Sample records for acanthina monodon pallas

  1. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile



    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 % y cirripedios (5 %. La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energéticaWe investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the

  2. The effects of temperature and oxygen availability on intracapsular development of Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae El efecto de la temperatura y la disponibilidad de oxígeno sobre el desarrollo intracapsular de Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae



    Full Text Available Freshwater and marine organisms show similar models of parental care and are faced with similar constraints to brood, which suggest that comparable environmental limits drive the evolution of parental care in aquatic systems. In fact, the low diffusion coefficient and solubility of oxygen in aquatic environments affect oxygen acquisition and therefore the capacity to aggregate embryos. The effect of other critical environmental variables, such as temperature, is less clear. We assessed the effects of temperature and oxygen availability on (1 the number of developed and undeveloped encapsulated embryos, (2 the proportion of embryos reaching advanced stages during intracapsular development (counting not only developed and undeveloped embryos but also abnormal embryos, (3 asynchrony in development (estimated only in capsules in which development occurred, and (4 final embryo size, as the first step toward identifying the main factors constraining parental care in the ocean. We used the gastropod Acanthina monodon as a model because it has an extended latitudinal range of distribution and exhibits feeding larvae during intracapsular development. The latter factor is relevant because previous studies have suggested that sibling cannibalism could be triggered by intracapsular competition for oxygen. Freshly laid egg capsules were collected and incubated until embryos hatched under different experimental temperatures (7, 11, 15 and 19 °C and oxygen conditions (hypoxia: 50-60 % air saturation; normoxia; and hyperoxia: 150-160 %. More embryos remained in early stages at the end of the experimental period under hypoxia and at the highest experimental temperature. The mean number of developed embryos was significantly lower under hypoxia conditions than under normoxia and hyperoxia, but was not influenced by temperature. However, temperature negatively affected embryo size of developed embryos and the level of asynchrony (number of different developmental

  3. Prey selection and foraging period of the predaceous rocky intertidal snail, Acanthina punctulata.

    Menge, Jane Lubchenco


    The diet and foraging period of the neogastropod Acanthina punctulata were investigated in order to test various aspects of recent optimal foraging strategy models. This intertidal snail is an actively searching predator which preys on snails and barnacles by boring a hole in the shell and rasping out the flesh. Unlike many gastropod predators, Acanthina drill its gastropod prey at a very specific location on the columella, the thickest portion of the shell. Acanthina's foraging period can be interpreted as a compromise between maximizing the energy obtained by feeding and minimizing risk of mortality from exposure to wave action. That foraging period minimizing risk of being dislodged by waves appears to be during low tide when the predators can be in shallow pools. However, prey cannot be captured and consumed during one low tide. Thus Acanthina must be exposed during some high tides, and its strategy appears to be to restrict movement while exposed. Thus search is not initiated during high tide, but drilling and prey consumption are continued during that time. A snail not drilling or consuming prey seeks the protection of crevices or large anemones during high tide. A model is presented to indicate the relative amounts of risk and net energy for Acanthina at successive low and high tides. Predictions from the model, e.g., minimizing search time to avoid being exposed for an additional high tide and no movement during high tide are supported by field data. Acanthina commences foraging at the beginning of low tide, searches initially for preferred prey, but if unsuccessful, settles for a less preferred prey and begins drilling this prey before the end of low tide. Drilling and ingestion of prey occur during the following high and sometimes low tides. These "handling times" take 95% of the total foraging time in the field, while search time takes only 5% (pursuit time is negligible). Drilling alone accounts for 48-70% of the total drilling and eating time. In the

  4. Secular obliquity variations of Ceres and Pallas

    Bills, Bruce G.; Scott, Bryan R.


    We examine variations in the orientations of the orbit poles and spin poles of Ceres and Pallas, on time scales of a few million years. We consider these two bodies together because they have similar orbits, but very different present states of knowledge concerning internal mass distribution and spin pole orientation. For Ceres, the Dawn mission has recently provided accurate estimates of the current spin pole orientation, and the degree 2 spherical harmonics of the gravitational potential. The polar moment of inertia is not as well constrained, but plausible bounds are known. For Pallas, we have estimates of the shape of the body, and spin pole orientation and angular rate, all derived from optical light curves. Using those input parameters, and the readily computed secular variations in the orbit pole, we can compute long term variations in the spin pole orientation. This provides information concerning long term variations in insolation, which controls stability of surface volatiles.

  5. Tartus taas kunstiühing "Pallas" / Enn Lillemets

    Lillemets, Enn, 1958-


    5. jaan. kanti Tartu Linnakohtus mittetulundusühingute ja sihtasutuste registrisse kunstiühing "Pallas", mis on 1998. a. asutatud Tartu Kunstiühingu uus nimi. "Pallase" kui huviühenduse eesmärgist, kõrgemas kunstikoolis "Pallas" õppinud ühingu liikmeid.

  6. The Pallas business case between dreams and reality; De Pallas business case tussen droom en werkelijkheid

    Van der Keur, H.


    This report provides an overview of government policies in Canada and the Netherlands and international policies for securing the supply of medical isotopes. LAKA comments these policies with findings from own research. LAKA also identifies production methods - accelerators or research reactor - for the short and longer term that show the most benefit for recovery and ensure continuity in the supply of medical isotopes. This report also is an attempt to restart the debate on the future of medical isotope production in the Netherlands. According to LAKA the business case for the Pallas reactor is based on unrealistic positive assumptions and concludes that the Pallas reactor should not secure the supply of medical isotopes but the future of nuclear energy in the Netherlands [Dutch] Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van zowel het overheidsbeleid in Canada als in Nederland, en het internationale beleid voor het veiligstellen van de aanvoer van medische isotopen. Het voorziet deze van commentaar met bevindingen uit eigen onderzoek en stelt vast welke productiemethode - versnellers of onderzoeksreactor - op de korte en de langere termijn het meeste profijt biedt voor herstel en waarborging van de continuïteit in de aanvoer van medische isotopen. Met dit rapport wil de stichting Laka een poging doen om alsnog een debat op gang te brengen over de toekomst van medische isotopenproductie in Nederland. Volgens Laka is de business case voor de Pallas reactor gebaseerd op onrealistische positieve aannames en concludeert dan ook dat de Pallas reactor niet de aanvoer van medische isotopen maar de toekomst van kernenergie in Nederland veilig moet stellen.

  7. Blagotvoritelnõi auktsion v podderzhku obshtshestva Pallas


    Kunstiühingu "Pallas" toetuseks toimub 2. oktoobril Tartus "Werneri" kohvikus Vaal galerii korraldatud heategevuslik kunstioksjon. Loetletud enampakkumisele tulevate teoste autoreid. Näitus Vaal galeriis on avatud 29. septembrist 2. oktoobrini

  8. Interaction between digoxin and dronedarone in the PALLAS trial

    Hohnloser, Stefan H; Halperin, Jonathan L; Camm, A John;


    BACKGROUND: Elevated serum digoxin concentration can cause toxicity, including death. Dronedarone increases digoxin concentration by P-glycoprotein interaction. In Permanent Atrial Fibrillation Outcome Study Using Dronedarone On Top Of Standard Therapy Trial (PALLAS), dronedarone was associated w...

  9. Ptentsõ shkolõ "Pallas" / Rene Bibikov

    Bibikov, Rene


    Näitus ѕPallaslaste maalikunst Rahvusraamatukogus" raamatukogu peanäitusesaalis. Ekspositsioon koosneb Rahvusraamatukogu kunstikogus leiduvatest kunstikoolis ѕPallasؤ õppinud maalikunstnike töödest. Nende seas on Eesti kunstiklassika vanameistrid Andrus Johani, Richard Sagrits, Richard Uutmaa, Silvia Leitu, Elmar Kits, Eerik Haamer jt. Näituse koostas kunstiteadlane Jüri Hain. Kujundas Andres Tolts. 4 ill

  10. Angular Diameter of the Asteroids Vesta and Pallas Determined from Speckle Observations


    Arizona 85721 19. IKY WORDS (Continue en reverse eid* 1 necessry’ and Identify by block number)I... Speckle interferometry Asteroids Vesta Pallas 20...applied to Vesta and Pallas, yielding diameters of 550±23 and 873*55 kin, respectivell The improved Vesta speckle diameter is in excellent agreement with...other measurements for Vesta . However, the derived Pallas diameter is slightly larger than other measurements. This is perhaps attributable to

  11. The shape and surface variation of 2 Pallas from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Schmidt, B E; Thomas, P C; Bauer, J M; Li, J-Y; McFadden, L A; Mutchler, M J; Radcliffe, S C; Rivkin, A S; Russell, C T; Parker, J Wm; Stern, S A


    We obtained Hubble Space Telescope images of 2 Pallas in September 2007 that reveal distinct color and albedo variations across the surface of this large asteroid. Pallas's shape is an ellipsoid with radii of 291 (+/-9), 278 (+/-9), and 250 (+/-9) kilometers, implying a density of 2400 (+/-250) kilograms per cubic meter-a value consistent with a body that formed from water-rich material. Our observations are consistent with the presence of an impact feature, 240 (+/-25) kilometers in diameter, within Pallas's ultraviolet-dark terrain. Our observations imply that Pallas is an intact protoplanet that has undergone impact excavation and probable internal alteration.

  12. Building the Method to Determine the Rate of Freezing Water in Penaeus monodon of the Freezing Process

    Nguyen Tan Dzung


    Full Text Available The method of determination the rate of freezing water in Penaeus monodon of freezing process was established on base the equation of energy balance in warming up process Penaeus monodon after freezing to determine specific heat of Penaeus monodon. The result obtained was built the mathematical model (19 to determine the rate of freezing water according to the freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon. The results indicated that when water was completely frozen (ω = 1 or 100%, the optimal freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon was-22.00°C.

  13. Prima segnalazione di Saga pedo (Pallas, 1771) per la Toscana (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

    Vergari, Sebastiano; Vergari, Simone; Dondini, Gianna; Carotti, Giovanni


    First record of Saga pedo (Pallas, 1771) for Tuscany (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). The presence in Tuscany of the katydid Saga pedo (Pallas, 1771) is recorded for the first time. Saga pedo is considered a vulnerable species in the EU and it is included in Annex IV of Council Directive 92/43/EEC.

  14. Innovative environmental enrichment method for Pallas cat (Felis manul)

    Rioldi, Emmanuela


    Due to the expansion of the human population we are an increasing threat to all wild animals. They are driven to exist in smaller areas and in the worst case scenario extinction. Zoos are being encouraged to improve the animal’s physical and social surroundings. Environmental enrichment is a term used for such improvements. In this behavioural study, the enrichment introduced to two Pallas cats (Felis manul) at Parken Zoo in Eskilstuna, Sweden, consisted of a fishing rod and a clothes peg wit...

  15. Life history parameters of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Greenland

    Garde, Eva; Hansen, Steen H; Ditlevsen, Susanne


    Life history parameters for narwhals (Monodon monoceros) were estimated based on age estimates from aspartic acid racemization of eye lens nuclei. Eyes, reproductive organs, and measures of body lengths were collected from 282 narwhals in East and West Greenland in the years 1993, 2004, and 2007...... projection matrix was parameterized with the data on age structure and fertility rates. The annual rate of increase of narwhals in East Greenland was estimated to be 3.8% while narwhals in West Greenland had a rate of increase at 2.6%. Key words:...

  16. Toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) raised in captivity.

    Basso, W; Edelhofer, R; Zenker, W; Möstl, K; Kübber-Heiss, A; Prosl, H


    Manuls or Pallas' cats (Felis manul, syn. Otocolobus manul) are endangered wild cats from Central Asia kept and bred in many zoos. Despite good breeding success young cats frequently die from acute toxoplasmosis. From 1998 to 2002, a breeding pair in the Schönbrunn Zoo in Vienna, Austria, gave birth to 24 kittens; 58 % of kittens died between the 2nd and the 14th week of life, mostly due to acute toxoplasmosis. The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats was examined and a control strategy to protect the kittens from fatal toxoplasmosis was developed. One 12-week-old kitten from a litter of 6 born in 2001 died of generalized toxoplasmosis. This kitten had shed T. gondii oocysts that were bioassayed in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated in tissue culture inoculated with tissues of these mice. The surviving animals were immediately treated with clindamycin for 16 weeks; they acquired a natural infection and seroconverted by the end of this time without clinical signs.

  17. Immune response of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) against Vibrios furnissii pathogen

    Kumaran Subramanian; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Rajasekar Thirunavukarasu; Suresh Gopal; Pugazhvendan Sampath Renuka; Alagappan Kumarappan


    Objective: To analyse experimental infection and immune system of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) against Vibrios furnissii (V. furnissii). Methods: Experimental animals were collected and acclimatized by maintaining specific temperature, pH and salinity to avoid mortality. Shrimps were experimentally infected with V. furnissii and their immune responses were monitored. After the infection all the shrimps were monitored for any symptoms, death rate in 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 h. Then haemolymph were collected and tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium and lysozyme were monitored in every 12 h at the interval of 48 h. Results: Shrimps infected by live V. furnissii had showed gradual increase in tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase activity, nitro-blue-tetrazolium and lysozyme activity comparing with the killed and control.Conclusions:The live V. furnissii shows infection in experimental shrimps comparing with killed V. furnissii. So the V. furnissii in nature cause the infection in shrimp Penaeus monodon immune system. This report could be applied to control of the infection in shrimp hatchery.


    Angga Hadi Saputra


    Angga Hadi Saputra, Influence Of The Black Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Depository Time To Aminohydantoin (AHD) Analyzed Result With ELISA Method advised by Azis, S.Pi., M.Si. Black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) was which one of export commodity that been reach the international market. Sometimes many country or citizen use antibiotic that prohibited to overcoming the prawn health from many deseases like group of antibiotic nitrofurans that is Aminohydantoin (AHD). To know the result of an...

  19. Bioaccumulation and depuration of anthracene in Penaeus monodon (Fibricius) through food ingestion.

    Ong, Pei Thing; Yong, Jaw Chuen; Chin, Kam Yew; Hii, Yii Siang


    Understanding on the bioaccumulation and depuration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in Penaeus monodon is important in seafood safety because it is one of the most popular seafood consumed worldwide. In this study, we used anthracene as the precursor compound for PAHs accumulation and depuration in the shrimp. Commercial feed pellets spiked with anthracene were fed to P. monodon. At 20 mg kg(-1) anthracene, P. monodon accumulated 0.1% of the anthracene from the feed. P. monodon deputed the PAH two times faster than its accumulation. The shrimp reduced its feed consumption when anthracene content in the feed exceeded 20 mg kg(-1). At 100 mg kg(-1) anthracene, P. monodon started to have necrosis tissues on the posterior end of their thorax. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), uptake rate constant (k(1)) and depuration rate constant (k(2)) of anthracene in P. monodon were 1.15×10(-3), 6.80×10(-4) d(-1) and 6.28×10(-1) d(-1), respectively. The depuration rate constant is about thousand times higher than the uptake rate constant and this indicated that this crustacean is efficient in depurating hydrocarbons from their tissue.

  20. Macroparasites of Pallas's squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) introduced into Europe.

    Dozières, A; Pisanu, B; Gerriet, O; Lapeyre, C; Stuyck, J; Chapuis, J-L


    Introduced pets released in natura can lead to sanitary risks for native fauna and humans. We analysed the macroparasite fauna of a total of 49 Pallas's squirrels, Callosciurus erythraeus, from two populations introduced into urbanised areas in Europe (n=16 female symbol and 13 male symbol from Antibes, France, 43 degrees 33'N-7 degrees 7'E; n=11 female symbol and 9 male symbol in from Dadizele, Belgium, 50 degrees 52'N-3 degrees 5'E). Of the 185 identified ectoparasites from Antibes, 183 were sucking lice Enderleinellus kumadai, with male squirrels 10 times more intensely infested than females. The flea Nosopsyllus fasciatus was found on two hosts. No hard ticks were recovered. Of the 131 arthropods specimens from Dadizele, 45 belonged to E. kumadai, with male squirrels three times more intensely infested than females. Eighty-six arthropods belonged to another sucking louse, Hoplopleura erismata, with males infested twice as intensely as females. No fleas or hard ticks were found. We only found 12 immature Hymenolepis sp. cestodes in the small intestine of three squirrels from Antibes and two immature Mastophorus sp. female nematodes in the stomach of a squirrel from Dadizele. We found no other helminths in the body cavity, heart, lung, liver, kidney or bladder. The macroparasite fauna of these two squirrel populations is consistent with what is expected from an introduced host, i.e., a few species dominated by specialist taxa imported with founders. The scarcity of other rodent species in the urbanized areas where Pallas's squirrels were sampled may explain the low variety of newly acquired macroparasites. The discrepancy in sucking lice infestations between males and females could be due to differences in either behaviour or physiology in this non-sexually dimorphic host. Based on the macroparasites found in this study, we expect minimal sanitary risks for both native fauna and humans in urbanized habitats such as those in our study.

  1. [Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811). The structure of the organic world and the notion of species. On the bicentenary of the death of P. S. Pallas].

    Bednarczyk, Andrzej


    An attempt has been made in the current paper to dispel two myths concerning Peter Simon Pallas, myths which have led historians of biology to distort the picture of some of the general biological ideas developed by that eminent naturalist of the Age of Enlightenment. The first point dealt with in the paper involves the myth that Pallas had allegedly drafted a 'tree of life' diagram, one of the many graphic representations of this kind to appear in later times, illustrating the structure of the organic world. The tree, of which Pallas merely left a short description (but not a depiction), took--in the articles of authors who wrote about it--a variety of graphic forms (largely dependent on the authors' pictorial inventiveness), with all the authors assuring the readers that they illustrated their reasoning with the help of Pallas's tree of life, but never mentioning that it was they themseIves who had drawn it. The current paper presents a juxtaposition of a number of such diagrams, drawn by different authors: the great diversity of the diagrams is sufficient proof that the existence of one, original 'Pallas tree' is just a myth. Another aspect of the myth has to do with the view that the tree supposedly illustrated phylogenetic dependencies - in fact, Pallas described affinity relationships between groups in the animal world. The present paper investigates how the 'tree of life' myth has developed, and reveals the mechanism that has most likely led to the myth being perpetuated in writings on the history of biology. The second issue discussed in the current paper relates to the myth of how Pallas's general views on biology allegedly evolved. The naturalist was supposed to have moved from transformism (characteristic of early stages of his work) to the idea of the immutability of species, formed in the period of his full scientific maturity. The current paper proves, inter alia on the basis of little known and not easily accessible writings by the scholar, that

  2. Protein profiling in the gut of Penaeus monodon gavaged with oral WSSV-vaccines and live white spot syndrom virus

    Kulkarni, A.D.; Kiron, V.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Brinchmann, M.; Fernandes, J.M.O.; Sudheer, N.S.; Singh, B.I.S.


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that causes considerable mortality of the farmed shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Candidate ‘vaccines’, WSSV envelope protein VP28 and formalin-inactivated WSSV, can provide short-lived protection against the virus. In this study, P. monodon was orally intubate

  3. Evaluation of immune and apoptosis related gene responses using an RNAi approach in vaccinated Penaeus monodon during oral WSSV infection

    Kulkarni, A.D.; Caipang, C.M.A.; Kiron, V.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Fernandes, J.M.O.; Brinchmann, M.


    In the present study RNA interference was used to elucidate the connection between two endogenous genes [Penaeus monodon Rab7 (PmRab7) or P. monodon inhibitor of apoptosis (PmIAP)], and selected immune/apoptosis-related genes in orally ‘vaccinated’ shrimp after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infec

  4. Duplex real-time PCR for detection and quantification of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) in Penaeus monodon.

    Tang, Kathy F J; Lightner, Donald V


    We describe a duplex real-time PCR assay using TaqMan probes for the simultaneous detection of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV). Both MBV and HPV are shrimp enteric viruses that infect intestinal and hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. Both viruses can cause significant mortalities and depressed growth in infected larval, postlarval, and early juvenile stages of shrimp, and thus present a risk to commercial aquaculture. In this duplex assay, we combined 2 single real-time PCRs, amplifying MBV and HPV, in a one-tube PCR reaction. The 2 viruses were distinguished by specific fluorescent labels at the 5' end of TaqMan probes: the MBV probe was labeled with dichlorodimethoxyfluorescein (JOE), and the HPV probe was labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM). The duplex real-time PCR assay was performed in a multi-channel real-time PCR detection system, and MBV and HPV amplification signals were separately detected by the JOE and FAM channels. This duplex assay was validated to be specific to the target viruses and found to have a detection limit of single copies for each virus. The dynamic range was found to be from 1 to 1 x 10(8) copies per reaction. This assay was further applied to quantify MBV and HPV in samples of infected Penaeus monodon collected from Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The specificity and sensitivity of this duplex real-time PCR assay offer a valuable tool for routine diagnosis and quantification of MBV and HPV from both wild and farmed shrimp stocks.

  5. Apoptosis in Postovulatory Follicles of Chalcalburnus tarichi Pallas, 1811.

    Burak Kaptaner


    Full Text Available İnci kefali Chalcalburnus tarichi, Pallas, 1811 postovulasyon foliküllerinde apoptoz. Bu çalışmada, inci kefali (Chalcalburnus tarichi postovulasyon foliküllerinde apoptoz, TUNEL boyama ve agaroz jel elektroforez metodları ile araştırıldı ve plazma 17β-estradiol (E2 seviyesi ovulasyondan sonra 1., 3. ve 5. günlerde belirlendi. Postovulasyon foliküllerinde apoptotik hücreler, histolojik kesitlerde, ovulasyondan sonra 1. günde işaretlendi ve apoptozun çoğunlukla granuloza nadiren de teka hücrelerinde meydana geldiği belirlendi. Apoptozun işareti olan oligonükleozomal büyüklükteki DNA parçalanması ovulasyondan sonra 1., 3. ve 5. günlerde gözlendi. Ovulasyon anında oligonükleozomal DNA parçalanması gözlenmezken, 3. ve 5. günlerde bu parçalanmanın belirgin olduğu görüldü. Plazma E2 seviyesi ovulasyondan sonra dereceli olarak düştü. Bu düşüş 3. ve 5. günlerde önemliydi (P

  6. Effects of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Roijackers, R.M.M.; Nghia, T.T.; Ut, V.N.; Scheffer, M.


    We studied the effects of different concentrations of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves and their leachates on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon under laboratory conditions. Shrimp mortality was highly dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the water, which in turn was strongly

  7. Effects of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Roijackers, R.M.M.; Nghia, T.T.; Ut, V.N.; Scheffer, M.


    We studied the effects of different concentrations of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves and their leachates on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon under laboratory conditions. Shrimp mortality was highly dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the water, which in turn was strongly correla

  8. Food preference in the cultured species, Penaeus monodon Fabricius (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    S. Khanum; Tirmizi, N.M.


    The study of food preference is necessitated by the need to promote coastal culture of shrimps in Pakistan. The cultured Penaeus monodon was selected for study. Food preferences have been examined through the analysis of the gut contents. The shrimp shows a seasonal variation in its preference to food and feeding.

  9. [Mycobacteria in the digestive tract of pink Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus, Pallas)].

    Rollin, P E; Rollin, D; Baylet, R; Johnson, A R


    Cloacal swabs were taken from 37 young wild Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus, Pallas) in Camargue (South of France). Neither pathogenic strain, nor environmental one were found. The absence of the latter could be attributed to the high NaCl levels of the ecosystems.

  10. Pallas kuuvalgel ehk Lõpetamata peatükk eesti kunstis / Enn Lillemets

    Lillemets, Enn, 1958-


    Pallase kunstikooli 90. aastapäeva tähistav näitus "Lõpetamata Pallas" Tartu Linnamuuseumis 31. oktoobrini. Loetletud 19 osalejat. Väljapaneku autoritel jäi Pallase kool lõpetamata, näituse aines on valitud peamiselt Teise maailmasõja aastaist 1940-1945. Pikemalt Varmo Pirgi ja Herman Aunapuu töödest

  11. Expansion of the Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon peptidomes using transcriptome shotgun assembly sequence data.

    Christie, Andrew E


    The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon are arguably the most important commercially farmed crustaceans. While expansion of their aquaculture has classically relied on improvements to rearing facilities, these options have largely been exhausted, and today a shift in focus is occurring, with increased investment in manipulating the shrimp themselves. Hormonal control is one strategy for increasing aquaculture output. However, to use it, one must first understand an animal's native hormonal systems. Here, transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) data were used to expand the peptidomes for L. vannamei and P. monodon. Via an established bioinformatics workflow, 41 L. vannamei and 25 P. monodon pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 158 and 106 distinct peptide structures for these species, respectively. The identified peptides included isoforms of allatostatin A, B and C, as well as members the bursicon, CAPA, CCHamide, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FLRFamide, GSEFLamide, intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, SIFamide, short neuropeptide F and tachykinin-related peptide families. While some of the predicted peptides are known L. vannamei and/or P. monodon isoforms (which vet the structures of many peptides identified previously via mass spectrometry and other means), most are described here for the first time. These data more than double the extant catalogs of L. vannamei and P. monodon peptides and provide platforms from which to launch future physiological studies of peptidergic signaling in these two commercially important species.

  12. Purge lecithin for less-expensive diet formulation for black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon

    Shanmugam Velmurugan


    Full Text Available The knowledge of the nutrient requirements and practical diet formulations for Penaeus monodon is fully known. In the production cost, the cost of diet alone comes around 50 to70%. This ismainly because of the addition of lecithin which is a relatively expensive dietary ingredient. It isimportant to determine the usefulness of lecithin in the growth of P. monodon. In order to keep the dietcost as low as possible this experiment was designed with and without lecithin. The objective of thepresent study was to assess the growth of shrimp with varying lecithin doses. To study the water qualityparameters and to study the growth and survival of animals feed containing different percentage oflecithin. Trials conducted indicated the soybean lecithin did not have any effect on shrimp’s growth. Theshrimp weight varied from 3.15 to 8g in Control, 2.58 to 6g in Treatment A, 2.87 to 6.62g in TreatmentB, 3.1 to 6.75g in Treatment C. These confirm that under a controlled clear water culture system, partialor complete replacement of soybean lecithin in a commercial diet for P. monodon resulted in nodetriment in growth. Purge lecithin in the diet may allow for less-expensive diet formulations for P.monodon and may reduce the diet cost for producers, who are supplying feed. As diet cost representsthe largest variable cost in a commercial aquaculture operation, increased knowledge of specific dietaryrequirements is essential for formulating a cost-effective commercial P. monodon diet.

  13. Significance of Protected Areas for the Pallas's cat (Otocolobus manul: Felidae conservation in Russia

    Anna N. Barashkova


    Full Text Available The Pallas's cat, or Manul, Otocolobus manul, belongs to the small felines. In Russia this species is located at the northern periphery of its range. Potential habitats of this species within its Russian range's part have been highlighted on the base of remote sensing data, topographic maps and digital cartographic models. Maps of the Pallas's cat's records in Russia have been compiled using literature data, authors' own data and information provided by contributors of the online database «Small Wild Сats of Eurasia». We have shown the representation of potential habitats of the Pallas's cat and its actual registrations within Protected Areas of Russia. The total area of potential habitats for this species in Russia is assessed as 145,150 km2. The presence of Manul is confirmed for five regions of Russia: Republic of Altai, Republic of Tyva, Republic of Buryatia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Trans-Baikal Krai. The registration of the species' records mainly corresponds to the location of its potential habitats. The main categories of both federal and regional Russian Protected Areas cover 10.8% (13.5% taken with the buffer zones of the total area of potential habitats for the Pallas's cat. The significance of each Protected Area for Manul conservation has been considered in detail. We have discussed whether the representativeness of the existing Protected Areas is sufficient for conservation of this species. We have identified the main territorial gaps that reduce the Pallas's cat protection in some parts of the Russian range.

  14. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is facilitated by housekeeping molecules

    Vinayak Biradar; Santosh Narwade; Mandar Paingankar; Deepti Deobagkar


    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. Identification of host cellular proteins interacting with WSSV will help in unravelling the repertoire of host proteins involved in WSSV infection. In this study, we have employed one-dimensional and two-dimension virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the host proteins of Penaeus monodon that could interact with WSSV. The VOPBA results suggest that WSSV interacted with housekeeping proteins such as heat shock protein 70, ATP synthase subunit , phosphopyruvate hydratase, allergen Pen m 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, actin and 14-3-3-like protein. Our findings suggest that WSSV exploits an array of housekeeping proteins for its transmission and propagation in P. monodon.

  15. First Report of the Herb Field Mouse , Apodemus uralensis (Pallas, 1811 from Mongolia

    Setev Shar


    Full Text Available The herb fi eld mouse, Apodemus uralensis (Pallas, 1811 is recorded for the fi rst time in Mongolia, from western part of the Mongolian Altai and the adjacent Mongolian part of the Dzungarian Gobi. In addition, we discovered several additional fi ndings of this species recorded as early as 1976 from diff erent scientifi c collections. Body and skull measurements are presented along with a molecular genetic analysis of one specimen.

  16. Effects of extraction parameters on physicochemical and functional characteristics of chitosan from Penaeus monodon shell

    Jubril Olayinka Akolade; Hussein Oyelola Bukoye Oloyede; Paul Chidozie Onyenekwe


    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the effect of extraction parameters with particular interest during the microwave deacetylation process on the characteristics of chitosan produced fromPenaeus monodon (P. monodon) sourced within the coastal region of Lagos, Nigeria for applications of controlled release systems for pharmaceutical industries. Methods: Chitosan was extracted from shrimp (P. monodon) shell and evaluated as a controlled release system for curcumin. Effects of relevant processing parameters on physicochemical and functional characteristics of the extracted chitosan were assessed. The crude chitosan was purified and used to prepare controlled release formulations for curcumin via ionic gelation with tripolyphosphate. Results:Data from the study showed that increasing time and temperature during deproteinization significantly improved the removal of protein bound to the shell matrix. Also, the ratio of the weight of the deproteinized sample to the volume ofHCl used for demineralization influenced the process. During microwave-assisted production of chitosan from chitin, increase in the concentration of the deacetylating medium significantly increased solubility, viscosity and degree of deacetylation, whereas increasing temperature and time during deacetylation of chitin degraded the biopolymer to give low molecular weight chitosan. Optimized extraction and purification process yielded absolutely soluble medium to low molecular weight chitosan. The encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, percentage yield, release efficiencies in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids of curcumin loaded in the formulations of chitosan fromP. monodon were compared favorably to encapsulation and release characteristics of the encapsulated curcumin in commercially available chitosan used as the reference. Conclusions:Valorization of shrimp waste into pharmaceutically graded medium molecular weight chitosan was achieved. The chitosan obtained can be used as a controlled

  17. Immunomodulatory and Growth-Promoting Potential of Lowcost Probiotic Product in Penaeus Monodon Culture System

    Chandran Manohar Navin


    Full Text Available The capability of a low-cost probiotic product was evaluated in Penaeus monodon reared under an outdoor culture system for a period of 90 days. The low-cost probiotic product was formulated by mixing the broth culture of Bacillus cereus along with commercial chalk powder in 1:1 ratio. The prepared probiotic product as a powdered supplement was incorporated along with the shrimp diet at various concentrations (1 to 5%. The viability of B. cereus in the experimental diet was tested once in 30 days up to 90 days during the experimentation. After 90 days of feeding experiments, the growth performance of shrimp was determined with a maximum production of 11.98 ± 0.367 g, SGR of 5.030 ± 0.171% and FCE of 86.63 ± 1.300% in P. monodon fed D4 diet (4% probiotic supplement. The immunological parameters determined at the end of the culture experiment showed variation among diets. The total haemocyte count (273.66 ± 3.09 x 105 cells/ml, phenoloxidase activity (0.132 ± 0.007 OD and respiratory burst activity (0.291 ± 0.020 O.D were high in P. monodon fed D4 diet. Similar effects were observed for plasma protein concentration (68.00 ± 1.41 mg/ ml, lysozyme activity (0.483 ± 0.014 U/ml and bactericidal activity (81.0 ± 1.33% in shrimp fed D4 diet. The results of the present investigation conclude that the probiotic product at a concentration of 4% was effective in elevating the growth and immune performances in shrimp P. monodon.

  18. Effects of extraction parameters on physicochemical and functional characteristics of chitosan from Penaeus monodon shell

    Jubril Olayinka Akolade


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of extraction parameters with particular interest during the microwave deacetylation process on the characteristics of chitosan produced from Penaeus monodon (P. monodon sourced within the coastal region of Lagos, Nigeria for applications of controlled release systems for pharmaceutical industries. Methods: Chitosan was extracted from shrimp (P. monodon shell and evaluated as a controlled release system for curcumin. Effects of relevant processing parameters on physicochemical and functional characteristics of the extracted chitosan were assessed. The crude chitosan was purified and used to prepare controlled release formulations for curcumin via ionic gelation with tripolyphosphate. Results: Data from the study showed that increasing time and temperature during deproteinization significantly improved the removal of protein bound to the shell matrix. Also, the ratio of the weight of the deproteinized sample to the volume of HCl used for demineralization influenced the process. During microwave-assisted production of chitosan from chitin, increase in the concentration of the deacetylating medium significantly increased solubility, viscosity and degree of deacetylation, whereas increasing temperature and time during deacetylation of chitin degraded the biopolymer to give low molecular weight chitosan. Optimized extraction and purification process yielded absolutely soluble medium to low molecular weight chitosan. The encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, percentage yield, release efficiencies in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids of curcumin loaded in the formulations of chitosan from P. monodon were compared favorably to encapsulation and release characteristics of the encapsulated curcumin in commercially available chitosan used as the reference. Conclusions: Valorization of shrimp waste into pharmaceutically graded medium molecular weight chitosan was achieved. The chitosan obtained can be used as

  19. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) for isolation and characterization of genes related to testicular development in the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo; Valyasevi, Rudd; Menasveta, Piamsak


    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, were constructed. In total, 178 and 187 clones from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively, of P. monodon were unidirectionally sequenced. From these, 37.1% and 53.5% Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) significantly matched known genes (E-value 0.05).

  20. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines.

    de la Peña, Leobert D; Cabillon, Nikko Alvin R; Catedral, Demy D; Amar, Edgar C; Usero, Roselyn C; Monotilla, Wilberto D; Calpe, Adelaida T; Fernandez, Dalisay Dg; Saloma, Cynthia P


    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. It has also been described as early mortality syndrome (EMS) due to mass mortalities occurring within 20 to 30 d after stocking of ponds with postlarvae. Here, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon from shrimp farms in the Philippines were examined for the toxin-producing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus due to AHPND-like symptoms occurring in marketable size shrimp. In the P. vannamei, histology revealed typical AHPND pathology, such as sloughing of undifferentiated cells in the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium. Analysis using the IQ2000 AHPND/EMS Toxin 1 PCR test generated 218 bp and 432 bp amplicons confirmative of the toxin-producing strain of V. parahaemolyticus among shrimp sampled from 8 of 9 ponds. In the P. monodon, histology revealed massive sloughing of undifferentiated cells of the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium in the absence of basophilic bacterial cells. PCR testing generated the 2 amplicons confirmatory for AHPND among shrimp sampled from 5 of 7 ponds. This study confirms the presence of AHPND in P. vannamei and P. monodon farmed in the Philippines and suggests that the disease can also impact late-stage juvenile shrimp.

  1. Marine yeast Candida aquaetextoris S527 as a potential immunostimulant in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Babu, Divya T; Antony, Swapna P; Joseph, Simi P; Bright, Ann Rose; Philip, Rosamma


    A marine yeast Candida aquaetextoris S527 as a source of immunostimulant in Penaeus monodon was studied. Yeast diet was prepared by incorporating 10% C. aquaetextoris S527 biomass into a standard shrimp diet and administered in P. monodon at different frequencies (daily, once in three days, once in seven days and once in ten days) followed by challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Immune parameters such as total protein, total hemocyte count, pro-phenoloxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, alkaline phosphatase activity and acid phosphatase activity were tested. Expression profile of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5; immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, peroxinectin, prophenol oxidase (proPO) and transglutaminase, and WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, ribonucleotide reductase, thymidine kinase and VP28 were analyzed. The study demonstrated that marine yeast diet administered once every seven days conferred better protection to P. monodon against WSSV infection, supported by the hematological and immune gene expression profiles analyzed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in oviduct structure in the black tiger shrimp,Penaeus monodon, during ovarian maturation



    Objective:To examine the structure of the oviduct of the shrimp Penaeus monodon.Methods:The oviducts of P.monodon with three different major groups of ovarian development (Group (Gr.) 1:Stages Ⅰ & Ⅴ; Gr.2:Stages Ⅱ & Ⅲ; and Gr.3:Stage Ⅳ)were examined by light,transmission electron,and scanning electron microscopies,respectively.Results:The epithelium of the oviduct in Gr.1 was composed of tall simple columnar cells with their basal nuclei located on the basement membrane and its thick collagen fibers.In Gr.2,the oviduct seemed to produce some substances and their epithelial cells became transitional with centrally located nuclei and formed some vacuoles.Obviously,the epithelial cells in Gr.3 (at Stage Ⅳ) were disorganized,disrupted,and shed accumulated spherical secretory substances including some cellular contents into the lumen.Conclusions:The structural changes of the P.monodon oviduct were related to ovarian maturation stages (Grs.1-3).Prior to spawning,only the oviduct epithelium at ovary Stage Ⅳ produced and secreted a number of spherical secretion substances into the lumen.These substances may act as the oviductal lubricants to facilitate the spawning process.

  3. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei.

    Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon.

  4. Invasion of Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, in the western north Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

    Fuller, Pam L.; Knott, David M.; Kingsley-Smith, Peter R.; Morris, James A.; Buckel, Christine A.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hartman, Leslie D.


    After going unreported in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for 18 years (1988 to 2006), the Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has recently reappeared in the South Atlantic Bight and, for the first time ever, in the Gulf of Mexico. Potential vectors and sources of this recent invader include: 1) discharged ballast water from its native range in Asia or other areas where it has become established; 2) transport of larvae from established non-native populations in the Caribbean or South America via ocean currents; or 3) escape and subsequent migration from active aquaculture facilities in the western Atlantic. This paper documents recent collections of P. monodon from the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Mexico, reporting demographic and preliminary phylogenetic information for specimens collected between North Carolina and Texas from 2006 through 2012. The increased number of reports in 2011 and 2012, ranging from 102 mm to 298 mm total length, indicates that an adult population is present in densities sufficient for breeding, which is indicative of incipient establishment. Based on these reports of P. monodon, its successful invasion elsewhere, and its life history, we believe that this species will become common in the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico in less than 10 years. Penaeus monodon is an aggressive predator in its native range and, if established, may prey on native shrimps, crabs, and bivalves. The impacts of an established P. monodon population are potentially widespread (e.g., alterations in local commercial fisheries, direct and indirect pressures on native shrimp, crab and bivalve populations, and subsequent impacts on the populations of other predators of those organisms) and should be considered by resource managers. The impacts of P. monodon on native fauna and the source(s) or vector(s) of the invasion, however, remain unknown at this time.

  5. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon.

    Wanilada Rungrassamee

    Full Text Available The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium, ii Firmicutes (Fusibacter, and iii Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium. The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.

  6. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara


    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.

  7. Deep-diving by narwhals Monodon monoceros: differences in foraging behavior between wintering areas?

    Laidre, K. L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Dietz, R.


