of blackbirds had reduced helminth fauna compared to birds from forest habitats. Birds were caught in two ecologically distinct sites located in the eastern part of the Czech Republic. A total of 320 birds were examined. The first site was located in Prerov where the birds were obtained from a typical urban population, and the second site was Zahlinice, which constitutes a typical forest area. As a result of parasitological examination, 30 helminth species belonging to Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were recorded from both sites: 29 species were found in the forested site and 15 in the urban site. The overall prevalence of infection was 93.1% and differed significantly between the sites (Zahlinice 97.2%, Prerov 85.1%). The mean species richness was almost three times higher in the forest population (3.37 ± 0.10) than in the urban one (1.78 ± 0.11). The clear qualitative and quantitative differences in the helminth community of T. merula obtained from two ecologically disparate localities show that urbanization leads to a significant reduction in the helminth fauna of a bird which is highly adapted to synanthropic habitats, while still remaining common in its original forest habitat.

  13. Northeast India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID): Knowledge Base for Helminth Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Most metazoan parasites that invade vertebrate hosts belong to three phyla: Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Many of the parasitic members of these phyla are collectively known as helminths and are causative agents of many debilitating, deforming and lethal diseases of humans and animals. The North-East India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID) project aimed to document and characterise the spectrum of helminth parasites in the north-eastern region of India, providing host, geographical distribution, diagnostic characters and image data. The morphology-based taxonomic data are supplemented with information on DNA sequences of nuclear, ribosomal and mitochondrial gene marker regions that aid in parasite identification. In addition, the database contains raw next generation sequencing (NGS) data for 3 foodborne trematode parasites, with more to follow. The database will also provide study material for students interested in parasite biology. Users can search the database at various taxonomic levels (phylum, class, order, superfamily, family, genus, and species), or by host, habitat and geographical location. Specimen collection locations are noted as co-ordinates in a MySQL database and can be viewed on Google maps, using Google Maps JavaScript API v3. The NEIHPID database has been made freely available at http://nepiac.nehu.ac.in/index.php.

  14. Helminth parasite communities in anuran amphibians of Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary (Haryana), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bhutia, Pasang T

    2010-10-01

    Helminth parasite fauna in anuran amphibia were investigated during the general faunistic surveys of Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary, situated in Haryana state. Three species of amphibian hosts were found to harbour 12 genera of helminth parasites. The prevalence, intensity and abundance were studied. Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis harboured maximum parasite species followed by Fejervarya limnocharis and Duttaphrynus melanostictus. In E. cyanophlyctis, among nematode parasites, the genus Camallanus was most prevalent followed by Cosmocerca and Cosmocercoides, whereas, Rhabdias and Aplectana were the least prevalent genera. Among trematode parasites, Ganeo was the most prevalent genus and least was Diplodiscus. Acanthocephalus was recovered only once and no cestode infection was found. In F. limnocharis, the most prevalent nematode genus was Oxysomatium, followed by Cosmocerca and the only trematode recorded was Ganeo, whereas, cestode Proteocephalus was also recovered once. In D. melanostictus, only two nematode genera were recovered of which Oxysomatium was dominant followed by Cosmocerca. The helminth parasite community in anuran amphibia of Kalesar WLS comprised 52.9% of nematodes, 46.2% of trematodes, 0.58% cestodes and 0.29% acanthocephala. PMID:21966125

  15. Endoparasitic helminths of the harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsteede, F. H. M.; Bus, H. G. J.; Verplanke, J. A. W.; van Burg, W. P. J.

    The endoparasitic helminth fauna of harbour seals which had died during the epidemic of the phocine distemper virus in 1988 was studied. Lungs, heart and gastrointestinal tracts of 94 animals collected along the Dutch coast were available for investigation. The following parasites and infection percentages were found: Nematoda: Dipetalonema spirocauda (24.5%), Otostrongylus circumlitus (6.4%), Parafilaroides gymnurus (24.5%), Ascaridoidea spec. (58.5%); Trematoda: Phagicola septentrionalis (66.0%), Cryptocotyle lingua (74.5%); Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium spec. (8.5%); Acanthocephala: Corynosoma strumosum (70.2%). The presence of worm species was not evenly distributed over the age classes. Seals younger than one year harboured fewer parasites. The highest percentages were found in 1 to 2 year old seals. The number of worms per seal varied greatly. The highest burden for ascarids was 253, for P. septentrionalis 123 000, for C. lingua 112 000 and for C. strumosum 251. A comparison of the present results with those described in the literature shows that in Dutch seals the same species were present and that numbers of worms were not higher than before the 1988 mass mortality. It is therefore concluded that helminth parasites did not cause the mass mortality.