    -depth recorders (SLTDRs) were used to examine differences in narwhal Monodon monoceros diving behavior and habitat selection among 3 sub-populations in Canada and West Greenland (n = 16 individuals). The number of dives to different depths and time allocation within the water column was investigated in 3 seasons...... between summer and winter. Clear differences were observed between 2 wintering grounds. Whales occupying one wintering ground spent most of their time diving to between 200 and 400 m (25 dives per day, SE 3), confirmed by both depth and temperature recording tags. In contrast, narwhals in a separate...


    Andi Parenrengi


    Full Text Available Transgenesis pada ikan merupakan sebuah teknik modern yang berpotensi besar dalam menghasilkan organisme yang memiliki karakter lebih baik melalui rekombinan DNA gen target termasuk gen anti virus dalam peningkatan resistensi pada udang. Gen anti virus PmAV (Penaeus monodon Anti Viral gene merupakan salah satu gen pengkode anti virus yang berasal dari spesies krustase. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui karakteristik gen anti virus yang diisolasi dari udang windu, Penaeus monodon. Isolasi gen anti virus menggunakan metode Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR dan selanjutnya dipurifikasi untuk sekuensing. Data yang dihasilkan dianalisis dengan program Genetyx Versi 7 dan basic local alignment search tool (BLAST. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gen anti virus PmAV yang berhasil diisolasi dari cDNA udang windu dengan panjang sekuen 520 bp yang mengkodekan 170 asam amino. BLAST-N menunjukkan tingkat similaritas yang sangat tinggi (100% dengan gen anti virus yang ada di GeneBank. Komposisi asam amino penyusun gen anti virus yang paling besar adalah serin (10,00%, sedangkan yang terkecil adalah asam amino prolin dan lisin masing-masing 1,76%. Analisis sekuen gen dan deduksi asam amino (BLAST-P memperlihatkan adanya C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD yang memiliki kemiripan dengan gen C-type lectin yang diisolasi dari beberapa spesies krustase. Transgenic fish technology is a potential modern technique in producing better character organism through DNA recombinant of target genes including anti viral gene for improvement of shrimp immunity. PmAV (Penaeus monodon Anti Viral gene is one of anti viral genes isolated from crustacean species. The research was conducted to analyze the characteristics anti viral gene isolated from tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon. Anti viral gene was isolated using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technique and then purified for sequencing. Data obtained were analyzed using Genetyx Version 7 software and basic local alignment

  9. Distribution of Bacteria Injected in Body of Giant Black Shrimp, Penaeus Monodon

    GUO Zhixun(郭志勋); Karin van de Braak; Magriet Botterbloom


    Distribution of injected Vibrio anguillarum in body of Penaeus monodon was studied with immunohistochemical method. Bacteria could be detected throughout the experiment in some individuals; however in lymphoid tissue, gill, heart and haemolymph of all vibrio injected shrimp, the bacteria could be observed only 5 min after injection. The bacteria density in haemolymph, haemolymph of the hepatopancreas and gills decreased with time. In the lymphoid organ and heart, the bacteria density was the highest 48 h after injection, then decreased. Nodules could be formed in the heart, lymphoid organ and injection site.


    Melta Rini Fahmi


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui respon udang windu (Penaeus monodon terhadap pemberian antigen virus WSSV (White Spot Syndrome Virus yang diinaktifkan dengan menggunakan formaldehid. Penelitian dibagi menjadi dua tahapan, tahapan pertama yaitu menentukan nilai VID50 (Virus Infective Doze dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap, tahap kedua untuk melihat pengaruh pemberian virus WSSV yang diinaktifkan dengan formaldehid terhadap respon imunitas, tingkah laku, dan tingkat sintasan. Pada tahap kedua penelitian dilakukan secara faktorial, faktor yang digunakan adalah konsentrasi virus terdiri atas 2 level serta konsentrasi formaldehid yang terdiri atas 3 level. Masing-masing kombinasi di atas dibuat sebanyak 6 kali, yang digunakan untuk 3 kelompok penelitian yaitu kelompok tanpa diuji tantang, diuji tantang dilakukan setelah 14 hari, dan uji tantang dilakukan setelah 21 hari, dilaksanakan sebanyak 2 kali ulangan. Untuk semua kelompok percobaan respons udang paling sensitif berupa berenang ke permukaan terjadi setelah 1 jam perlakuan diberikan, diikuti oleh penurunan aktivitas dan penurunan nafsu makan. Tingkat kerusakan organ paling tinggi terdapat pada kelompok penelitian ke-2 (uji tantang setelah 14 hari. Untuk kelompok 1 (divaksinasi kondisi organ hampir normal, hal ini menandakan virus berhasil dilemahkan dan mampu memacu timbulnya antibodi. Tingkat sintasan udang lebih tinggi setelah diuji tantang dibandingkan yang tidak divaksinasi. The purpose of the research was to determine response of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon toward formaldehyde inactivated White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV.The study was divided into two phases, the first phase was to determine the VID50 (Virus Infective Doze using Completely Randomize Design, the second phase was to determine of effectiveness of inactive WSSV antigen on the immune response of Penaeus monodon, behavior and pathological respond of Penaeus monodon larvae. VID50 value determined during research was

  11. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries

    Toms C. Joseph


    Full Text Available Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV, Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae.

  12. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of cyclin E and CDK2 from Penaeus monodon.

    Zhao, C; Fu, M J; Qiu, L H


    Reduced reproductive performance of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has caused economic losses and hampered the fishing industry. Detailed investigation of the molecular mechanism by which the cell cycle is regulated in this organism is needed to understand the development and maturation of ovaries and oocytes, with a view to improving reproductive capacity. Cell cycle progression is mainly determined by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and cyclin complexes, the cyclin E/CDK2 complex playing a key role in G1/S transition. However, knowledge of the interplay between cyclin E and CDK2 in invertebrates remains limited. In this study, full-length P. monodon cyclin E (Pmcyclin E) and CDK2 (PmCDK2) sequences were cloned. The open reading frame of Pmcyclin E was 1263 bp in length and encoded a 47.9-kDa protein, while that of PmCDK2 was 921 bp, encoding a protein of 34.9 kDa. Recombinant cyclin E and CDK2 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-chelating affinity chromatography. In addition, a pull-down assay was performed to identify any interaction between Pmcyclin E and PmCDK2. This research provides a basis for the study of the functional mechanisms of the cyclin E/CDK2 complex in shrimp, further enriching our knowledge of invertebrate cell cycle regulation.


    M. Abdul Kader


    Full Text Available Currently, antibiotics are widely used in shrimp hatcheries to control bacterial infections. Appearance of antibiotic resistant pathogens and restriction on the use of antibiotics have led to the development of alternatives to antibiotics in hatchery systems. In light of this, an attempt was undertaken to investigate the effects of probiotics on the larval rearing of Penaeus monodon, compared with control tanks (without probiotics. The results showed that several issues significantly improved with administering probiotics in the experimental tanks compared with the tanks without probiotics. For example, the concentration of ammonia was estimated to be 1.25 mg/L that was less than half of what was measured in the control tanks. The size variation was observed more in the control tanks than in the experimental tanks. Moreover, the muscle gut ratio of PL15 was about 85 to 92% in the probiotic treated tank and 70 to 80% in the control tank during the eight cycles of production. The fouling organisms were more in the control tank compared to the experimental tanks. The average length of PL15 was maximum when reared in the experimental tanks compared to the control tanks. The final survival rate of PL15 from the control and experimental tank was 35 and 52%, respectively. The present investigation indicated that probiotics played an important role in the growth, survival and health status of P. monodon larvae.

  14. Behavioural and biochemical alterations in Penaeus monodon post-larvae diet-exposed to inorganic mercury.

    Harayashiki, Cyntia Ayumi Yokota; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Liu, Lei; Butcher, Paul


    Mercury is a metal naturally present in the environment with concentrations in aquatic systems increasing annually due to human activities. This represents a great concern mainly due to its high toxicity to organisms and consequences for human health. Most studies regarding the toxic effect of mercury have focussed on freshwater species using water as the exposure and uptake pathway. In contrast, the present study investigated the effects of dietary exposure of mercury to the marine crustacean Penaeus monodon post-larvae during 96 h to evaluate changes in behaviour (swimming activity and risk taken) and in biochemical biomarkers [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)]. Results showed a decrease in swimming activity with an increase in mercury exposure, but no changes were observed regarding the behavioural response 'risk taken'. Prawns from medium (0.56 μg g(-1)) and high (1.18 μg g(-1)) treatments had their GST activity reduced in relation to the beginning of experiment (time 0), while AChE activity was increased in the low (0.15 μg g(-1)) treatment in relation to time 0. In the present study, behaviour analysis were clearer than biochemical biomarkers and results might indicate P. monodon populations from a mercury contaminated environment might be at risk, since the behavioural alterations observed increases the risk of predation.

  15. Efficiency of probiotics (Ecoforce in the growth and survival of Peneaus monodon

    V. Elumalai


    Full Text Available Probiotic supplementation of live microorganisms in aquaculture aids in preventing disease, thereby increasing production and decreasing economic loss. Application of probiotics bacteria in aquaculture systems plays significant role that determines the fate and success rate of culture. The present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of commercially available probiotics (The major active ingredients include Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus faecium, Bacillus mesentericus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus natto, Clostridium butyricum, Saccharomyces cerevivisiae, Alkaline Protease and Lipase in the growth and survival of Peneaus monodon in grow-out conditions. At the end of the culture, the survival rate of Pond I (treatment pond was 76%, whereas for Pond II (control pond it was only 59%. Pond I (29.2g where as shrimps in the Pond II showed the least average body weight of 22.6g. It is evident that application of probiotics has improved the growth and survival of P. monodon and which in turn paved way to reap better profit for the farmers. This investigation showed that administration of mixed Bacillus probiotics significantly improved growth and survival of shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp culture and enhanced water quality for parameter., it seems likely that the use of probiotics will gradually increase in the days to come that will open new vistas in the arena of aquaculture.

  16. Impaired telomerase activity hinders proliferation and in vitro transformation of Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells.

    Jayesh, P; Vrinda, S; Priyaja, P; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright


    Retaining terminal transferase activity of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein enzyme which add telomeric repeats on chromosome end is thought to be required to prevent cellular ageing. Additionally, telomerase considered as a marker for cell proliferation and immortalization in eukaryotes. We examined telomerase activity in tissues and lymphoid cell culture of Penaeus monodon. Along with telomerase activity, telomere repeats and an attempt on identification of telomerase reverse transcriptase (PmTERT) were made. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol revealed that telomerase-dependent telomeric lengthening has been taking place in P. monodon and the adult tissues were retaining this capacity throughout their lifespan with the highest activity in ovary, testis and lymphoid organ. However, telomerase activity could not be detected in lymphoid cells in culture. The canonical telomeric repeats added by telomerase of lymphoid tissue extract were identified as TTAGG, but pentameric repeats GGTTA and AGGTT were also added by the telomerase. PmTERT protein sequence (partial) shared 100 % identity with the TERT sequence of Daphnia pulex, 27 % sequence identity with Purple sea urchin and 24-25 % with Zebra fish. Undetectable telomerase activity in lymphoid cell culture supports the hypothesis that the inadequate telomerase activity or gene expression may be a reason that prevents neoplastic transformation and spontaneous immortalization of the cells in vitro. Thus, it is envisaged that telomerase activation in lymphoid cells may surmount cellular ageing for in vitro transformation and cell line establishment.

  17. 斑节对虾杆状病毒感染对脂肪代谢的影响%Influence on fat metabolism in mid-gut gland of healthy Penaeus monodon and that infected with Penaeus monodon baculovirus

    李贵生; 何建国; 余南; 翁少萍; 江静波


    目的:为了探究斑节对虾杆状病毒(MBV)感染对脂肪代谢的影响,指导虾病的防治.方法:利用索氏(Soxhlet)提取法对养殖健康斑节对虾和MBV感染斑节对虾的中肠腺脂肪含量进行了检测.结果:健康对虾中肠腺脂肪占干重平均34.28%,占湿重平均9.60%,含水率平均71.06%.MBV轻度感染的中肠腺脂肪占干重平均31.52%,占湿重平均9.58%,含水率平均69.31%,三者与健康对虾比较均无显著性差异(P>0.30、P>0.90和P>0.40).MBV重度感染的中肠腺脂肪占干重平均56.42%,占湿重平均24.14%,两者均明显高于健康虾和MBV轻度感染虾(均为P<0.001);含水率平均57.22%,明显低于健康虾和MBV轻度感染虾(均为P<0.001).结论:严重感染MBV的斑节对虾可出现脂肪代谢紊乱,造成脂肪堆积,进而影响中肠腺的消化吸收功能.%Aim: To study the relationship between MBV infection and fattymetabolism. Method: The fat average levels of mid-gut gland in healthy Penaeus monodon and in P. monodon infected with Penaeus monodon baculovirus (MBV) were detected by Soxhlet method. Results: The fat average level was 34.28% of dry weight or 9.60% of wet weight and the water average content was 71.06% in healthy P. monodon. The fat average level was 31.52% of dry weight or 9.58% of wet weight and the water average content was 69.31% in P. monodon lightly infected with MBV. There was no distinct difference between healthy P. monodon and P. monodon lightly infected with MBV in fat level and water content (P>0.30, P>0.90 and P>0.40). The fat average level was 56.42% of dry weight or 24.14% of wet weight and the water average content was 57.22% in P. monodon heavily infected with MBV. The fat level was distinctly higher (P<0.001) and the water content was distinctly lower (P<0.001) as compared with those in healthy P. monodon and that lightly infected with MBV. Conclusion:There was metabolic

  18. [Genetic passportization and identification of Siberian cranes (Grus leucogeranus Pallas) in captivity].

    Mudrik, E A; Kashentseva, T A; Gamburg, E A; Politov, D V


    The genetic diversity of the founders of an artificial population of the Siberian crane Grus leucogeranus Pallas (rare species of cranes) was characterized using 10 microsatellite loci. It was established that the allelic diversity (on average, 5.9 alleles per locus) and genic (H(o) = 0.739) diversity of the Siberian crane is rather high and comparable with the estimations for natural populations of different crane species. Genetic passportization of the birds (119 individuals) from the register of the Siberian crane International Studbook was carried out at the initial stage. The efficiency of genetic passportization for individual identification, identification of the origin, paternity analysis, and exclusion of inbreeding was demonstrated in Siberian cranes under natural mating and artificial insemination. Cases of natural reproduction in pairs of Siberian cranes imprinted to the human and continuous storage of spermatozoa in the female reproductive ducts were registered.

  19. [Genetic structure of the populations of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) reforested in extreme conditions].

    Korshikov, I I; Krasnoshtan, O V


    The paper reports on an intensive reforestation of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in post-fire sites in the native Mountainous Crimean populations and around the previously planted seed-producing trees in ore-mining dumps of the Krivoy Rog region. Self-sown progeny growing in the dump is characterized by a better growth and comes to the reproductive development phase earlier compared to that one growing in post-fire forest. Allele variability at 20 allozyme loci is less in self-sown progeny than in the native populations whereas its heterozygosity level is similar. Genetic distance (D(N)) among self-sown progenies in post-fire sites and ore-mining dump is comparable to that of the natural populations.


    M. Sh. Magomedov


    Full Text Available Revealed food items consumed by forest dormouse (Dryomys nitedula Pallas 1778 individuals in various forests in Daghestan; 18 in an oak forest and 19 in а hornbeam-beech forest. Diversity index of food items in the oak forest was 7.66 and in the hornbeambeech forest was 12.67. The food items diversity index distinction is not formed by quality of food items and caused by larger differences between shares of food items in diet of the species individuals in the oak forests. Seasonal dynamics of the main food types showed reducing of animal food type share from spring to autumn and growing of seed food type share in some period.


    Katarzyna Stepanowska


    Full Text Available Round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814 is a fish species of Ponto-Caspian basin origin. However, since the second part of the 80’s of the last century has observed spreading of this species in European waters, including in Polish waters. In the last two decades, from 1990 when it was first caught of round goby near the fishing port in Hel, takes a massive and rapid spread of this fish throughout the Gulf of Gdańsk, Vistula Lagoon, along the southern Baltic coastal zone and the Pomeranian Bay and also the River Odra estuary. In 2009, first round goby in commercial catches conducted in Lake Dąbie was recorded. In this situation the question is that invasion can be a eco-threat or even enrichment of the environment to the human being?

  2. A crustin isoform from black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon exhibits broad spectrum anti-bacterial activity

    Debashis Banerjee


    Full Text Available Crustaceans have a powerful non-specific immune mechanism that responds to pathogen invasion and together with cellular responses, generates powerful humoral factors such as antimicrobial peptides. Crustins are a diverse class of antimicrobial peptides that are expressed by the circulating haemocytes of crustaceans. Several isoforms of this molecule are reported and in this study, one isoform from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli SG 13009. The purified recombinant crustin peptide had a molecular weight of 22 kDa and exhibited potent anti-bacterial activity in vitro against several Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria that included pathogens of aquatic animals and humans. The recombinant crustin showed a minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.5 μg ml−1 against the vibrio pathogens of shrimp, which suggests its promise for application in aquaculture.

  3. Crustin protein Amk1 from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon inhibits Vibrio harveyi and Staphylococcus aureus

    Moltira Tonganunt1*


    Full Text Available A crustin gene (Amk1 was identified from a haemocyte library of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The full-length cDNA consists of 411 bp encoding a deduced precursor of 136 amino acids with a signal peptide of 17 aminoacids. Amk1 contains a hydrophobic and a Gly-rich region at the N-terminus and a 12 conserved cysteine domain (6-DSC at the C-terminus. Transcripts of Amk1 are mainly detected in haemocytes and gills by RT-PCR analysis. A recombinant Amk1was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli. This has a molecular mass of 43.66 kDa with a predicted pI of 8.23. Antibacterial assays demonstrated that recombinant Amk1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegativebacteria with strong inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio harveyi.

  4. Interaction of Vibrio spp. with the Inner Surface of the Digestive Tract of Penaeus monodon.

    Wipasiri Soonthornchai

    Full Text Available Several species of Vibrio are the causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi (Vh and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp have long been considered as shrimp pathogens in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Here we show by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM that Penaeus monodon orally inoculated with each of these two pathogens via an Artemia diet had numerous bacteria attached randomly across the stomach surface, in single and in large biofilm-like clusters 6 h post-infection. A subsequent marked proliferation in the number of V. harveyi within the biofilm-like formations resulted in the development of infections in the stomach, the upper and middle midgut, but neither in the posterior midgut nor the hindgut. SEM also revealed the induced production of peritrichous pili-like structures by the Vp attaching to the stomach lining, whilst only a single polar fibre was seen forming an apparent physical bridge between Vh and the host's epithelium. In contrast to these observations, no such adherences or linkages were seen when trials were conducted with non-pathogenic Vibrio spp. or with Micrococcus luteus, with no obvious resultant changes to the host's gut surface. In naive shrimp, the hindgut was found to be a favorable site for bacteria notably curved, short-rod shaped bacteria which probably belong to Vibrio spp. Data from the current study suggests that pathogens of P. monodon must be able to colonize the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, where chitin is present, and then they use an array of virulent factors and enzymes to infect their host resulting in disease. Oral infection is a better way of mimicking natural routes of infection; investigating the host-bacteria interactions occurring in the digestive tract may lead to new strategies for the prevention or control of bacterial infections in penaeids.

  5. Survival and changes in the fine structure of selected tissues of Penaeus monodon Fabricius juveniles fed various carbohydrates

    Pascual, F.P.; Coloso, R.M.; Tamse, C.T.


    Penaeus monodon juveniles were reared on semipurified diets containing various carbohydrates (maltose, sucrose, dextrin, molasses, cassava starch, corn starch or sago palm starch). Significant differences were observed between the type as well as the level of carbohydrate in the diet on the survival of the juveniles. Results indicate that there does not seem to be any correlation between survival and the complexity of the carbohydrates.

  6. Comparison of ovarian maturation and spawning after unilateral eyestalk ablation of wild-caught and pond-reared Penaeus monodon

    Wen, W.; Yang, Q.; Ma, Z.; Jiang, S.; Qiu, L.; Huang, J.; Zhou, F.; Qin, J.G.


    The present study compares the efficiency of ovarian maturation and spawning success between wild-caught and pond-reared Penaeus monodon females after unilateral eyestalk ablation. The earliest spawning time after eyestalk ablation was 5.9 days in wild-caught females, which is significantly shorter than the spawning time in pond-reared females (10.5 days). Both wild-caught and pond-reared females repeatedly spawned after eyestalk ablation. On average, each wild-caught female spawned 2.94 times while each pond-reared female spawned only 1.09 times. The spawning induction rate, egg hatching rate, and the number of eggs per spawning were significantly greater in wild-caught females than in pond-reared females. However, the egg size was not significantly different between wild-caught and pond-reared females. Four shrimp sizes (60, 80, 100 and 120 (± 1.0) g) were tested in this study and body weight significantly affected ovarian induction in pond-reared females but not in wild-caught females. Within the same body-weight class, the egg number per spawn in wild-caught females was significantly greater than that in pond-reared females. The egg production per spawn of the pond-reared females in the 120-g size group was two times higher than that in the pond-reared females in the 80-g size group. In conclusion, the fecundity of wild-caught P. monodon females is significantly higher than that of pond-reared P. monodon females. In breeding pond-reared P. monodon, the recommended minimum body weight of females is over 80 g, and the desirable body weight is over 100 g. (Author)

  7. Persistence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus delays mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus infection in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)


    Background Persistent infection of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) (also called IHHNV) and its non-infectious inserts in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) genome are commonly found without apparent disease. Here, we introduced the method of multiplex PCR in order to differentiate shrimp with viral inserts from ones with the infectious virus. The method allowed us to study the effect of pre-infection of IHHNV, in comparison to IHHNV inserts, on WSSV resistance in P. monodon. Results A multiplex PCR system was developed to amplify the entire IHHNV genome, ensuring the accurate diagnosis. Field samples containing IHHNV DNA templates as low as 20 pg or equivalent 150 viral copies can be detected by this method. By challenging the two groups of diagnosed shrimp with WSSV, we found that shrimp with IHHNV infection and those with viral inserts responded to WSSV differently. Considering cumulative mortality, average time to death of shrimp in IHHNV-infected group (day 14) was significantly delayed relative to that (day 10) of IHHNV-inserted group. Real-time PCR analysis of WSSV copy number indicated the lower amount of WSSV in the IHHNV-infected group than the virus-inserted group. The ratio of IHHNV: WSSV copy number in all determined IHHNV-infected samples ranged from approximately 4 to 300-fold. Conclusion The multiplex PCR assay developed herein proved optimal for convenient differentiation of shrimp specimens with real IHHNV infection and those with insert types. Diagnosed shrimp were also found to exhibit different WSSV tolerance. After exposed to WSSV, the naturally pre-infected IHHNV P. monodon were less susceptible to WSSV and, consequently, survived longer than the IHHNV-inserted shrimp. PMID:23414329

  8. Effects of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol on growth performance and immuno-physiological parameters in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)


    Ochratoxin A (OTA) and deoxynivalenol (DON), naturally occurring contaminants of animal feed, have been implicated in several mycotoxicoses in farm livestock but there is little information on their toxicity in aquatic invertebrates. Therefore, in the present study an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to assess the effects of OTA and DON on growth performance, haemolymph parameters and histopathology of shrimp. Results showed that feed supplemented wit...

  9. Oxidative stress response of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to enrofloxacin and to culture system


    In Vietnam, enrofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in shrimp farms. Although the European Union set a maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 µg/kg for enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in edible tissues of aquatic animals for human consumption, only few data are available on its potential deleterious effects on shrimp. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of enrofloxacin on oxidative stress in hepatopancreas and gills of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). ...

  10. Kuidas muuta matemaatika õpilastele põnevaks / Helen Kaasik, Kadri Hiob, Kärt Toomel, Lembit Pallas ; intervjueeris Raivo Juurak


    Vestlusringis osalesid Helen Kaasik Tallinna reaalkoolist, Kadri Hiob Rahumäe põhikoolist, Kärt Toomel Tallinna kunstigümnaasiumist („Noored kooli” programmist) ning Lembit Pallas Tabasalu ühisgümnaasiumist. Leiti, et vaja on senisest lihtsamalt sõnastatud õpikuid, eri raskusastmega ülesannete brošüüre ja tunduvalt väiksema mahuga ainekava

  11. Gli affari di messer Palla Strozzi (e di suo padre Nofri. Imprenditoria e mecenatismo nella Firenze del primo Rinascimento

    Sergio Tognetti


    Full Text Available Il saggio si propone di far luce sulle vicende economico-patrimoniali di messer Palla di Nofri Strozzi (Firenze 1372-Padova 1462, personaggio di spicco della Firenze del primo Rinascimento, sia come uomo politico ingiustamente travolto dalla purga medicea scatenata nel 1434 contro gli oppositori di Cosimo il Vecchio, sia come letterato, collezionista di codici librari, promotore degli studia humanitatis e committente di opere d’arte. Al centro di una frammentata serie di indagini da parte di storici dell’arte, della cultura e della politica, Palla Strozzi ha suscitato invece scarsa attenzione da parte degli storici dell’economia, nonostante un particolare non secondario: al catasto fiorentino del 1427 risultava essere il cittadino più ricco, ma dopo nemmeno cinque anni era già così oberato dai debiti da non riuscire più a pagare le tasse al fisco fiorentino. La vicenda di messer Palla, messa a confronto con quella del padre Nofri, infaticabile uomo d’affari capace di ammassare una gigantesca fortuna (poi parzialmente dissipata dal figlio, è analizzata nei dettagli grazie alla ricchissima serie archivistica delle carte strozziane: in particolare tramite lo spoglio di numerosi libri di conti intestati ad aziende e patrimoni di famiglia. Il confronto tra le differenti attitudini dei due personaggi fa emergere in tutta la sua originalità la figura di messer Palla: uomo coltissimo ma anche elitario, eppure dotato di un alto senso dello stato, capace di mostrare verso il denaro un’inclinazione che lo avvicina più all’aristocratico rentier dell’ancien régime e/o al raffinato signore padano del pieno rinascimento, piuttosto che al mondo dei grandi «mercatanti» che lo aveva generato.

  12. Construction of integrated genetic linkage maps of the tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) using microsatellite and AFLP markers.

    You, E-M; Liu, K-F; Huang, S-W; Chen, M; Groumellec, M L; Fann, S-J; Yu, H-T


    The linkage maps of male and female tiger shrimp (P. monodon) were constructed based on 256 microsatellite and 85 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Microsatellite markers obtained from clone sequences of partial genomic libraries, tandem repeat sequences from databases and previous publications and fosmid end sequences were employed. Of 670 microsatellite and 158 AFLP markers tested for polymorphism, 341 (256 microsatellite and 85 AFLP markers) were used for genotyping with three F(1) mapping panels, each comprising two parents and more than 100 progeny. Chi-square goodness-of-fit test (chi(2)) revealed that only 19 microsatellite and 28 AFLP markers showed a highly significant segregation distortion (P every approximately 11.2 cM, with an observed genome length of 2033.4 cM. The female map consisted of 171 microsatellite and 36 AFLP markers spaced every approximately 13.8 cM, with an observed genome length of 2182 cM. Both maps shared 136 microsatellite markers, and the alignment between them indicated 38 homologous pairs of linkage groups including the linkage group representing the sex chromosome. The karyotype of P. monodon is also presented. The tentative assignment of the 44 pairs of P. monodon haploid chromosomes showed the composition of forty metacentric, one submetacentric and three acrocentric chromosomes. Our maps provided a solid foundation for gene and QTL mapping in the tiger shrimp.

  13. Therapeutic effect of Artemia enriched with Escherichia coli expressing double-stranded RNA in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Thammasorn, Thitiporn; Somchai, Parinyachat; Laosutthipong, Chaowanee; Jitrakorn, Sarocha; Wongtripop, Somjai; Thitamadee, Siripong; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon


    We exploited Artemia as a double-stranded (ds)RNA-delivery system to combat viral diseases in shrimp. First, the transformed Escherichia coli (E. coli) expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) was tested in the Artemia enrichment process. RFP signals detectable in the gut of Artemia under confocal microscope were evident for the successful encapsulation. Second, the Artemia enrichment process was performed using E. coli producing Laem-Singh virus (LSNV)-specific dsRNA, which has been previously shown to inhibit the viral infection in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by intramuscular injection and oral administration. The enriched Artemia nauplii were confirmed to contain dsRNA-LSNV by RT-PCR, and were subjected to the feeding test with P. monodon postlarvae. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that a number of LSNV copies in most of the treated shrimp were, at least, 1000-fold lower than the untreated controls. During 11-17weeks after feeding, average body weight of the treated group was markedly increased relative to the control group. A smaller differential growth rate of the treated group as compared to the control was also noticed. These results suggested that feeding shrimp with the dsRNA-enriched Artemia can eliminate LSNV infection, which is the cause of retarded growth in P. monodon. The present study reveals for the first time the therapeutic effect of dsRNA-enriched Artemia for shrimp disease control.

  14. 10 years of cloud droplet activation data from Pallas, Northern Finland - preliminary results

    Kivekäs, Niku; Asmi, Eija; Brus, David; Komppula, Mika; Lihavainen, Heikki


    Activation of atmospheric aerosol particles into cloud droplets has been studied in situ at Pallas measurement station in Finnish Lapland from year 2005 to present day. The site is located on a hill top, about 300 m above the surrounding lowlands, and it is inside a cloud for 15 % of time. Here in-cloud periods are defined as periods when visibility was below 1000 m. There are two parallel Differential Mobility Particle Sizers (DMPS) at the site, measuring the number concentration and dry size distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles. One DMPS is connected to a PM2.5 inlet, the other to a total air inlet with no cut-off diameter. After each inlet the particles are dried to evaporate any water in them. This way it is possible to measure simultaneously the dry number-size-distribution of all particles, and that of particles with wet diameter smaller than 2.5 m. As the latter does not include cloud droplets, the difference between the two measurements represents the number concentration and size distribution of those particles that have activated into cloud droplets. The number concentration of particles at Pallas has a clear seasonal cycle, being highest during summer and lowest during winter. The monthly mean number concentration of particles with diameter larger than 100 nm varied from 38 cm-3 in November to 270 cm-3 in July. During in-cloud periods the monthly mean number concentration of activated particles of this same size class showed a similar pattern, varying from 23 cm-3 (November) to 110 cm-3 in April. The monthly mean D50 activation diameter (diameter at which 50 % of particles activate) varied from 85 nm (February) to 189 nm (July), showing an average 0.1 nm increase for each added particle with diameter > 100 nm. The activated fraction of particles in all sizes decreased sharply when visibility exceeded 1000 m. The highest activated fractions of particles were not observed during the periods of the thickest clouds, but during clouds with in

  15. Detection of Plasmodium sp.-infested Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria, 2012.

    Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz


    On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely.

  16. Seasonal movements and migration of Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus from Qinghai Lake, China

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Douglas, D.C.; Yan, B.; Xing, Z.; Hou, Y.; Palm, E.C.; Newman, S.H.


    We studied the seasonal movements and migration often Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus trom Qinghai Lake to assess migratory routes and stopover areas. Each individual was captured and equipped with an 18 g solar-powered Platform Transmitter Terminal (PIT) to track its movements from September 2007 to May 2008. Six individuals remained near Qinghai Lake until the PTTs stopped transmitting. Three individuals flew 50-330 km from Qinghai Lake to nearby salt lakes. One individual departed on 8 December and flew over 1,700 km south-west to arrive at coastal Bangladesh on 9 January 2008. Two individuals flew in October to the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India, remaining in the area for at least one month until one stopped transmitting. The second individual travelled southwest to coastal Bangladesh. Of the two individuals overwintering in Bangladesh, one remained for 67 days before migrating north. The second bird departed after 96 days, and it returned to Qinghai on 10 May 2008 after 48 days in migration. Both individuals that overwintered in coastal Bangladesh arrived much later than the outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HP AI H5N I) in poultry in 2007. This disparity in timing would tentatively suggest that this species was not involved in long-distance movements of the virus. Instead, the converse may be true: previous work demonstrates the potential for virus spill-over trom poultry into gulls and other wild bird species upon arrival into locations with widespread HPAI H5NI outbreaks and environmental contamination.

  17. Early investigations of Ceres and the discovery of Pallas historical studies in asteroid research

    Cunningham, Clifford


    An asteroid scholar, Cunningham in this book picks up where his Discovery of the First Asteroid, Ceres left off in telling the story of the impact created by the discovery of this new class of object in the early 1800s. The best and brightest minds of mathematics, science, and philosophy were fascinated by Ceres, and figures as diverse as Gauss, Herschel, Brougham, Kant, and Laplace all contributed something to the conversation. The first few chapters deal with the mathematical and philosophical aspects of the discovery, and the rivalry between Germany and France that so affected science and astronomy of that era. The jockeying for glory over the discovery of Ceres by both Piazzi and Bode is examined in detail, as is the reception given to Herschel’s use of the word 'asteroid.' Archival research that reveals the creator of the word 'asteroid' is presented in this book. Astronomy was a truly cosmopolitan field at the time, spanning across various disciplines, and the discovery of Pallas, a story completely t...

  18. Skull Anatomy and Ontogeny of Legless Lizard Pseudopus apodus (Pallas, 1775): Heterochronic Influences on Form.

    Klembara, Jozef; Dobiašová, Karolína; Hain, Miroslav; Yaryhin, Oleksandr


    Pseudopus apodus (Pallas, 1775) is the largest extant legless species of the subfamily Anguinae (Anguimorpha, Anguidae) living mostly in the sub-arid territories ranging from the Balkan area in Europe to Kazakhstan in Asia. The species of other two genera live in North America, South-East Asia and North Africa (Ophisaurus) and Europe and South-West Asia (Anguis). The interrelationships of Anguinae are unresolved; this is in part the consequence of the insufficient knowledge of the cranial, postcranial and integumentary anatomy of the individual anguine species. The aim of this article is to fulfill this gap in our knowledge of the anguine anatomy. Now, in the first part of the project, the individual bones of the exocranium and visceral endocranium of the anguine legless lizard P. apodus are described in detail. In the present study, P. apodus is revealed to have autoapomorphic features of the skull which clearly distinguish it from Anguis and Ophisaurus. In addition, the study of posthatchling ontogeny of exocranium of P. apodus revealed some features, such as a nasal process of premaxilla being slightly widened in about its mid-length, that are also typical for adults of the Ophisaurus and Anguis species as well as extinct species of Pseudopus. This strongly indicates that peramorphic heterochronic process played role in the evolution of the P. apodus skull. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:460-502, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. New record of Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814 (Gobiidae in the Danube river basin (Serbia

    Đikanović Vesna


    Full Text Available Recently, the growing colonization of allochthonous organisms in the Serbian section of the Danube River and interconnected ecosystems was observed. Hydro-morphological changes, such as regulations of the watercourse, have made this sector suitable for bio-invasions. Two specimens of Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814 (Piscea: Gobidae were collected on 10 August 2012 from the Zapadna Morava River, below the first dam on the river course. This is the first record of the sand goby in the watercourse in the central part of Serbia, as a tributary of the Danube River. Our findings show that the sand goby has thus far reached not only the main course of the Danube River but its tributary as well. This freshwater fish was observed for the first time in the Serbian part of the Danube River in 1986 in Begej locality (1.276 km. There are five Ponto-Caspian goby species in the waters of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173045, br. 37009 i br. 31011

  20. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), in North America: impact on raw water users

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Kovalak, William P.; Schloesser, Donald W.


    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), is a small mollusc native to the Black, Caspian, and Azov Seas that was discovered in Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America in 1988. Its presence there raises immediate concerns for users of raw water because it can become abundant enough to obstruct the flow of water through pipes, hoses, screens, and condensers. Biofouling attributed to this mussel was observed at several power plants, water treatment plants, and food processing and industrial facilities along Lake Erie in 1989. Estimated densities at one power plant intake canal were as high as 700,000 per m2. In addition, large numbers were found in main steam condensors and in the service water system, threatening the water supply for cooling, fire protection, and dust suppression systems. Municipal water intakes along the Canadian and United States shorelines have also been impaired. In one southeast Michigan city, drinking water withdrawal from Lake Erie was reduced 45% by the mussel. Routine checks of raw water supplies for free-floating zebra mussel veligers are reommended to determine if reproducing adult populations are present in local water bodies. After an early alert, raw water intakes could be protected to alleviate damage from the biofouling zebra mussel.

  1. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D


    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. Phytoremediation of cadmium by the facultative halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, at different salinities.

    Santos, Márcia S S; Pedro, Carmen A; Gonçalves, Sílvia C; Ferreira, Susana M F


    The cadmium phytoremediation capacity of the halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla and the influence of water salinity were assessed in a greenhouse experiment, in order to better understand the bioremediation capacity of this plant. Three concentrations of cadmium (0, 50 and 100 μg l(-1)) and four salinity conditions (0, 5, 10 and 20) were chosen to evaluate the cadmium accumulation, in order to test these plants as a potential phytoremediation tool in brackish environments. The cadmium content in water and plants (underground organs, stems and leaves) was analysed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All the plants submitted to salinity 20 and in the three cadmium treatments died. The plants' survival was highest in the lowest salinities, where highest growth and biomasses were also obtained. The plants presented more cadmium content in the rhizomes, followed by stems and even less in leaves. The salt stress of the plants interfered with their cadmium accumulation capacity. The highest cadmium accumulation in the rhizomes occurred at salinity 0, while the salinities 0 and 5 were the most adequate for stems and leaves. The experiment pointed out that B. maritimus represents a good possible intervenient for cadmium bioremediation in freshwater and low salinity brackish water environments, but its use is limited in the habitats of higher salinity.


    Maria Caire


    Full Text Available La specializzazione precoce non garantisce il successo nello sport d’élite, ma comporta numerosi rischi (Malina, 2010. Una delle strategie per contrastare questi rischi nell’allenamento giovanile è la proposta di un carico motorio che presenti carattere di polivalenza e multilateralità. La multilateralità nella metodologia dell’allenamento è considerata un aspetto chiave per la formazione giovanile (AA.VV., 1987; AA.VV., 1987; Sotgiu & Pellegrini, 1989; Starosta, 2006; Weinek, 2009. Proposte di lavoro multilaterale possono essere costruite ispirandosi a differenti discipline sportive che presentano similitudini quali, ad esempio, gesti ed attrezzi. Nella pratica sportiva alcuni allenatori, alla continua ricerca di idee innovative per ampliare le proprie proposte di lavoro sul campo, talvolta si ispirano ad altre discipline sportive. Ma due discipline sportive molto diverse tra loro possono realizzare proposte di lavoro traversali per una formazione multilaterale?Objectives: L’obiettivo dello studio è formulare proposte di lavoro con la palla adatte a due discipline molto diverse, quali la Ginnastica Ritmica e la Pallacanestro che possano contribuire all’allenamento multilaterale di entrambe nella fase di formazione sportiva giovanile.

  4. Genetic diversity and differentiation of three populations of Penaeus monodon Fabricus

    WANG Guizhong; TAN Shuhua; LI shaojing; YE Haihui


    Genetic diversity of two wild Penaeus monodon populations sampled from the coastal waters of Qinglan ( Hainan Province of China, HN) and Malaysia (KD),and the F1 generation of a Thailand broodstock population (CP) were examined by vertical polyacryl- amide gel electrophoresis.Of 21 loci encoded by ten enzymes,11 were polymorphic.The mean proportions of polymorphic loci of HN,KD and CP were 36.36%,45.45% and 50.00%,with the average heterezygosities of 0.135,0.181 and 0.191,and the effective numbers of alleles per loci were 1.300,1.330 and 1.329,respectively.The divergent indexes of HN,KD and CP were 0.023,0.124,and 0.117,respectively.The genetic distance between the two wild populations was 0.005,and the gene differ- entiation coefficient was also very low (0.014).The results indicated that the F1 generation population had a higher genetic di- versity than the two wild populations,and that the HN population had the lowest one.There was no significant differentiation be- tween HN and KD populations and all populations existed with a slight heterozygote excess.

  5. Towards improved quality benchmarking and shelf life evaluation of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Le, Nhat Tam; Doan, Nhu Khue; Nguyen Ba, Thanh; Tran, Thi Van Thi


    An improved quality benchmarking and shelf life evaluation of freshly harvested black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) was pursued by combining sensory and chemical methods. This involved developing a quality index method (QIM) to further assess both freshness and shelf life of the studied shrimp samples. The quality index included the use of trimethylamine (TMA-N), total volatile basis nitrogen (TVB-N), histamine, and hypoxanthine, which were performed at scheduled times during the ten days of ice storage (0°C). Shelf life of the studied shrimp was most likely to be 8days, and there were positive linear correlations between quality indices (QI) and storage period. The quality of shrimp decreased over storage time. In fact, significant changes of chemical and sensory characteristics of the shrimp samples would become more obvious from day 5 onwards. Besides, quality classification of black tiger shrimp involved four main levels, namely: excellent, good, moderately acceptable, and just acceptable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Samuel Lante


    Full Text Available Pakan alami berupa mikroalga merupakan salah satu faktor pendukung dalam keberhasilan usaha pembenihan udang windu, Penaeus monodon. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis pakan alami, Chaetoceros spp., yang dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan sintasan larva udang windu. Penelitian ini menggunakan 15 buah bak fiber berukuran 60 cm x 40 cm x 50 cm dengan volume 120 liter yang disi air sebanyak 100 liter. Kepadatan naupli adalah 90 ekor/liter atau 9.000 ekor/bak dan lima jenis pakan alami Chaetoceros spp. yang diuji yaitu: Chaetoceros simplex, Chaetoceros ceratosporum, Chaetoceros calcitrans, Chaetoceros amami, dan Chaetoceros gracilis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi kelima jenis pakan alami memberikan laju perkembangan larva yang relatif sama sampai stadia PL-1. Aplikasi Chaetoceros gracilis memberikan sintasan larva udang windu tertinggi yaitu 41,48% dan dengan Chaetoceros simplex memberikan sintasan larva terendah (28,02%. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa aplikasi Chaetoceros spp. yang berbeda pada pemeliharaan larva berpengaruh terhadap sintasan larva udang windu, namun tidak berpengaruh terhadap laju metamorfosis larva. Aplikasi Chaetoceros gracilis sebagai pakan alami adalah terbaik untuk sintasan larva udang windu.

  7. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Tassanee Eamkamon


    Full Text Available Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in shrimp exposed to 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L of chlorpyrifos were significantly lower (1.7 and 3.3 times than that of control shrimp after 30 min of exposure (p<0.05. In sub-lethal exposure tests, the AChE activity of shrimp was significantly lower (1.9 times than that of control shrimp after exposure to 1.942 nmol/L of chlorpyrifos for 72 h (p<0.05. The sensitive reduction of AChE activity at the sub-lethal concentration, which was 30 times lower than 96 h LC50 value found in this study, indicates the potential use as a biomarker of chlorpyrifos exposure.

  8. Subtracted Transcriptome Profile of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon That Survived WSSV Challenge

    Benedict A. Maralit


    Full Text Available There is increased interest in the development of virus-resistant or improved shrimp stock because production is currently hindered by outbreaks and limited understanding of shrimp defense. Recent advancement now allows for high-throughput molecular studies on shrimp immunity. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS coupled with suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to generate a transcriptome database of genes from tiger shrimp that survived White spot syndrome virus (WSSV challenge. A total of 9,597 unique sequences were uploaded to NCBI Sequence Read Archive with accession number SRR577080. Sixty-five unique sequences, 6% of the total, were homologous to genes of Penaeus monodon. Genes that were initially related to bacterial infection and environmental stress such as 14-3-3 gene, heat shock protein 90, and calreticulin were also found including a few full-length gene sequences. Initial analysis of the expression of some genes was done. Hemocyanin, ferritin, and fortilin-binding protein exhibited differential expression between survivor and control tiger shrimps. Furthermore, candidate microsatellite markers for brood stock selection were mined and tested. Four trinucleotide and one dinucleotide microsatellites were successfully amplified. The study highlights the advantage of the NGS platform coupled with SSH in terms of gene discovery and marker generation.

  9. Preliminary Study of BAC Library Construction in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon



    Full Text Available Availability of shrimp genome information is necessary for shrimp genetic studies and large-insert DNA clones, bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs serve as valuable tools for obtaining genomic sequences. The construction of a BAC library was achieved from this preliminary study of P. monodon. High molecular weight (HMW genomic DNA was isolated from abdominal muscle and the resulting hemocytes were of high quality and sufficient quantity for a BAC library construction. This BAC library was constructed from hemocyte HMW genomic DNA fragments ranging between 100 and 300 kb ligated to a pBAC-lac vector. The average insert size of the BAC clones was calculated as 100 kb ranging from 40 - 150 kb with over 50 % of the clones containing inserts larger than 100 kb. This BAC library contained approximately 60,000 BAC clones representing a 3-fold coverage of the haploid shrimp genome size. Furthermore, the consistency of BAC clones was also proven as no apparent rearrangements were observed before and after 100 generations in serial growth. From the above result, it is essential to improve the insert size and clone numbers of the BAC library to be a powerful tool in the future.

  10. Enhanced wound healing activity of desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) vs. shrimp (Penaeus monodon) chitosan based scaffolds.

    Marei, Narguess H; El-Mazny, W; El-Shaer, Aida; Zaki, Kareem Dorri; Hussein, Zahra S; Abd-El-Samie, Emtithal M


    Chitosan (CS) has received great attention in tissue engineering, especially in wound healing acceleration. In this study, chitin was isolated from desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) and shrimp (Penaeus monodon) then deacetylated to chitosan. Then, chitosan was characterized by degree of deacetylation (DD), molecular weight (M.Wt), swelling index (SI), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X ray diffraction (XRD). The chitosan was then casted into 2D scaffolds and was pictured using scanning electron microscope (SEM). In a comparative study, primary cell cultures of neonatal (1-2day old) mice skin tissue, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, were seeded onto locust chitosan based scaffolds (LCSBS) and shrimp chitosan based scaffold (SCSBS). Their attachment percentage was determined after 1h. The cell proliferation rate was tested for 5days on LCSBS and SCSBS. Wound healing activity progress of LCSBS and SCSBS was tested in vivo using histopathology, and results revealed that seeded and unseeded LCSBS accelerated healing in contrast to SCSBS. The data demonstrated that LCSBS shows a high degree of biocompatibility in vivo. These results suggest that LCSBS is a potential substitute for the development of low cost implantable materials to accelerate wound healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Urea as a Nitrogen Source in a Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Closed Culture System

    Supannee SUWANPAKDEE


    Full Text Available Urea [(NH22CO] is an organic compound that serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compound by animals. Urea is widely used in aquaculture systems. This study investigated the effects of urea on growth of Penaeus monodon. Shrimp were reared in 500 l fiber tanks. There was no exchange of water throughout the experiment. Shrimp with an average body weight of 10.99 ± 0.19 g were stocked at a density of 32 shrimp/m2 in 20 ppt diluted seawater and fed with 38 % protein diet for 9 weeks. Urea was added into the culture tanks at a concentration of 1.25 ppm once a week. The results show that urea slightly affects growth and survival of shrimp. Shrimp reared in the culture pond with added urea had a marginal better growth rate (p > 0.05 while the survival rate was significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05. The urea in the closed culture tanks was shown to reduce the toxicity of ammonia in soil and promoted growth of plankton communities. Adding urea has no effect on water quality. This study concluded that urea is a potential nitrogen source in closed culture systems when the nitrogen input through the feeding regime is limited. It suggests that urea should be added at a concentration of 1.25 ppm once a week into culture systems with limiting nitrogen sources.

  12. Construction of full length cDNA expression library of hepatopancreas of Penaeus monodon

    罗田; 徐洵


    --mRNA was isolated from the hepatopancrease of shrimp Penaeus monodon with a PolyATtract System 1000 Kit. By using mRNA as template, double- strand cDNA with EcoR I/Xho I ends was synthesized by using a ZAP Express cDNA Synthesis Kit. The cDNA was inserted into the lambda ZAP Express vector predigested with EcoR I/Xho I, and the recombinant DNA was in vitro packaged into larnbda phage with GigapackⅢ Gold packaging extracts. These recombinant phages were then used to transfect E. coli XLl - Blue MRF', and finally a cDNA expression library was constructed. The library is 7.2 × 105pfu in capacity and its recombination ratio is higher than 99%. The size of the inserted cDNAs was determined by EcoR I/Xho I digestion of 9 phagemids prepared by in vivo excision of plaques selected randomly from amplified cDNA library . The longest inserted cDNA is about 1.6 kb in length. The complete sequence (about 1.2 kb) of actin cDNA was amplified from the library by PCR reveals that this library contains full-length cDNAs of Penaeus mod on hepatopancreas and is available for screening and expression of shrimp genes.

  13. Transgene expression in Penaeus monodon cells: evaluation of recombinant baculoviral vectors with shrimp specific hybrid promoters.

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S


    It has been realized that shrimp cell immortalization may not be accomplished without in vitro transformation by expressing immortalizing gene in cells. In this process, efficiency of transgene expression is confined to the ability of vectors to transmit gene of interests to the genome. Over the years, unavailability of such vectors has been hampering application of such a strategy in shrimp cells. We report the use of recombinant baculovirus mediated transduction using hybrid promoter system for transgene expression in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon. Two recombinant baculovirus vectors with shrimp viral promoters (WSSV-Ie1 and IHHNV-P2) were constructed (BacIe1-GFP and BacP2-GFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as the transgene. The GFP expression in cells under the control of hybrid promoters, PH-Ie1 or PH-P2, were analyzed and confirmed in shrimp cells. The results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus with shrimp specific viral promoters (hybrid) can be employed for delivery of foreign genes to shrimp cells for in vitro transformation.

  14. Antioxidant status of Penaeus monodon fed with Dunaliella salina supplemented diet and resistance against WSSV



    Full Text Available The present study investigates the protection of shrimp Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV using Dunaliella salina algal cells which contains an antioxidant betacarotene for the shrimp nonspecific immunity. To determine the antioxidant activity, the shrimp were treated in vivo (orally with feed methods at the concentration of 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2 % D. salina incorporated with pellet feed, respectively. In the present study, anti-WSSV activity of D. salina incorporated diet by in vivo methods showed strongantioxidant activity and the immunological parameters such as proPO, SOD,catalase were higher in the WSSVinfected shrimp treated with D. salina incorporated diet when compared to control groups. These results strongly indicate that in vivo of D. salina incorporated diet enhances immunity of the shrimp. Based on the present data and the advantages of harvesting D. salina at low price, we believe that oral administration of D. salina live cells along with the pellet feed is a potential prophylactic agent against WSSV infection of shrimp tosome extent.

  15. Effect of Probiotics on the Hatchery Seed Production of Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius

    P. Soundarapandian


    Full Text Available In recent years, the diseases of shrimps hindered the development of shrimp culture. Hence, the use of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture has tremendous scope and the study of the application of probiotics in aquaculture has a glorious future. In the present study, the probiotics was applied (experimental for the larval rearing of P. monodon which is compared with control tanks (without probiotics. The temperature and alkalinity of both control and experimental tanks were more of less same. The pH of the control tank w as 8.4 and the experimental tank was 8.2.The dissolved oxygen was higher in experimental tank (6.12ml/litre and lower in control tanks (5.75ml/litre. Likewise, the ammonia was higher in control tanks (0.19 mg/litre rather than experimental tanks (0.15mg/litre. The survival rate of different larval stages (nauplii, zoea and mysis were maximum in the present study than that of control tanks. The final survival rate of the post larvae from the control and experimental tank was 70 and 30% respectively. The average length of all post larvae was maximum when reared in experimental tank than control tanks. The general conclusion obtained from the present study is that the probiotics plays a vital role in maintaining water quality parameters throughout the larval cycle. It is clear from the microbial load data that vibrio sp. is dominant in the control tanks than in experimental tanks.

  16. Induction of ovarian maturation in Penaeus monodon by molecular signal interventional approach.

    Devaraj, Halagowder; Saravanakumar, Marimuthu; Thiyagu, Mani


    Vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis in the hepatopancreas and ovary is negatively regulated by vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) produced in the neurosecretory cell of X-organ/sinus gland complex of the eyestalks of penaeid shrimp. Eyestalk ablation is used commercially to induce ovarian maturation in shrimps which leads to an eventual loss of the spawner. The aim of the present study was to understand the molecular mechanism of VIH regulation in ovarian development and its inhibition of VTG gene expression by using a MEK-specific inhibitor (U0126). The real-time quantitative PCR results showed VTG mRNA level was progressively increased in the ovary and hepatopancreas of unilateral eyestalk-ablated and inhibitor-treated shrimps. Western blot analysis also showed that phosphoMEK was detected only in the unilateral eyestalk-ablated and control shrimp, whereas phospho-MEK was not detected in inhibitor-treated shrimp. DAX-1, SF-1, and StAR expression correlated with changes in VIH mRNA and altered phospho-ERK levels. This is consistent with the hypothesis that suppression of DAX-1 results in SF-1-mediated StAR protein upregulation of estradiol that is implicated in vitellogenesis. This is the first report that demonstrates the molecular mechanism of VIH suppression via MEK pathway to induce ovarian maturation in female Penaeus monodon by molecular signal intervention, a less-invasive method than traditional eyestalk ablation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Molecular cloning and expression of chitin deacetylase 1 gene from the gills of Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp).

    Sarmiento, Katreena P; Panes, Vivian A; Santos, Mudjekeewis D


    Chitin deacetylases have been identified and studied in several fungi and insects but not in crustaceans. These glycoproteins function in catalyzing the conversion of chitin to chitosan by the hydrolysis of N-acetamido bonds of chitin. Here, for the first time, the full length cDNA of chitin deacetylase (CDA) gene from crustaceans was fully cloned using a partial fragment obtained from a transcriptome database of the gills of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that survived White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection employing Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR. The shrimp CDA, named PmCDA1, was further characterized by in silico analysis, and its constitutive expression determined in apparently healthy shrimp through reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Results revealed that the P. monodon chitin deacetylase (PmCDA1) is 2176 bp-long gene with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1596 bp encoding for 532 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PmCDA1 belongs to Group I CDAs together with CDA1 and CDA2 proteins found in insects. Moreover, PmCDA1 is composed of a conserved chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain (CBD), a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain (LDL-A) and a catalytic domain that is part of CE4 superfamily, all found in group I CDAs, which are known to serve critical immune function against WSSV. Finally, high expression of PmCDA1 gene in the gills of apparently healthy P. monodon was observed suggesting important basal function of the gene in this tissue. Taken together, this is a first report of the full chitin deacetylase 1 (CDA1) gene in crustaceans particularly in shrimp that exhibits putative immune function against WSSV and is distinctly highly expressed in the gills of shrimp.

  18. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by coastal plant Prosopis chilensis (L.) and their efficacy in controlling vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Manickaswami, Gayathridevi; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Ayyavu, Gopalakrishnan


    The present work investigated the effect of leaf extract from coastal plant Prosopis chilensis on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as a substrate and to find their antibacterial potential on pathogenic Vibrio species in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The leaf extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, as evident by gradual change in colour of the reaction mixture consisted of the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 to dark brown. The silver nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to the presence of silver nanocrystal, as evident by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The peaks corresponding to flavanones and terpenoids were found to be stabilizing agents of the nanoparticles, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average of 11.3 ± 2.1 nm and was mostly of spherical in shape, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were found to inhibit Vibrio pathogens viz., Vibrio cholerae, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus and this antibacterial effect was better than that of leaf extract, as proved by disc diffusion assay. The nanoparticles were then tested in the shrimp Penaeus monodon challenged with the four species of Vibrio pathogens for 30 days. The shrimps fed with silver nanoparticles exhibited higher survival, associated with immunomodulation in terms of higher haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of haemolymph of P. monodon which is on par with that of control. Thus, the present study proved the possibility of using silver nanoparticles produced by coastal Prosopis chilensis as antibacterial agent in controlling vibriosis.

  19. Description of Diorchis thracica n. sp. (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) from the ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas) (Anseriformes, Anatidae) in Bulgaria.

    Marinova, Margarita H; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P


    Diorchis thracica n. sp. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Hymenolepididae) is described from the ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas) (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae), collected in the vicinities of Radnevo, Stara Zagora Region, Bulgaria. The new species is differentiated from other members of Diorchis Clerc, 1903 by possessing rostellar hooks with length of 36 µm, a thick-walled cirrus-sac with strong longitudinal muscular fibres in its middle part and a copulatory vagina with two sphincters. Main morphological criteria for distinguishing species of the genus Diorchis are discussed.

  20. Crystal structure determination of basic phospholipase A2 from venom of Agkistrodon halys pallas by molecular replacement method

    孟五一; 林政炯; 周元聪


    Basic phospholipase A2 (BPLA2) from the venom of Agkistrodon halys pallas has a strong ability to hemolyze erythrocytes. The asymmetrical unit of P212121 crystal of BPLA2 contains two molecules. Self-rotation function was used to study the orientation relationship of these two molecules. Cross-rotation and translation functions were then used to determine the orientations and positions of the two molecules in the unit cell. The model building and preliminary structure refinement were carried out. The result shows that the two molecules in the asymmetrical unit of orthorhombic crystal are related by a non-crystallographic 2-fold symmetry axis.

  1. Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysate produced by alcalase hydrolysis from shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus)

    Dey, Satya Sadhan; Dora, Krushna Chandra


    Protein hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis of shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus) for 90 min. using Alcalase enzyme following pH-stat method. Antioxidative activities of SWPH were assessed determining FRAP, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities, which increased linearly with increasing concentration of protein hydrolysate upto 5 mg/ml maintaining good correlation. SWPH showed high stability over wide ranges of pH (2–11) and temperature (up to 100 °C for 150 min), in whic...

  2. Self-grooming induced by sexual chemical signals in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas).

    Yu, Honghao; Yue, Pengpeng; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Xinquan


    Sniffing is one-way animals collect chemical signals, and many males self-groom when they encounter the odor of opposite-sex conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas). Specifically, we investigated the sniffing pattern of male root voles in response to odors from the head, trunk, and tail areas of lactating and non-lactating females. The self-grooming behavior of males in response to female individual odorant stimuli was documented, and the relationship between self-grooming and sniffing of odors from the head, trunk, and tails areas were analyzed. Sniffing pattern results showed that males are most interested in odors from the head area, and more interested in odors from the tail as compared to the trunk area. Males displayed different sniffing and self-grooming behaviors when they were exposed to odors from lactating females as compared to non-lactating females. Males also spent more time sniffing and engaged in more sniffing behaviors in response to odors from the lactating females' tail area as compared to the same odors from non-lactating females. Similarly, males spent more time self-grooming and engaged in more self-grooming behaviors in the presence of individual odors from lactating females as compared to individual odors from non-lactating females. Partial correlation analyses revealed that the frequency of self-grooming was significantly correlated with the frequency of tail area sniffs. Results from this experiment suggest that sexual attractiveness of lactating females is stronger than that of non-lactating females. Furthermore, the partial correlation analysis demonstrated that self-grooming in males is induced by odors from the tail area of females. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles. Self-grooming may also reflect the

  3. In vitro shoot proliferation and in vitro and ex vitro root formation of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas

    Ahmet eAygun


    Full Text Available Shoot-tip cultures of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas, an important gene source for drought and chlorosis resistance in pear rootstock breeding, were established from a wild mature tree originated from seed. Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA singly or in combination with auxin was used in the study. In the initial culture, the highest percentages (> 80 % of shoot proliferation were obtained in the mediums supplemented with 9.0 µM BA x 0.5 µM auxin combination and 0.5 µM indole-3-acetic acid . In the subcultures, the highest shoot proliferation rates were obtained in the medium containing 4.5 and 9.0 µM BA. The shoot proliferation rates ranged from 91.1% to 96.4% in the second subculture and from 76.7 to 89.4% in the third subculture. In the second subculture, the shoots grown on 9.0 µM BA without auxin produced the best proliferation (10.6. For the in vitro rooting experiments, the highest rooting rate (54.2%, root length (10.5 mm and root number (2.5 were obtained from 10 days dark treatment on the medium containing half strength of macronutrients supplemented with 5 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. For the ex vitro rooting experiments, shoot rooting was significantly influenced by 10 mM IBA applied as quick-dip method. The percentage of rooting was 55% and root number was 1.8 at this concentration.

  4. Evidence of WSSV transmission from the rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis to the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon postlarvae and means to control rotifer resting eggs using industrial disinfectants

    Valeriano Corre, Jr


    Full Text Available Rotifers are considered possible vectors of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and have been implicated in its recurrence inpond-cultured shrimp. However, direct evidence of the transmission and the pathogenicity of this virus from rotifers to shrimp has been lacking.In the present study, the pathogenicity of WSSV transmitted from infected rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis to post larval black tiger shrimp(Penaeus monodon was investigated. Results show that WSSV transmitted from infected rotifers to post-larval P. monodon caused an 82%cumulative mortality as compared to a 9% mortality in the non-infected control group. We also investigated the possibility of industrial disinfectants(sodium hypochlorite, granulated calcium hypochlorite and formalin as possible means to inhibit the viability of rotifer resting eggs,considered a biological reservoir of WSSV in earthen ponds. Among the disinfectants that were tested, granulated calcium hypochlorite at 5mg/L was the most effective. The present study provides direct evidence of the high pathogenicity of WSSV transmitted from rotifers to postlarval P. monodon and shows the potential use of granulated calcium hypochlorite in pond disinfection. This treatment could be a promisingstrategy to inhibit the spread and recurrence of WSSV outbreaks in P. monodon culture.

  5. Studies on the fungal diseases in Crustaceans II.Halipthoros Philippinensis sp. nov. isolated from cultivated larvae of the jumbo tiger Prawn Penaeus monodon

    KishioHATAI; ZhongBIAN; Ma.CeciliaL.BATICADOS; SyuzoEGUSA


    Haliphthoros, philippinensis, a marine mastigomycete isolated from larvae of the jumbo tiger p.rawn Penaeus monodon, is described and illustrated as new. The fungus grew at a temperature range of 13.5 to 36.3℃, with the optimum of 29.3-34.5℃.

  6. Expression of immune-related genes in larval stages of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Puanglarp, Narongsak; Petkon, Sasithon; Donnuea, Seri; Söderhäll, Irene; Söderhäll, Kenneth


    Shrimp undergo several morphologically different stages during development and therefore the expression of some immune-related genes such as prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (Prx), crustin (Crus), penaeidin (Pen), transglutaminase (TGase), haemocyanin (Hc) and astakine (Ak) were determined during larval development of the shrimp (Penaeus monodon), i.e. nauplius 4 (N4), protozoea 1 and 3 (Z1 and 3), mysis 3 (My 3), post-larvae 3 (PL3) and also in haemocytes of juveniles. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that all transcripts were already present in the early larval stage of N4 but at different levels. The transcript of proPO was found to be extremely low or even absent at N4, whereas Prx, Crus, Pen, TGase, Hc and Ak were significantly expressed at all larval stages. Up to now expression of proPO and Prx has only been reported from haemocytes in crustaceans and in this study Prx also appeared to be expressed in stages which appear to lack haemocytes. Thus, this may suggest that Prx is expressed in other cells than haemocytes. It is well known among invertebrates that the proPO system plays a crucial role as an immune effector molecule against microbes. However, in this study, the transcript of proPO was low during the larval stages and hardly present at all at N4. This might indicate that the development of immune-competent haemocytes during the larval stages is not completed and as a consequence they are likely to be more susceptible to infectious diseases during these stages.

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a hemolymph clottable protein from tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Yeh, M S; Huang, C J; Leu, J H; Lee, Y C; Tsai, I H


    To investigate the coagulation system in crustacean decapoda, a homodimeric glycoprotein of 380 kDa was purified from the hemolymph of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) by sequential DEAE anion exchange chromatography. The purified protein was coagulated by the shrimp hemocyte transglutaminase in the presence of Ca2+. The clottable protein contains 44% alpha helices and 26% beta sheets as determined by circular dichroism spectra. Its conformation is stable in buffer of pH 4-9. To solve its primary structure, partial sequences of the purified polypeptides from cyanogen bromide cleavage and endopeptidase digestion were also determined. A shrimp cDNA expression library was constructed. By combination with antibody screening, reverse transcriptase PCR using degenerate primers from determined amino acid sequences and cDNA library screening with digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes, the entire cDNA of 6124 bp was obtained. This cDNA encodes a protein of 1670 amino acids, including a 14-amino acid signal peptide. With four potential N-glycosylation sites, the clottable protein was found to contain 3.8% high-mannose glycan; and Man8GlcNAc and Man9GlcNAc were released upon endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase hydrolysis. Upon conducting a protein sequence database survey, the shrimp clottable protein shows 36% identities to the crayfish clotting protein and lower similarities to members of insect vitellogenins, apolipoprotein B and mammalian von Willebrand factor. Notably, a region rich in Gln residues, a polyGln motif and five Ser-Lys-Thr-Ser repeats are present in the shrimp protein, suggesting this protein might be a transglutaminase substrate. Northern blot analysis revealed that the clottable protein is expressed in most of the shrimp tissues but not in the mature hemocytes.


    Muliani Muliani


    Full Text Available ibrio harveyi is known as one among the most harmful bacteria infecting tiger prawn at every stage of its life’s. The present research was aimed to reveal the genetic diversity of Vibrio harveyi isolated from tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. The samples of bacteria were collected from hatchery (brood-stock, larvae, natural feed, artemia, and larval rearing water and grow-out (juveniles, water, shrimp, sediment, plankton, crab, mollusc, microalgae, and wild fish.  The taxonomic identification of Vibrio spp.was performed based on the physiological and biochemical characteristic following the isolation by Thiosulphate Citrate Bile-salt Sucrose Agar (TCBSA media. Amplified Ribosomoal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA for 16S-rRNA analysis and Macrorestriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (MLFP analysis using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE were applied to reveal the genetic diversity of V. harveyi. According to the taxonomic identification, of 361 isolates of Vibrio spp., 129 isolates (35.7% were identified as V. harveyi. The result of ARDRA analysis showed that the 16S-rRNA gene of V. harveyi digested by RsaI and HhaI enzyme, each generated three and four identical fragments respectively for the all samples. These meaned that ARDRA could not reveal any genetic variation on V. harveyi. The size range of all DNA fragment was less than 500 bp. This result indicated that the high genetic diversity of V. harveyi was revealed by MFLP-PFGE analysis. DNA fragment of V. harveyi was digested by NotI enzyme.

  9. Use of Glacial Fronts by Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in West Greenland

    Laidre, K. L.


    Glacial fronts in Greenland are known to be important summer habitat for narwhals (Monodon monoceros), as freshwater runoff and sediment discharge may aggregate prey at the terminus. We investigated the importance of glacial habitat characteristics in determining narwhal visitation. Narwhals (n=18) were instrumented with satellite transmitters in September 1993-1994 and 2006-2007 in Melville Bay, West Greenland. Daily narwhal locations were interpolated using a correlated random walk based on observed filtered locations and associated positional error. We also compiled a database on physical features of 41 glaciers along the northwest Greenland coast. This covered the entire coastal region with narwhal activity. Parameters included glacier ice velocity (km/yr) from radar satellite data, glacier front advance and retreat, and glacier width (km) at the ice-ocean interface derived using front position data digitized from 20-100m resolution radar image mosaics and Landsat imagery. We also quantified relative volumes and extent of glacial ice discharge, thickness of the glacial ice at the terminus (m), and water depth at the terminus (m) from gravity and airborne radar data, sediment flux from satellite-based analysis, and freshwater runoff from a regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2.3). We quantified whale visits to glaciers at three distances (5, 7, and 10 km) and conducted proximity analyses on annual and monthly time steps. We estimated 1) narwhal presence or absence, 2) the number of 24 h periods spent at glaciers, and 3) the fraction of study animals that visited each glacier. The use of glacial habitat by narwhals expanded to the north and south between the 1990s (n=9 unique glaciers visited) and the 2000s (n=30 visited), likely due to loss of summer fast ice and later fall freeze-up trends (3.5 weeks later since 1979). We used a generalized linear mixed effects framework to quantify the glacier and fjord habitat characteristics preferred by narwhals.

  10. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in normal and white spot syndrome virus infected Penaeus monodon

    Juan Hsueh-Fen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background White spot syndrome (WSS is a viral disease that affects most of the commercially important shrimps and causes serious economic losses to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. However, little information is available in terms of the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction. In this study, we used an expressed sequence tag (EST approach to observe global gene expression changes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-infected postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Results Sequencing of the complementary DNA clones of two libraries constructed from normal and WSSV-infected postlarvae produced a total of 15,981 high-quality ESTs. Of these ESTs, 46% were successfully matched against annotated genes in National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant (nr database and 44% were functionally classified using the Gene Ontology (GO scheme. Comparative EST analyses suggested that, in postlarval shrimp, WSSV infection strongly modulates the gene expression patterns in several organs or tissues, including the hepatopancreas, muscle, eyestalk and cuticle. Our data suggest that several basic cellular metabolic processes are likely to be affected, including oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, the glycolytic pathway, and calcium ion balance. A group of immune-related chitin-binding protein genes is also likely to be strongly up regulated after WSSV infection. A database containing all the sequence data and analysis results is accessible at Conclusion This study suggests that WSSV infection modulates expression of various kinds of genes. The predicted gene expression pattern changes not only reflect the possible responses of shrimp to the virus infection but also suggest how WSSV subverts cellular functions for virus multiplication. In addition, the ESTs reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp.

  11. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Penaeus monodon hemocytes after Vibrio harveyi infection

    Fang Lo Chu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral and bacterial diseases can cause mass mortalities in commercial shrimp aquaculture. In contrast to studies on the antiviral response, the responses of shrimps to bacterial infections by high throughput techniques have been reported only at the transcriptional level and not at the translational level. In this study, a proteomic analysis of shrimp hemocytes to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to a luminous bacterium Vibrio harveyi was evaluated for its feasibility and is reported for the first time. Results The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE patterns of the hemocyte proteins from the unchallenged and V. harveyi challenged shrimp, Penaeus monodon, at 24 and 48 h post infection were compared. From this, 27 differentially expressed protein spots, and a further 12 weakly to non-differentially regulated control spots, were selected for further analyses by the LC-ESI-MS/MS. The 21 differentially expressed proteins that could be identified by homologous annotation were comprised of proteins that are directly involved in the host defense responses, such as hemocyanin, prophenoloxidase, serine proteinase-like protein, heat shock protein 90 and alpha-2-macroglobulin, and those involved in signal transduction, such as the14-3-3 protein epsilon and calmodulin. Western blot analysis confirmed the up-regulation of hemocyanin expression upon bacterial infection. The expression of the selected proteins which were the representatives of the down-regulated proteins (the 14-3-3 protein epsilon and alpha-2-macroglobulin and of the up-regulated proteins (hemocyanin was further assessed at the transcription level using real-time RT-PCR. Conclusions This work suggests the usefulness of a proteomic approach to the study of shrimp immunity and revealed hemocyte proteins whose expression were up regulated upon V. harveyi infection such as hemocyanin, arginine kinase and down regulated such as alpha-2-macroglobulin

  12. Sodium alginate from Sargassum wightii retards mortalities in Penaeus monodon postlarvae challenged with white spot syndrome virus.

    Immanuel, Grasian; Sivagnanavelmurugan, Madasasmy; Balasubramanian, Varatharajan; Palavesam, Arunachalam


    Sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii (16.35 ± 1.42%, mean [±SD] yield from 5 extractions) was prepared as a powder or beads and used to enrich Artemia nauplii at concentrations of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg l-1. The alginate-enriched nauplii were fed to Penaeus monodon shrimp postlarvae (PL) stage 15 (PL15, i.e. 15 d old) for 20 d. Mean weight gain and specific growth rate over this period were 0.24 g and 15.8%, respectively, in PL groups not fed alginate, and 0.20-0.28 g and 14.7-16.5%, respectively, in PL groups fed alginate. Amongst PL35 then challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by immersion, all PL not fed alginate died within 9 d. However, amongst PL fed the 4 concentrations of alginate powder or beads, mortality rates reduced with increasing alginate concentration, and between 25 and 32% PL remained alive when the bioassay was terminated on Day 21. Amongst alginate-fed PL groups compared with the control group, mortality was reduced by 26.5 to 58.4%. Nested PCR detection of WSSV revealed sodium alginate concentration-dependent reductions in infection loads. The data indicate that sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed and fed to P. monodon can retard progression of WSSV disease.

  13. Seasonal incidence of protozoan parasites of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) of Sundarbans, West Bengal, India.

    Chakraborti, Jayati; Bandyapadhyay, Probir K


    There is a delicate balance between the host, pathogen and environment. Aquatic organisms, including shellfish, respond directly to climatic changes in their biological environment as their metabolic processes are influenced by temperature, salinity, and oxygen levels. Certain environmental conditions are more conducive to diseases than others among which water temperature is significantly associated with disease outbreak. The present study showed that Peneaus monodon of Sundarbans serve as a host for many protozoan parasites and epibionts including ciliates, gregarines and microsporidia. The protozoan parasites also require a particular environmental condition for their maximum growth and survival. The intensity of infection significantly increases with rise in temperature (P < 0.05) following a definite trend but no significant relationship between infection rate of ciliates and pH of water. In case of gregarine parasites significance (P < 0.05) exists among infection rate and temperature as well as pH of the farm water. Microsporidian parasites do not follow any significant seasonal trend in infecting the host P. monodon.

  14. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in shrimps Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei sampled from slow growth ponds in India.

    Biju, Narayanan; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Raj, Mithun; Shanmugam, Venu; Baskaran, Babu; Govindan, Umamaheswari; Kumaresan, Gayathri; Kasthuriraju, Karthick Kannan; Chellamma, Thampi Sam Raj Yohannan


    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon is caused by the newly emerged pathogen Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). It has been detected in shrimp cultured in China, Vietnam and Thailand and is suspected to have occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia and to be associated with severely retarded growth. Due to retarded shrimp growth being reported at farms in the major grow-out states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in India, shrimp were sampled from a total of 235 affected ponds between March 2014 and April 2015 to identify the presence of EHP. PCR and histology detected a high prevalence of EHP in both P. monodon and L. vannamei, and infection was confirmed by in situ hybridization using an EHP-specific DNA probe. Histology revealed basophilic inclusions in hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells in which EHP was observed at various developmental stages ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. The sequence of a region of the small subunit rDNA gene amplified by PCR was found to be identical to EHP sequences deposited in GenBank. Bioassays confirmed that EHP infection could be transmitted orally to healthy shrimp. Histology also identified bacterial co-infections in EHP-infected shrimp sampled from slow-growth ponds with low-level mortality. The data confirm that hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by EHP is prevalent in shrimp being cultivated in India. EHP infection control measures thus need to be implemented urgently to limit impacts of slowed shrimp growth.

  15. Recombinant expression and anti-microbial activity of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Marcos, Michael; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Aumelas, André; Romestand, Bernard; Gueguen, Yannick; Boze, Hélène; Moulin, Guy; Bachère, Evelyne


    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs), originally characterized from horseshoe crabs, have been recently identified from hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, by a genomic approach. In order to characterize the properties and biological activities of this immune effector in shrimp, ALFPm3, the most abundant isoform found in P. monodon, was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Large-scale production in fermentor provided 262 mg/l of recombinant ALFPm3 which was purified to homogeneity by single chromatography step on expanded-bed Streamline SP6XL. The rALFPm3 was further characterized in terms of N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. Anti-microbial assays demonstrated that rALFPm3 has a broad spectrum of anti-fungal properties against filamentous fungi, and anti-bacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, associated with a bactericidal effect. Interestingly, rALFPm3 is highly efficient against various Vibrio species including strains pathogenic for shrimp. Finally, a synthetic peptide corresponding to a part of the putative LPS-binding site of ALFPm3 was shown to display activities mainly directed against Gram-positive bacteria indicating the involvement of the full molecule to the anti-microbial activity for Gram-negative bacteria.

  16. Protein profiling in the gut of Penaeus monodon gavaged with oral WSSV-vaccines and live white spot syndrome virus.

    Kulkarni, Amod D; Kiron, Viswanath; Rombout, Jan H W M; Brinchmann, Monica F; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu S; Singh, Bright I S


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that causes considerable mortality of the farmed shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Candidate 'vaccines', WSSV envelope protein VP28 and formalin-inactivated WSSV, can provide short-lived protection against the virus. In this study, P. monodon was orally intubated with the aforementioned vaccine candidates, and protein expression in the gut of immunised shrimps was profiled. The alterations in protein profiles in shrimps infected orally with live-WSSV were also examined. Seventeen of the identified proteins in the vaccine and WSSV-intubated shrimps varied significantly compared to those in the control shrimps. These proteins, classified under exoskeletal, cytoskeletal, immune-related, intracellular organelle part, intracellular calcium-binding or energy metabolism, are thought to directly or indirectly affect shrimp's immunity. The changes in the expression levels of crustacyanin, serine proteases, myosin light chain, and ER protein 57 observed in orally vaccinated shrimp may probably be linked to immunoprotective responses. On the other hand, altered expression of proteins linked to exoskeleton, calcium regulation and energy metabolism in WSSV-intubated shrimps is likely to symbolise disturbances in calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism.

  17. Effect of different diets on biology, reproductive variables and life and fertility tables of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae

    Camila Fediuk de Castro-Guedes


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The biology, reproductive variables and population growth indicators of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae fed on three diets, namely Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera: Aphididae, Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758 (Hemiptera: Aphididae, and frozen eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, were evaluated. With all three diets, birth rate was higher than mortality, resulting in positive rm values and thus indicating population growth. Under the conditions used in the experiments, H. axyridis was able to survive, develop and reproduce normally. This demonstrates that are different kind of food that can be essential for supporting the reproduction of some species of Coccinellidae, but not with the same optimization of preferred prey.

  18. First record of Pontian Monkey Goby, Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814 in the Evros River (Greece; Is it an alien species?



    Full Text Available The Pontian Monkey Goby,Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814, was recorded for the first time in Greece in August 2011. Eight specimens were collected in the Greek-Turkish section of the Evros River, 65 kilometers upstream of its river-mouth. Although the species has been recently discovered in the Tundza, a tributary of the Evros in Bulgaria, it has never before been found in the Evros’ main stem.  Although the lower Evros has been poorly researched by ichthyologists, it is unlikely that a conspicuous medium-sized fish would go unnoticed in this river; and, it is therefore suggested to be a probable alien. However, since the Evros basin has had geological connections to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea in the past and it is immediately adjacent to native populations of N. fluviatilis, the species status is categorized as questionable until genetic and morphological studies are completed.