  16. Northeast India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID): Knowledge Base for Helminth Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Most metazoan parasites that invade vertebrate hosts belong to three phyla: Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Many of the parasitic members of these phyla are collectively known as helminths and are causative agents of many debilitating, deforming and lethal diseases of humans and animals. The North-East India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID) project aimed to document and characterise the spectrum of helminth parasites in the north-eastern region of India, providing host, geographical distribution, diagnostic characters and image data. The morphology-based taxonomic data are supplemented with information on DNA sequences of nuclear, ribosomal and mitochondrial gene marker regions that aid in parasite identification. In addition, the database contains raw next generation sequencing (NGS) data for 3 foodborne trematode parasites, with more to follow. The database will also provide study material for students interested in parasite biology. Users can search the database at various taxonomic levels (phylum, class, order, superfamily, family, genus, and species), or by host, habitat and geographical location. Specimen collection locations are noted as co-ordinates in a MySQL database and can be viewed on Google maps, using Google Maps JavaScript API v3. The NEIHPID database has been made freely available at http://nepiac.nehu.ac.in/index.php. PMID:27285615

  17. Parasitic fauna in hybrid tambacu from fish farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronilson Macedo Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the parasitic fauna of hybrid tambacu (Colossoma macropomum x Piaractus mesopotamicus from fish farms and the host-parasite relationship. A hundred and fourteen fish were collected from four fish farms in Macapá, in the state of Amapá, Brazil, 80.7% of which were infected by: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora; Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida; Anacanthorus spatulatus, Notozothecium janauachensis, and Mymarothecium viatorum (Monogenoidea; Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae (Acanthocephala; Cucullanus colossomi (Nematoda; Perulernaea gamitanae (Lernaeidae; and Proteocephalidae larvae (Cestoda. A total of 8,136,252 parasites were collected from the examined fish. This is the first record of N. buttnerae, C. colossomi, N. janauachensis, M. viatorum, and Proteocephalidae for hybrid tambacu in Brazil. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most prevalent parasite, whereas endohelminths were the less. A positive correlation was observed between number of I. multifiliis and total length and weight of fish, as well as between number of P. gamitanae and total length. The infection by I. multifiliis had association with the parasitism by Monogenoidea. Low water quality contributes to high parasitism of hybrid tambacu by ectoparasites, which, however, does not influence the relative condition factor of fish.

  18. Helminth parasites of Australasian monotremes and marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, David M; Beveridge, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This work includes all published records, to April 2015, of the helminths occurring in Australasian monotremes and marsupials, with due regard for synonymy and an attempt to include life history studies, pathological observations and epidemiology. It also contains all unpublished records known to us and referrable, by accession numbers, to curated collections in Australia and overseas. Information is presented by host family, genus, species, sub-species or chromosome race and includes the names of all host species from which no parasites have been recorded. Most records pertain to free-living and wild animals; where they do not, they have been annotated appropriately. Unpublished information known to the authors has been included in annotations to entries, where appropriate. Parasites are arranged as follows: Trematoda, Cestoda, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, and their systematic position is indicated by abbreviations placed before the name. The authority for each parasite record is given after the author's name, as a number in parentheses, and this refers to the numbered (1-664) list of references.        A parasite-host list is presented alphabetically, irrespective of taxonomic affiliation together with the host species in which they are known to occur. Hosts are arranged initially by family and alphabetically within each family. PMID:27395568

  19. Helminth parasites of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examinations of 102 specimens of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic (South Bohemia and South Moravia) were carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) in the years 1987-1992. In them, a total of 19 species of helminth parasites was found, including Trematoda (11 species), Cestoda (2), Nematoda (4) and Acanthocephala (2), which can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for cormorants (Phalacrocorax spp.) (37%), those parasitic mainly in cormorants (16%) and non-specific parasites (47%). Of the 19 species recorded, 100% were found in South Moravia, but only 47% of these 19 species in South Bohemia. The higher number of helminth species in cormorants from South Moravia and a higher proportion of non-specific species may be associated with the presence of the large Nové Mlýny water reservoir, in addition to better ecological and environmental conditions in this warmer region. Scanning electron microscopical examination of three common nematode species parasitising cormorants, Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964, Desmidocercella incognita Solonitsin, 1932 and Syncuaria squamata (von Linstow, 1883), revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported morphological features, such as the cephalic structures, numbers and distribution of male caudal papillae or the shapes of spicules. PMID:27312270

  20. Gnathostomulida--an enigmatic metazoan phylum from both morphological and molecular perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, D T; Telford, M J; Clough, K A; Rohde, K

    1998-02-01

    On the basis of few and contentious morphological characters Gnathostomulids have been thought to be the sister-group of either the Platyhelminthes or the Syndermata (Rotifera + Acanthocephala). We provide a full 18S rDNA sequence for a species of Gnathostomula and attempt to resolve its position among the Metazoa, on the basis of molecular evidence. Sixty sequences, representing 30 nominal phyla and including new entoproct and gastrotrich sequences, were used to reconstruct phylogenies using maximum-parsimony, neighbor-joining, and minimum evolution models. We were unable to support either of the morphological hypotheses outright and, moreover, our data supported more strongly a third possible relationship with the gnathostomulids as a member of the Nematoda + Chaetognatha clade. Superficially, as active benthic, vermiform creatures with sclerotized cuticular jaws, they fit a predicted ancestral form of the Nematoda + Chaetognatha clade and, as such, would arguably be members of the Ecdysozoa. The molecular data at least call for a reevaluation of the morphological data and a denser sampling of the lesser phyla. Data from morphology and molecules act synergistically in estimating phylogeny; morphology alone provided limited phylogenetic signal and alternative phylogenetic hypotheses, whereas the molecular solution suggested an alternative topology which, when interpreted in the light of comparative anatomy, may suggest previously unconsidered possibilities. PMID:9479696