  19. First record of Pontian Monkey Goby, Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814 in the Evros River (Greece; Is it an alien species?



    Full Text Available The Pontian Monkey Goby,Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814, was recorded for the first time in Greece in August 2011. Eight specimens were collected in the Greek-Turkish section of the Evros River, 65 kilometers upstream of its river-mouth. Although the species has been recently discovered in the Tundza, a tributary of the Evros in Bulgaria, it has never before been found in the Evros’ main stem.  Although the lower Evros has been poorly researched by ichthyologists, it is unlikely that a conspicuous medium-sized fish would go unnoticed in this river; and, it is therefore suggested to be a probable alien. However, since the Evros basin has had geological connections to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea in the past and it is immediately adjacent to native populations of N. fluviatilis, the species status is categorized as questionable until genetic and morphological studies are completed.

  20. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks

    Garde, Eva; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Ditlevsen, Susanne


    Ages of marine mammals have traditionally been estimated by counting dentinal growth layers in teeth. However, this method is difficult to use on narwhals (Monodon monoceros) because of their special tooth structures. Alternative methods are therefore needed. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR......) technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid D/L ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in tusks (n=9). Two racemization rates were...... rate and (D/L)0 value be used in future AAR age estimation studies of narwhals, but also recommend the collection of tusks and eyes of narwhals for further improving the (D/L)0 and 2kAsp estimates obtained in this study....

  1. Effect of dietary pigment on growth performance and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius

    Boonyaratpalin, M.


    Full Text Available Effects of dietary pigment on survival and disease (white spot syndrome virus: WSSV resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius (PL15 for a 30-day period were studied. The results showed that not only was mean survival of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed with supplementation of Lucarotene or Betatene at 125 mg/kg diet significantly higher (P<0.05 but also the body color was increased. There were no effects of dietary pigment on mean weight, percent weight gain and WSSV resistance. However, mean WSSV resistance of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed diet containing Lucantin pink 50 mg/kg diet, Spirulina 30 g/kg diet or Betatene 125 mg/kg diet was higher than that of control.

  2. Domain 2 of a Kazal serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2 from Penaeus monodon possesses antiviral activity against WSSV.

    Visetnan, Suwattana; Donpudsa, Suchao; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien


    A 5-domain Kazal type serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2 from Penaeus monodon is involved in innate immune defense against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). To test which domains were involved, the 5 domains of SPIPm2 were over-expressed and tested against WSSV infection. By using hemocyte primary cell culture treated with each recombinant SPIPm2 domain along with WSSV, the expression of WSSV early genes ie1, WSV477 and late gene VP28 were substantially reduced as compared to other domains when the recombinant domain 2, rSPIPm2D2, was used. Injecting the WSSV along with rSPIPm2D2 but not with other domains caused delay in mortality rate of the infected shrimp. The results indicate that the SPIPm2D2 possesses strong antiviral activity and, hence, contributes predominantly to the antiviral activity of SPIPm2.

  3. Purification, characterization and cDNA cloning of a novel lipopolysaccharide-binding lectin from the shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Luo, Tian; Yang, Haijie; Li, Fang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Xu, Xun


    In invertebrates, C-type lectin plays an important role in innate immunity by mediating the recognition of pathogens to host cells and clearing microinvaders. A few C-type lectins have been identified from shrimps, but none of their gene or protein sequences is known to date. In this paper, a C-type lectin (named PmLec) specific for bacterial lipopolysaccharide was purified from the serum of the shrimp Penaeus monodon. The binding of PmLec to lipopolysaccharide was mainly mediated through the O-antigen. PmLec had a strong hemagglutinating and bacterial-agglutinating activity as well as an opsonic effect that enhances hemocyte phagocytosis. The PmLec cDNA sequence was obtained from the cDNA library of P. monodon by polymerase chain reaction with the degenerated primer designed according to the amino-terminal residue sequence of purified PmLec. A 546-bp open reading frame was found to encode a putative protein comprising 182 amino acids and containing a preceding signal peptide of 17 amino acids. A C-type lectin domain existed in PmLec, but no glycosylation site was found. The recombinant PmLec protein expressed in Escherichia coli also showed the same agglutinating activity and opsonic effect as that of the native protein. This is the first report of a lectin cDNA from the shrimp. PmLec functions as a pattern-recognition protein and an opsonin in the shrimp, and it provides a clue to elucidate the role of lectin in the innate immunity of aquatic invertebrates at the molecular level.

  4. Primeiro registro de Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae: um coccinelídeo originário da região Paleártica First record of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae: a lady beetle native to the Palaearctic region

    Lúcia Massutti de Almeida


    Full Text Available Specimens of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773 an asiatic species were caugth in Capão do Tigre, Curitiba, Paraná, South of Brazil, for the first time, feeding on Tinocallis kahawalnokani (Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Aphididae on Lagerstroemia indica Linnaeus (Lythraceae.

  5. Differential regulation of the lipoxygenase pathway in shrimp hepatopancreases and ovaries during ovarian development in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Wimuttisuk, Wananit; Tobwor, Punsa; Deenarn, Pacharawan; Intaraudom, Chakapong; Pruksatrakul, Thapanee; Nithithanasilp, Sutichai; Wongtripop, Somjai; Phomklad, Suwanchai; Chaitongsakul, Panomkorn; Vichai, Vanicha


    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical to the success of ovarian development in marine crustaceans, especially for domesticated species such as the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. These fatty acids are stored in a midgut gland called the hepatopancreas and subsequently serve as an energy source or are incorporated in yolk during ovarian development. PUFAs are known precursors of hydroxy fatty acids, including hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), which are catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOX). In previous studies, 8-HEPE has been shown to regulate female reproduction and adipogenesis in marine crustaceans. However, whether the biosynthesis of 8-HEPE in these species is the result of LOX activity has yet to be investigated. In this study, 8-HEPE was identified exclusively in P. monodon hepatopancreases using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Treatment with nordihydroguaiaretic acid resulted in the reduction of 8-HEPE, suggesting the enzyme-dependent catalysis of 8-HEPE in hepatopancreases. Additionally, a full-length P. monodon LOX (PmLOX) was amplified from shrimp ovary cDNA. Sequence analysis revealed that the putative PmLOX contains domains and catalytic residues required for LOX catalytic function. Furthermore, PmLOX expression increased steadily as shrimp ovary maturation progressed, while PmLOX expression and the amount of 8-HEPE decreased in shrimp hepatopancreases. These findings not only suggest differential requirements for hydroxy fatty acid biosynthesis in shrimp ovaries and hepatopancreases during the P. monodon ovarian development, but also provide insights into the LOX pathway in marine crustaceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation and characterization of genes functionally involved in ovarian development of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH).

    Preechaphol, Rachanimuk; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Khamnamtong, Bavornlak; Menasveta, Piamsak


    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries between cDNA in stages I (previtellogenic) and III (cortical rod) ovaries of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were established. In all, 452 ESTs were unidirectionally sequenced. Sequence assembly generated 28 contigs and 201 singletons, 109 of which (48.0%) corresponding to known sequences previously deposited in GenBank. Several reproduction-related transcripts were identified. The full-length cDNA of anaphase promoting complex subunit 11 (PmAPC11; 600 bp with an ORF of 255 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 84 amino acids) and selenoprotein Mprecursor (PmSePM; 904 bp with an ORF of 396 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 131 amino acids) were characterized and reported for the first time in penaeid shrimp. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression levels of PmSePM and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 significantly diminished throughout ovarian development, whereas Ser/Thrcheckpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), DNA replication licensing factor mcm2 and egalitarian were down-regulated in mature ovaries of wild P. monodon (p < 0.05). Accordingly, the expression profiles of PmSePM and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 could be used as biomarkers for evaluating the degree of reproductive maturation in domesticated P. monodon.

  7. Isolation and characterization of genes functionally involved in ovarian development of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH

    Rachanimuk Preechaphol


    Full Text Available Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries between cDNA in stages I (previtellogenic and III (cortical rod ovaries of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon were established. In all, 452 ESTs were unidirectionally sequenced. Sequence assembly generated 28 contigs and 201 singletons, 109 of which (48.0% corresponding to known sequences previously deposited in GenBank. Several reproduction-related transcripts were identified. The full-length cDNA of anaphase promoting complex subunit 11 (PmAPC11; 600 bp with an ORF of 255 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 84 amino acids and selenoprotein M precursor (PmSePM; 904 bp with an ORF of 396 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 131 amino acids were characterized and reported for the first time in penaeid shrimp. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression levels of PmSePM and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 significantly diminished throughout ovarian development, whereas Ser/Thr checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1, DNA replication licensing factor mcm2 and egalitarian were down-regulated in mature ovaries of wild P. monodon (p < 0.05. Accordingly, the expression profiles of PmSePM and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 could be used as biomarkers for evaluating the degree of reproductive maturation in domesticated P. monodon.


    Haryanti Haryanti


    Full Text Available Standard method to asses the performance of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon fry was needed for successful shrimp culture. The main purpose of this study was to determine standard method fry performance of P. monodon assesment based on its morphology and molecular RNA/DNA ratio analysis. Samples of P. monodon fry were collected from hatcheries in Bali, six hatcheries in East Java, three hatcheries in Central Java and six hatcheries in South Sulawesi. Each hatchery gave 25 appropriate sizes of fry samples taken from same tank culture. RNA/DNA ratio value was obtained from gene-quant measurement.  Result of this study shown that morphology performance of shrimp fry correlated with RNA/DNA ratio.  RNA/DNA ratio of shrimp fry from Bali hatcheries were obtained of 0.7121. Shrimp fry from hatcheries in East Java  showed  RNA/DNA value ranged between 0.2823-1.2132, while shrimp fry from hatcheries in Central Java and South Sulawesi  ranged between 1.1810-17478  and  0.1798-0.5116 respectively.


    Ilham Zulfahmi


    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the optimal stocking density of tiger shrimp seed (Penaeus monodon were maintained in media biofloc. This study uses a randomized complete design with four treatments and three replications ie, treatment A control (10 tiger shrimp seed / container without the addition bioflok, treatment B (10 tiger shrimp seed / container with the addition bioflok, treatment C (15 tiger shrimp seed / container with the addition bioflok , treatment D (tiger shrimp seed / container with the addition bioflok. The observed parameters include the specific growth rate (SGR, a daily increase of the absolute length and survival rate (SR and feed efficiency. The results showed that the stocking density gives significantly effect to increase the daily increase of the absolute length, SGR and feed efficiency value of tiger prawn seed. Values length and SGR growth are highest in treatment C respectively, 3.1 ± 0.06 cm and 1.48 ± 0.041%/day, meanwhile, the value of feed efficiency is highest in treatment D amounted to 47,43 ± 7,26%. There is no significant effect between the stocking density differences of each treatment on the survival of tiger shrimp juvenile Optimal maintenance toward stocking density for tiger shrimp seed using bioflok system is 15 tiger shrimp seed / 10 liters of water.Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan padat tebar optimal benih udang windu (Penaeus monodon yang dipelihara dalam media bioflok. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan dan tiga ulangan yaitu, perlakuan A kontrol (10 ekor/wadah tanpa penambahan bioflok, perlakuan B (10 ekor/wadah dengan penambahan bioflok, perlakuan C (15 ekor/wadah dengan penambahan bioflok, perlakuan D (20 ekor/wadah dengan penambahan bioflok. Parameter yang diamati meliputi kelangsungan hidup (SR, Pertambahan Panjang Mutlak, Laju Pertumbuhan Spesifik (SGR dan Efisiensi Pakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan padat tebar berpengaruh nyata

  10. Parasites of Apollonia melanostoma (Pallas 1814) and Neogobius kessleri (Guenther 1861) (Osteichthyes, Gobiidae) from the Danube River in Austria.

    Mühlegger, J M; Jirsa, F; Konecny, R; Frank, C


    Two invasive fish species, the round goby Apollonia melanostoma syn. Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas 1814) and the bighead goby Neogobius kessleri (Günther, 1861), have established a firm population in Austrian waters during the past 15 years. As there have been no records of the parasite fauna from these populations, a total of 79 specimens of A. melanostoma and 12 specimens of N. kessleri were examined for parasites between May and October 2007 from three different sampling sites from the Danube River in Austria. In total 12 parasite taxa were recovered. The protozoans Trichodina sp. and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis from the gills and skin; two crustacean species, Paraergasilus brevidigitus and Ergasilus sieboldi, from the gills; and the two monogeneans Gyrodactylus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp., from the skin and gills respectively, all occurred at low prevalence and intensities. Furthermore, cystacanths of the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii were found in the body cavity. Metacercariae of the digeneans Diplostomum sp. and Tylodelphys clavata were found in the lens of the eye and the vitreous humour, respectively. Adults of two digeneans, Nicolla skrjabini and Bunodera nodulosa, were found in the intestine. In addition, during this survey metacercariae of the Holarctic digenean Bucephalus polymorphus, encysted in the skin and fins, with prevalence up to 78%, were recorded for the first time in Austria.

  11. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin


    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively.

  12. Learning where to feed: the use of social information in flower-visiting Pallas' long-tongued bats (Glossophaga soricina).

    Rose, Andreas; Kolar, Miriam; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam


    Social learning is a widespread phenomenon among vertebrates that influences various patterns of behaviour and is often reported with respect to foraging behaviour. The use of social information by foraging bats was documented in insectivorous, carnivorous and frugivorous species, but there are little data whether flower-visiting nectarivorous bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) can acquire information about food from other individuals. In this study, we conducted an experiment with a demonstrator-observer paradigm to investigate whether flower-visiting Pallas' long-tongued bats (Glossophaga soricina) are able to socially learn novel flower positions via observation of, or interaction with, knowledgeable conspecifics. The results demonstrate that flower-visiting G. soricina are able to use social information for the location of novel flower positions and can thereby reduce energy-costly search efforts. This social transmission is explainable as a result of local enhancement; learning bats might rely on both visual and echo-acoustical perception and are likely to eavesdrop on auditory cues that are emitted by feeding conspecifics. We additionally tested the spatial memory capacity of former demonstrator bats when retrieving a learned flower position, and the results indicate that flower-visiting bats remember a learned flower position after several weeks.

  13. Inhibitory effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) on poly (I:C)-induced immune response of epidermal keratinocytes.

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Young Ho; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon


    Epidermal keratinocytes provide protective role against external stimuli by barrier formation. In addition, kertinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. Disturbance of keratinocyte functions is related with skin disorders. Psoriasis is a common skin disease related with inflammatory reaction in epidermal cells. We attempted to find therapeutics for psoriasis, and found that Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) has an inhibitory potential on poly (I:C)-induced inflammation of keratinocytes. PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced expression of crucial psoriatic cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α, via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. In addition, PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced inflammasome activation, in terms of IL-1β and caspase-1 secretion. Finally, PE markedly inhibited poly (I:C)-increased NLRP3, an important component of inflammasome. These results indicate that PE has an inhibitory effect on poly (I:C)-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes, suggesting that PE can be developed for the treatment of psoriasis.

  14. Food and Feeding Habits of the Mudskipper, Boleophthalmus boddarti (Pallas, 1770 from Pichavaram Mangroves, Southeast Coast of India

    V. Ravi


    Full Text Available The mudskipper, Boleophthalmus boddarti (Pallas (Order Perciformes: Family Gobiidae are found distributed along the mudflats of estuary and mangroves where they construct burrows. Being amphibious and locomotive in nature, mudskippers feed very actively in the mudflats during low tide. A total of 156 fishes (juveniles, males and females were randomly caught using cast net and hand nets and they were immediately preserved in formalin. In the present study, the food and feeding habits and feeding intensities of the mudskipper, B. boddarti from the Pichavaram mangroves were determined following points and volumetric methods. The results revealed that diatoms formed the major food item in the gut of B. boddarti and found around 55% of its diet throughout the year. Nematodes, polychaetes, algae and fish eggs were also found constituting lower percentage during the study period. Detritus and mud/sand particles were present in moderate percentages in all the seasons. Active feeding was noticed during January (post monsoon to May (summer but it was below 50% during June (summer to September (premonsoon, whereas during October and monsoon the feeding intensities were found very low. The poor feeding may be due to flood in the mudflats during monsoon season.

  15. Habitat diversity of the Multicolored Asian ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in agricultural and arboreal ecosystems: a review

    Vandereycken, A.


    Full Text Available The Multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, native to Asia, is an invasive species in many European and American countries. Initially introduced as a biological control agent against aphids and coccids in greenhouses, this alien species rapidly invaded many habitats such as forests, meadows, wetlands, and agricultural crops. This paper reviews the habitats (forests, crops, herbs, gardens and orchards where H. axyridis has been observed, either during insect samplings or as part of Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs. Studies have referenced H. axyridis on 106 plant taxa (35 arboreal species, 21 crop species, 27 herbaceous species, 11 ornamental species, and 12 orchard species and have identified 89 plant-prey relationships (34 arboreal species, 16 crop species, 13 herbaceous species, 10 ornamental species, and 16 orchard species in different countries. Harmonia axyridis is more abundant in forest areas, principally on Acer, Salix, Tilia and Quercus, than in agroecosystems. Some plant species, such as Urtica dioica L., which surround crops, contain large numbers of H. axyridis and could constitute important reserves of this alien species in advance of aphid invasions into crops. This review highlights the polyphagy and eurytopic aspect of H. axyridis.

  16. Distribución y abundancia de larvas de Heterocarpus reedi Bahamonde, 1955, Cervimunida johni Porter, 1903 y Pleuroncodes monodon (H. Milne Edwards, 1837, frente a Coquimbo y Caldera, Chile Distribution and abundance of Heterocarpus reedi Bahamonde, 1955, Cervimunida johni Porter, 1903, and Pleuroncodes monodon (H. Milne Edwards, 1837, larvae off Coquimbo and Caldera, Chile

    Armando Mujica


    Full Text Available Como aporte a la dinámica poblacional de especies que constituyen recursos pesqueros, se analizaron 160 muestras de zooplancton obtenidas con redes Bongo en 40 estaciones oceanógraficas entre Caldera y Coquimbo, en octubre y diciembre de 2005. De ellas se separó la totalidad de las larvas de crustáceos decápodos y se identificaron las de Heterocarpus reedi, Cervimunida johni y Pleuroncodes monodon. Las mayores abundancias de zoeas tempranas de las tres especies se encontraron en octubre en la zona de Coquimbo, mientras que en diciembre predominaron los estados más avanzados de desarrollo. En la zona de Caldera, en ambos meses de muestreo, predominaron los estados avanzados de desarrollo de H. reedi y P. monodon y zoeas tempranas de C. johni. La frecuencia de ocurrencia de las larvas de H reedi en la zona de Coquimbo fue similar en ambos meses, mientras que en la zona de Caldera fue mayor en octubre. La frecuencia de ocurrencia de las larvas de P. monodon y C. johni fue mayor en octubre en ambas zonas. Todas las megalopas capturadas en las dos zonas y meses de muestreo corresponden sólo a un morfotipo, con características morfológicas similares a los juveniles más pequeños de P. monodon. Sobre la base de la distribución y abundancia de larvas de las tres especies, se postula que el desove ocurre antes en la zona de Caldera que en la de Coquimbo, principalmente en zonas próximas a la costa, dada las diferencias de abundancia de los estados de desarrollo.To better understand the population dynamics of fishery resource species, 160 zooplankton samples were obtained with a Bongo net at 40 oceanographic stations around Caldera and Coquimbo in October and December, 2005, and analyzed. All crustacean decapod larvae were sorted, and Heterocarpus reedi, Cervimunida johni, and Pleuroncodes monodon larvae were identified. For all three species, the highest abundances of early zoea were found in October in Coquimbo, whereas advanced larval

  17. PmSERPIN3 from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon is capable of controlling the proPO system.

    Wetsaphan, Natthiya; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya


    Serpin or serine proteinase inhibitor is a family of protease inhibitors that are involved in controlling the proteolytic cascade in various biological processes. In shrimp, several serpins have been identified but only a few have been characterized. Herein, the PmSERPIN3 gene identified from Penaeus monodon EST database was studied. By using the 5'- and 3'-Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) techniques, the full-length of PmSERPIN3 cDNA was obtained. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 1233 bp encoding for 410 amino acid residue protein. Genome sequence analysis revealed that the PmSERPIN3 was an intronless gene. RT-PCR analysis revealed that it was constitutively expressed in all developmental stages, all shrimp tissues tested, and upon pathogen infections. The recombinant mature PmSERPIN3 protein (rPmSERPIN3) produced in Escherichia coli exhibited inhibitory activity against subtilisin. The rPmSERPIN3 also inhibited the shrimp prophenoloxidase system activation in vitro. Injecting the rPmSERPIN3 along with Vibrio harveyi into the shrimp decreased the clearance rate of bacteria in the hemolymph. Potentially, the PmSERPIN3 functions as a regulator of the proPO activating system.

  18. Effects of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol on growth performance and immuno-physiological parameters in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Kidchakan Supamattaya


    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA and deoxynivalenol (DON, naturally occurring contaminants of animal feed, have been implicated in several mycotoxicoses in farm livestock but there is little information on their toxicity in aquatic invertebrates. Therefore, in the present study an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon to assess the effects of OTA and DON on growth performance, haemolymph parameters and histopathology of shrimp. Results showed that feed supplemented with DON caused no effect on growth or survival rate of the shrimp. However, shrimps fed DON feed diet with 1,000 ppb showed significantly higher growth performance. No significant difference in total haemocyte counts (THC was found in shrimp fed mycotoxins-supplemented feed. Feeding high level of OTA (1,000 ppb caused a decrease in phenoloxidase (PO activity. Although no histopathological change was observed, decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT levels in shrimp fed OTA or DON indicated that mycotoxin may impair the functioning of hepatopancreatic cells. Since no adverse effect occurred with the highest levels of OTA and DON (1,000 and 2,000 ppb, respectively on haemolymph parameters and no residue was detected at the completion of the 8-week feeding period, it can be concluded that shrimp feeds occasionally contaminated with OTA or DON have no negative impact on the shrimp culture industry.


    Muliani Muliani


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan  untuk mengetahui karakteristik, dan menentukan posisi relatif isolat BT951 melalui identifikasi molekuler menggunakan gen 16S-rRNA, serta mengevaluasi potensinya sebagai probiotik pada budidaya udang windu (P. Monodon. Penelitian ini meliputi tahapan: (1 isolasi dan karakterisasi secara morfologi; (2 uji fisiologi dan biokimia; (3 identifikasi isolat BT951 secara molekuler; (4 uji sensitifitas terhadap antibiotik; (5 uji daya hambat isolat BT951 terhadap V. harveyi; (6 uji patogenisitas isolat BT951 terhadap larva udang; (7 uji tantang isolat BT951 dengan V. harveyi; (8 uji ketahanan isolat BT951 pada suhu ruang dan suhu 4oC. Hasil  penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, secara morfologi isolat BT951 koloninya berbentuk bulat kecil, berwarna krem kekuningan, tepian licin, dan cembung, termasuk kelompok bakteri gram positif yang berbentuk batang, oksidase dan katalase positif, indol negatif, dan bersifat motil. Bakteri ini dapat tumbuh pada suhu 40oC, salinitas 0-50 ppt, dan sensitif terhadap beberapa jenis antibiotik seperti rifanpisin, eritromisin, dan klorampenikol akan tetapi resiten terhadap ampisilin, oksitetrasiklin, gentamisin, dan furazolidon. Berdasarkan hasil analisis gen 16S-rRNA menunjukkan bahwa isolat BT951 termasuk kelompok Brevibacillus laterosporus dengan indeks kedekatan sebesar 97,7%. Bakteri ini tidak bersifat patogen terhadap udang windu, dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri V. harveyi, dan potensial dijadikan sebagai bakteri probiotik pada budidaya udang windu.

  20. Effects of mycotoxin T-2 and zearalenone on histopathological changes in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Phromkunthong, W.


    Full Text Available The effects of T-2 toxin and zearalenone were studied in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius. In the experiment, black tiger shrimp were fed with different concentrations of T-2 toxin, i.e. 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 ppm and zearalenone, i.e. 0, 0.1. 0.5 and 1.0 ppm. Shrimp with initial average weight of 4.7 g were experimented for a-10-wk period. Supplementation of 0, 0.1 and 1.0 ppm T-2 produced no histological changes in hepatopancreatic, hemopoietic tissue or lymphoid cell while at higher concentration of 2.0 ppm atrophy, severe necrosis and degeneration of hepatopancreatic tubules, loose contact of hemopoietic tissue and lymphoid organ occurred. Similar observations were noted for the treatments with 0.5 and 1.0 ppm zearalenone - supplemented feed. Histological changes were, however, observed in hepatopancreatic tissue. The scale of histological changes correlated with feeding period and concentrations of zearalenone shrimp received.

  1. A five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and its inhibitory activities.

    Somprasong, Nawarat; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee


    A novel five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor, SPIPm2, identified from the hemocyte cDNA library of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was successfully expressed in the Escherichia coli expression system. The expressed recombinant SPIPm2 (rSPIPm2) as inclusion bodies was solubilized with a sodium carbonate buffer, pH10, and purified by gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of rSPIPm2 was determined using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to be 29.065 kDa. The inhibitory activities of rSPIPm2 were tested against trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, subtilisin and elastase. The inhibitor exhibited potent inhibitory activities against subtilisin and elastase, weak inhibitory activity against trypsin, and did not inhibit chymotrypsin. Tight-binding inhibition assay suggested that the molar ratios of SPIPm2 to subtilisin and elastase were 1:2 and 1:1, respectively. The inhibition against subtilisin and elastase was a competitive type with inhibition constants (Ki) of 0.52 and 3.27 nM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of SPIPm2 against subtilisin implies that, in shrimp, it may function as a defense component against proteinases from pathogenic bacteria but the elastase inhibitory function is not known.

  2. Attempts on producing lymphoid cell line from Penaeus monodon by induction with SV40-T and 12S EIA oncogenes.

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Prabhakaran, Priyaja; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright


    In an attempt of in vitro transformation, transfection mediated expression of Simian virus-40 (T) antigen (SV40-T) and transduction mediated expression of Adenovirus type 12 early region 1A (12S E1A) oncogene were performed in Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells. pSV3-neo vector encoding SV40-T oncogene and a recombinant baculovirus BacP2-12S E1A-GFP encoding 12S E1A oncogene under the control of hybrid promoters were used. Electroporation and lipofection mediated transformation of SV40-T in lymphoid cells confirmed the transgene expression by phenotypic variation and the expression of GFP in co-transfection experiment. The cells transfected by lipofection (≥ 5%) survived for 14 days with lower toxicity (30%), whilst on electroporation, most of the cells succumbed to death (60%) and survived cells lived up to 7 days. Transduction efficiency in primary lymphoid cells was more than 80% within 14 days of post-transduction, however, an incubation period of 7 days post-transduction was observed without detectable expression of 12S E1A. High level of oncogenic 12S E1A expression were observed after 14 day post-transduction and the proliferating cells survived for more than 90 days with GFP expression, however, without in vitro transformation and immortalization. The study put forth the requirement of transduction mediated 'specific' oncogene expression along with telomerase activation and epigenetic induction for the immortalization and establishment of shrimp cell line.

  3. Dietary effect of Sargassum wightii fucoidan to enhance growth, prophenoloxidase gene expression of Penaeus monodon and immune resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Sivagnanavelmurugan, Madasamy; Thaddaeus, Bergmans Jude; Palavesam, Arunachalam; Immanuel, Grasian


    The polysaccharide fucoidan from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii was extracted and it was incorporated with pellet diets at three concentrations (0.1, 0.2 & 0.3%). The fucoidan incorporated diets were fed to shrimp Penaeus monodon for 60 days and the growth performance was assessed. The weight gain and SGR of control group was 6.83 g and 9.72%, respectively, but the weight gain and SGR of various concentrations (0.1-0.3%) of fucoidan incorporated diets fed groups of shrimp was increased from 7.30 to 8.20 g and 9.83 to 10.03%, respectively. After 60 days of feeding experiment, the relative quantification of prophenoloxidase gene of experimental groups over control group was analysed by RT-PCR and it was ranged between 2.13 and 7.95 fold increase within 33.52-34.61 threshold cycles, respectively at 0.1-0.3% concentrations of fucoidan. After 60 days of feeding experiment, the P. monodon were challenged with shrimp pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the mortality percentage was recorded daily up to 21 days. The reduction in mortality percentage of experimental groups over control group was recorded from 44.56 to 72.79%, respectively in 0.1-0.3% of fucoidan incorporated diets fed groups. During challenge experiment, all the immunological parameters such as THC, prophenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst activity, superoxide dismutase activity, phagocytic activity, bactericidal activity and bacterial clearance ability of experimental groups were significantly (P fucoidan had enhanced the innate immunity and increased resistance to V. parahaemolyticus infection in P. monodon.

  4. Morphological polymorphism in tapeworms: redescription of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) and characterisation of its morphotypes from different fish hosts.

    Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikuláš; Barčák, Daniel; Miklisová, Dana; Kirin, Diana; Scholz, Tomáš


    Recent morphological and molecular data have shown that one of the most common parasites of freshwater fish in the Palaearctic Region, the cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Eucestoda: Caryophyllidea), is highly polymorphic. Five distinct morphotypes of C. laticeps, largely corresponding to different fish hosts and representing separate, yet closely related genetic lineages, have been recognised and they are characterised in the present paper. Morphotype 1 from breams, Abramis brama (L.) (type-host) and Ballerus spp., corresponds to the original Taenia laticeps Pallas, 1781 and its neotype (paragenophore ex A. brama in Russia) is designated. This morphotype is characterised by a slender body and flabellate scolex. Morphotype 2 was found in the Macedonian vimba Vimba melanops (Heckel) and the vimba bream V. vimba (L.); it is typified by a more robust body, with most anterior extent of the vitelline follicles near the scolex and the cirrus-sac situated more anteriorly than in other morphotypes. Morphotype 3 is represented by worms from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. that possess a cuneicrispitate scolex (having the form of a wedge with shallow indentations on anterior margin). Morphotype 4 from the common nase Chondrostoma nasus (L.) has a large, robust body and a wide scolex with numerous superficial grooves (wrinkles) in its anterior part. Morphotype 5 is represented by worms from the white-eye bream Ballerus sapa (Pallas); its typical characteristics are a festoon-like anterior margin of the scolex, the absence of vitelline follicles posterior to the cirrus-sac and the absence of a well-developed internal seminal vesicle. Discriminant analysis of 15 morphometric variables readily separated Morphotypes 3, 4 and 5 and confirmed the key discriminating power of traits related to the reproductive system, especially the terminal reproductive organs. Morphological polymorphism and the genetic divergence of different morphotypes of C. laticeps correspond

  5. Determination of the persistence of dimetridazole, metronidazole and ronidazole residues in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) tissue and stability during cooking


    The depletion of three banned nitroimidazole drugs (dimetridazole (DMZ), metronidazole (MNZ) and ronidazole (RNZ)) was investigated in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) following in-water medication. The highest concentrations of residues were measured immediately after the 24 h immersion (day 0). At this time, MNZ and MNZ-OH residues were measured in shrimp tissue samples at concentrations ranging from 361–4189 and 0.28–6.6 μg kg−1, respectively. DMZ and its metabolites HMMNI ranged in co...

  6. Molecular Characterization of Viral Responsive Protein 15 and Its Possible Role in Nuclear Export of Virus in Black Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Jaturontakul, Krisadaporn; Jatuyosporn, Thapanan; Laohawutthichai, Pasunee; Kim, Sun-Yong; Mori, Tomoyuki; Supungul, Premruethai; Hakoshima, Toshio; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Krusong, Kuakarun


    A viral responsive protein 15 from Penaeus monodon (PmVRP15) has been reported to be important for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in vivo. This work aims to characterize PmVRP15 and investigate its possible role in nuclear import/export of the virus. Circular dichroism spectra showed that PmVRP15 contains high helical contents (82%). Analytical ultracentrifugation suggested that PmVRP15 could possibly form oligomers in solution. A subcellular fractionation study showed that PmVRP1...

  7. Estudio de la ecología de Ulmus laevis Pallas en la Península Ibérica

    Venturas, Martin David


    Esta tesis doctoral pretende profundizar en el conocimiento de la ecología de Ulmus laevis Pallas, especie autóctona en peligro de extinción en la Península Ibérica, con el fin de proponer medidas adecuadas para su conservación. Se ha estudiado la distribución natural de la especie atendiendo a aspectos edáficos. Los resultados muestran que U. laevis presenta menor capacidad de acidificación de la rizosfera, menor actividad de la reductasa férrica y menor homeostasis que U. minor Mill. cuando...


    Ronald Huarachi


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766 (Hydrozoa: Hydridae as a bioindicator of water quality of the Chili River, Arequipa, Peru. The freshwater hydra were collected in the spring "Ojo del Milagro", Characato District, Arequipa, Peru. H. vulgaris was cultivated under standardized conditions and were fed Artemia sp. K2Cr2O7 was used as a positive control and as a reference toxin. Acute toxicity and morphological changes of H. vulgaris were evaluated on Tiabaya and Tingo, sampling points of the Chili River. The LC50 (median lethal concentration showed: Tingo (LC50-96h = 135.95% classifying it as non-toxic and Tiabaya (LC50 -24h = 61.83%, classifying it as moderately toxic; LC50-48h = 44.19% and LC50 -72h = 38.28% classifying them as toxic; LC50 -96h = 21.44% rating it as very toxic. Significant differences in the morphological changes of H. vulgaris were observed with regard to different concentrations and exposure time in waters sampled from Tingo from 48 h to 96 h and in Tiabaya, significant differences in morphological changes from 24 h to 96 h exposure. The results of the physicochemical parameters of the Chili River were compared with the Peruvian National Standards for Environmental Quality (ECA for water (categories 3 and 4 and recorded high values of biochemical oxygen demand BOD5, NH4 and PO4, and low dissolved oxigen OD values for Tiabaya. In Tingo, NH4 and phosphate were high. In Tiabaya, water was considered more toxic than at Tingo.

  9. The Ash Content of the Main Muscle Groups and Edible Offal Collected From Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas

    Gabriela Tărnăuceanu Frunză


    Full Text Available Abstract. The availability of hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas, unlike that of domestic rabbits, is restricted by hunting seasons. Rabbit meat, according to research from Spain, is a rich source of K, P, Fe and Mg, but poor in Na, being recommended for people with hypertension. The largest quantity of macro minerals studied in rabbit meat was determined for K and P, and the most abundant micro minerals were Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. In hare meat, ash content is not sufficiently studied. The current low level of knowledge motivated the present study. The aim of this study was to establish the ash content for major muscle groups and edible offal of hares. The biological material used was collected from 49 hares with an average weight of 5.6 kg, at the age of reproductive maturity (adults: 11-12 months. Different muscle groups (the muscles Cervicalis, Intercostalis, Longissimus Dorsi, Psoas major, Triceps Brachi, Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus and the main edible offal (heart, liver, kidney were sampled. The ash was determined by calcination (in Supertherm C311 oven calcination at 5500C. The results obtained were interpreted statistically (arithmetic mean (X, standard deviation (s, variance (s2 and coefficient of variation (V% and the statistical significance of differences was tested using the ANOVA Single Factor algorithm (p>0.05; p<0.01; p<0.001. Ash content for the main muscle groups analysed varied from the lowest average values of 1.095% for the Intercostalis muscles, to the highest average values of 1.256%, for Triceps brachii muscles.

  10. Features of the karyotypes of Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas, 1771 and Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Amphibia: Ranidae from Armenia

    A Martirosyan


    Full Text Available Сhromosomal complements of Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas, 1771 from 9 localities (Northern, Central and South Armenia and Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 from one locality (North-West Armenia have been analyzed. The chromosome sets of P. ridibundus collected from 8 localities showed 2n=26, (10m+12sm+4st; NF=52. A secondary constriction has been observed in all studied individuals on the 10-th chromosome pair showing NOR-positive reaction. C-positive heterochromatin blocks have been observed on long arms of the 2-nd and 10-th pairs of chromosomes (7 localities. In addition, C-heterochromatin blocks have been found on interstitial regions of short arms of the 12-th pairs, as well as in telomeric regions of long arms of the 9-th pairs and on short arms of the 5-th pair in the frogs from 2 localities. The karyotype of P. ridibundus from populations near Ejmiatsin differs from other populations (2n=26, 12m+10sm+4st. Diploid number of chromosomes of R. macrocnemis was also 26 (8m+12sm+6st, NF=52. Blocks of C-positive heterochromatin have been revealed in telomeric parts of the 1-st, 2-nd (p, 3-rd (q, 4-th (q, 6-th, 9-th (p, 10-th (p,q and 13-th (q pairs, as well as in interstitial regions of the 1-st and 2-nd pairs of chromosomes.  Intrapopulation and interpopulation geographic variations of karyotypes and C-heterochromatin banding patterns of P. ridibundus have been revealed. Karyotypically, morphotypes “macrocnemis” and “camerani” are closely related.

  11. Intracellular crystal-bearing vesicles in the epidermis of scleractinian corals, Astrangia danae (Agassiz) and Porites porites (Pallas).

    Hayes, R L; Goreau, N I


    Orthorhombic aragonitic crystals, embedded with a granular lipo-protein matrix and surrounded by a trilaminar membrane, are localized in the apical cytoplasm of epidermal cells of Scleractinian corals. Adult specimens of Astrangia danae (Agassiz) and settled planulae of Porites porites (Pallas) contain crystals averaging 0.7 mu by 0.1 mu by 0.3 mu within Golgi-derived vesicles. Short-term labelling with 45Ca reveals distribution of radioactivity amont a basic tissue fraction (92%) an acid tissue fraction (5%) and a skeletal fraction (3%). Identification of the primordial crystal population within membrane-bound visicles provides overwhelming evidence for the intracellular mode of calcification in Scleractinia. Moreover, it permits development of a novel concept of cellular regulation over these dynamic events. The membrane-bound vesicel is a miniature crystal fabrication station and a vehicle responsible for transportation of seed crystals and an organic matrix material to sites of discharge from the cell. The vesicle membrane becomes a probable locus of active transport and enzymatic activity as well as a physical barrier to be penetrated for release of vesicle contents into the extracellular milieu. Contact between the vesicle membrane and the plasmalemma would result in exocytosis and the onset of skeletogenesis. Principles governing crystal growth would prevail from then on. The released crystal becomes a nucleation catalyst and the organic matrix, a supply of ionic calcium for self-limiting crystallization. Crystals are produced by the organism spontaneously and continuously from shortly after larval attachment throughout the life of the polyp. Therefore, these membrane-bound vesicles signal the dynamic process by which initiation, differentiation, growth and limitation of the coral skeleton is regulated.

  12. Gonadogenesis and annual reproductive cycles of an endangered cyprinid fish, the lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus (Pallas, 1814).

    Hliwa, Piotr; Król, Jarosław; Sikorska, Justyna; Wolnicki, Jacek; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Kamiński, Rafał; Stabińska, Agnieszka; Ciereszko, Andrzej


    In this study, gonadogenesis, the effect of temperature (15, 20 and 25°C) on sex differentiation, and annual changes in the gonads of mature lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus (Pallas, 1814) were determined. The lake minnow was found to be a primary gonochoristic fish species, where gonads are formed directly in the ovaries or testes. The morphological differentiation of gonads was initiated 35days post hatch (DPH) when two types of gonadal anlages were visible: a pear-shaped gonad attached by a single mesentery string and a spindle-shaped gonad attached on both sides to the peritoneum. Gonadogenesis occurred faster in females than in males, with the first previtellogenic oocytes and ovarian lamellae being already observed in 45 DPH fish. In males, cytological differentiation occurred approximately 85 DPH, when the fish reached an average body weight of more than 400mg. No significant effect of rearing temperature on sex ratio in lake minnow juveniles was observed. The proportion of males and females was similar (close to 1:1) in all of the thermal-treated groups, although there were effects of temperature on the final sizes of fish. Histological examination of wild, mature lake minnow ovaries during the annual cycle (from May to February the following year) showed asynchronous oocyte maturation. The testes were characteristic of multi-batch spawning fish. Quantitative dominance of spermatids and mature spermatozoa in May was observed, while the presence of primary and secondary spermatocytes in all other periods was confirmed. These changes were also reflected in the seasonal variation in the gonado-somatic index in both sexes, with the highest mean values of 11.2% (females) and 4.0% (males) in May, which were found to be significantly different to all other periods. The data presented in this study provide an important contribution to our understanding of the biology and reproductive strategy of the endangered lake minnow.

  13. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal (Monodon monoceros eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks

    Eva Garde


    Full Text Available Ages of marine mammals have traditionally been estimated by counting dentinal growth layers in teeth. However, this method is difficult to use on narwhals (Monodon monoceros because of their special tooth structures. Alternative methods are therefore needed. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in tusks (n=9. Two racemization rates were estimated: one by linear regression (r2=0.98 based on the assumption that age was known without error, and one based on a bootstrap study, taking into account the uncertainty in the age estimation (r2 between 0.88 and 0.98. The two estimated 2kAsp values were identical up to two significant figures. The 2k Asp value from the bootstrap study was found to be 0.00229±0.000089 SE, which corresponds to a racemization rate of 0.00114−yr±0.000044 SE. The intercept of 0.0580±0.00185 SE corresponds to twice the (d/l0 value, which is then 0.0290±0.00093 SE. We propose that this species-specific racemization rate and (d/l0 value be used in future AAR age estimation studies of narwhals, but also recommend the collection of tusks and eyes of narwhals for further improving the (d/l0 and 2kAsp estimates obtained in this study.

  14. A Novel Viral Responsive Protein Is Involved in Hemocyte Homeostasis in the Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon*

    Prapavorarat, Adisak; Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Tassanakajon, Anchalee


    A novel viral responsive protein, namely hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP), was characterized for its role in the response of shrimp to white spot syndrome virus infection. The full-length cDNAs of HHAP from the black tiger shrimp (PmHHAP), Penaeus monodon, and the fresh water crayfish (PlHHAP), Pacifastacus leniusculus, were obtained and showed high sequence identity to a hypothetical protein from various organisms, with the highest identity to the hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC006773 from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (54% amino acid sequence identity). Transcripts of PmHHAP were expressed in various shrimp tissues with the highest expression in hematopoietic tissue, whereas the transcripts of PlHHAP were found in the hematopoietic and nerve tissues. Upon white spot syndrome virus infection, a high up-regulation level of shrimp hemocytic HHAP mRNA and protein was observed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. Gene silencing of PmHHAP by RNA interference resulted in a significant decrease in the number of circulating hemocytes and 100% shrimp mortality within 30 h of the double-stranded PmHHAP RNA injection (but not in control shrimp), indicating that HHAP is essential for shrimp survival. Interestingly, severe damage of hemocytes was observed in vivo in the PmHHAP knockdown shrimp and in vitro in shrimp primary hemocyte cell culture, suggesting that PmHHAP plays an important role in hemocyte homeostasis. Thus, it is speculated that the up-regulation of PmHHAP is an important mechanism to control circulating hemocyte levels in crustaceans during viral infection. PMID:20444692

  15. A snake-like serine proteinase (PmSnake) activates prophenoloxidase-activating system in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Monwan, Warunthorn; Amparyup, Piti; Tassanakajon, Anchalee


    Clip domain serine proteinases (ClipSPs) play critical roles in the activation of proteolytic cascade in invertebrate immune systems including the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system. In this study, we characterized a snake-like serine protease, namely PmSnake, from the shrimp Penaeus monodon which has previously been identified based on the subtractive cDNA library of proPO double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-treated hemocytes. An open reading frame of PmSnake contains 1068 bp encoding a predicted protein of 355 amino acid residues with a putative signal peptide of 22 amino acids and two conserved domains (N-terminal clip domain and C-terminal trypsin-like serine proteinase domain). Sequence analysis revealed that PmSnake was closest to the AeSnake from ant Acromyrmex echinatior (53% similarity), but was quite relatively distant from other shrimp PmclipSPs. PmSnake transcript was mainly expressed in shrimp hemocytes and up-regulated after systemic Vibrio harveyi infection indicating that it is an immune-responsive gene. Suppression of PmSnake expression by dsRNA interference reduced both transcript and protein levels leading to a reduction of the hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity (36%), compared to the control, suggesting that the PmSnake functions as a clip-SP in shrimp proPO system. Western blot analysis using anti-PmSnake showed that the PmSnake was detected in hemocytes but not in cell-free plasma. In vitro PO activity and serine proteinase activity assays showed that adding rPmSnake into the shrimp hemolymph could increase PO activity as well as serine proteinase activity suggesting that the rPmSnake activates the proPO system via serine proteinase cascade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of Streptomyces fradiae and Bacillus megaterium as probiotics in the experimental culture of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea, Penaeidae

    Sheikh Aftabuddin


    Full Text Available Shrimp hatcheries often beset with diseases, mainly the bacterial infection and antibiotics arewidely used for prevention of disease. Presently, beneficial bacteria (probiotics are used to preventdiseases instead of antibiotics and increasing the production. In the present study, the two new microbialstrains Bacillus megaterium and Streptomyces fradiae isolated from mangrove sediments were applied(experimental culture for the post larval rearing of Penaeus monodon which is compared with controlculture tanks (without probiotics. The water quality condition such as temperature (27-29oC, salinity(26-28‰ and dissolved oxygen (4.7-5.0 mg L-1 of both control and experimental culture were more orless similar. Concentration of ammonia and pH were significantly different (p<0.05 between the controland experimental culture during the study period. The feed assimilation efficiency is higher (above 80%in experimental culture tank when compared to control tank (74.76%. The growth rate was higher -1.70 and 1.67 in S. fradiae, 1.66 and 1.63 in B. megaterium - through feed and water, respectively,while in control tank it was 1.4. The FCR values were 2.06 and 2.12 in S. fradiae treated tanks throughfeed and water, respectively, while 2.51 and 2.55 were observed in B. megaterium treated through feedand water respectively. The FCR value was found higher (4.02 in the control tank. The average totalheterotrophic bacteria (THB and total presumptive Vibrio bacteria both in culture water and post larvaewere lower during experimental culture in compared to control culture. The present study indicates thatthe probiotic treatment using two new microbial strains such as B. megaterium and S. fradiae would helpin better aquaculture production.

  17. Revealing localization and regulation of GTPase PmRab7 in lymphoid cells ofPenaeus monodon after WSSV infection

    Amrendra Kumar; Vaishnavi Ramasubbu; Kiran D Rasal; Saravanankumar Ayyappan


    Objective:To identify white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) entry into the host-cells of the cultured shrimpPenaeus monodon, we have attempted to localize PmRab7 (Ras-related in brain) which is playing a vital role in theWSSV internalization. Methods:In this study, we have cloned PmRab7 and expressed inEscherichia coli, further purified rPmRab7 was used for antibody production, isolation of lysosomal sub-cellular fractions and western blot against lysosomal protein. Moreover, high fold-change in PmRab7 regulation with increasing copy number ofWSSV has been studied by using real-timePCR. Results: 651 bp amplicon size gene was successfully amplified, ligated amplicon with pTZ T-tail vector confirmed by colonyPCR and retriction enzyme digestion on agarose gel. Subcloned (pRSET-B) 651 bp gene transformed successfully inRosetta and after 6 h of induction expressed rPmRab7 was onSDS page, furthermore soluble fraction of rPmRab7 (26 kDa) was purified by ni-NTA column. AntiPmRab7 antibody was received by Merk Pvt. Ltd., and western blot analysis revealed that PmRab7 is present in the lysosomal sub-cellular fraction. Copy number ofWSSV was increased 5 fold in 24 h and 20 fold in 72 h of infection and subsequently transcrtipt of PmRab7 was Ct = 1.0 to Ct = 8.5. Conclusions: Presence of PmRab7 on lysosome clearly indicating PmRab7 participating in lysosomal maturation, other handWSSV may follow the same route of entry.WSSV internalization has directly linked with regulation of PmRab7.

  18. Gene expression profiling in gill tissues of White spot syndrome virus infected black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by DNA microarray.

    Shekhar, M S; Gomathi, A; Gopikrishna, G; Ponniah, A G


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) continues to be the most devastating viral pathogen infecting penaeid shrimp the world over. The genome of WSSV has been deciphered and characterized from three geographical isolates and significant progress has been made in developing various molecular diagnostic methods to detect the virus. However, the information on host immune gene response to WSSV pathogenesis is limited. Microarray analysis was carried out as an approach to analyse the gene expression in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in response to WSSV infection. Gill tissues collected from the WSSV infected shrimp at 6, 24, 48 h and moribund stage were analysed for differential gene expression. Shrimp cDNAs of 40,059 unique sequences were considered for designing the microarray chip. The Cy3-labeled cRNA derived from healthy and WSSV-infected shrimp was subjected to hybridization with all the DNA spots in the microarray which revealed 8,633 and 11,147 as up- and down-regulated genes respectively at different time intervals post infection. The altered expression of these numerous genes represented diverse functions such as immune response, osmoregulation, apoptosis, nucleic acid binding, energy and metabolism, signal transduction, stress response and molting. The changes in gene expression profiles observed by microarray analysis provides molecular insights and framework of genes which are up- and down-regulated at different time intervals during WSSV infection in shrimp. The microarray data was validated by Real Time analysis of four differentially expressed genes involved in apoptosis (translationally controlled tumor protein, inhibitor of apoptosis protein, ubiquitin conjugated enzyme E2 and caspase) for gene expression levels. The role of apoptosis related genes in WSSV infected shrimp is discussed herein.




    Full Text Available Some studies demonstrated that astaxanthin surpasses the antioxidant benefits of beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, vitamin C, and vitamin E. Penaeus monodon (Tiger shrimp is one of the most valuable traded crustacean products in which astaxanthin can be found in its by-products. The extraction of thermolabile compound like carotenoids at lower temperatures through supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 can reduce the potential isomerization and degradation of the extraction product. In this study, astaxanthin had been extracted using SC-CO2 with 15% (v/v ethanol as an entrainer and the recovered astaxanthin was analyzed using High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. A central composite design (CCD was employed to study the effect of three SC-CO2 parameters namely temperature (X1 from 40 to 80°C, pressure (X2 from 150 to 250 bar and extraction flow rate (X3 from 1 to 3 ml/min on the astaxanthin complex yield, (Y1 and free astaxanthin content, (Y2. The nonlinear regression equations were significantly (p0.9261, which had no indication of lack of fit. The results indicated that a combined set of values of temperature (56.88°C, pressure (215.68 bar and extraction flow rate (1.89 ml/min was predicted to provide the optimum region in terms of astaxanthin complex yield, (58.50 ± 2.62 µg/g and free astaxanthin content (12.20 ± 4.16 µg/g studied.

  20. Revealing localization and regulation of GTPase PmRab7 in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon after WSSV infection

    Amrendra Kumar


    Full Text Available Objective: To identify white spot syndrome virus (WSSV entry into the host-cells of the cultured shrimp Penaeus monodon, we have attempted to localize PmRab7 (Ras-related in brain which is playing a vital role in the WSSV internalization. Methods: In this study, we have cloned PmRab7 and expressed in Escherichia coli, further purified rPmRab7 was used for antibody production, isolation of lysosomal sub-cellular fractions and western blot against lysosomal protein. Moreover, high fold-change in PmRab7 regulation with increasing copy number of WSSV has been studied by using real-time PCR. Results: 651 bp amplicon size gene was successfully amplified, ligated amplicon with pTZ T-tail vector confirmed by colony PCR and retriction enzyme digestion on agarose gel. Subcloned (pRSET-B 651 bp gene transformed successfully in Rosetta and after 6 h of induction expressed rPmRab7 was on SDS page, furthermore soluble fraction of rPmRab7 (26 kDa was purified by ni-NTA column. AntiPmRab7 antibody was received by Merk Pvt. Ltd., and western blot analysis revealed that PmRab7 is present in the lysosomal sub-cellular fraction. Copy number of WSSV was increased 5 fold in 24 h and 20 fold in 72 h of infection and subsequently transcrtipt of PmRab7 was Ct = 1.0 to Ct = 8.5. Conclusions: Presence of PmRab7 on lysosome clearly indicating PmRab7 participating in lysosomal maturation, other hand WSSV may follow the same route of entry. WSSV internalization has directly linked with regulation of PmRab7.

  1. Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of three subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) from black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon).

    Zhao, Chao; Wang, Yan; Fu, Mingjun; Yang, Keng; Qiu, Lihua


    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a cellular serine-threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphatase that plays a crucial role in regulating most cellular functions. In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of three subunits of PmPP2A (PmPP2A-A, PP2A-B and PP2A-C) were cloned from Penaeus monodon, which are the first available for shrimps. Sequence analysis showed that PmPP2A-A, PmPP2A-B and PmPP2A-C encoded polypeptides of 591, 443, and 324 amino acids, respectively. The mRNAs of three subunits of PmPP2A were expressed constitutively in all tissues examined, and predominantly in the ovaries. In ovarian maturation stages, the three subunits of PmPP2A were continuously but differentially expressed. Dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine injection experiments were conducted to study the expression profile of three subunits of PmPP2A, and the results indicated that PmPP2A played a negative regulatory role in the process of ovarian maturation. In addition, the recombinant proteins of three subunits of PmPP2A were successfully obtained, and the phosphatase activity of PmPP2A was tested in vitro. The results of this study will advance our understanding about the molecular mechanisms of PmPP2A in Penaeus monodon.

  2. Caracterización de agregaciones de langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon y langostino amarillo (Cervimunida johni mediante un sistema de filmación remolcado

    Mauricio Ahumada


    Full Text Available Para caracterizar agregaciones de langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon y langostino amarillo (Cervimunida johni, se utilizó un sistema de filmación remolcado sobre fondos marinos situados en la región de Coquimbo, Chile. Las filmaciones fueron realizadas en 2009 y 2010, a profundidades variables entre 102 y 215 m, a partir de las cuales se estimaron densidades medias por filmación entre 3 y 63 ind m-2 para P. monodon y entre 0,2 y 2,8 ind m-2 para C. johni. Igualmente, se registró la presencia de parejas de C. johni en julio de 2009 (~200 m de profundidad, presumiblemente en proceso de apareamiento. Los resultados indicaron que el sistema de filmación remolcado es un medio efectivo de registro de ejemplares de ambas especies, permitiendo tanto la caracterización cuantitativa del stock sobre el fondo, como la observación de su comportamiento y hábitat. El sistema tiene perspectivas de uso en la evaluación directa de abundancia y en la caracterización del hábitat tanto en términos bióticos como abióticos.

  3. White spot syndrome virus isolates of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricious) in India are similar to exotic isolates as revealed by polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy.

    Mishra, S S; Shekhar, M S


    Microbiological analysis of samples collected from cases of white spot disease outbreaks in cultured shrimp in different farms located in three regions along East Coast of India viz. Chidambram (Tamil Nadu), Nellore (Andhra Pradesh) and Balasore (Orissa), revealed presence of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas spp. but experimental infection trials in Penaeus monodon with these isolates did not induce any acute mortality or formation of white spots on carapace. Infection trials using filtered tissue extracts by oral and injection method induced mortality in healthy P. monodon with all samples and 100% mortality was noted by the end of 7 day post-inoculation. Histopathological analysis demonstrated degenerated cells characterized by hypertrophied nuclei in gills, hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ with presence of intranuclear basophilic or eosino-basophilic bodies in tubular cells and intercellular spaces. Analysis of samples using 3 different primer sets as used by other for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) generated 643, 1447 and 520bp amplified DNA products in all samples except in one instance. Variable size virions with mean size in the range of 110 x 320 +/- 20 nm were observed under electron microscope. It could be concluded that the viral isolates in India involved with white spot syndrome in cultured shrimp are similar to RV-PJ and SEMBV in Japan, WSBV in Taiwan and WSSV in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China and Japan.

  4. Expression profile of bio-defense genes in Penaeus monodon gills in response to formalin inactivated white spot syndrome virus vaccine.

    Sudheer, N S; Poulose, Gigi; Thomas, Ancy; Viswanath, Kiron; Kulkarni, Amod; Narayanan, R B; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most devastating pathogen of penaeid shrimp. While developing technology to vaccinate shrimp against WSSV, it is imperative to look into the immune response of the animal at molecular level. However, very little information has been generated in this direction. The present study is an attempt to understand the expression of bio-defense genes in gill tissues of Penaeus monodon in response to formalin inactivated WSSV. A WSSV vaccine with a viral titer of 1×10(9) DNA copies was prepared and orally administered to P. monodon at a rate of 1.75×10(6) DNA copies of inactivated virus preparation (IVP) day(-1) for 7days. The animals were challenged with WSSV on 1st and 5th day post vaccination, and temporal expression of bio-defense genes in gill tissues was studied. Survival of 100% and 50% were observed respectively on 1st and 5th day post vaccination challenge. The humoral immune genes prophenoloxidase (proPO), alpha 2-macroglobulin (α2M), crustin and PmRACK, and the cell mediated immune genes caspase and Rab7 were up regulated in gill tissue upon vaccination and challenge. The expression of humoral gene crustin and cellular gene Rab7 was related to survival in IVP administered shrimp. Results of the study suggest that these genes have roles in protecting shrimp from WSSV on vaccination.

  5. Osmo and ionic regulation of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon Fabricius 1798) juveniles exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water at different salinities.

    Tantulo, Uras; Fotedar, Ravi


    An 11-day trial was conducted to investigate the osmoregulatory capacity (OC) and regulation of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) of Penaeus monodon juveniles when exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water (ISW) of four different salinities (5, 15, 25 and 35 ppt). The survival of juveniles showed a positive linear relationship (R(2) ranging from 0.72 to 0.98) with salinity. At the end of the trial, juveniles were able to survive only in 5 ppt of ISW and showed no changes in OC when transferred from ocean water (OW) to ISW. Further, the OC of juveniles in 5 ppt of ISW was significantly different (Pjuveniles exposed to 15, 25 and 35 ppt and exhibited strong serum K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) regulation monitored over 16 h. In contrast, at 35 ppt, significant decrease (Pjuveniles, which in turn causes decrease in the OC of the juveniles. The results of this study suggest that K(+) deficiency in ISW has a negative effect on survival, OC and the ability of P. monodon juveniles to regulate serum Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations. These effects are compounded as salinity increases.




    Full Text Available The tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon is an Indo-Pacific species. Its global production between 1970 and 1980 exceeded all other shrimp species, which favored its introduction and cultivation outside its natural range in several countries of Africa, Europe, USA and South America. It is currently found in the coast of the Atlantic Ocean (Mexico, United States, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela and Colombia. Despite the risk involved, no studies have been conducted to evaluate their impact as a possible invasive species and their genetic condition. This study evaluated the genetic status and population origin of P. monodon in the northernmost Colombian Caribbean, analyzing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA-CR. 16 individuals were randomly collected from Golfo de Salamanca and 342 original Indo-Pacific sequences were obtained from GenBank. Parameters of genetic diversity and genetic relationships were analyzed. There were a total of 358 sequences compared and 303 haplotypes identified. Three haplotypes were identified in the Colombian population. This results showed lower genetic diversity compared with Indo-Pacific populations. These haplotypes were closely related to those found in samples from the Philippines and Taiwan. We discuss the need to create a regional network to characterize the established populations in the Great Caribbean, with the purpose of inferring colonization processes and the establishment of management measures.Estado genético, origen y riesgo de establecimiento del camarón tigre gigante (Penaeidae: Penaeus monodon, una especie inavasora en aguas del Caribe colombianoEl camarón tigre (Penaeus monodon es una especie del Indo-Pacífico. Su producción mundial entre 1970 y 1980 superó todas las otras especies de camarón, lo que favoreció su introducción y cultivo fuera del área de distribución natural en varios países de África, Europa, EE.UU. y América del Sur. Actualmente se encuentra en la costa del

  7. Relationship of Broodstock Weight and Hatching Yield of III. Generation (F3 Black Sea Trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1814

    Hakan Baki


    Full Text Available In this study, this was the aimed to determine the reproduction and hatching yields in different weight groups in hatchery origin rootstocks (F3 Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1814. In this study, the female fishes which produced from natural rootstock were used average weight 1437±134.6 g (Group I 2737±210.2 g (Group II and 3785±162.3 g (Group III. After the stripping process; according to the groups, were determined respectively eggs absolute fecundity (number of eggs/broodfish is average 2353±205, 5361±506, 6603±491, relative fecundity (number of eggs/kg is average1687±166, 1968±194, 1744±114. The egg diameter (mm 4.89±0.16, 5.28±0.07, 5.31±0.06 egg weight (mg 77±6, 90±4, 96±3 groups I., II. and III. respectively was calculated. The fertilization ratio (% 95.49±1.23, 96.49±1.14, 98.39±0.52, browse rate (% 79.97±5.36, 84.20±5.23, 94.70±1.50, has been identified. The output rate (% 60.57±7.86, 67.66±6.42, 84.83±3.09, the hatchery efficiency (% 58.14±7.95, 69.77±6.25, 83.51±3.29 was found. relative fecundity average value 168±160, 1968±194, 1744±114.The existence of relationship among the weight of the brood-stock, absolute fecundity (0.0198, 0.0012, 0.3499, and relative egg fecundity (0.3415, 0.0494, 0.00 was tested by regression analysis and consequently the difference between groups were significant. This was determined that between fish weight and absolute fecundity relationship is weak directly proportional for each group, between fish weight and relative fecundity is weak inversely proportional in Group I and II, the Group III is weak for directly proportional.

  8. Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) and Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae): hosts, distribution and 16S rDNA sequences.

    Guglielmone, A A; Estrada-Peña, A; Mangold, A J; Barros-Battesti, D M; Labruna, M B; Martins, J R; Venzal, J M; Arzua, M; Keirans, J E


    DNA sequences of Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) and Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 were obtained to determine genetic differences between these tick species. Collections of these species are discussed in relation to distribution and hosts. Seven ticks collections (four from Brazil, one from Argentina, one from Uruguay and one from USA) house a total of 1272 A. aureolatum (224 males, 251 females, 223 nymphs and 574 larvae) and 1164 A. ovale (535 males, 556 females, 66 nymphs and 7 larvae). The length of the sequenced mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment for A. aureolatum was 370bp and for A. ovale was 373bp. The DNA sequence analysis showed a 13.1% difference between the two species. Apart from one male A. ovale found on a toad, all adult ticks were found on mammals. The majority of adult specimens of both tick species were removed from Carnivora (96.1 and 84.3% of A. aureolatum and A. ovale, respectively), especially from dogs (53.1% of A. aureolatum, and 46.4% of A. ovale). Collections on wild Canidae were higher for A. aureolatum (23.3%) than for A. ovale (7.1%). On the other hand, collections of A. ovale adults on wild Felidae were higher (18.3%) than findings of A. aureolatum (9.2%). The contribution of other mammalian orders as hosts for adults of A. aureolatum and A. ovale was irrelevant, with the exception of Perissodactyla because Tapiridae contributed with 13.0% of the total number of A. ovale adults. Adults of both tick species have been found occasionally on domestic hosts (apart of the dog) and humans. Most immature stages of A. aureolatum were found on Passeriformes birds, while rodents and carnivores were the most common hosts for nymphs and larvae of A. ovale. A. aureolatum has been found restricted to the Neotropical region, covering the eastern area of South America from Uruguay to Surinam, including northeastern Argentina, eastern Paraguay, southeastern Brazil and French Guiana. A. ovale showed a distribution that covers the Neotropical region


    Onoprienko V.


    physiological processes. The result of this effect is the difference in weight, size and body parts. To clarify, as our model species was taken Cottus Sandpiper (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas. The reason for this was the fact that this species, along with other Ponto- Caspian solonovato - freshwater gobies, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified as species biology are poorly understood and require further research. This fact that deepened interest of ichthyologists in this group of fish, in this regard appeared in the literature as material for the bulls and in Sandpiper. Based on the above, the purpose of this paper is a comparative morphometric parameters characteristic of individuals of this species of fresh and salt water bodies of Ukraine. All this affects the absolute morphometric parameters, which decrease in the direction from sea to the river. However, it should be noted that in rivers with rich feeding grounds sheer size of some individuals close to the size and species of sea Kakhovskoe reservoir. This situation is observed in the Sandpiper Grouse River. Here are some specimens reach a length (TL 118-148 mm and a weight of 15-36 g, Kakhovskoe Reservoir: 106-150 mm 11-38 g, in the Sea of Azov: 115-174 mm 17-58 g. For relative parameters Sandpiper with these reservoirs are more similar, however, for some of them, there are differences. Among the latter is most clearly distinguished the ratio SL / N. This indicator podovzhenist (prohonystist body. As pointed out by VP Mitrofanov (1977, this indicator shows the hydrodynamic qualities of fish: the larger the index, the more active lifestyle is individual. When compared with individuals with a little water and a large stream, in the latter case, individuals are more elongated. This is confirmed by our material: the ratio SL / L for the smallest species of sea of Azov (4.96, slightly more for Kakhovsky reservoir (5.52 and even more for rivers Grouse, Trubizh, Desna, Ros (respectively 5, 86, 6.22 , 6


    V. P. Onoprienko


    physiological processes. The result of this effect is the difference in weight, size and body parts. To clarify, as our model species was taken Cottus Sandpiper (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas. The reason for this was the fact that this species, along with other Ponto- Caspian solonovato - freshwater gobies, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified as species biology are poorly understood and require further research. This fact that deepened interest of ichthyologists in this group of fish, in this regard appeared in the literature as material for the bulls and in Sandpiper. Based on the above, the purpose of this paper is a comparative morphometric parameters characteristic of individuals of this species of fresh and salt water bodies of Ukraine. All this affects the absolute morphometric parameters, which decrease in the direction from sea to the river. However, it should be noted that in rivers with rich feeding grounds sheer size of some individuals close to the size and species of sea Kakhovskoe reservoir. This situation is observed in the Sandpiper Grouse River. Here are some specimens reach a length (TL 118-148 mm and a weight of 15-36 g, Kakhovskoe Reservoir: 106-150 mm 11-38 g, in the Sea of ​​Azov: 115-174 mm 17-58 g. For relative parameters Sandpiper with these reservoirs are more similar, however, for some of them, there are differences. Among the latter is most clearly distinguished the ratio SL / N. This indicator podovzhenist (prohonystist body. As pointed out by VP Mitrofanov (1977, this indicator shows the hydrodynamic qualities of fish: the larger the index, the more active lifestyle is individual. When compared with individuals with a little water and a large stream, in the latter case, individuals are more elongated. This is confirmed by our material: the ratio SL / L for the smallest species of sea of ​​Azov (4.96, slightly more for Kakhovsky reservoir (5.52 and even more for rivers Grouse, Trubizh, Desna, Ros (respectively 5, 86

  11. Reproductive traits in the european Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas: the typical or Brown and the Mountain haplotypes.

    Charlotte Ragagli


    Full Text Available Abstract Four hundred and two pairs of hares belonging to the mountain and brown haplotypes of the European hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 were raised in a farm located in central Italy over 4 years (from 2003 to 2006. The birth date, total number of young born, and number of surviving and weaned leverets were recorded for each pair. The start of reproduction, birth-interval, length of the reproductive season, number of birth per pair per year, number of leverets per pair, number of weaned leverets per pair and number of weaned leverets per birth were analysed in relation to the different haplotypes and years; the incidence of superfetation and pseudogestation was also considered. Results showed that the brown hare produced young at the beginning of February, whilst the mountain hare started reproduction significantly later. Brown hares showed a longer reproductive period than mountain hares (192 days vs 156 days and a higher productivity. The most frequent gestation length was 37-41 days. The distribution of delivery intervals did not differ between the two haplotypes. Riassunto Caratteristiche riproduttive di due aplotipi della lepre (Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778. Lepri (Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778 appartenenti all’aplotipo di montagna e a quello bruno sono state monitorate per 4 anni (dal 2003 al 2006 in uno stesso allevamento situato in una zona dell’Italia centrale. Per ciascuna coppia di riproduttori allevata (N = 402 sono stati raccolti i dati relativi a: data del parto, numero totale di nati, numero totale di nati vivi e di leprotti svezzati. L’inizio del periodo riproduttivo, l’intervallo interparto, la durata della gestazione, la durata della stagione riproduttiva, il numero di parti per coppia per anno, il numero di nati per coppia, il numero di svezzati per coppia, il numero di svezzati per parto sono stati analizzati in relazione ai

  12. Development of SYBR Green and TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR assays for hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infecting Penaeus monodon in India.

    Yadav, Reena; Paria, Anutosh; Mankame, Smruti; Makesh, M; Chaudhari, Aparna; Rajendran, K V


    Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infects Penaeus monodon and causes mortality in the larval stages. Further, it has been implicated in the growth retardation in cultured P. monodon. Though different geographical isolates of HPV show large sequence variations, a sensitive PCR assay specific to Indian isolate has not yet been reported. Here, we developed a sensitive SYBR Green-based and TaqMan real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of the virus. A 441-bp PCR amplicon was cloned in pTZ57 R/T vector and the plasmid copy number was estimated. A 10-fold serial dilution of the plasmid DNA from 1 × 10(9) copies to 1 copy was prepared and used as the standard. The primers were tested initially using the standard on a conventional PCR format to determine the linearity of detection. The standards were further tested on real-time PCR format using SYBR Green and TaqMan chemistry and standard curves were generated based on the Ct values from three well replicates for each dilution. The assays were found to be sensitive, specific and reproducible with a wide dynamic range (1 × 10(9) to 10 copies) with coefficient of regression (R(2)) > 0.99, calculated average slope -3.196 for SYBR Green assay whereas, for TaqMan assay it was >0.99 and -3.367, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay variance of the Ct values ranged from 0.26% to 0.94% and 0.12% to 0.81%, respectively, for SYBR Green assay, and the inter-assay variance of the Ct values for TaqMan assay ranged from 0.07% to 1.93%. The specificity of the assays was proved by testing other DNA viruses of shrimp such as WSSV, IHHNV and MBV. Standardized assays were further tested to detect and quantify HPV in the post-larvae of P. monodon. The result was further compared with conventional PCR to test the reproducibility of the test. The assay was also used to screen Litopeneaus vannamei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Scylla serrata for HPV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A morphological study of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Trematoda: Diplodiscidae) adults from the accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813) (Caenogastropoda: Viviparidae).

    Cichy, Anna; Żbikowska, Elżbieta


    A phenomenon of switching of the parasite in the food chain to an accidental host is commonly observed in nature. However, there is little available data concerning the morphological descriptions of parasites that passively get into the atypical hosts and are capable, at least to some degree, of somatic growth and development of reproductive structures. A morphological survey of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) adults isolated from a digestive tract of an accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813), was carried out. Diplodiscus subclavatus individuals identified in prosobranch snails were morphologically similar to adult forms of the parasite described from amphibians, typical final hosts in the life cycle of this paramphistomid. The observed forms of D. subclavatus had a fully developed reproductive system, sperm in the seminal vesicle and oocytes in the ovary. The number of eggs in the uterus ranged from 3 to 17. Our research indicates that D. subclavatus individuals reach the sexual maturity in the accidental, invertebrate hosts.

  14. Slight genetic differentiation between western and eastern limits of Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1776 (Anthozoa, Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae distribution inferred from COI and ITS sequences

    Merino-Serrais, P.


    Full Text Available Understanding population genetic structure and differentiation among populations is useful for the elaboration of management and conservation plans of threatened species. In this study, we use nuclear and mitochondrial markers (internal transcribed spacers -ITS and cytochrome oxidase subunit one -COI for phylogenetics and nested clade analyses (NCA, thus providing the first assessment of the genetic structure of the threatened Mediterranean coral Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766, based on samples from 12 localities along its geographic distribution range. Overall, we found no population differentiation in the westernmost region of the Mediterranean; however, a slight differentiation was observed when comparing this region with the Tyrrhenian and Algerian basins.

    El estudio de la estructura de las poblaciones y su diferenciación a nivel genético es de gran utilidad para la elaboración de planes de manejo y conservación de especies amenazadas. En este estudio, utilizamos marcadores nucleares y mitocondriales (espaciadores internos de genes ribosomales -ITS y citocromo oxidasa, subunidad I -COI y métodos de análisis filogenéticos y de clados anidados (NCA, para realizar la primera valoración de la estructura genética del coral naranja Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766, una especie amenazada del Mediterráneo, a partir de muestras de 12 localidades a lo largo de su área de distribución. En las localidades situadas en la región más occidental del Mediterráneo se encontró cierta homogeneidad genética, mientras que al comparar estas localidades con las de las cuencas argelina y del mar Tirreno se observó una ligera diferenciación.




    El camarón tigre ( Penaeus monodon ) es una especie del Indo-Pacífico. Su producción mundial entre 1970 y 1980 superó todas las otras especies de camarón, lo que favoreció su introducción y cultivo fuera del área de distribución natural en varios países de África, Europa, EE.UU. y América del Sur. Actualmente se encuentra en la costa del Océano Atlántico (México, Estados Unidos, Puerto Rico, Brasil, Guyana, Venezuela y Colombia). A pesar del riesgo que implica, no se han realizado estudios pa...

  16. Expression profile of key immune-related genes in Penaeus monodon juveniles after oral administration of recombinant envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus.

    Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu Saidumuhammed; Kiron, Viswanath; Bright Singh, Issac S; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most catastrophic pathogen the shrimp industry has ever encountered. VP28, the abundant envelope protein of WSSV was expressed in bacteria, the purified protein administered orally to Penaeus monodon juveniles and its immune modulatory effects examined. The results indicated significant up-regulation of caspase, penaeidin, crustin, astakine, syntenin, PmRACK, Rab7, STAT and C-type lectin in animals orally administered with this antigen. This revealed the immune modulations in shrimps followed by oral administration of rVP28P which resulted in the reduced transcription of viral gene vp28 and delay in mortality after WSSV challenge. The study suggests the potential of rVP28P to elicit a non-specific immune stimulation in shrimps.

  17. The effect of choline and cystine on the utilisation of methionine for protein accretion, remethylation and trans-sulfuration in juvenile shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Richard, Lenaïg; Vachot, Christiane; Surget, Anne; Rigolet, Vincent; Kaushik, Sadasivam J; Geurden, Inge


    This 35-d feeding experiment examined in juvenile shrimp Penaeus monodon (3·3 g initial body weight) the effects of methionine (Met), choline and cystine on protein accretion and the activity of two key enzymes of remethylation (betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase; BHMT) and trans-sulfuration (cystathionine β-synthase; CBS). The interaction between Met and choline was tested using semi-purified diets either adequate or limiting (30 or 50 %) in total sulphur amino acid (SAA) content with a constant cystine:Met ratio. The diets contained either basal or excess choline (3 v. 7 g/kg feed). Cystine was added to two other 30 and 50 % Met-limiting diets to adjust the SAA supply to that of the control diet in order to evaluate the interaction between Met and cystine. As expected, N accretion was significantly lower with the SAA-limiting diets but increased back to control levels by the extra choline or cystine, demonstrating their sparing effect on Met utilisation for protein accretion. We show, for the first time, the activities of BHMT and CBS in shrimp hepatopancreas. Only BHMT responded to the SAA deficiencies, whereas the extra choline and cystine did not stimulate remethylation or down-regulate trans-sulfuration. Our data also suggest the capacity of P. monodon to synthesise taurine, being significantly affected by the cystine level in the 30 % SAA-limiting diets. Further research is warranted to better understand the metabolic regulation of taurine synthesis in shrimp and of the observed Met-sparing effects.

  18. The novel white spot syndrome virus-induced gene, PmERP15, encodes an ER stress-responsive protein in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    Leu, Jiann-Horng; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Wang, Yu-Bin; Lin, Chung-Yen; Lo, Chu-Fang


    By microarray screening, we identified a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-strongly induced novel gene in gills of Penaeus monodon. The gene, PmERP15, encodes a putative transmembrane protein of 15 kDa, which only showed some degree of similarity (54-59%) to several unknown insect proteins, but had no hits to shrimp proteins. RT-PCR showed that PmERP15 was highly expressed in the hemocytes, heart and lymphoid organs, and that WSSV-induced strong expression of PmERP15 was evident in all tissues examined. Western blot analysis likewise showed that WSSV strongly up-regulated PmERP15 protein levels. In WSSV-infected hemocytes, immunofluorescence staining showed that PmERP15 protein was colocalized with an ER enzyme, protein disulfide isomerase, and in Sf9 insect cells, PmERP15-EGFP fusion protein colocalized with ER -Tracker™ Red dye as well. GRP78, an ER stress marker, was found to be up-regulated in WSSV-infected P. monodon, and both PmERP15 and GRP78 were up-regulated in shrimp injected with ER stress inducers tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Silencing experiments showed that although PmERP15 dsRNA-injected shrimp succumbed to WSSV infection more rapidly, the WSSV copy number had no significant changes. These results suggest that PmERP15 is an ER stress-induced, ER resident protein, and its induction in WSSV-infected shrimp is caused by the ER stress triggered by WSSV infection. Furthermore, although PmERP15 has no role in WSSV multiplication, its presence is essential for the survival of WSSV-infected shrimp.

  19. Kirjad emale / Liis Pallas

    Pallas, Liis


    Kuressaare Linnateatri koostööprojekt Muhu muuseumiga : Koguva külas Tooma talu rehetoas Juhan Smuuli loomingu põhjal valminud luuleetendus "Kirjad emale". Koostanud ja lavastanud Garmen Tabor. Mängivad Tallinna Linnateatri näitlejad

  20. tragelaphus strepsiceros pallas

    The essence of the data from all three areas can be briefly summarised as ... Present address: Department of Wildlife Science, Texas A & M University, ..... However, annual dry season concentrations of kudu around water points, especially in.