  1. Helminth parasites of Australasian monotremes and marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, David M; Beveridge, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This work includes all published records, to April 2015, of the helminths occurring in Australasian monotremes and marsupials, with due regard for synonymy and an attempt to include life history studies, pathological observations and epidemiology. It also contains all unpublished records known to us and referrable, by accession numbers, to curated collections in Australia and overseas. Information is presented by host family, genus, species, sub-species or chromosome race and includes the names of all host species from which no parasites have been recorded. Most records pertain to free-living and wild animals; where they do not, they have been annotated appropriately. Unpublished information known to the authors has been included in annotations to entries, where appropriate. Parasites are arranged as follows: Trematoda, Cestoda, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, and their systematic position is indicated by abbreviations placed before the name. The authority for each parasite record is given after the author's name, as a number in parentheses, and this refers to the numbered (1-664) list of references.        A parasite-host list is presented alphabetically, irrespective of taxonomic affiliation together with the host species in which they are known to occur. Hosts are arranged initially by family and alphabetically within each family.

  2. Endoparásitos de micromamíferos del noroeste de Perú. 1: helmintos de marsupiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tantaleán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, informamos los resultados del análisis parasitológico realizado a 40 individuos marsupiales de las especies Caluromys lanatus, Didelphis marsupialis, Marmosops noctivagus, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Marmosa (Micoureus regina, Monodelphis adusta, Philander andersoni y Philander opossum procedentes del departamento de Loreto, Perú. Se determinaron en total 11 especies de helmintos parásitos: Nematoda: Aspidodera sp., Cruzia tentaculata, Physaloptera mirandai, Physaloptera sp., Pterygodermatites sp., Trichuris sp., Turgida turgida, y Viannaia sp.; Trematoda: Podospathalium pedatum; Acanthocephala: Giganthorhynchus ortizi; y Pentastomida: ninfa. Los parásitos Trichuris sp., Pterygodematities sp., Turgida turgida, Viannaia sp. y Podospathalium pedatum son nuevos registros para el Perú. De igual manera, se registran por primera vez las siguientes asociaciones parásitos-huéspedes: Pterygodermatites sp.-Marmosa regina, Viannaia sp.- Marmosops noctivagus, Trichuris sp.-Marmosops cf. noctivagus, Podospathalium pedatum-Monodelphis adusta, Giganthorhynchus ortizi-Marmosops cf. noctivagus, y ninfas de pentastómidos-Marmosa regina y Metachirus nudicaudatus.

  3. MACROPARASITE COMMUNITY AND ASYMMETRY OF THE YELLOW EEL ANGUILLA ANGUILLA IN SALSES-LEUCATE LAGOON, SOUTHERN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAZIO G.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available European eel parasites, in particular invasive species, are suspected to have a strong influence on the population dynamics of their host. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between parasitic fauna of yellow eels caught at Salses-Leucate lagoon and the fluctuating asymmetry (FA of some functional bilateral traits: pectoral fins, eyes and otoliths. Epidemiological distance matrices and FA distance matrices were calculated on the basis of the Euclidian distances between each pair of eel and were then compared with a Mantel test in order to establish if there was a relationship between parasitism and FA. Our results revealed different morphological characteristics between eels caught at different dates; only otoliths were found asymmetric. The parasite richness was of 10 species, 1 Nematoda, 1 Acanthocephala, 1 Monogenea and 7 Digenea. We failed to find a significant relationship between asymmetry and parasitism, except for parasites found in the stomach. We discussed the results in the light of the eel life cycle, the specificity of parasite - eel systems and the impact of parasites on the host physiology.

  4. Health problems associated with consumption of fish and the role of aquatic environments in the transmission of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloo, P A

    2000-01-01

    The majority of the numerous fish parasites are harmless to man and many domestic animals because when eaten with their fish hosts, they are digested. However, some of the fish parasites with larval stages in freshwater or marine teleosts have zoonotic potential if eaten raw or partially cooked. These are usually parasites, which have a piscivorous mammalian carnivore as their normal final host and are able to infect man because of the low host specificity of the adult stage. The major groups of fish parasite that are known as potentially dangerous pathogens of man belong to the helminth groups cestoda, trematoda, nematoda and rarely acanthocephala. However, bacterial and viral disease of man transmitted through fish are not uncommon. Toxic substances, metals and insecticides used to control human diseases in aquatic environments may accumulate in fish in po1lluted waters at such levels as to constitute a health risk to the consumer. Other health problems associated with fish arise from its perishable nature for example, in adequate handling, processing and storage, which may lead to the accumulation of microbes enhancing the risk of food poisoning. The aquatic environment in Africa constitutes a breeding habitat to several vectors of human diseases such as mosquitoes, snails and black flies. This paper reviews the role played by fish in transmitting diseases to humans as well as the importance of the aquatic environments in the transmission of human diseases such as Malaria, Schistosomiasis and onchocerciasis.