  1. Predatory Functional Response of Harmonias axyridis Pallas to Two Kinds of Aphids Damaging Apple Trees%异色瓢虫对两种苹果蚜虫的捕食作用

    孙丽娟; 衣维贤; 顾耘; 董向丽


    为了明确异色瓢虫对两种常见苹果蚜虫绣线菊蚜(Aphis citricola Von der Goot)和苹果瘤蚜(Myzus malisuctus Matsumura)的控制作用,于.2010年6月,在青岛农业大学实验室内,研究异色瓢虫成虫和4龄幼虫对两种蚜虫的捕食功能反应,同时也研究异色瓢虫4龄幼虫对两种蚜虫的捕食选择性.结果表明,异色瓢虫成虫和4龄幼虫对两种苹果蚜虫的捕食功能反应类型均属于Holling Ⅱ型;异色瓢虫成虫对绣线菊蚜和苹果瘤蚜的最大捕食量分别为123.91和180.98头/d,瞬时攻击率分别为1.029 1和1.335 7;4龄幼虫对绣线菊蚜和苹果瘤蚜的最大捕食量分别为128.88和187.29头/d,瞬时攻击率分别为1.156 0和1.163 4.在两种蚜虫的混合种群中,异色瓢虫4龄幼虫对苹果瘤蚜的选择效应略大于绣线菊蚜,但这种选择性差异在两种蚜虫之间并不明显.%In order to make clear the controlling effect of Harmonias axyridis Pallas on aphids usually damaging apple trees, Aphis citricola Von der Goot and Myzus malisuctus Matsumura, predatory functional response of adult and 4th instars of H. Axyridis Pallas to the two kinds of aphids were studied in the laboratory of Qingdao Agricultural University, and selective efficiency of 4th instars of H. Axyridis Pallas to the two kinds of aphids was studied at the same time. The result showed that the predatory functional response of adult and 4th instars of H. Axyridis Pallas to two kinds of aphids all belonged to Holling Ⅱ. The largest amounts of caught per day of the adult of H. Axyridis Pallas to A. Citricola Von der Goot and M. Malisuctus Matsumura were 123. 91 and 180. 98 per day respectively, and the moment attack parameters were 1. 029 1 and 1. 335 7 respectively; and the Namax of 4th instars of H. Axyridis Pallas to A. Citricola Von der Goot and M. Malisuctus Matsumura were 128. 88 and 187. 29 respectively, and the moment attack parameters were 1. 156 0 and 1. 163 4 per day

  2. Dietary values of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in Penaeus monodon in the presence and absence of cholesterol supplementation: effect on growth, nutrient digestibility and tissue carotenoid composition.

    Niu, Jin; Li, Chun-Hou; Liu, Yong-Jian; Tian, Li-Xia; Chen, Xu; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao


    Penaeus monodon (mean initial wet weight 1·19 (SE 0·01) g) were fed seven diets in triplicate: a control diet (D1) without carotenoids; three diets formulated to supply 0·1 % astaxanthin alone (D2), 0·2 % astaxanthin alone (D3), and a combination of 0·1 % astaxanthin and 1 % cholesterol (D4); three diets with 0·07 % canthaxanthin alone (D5), 0·13 % canthaxanthin alone (D6), and a combination of 0·07 % canthaxanthin and 1 % cholesterol (D7). Weight gain (WG, %), specific growth rate (SGR, %/d) and survival were chosen as parameters of shrimp growth performance. Total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were chosen as indices of shrimp plasma antioxidant capacity. Meanwhile, digestibility, retention efficiency and tissue carotenoids were also investigated to determine the additive effect of cholesterol on the efficiency of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. After 74 d rearing, WG and SGR of shrimp fed D2-D4 and D7 were higher than those of shrimp fed D1 (P astaxanthin in D2-D4 were higher than those of canthaxanthin in D5-D7 (P astaxanthin were quite high (>98 %) in D2-D4 and no differences were found among them (P>0·05), the carotenoid retention efficiencies in the whole body, muscle and shell (D2-D3 treatments) were considerably low; however, cholesterol supplementation significantly improved the carotenoid retention efficiencies in the whole body, muscle and shell (D4 treatment). Accordingly, the addition of cholesterol also significantly enhanced the carotenoid contents of tissues. Shrimp fed supplemented carotenoid diets (D2-D7) had higher TAS and lower SOD, ALT and AST than shrimp fed D1 (P astaxanthin or canthaxanthin was higher than that of shrimp fed D1 during the stress test (P astaxanthin was better than canthaxanthin as the dietary carotenoid source in the commercial diet of P. monodon, and the supplement of cholesterol could positively enhance the efficiency of

  3. Genetic diversity of two wild Penaeus monodon broodstock populations.%斑节对虾两个野生亲虾种群遗传多样性

    谭树华; 王桂忠; 李少菁


    采用RAPD和mtDNA 16S rRNA基因序列分析方法对海南和马来西亚斑节对虾(Penaeus monodon)种群进行了遗传多样性和遗传分化研究.结果表明:15个RAPD随机引物共检测到82个位点,海南和马来西亚种群的多态位点比例分别为75.90%和76.83%,杂合度分别为0.199和0.218,遗传多样性指数分别为0.276和0.288,种群间的遗传距离为0.015;16S rRNA基因检测的种内遗传变异较低,马来西亚和海南种群的核苷酸多样性分别为0.011和0,种群之间的遗传距离为0.008;马来西亚种群比海南种群的遗传变异水平要高得多,且海南种群可能起源于马来西亚种群;进行遗传选育时可考虑引进马来西亚亲虾作为奠基群体.%By using RAPD and mtDNA 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, this paper studied the genetic diversity and differentiation of two Penaeus monodon wild broodstock populations collected from Hainan and Malaysia. Using 15 random primers, a total of 82 RAPD loci were detected. For the Hainan and Malaysia populations, the proportion of polymorphic loci was 75.90% and 76.83%, heterozygosity was 0.199 and 0.218, and genetic diversity index was 0.276 and 0. 288, respectively, and the genetic distance between the two populations was 0. 015. The genetic variation revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was low. The nucleotide diversity of the Hainan and Malaysia populations was 0. 011 and 0, respectively, and the genetic distance between the two populations was 0. 008. Phylogeographic pattern analysis indicated that Malaysia population had a higher genetic diversity than Hainan population, and the Hainan population could be derived from Malaysia population. Therefore, the broodstock imported from Malaysia could be used as the founder in genetic breeding programs.




    Full Text Available El camarón tigre ( Penaeus monodon es una especie del Indo-Pacífico. Su producción mundial entre 1970 y 1980 superó todas las otras especies de camarón, lo que favoreció su introducción y cultivo fuera del área de distribución natural en varios países de África, Europa, EE.UU. y América del Sur. Actualmente se encuentra en la costa del Océano Atlántico (México, Estados Unidos, Puerto Rico, Brasil, Guyana, Venezuela y Colombia. A pesar del riesgo que implica, no se han realizado estudios para evaluar su impacto como posible especie invasora y su condición genética. Este estudio evaluó el estado genético y el origen de la población de P. monodon en el norte del Caribe colombiano, analizando la región control del ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt-CR. 16 individuos fueron recolectados al azar del Golfo de Salamanca y 342 secuencias originales de muestras del Indo- Pacífico fueron obtenidas de GenBank. Se analizaron los parámetros de diversidad genética y las relaciones genéticas. Se analizaron un total de 358 secuencias y se identificaron 303 haplotipos. En la población de Colombia se identificaron tres haplotipos, mostrando una baja diversidad genética en comparación con las poblaciones del Indo-Pacífico. Estos haplotipos se encontraron cercanamente relacionados con secuencias obtenidas de muestras de Filipinas y Taiwán, principalmente. Se discute la necesidad de crear una red regional para caracterizar las poblaciones establecidas en el Gran Caribe, con el propósito de inferir los procesos de colonización y el establecimiento de medidas de manejo.

  5. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Arbutin from Leaves of Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pallas ssp. elaeagnifolia (Rosaceae by Response Surface Methodology Mehtap



    Full Text Available Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pallas. ssp. elaeagnifolia is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases in Turkey. The leaves of Pyrus elaeagnifolia ssp. elaeagnifolia are a rich source of arbutin, which is a naturally occurring derivative of hydroquinone. It is found in various plant species belonging to diverse families, such as Lamiaceae, Ericaceae, Saxifragaceae and Rosaceae. It inhibits tyrosinase and has been employed as a cosmetic skin whitening agent. In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM using a Box Behnken Design (BBD was employed to optimize the condition for extraction of arbutin from the leaves of Pyrus elaeagnifolia ssp. elaeagnifolia. Three influencing factors; methanol concentration, period of ultrasoundassisted extraction and extraction temperature were investigated in the ultrasonic aqueous extraction. The Response Surface Methodology was applied to optimize the extraction process focused on arbutin content with respect to the above influencing factors. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by RSM design and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum arbutin content were established to be methanol concentration of 48.54 %, extraction time of 39.32 min. And extraction temperature of 43.71 0C. Under these conditions 5.37 % of arbutin content was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 5.30 %.

  6. The impact of nature-based tourism on bird communities: a case study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park.

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka


    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.

  7. Identification of Development-Related Genes in the Ovaries of Adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) Lady Beetles Using a Time- Series Analysis by RNA-seq.

    Du, Wenxiao; Zeng, Fanrong


    Adults of the lady beetle species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) are bred artificially en masse for classic biological control, which requires egg-laying by the H. axyridis ovary. Development-related genes may impact the growth of the H. axyridis adult ovary but have not been reported. Here, we used integrative time-series RNA-seq analysis of the ovary in H. axyridis adults to detect development-related genes. A total of 28,558 unigenes were functionally annotated using seven types of databases to obtain an annotated unigene database for ovaries in H. axyridis adults. We also analysed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples. Based on a combination of the results of this bioinformatics analysis with literature reports and gene expression level changes in four different stages, we focused on the development of oocyte reproductive stem cell and yolk formation process and identified 26 genes with high similarity to development-related genes. 20 DEGs were randomly chosen for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the accuracy of the RNA-seq results. This study establishes a robust pipeline for the discovery of key genes using high-throughput sequencing and the identification of a class of development-related genes for characterization.

  8. The mitochondrial genome of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and a phylogenetic analysis of the Polyphaga (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    Niu, Fang-Fang; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Su; Wei, Shu-Jun


    Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (GenBank accession No. KR108208). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Harmonia. The current length with partitial A + T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 16,387 bp. All the typical genes were sequenced except the trnI and trnQ. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, there is no re-arrangement in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Five, five and three protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, TA and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the protein-coding genes supported that the Scirtidae is a basal lineage of Polyphaga. The Harmonia and the Coccinella form a sister lineage. The monophyly of Staphyliniformia, Scarabaeiformia and Cucujiformia was supported. The Buprestidae was found to be a sister group to the Bostrichiformia.

  9. [Mass-transfer, utilization, and diffusion of oxygen in skeletal muscles of the stenohaline goby Gobius cobitus Pallas under conditions of hypoosmotic medium].

    Soldatov, A A


    Effect of hypoosmotic conditions of medium on oxygen regime of skeletal muscles of the stenohalin goby Gobius cobitus Pallas was studied under conditions of experiment. The control fish group was maintained at 12-14 %o, the experimental one - at 4.8-5.6 per thousand. Duration of the experiment - 44-45 days, water temperature - 15 +/- 1 degrees C, photoperiod - 12 day/12 night. It was established that under conditions of external hypoosmia there occurred hydration of the goby skeletal muscles and a decrease of their diffusion capability with respect to oxygen. The latter was accompanied by the tissue P(O2) decrease, which is indicated by low values of P(O2) in the venous blood outflowing from muscles. For the first 14-16 days of adaptation to the hypoosmotic medium there were restricted processes of mass transfer and oxygen utilization, which was associated with a decrease of the voluminous tissue blood flow and the blood oxygen concentration. These changes occurred on the background of the blood plasma hydration and a decrease of the number of circulated erythrocytes, and then they were completely compensated.

  10. The Impact of Nature-Based Tourism on Bird Communities: A Case Study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka


    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.

  11. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Hemtanon, P.


    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  12. White Spot Syndrome Virus vulnerability of Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon cultured in the coastal ponds of Cox’s Bazar region, Bangladesh

    Mohammad M. Monwar


    Full Text Available Jumbo tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon is the world’s most popular cultivable species for itsfast growth, hardy nature, delicious taste and market demand. During the last three decades shrimpculture has been expanded rapidly. White spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV is a great treat to this cultureexpansion. In this research, WSSV free fries were stocked in four coastal ponds with different salinities.The stocking density was kept low and constant. Water parameters, fish growth, and WSSVcontamination were recorded fortnightly. The WSSV contamination was primarily detected by using EnbioShrimp Virus Detection Test Kit, ‘Shrimple’ and further confirmed by the PCR test. Among the ponds,Pond A, B, and C were in completely controlled environmental condition where as pond D was traditionalone that exposed to tidal variations. Physico-chemical parameter varied from as, temperature 29 to32ºC, salinity 0 to 31‰, water pH 7.1 to 8.3, dissolved oxygen 3.8 to 6.3 mL L-1, alkalinity 80-122 mg L-1,ammonia 0 to 1.5 mg L-1 and transparency 23 to 50 cm. The WSSV was found positive in the pond D justafter hundred days, when the average weight of the shrimps was 26.69 g. It is observed that rapidchange in the salinity and temperature, poor environmental conditions and uncontrolled exchange ofwater made the shrimp more vulnerable to the WSSV.

  13. PmTBC1D20, a Rab GTPase-activating protein from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, is involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Yingvilasprasert, Wanchart; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee


    TBC (TRE2/BUB2/CDC16) domain proteins contain an ≈ 200-amino-acid motif and function as Rab GTPase-activating proteins that are required for regulating the activity of Rab proteins, and so, in turn, endocytic membrane trafficking in cells. TBC domain family member 20 (TBC1D20) has recently been reported to mediate Hepatitis C virus replication. Herein, PmTBC1D20 identified from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was characterized and evaluated for its role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. The full-length cDNA sequence of PmTBC1D20 contains 2003 bp with a predicted 1443 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced 480 amino acid protein. Its transcript levels were significantly up-regulated at 24 and 48 h by ≈ 2.3- and 2.1-fold, respectively, after systemic infection with WSSV. In addition, depletion of PmTBC1D20 transcript in shrimps by double stranded RNA interference led to a decrease in the level of transcripts of three WSSV genes (VP28, ie1 and wsv477). This suggests the importance of PmTBC1D20 in WSSV infection. This is the first report of TBC1D20 in a crustacean and reveals the possible mechanism used by WSSV to modulate the activity of the host protein, PmTBC1D20, for its benefit in viral trafficking and replication.

  14. Cholesterol Content of Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon at Various Sizes, Moulting and Maturity Stages from Pazhayar Coast (South East Coast of India

    D. Kannan


    Full Text Available A quantitative study was made on the occurrence of cholesterol in the muscle of different maturity stages of the wilder tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon collected from Pazhayar coast, Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu. As the size increased from 8-10 cm to 14-16 cm the cholesterol content increased from 1.4-4.5 mg g-1. The shrimp contained almost the same level of cholesterol in both sexes. The variation in the cholesterol level in relation to moulting in the male and female shrimp revealed that in both the sexes high cholesterol content was noticed in the intermoult stage. Subsequently, in the premoult stage the cholesterol content decreased from 2.0-1.8 mg g-1 and it was found to be the lowest among all the moult stages. In the matured stages the shrimp contained higher level of cholesterol (2.1 mg g-1 and very less amount of cholesterol level (1.2 mg g-1 in the immature and early mature stages. It is inferred from this study that the cholesterol level was more in the intermoult stage suggesting that cholesterol may be converted to some moulting hormones.

  15. Expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR, in lymphoid organ of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in response to Vibrio harveyi infection

    Mundanda Muthappa Dechamma


    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptors (TLR, being pattern recognition molecules, are a powerful first line of defense in response to pathogen invasion. They are known to play a crucial role in detecting and binding to the microbial molecule and triggering a non-specific immune response. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR expression of the TLR gene was studied in healthy and Vibrio harveyi infected black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Lymphoid tissue expression of TLR in V. harveyi infected animals 24 h post injection showed statistically significant up regulation of the gene as compared to the control animals sham injected with phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The qPCR expression pattern of TLR at different time points in shrimp administered with the immunostimulant glucan for 6 days by oral feeding followed by challenge with V. harveyi showed statistically significant level at 48 h post bacterial challenge as compared to the control (immunostimulant treated animals sham injected with PBS. The novelty of the study is that it elicits the role of TLRs as important response proteins of the innate immune system in the shrimp.

  16. Molecular characterization of a crustin-like antimicrobial peptide in the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its expression profile in response to various immunostimulants and challenge with WSSV.

    Antony, Swapna P; Singh, I S Bright; Sudheer, N S; Vrinda, S; Priyaja, P; Philip, Rosamma


    A crustin-like antimicrobial peptide from the haemocytes of giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon was partially characterized at the molecular level and phylogenetic analysis was performed. The partial coding sequence of 299 bp and 91 deduced amino acid residues possessed conserved cysteine residues characteristic of the shrimp crustins. Phylogenetic tree and sequence comparison clearly confirmed divergence of this crustin-like AMP from other shrimp crustins. The differential expression of the crustin-like AMP in P. monodon in response to the administration of various immunostimulants viz., two marine yeasts (Candida haemulonii S27 and Candida sake S165) and two β-glucan isolates (extracted from C. haemulonii S27 and C. sake S165) were noted during the study. Responses to the application of two gram-positive probiotic bacteria (Bacillus MCCB101 and Micrococcus MCCB104) were also observed. The immune profile was recorded pre- and post-challenge white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expressions of seven WSSV genes were also observed for studying the intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals. The crustin-like AMP was found to be constitutively expressed in the animal and a significant down-regulation could be noted post-challenge WSSV. Remarkable down-regulation of the gene was observed in the immunostimulant fed animals pre-challenge followed by a significant up-regulation post-challenge WSSV. Tissue-wise expression of crustin-like AMP on administration of C. haemulonii and Bacillus showed maximum transcripts in gill and intestine. The marine yeast, C. haemulonii and the probiotic bacteria, Bacillus were found to enhance the production of crustin-like AMP and confer significant protection to P. monodon against WSSV infection.

  17. Seasonal fluctuation in the population of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and co-occurrence with other Coccinellids in the Federal District of Brazil

    Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza


    Full Text Available The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773, was first recorded in Brazil in 2002 in Paraná state and subsequently observed in Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais. This species can spread to new areas and become dominant in the local community, reducing the density and diversity of native species, mainly Coccinellidae. The objective of this work was to record for the first time the occurrence of H. axyridis in the Federal District and its co-occurrence with other Coccinellidae species. The individuals were collected directly from plants at an organic farm in Taguatinga and in experimental fields of Embrapa Hortaliças, located in the Federal District, from August 2008 to January 2010. We collected 881 Coccinelids, and of these, 110 belong to the species H. axyridis. These were found exclusively on the following plants of the succinea group: maize, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kale, cucumber, cotton, tomato and coriander. We also observed its co-occurrence with the following lady beetle species: Cycloneda sanguine (Linnaeus, 1763, Hippodamia convergens (Guerin-Meneville 1842, Eriopis connexa (German, 1824, Scymnus sp., Nephaspis sp., Azya luteipes (Mulsant, 1850, Hyperaspis festiva (Mulsant, 1850, Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866, Psyllobora sp. and Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, 1775. So far, we have not found any negative interactions between H. axyridis and these species. This is the northernmost H. axyridis record in Brazil. Moreover, the region was previously considered to have a low probability of occurrence for this species. Therefore, this record confirms that H. axyridis presents great adaptive plasticity to new habitats.

  18. Risks and Opportunities of Urbanization – Structure of Two Populations of the Balkan Wall Lizard Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 in the City of Plovdiv

    Ivelin A. Mollov


    Full Text Available The current study analyzes the structure and some features of two urban metapopulations of the Balkan Wall Lizard (Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 from Nature Monument (NM “Mladezhki halm” and Nature Monument “Halm na osvoboditelite” in the city of Plovdiv (South Bulgaria. In both study sites, the Balkan Wall lizard inhabits exclusively the interior of the hills and prefers mainly open areas with rare grass and shrub vegetation. The recorded dominant plant species are not autochthonous for the hills, but gradually displaced with many decorative species, used widely in the gardening and thecity parks. The population abundance from both hills is relatively low, with higher values in NM “Mladezhki halm” and generally shows a decrease pattern for the two year period. In the hills of Plovdiv, the Balkan Wall lizard shows a bimodal diurnal and seasonal activity. Both metapopulations showed a sex ratio close to 1:1 with a slight superiority of the females (1:1.29, but with no statistically significant deviation. The age structure of both metapopulations is almost identical - the highest percentage takes the adults, followed by the subadults and juveniles, with no significant deviations from the normal ratio. The possible reasons for the contemporary distribution and population structure of the Balkan Wall lizard are discussed. Historic land use change and its effect on the populations are discussed as well. The main risks for this species in the city of Plovdiv are construction and forestation (destruction of open terrains. Nevertheless, the Balkan Wall lizard seems to have successfully overcome the risks of urbanization and its population seem stable and sustainable.

  19. Parasites of the round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1811, an invasive species in the Polish fauna of the Vistula Lagoon ecosystem

    Leszek Rolbiecki


    Full Text Available The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1811 was introducedinto southern Baltic waters (including the Vistula Lagoon fromthe Black Sea and Sea of Azov in the early 1990s. This studydescribes the parasites of the round goby in its new environment.In 2004, 486 round goby specimens from the Vistula Lagoon wereexamined for parasites. The following taxa were identified:Dermocystidiumsp.; Protozoa: Trichodina domerguei domerguei (Wallengren,1897; Digenea:Cryptocotyle concavum (Creplin, 1825,Diplostomum spp.,Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1831,Bunodera luciopercae (Müller, 1776;Cestoda:Bothriocephalus scorpii (Müller, 1776,Eubothrium crassum (Bloch, 1779,Paradilepis scolecina (Rudolphi, 1819,Proteocephalus filicollis (Rudolphi, 1802,P. gobiorum Dogel et Bychovsky, 1939,Proteocephalus sp.;Nematoda:Anguillicola crassus Kuwahara, Niimi et Itagaki, 1974,Camallanus truncatus (Rudolphi, 1814,Contracaecum spp.,Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Linstow, 1872,Dichelyne minutus (Rudolphi, 1819,Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802;Acanthocephala:Echinorhynchus gadi Müller, 1776,Pomphorhynchus laevis (Müller, 1776.The parasites found were all local species, already reported fromPoland. Except for Dermocystidium sp., C. concavum,P. gobiorum, and D. minutes, they have already been recorded inother fish species in the Vistula Lagoon. The prevalence andmean intensity of infection was low (18.3%; 4.0 indiv. - thisvalue does not include ciliates. The most frequent parasitesincluded H. aduncum (9.9%, 1.2 indiv. and A. crassus (9.1%,1.2 indiv.. In addition, Dermocystidium sp., B. luciopercae,E. crassum, P. scolecina, P. filicollis, C. truncatus and C. ephemeridarum are reported from the round goby for the first time. As the fishhas only recently appeared in the Vistula Lagoon, its parasitic fauna has not yet developed to the full.

  20. Application of chemometric studies to metal concentrations in molluscs from the Strait of Magellan (Chile).

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz


    Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd concentrations were determined in 126 mollusc samples belonging to five different species (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47; Nacella deaurata, n = 65; Aulacomya ater, n = 4; Fissurella picta, n = 4; Acanthina monodon, n = 6) collected from the coasts of the Strait of Magellan. The metals analysed presented significant differences between the mean concentrations for the mollusc species considered. Factor and discriminant analyses made possible the differentiation of the mollusc species. In addition, when discriminant analysis was used, good classifications were obtained according to sampling zone and weight-to-length ratio of the organisms.

  1. Primary hemocyte culture of Penaeus monodon as an in vitro model for white spot syndrome virus titration, viral and immune related gene expression and cytotoxicity assays.

    Jose, Seena; Mohandas, A; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S


    Immortal cell lines have not yet been reported from Penaeus monodon, which delimits the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, a method of developing primary hemocyte culture from this crustacean has been standardized by employing modified double strength Leibovitz-15 (L-15) growth medium supplemented with 2% glucose, MEM vitamins (1×), tryptose phosphate broth (2.95 gl⁻¹), 20% FBS, N-phenylthiourea (0.2 mM), 0.06 μg ml⁻¹ chloramphenicol, 100 μg ml⁻¹ streptomycin and 100 IU ml⁻¹ penicillin and hemolymph drawn from shrimp grown under a bio-secured recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In this medium the hemocytes remained viable up to 8 days. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling assay revealed its incorporation in 22 ± 7% of cells at 24h. Susceptibility of the cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay using a monoclonal antibody against 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. A convenient method for determining virus titer as MTT(50)/ml was standardized employing the primary hemocyte culture. Expression of viral genes and cellular immune genes were also investigated. The cell culture could be demonstrated for determining toxicity of a management chemical (benzalkonium chloride) by determining its IC(50). The primary hemocyte culture could serve as a model for WSSV titration and viral and cellular immune related gene expression and also for investigations on cytotoxicity of aquaculture drugs and chemicals.

  2. Effects of carotenoid sources on growth performance, blood parameters, disease resistance and stress tolerance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Supamattaya, K.


    Full Text Available Two feeding trial were conducted to determine the effects of various sources of carotenoid on growth performance, disease resistance, blood parameters, stress tolerance and pigmentation in juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Trial I was performed in small shrimp (1 g average body weight. The shrimp were fed with control diet without carotenoid (diet 1 while diets 2 to 6 contained 50 mg/kg astaxanthin (Lucanthin Pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 200 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 125 mg/kg Betatene® extracted from Dunaliella and 3% dried Spirulina respectively. There was an improvement in color in all groups of shrimp fed caroteniod supplemented diets, but no significant differences in weight gain or survival among the shrimps fed each test diet (p>0.05. Resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection and stress tolerance (salinity stress, were not significantly different among treatments. Trial II was performed in juvenile shrimp (10 g average body weight fed test diets containing 100 ppm astaxanthin (Lucanthin pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg Betatene® and 3% dried Spirulina compared with those fed control diet without carotenoid. At the end of 6 weeks feeding period, shrimp fed control diet as well as astaxanthin and dried Spirulina supplemented diets had higher levels of total hemocyte counts than those of all β-carotene supplemented diets feeding group. However, phenoloxidase activity and clearance of pathogenic vibrio from the hemolymphwere not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05. Astaxanthin levels were highest in the shrimp fed all carotenoid-supplemented diets. In conclusion, a natural carotenoid i.e. dried Spirulina and carotenoid extracted from Dunaliella which have a lower production cost than analytical carotenoid showed beneficial effects on shrimp feed supplement.

  3. Identification and cloning of a selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its transcription following pathogen infection and related to the molt stages.

    Liu, Kuan-Fu; Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Cheng, Winton; Lo, Chu-Fang


    Complementary (c)DNA encoding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) messenger (m)RNA of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The 1321-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 564bp, a 69-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 688-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail and a conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (188 aa) was 21.05kDa long with an estimated pI of 7.68. It contains a putative selenocysteine residue which is encoded by the unusual stop codon, (190)TGA(192), and forms the active site with residues Glu(75) and Trp(143). Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that tiger shrimp GPx is more closely related to vertebrate GPx1, in accordance with those in Litopenaeus vannamei and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. GPx cDNA was synthesised in lymphoid organ, gills, heart, haemocytes, the hepatopancreas, muscles, and intestines. After injected with either Photobacterium damsela or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the respiratory bursts of shrimp significantly increased in order to kill the pathogen, and induced increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase and GPx, and regulation in the expression of cloned GPx mRNA to protect cells against damage from oxidation. The GPx expression significantly increased at stage D(0/1), and then gradually decreased until stage C suggesting that the cloned GPx might play a role in the molt regulation of shrimp.

  4. Determination of the persistence of dimetridazole, metronidazole and ronidazole residues in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) tissue and their stability during cooking.

    Gadaj, Anna; Cooper, Kevin M; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Furey, Ambrose; Danaher, Martin


    The depletion of three banned nitroimidazole drugs - dimetridazole (DMZ), metronidazole (MNZ) and ronidazole (RNZ) - was investigated in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) following in-water medication. The highest concentrations of residues were measured immediately after the 24-h immersion (d0). At this time, MNZ and MNZ-OH residues were measured in shrimp tissue samples at concentrations ranging from 361 to 4189 and from 0.28 to 6.6 μg kg(-1), respectively. DMZ and its metabolites HMMNI ranged in concentration between 31,509 and 37,780 and between 15.0 and 31.9 μg kg(-1), respectively. RNZ and HMMNI concentrations ranged from 14,530 to 24,206 and from 25.0 to 55 μg kg(-1), respectively. MNZ, DMZ and RNZ were the more persistent marker residues and can be detected for at least 8 days post-treatment. MNZ-OH was only detectable on d0 following treatment with MNZ. HMMNI residues were only detectable up to d1 (0.97-3.2 μg kg(-1)) or d2 (1.2-4.5 μg kg(-1)) following DMZ and RNZ treatment, respectively. The parent drugs MNZ, DMZ and RNZ were still measureable on d8 at 0.12-1.0, 40.5-55 and 8.8-18.7 μg kg(-1), respectively. The study also investigated the stability of nitroimidazole residues under various cooking procedures (frying, grilling, boiling, and boiling followed by microwaving). The experiments were carried out in shrimp muscle tissue containing both high and low concentrations of these residues. Different cooking procedures showed the impact on nitroimidazole residue concentration in shrimp tissue. Residue concentration depleted significantly, but partially, by boiling and/or microwaving, but the compounds were largely resistant to conventional grilling or frying. Cooking cannot therefore be considered as a safeguard against harmful nitroimidazole residues in shrimp.

  5. Identification and cloning of a selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its transcription in relation to molt stages and following pathogen infection.

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Huang, Chang-Jen; Guo, Chih-Hung; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Tsai, Inn-Ho; Cheng, Winton


    Complementary (c)DNA encoding selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) messenger (m)RNA of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, designated PmSPS, was obtained from the hepatopancreas by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The 1582-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1248 bp, a 103-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 231-bp 3'-UTR, which contained a conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element, a conventional polyadenylation signal, and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (416 aa) was 45.5 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.85. It contained a putative selenocysteine residue which was encoded by the unusual stop codon, (275)TGA(277), which formed at the active site with residues Sec(58) and Lys(61). A comparison of amino acid sequences showed that PmSPS was more closely related to invertebrate SPS1, such as those of Heliothis virescens and Drosophila melanogaster a and b. PmSPS cDNA was synthesized in all tested tissues, especially in the hepatopancreas. PmSPS in the hepatopancreas of shrimp significantly increased after an injection with either Photobacterium damsela or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in order to protect cells against damage from oxidation, and enhance the recycling of selenocysteine or selenium metabolism, indicating that PmSPS is involved in the disease-resistance response. The PmSPS expression by hemocytes significantly increased in stage C, and then gradually decreased until stage A, suggesting that the cloned PmSPS in hemocytes might play a role in viability by renewing hemocytes and antioxidative stress response for new exoskeleton synthesis during the molt cycle of shrimp.

  6. Comparison of Penaeus monodon (Crustacea,Penaeidae growth between commercial feed vscommercial shrimp feed supplemented with Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceaeseaweed sap

    Kotiya Anil S.


    Full Text Available The consumer of seafood relates the potential development of animals to the constant use of commercial growth promoters. Nevertheless, nowadays with the development of non antibiotic feed additives, cultured shrimps performance has improved to great level. Present experiment was carried conducted from 27th May 2009 to 11th October 2009 in shrimp grow out ponds at Diu (U.T region of Saurashtra coast. The stocking density of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798 was 7.5 no/m2 in both the culture ponds. Good survival rate (89.70%, average daily growth (0.277, total biomass(2007.48 kg and less Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR (1.26:1 were obtained from Kappaphycus alvarezii(Doty Doty ex P. C. Silva, 1996 sap incorporated in pellet fed shrimps of pond 2, compare to control pond survival rate (73.70%, average daily growth (0.242, total biomass (1476.9 and high FCR(1.52:1 from control pellet fed shrimps of pond 1. There was no significant differences in temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and salinity, whereas micro-nutrients in water parameter vary during last month of culture period. The present investigation concluded that used ofK. alvarezii sap to the shrimp feed has enhanced growth in term of survival rate from 73.70% to 89.70%, average daily growth from0.242 to 0.277 and total biomass weight from 1476.9 kg to 2007.48 kg when compare to control pond shrimps and is economically viable approach in terms of profit. K. alvarezii is rich in micro nutrient, which can boost up the tiger shrimp growth in fewer days of culture.

  7. Protection of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome by continuous oral administration of a low concentration of Bacillus subtilis spores expressing the VP28 antigen.

    Pham, K-C; Tran, H T T; Van Doan, C; Le, P H; Van Nguyen, A T; Nguyen, H A; Hong, H A; Cutting, S M; Phan, T-N


    In this study, Bacillus subtilis spores expressing a chimeric protein, CotB-VP28, were used as a probiotic vaccine to protect black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon) against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Oral administration of pellets coated with CotB-VP28 spores (at ≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g pellet) to shrimps induced immune-relating phenoloxydase activity (PO) in shrimps after 14 days of feeding (prior challenge) and at day 3 post challenge (1·26 and 1·70 fold increase respectively). A 75% protection rate was obtained by continuous feeding of the spore-coated pellets at ≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g for 14 days prior to WSSV challenge and during all the postchallenge period. Even when the amount of CotB-VP28 spores in feed pellets was reduced down to ≥5 × 10(7)  CFU per g and ≥1 × 10(6)  CFU per g, relatively high protection rates of 70 and 67·5%, respectively, were still obtained. By contrast, feeding pellets without spores (untreated group) and with naked spores (PY79 group) at ≥1 × 10(9)  CFU per g could not protect shrimps against WSSV. These data suggest that supplementation of CotB-VP28 spores at low dose of ≥1 × 10(6)  CFU per g could be effective as a prophylactic treatment of WSS for black tiger shrimps.

  8. Monitoramento do maçarico-branco, Calidris alba (Pallas (Aves, Scolopacidae, através de recuperações de anilhas coloridas, na Coroa do Avião, Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brasil Monitoring of the sanderling, Calidris alba (Pallas (Aves, Scolopacidae, across recuperations of color band, in the Coroa do Avião, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Rachel M. de Lyra-Neves


    Full Text Available Programas de marcação de espécies migratórias vêm sendo desenvolvidos desde a década de 1980, dentre eles o PASP Pan-American Shorebirds Programs, o qual, consistia na marcação de aves migratórias neárticas com anéis e bandeirolas coloridas possibilitando formação de códigos individuais permitindo a observação das aves marcadas sem que necessitasse capturar. Esta pesquisa objetivou a recuperação de códigos do PASP de indivíduos de Calidris alba (Pallas 1764 entre os anos de 1993 a 1995 na Coroa do Avião. Essas recuperações visuais demonstraram a fidelidade de Calidris alba ao seu sítio de invernada, a Coroa do Avião. O alto percentual de recuperações de Calidris alba, bem como, as recuperações de indivíduos anilhados na Lagoa do Peixe e em algumas áreas de invernada nos Estados Unidos, demonstram a utilização da rota do Atlântico e reforça a idéia de que bandos provenientes da costa leste do Alaska migram por esta rota. A idade máxima estimada para Calidris alba durante esta pesquisa foi de 11 anos, nada se tem sobre a idade desta espécie em bibliografias específicas no estudo de Scolopacidae.Marking programs for migratory species have been developed since the 1980 decade, among them the PASP Pan-American Shorebirds Programs which consisted in the marking of nearctic migratory birds with color bands and flags, enabling the development of individual codes, allowing the observation of the marked birds without the need of capture. The purpose of this study was the recuperation of PASP codes of individuals of Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 between 1993 and 1995 in the Coroa do Avião. These visual recuperations demonstrated the fidelity of this specie to its winter site, the Coroa do Avião. The high percentual of recuperations of Calidris alba, as well as the recuperations of marked individuals in the Lagoa do Peixe and in some wintering areas in the United States, demonstrated the use of the Atlantic route and

  9. Study on the Distribution of Disease-Resistant Shrimp Identified by DNA Markers in Respect to WSSV Infection in Different Seasons Along the Entire East Coast of India Aiming to Prevent White Spot Disease in Penaeus monodon.

    Mallik, A; Chakrabarty, U; Dutta, S; Mondal, D; Mandal, N


    White spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is responsible for harming shrimp aquaculture industry and results in a pandemic throughout the world. Undeniably, the knowledge on geographic distribution, transmission, virulence, and seasonal prevalence of this disease alongside information on the distribution of disease-resistant shrimps may be helpful to understand important aspects of disease biology. This study was intended to estimate WSSV prevalence by qualitative and quantitative PCR method among the Penaeus monodon samples collected from four different places namely Digha, West Bengal; Chilika, Orissa; Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh; and Chennai, Tamil Nadu at three different seasons in the period of 2011-2013 from east coast of India. Along with this, the disease-resistant prevalence was also investigated using earlier developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA marker among the collected shrimps. Qualitative PCR depicted that the cumulative WSSV prevalence at four places was the lowest (0%) at pre-monsoon, whereas, it was the highest (21.2%) during post-monsoon season. Quantitative real-time PCR showed the average copy number of WSSV to be the highest (~10(3) copy μg(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) at post-monsoon season. Additionally, estimated disease-resistant prevalence was the highest in Visakhapatnam (79%) and lowest in Digha (21%). It is well known to all that a trait cannot be identified using a single genetic pattern. This study will significantly contribute insight to develop specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) seeds of P. monodon simultaneously using two DNA markers that would be a cost-effective and safer approach towards disease prevention instead of conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild broodstock.

  10. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L. et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen

    Mahari S.


    Full Text Available Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these plant extracts have been investigated on 2nd and 4th instars larvae of Culicidae insects, Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. After 24 hours of exposition, bioassays revealed low lethal concentrations LC50. To control mosquitoes, these plant extracts might be used as natural biocides.

  11. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L.) et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast.) sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen)

    Mahari S.; Mellouki F.; Oufara S.; Aouinty B.


    Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen). Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these ...

  12. 异色瓢虫对松大蚜和板栗大蚜选择效应研究%Study on the Selective Effect of Harmonia axyridis(Pallas) to Lachnus tropicalis and Cinara pinea



    Harmonia axyridis(Pallas) is one of the important predators in the field. Its selective coefficient varies with the amount change of these two pest populations,Lachnus tropicalis and Cinara pinea in Forest Farm of Culai Mountain were measured under laboratory conditions. The results showed that when the two pest population numbers synchronous increased ,the ladybirds which were collected the previous habits and raised the same aphids would like to predate it. But when L. tropicalis or C. pinea increased,H. axyridis would obviously like to predate it.%异色瓢虫是徂徕山林场常见天敌之一,在实验室条件下,测定了异色瓢虫对徂徕山林场2种重要蚜虫板栗大蚜和松蚜的选择效应。结果表明,当2种蚜虫种群数量同步增加,则取决于瓢虫原来的生境和饲喂条件,当板栗大蚜或松蚜种群上升时,则喜好取食种群数量大的蚜虫。

  13. Purification, partial characterization, crystallization and structural determination of AHP-LAAO, a novel L-amino-acid oxidase with cell apoptosis-inducing activity from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom.

    Zhang, Hongmin; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen; Wang, Yubao; Wang, Yuzhen; Liu, Qun; Huang, Qingqiu; Hao, Quan; Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Peng


    A snake-venom protein named AHP-LAAO has been purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom using four-stage chromatography. AHP-LAAO is a novel member of the snake-venom L-amino-acid oxidase family. Its amino-acid sequence shows high homology to other members of this family. For L-leucine, the values of k(cat) and K(M) are 31.1 s(-1) and 0.25 mM, respectively. The molecular weight of AHP-LAAO is about 60.7 kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. AHP-LAAO can also induce apoptosis of cultured Hela cells. Two sets of diffraction data with similar resolution limits (about 2.5 A) were collected independently at MacCHESS (Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, USA) and IHEP (Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China). The crystals belong to space group I2(1)3, with unit-cell parameter a = 169.31 A, corresponding to one molecule in the asymmetric unit and a volume-to-weight ratio of 3.33 A(3) Da(-1). The final structural model is similar to that of L-amino-acid oxidase from Calloselasma rhodostoma venom.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of AHP IX-bp, a zinc ion and pH-dependent coagulation factor IX binding protein from Agkistrodon halys Pallas venom.

    Zang, Jianye; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen


    A new coagulation factor IX binding protein, AHP IX-bp, has been purified from Agkistrodon halys Pallas venom and estimated to be an AB heterodimer of about 25 kDa consisting of two chains (an A chain of 15.5 kDa and a B chain of 15 kDa) linked by one or more disulfide bonds. The N-terminal sequence of AHP IX-bp has been determined and aligned with C-type lectin-like proteins. The protein has a high sequence similarity to some snake-venom C-type lectin-like proteins. AHP IX-bp binds to coagulation factor IX but not to coagulation factor X. Moreover, AHP IX-bp shows binding to coagulation factor IX in both zinc ion-dependent and pH-dependent manners. The affinity between AHP IX-bp and coagulation factor IX is higher under neutral or weakly alkaline conditions than under weakly acidic conditions. Single crystals of AHP IX-bp grown at pH 6.5 and 7.5 diffract X-rays to 2.0 and 1.8 A resolution, respectively. Both crystals are isomorphous and belong to the space group P1; only one AB heterodimer is present in the unit cell.

  15. 异色瓢虫热休克蛋白70基因的克隆与分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of heat shock protein 70 gene in Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)

    杨城欢; 庞虹; 张帆


    本研究通过RT-PCR和RACE方法,首次克隆了异色瓢虫Harmonia axyridis(Pallas)热休克蛋白70(HSP70)cDNA全序列(GenBank登录号:EF668009).获得的cDNA全长2200 bp,其中开放阅读框1956 bp,编码一个651氨基酸的蛋白,计算分子量为70 kDa,等电点(PI)为5.32.同源序列比对结果表明,异色瓢虫HSP70与其它真核生物的HSP/HSC70有着较高的序列同源性(85%~93%).其中与赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum热休克蛋白70(HSP70)同源性最高,达到93%.与其它真核生物HSP70一样,该序列包含真核生物HSP70高度保守的全部三个家族标签以及ATP/GTP结合位点、一个Bipartive nuclear localization signal和细胞核定位信号.

  16. Size-dependent activation of aerosols into cloud droplets at a subarctic background site during the second Pallas Cloud Experiment (2nd PaCE: method development and data evaluation

    T. Anttila


    Full Text Available In situ measurements of aerosol water uptake and activation of aerosols into cloud droplets provide information on how aerosols influence the microphysical properties of clouds. Here we present a computational scheme that can be used in connection with such measurements to assess the influence of the particle chemical composition and mixing state (in terms of the water uptake on the cloud nucleating ability of particles. Additionally, it provides an estimate for the peak supersaturation of water vapour reached during the formation of the observed cloud(s. The method was applied in interpreting results of a measurement campaign that focused on aerosol-cloud interactions taking place at a subarctic background site located in northern Finland (second Pallas Cloud Experiment, 2nd PaCE. A set of case studies was conducted, and the observed activation behavior could be successfully explained by a maximum supersaturation that varied between 0.18 and 0.26% depending on the case. In these cases, the diameter corresponding to the activated fraction of 50% was in the range of 110–140 nm, and the particles were only moderately water soluble with hygroscopic growth factors varying between 1.1 and 1.4. The conducted analysis showed that the activated fractions and the total number of particles acting as CCN are expected to be highly sensitive to the particle hygroscopicity. For example, the latter quantity varied over a factor between 1.8 and 3.1, depending on the case, when the mean hygroscopic growth factors were varied by 10%. Another important conclusion is that size-dependent activation profiles carries information on the mixing state of particles.

  17. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2010-31 January 2011.

    Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng


    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii.

  18. 斑节对虾细胞周期蛋白E基因的克隆与表达分析%Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the cyclin E gene from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    赵超; 傅明骏; 江世贵; 周发林; 杨其彬; 朱彩艳; 邱丽华


    为了解细胞周期蛋白 E(cyclin E)基因在斑节对虾(Penaeus monodon)发育过程中的作用,构建和测序了斑节对虾全组织cDNA文库,获得了斑节对虾细胞周期蛋白(Pmcyclin) E的部分表达序列。通过RACE技术克隆得到1条全长1706 bp的cDNA序列。Pmcyclin E开放阅读框(ORF)为1263 bp,编码420个氨基酸。生物信息学分析表明,该氨基酸序列含有周期蛋白家族特有的 CYCLIN保守区并含有 N-糖基化位点及磷酸化位点。经 BLAST同源性分析表明,该基因编码蛋白与红火蚁(Solenopsis invicta)、切叶蜂(Megachile rotundata)等多种节肢动物细胞周期蛋白 E 有很高的同源性。组织分布分析表明,该基因在斑节对虾精巢、卵巢、肠、脑、肝胰腺、胃和心脏组织中均有表达,其中卵巢中表达量较高,而心脏、胃及肝胰腺中表达量相对较低。分别对蜕皮抑制激素(MIH)注射和眼柄切除的对虾进行表达分析,发现眼柄切除后, Pmcyclin E大量表达,而注射MIH后细胞Pmcyclin E的表达量相对降低。结果表明,细胞cyclin E基因在斑节对虾卵巢发育过程中起重要作用,且眼柄切除对细胞cyclin E的表达具有影响,该结果为进一步探究斑节对虾卵巢的发育机理提供了理论依据。%Cyclins are the positive regulatory subunits of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). They play a critical role in the coordination of the eucaryotic cell cycle by binding to the catalytic subunits of CDKs. They share distant sequence homology over a 100 amino acid region called the cyclin box and have been classified into two phy-logenetically divergent subfamilies. The first contains A, B, D, E, F, and G cyclins and the second contains the C and H cyclins. Shrimp culture is limited by a lack of methods to breed adults in captivity. This is because female shrimp are unable to reach ovarian maturity without intervention using destructive, expensive, or time consuming methods such as eyestalk

  19. Effects of Temperature on Maximum Metabolic Rate and Metabolic Scope of Juvenile Manchurian Trout, Brachymystax lenok (Pallas)%温度对细鳞鲑幼鱼最大代谢率和代谢范围的影响

    徐革锋; 尹家胜; 韩英; 刘洋; 牟振波


    This study examined the effects of water temperature on the metabolic characteristics and aerobic exer-cise capacity of juvenile manchurian trout , Brachymystax lenok ( Pallas) .The resting metabolic rate ( RMR) ,maxi-mum metabolic rate (MMR), metabolic scope(MS)and critical swimming speed (UCrit) of juveniles were measured at different temperature (4, 8, 12, 16, 20℃).The results showed that both the RMR and the MMR increased sig-nificantly with the increasing of water temperature ( P<0 .05 ) .Compared with test group at 4℃, the RMR for 8℃, 12℃, 16℃ and 20℃increased by 62%, 165%, 390%, 411%,respectively, and the MMR increased by 3%, 34%, 111%, 115%, respectively .However , the MS decreased with the increasing of water temperature with the highest MS occurring at 4℃.UCrit was significantly affected by water temperature (P<0.05), but the varia-tions of UCrit didn′t follow certain pattern with temperature .In the test of aerobic exercise , the MMR for each tem-perature level occurred at the swimming speed of 70% UCrit , probably due to the start of anaerobic metabolism , which caused excessive creatine in body , consequently hindered the aerobic metabolism .%为了探究温度对细鳞鲑( Brachymystax lenok)幼鱼的代谢特征和有氧运动能力的影响,在不同温度(4℃、8℃、12℃、16℃、20℃)下测定了实验鱼的静止代谢率( RMR)、有氧运动过程中的最大代谢率( MMR)以及能量代谢范围(MS)和临界游泳速度(UCrit)。结果表明,随着温度的上升,RMR和MMR均显著提高(P<0.05),各温度下的RMR和MMR分别较4℃条件的提高了62%(8℃)、165%(12℃)、390%(16℃)、411%(20℃)和3%(8℃)、34%(12℃)、111%(16℃)、115%(20℃);MS随水温的升高呈现下降的趋势,且4℃条件具有最大的代谢范围。不同温度条件下UCrit存在显著性差异,但随着温度升高未表现出明显的变

  20. 异色瓢虫显明变种对白杨毛蚜和白毛蚜选择效应研究%Study on the Selective Effect of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) var.spectabilis to Chaitophorus populeti and C.populiabae

    王涛; 张悦; 孙玉刚; 王金秀; 韩军; 郭喜军; 张发明; 曲爱军


    [目的]探究异色瓢虫显明变种对杨树主要蚜虫白杨毛蚜和白毛蚜的捕食选择趋性.[方法]在实验室条件下,在特定空间内,测定异色瓢虫显明变种对2种蚜虫不同密度值下的捕食量.[结果]白杨毛蚜和白毛蚜种群数量同步增加时,EG-s值和EJ值变化为+1~0,EI值是在0~-1范围内依次减少,且数值变化幅度较少,表明异色瓢虫显明变种喜好捕食白毛蚜略高于白杨毛蚜;当白杨毛蚜数量不变、白毛蚜数量增加时,EG-s值和EJ值变化为+1~∞,EI值在O~+1范围内依次增加,表明异色瓢虫显明变种明显喜好捕食白毛蚜;当白毛蚜数量不变、白杨毛蚜数量增加时,EG-s值和EJ值变化为在+1~O范围内依次减少,EI值在0~-1范围内依次增加,表明异色瓢虫显明变种明显喜好捕食白杨毛蚜.捕食量结果同选择指数.[结论]异色瓢虫显现变种白杨毛蚜和白毛蚜的捕食选择趋性取决于2种蚜虫的种群数量.%[Objective] To explore the selective predation of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) var. Spectabilis, to Chaitophorus populeti (Panzer) and C. Populiabae (Boyer de Fonseolombe). [ Method ] Under the experimental conditions, the predation amount of the two aphids by Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) var. Spectabilis at different densities was detected. [ Result] When the number of the two pest populations increased synchronously, £c_s and Ej changed from +1 to 0,E, decreased gradually within the range of 0 to - 1 ,and the decrease extent was small,indicating that the ladybird preferred preying C. Populiabae to C. Populeti; when the quantity of C. Populeti stayed unchanged and the quantity of C. Populiabae increased,£c_s and Es changed from + 1 to oc ,E, increased gradually within the range of 0 to + 1 .indicating that the ladybird liked to prey C. Populiabae; when the quantity of C. Populiabae stayed unchanged and the quantity of C. Populeti increased,Ec_s and Et gradually decreased from + 1 to 0 ,E

  1. 恒温和温室波动温度下异色瓢虫种群生命表%Life Tables of Harmonia axyridis Pallas Under Laboratory Constant and Greenhouse Fluctuating Temperatures

    赵静; 肖达; 张帆; 王甦


    [Objective] The ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas is a well-known aphid predator and plays an important role as a biological control agent in its native regions. Life table can provide a comprehensive description of the development, survival, and fecundity of a population. The life history of H. axyridis has been studied using the traditional life table in controlled laboratory conditions. However, when released, H. axyridis were exposed to fluctuating temperatures which can significantly change the biological characteristics of insects. The objective of this study is to build life tables for H. axyridis both at constant temperature in the laboratory and at fluctuating temperatures in the greenhouse, and to facilitate the effective use of this species as a biological control agent.[Method]Developmental, survival, and fecundity rate data were analyzed by using the age-stage, two-sex life table under laboratory and greenhouse conditions and the significant differences were compared with t-tests at a 5%significance level by SPSS17.0. Means and standard errors of population parameters were calculated by using the bootstrap method and the significant differences were compared with t-tests by the TWOSEX-MSChart computer program.[Result]H. axyridis at constant temperature in the laboratory developed more quickly in the pre-adult stage and were longer-lived compared with those in the greenhouse. Moreover, significant reductions in survival and reproduction of H. axyridis under greenhouse conditions were observed in the curves of sxj, lx, fx and mx. The life expectancy of H. axyridis decreased gradually with age while the life expectancy were shorter and varied significantly at fluctuating temperatures in the greenhouse. The contribution of an individual to the future population was described by the reproductive value (vxj) which under greenhouse conditions was lower and more varied than that in the laboratory. According to the age-stage, two-sex life table, the

  2. Imposex and butyltin contamination still evident in Chile after TBT global ban.

    Batista, Rodrigo Moço; Castro, Italo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto


    Imposex in gastropods (Acanthina monodon, Oliva peruviana and Xanthochorus cassidiformis), butyltin levels in surface sediments (Coquimbo and Concepcion) and tissues (Valparaiso and Concepcion) were assessed in three areas under the influence of maritime activities along the central Chilean coast. The highest TBT concentrations were observed in São Vicente Bay (Concepcion), reaching 122.3ngSng(-1) in surface sediments and 59.7ngSng(-1) in gastropods tissue, while in Valparaiso ranged from 7.4 to 15.8ngSng(-1) in biota. The lowest TBT concentrations were detected in sediments from Coquimbo (TBT free products) in association to local oceanographic conditions. Despite DBT and MBT were the predominant analytes, recent inputs of TBT were evident in some areas. In fact, fishing boats may be a relevant source since they were the predominant maritime activity in the most contaminated sites. In addition, the absence of significant differences within BTs levels between both genders of A. monodon suggests that tissues from distinct sexes can be indistinctly used for future contamination studies. Imposex incidence was detected in 11 out of 15 sampled sites, indicating that environmental levels of TBT have been sufficient to induce deleterious effects on the exposed organisms. Thus, the impacts caused by TBT in Chilean coastal areas were detectable and consistent with other studies performed in South America. This present environmental contamination is probably due to the lack of regulations forbidding the use of TBT-based antifouling paints in Chile.

  3. Une réponse ovidienne à Asclépiade ? Hypothèse d’une allusion à l’épigramme sur la Lydé d’Antimaque (AP IX, 63 dans le certamen de Pallas et Arachné (Met. VI

    Florence Klein


    Full Text Available La compétition artistique entre Pallas et Arachné au livre VI des Métamorphoses oppose une déesse, qui représente l’auguste noblesse divine (augusta grauitas, à une tisserande d’origine sociale fort modeste – précise Ovide – mais que son art a rendue célèbre dans toute la Lydie. Cette valorisation de son ars a d’ailleurs valu à cette dernière d’être apparentée par la critique à une figure callimachéenne. Cet article propose d’aller plus loin en ce sens, en suggérant que le passage contient une allusion à l’épigramme AP IX, 63 qui semble avoir été au cœur de la querelle opposant Callimaque aux « Telchines » : Asclépiade y faisait l’éloge de la σεµνότης de Lydé en jouant sur le double sens du terme, entre noblesse stylistique et noblesse sociale. L’hypothèse d’une « réponse ovidienne à Asclépiade » apporte alors un nouvel éclairage sur l’opposition esthétique qui est en jeu dans le certamen et, en particulier, sur son issue.  

  4. 异色瓢虫显明变种对荻草谷网蚜和禾谷缢管蚜捕食选择性研究%Selectivity of Harmonia axyridis(Pallas) Var.Spectabilis to Macrosiphum Avenae and Rhopalosiphum Padi

    张悦; 井维霞; 王涛; 刘修堂; 曲爱军


    It was tested that predatory quantity of the ladybird,Harmonia axyridis(Pallas) Var.Spectabilis,to the two aphid,Macrosiphum avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi at different densities in the certain space in the laboratory.The results showed that the selective coefficient of the ladybird varied with these two aphid populations.When the two pest population numbers increased synchronously,the ladybird preferred M.avenae. But when only R.padi increased,H.axyridis would obviously like to predate it.On the contrary,when only M. avenae increased,the ladybird would like to predate it.The result of the predatory quantity of the ladybird was similar to the selective coefficient.%在实验室条件下,在特定空间内,测定异色瓢虫显明变种对两种蚜虫荻草谷网蚜和禾谷缢管蚜不同密度值下的捕食量。结果表明,荻草谷网蚜和禾谷缢管蚜种群数量同步增加时,EG-S值和EI值变化是从1到∞,EI值是在0到+1范围内依次增加,表明异色瓢虫显明变种喜好捕食荻草谷网蚜明显高于禾谷缢管蚜;荻草谷网蚜数量不变,禾谷缢管蚜数量增加时,EG-S值和EI值是从+1到0,EI值从-1到0范围内依次减少,表明异色瓢虫显明变种明显喜好捕食禾谷缢管蚜;禾谷缢管蚜数量不变,荻草谷网蚜数量增加时,EG-S值和EI值变化从+1到∞,EI值在0到+1范围内依次增加,表明异色瓢虫显明变种明显喜好捕食荻草谷网蚜。捕食量结果同选择指数。

  5. Patrones de colonización y ecología de poblaciones de dos bivalvos invasores (mejillón cebra Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 y almeja asiática Corbicula fluminea Müller, 1774 en un tramo lótico del Ebro medio (Castejón, Navarra.



    Full Text Available Los bivalvos dulceacuícolas son un componente importante de la ecología fluvial, fundamentalmente por el papel que desempeñan como organismos filtradores y de remoción del sedimento. Además son un grupo zoológico diverso y amenazado a escala global, en el que se incluyen algunas de las especies invasoras más dañinas. El estudio de sus poblaciones es imprescindible para conocer el estado de conservación de las comunidades bentónicas. Para esto se prospectaron 17 parcelas vadeables y 7 escolleras a lo largo de 7,38 km de meandros del río Ebro en Castejón (Navarra, tanto el cauce principal como en brazos secundarios de corriente permanente y/o temporal. El mejillón cebra Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 se encontró en 7 escolleras y 6 parcelas. El sustrato preferente fueron rocas (85%, donde la densidad resultó 0,31-5,45 mejillones/m2; el 2,6% se hallaron sobre plásticos agrícolas abandonados. En las escolleras sólo el 3,6% de los ejemplares eran juveniles y un 33% tenían una edad > 4 años. La almeja asiática Corbicula fluminea Müller, 1774 se encontró en todas las parcelas. La densidad resultó muy diferente en los tres tipos de ambientes fluviales con valores máximos de 15.100 almejas/m2, lo que constituye un nuevo máximo fluvial en Europa. Se encontraron subpoblaciones de almeja asiática con diferentes estructuras de edad según los ambientes fluviales, además de poblaciones menos numerosas en el brazo principal del río que en los otros tipos. Los resultados muestran que junto a estas especies alóctonas en expansión, con altas tasas de reclutamiento, se encuentra una estructura poblacional muy precaria para las autóctonas, de las cuales únicamente se localizaron 12 náyades vivas y ningún esférido.

  6. 蝮蛇毒介导的小鼠急性肝损伤及血清p-选择素水平的表达%Acute liver injury and expression of P-selectin in serum of mice induced by agkistrodon halys pallas venom

    钟哲峰; 邓立普; 陈坤


    Objective To explore the relationship between pathological changes of liver,serum ALT,expression of P-selectin in serum of mice and different dose of venom,the poisoning time induced by Agkistrodon Halys Pallas venom.Methods Using two -factor factorial design,72 male Kunming mice of clean grade were randomly ( random number) divided into 9 groups (n =8).As per the different doses of snake venom injected and different lengths of time after venom injected,the 9 groups were 0-dose (0.0 mg/kg) 3 hours after saline given group,0-dose 8 hours after saline given group,0-dose 24 hours after saline given group,low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) 3 hours after venom given group,low-dose 8 hours after venom given group,low-dose 24 hours after venom given,high-dose ( 1.0 mg/kg) 3 hours after venom given group,high-dose 8 hours after venom given group and high-dose 24 hours after venom given group.The pathological change of liver tissue was determined,and ALT and expression of P-selectin in serum were detected.Results In the venom given groups,the liver histopathologic scores,serum ALT value and expression of Pselectin in serum were significantly higher than those in control group ( P < 0.05 ),and those in high-dose group were higher than those in low-dose group (P < 0.05 ),and those in 8h groups were higher than those in 3h groups (P<0.05),and those in 24 h groups were higher than those in 8 h groups (P <0.05).As the dose of venom increased and the length of time after venom given extended,the liver histopathologic scores,serum ALT and expression of P-selectin in serum were higher.A positive correlation between Pselectin expression and liver histopathologic scores was found after correlation analysis ( r =0.98,P <0.05 ).Conclusions Agkistrodon snake venom can cause acute liver injury with elevated ALT and Pselectin in mice.As higher dose of venom given and longer length of time after venom given extended,more serum ALT and P-selectin are produced.Between acute liver injury and high

  7. Pallas näitab teed Tartu skulptuurile / Ahti Seppet

    Seppet, Ahti, 1953-


    Näitus "Pallase skulptuur" Tartu Kunstimuuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Ferdi Sannamehe, Eduard Wiiralti, Johannes Hirve, August Vommi, Martin Saksa, Roman Timotheuse, Herman Halliste, Lydia Laasi, Alfred Leiuse, Enn Roosi jt. kunstnike töid

  8. Age determination of eland Taurotragus oryx (pallas, 1766) in the ...

    known dates of death enabling approximate ages to be ... Varying rates of accretion and calcification of cementoid tissue around the roots 0 f ungulate teeth are responsible ..... that half the yearlings in his study group of red deer (Cer-.

  9. 不同环境条件下斑节对虾家系生长和免疫酶活性差异%Analysis on growth and characteristic of immune enzymes activity of Penaeus monodon family under environment-stress

    杨其彬; 王专伟; 周发林; 温为庚; 苏天凤; 邱丽华; 黄建华


    研究了正常生长、低温胁迫和高氨氮胁迫下10个斑节对虾家系生长特性及超氧化物歧化酶(Superoxide Dismutase, SOD)、酸性磷酸酶(Acid Phosphatase, ACP)、酚氧化酶(Phenoloxidase, PO)3种免疫酶活性的变化。生长试验结果表明,10个家系特定生长率(SGR)呈现明显差异,家系077与家系017和661的ACP活性存在极显著差异,家系4612与家系017的 SOD活性存在极显著性差异,而其他家系的免疫酶活性无显著差异。斑节对虾在48h低温胁迫下, ACP和SOD活性先升高后降低, PO活性则不断降低,而对照组的3种酶活性呈无规律轻微变化。斑节对虾在48h高氨氮胁迫下, ACP活性不断升高, SOD在0-8h活性上升,8-48h活性快速降低, PO活性不断下降,而对照组的3种酶活性呈无规律轻微变化;一些家系间的3种免疫酶活性存在显著性差异,其中家系4612的3种酶活性均高于其他家系。3个试验中,家系的特定生长率与免疫酶活性均呈负相关。%The response of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Acid Phosphatase (ACP), and Phenoloxidase (PO) in Penaeus monodon families to normal growth, low temperature stress and high ammonia stress was studied under laboratory condition. Growth in terms of specific growth rate (SGR) was significant difference among the selected families (p<0.05). The activities of ACP were significant difference among family 077, 017 and 661. The activities of SOD were significant difference between family 4612 and family 017. When the rearing temperature decreased from 27℃to 20℃, the activities of ACP and SOD first increased and then decreased, the activities of PO reduced prolonged according to the low temperature stress, and the minor changes of control trial were not regular. Under the high ammonia stress, the activities of ACP increased prolonged, the activities of SOD increased in 0−8 h, then rapidly decreased in 8−48 h, the activities of PO reduced in 0−48 h, and the minor

  10. The earliest figures of the Blaauwbok, Hippotragus Leucophaeus (Pallas, 1766) and of the Greater Kudu, Tragelaphus Strepsiceros (Pallas, 1766)

    Husson, A.M.; Holthuis, L.B.


    INTRODUCTION A recent study of the lectotype specimen of the Blaauwbok (Husson & Holthuis, 1969) had awakened our interest in this South African Antilope, which became extinct around 1800. One of us got the chance to procure a copy of the 1727 Dutch edition of Peter Kolb's account of Cape of Good

  11. Sodium, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations in molluscs from the Magellan Strait (Chile): their contribution to dietary intake.

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz


    The concentrations of the essential metals Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined in 126 specimens of molluscs belonging to five different species: Mytilus chilensis, n=47; Nacella deaurata, n=65; Aulacomya ater, n=4; Fissurella picta, n=4; Acanthina monodon, n=6, collected from the coastline of the Magellan Strait. Significant differences were obtained among the mean metal concentrations in the mollusc species considered. The contribution to the dietary daily intake of these metals for the consumption of one serving of these molluscs was high, especially the contribution to the Fe intake for the consumption of N. deaurata. Some significant differences were observed among the mean concentrations for the studied metals according to the zone of sampling. The influence of the zone of sampling on the mean concentration of metals in N. deaurata was higher than in M. chilensis. The application of lineal discriminant analysis (LDA) made it possible to differentiate statistically between specimens according to the mollusc species. Within the each mollusc species, the LDA helped to identify specimens according to the zone of sampling and weight/length ratio.


    Irsyaphiani Insan


    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Brebes District, the North coast of Java. Tiger shrimp farming in Indonesia, particularly in this area faced some problems which caused by improper pond preparation, disease, and low seed quality. Probiotic was applied in pond to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of tiger shrimp in ponds with probiotic applications. Six experimental ponds (each measuring 0.5 ha were selected of which three were probiotic ponds and three were controlled. Tiger shrimp postlarvae (PL-30 were stocked at density of four shrimps/m2. Tiger shrimps were reared for three months. Shrimps were fed by commercial pellet. In the first month, shrimp were fed about 7%-5% of the total biomass; in the second months, 3.5%-3% of the total biomass; and in the third month, 2.5%-2% of the total biomass. The treatments in this study were the application of probiotics with concentration of 3 mg/L that were given every five days and control (without probiotics. The results showed the rearing period was 92 ± 6 days in probiotic ponds and 76 ± 16 days in controlled pond. The shrimp in controlled pond should be harvest earlier caused by the high mortality. The average final weight was 16.2 ± 0.7 g in probiotic pond and 15.6 ± 1.9 g in controlled pond. The survival rate was 64.13 ± 12.63% in probiotic pond and 44.17 ± 14.15% in controlled pond. Production was 208 ± 46 kg/pond/cycle in probiotic pond and 123 ± 6 kg/pond/cycle in controlled pond. The result showed that probiotic plays an important role in maintaining water quality parameters and health management as well as increases the survival of shrimp.

  13. Immune defence White Spot Syndrome Virus infected shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Arts, J.A.J.


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen of cultured penaeid shrimp worldwide. Since the initial discovery of the virus inTaiwanin 1992, it has spread to shrimp farming regions in Southeast Asia, the

  14. Past and present population dynamics of narwhals Monodon monoceros

    Garde, Eva

    , meat and mattak. Concerns have been raised about the sustainability of the hunt, which have led to implementation of hunting quotas in both countries. Hunting quotas are usually calculated from population dynamics models where survival and reproductive rates, based on reliable age distributions......, are vital. Estimation of life history parameters for the narwhal has previously been hindered by lack of a reliable age estimation technique. The Aspartic Acid Racemization (AAR) technique is a relatively novel method that I have applied to narwhals. This PhD thesis focuses, in part, on current population...... of both marine and terrestrial mammals, although the technique still requires both optimization and further validation. In addition, the thesis includes a study of past population dynamics in narwhals. We have investigated the genetic response to climate change and the emographic history of the narwhal...

  15. Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    Braak, van de C.B.T.


    Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays for the eva

  16. Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    Braak, van de K.


    Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays fo

  17. Complete regeneration of ablated eyestalk in penaeid prawn, Penaeus monodon

    Desai, U.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    , in which he demonstrated that ovarian maturation can be accelerated by ablating the ey e- stalk. The eyestalk ganglia and the bra in/thoracic ganglia are considered to be the main neuroendocrine centres which play the dual role of inhibition and stim u...

  18. Environ: E00643 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available E00643 Monodon monoceros maxillary incisor Crude drug Monodon monoceros [TAX:40151]... Physeteridae Monodon monoceros left side maxillary incisor Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals E00643 Monodon monoceros maxillary incisor ...

  19. Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773: New record in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Rezende, M. Q.


    Full Text Available Harmonia axyridis is a voracious aphid predator, which has been used in biological control programs in severalcountries. Due to its fast spreading, H. axyridis is becoming widely distributed across the world. Recently, it was detectedin Viçosa, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. This region shows climatic similarity to its native region and it may facilitatethe establishment of H. axyridis. The species was found in some home gardens feeding on aphids and psyllids. The presenceof the lady beetle in the state of Minas Gerais confirms its high spreading potential in Brazil, reinforcing the necessity forfurther studies on the possible impacts and control methods of its populations.

  20. Effects of starvation on the carbohydrate metabolism in Harmonia axyridis (Pallas

    Zuo-Kun Shi


    Full Text Available Trehalose plays an important role in energy storage, metabolism, and protection from extreme environmental conditions in insects. Trehalose is the main blood sugar in insects, and it can be rapidly used as an energy source in times of need. To elucidate the mechanisms of the starvation response, we observed the effects of starvation on trehalose and glycogen, trehalase activity, and the relative gene expression of genes in the trehalose and glycogen metabolic pathways in the invasive beetle Harmonia axyridis. Our results show that trehalose levels and the activities of two types of trehalases decreased significantly in the first 8 h of starvation, while the relative expression of HaTreh1-1 increased. While trehalose remained nearly constant at a relatively high level from 8 to 24 h, glycogen levels decreased significantly from 8 h to 24 h of starvation. Likewise, glycogen phosphorylase (HaGP expression was significantly higher at 12 to 24 h starvation than the first 8 h, while the expression of glycogen synthase (HaGS was relatively stable. Furthermore, trehalose decreased significantly from 24 h starvation to 72 h starvation, while trehalase activities and the relative expression of some HaTreh genes generally increased toward the end of the starvation period. The expression of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (HaTPS increased significantly, supporting the increase in trehalose synthesis. These results show that trehalose plays a key role in the energy provided during the starvation process through the molecular and biochemical regulation of trehalose and glycogen metabolism.

  1. Effects of starvation on the carbohydrate metabolism in Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)

    Zuo-Kun Shi; Su Wang; Shi-Gui Wang; Lu Zhang; Yan-Xia Xu; Xiao-Jun Guo; Fan Zhang; Bin Tang


    ... and glycogen metabolic pathways in the invasive beetle Harmonia axyridis. Our results show that trehalose levels and the activities of two types of trehalases decreased significantly in the first 8...

  2. [Morphological variability of Microtus oeconomus pallas (Rodentia, Rrvicolidae) from Baikal region].

    Pozdniakov, A A; Litvinov, Iu N; Demidovich, P A


    The analysis of morphological variability of the ten samples of Microtus oeconomus from islands of Baikal and adjacent regions gas shown, that island samples differ from continental ones by complex of parameters, defining proportions of a skuul, mainly, proportions of an auditory region. Island samples also differ higher indexes of complexity and asymmetry of morphotypes of the third upper molar. An environment of the Baikal islands differ absence of the damp habitats preferred Microtus oeconomus, and also colder microclimate that has caused forming original morphological character of island micropopulations.

  3. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Pallas, 1859).

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Gül, Ali; Erbaşli, Kazim


    Alpha-cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial and agricultural situations. Adult male guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata standard test species) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were performed in four series and the 96-h LC50 value was determined for guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for each alpha-cypermethrin (98% technical grade) concentration. Data obtained from the alpha-cypermethrin investigation were evaluated by the use of probit analysis statistical method and the 96-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as 9.43 microg/l.

  4. Development and population growth of Hydra viridissima Pallas, 1766 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa in the laboratory

    FC. Massaro

    Full Text Available Hydras, the most representative freshwater Cnidaria, are of common occurrence in bodies of water in every continent except Antarctica. This study was planned with the aim of maintaining a population of Hydra viridissima in laboratory culture to enable the determination of the individual and population growth-rates of this species, as well as its population doubling time and generation time, with a view to employing these common animals as test-organisms in ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were maintained in reconstituted water at 20 ± 2 °C, illuminated at 800 lux with a photoperiod of 12 hours light: 12 hours dark, and were fed on neonates of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii (3 or 4 neonates per hydra, 3 times a week. The individual growth-rate (k of the species was 0.43, the maximum length of the column 2.53 mm and the generation time 6.6 ± 1.5 days on average. The hydra population showed an intrinsic growth-rate (r of 0.0468, according to the fitted curve, and a doubling time of 14.8 ± 2.63 days. Hydra viridissima is easy to grow in the laboratory and performs well in the conditions used in this study. It is thus a promising candidate test-organism for ecotoxicological studies.

  5. Kärdla VIII b kangutas lahti kultuuriukse Leisi / Anu Pallas

    Pallas, Anu, 1960-


    Kärdla Keskkooli kaheksas b klass sõitis Leisi, et mängida kooliteatrite peapreemia saanud etendust "Oleme viieteistaastased ehk üks päev kaheksandas bees". Merle Karusoo lavaloo "Oleme kolmeteistkümne aastased" ja Kärdla kooli 8b klassi esseede põhjal oli tüki kokku ja lavale seadnud Koit Randus

  6. Eco-physiology, mass production and larvaebreeding potentialities of the fresh water rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas

    Awaïss, A.


    Full Text Available In veterinary medicine of african tradition in Kivu and Kibali-lturi (Zaire, we have identified 32 medicinal plants used alone or in association at the time of verminosis, diarrhea, coprostasis and meteorism. The parts of the plant intervene in the following proportions : leaves (59 %, fruits and seeds (12 %, whole plant (12 %, stems barks (9 %, roots, rhizoms and tubers (5 %, roots'barks (3 %. After maceration (51 % of cases, decoction (25 % or without modification (20 %, the way of administration is oral in 90 % of cases and anal in 10 % of cases. Our data led us to suggest that plants previously submitted to a pharmacological screening could be introduced and maintained by management technics of paturages before pharmacotechnical studies or industrial production of medicaments.

  7. Environmental regulation of mitochondria-rich cells in Chalcalburnus tarichi (Pallas, 1811) during reproductive migration.

    Oğuz, Ahmet R


    Chalcalburnus tarichi is an anadromous cyprinid fish that has adapted to extreme conditions (salinity 22 ‰, pH 9.8 and alkalinity 153 mEq × l⁻¹) in Lake Van in eastern Turkey. Changes in immunoreactivity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in gill tissue and osmolarity and ion levels in plasma were investigated in C. tarichi during reproductive migration. Physicochemical characteristics and ion levels in Lake Van were high compared freshwater. Plasma osmolality and plasma ion concentrations ([Na⁺], [K⁺] and [Cl⁻]) increased after transfer from freshwater to Lake Van. The mitochondria-rich (MR) cells of the gill were stained in both filament and lamellar epithelia of C. tarichi by immunocytochemistry with a specific antiserum for Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in river fish samples. Density and area of MR cells were decreased in lake-adapted fishes. These results indicated that freshwater acclimation capacity is correlated with the size and distribution of MR cells in C. tarichi, in contrast to many teleost fishes.

  8. Kärdla VIII b kangutas lahti kultuuriukse Leisi / Anu Pallas

    Pallas, Anu, 1960-


    Kärdla Keskkooli kaheksas b klass sõitis Leisi, et mängida kooliteatrite peapreemia saanud etendust "Oleme viieteistaastased ehk üks päev kaheksandas bees". Merle Karusoo lavaloo "Oleme kolmeteistkümne aastased" ja Kärdla kooli 8b klassi esseede põhjal oli tüki kokku ja lavale seadnud Koit Randus

  9. Development and population growth of Hydra viridissima Pallas, 1766 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in the laboratory.

    Massaro, F C; Rocha, O


    Hydras, the most representative freshwater Cnidaria, are of common occurrence in bodies of water in every continent except Antarctica. This study was planned with the aim of maintaining a population of Hydra viridissima in laboratory culture to enable the determination of the individual and population growth-rates of this species, as well as its population doubling time and generation time, with a view to employing these common animals as test-organisms in ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were maintained in reconstituted water at 20 +/- 2 degrees C, illuminated at 800 lux with a photoperiod of 12 hours light: 12 hours dark, and were fed on neonates of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii (3 or 4 neonates per hydra, 3 times a week). The individual growth-rate (k) of the species was 0.43, the maximum length of the column 2.53 mm and the generation time 6.6 +/- 1.5 days on average. The hydra population showed an intrinsic growth-rate (r) of 0.0468, according to the fitted curve, and a doubling time of 14.8 +/- 2.63 days. Hydra viridissima is easy to grow in the laboratory and performs well in the conditions used in this study. It is thus a promising candidate test-organism for ecotoxicological studies.

  10. Molecular and morphological characterization of the tapeworm Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766) in sheep from Iran.

    Rostami, S; Salavati, R; Beech, R N; Babaei, Z; Sharbatkhori, M; Baneshi, M R; Hajialilo, E; Shad, H; Harandi, M F


    Although Taenia hydatigena is one of the most prevalent taeniid species of livestock, very little molecular genetic information exists for this parasite. Up to 100 sheep isolates of T. hydatigena were collected from 19 abattoirs located in the provinces of Tehran, Alborz and Kerman. A calibrated microscope was used to measure the larval rostellar hook lengths. Following DNA extraction, fragments of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and 12S rRNA genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing. The mean total length of large and small hooks was 203.4 μm and 135.9 μm, respectively. Forty CO1 and 39 12S rRNA sequence haplotypes were obtained in the study. The levels of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were determined to be between 0.3-3.4% and 0.2-2.1%, respectively. The overall nucleotide variation among all the CO1 haplotypes was 9.7%, and for all the 12S rRNA haplotypes it was 10.1%. A significant difference was observed between rostellar hook morphometry and both CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence variability. A significantly high level of genetic variation was observed in the present study. The results showed that the 12S rRNA gene is more variable than CO1.

  11. Ten years of invasion: Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain.

    Roy, Helen E; Brown, Peter M J


    1. Harmonia axyridis was first recorded in Britain in 2004. Two subsequent earlier records were received from 2003. 2. The UK Ladybird Survey, a citizen science initiative involving online recording, was launched in 2005 to encourage people across Britain to track the spread of H. axyridis. Tens of thousands of people have provided records of H. axyridis and other species of ladybirds, creating an invaluable dataset for large-scale and long-term research. Declines in the distribution of seven (of eight assessed) native species of ladybird have been demonstrated, and correlated with the arrival of H. axyridis, using the records collated through the UK Ladybird Survey. 3. Experimental research and field surveys have also contributed to our understanding of the ecology of H. axyridis and particularly the process of invasion. Harmonia axyridis arrived in Britain through dispersal and introduction events from regions in which it was deliberately released as a biological control agent. The rapid spread of this species has been attributed to its high natural dispersal capability by means of both flight and anthropogenic transport. A number of factors have contributed to the successful establishment and indeed dominance of this polymorphic species within aphidophagous guilds, including high reproductive capacity, intra-guild predation, eurytopic nature, high resistance to natural enemies within the invaded range, and potentially phenotypic plasticity. 4. The global invasion by H. axyridis and subsequent research on this species has contributed to the general understanding of biological invasions.