  5. Parasites of domestic and wild canids in the region of Serra do Cipó National Park, Brazil Parasitos de canídeos domésticos e silvestres na região do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lúcia Costa Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. Greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. This study had the aim of investigating the presence of intestinal helminths in wild canids (maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, and crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous in the Serra do Cipó National Park (43-44º W and 19-20º S and endo and ectoparasites of domestic dogs in the Morro da Pedreira Environmental Protection Area (an area surrounding the National Park. The Serra do Cipó is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Among the enteroparasites found in domestic and wild canids, the following taxons were identified: Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Toxocara sp., Spirocerca sp., Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp., Cestoda, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothriidae, Hymenolepidae, Anoplocephalidae, Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Isospora sp. Domestic dogs were positive for leishmaniasis and Babesia canis in serological tests. Among the ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Ctenocephalides felis felis were observed in domestic dogs. Variations in the chaetotaxy of the meta-episternum and posterior tibia were observed in some specimens of C. felis felis.Nas últimas décadas, as doenças têm sido apontadas como importantes causas de extinção de espécies silvestres. Maior ênfase tem sido dada às doenças transmitidas por animais domésticos que crescem em número, bem como as populações humanas, em áreas naturais. O presente estudo objetivou verificar a presença de helmintos intestinais de canídeos silvestres (lobo-guará - Chrysocyon brachyurus e cachorro-do-mato - Cerdocyon thous do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (43-44º W e 19-20º S e endo e ectoparasitos de cães domésticos da Área de Proteção Ambiental Morro da Pedreira (entorno do

  6. Contribuição para o conhecimento dos parasitos de peixes do litoral do Estado da Guanabara - parte II Contribution to the knowledge of the parasites of fishes in Guanabara State

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    Delir Correa Gomes

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste presente trabalho os autores criam uma nova espécie para o subgênero Plagioporus (Plagioporus Stafford, 1904, P. (P. dollfusi sp. n. fica no grupo "b" da distribuição de travassos & cols. (1966, mais se aproximando de P. (P. multilobatus Travassos & cols. 1966, distinguindo-se principalmente por possuir o limite anterior dos vitelinos na zona acetabular, poro genital bifurcal, bolsa do cirro alcançando a zona acetabular e ovos menores. Apresentam como novas ocorrências Enenterum pimelopteri Nagaty 1942 e Pseudopecoelus priacanthi (Mac Callum, 1921 manter, 1947. Apresentam ainda Garrupa sp. como novo hospedeiro de Pseudopecoelus priacanthi. Referem a presença de Hysterolecitha elongata manter, 1931, Bucephalus varicus manter, 1940, Metadena spectanda travassos, Freitas & Bührnheim, 1967 e uma fêmea jovem de Echinorhynchideae Southwell & Macfie, 1925 (Acanthocephala.In the present work the authors propose a new species under the subgenus P. (Plagioporus Stafford, 1904, which is enclosed in the second group of Travassos & cols. (1966 distribution, nearest to p. (P. multilobatus Travassos & cols., 1966 differing from it mainly by possessing the vitelaria level at the acetabulum, genital pore level with intestinal bifurcation and smaller eggs. They present for Enenterum pimelopteri Nagaty, 1942 and Pseudopecoelus priacanthi (Mac Callum, 1921 Manter, 1947 new geographical distributions. For P. priacanthi they add Garrupa sp. as new host record. They refer Hysterolecitha elongata Manter, 1940, Metadena spectanda Travassos, Freitas & Bührnheim, 1967 and an imature acanthocephalan female under Echinorhynchideae Southwell & Macfie, 1925.

  7. Parasites of the round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1811, an invasive species in the Polish fauna of the Vistula Lagoon ecosystem

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    Leszek Rolbiecki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1811 was introducedinto southern Baltic waters (including the Vistula Lagoon fromthe Black Sea and Sea of Azov in the early 1990s. This studydescribes the parasites of the round goby in its new environment.In 2004, 486 round goby specimens from the Vistula Lagoon wereexamined for parasites. The following taxa were identified:Dermocystidiumsp.; Protozoa: Trichodina domerguei domerguei (Wallengren,1897; Digenea:Cryptocotyle concavum (Creplin, 1825,Diplostomum spp.,Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1831,Bunodera luciopercae (Müller, 1776;Cestoda:Bothriocephalus scorpii (Müller, 1776,Eubothrium crassum (Bloch, 1779,Paradilepis scolecina (Rudolphi, 1819,Proteocephalus filicollis (Rudolphi, 1802,P. gobiorum Dogel et Bychovsky, 1939,Proteocephalus sp.;Nematoda:Anguillicola crassus Kuwahara, Niimi et Itagaki, 1974,Camallanus truncatus (Rudolphi, 1814,Contracaecum spp.,Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Linstow, 1872,Dichelyne minutus (Rudolphi, 1819,Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802;Acanthocephala:Echinorhynchus gadi Müller, 1776,Pomphorhynchus laevis (Müller, 1776.The parasites found were all local species, already reported fromPoland. Except for Dermocystidium sp., C. concavum,P. gobiorum, and D. minutes, they have already been recorded inother fish species in the Vistula Lagoon. The prevalence andmean intensity of infection was low (18.3%; 4.0 indiv. - thisvalue does not include ciliates. The most frequent parasitesincluded H. aduncum (9.9%, 1.2 indiv. and A. crassus (9.1%,1.2 indiv.. In addition, Dermocystidium sp., B. luciopercae,E. crassum, P. scolecina, P. filicollis, C. truncatus and C. ephemeridarum are reported from the round goby for the first time. As the fishhas only recently appeared in the Vistula Lagoon, its parasitic fauna has not yet developed to the full.

  8. Helmintofauna de cavalas, Scomber japonicus Houtt, do Rio de Janeiro

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    A. Arandas Rêgo

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores identificaram as seguintes espécies de helmintos, coletados de 50 cavalas, Scomber japonicus, no Rio de Janeiro: Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829 e Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1858 (Monogenea; Opechona orientalis (Layman, 1930, Lecithocladium harpodontis Srivastava, 1942 e Nematobothrium scombri (Taschenberg, 1879 (Digenea; plerocercos de Trypanorhyncha Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 e Rhinebothrium sp. (Cestoda; Bolbosoma sp. (Acanghocephala e Anisakidae larvares (Nematoda, identificados aos tipos larvares Raphidascaris, Phocanema, Contracaecum e Anisakis tipo 1. Os digenéticos foram os de maior incidência, 84% dos peixes mostraram-se parasitados por uma ou mais espécies. Quanto às espécies, a de maior incidência foi Nematobothrium scombri (Digenea, Didymozoidae, em 46% dos peixes. São pela primeria vez assinalados Scomber japonicus larvas de Phillobothiidae, possivelmente Rhinebothrium, além de larvas de Anisakis do tipo 1. São pela primeira vez assinaladas no Brasil as espécies, Grubea cochlear, Kuhnia scombri, Nematobothrium scombri e Opechona orientalis.There were identified twelve species of helminths from fifty "Spanish Mackerel", Scomber japonicus Houtt, in Rio de Janeiro; Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829, and Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1859 (Monogenea; Opechona orientalis (Layman, 1930, Lecithocladium harpodontis Srivastava, 1942 e Nematobothrium scombri (Taschengerg, 1879 (Digenea; plerocercus of Trypanorhyncha, Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 and Rhinebothrium sp. (Cestoda; Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala and larval Anisakidae (Nematoda, types Raphidascaris, Phocanema, Contracaecum and Anisakis I. Larval Phillobothriid, following species are referred in Brazil for the first time: Grubea cochlear, Kuhnia scombri, Nematobothrium scombri and Opechona orientalis.

  9. Re-establishment of the fish parasite fauna in the Tisa River system (Slovakia) after a catastrophic pollution event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2009-06-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in 1,316 freshwater fish representing 31 species from two aquatic ecosystems in southeastern Slovakia characterized by different level of environmental pollution was carried out. The helminth species diversity was compared between the Tisa River, heavily polluted with cyanides and heavy metals after a series of ecological disasters in 2000, and the less anthropogenically influenced Latorica River. A parasitological survey found 31 gastrointestinal helminths: Trematoda (11 species), Cestoda (14), Acanthocephala (3) and Nematoda (3). As many as 70 host-parasite combinations have been found. Twenty of them (28.6%) represent new host-parasite finding records for the territory of Slovakia. The component communities were species-poor in both rivers, with high dominance of one to three helminth species. Even though the fish communities were qualitatively similar (ICS = 81%) and the number of fish examined was approximately the same (676 and 640) in both localities, the helminth species richness and diversity of host-parasite combinations were two times lower in the more polluted Tisa River. The helminth communities were also much less abundant in the Tisa River. Based on the Czekanowski-Sørensen similarity index (ICS = 48.8%) and the Percentage similarity index (PI = 19.5%), the helminth communities were qualitatively and quantitatively different in the two rivers. The remarkable lack of species diversity in the Tisa River can be explained by the negative impact of residual contamination of the Tisa river bottom on certain freshwater invertebrates (bivalves and prosobranch mollusks, copepods and amphipods) which serve as obligatory intermediate hosts for the helminths. Four species, the aspidogastrean Aspidogaster limacoides Diesing, 1835, the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Rudolphi, 1809) tapeworms Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 and Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 are recorded in Slovakia for the first time

  10. Estudo comparativo dos helmintos parasitos de peixes do rio Mogi Guassu, coletados nas excursões realizadas entre 1927 e 1985 Comparative study of helminth parasites of fishes from Mogi Guassu river, collected during expeditions between 1927 and 1985

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    Anna Kohn

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho abrange o parasitismo por nematóides, acantocéfalos, trematódeos e cestóides de 1027 peixes pertencentes a 45 espécies do rio Mogi Guassu, examinados nos anos de 1927, 1946, 1947, 1962, 1983 e 1985, como uma contribuição ao conhecimento da fauna parasitária em 58 anos. São relacionadas 32 espécies de nematóides, 21 de trematódeos, três de acantocéfalos e duas de cestóides. São referidos novos hospedeiros para Cucullanus pinnai, Spirocamallanus inopinatus e Travnema travnema, para o trematódeo Pararhipidocotyle jeffersoni e para o acantocéfalo Gorytocephalus spectabilis. São apresentadas medidas adicionais de Creptotrema lynchi, tabelas, gráficos e a lista dos hospedeiros examinados e seus parasitos.This paper concerns the parasitism of Nematoda, Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Cestoda from 1027 fishes of 45 species from Mogi Guassu river, examined in the years 1927, 1946, 1947, 1962, 1983 and 1985 as a contribution to the knowledge of the parasitological fauna in 58 years. Thirty two species of nematodes, 21 of trematodes, 3 of acanthocephalans and 2 of cestodes are reported. New hosts are presented for the nematodes Cucullanus pinnai, Spirocamallanus inopinatus and Travnema travnema, for the trematode Pararhipidocotyle jeffersoni and for the acanthocephalan Gorytocephalus spectabilis. New measurements for the trematode Creptotrema lynchy, tables, graphics and a list of the examined hosts with their parasites are presented.

  11. Survey on parasitic infections in wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris Schreber, 1777) by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Ettore; Anile, Stefano; Arrabito, Carmelo; Scornavacca, Davide; Mazzamuto, Maria Vittoria; Gaglio, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore; Brianti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Wildcats are endangered felid species living in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Regrettably, scientific information on parasites of wildcats is particularly meager and they often rely on data gained by necropsies of a small number of animals. In the present study, scat collection was used to assess the parasite spectrum of European wildcats living in the Etna Park (Sicily, Italy). Scat collection was performed from May to September 2010 by weekly walking four transects for a total of 391 km. Samples were then analyzed by flotation and sedimentation techniques to investigate wildcat parasitic fauna. A total of 121 scats of wildcats were collected, and parasitic forms (i.e., oocysts, eggs, and larvae) were retrieved in 110 (90.9 %) of the samples. Parasites found were Physaloptera sp. (52.1 %), tapeworms (45.5 %), Toxocara cati (43.8 %), Eucoleus aerophilus (27.3 %), Ancylostoma sp. (22.3 %), Troglostrongylus brevior (15.7 %), trematodes (9.9 %), Isospora felis (4.1 %), Cylicospirura sp. (1.7 %), and Acanthocephala (0.8 %). The prevalence of endoparasitic infections herein recorded is similar to that described in other studies conducted using necropsy technique. The species richness of parasites found in the present survey, with a total of nine helminths and one protozoon, is the highest ever reported for wildcat in Europe. Scat collection and examination are reliable and rapid non-invasive tools which can be used in a systematic survey design to study the parasite spectrum of wildcat as well as that of other endangered wild species.

  12. On Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974: South American correlated species (Nematoda, Cucullanidae and some other helminths of micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Pisces, Sciaenidae Sobre Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974: espécies sul americanas correlatas (Nematoda, Cucullanidae e alguns outros helmintos de Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823(Pisces, Sciaenidae

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    J. Júlio Vicente

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tomquist, 1931 Petter, 1974, from Venezuela, of which D.(C. amaurincai (Freitas, Vicente & Ibáñez, 1969 Petter, 1974 is proposed as a junior synonym, is redescribed and comments on the present status of the remaining species under the group, namely D.(C. dichelyneformes (Szidat, 1950 Petter, 1974, D.(C. rodriguesi (Pinto, Fábio & Noronha, 1970 Petter, 1974 and D.(C. travassosi (Guimarães & Cristofaro, 1974, occuring in South America are made. Dollfusentis chandleri Golvan, 1969 (Acanthocephala, Illiosentidae, Poecilancistrium caryophyllum (Diesing, 1850(Cestoidea, Otobothriidae and Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819(Cestoidea, Dasyrhynchidae as well as larval forms of Echinocephalus sp. (Nematoda, Gnathostomatidae and Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae are also reported.Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974, da Venezuela, da qual D.(C. amaurincai (Freitas, Vicente & Ibáñez, 1969 Petter, 1974 é proposta como sinônimo junior, é descrita, e são feitos comentários sobre a atual situação das outras espécies do mesmo grupo, ocorrendo na América do Sul, a saber: D.(C. dichelyneformes (Szidat, 1950 Petter, 1974, D.(C. rodriguesi (Pinto, Fábio & Noronha, 1971 Petter, 1974 e D.(C. travassosi (Guimarães & Cristofaro, 1974. Dollfusentis chandleri Golvan, 1969 (Acantochephala, Illiosentidae, Poecilancistrium cariophyllum (Diesing, 1850 (Cestoidea, Otobothriidae e Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819 (Cestoidea, Dayrhynchidae bem como formas larvares de Exhinocephalus sp. (Nematoda, Gnathostomatidae e Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae são também assinaladas.

  13. Host range, host ecology, and distribution of more than 11800 fish parasite species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Palomares, Maria Lourdes D.; Bailly, Nicholas; Galli, Paolo; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Our data set includes 38 008 fish parasite records (for Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda) compiled from the scientific literature, Internet databases, and museum collections paired to the corresponding host ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic traits (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, habitat preference, geographical range size, taxonomy). The data focus on host features, because specific parasite traits are not consistently available across records. For this reason, the data set is intended as a flexible resource able to extend the principles of ecological niche modeling to the host–parasite system, providing researchers with the data to model parasite niches based on their distribution in host species and the associated host features. In this sense, the database offers a framework for testing general ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic hypotheses based on the identification of hosts as parasite habitat. Potential applications of the data set are, for example, the investigation of species–area relationships or the taxonomic distribution of host-specificity. The provided host–parasite list is that currently used by Fish Parasite Ecology Software Tool (FishPEST, http://purl.oclc.org/fishpest), which is a website that allows researchers to model several aspects of the relationships between fish parasites and their hosts. The database is intended for researchers who wish to have more freedom to analyze the database than currently possible with FishPEST. However, for readers who have not seen FishPEST, we recommend using this as a starting point for interacting with the database.

  14. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species-genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  15. МАТЕРИАЛЫ К ГЕЛЬМИНТОФАУНЕ ЗЕЛЕНОЙ ЖАБЫ B UFO VIRIDIS LAURENTI, 1768 (AMPHIBIA: ANURA) В САМАРСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

    OpenAIRE

    Чихляев, И.

    2014-01-01

    Представлены данные о гельминтофауне зеленой жабы Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 на территории Самарской области. Всего обнаружено 14 видов гельминтов из 5 классов: Monogenea (1), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (6), Nematoda (5) и Acanthocephala (1). Типичными паразитами с высокой степенью инвазии являются геонематоды Cosmocerca commutata (Diesing, 1851), Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) и Rhabdias bufonis (Schrank, 1788). Моногенеи, цестоды, трематоды и скребни относятся к числу редких паразитов ...

  16. Gastrointestinal helminths of raccoons (Procyon lotor in western Poland (Lubuskie province - with particular regard to Baylisascaris procyonis

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    Karamon Jacek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in raccoons with particular regard to zoonotic parasites. Fifty-five raccoons, hunted or found dead on roads, were examined. The small and large intestines were collected from all raccoons and, additionally, the stomach was collected from 43 animals. The samples were examined with the use of sedimentation and counting technique. The intestines and stomach were examined separately. Samples of raccoon faeces were collected from their environment localised in Słubice district, Lubuskie province (Poland. The samples were collected once a month in 2012. In total, 154 faecal samples were obtained and examined with the use of McMaster flotation technique. The following parasites were detected in the intestinal and stomach contents: tapeworms Mesocestoides sp. (67.3%, Echinostomatidae flukes (34.5%, and nematodes Capillaria sp. (25.5%. Moreover, Acanthocephala were found in the intestines of three raccoons. The highest intensity of infection were observed in case of Mesocestoides sp. Mesocestoides sp. and Echinostomatidae were found statistically more often in the intestines than in the stomach. In the case of these two parasites, there was positive correlation between the intensity of infection in the intestines and the presence of the same parasites in the stomach. Moreover, significantly higher prevalence and intensity of Mesocestoides sp. in males than in females were also observed. Faecal samples contained Baylisascaris procyonis eggs (mean 60 epg. These eggs were found in three samples collected in November and December. Furthermore, in some faecal samples eggs of flukes, Capillaria sp., Mesocystoides sp., and coccidian oocysts were found. It is one of rare reports concerning Baylisascaris procyonis in Poland confirming the presence of this dangerous parasite in Polish raccoon population.

  17. Survey on parasitic infections in wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris Schreber, 1777) by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Ettore; Anile, Stefano; Arrabito, Carmelo; Scornavacca, Davide; Mazzamuto, Maria Vittoria; Gaglio, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore; Brianti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Wildcats are endangered felid species living in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Regrettably, scientific information on parasites of wildcats is particularly meager and they often rely on data gained by necropsies of a small number of animals. In the present study, scat collection was used to assess the parasite spectrum of European wildcats living in the Etna Park (Sicily, Italy). Scat collection was performed from May to September 2010 by weekly walking four transects for a total of 391 km. Samples were then analyzed by flotation and sedimentation techniques to investigate wildcat parasitic fauna. A total of 121 scats of wildcats were collected, and parasitic forms (i.e., oocysts, eggs, and larvae) were retrieved in 110 (90.9 %) of the samples. Parasites found were Physaloptera sp. (52.1 %), tapeworms (45.5 %), Toxocara cati (43.8 %), Eucoleus aerophilus (27.3 %), Ancylostoma sp. (22.3 %), Troglostrongylus brevior (15.7 %), trematodes (9.9 %), Isospora felis (4.1 %), Cylicospirura sp. (1.7 %), and Acanthocephala (0.8 %). The prevalence of endoparasitic infections herein recorded is similar to that described in other studies conducted using necropsy technique. The species richness of parasites found in the present survey, with a total of nine helminths and one protozoon, is the highest ever reported for wildcat in Europe. Scat collection and examination are reliable and rapid non-invasive tools which can be used in a systematic survey design to study the parasite spectrum of wildcat as well as that of other endangered wild species. PMID:26377843

  18. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species–genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  19. Comparative studies on Pb and Cd levels in parasites of terrestrial and aquatic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sures, B.; Taraschewski, H. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Zoologisches Institut-Okologie

    1995-12-31

    Several fish parasites (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Nematoda) and organs of their respective intermediate and final hosts were analyzed for heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Pb and Cd were also quantified in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica as well as in different organs of the large intestinal roundworm Ascaris suum. The levels of these heavy metals in the parasites were compared to those of muscle, liver, kidney and intestine of the respective definitive hosts cattle and swine obtained from a slaughter house. Most parasites accumulated significantly higher levels of metals than their final hosts. This was most conspicuous in acanthocephalans which contained up to 3 {times} 10{sup 3} fold more lead than the muscle of their fish hosts and up to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 4} more lead than the water surrounding the fish. In these helminths cadmium was enriched up to 400 fold compared to the muscle of the fish and up to 2.7 {times} 10{sup 4} compared to the water. In contrast to the accumulation capacity of adult acanthocephalans their larvae contained about 30 to 180 times less Pb and Cd. Thus, the predominant accumulation of both metals appears in the adult worms. The cestodes of fish and the liver flukes of cattle accumulated the metals up to 200 fold compared to the muscle of their hosts. The nematodes did not contain higher levels of the metals than their hosts. Thus, parasites, especially acanthocephalans, seem to be sensitive bioindicators of Pb and Cd in their environments.

  20. Parásitos de peces nativos de la cuenca del Río Laja (Chile Central y alcances sobre sus ciclos de vida Parasitism of native fishes from Laja river basin (Región del Bío-Bío, Chile and approaches about life cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. OLMOS

    2003-12-01

    ethanol at 70%. The prevalence and intensity of seven parasites taxa were recorded: Mixobolus sp., Henneguya sp., Ancrynocephalidae (Monogenea, Zoogonidae (Digenea, Steganodermata sp (Zoogonidae, Nematoda and Pomphorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala. P. irwini harbours the most diverse and rich parasite assemblage with 4 species, followed by T. areolatus with 3 taxa. D. nahuelbutaensis have only one parasite species but with high prevalence levels (89%. The life cycle of these parasites, the possible new host-parasite association and its consequences are discussed

  1. Assessing Biodiversity:A Heavy Task%生物多样性的评估仍是一项艰巨的工作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋大祥; 周开亚

    2002-01-01

    这一个在生物多样性中占优势类群方面来.%A comparison of the number of animal species of China and the world is tentatively made based on materials already known. The species diversity of invertebrates belonging to the phyla Gnathostomula, Gastrotricha, Nematomorpha, Onychophora and Pterobranchia are nearly unknown from China's fauna. Besides, many groups are still poorly known and pending further study, such as the invertebrates of the following phyla (or part taxa under them): Porifera, Mesozoa, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, Echiura, Pogonophora, Mollusca, Branchiopoda, Entoprocta, Tardigrada, Pentastoma, Arthropoda and Enteropneusta. The status of threatened animals is also discussed. Forest destruction and over-exploitation of animal resources are undoubtly the main factors threatening species diversity. Besides, water pollution and eutrophication has become major factors bringing many animals, especially freshwater invertebrates, to the verge of extinction. During the past decades Chinese zoologists have exerted great efforts in the study of taxonomy and protection of wild animals, especially the rare and endemic species, as well as those of great economic value. However, in a megadiversity country like China, there is still a large number of species of higher taxa remain to be investigated and inventoried.

  2. 上海市部分鸟类寄生蠕虫感染情况调查%INVESTIGATION ON HELMINTHS IN BIRDS FROM SHANGHAI, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红玉; 裴恩乐; 黄兵; 李榴佳; 董辉; 朱顺海; 吴有陵; 吴迪; 赵其平; 姜连连; 王艳歌

    2013-01-01

    and Coturnixcoturnix. A total of 932 helminths were detected in 33 birds, 268 trematodas in 16 birds of 9 species, 631cestodes in 17 birds of 8 species, 17 nematodes in 12 birds of 7 species and 16 acanthocephalas in 7 birds of 4 species. These helminths were found in lungs, livers, kidneys and guts but not in hearts, tracheas, stomaches and subcutaneous layers. Among 932 helminthes observed in 33 birds, 746 helminths (80.04%) lived in guts of 27 birds (81.82%) and 182 helminths (19.53%) lived in livers of 8 birds (24.24%). High infection rates of helminthes were found in Columba and Turduscardis. Each of Columba examined in the study had 171 helminths and each Turduscardis had 123 helminths. These results suggested that birds from Shanghai markets carried a high diversity of helminths, including trematoda, cestode, nematode and acanthocephalan.