  12. The potential of different fruit species as food for Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Camila Fediuk de Castro Guedes


    Full Text Available Harmonia axyridis was detected for the first time in Brazil in 2002. Since then, it has been recorded from the South to the Midwest of the country. Until now, almost all the registered cases were associated with the presence of aphids, its preferred source of food. Due to the occurrence of this species in areas of fruit growing in the South and Southeast of Brazil, the aim of this study was to analyze the preference and use of three different cultivars of fruit. The tests were set at 25ºC ± 1ºC, RH 70% ± 10%, and in a photophase of 12 h and with apples (Gala and Fuji, grapes (Niágara and Rubi, and pears (Williams and Asian. In the undamaged fruit experiment, the insects did not cause any noticeable damage. In the damaged and undamaged fruit experiment, a higher and statistically significant percentage of H. axyridis adults were found in the three damaged fruits. In the different cultivar experiment the Niágara grape, the Gala apple, and the Williams pear were significantly preferred by H. axyridis adults. These results may help in the management of this insect, preventing damage, which have been observed in other places where H. axyridis was introduced.

  13. Application of grain baits to control common vole Microtus arvalis (Pallas, 1778 in alfalfa crops, Serbia

    Jokić G.


    Full Text Available In order to compare the efficacies of conventional (cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and new (sodium selenite rodenticides, applied in the grain bait formulation on the whole-grain of wheat (Triticum aestivum and triticale (Triticasecale in alfalfa crops, experiments were conducted at two sites near Belgrade, Serbia, in the spring of 2009, using a standard EPPO method. The presence of rodent populations, their spatial distribution and density indices were evaluated by pretreatment census and rodenticide efficacy by counting active holes, 14 and 28 days after treatment. The average Microtus arvalis numbers of 158/ha and 184/ha were found to cause 7.4% and 9.6% alfalfa green biomass yield decreases, respectively. Twenty-eight days after treatment, the average efficacy of grain bait formulation (on wheat and triticale grains of sodium selenite and cholecalciferol was 81%, while bromadiolone which had a higher efficiency, 85%, in the control of the common vole in alfalfa crops. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the origin of active substances, bases and associated interactions a.s x based on the efficacy-investigated grain baits did not have a statistically significant impact on the expression efficiency of the tested baits. Triticale grains can be used as carriers of active substances, sodium selenite, cholecalciferol or bromadiolone in preparation baits. Control of M. arvalis with the new rodenticide, sodium selenite, gave efficacy results about equal to that of cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and, therefore, provided a possible alternative rodenticide for vole control in alfalfa.

  14. Diplectanids (Monogenea) on the archerfish Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas) (Toxotidae) off Peninsular Malaysia.

    Lim, L H S


    Two new and two previously described species of diplectanid monogeneans (Heteroplectanum flabelliforme n. sp., Diplectanum sumpit n. sp., D. jaculator Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969 and D. toxotes Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969) were collected from archerfish Toxotes jaculatrix off the Island of Langkawi, Kedah and off Perak, Malaysia. The reproductive systems and squamodiscs of D. jaculator and D. toxotes are described for the first time. D. sumpit n. sp. differs from D. toxotes and D. jaculator in a having a small curved copulatory tube with a distinct accessory piece, compared to the long, tubular copulatory tube of D. jaculator and the slender tube of D. toxotes. D. sumpit n. sp. also differs from D. toxotes in having a larger ventral bar and larger squamodiscs. H. flabelliforme n. sp. differs from all known Heteroplectanum species in the shape and size of the squamodiscs, the arrangement of the sclerites in the squamodiscs, the extremely large ventral bar and the short, curved, non-spinous copulatory tube.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the amphidromous, red-tailed goby Sicyopterus lagocephalus (Pallas) (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Chen, I-Shiung; Lin, Hung-Du; Hsiao, Sheng-Tai; Ju, Yu-Min


    In this article, the complete mitogenome of the amphidromous, red-tailed goby, Sicyopterus lagocephalus has been amplified and sequenced by long polymerase chain reaction. This mitochondrial genome consists of 16,500 bp, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region (CR), and its gene arrangement is identical to those of most vertebrates. The CR (841 bp) is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A, 28.9%; G, 16.4%; C, 28.3%; and T, 26.4%, with a slight AT bias of 55.3%. The complete mitogenomic data may provide more informative for phylogenetic approach for gobioid phylogeny especially for Sicydiine gobies.

  16. Relationship between habitat, densities and metabolic profile in brown hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas

    Marco Bagliacca


    Full Text Available Some habitat traits and haematic parameters were studied to understand the relationships between the hare densities, habitat characteristics and physiological and nutritional condition of the animals. A total of 33 protected areas, reserved for wild game reproduction, located in the Province of Florence (Central Italy, were monitored during a 2-year period. In each protected area the hares were submitted to census. The habitat features of the protected areas were studied and the following parameters were categorised: altitude; cleared-land/total-land ratio; main exposure; main ground composition; water availability; main slope; anthropogenic presence; predator presence; wooded borders; presence of trees and shrubs; surveillance against hunting; demographic predator control; kind of cultivation; unharvested crops for game. After the census the hares were captured for translocation outside in “free” hunting areas. During capture the hares were put in darkened, wooden capture-boxes and remained inside for a variable period of time (10min to 3h. A sample of 3 to 7 hares, captured per year and per each protected area, were removed from the boxes (physically restrained, with covered eyes for blood sample collection, sex, age and live weight determination. The following analyses were performed on frozen plasma samples: ALanine aminoTransferase (ALT, ASpartate aminoTransferase (AST, glucose, cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN, Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, and Cl concentrations. The relationship between hare density and habitat characteristics was analysed by single regressions analysis. Then the habitat characteristics were subjected to multivariate analysis in relationship to hare body condition. The haematic parameters were analysed by least square means considering habitat traits, animal density, age and sex, as main categorical factors, interaction sex*age, and “pregnant and non-reproducing” nested within sex. Results showed that the highest density and best body conditions can be found in highlands, open fields with low tree presence and wooded borders, medium mixture soils, scarce predator presence and limited anthropogenic presence and with abundant water availability and shrubbiness. The study of the absolute values of metabolic profile, indicator of the physiological and nutritional condition of the reared animals, did not show any nutritional winter deficiency in wild hares and, as census data, should be repeated for several years since, probably, only their variations can be used as indicators of preliminary problems.

  17. A molecular comparison of Alaskan and North East Atlantic Halicondria panicea (Pallas 1766) (Porifera: Demospongiae)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Knowlton, Anne L.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Highsmith, Ray C.; van Soest, Rob W.M.


    The intraspecific relationships between populations of Alaskan Halichondria cf. panicea are the subjects of ongoing research. In this study we compare CO1 sequences of Alaskan Halichondria cf. panicea with North East Atlantic Halichondria panicea and its sister species Halichondria bowerbanki. Alaskan Halichondria cf. panicea form a well-supported sister group to the European Halichondria panicea/ H. bowerbanki species complex in the resulting gene tree and cluster distantly from their European conspecifics.

  18. 28. juunil pidas kunstiühing Pallas Tartu Kirjanduse Majas oma korralise peakoosoleku...


    Uue juhatuse (esimees Enn Lillemets) ja revisjonikomisjoni koosseis. Auliikmeks valiti Leida Rüga, kinnitati kirjavahetajaliikmeks Anu-Leenu Uustalu, tegevliikmeiks Ülle Kruus, Kadri Siibak, Katrin Tukmann, Leili Voll

  19. On the presence of Rana ridibunda ridibunda Pallas in the Netherlands

    Hoogmoed, M.S.


    Since long there has been a dispute whether in the Netherlands there occur one or two species of green frogs of the genus Rana. There has never been any doubt concerning the presence of Rana esculenta Linnaeus, a species widely distributed throughout the country (Van de Bund, 1964, 1968). The first

  20. Osteologia e miologia cranianas de Eurypyga helias (Pallas, 1781) (Gruiformes: Eurypygidae) comparada com outros Gruiformes.

    Marceliano, Maria Luiza Videira; Donatelli, Reginaldo José; POSSO,SÉRGIO ROBERTO


    O estudo da osteologia e da miologia do pavãozinho-do-pará pode dar uma idéia da possível relação entre os Eurypygidae e os demais Gruiformes. A análise foi realizada com base em 66 espécimes de aves pertencentes às famílias Aramidae ( Aramus guarauna), Psophiidae ( Psophia crepitans, Psophia leucoptera, Psophia viridis, Psophia viridis obscura) , Rallidae ( Laterallus exilis, Gallinula martinica), Heliornithidae ( Heliornis fulica) e Eurypygidae ( Eurypyga helias). As descrições ...

  1. Biology of Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772 (Acari: Ixodidae on some laboratory hosts in Brazil

    Daniel Sobreira Rodrigues


    Full Text Available The ixodid Amblyomma aureolatum is suspected to play a role in the epidemiology of wild life-cycle hemoparasites, which frequently infect dogs in rural and hunting areas in Brazil. Little is known about its bionomics. The objective of the present study was to evaluate some bionomic aspects of A. aureolatum ticks in Brazil. One engorged female, collected from a dog (Canis familiaris in São Sebastião das Águas Claras, State of Minas Gerais, was used to establish a colony in the laboratory. Subsequently its parasitic stage progeny were fed on domestic dogs and laboratory animals. The free-living stages were incubated at 27ºC ± 2°C and minimum 70% relative humidity in a BOD incubator. The egg incubation period ranged from 31 to 34 days; the parasitic period of larvae ranged from 4 to 6 days and ecdysis to nymphs occurred from day 19 up to day 22. The parasitic period of nymphs ranged from 5 to 8 days and the period of ecdysis to adults from 31 to 33 days. The parasitic period of adults ranged from 11 to 15 days, the pre-oviposition period from 6 to 12 days, and the oviposition period from 9 to 38 days. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 116 to 168 days.

  2. Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from marine sponge Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766).

    Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Pansa, Camila Cristiane; de Figueiredo Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares


    The taxonomic position of a novel marine actinomycete isolated from a marine sponge, Aplysina fulva, which had been collected in the Archipelago of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (Equatorial Atlantic Ocean), was determined by using a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and forms a distinct branch within the Streptomyces somaliensis 16S rRNA gene tree subclade. It is closely related to Streptomyces violascens ISP 5183(T) (97.27 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Streptomyces hydrogenans NBRC 13475(T) (97.15 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The 16S rRNA gene similarities between the isolate and the remaining members of the subclade are lower than 96.77 %. The organism can be distinguished readily from other members of the S. violacens subclade using a combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that isolate 103(T) (=NRRL B-65309(T) = CMAA 1378(T)) merits recognition as the type strain of a new Streptomyces species, namely Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov.

  3. Colony size, sex ratio and cohabitation in roosts of Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    LM. Costa

    Full Text Available Phyllostomus hastatus bat is species broadly distributed over the Neotropical region, which uses as diurnal roosts caves, hollow trees, palm leaves and human buildings. Thirteen diurnal roosts of P. hastatus were analysed from 1990 to 2009 in several localities of Rio de Janeiro State, regarding environment (rural, urban or protected area, type of roost (hollow tree, basement or roof, sex ratio and cohabitation. A nocturnal roost was also analysed. Sex ratio of P. hastatus varied considerably among roosts what may be explained by the fact this species can roost alone, in couples, in harems or in groups of bachelor males. Phyllostomus hastatus was observed in cohabitation with three other species: Molossus rufus, Molossus molossus and Myotis nigricans. Due to the frequency of cohabitation observed between P. hastatus and species of the genus Molossus, one or more advantages for the members of this association may be expected. The simultaneous usage of a feeding roost by a group of bachelor males is unknown information in the literature, and may suggest that this kind of group may interact with each other even when away from their diurnal roosts.

  4. Effect of sea buckthorn and vitamin E on growth performance of Acipenser stellatus (Pallas 1771 juveniles

    Oana Georgiana Dorojan


    Full Text Available Addition of natural additives (prebiotics, probiotics, phytobiotics in fish feed is a benefic method because it leads to improved growth performance of fish reared in intensive production systems. Sea buckthorn is one of the most commonly phytobiotics used in aquaculture because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunostimulant, anti-stress, cytoprotective, liver and tissue regeneration properties. Sea buckthorn berries are rich in vitamins (B, C, E and K, flavonoids, carotenoids, tocopherols and many volatile compounds. In this context the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (500 mg/kg diet and sea buckthorn on growth performance and survival of the A. stellatus juveniles reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The experiment took place in the recirculating pilot system of “Dunărea de Jos” University of Galați. In order to emphasize the influence of the above mentioned immunostimulants on sevruga fingerlings with different genetic background, four experimental groups from different genitors (V1: ♀2 Danube x ♂1 Aquaculture, V2: ♀1 Danube x ♂1 Danube, V3: ♀1 Danube x ♂2 Aquaculture and V4: ♀2 Danube x ♂2 Danube have been used. At the end of the experiment no significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in terms of final mean weight, individual growth rate, SGR, FCR, PER, between the sevruga fingerlings obtained from wild genitors, comparing with those obtained from aquaculture genitors.

  5. On gene pool divergence of the brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas in Vojvodina

    Đan Mihajla R.


    Full Text Available Today it is widely accepted that a conservation of genetic diversity increases chances of animal survival. The aim of this study was investigation of gene pool divergence of the brown hare (Lepus europaeus in Vojvodina. Allozymic diversity of 60 brown hares from different localities in Vojvodina was studied by polyacrylamide and starch gel electrophoresis at 31 putative structural gene loci. Only five loci: Idh-2, Pgd, Pgm, Es-1 and Es-D were polymorphic, possessing 2 to 6 different alleles. The value of average heterozygosity (Ho was 0.0427, while polymorphism (P99% was 8.4%. Nei's values of genetic distance (ranged from 0.000 to 0.029 and modified Roger's distance (ranged from 0.030 to 0.181 were calculated among hare populations. Apart from the relatively high values of heterozygosity and polymorphism, the nuclear gene pool diversity of brown hare population in Vojvodina based on allozyme variation is low and corresponds to the data obtained for the populations in Austria and Central Europe.

  6. Survival and causes of death among released brown hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778) in Central Poland.

    Misiorowska, Magdalena; Wasilewski, Michał


    We describe the results of our research on population dynamics among brown hares reared in enclosures and then released into suitable natural habitat. Radio-tracking was used to follow the fate of 60 released brown hares over a 4-year period, extending between November 2005 and November 2009. The survival rate among these animals after 12 months was estimated to be 37 %, with 22 tagged individuals surviving beyond 1 year post-release. The highest (40 %) level of mortality characterised the first month after release, while a second period of enhanced mortality coincided with the breeding season (altogether accounting for a 20 % mortality rate). There was no significant relationship between body mass and mortality rate in the first month following release. A natural cause of death was predation by mammals, which accounted for some 31 % of all losses. Remaining causes were poaching (13 %), hits by vehicles (7 %) and unidentified causes (9 %). However, in at least 40 % of cases, it was not possible to determine the date when a released animal died, to say nothing of the cause of death.

  7. Bioconcentration and localization of lead in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1677 (Rotifera: Monogononta)

    Alvarado-Flores, Jesus, E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Rico-Martinez, Roberto, E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Ventura-Juarez, Javier, E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Morfologia, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Silva-Briano, Marcelo, E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Biologia, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro, E-mail: [Instituto de Servicios de Salud del Estado de Aguascalientes, Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Av. Siglo XXI 105, Ciudad Satelite Morelos, C.P. 20270, Aguascalientes, Ags. (Mexico)


    We studied how lead is bioconcentrated and distributed in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus using metal histochemistry to locate lead granules, Leadmium Green{sup Registered-Sign} analysis to establish the route of uptake, atomic absorption to determined the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and detected the presence of microelements in the cuticle by X-ray microanalysis with scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate: (a) the digestive system is the main route of lead uptake in the rotifer B. calyciflorus, (b) after 24-h lead is deposited in granules in the mastax and vitellarium, (c) our energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicates decalcification taking place in the cuticle of the rotifer after a 24-h lead exposure, and (d) we determined a BCF = 115 for lead after a 24 h exposure. However, the route of mobilization and storage of intracellular lead are still not fully understood in B. calyciflorus.

  8. Characterization of four lytic transducing bacteriophages of luminescent Vibrio harveyi isolated from shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hatcheries.

    Thiyagarajan, Sanjeevi; Chrisolite, Bagthasingh; Alavandi, Shankar V; Poornima, Modem; Kalaimani, Natarajan; Santiago, T Chinnappan


    Four lytic bacteriophages designated as φVh1, φVh2, φVh3, and φVh4 were isolated from commercial shrimp hatcheries, possessing broad spectrum of infectivity against luminescent Vibrio harveyi isolates, considering their potential as biocontrol agent of luminescent bacterial disease in shrimp hatcheries, and were characterized by electron microscopy, genomic analysis, restriction enzyme analysis (REA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Three phages φVh1, φVh2, and φVh4 had an icosahedral head of 60-115 nm size with a long, noncontractile tail of 130-329 × 1-17 nm, belonged to the family Siphoviridae. φVh3 had an icosahedral head (72 ± 5 nm) with a short tail (27 × 12 nm) and belonged to Podoviridae. REA with DraI and PFGE of genomic DNA digested with ScaI and XbaI and cluster analysis of their banding patterns indicated that φVh3 was distinct from the other three siphophages. PFGE-based genome mean size of the four bacteriophages φVh1, φVh2, φVh3, and φVh4 was estimated to be about 85, 58, 64, and 107 kb, respectively. These phages had the property of generalized transduction as demonstrated by transduction with plasmid pHSG 396 with frequencies ranging from 4.1 × 10(-7) to 2 × 10(-9) per plaque-forming unit, suggesting a potential ecological role in gene transfer among aquatic vibrios.

  9. Three-Dimensional Geometry of the Narwhal (Monodon monoceros) Flukes in Relation to Hydrodynamics


    sections resemble hydrofoils . For a hydrofoil to be effective, a large lift must be produced while drag is minimized; this, in turn, increases the thrust...the flukes. Cross-section profiles taken along the horizontal axis exhibit what is a typical streamlined hydrofoil profile with a rounded leading edge...Chopra and Kambe 1977, Fish 1998b). Aspect ratio (AR) measures the relationship between the span and planform area of a hydrofoil and is related to

  10. Temperature Fluctuation, Low Salinity, Water Microflora: Risk Factors for WSSV Outbreaks in Penaeus monodon

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been devastating the shrimp industry for almost a decade. This study compares water parameters, alkalinity, and microflora in three ponds on a farm on Negros Island (Philippines) during two production cycles where WSSV infection resulted in an outbreak in 2006 bu

  11. Length and weight relationship of laboratory reared penaeid prawn Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) (Crustacea: Penaeidae)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Chatterji, A.

    followed the cube law. The weight of the prawn increased at the rate of more or less cube of the length. The relationship was found to be significant (p less than 0.001). At 95% confidence limit the b values were between 3.0524 and 4.3691. ANOVA showed...


    Heppi Iromo; Azis; Ishaq Saleh


    The research at shrimp ponds in Nunukan for two months, during the period from June to July 2009. The methods of this research were : Survey, interview and observation. The data collected in formed primary and secondary data. The purposed of this reseach that is to learning about management system of traditional shrimp ponds in Nunukan Island. The result of this reseach indicated that the area wide of traditional ponds in this Island has differences. Subdistrict of Binusan has area wide about...


    B. W. LAY


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain Vibrio isolates able to function as biocontr ol of vibriosis in shrimp hatchery. Thirty one Vibrio isolates were isolated from tiger shrimp larvae and hatchery environments, i.e. Labuan, Pangandaran, and Lampung, Indonesia. Pathogenic V. harveyi MR5339 was obtained from Maros, South-Sulawesi and was made as a rifampicin resistant mutant (RFR to screen for those 31 Vibrio isolates in in vitro assays and to allow us to monitor their presence in shrimp larvae and larval rearing water. Almost all Vibrio isolates could inhibit the growth of pathogenic V. harveyi MR5339 RFR. SKT-b isolate from Skeletonema was the most effective to inhibit the growth of V. harveyi MR5339 Rf* and significantly reduced larval mortality in pathogen challenge assays. These prospective biocontrol bacteria, at concentration of 10" CFU/ml, did not show pathogenicity to shrimp larvae. SKT-b was Gram negative, short rod-shape, exhibited yellow colonies on TCBS and swarming on SWC-agar media, motile, u tilized glucose and sucrose but not lactose: produced extra-cellular protease and amylase, but did not produce chitmase. Partial sequencing of 16S-rRNA gene SKT-b showed SKT-b similarity to Vibrio alginofyticus.

  14. Quotas on narwhal (Monodon monoceros) hunting in East Greenland

    Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik


    This study evaluates the introduction of quotas on narwhal hunting in East Greenland with respect to effects on Inuit culture and based on trends in narwhal killed per hunter and assessment of migration patterns. Cultural aspects were assessed through group discussions and comparison between East....../hunter; and suggest southwest- bound migration, implying potential immigration from non-hunted populations that was not considered in quota setting. The implementation of quotas without local consultations and legal basis in the relevant executive order is therefore in our opinion inappropriate. Conservation...

  15. Effect of new aeration technology on the bacteriology of shrimp ponds growing Penaeus monodon

    Karekar, S.V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, P.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Bergheim, A.; Vogelsang, C.

    microbial transformations of nitrogen or organic carbon degradation. Continual aeration can also help to reduce the metabolite diffusion of ammonia, carbon dioxide and other dissolved gases across the water- air interface into the atmosphere. Constant.... Low DO concentrations also increase the toxicity of ammonia to shrimp. Gases such as ammonia can impact aquatic life by acute and chronic toxicity as well as ammonia oxidation, which reduces dissolved oxygen levels. Ammonia in shrimp ponds causes...

  16. Low-input Modified Extensive Shrimp Culture System for Penaeus monodon Restrian Vibriosis

    Fernandes, S.O.; Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Karekar. S.V.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Vogelsang, C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    . A wide variation in the weight of hepatopancreas of shrimps was also observed during analysis (data not shown) which could be attributed to the differential amounts of ingesta in shrimps sampled in spite of our best efforts to collect specimen....M., Bowers J.C., DePaola A., and Grimes D.J., 2010, Relationships between environmental factors and pathogenic Vibrios in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(21): 7076-84

  17. Vibrio harveyi modulated gene expression in Penaeus monodon and Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Nayak, S.

    as the fastest growing among various agricultural commodities. Fish and fishery products represent one of the most valuable and nutritious food item for humans having most of the essential nutrients for human health. Fisheries sector occupies a very important...-producing sector. In global trade, fish and fishery products are among the most sought after of various agricultural commodities. They represent the most valuable and nutritious food items for humans as they have most of the essential nutrients for human health...

  18. Identification of upregulated immune-related genes in Vibrio harveyi challenged Penaeus monodon postlarvae

    Nayak, S.; Singh, S.K.; Ramaiah, N.; Sreepada, R.A.

    at the early life-stages of shrimps are of great significance. An understanding therefore, of molecular responses and defense mechanism(s) in shrimps against bacterial pathogens is essential. Besides production of antimicrobial biomolecules, the innate... immune/defense mechanisms in crustaceans involve phagocytosis, pathogen encapsulation, nodule formation, agglutination and prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system [3]. However, the attempts to understand the molecular responses in the highly...


    Emma Suryati


    kandungan senyawa steroid yaitu fitoekdisteroid dalam bentuk 20-Hydroxyecdyson atau Ecdysteron berfungsi sebagai moulting stimulan pada krustase. Pada umumnya ecdysteron ditemukan pada krustase baik yang ada di darat maupun yang berada di dalam air seperti kepiting, udang, dan krustase lainnya yang ditemukan secara alami dan berfungsi sebagai pengatur proses penggantian kulit dan mengontrol pembentukan exoskeleton baru untuk menggantikan exoskeleton yang lama. Selain ablasi proses moulting pada udang dapat diinduksi melalui penambahan 20-hydroksi ecdysteron (20 E pada hemolim sehingga fase premoulting dapat diatur sesuai dengan kebutuhan. 20-hydroksiecdysteron dapat diperoleh dari ekstrak tumbuhan di antaranya bayam, asparagus, pakis, dan lain-lain melalui pemisahan dengan ekstraksi, fraksinasi, dan pemurnian dengan HPLC dilanjutkan dengan elusidasi struktur. Pemberian ekstrak pakis pada induk udang windu untuk memacu terjadinya pergantian kulit dilakukan melalui dengan beberapa konsentrasi menggunakan desain Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL. Hasil analisis memperlihatkan bahwa kandungan phytoecdysteron pada pakis perkisar 230-730 mg/L dari larutan ekstrak yang setara dengan 20 g bahan segar. Konsentrasi ECD 25 mg/L, memperlihatkan respon yang paling baik sebagai moulting stimulan.

  20. Fungal infection in the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and in other crustaceans from the Cochin Backwaters

    Gopalan, U.K.; Meenakshikunjamma, P.P.; Purushan, K.S.

    more serious necrotic lesions than Saprolegnia parasitica. In the other crustaceans, Achlya racemosa and another Achlya sp. were also recorded besides S. parasitica. Experimental infection showed that smaller and thin-shelled crustaceans were more...

  1. Isolation and identification of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus from prawn (Penaeus monodon) seafood: Preservation strategies.

    Yaashikaa, P R; Saravanan, A; Kumar, P Senthil


    Bacterial diseases are one of the major problems which affects the production, development and expansion of aqua culture. Vibrio sp. are widespread in marine and estuarine environments. The several pathogenic species are commonly associated with outbreaks of Vibrio species and it is mainly associated with food poisonings. In this research, the occurrence of Vibrio sp. was studied by the isolation and it is confirmed by the biochemical methods. The growth rate was studied by changing the different operating parameters. Isolation studies were done by using enrichment and selective plating methods. The different biochemical test was carried out and inferred that the isolated organisms were Vibrio choleraee and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The antibiotic study was also performed to find out the resistant and sensitivity of the Vibrio species. From the results, it was observed that this can be able to correlate the growth of vibrio species to a limited condition and other environmental parameters for which it will be able to find the remedial measures to prevent the growth and spreading of the diseases. Also the different preservation method was carried out to suppress the growth rate of Vibrio sp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Baso, Aris; Mulyanti, Sri; Amiluddin, Ir


    Policulture Traditional cultivation at village Tammarupe, subdistrict Mandalle, regency pangkep is very good to expanding and also advocate prosperity of fish farmer. This research has a purpose to know step of benefit that is got from fishpond business with the policulture system and to know expedience of traditional policulture of fishpond business. This research was conducted over two months in November to January. The Method used is survey research that takes samples from a popul...

  3. Penaeus monodon post-larvae and their interaction with Rhizophora apiculata

    Nga, B.T.


    In recent years, expansion of shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam has brought considerable financial benefits to farmers and local communities. In the coastal provinces in the Mekong Delta, brackish shrimp aquaculture is the major economy activity. Extensive shrimp-mangrove culture systems are popularly p


    Andi Parenrengi


    Full Text Available Teknologi transgenesis khususnya rekayasa genetik untuk menghasilkan udang windu resisten penyakit merupakan salah satu strategi yang dapat dilakukan dalam upaya pemecahan masalah penyakit yang menimpa budidaya udang windu. Teknologi transgenesis khususnya transfer gen antivirus pada udang windu telah berhasil dilakukan melalui teknik transfeksi. Meskipun demikian optimalisasi komponen teknologi tersebut masih perlu dilakukan. Konsentrasi DNA gen merupakan salah satu komponen teknologi transgenesis yang harus dioptimalkan untuk mendapatkan efisiensi dalam transfer gen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui konsentrasi DNA gen antivirus yang optimal sebagai bahan transfer gen ke embrio menggunakan metode transfeksi. Embrio udang windu yang diperoleh dari hasil pemijahan induk asal Aceh, dikoleksi 5-10 menit setelah memijah dengan kepadatan 625 telur/2 mL. Transfeksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan media larutan transfeksi jetPEI dengan konsentrasi DNA gen antivirus sebagai perlakuan, yakni: 5, 10, dan 15 µg serta kontrol positif (tanpa plasmid DNA dan negatif (tanpa plasmid DNA dan larutan transfeksi, masing-masing 3 ulangan. Embrio hasil transfeksi ditetaskan pada stoples berisi air laut sebanyak 2 L yang diletakkan pada waterbath. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gen antivirus telah berhasil diintroduksi ke embrio udang windu. Hasil analisis ragam menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan konsentrasi DNA (5-15 µg tidak berpengaruh nyata (P>0,05 terhadap daya tetas embrio udang windu. Analisis ekspresi gen pada larva udang windu juga menunjukkan adanya aktivitas ekspresi gen antivirus pada semua perlakuan konsentrasi DNA, di mana ekspresi gen antivirus pada larva transgenik lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kontrol (tanpa transfeksi. Sintasan pasca-larva PL-1 yang didapatkan pada penelitian ini adalah 12,0%; 10,0%; 10,6%; 12,3%; dan 14,2% masing-masing untuk perlakuan konsentrasi plasmid DNA 5 µg, 10 µg, 15 µg, kontrol positif dan negatif, di mana konsentrasi DNA yang berbeda tidak memperlihatkan pengaruh nyata (P>0,05 terhadap sintasan larva PL-1. Hasil penelitian ini berimplikasi bahwa untuk alasan efisiensi, konsentrasi DNA 5 µg disarankan untuk digunakan dalam transfer gen pada embrio udang windu.


    Gunarto Gunarto


    Full Text Available High salinity pond water ranging from 33—45 ppt between July and October is one of the problems occurred in western part of South Sulawesi brackishwater ponds. It is necessary to know if tiger shrimps grow well in such salinity, since the optimum salinity range for the growth of tiger shrimp is 15—25 ppt. The objective of the research is to know the tiger shrimp production at different stocking densities cultured in high salinity pond in mangrove reservoir. Twelve pond compartments of 500 m2 each were arranged randomly for three treatments of shrimp stocking densities i.e. 4 ,  6, and 8 pcs./m2 , where each treatment was in three replications. The result of study showed that shrimp production at 6 pieces/m2 was higher than that of 4 and 8 pieces/m2, with more efficient  feed conversion was obtained in this stocking density (1.3 compared to treatment 4 pieces/m2 (1.5 and treatment 8 pieces/m2 (>3.


    Andi Parenrengi


    bahwa rasio RNA/DNA udang windu tumbuh cepat (4,51 berbeda secara nyata (P<0,05 dengan udang windu kontrol (3,19. Kecenderungan rasio RNA/DNA semakin tinggi dengan semakin beratnya bobot badan, di mana rasio RNA/DNA udang betina (4,96 lebih tinggi (P<0,05 dari udang jantan (2,93. Analisis regresi menunjukkan bahwa rasio RNA/DNA udang windu memiliki hubungan erat dengan panjang (R=0,5628 dan bobot (R=0,6539. Hasil penelitian ini berimplikasi bahwa parameter rasio RNA/DNA dapat dijadikan sebagai indikator pertumbuhan udang windu.

  7. Studies on luminous, Vibrio harveyi associated with shrimp culture system rearing Panaeus monodon

    Kannapiran, E.; Ravindran, J.; Chandrasekar, R.; Kalaiarasi, A.

    and expressed as CFU ml-1 or g. The enumeration and isolation of V. harveyi in water and sediment samples were made using V. harveyi agar (VH Agar) by spread plate technique as previously described (Harris et al., 1996). From 50th day onwards the animal samples... in shrimp culture ecosystem. Ind. J. Fish., 49, 247-253 (2002). De La Pena, L.D., K.T. Tamaki, T.N. Momoyama and K. Muroga: Characteristic of causative bacterium of vibriosis in kuruma prawn Penaeus Japanicus Aquaculture, 115, 1-12 (1993). Harris, L., L...


    Muliani Muliani


    The aims of this experiment was to know the distribution and prevalences of WSSV on tiger shrimp. Sample collection and WSSV detection conducted with PCR method was carried out during April 2004 to November 2006. Tiger shrimp broodstock samples were collected from Central Java, South Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Kalimantan, and Timika waters, and the other samples (tiger shrimp post larvae, juveniles, and cultured shrimp were collected from several region in South Sulawesi. The pleopod, pereiopod, eye stalk, carapax, gill, tail, muscle of broodstock, juveniles, and cultured shrimp, and 30 pcs of postlarvae were extracted using lysis buffer to collect genomic DNA. WSSV DNA amplification was carried out using first and nested PCR technique by specific sequence amplification kit (IQ2000TM  Detection and Prevention system. The WSSV DNA was visualized by gell documentation system. The result showed that more than 33% of broodstock resources of Indonesia waters and 90% of shrimp culture area of South Sulawesi were contaminated by WSSV. WSSV was also infected tiger shrimp broodstock, postlarvae, juveniles, and tiger shrimp cultured with the highest prevalence (40.4% was on tiger shrimp cultured and the lowest prevalence (5.4% was on postlarvae.



    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penyebaran dan tingkat prevalensi serangan WSSV pada budi daya udang windu. Pengumpulan sampel dan deteksi WSSV dengan teknik PCR dilakukan dari bulan April 2004 sampai November 2006. Sampel induk udang windu yang dikumpulkan berasal dari perairan Jawa Tengah, Sulawesi Selatan, Gorontalo, Kalimantan Timur, dan Timika. Sedangkan benur, tokolan, dan udang yang dibudidayakan dikumpulkan dari beberapa lokasi di Sulawesi Selatan. Sampel udang diambil bagia...

  10. A semiotic interpretation of national typology: the English, the Boers and ... the Russians (Ivan Goncharov’s Frigate Pallas

    H. Mondry


    Full Text Available This article examines the text of renowned nineteenth century Russian travellers notes, The Frigate Pallada, by Ivan Goncharov, the author of Oblomov. Using the teachings of Victor Shklovsky, Yurij Tynianov and Yurij Lotman on the role of the genre of travellers notes in the history of Russian literature, the author examines the chapter on the Cape Province. She demonstrates that in his descriptions of the two nations of the Cape Province - the English and the Boers - Goncharov is applying that which is known to him - his own cultural model of the Russian society of the mid-nineteenth century. In his examination of differences between the English and the Boers Goncharov applies the ideological dichotomy between the Slavophiles and the Westernisers. Goncharov, by "inverting" the "dual model of Russian culture" (Lotman & Uspensky, 1984a draws comparisons between the Russians of the Oblomov Slavophile type on the one hand, and the English on the other hand as the model for the improvement of the industry of the economically backward Russian nation. To Goncharov the Boers resemble the Oblomov, old world side of dichotomy, which by inversions of the dual model can fluctuate between "the good" and "the bad" categories.


    Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; Vobornik, Angela; Zink, Richard


    The Ural owl (Strix uralensis) is the biggest forest-living owl in Austria; however, it became extinct in Austria through poaching and habitat loss more than half a century ago. The birds examined in the present study were breeding pairs from the reintroduction project with the aim of determining exploratory plasma biochemistry reference intervals in Ural owls and evaluating the amount of biological variation between seasons, sexes, and ages. A total of 45 birds were sampled, including 13 adult males, 14 adult females, and 18 juvenile birds. Remarkably, almost all of the analytes showed significant differences between the subgroups, primarily between seasons, followed by age and sex. Only creatinkinase, glucose, lactatdehydrogenase, and triglycerides did not show any significant variations. Despite partitioning of reference values into subgroups according to biological variation diminishing the number of reference individuals in the respective groups, the resulting smaller reference intervals will improve medical assessment. The results of the present study once again demonstrate that significant seasonal fluctuations must be expected and considered in the interpretation. It can be assumed that these differences are probably even greater in free-range birds with considerable changes in food quantity and quality during and between years.

  12. Isamaaline tundmus : Eesti ja Soome kirjamees Jüri Tilk ehk Yrjö Virula / Anu Pallas

    Pallas, Anu, 1960-


    Avaliku elu tegelasest, ajakirjanikust ja karskuskirjanduse rajajast Jüri Tilgast, kes 19. sajandi lõpul töötas aktiivselt üldtuntud rahvajuhtide kõrval, olles ka Ado Grenzsteini lähim aatekaaslane

  13. Note on the distribution of Garveia franciscana (Torrey, 1902) and Cordylophora caspia (Pallas, 1771) in the Netherlands

    Vervoort, W.


    INTRODUCTION In 1956 Kinne (1956, p. 257) published the description of a new athecate hydroid, Perigonimus megas, discovered by him in the Nordostseekanal, a canal connecting the North Sea with the Baltic. Kinne's new species resembles a well known and widely distributed fresh- and brackish-water hy

  14. [Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA in South Asian Dolly Varden char Salvelinus curilus Pallas, 1814 (Salmoniformes, Salmonidae): mediated gene introgression?].

    Shed'ko, S V; Ginatulina, L K; Miroshnichenko, I L; Nemkova, G A


    In 41 individuals of South Asian Dolly Varden char Salvelinus curilus, nucleotide sequences of tRNA-Pro gene fragment (27 bp) and mtDNA control region (483-484 bp) were analyzed. The fish were collected in 20 localities covering virtually the whole range of the species: Kuril Islands, Sakhalin Island. and Primorye. In addition, six individuals of three other char species (S. albus, S. malma, and S. leucomaenis), which are closely related to S. curilus and inhabit the Russian Far East, were examined. In all, we detected 12 different variants of mtDNA haplotypes that formed three distinct groups differing in 14--20 nucleotide positions. The first group consisted of six haplotypes found in S. curilus in Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, and Primorye (mtDNA phylogroup OKHOTSKIA). The second group comprised four haplotypes representing the mtDNA phylogroup BERING, which had been described earlier (Brunner et al, 2001); they were found in S. curilus in Kuril Islands and Sakhalin, as well as in S. albus and S. malma in Kamchatka and northern Kurils. The third group included two haplotypes detected in S. leucomaenis. The existence of two mtDNA lineages (OKHOTSKIA and BERING) in S. curilus from Kurils and Sakhalin was explained by hybridization and DNA transfer from S. malma to S. curilus. The absence of the BERING haplotypes in S. curilus from Primorye water reservoirs is related to the physical isolation of the Sea of Okhotsk and Sea of Japan basins in past epochs. On the basis of comparing phylogenetic trees, constructed from the data on allozyme and mtDNA variation, we suggest that in this case, an indirect transfer of mtDNA in Alpinoid chars--> S. malma-->S. curilus chain could occur.

  15. Observations on the delivered placenta and fetal membranes of the Aardvark, Orycteropus afér (Pallas, 1766)

    Taverne, M.A.M.; Bakker-Slotboom, M.F.


    A macroscopical description is given of the delivered placenta and foetal membranes of an Aardvark. Special attention is paid to the umbilical cord and the relative position of the foetal membranes at the places where these attach to the placenta. Amniotic pustules were found on the umbilical cord

  16. The biology and management of wild Helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris galeata Pallas) in the Waza Region of North Cameroon.

    Njiforti, P.H.L.


    Criticisms have arisen with respect to the way protected areas in Africa are being managed in a top-down fashion, with the state as the sole owner. Such an approach has failed in a number of protected areas because of encroachment (mainly poaching and habitat destruction), socioeconomic instability,

  17. Kinematics of flight and the relationship to the vortex wake of a Pallas' long tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina).

    Wolf, Marta; Johansson, L Christoffer; von Busse, Rhea; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders


    To obtain a full understanding of the aerodynamics of animal flight, the movement of the wings, the kinematics, needs to be connected to the wake left behind the animal. Here the detailed 3D wingbeat kinematics of bats, Glossophaga soricina, flying in a wind tunnel over a range of flight speeds (1-7 m s(-1)) was determined from high-speed video. The results were compared with the wake geometry and quantitative wake measurements obtained simultaneously to the kinematics. The wingbeat kinematics varied gradually with flight speed and reflected the changes observed in the wake of the bats. In particular, several of the kinematic parameters reflected the differences in the function of the upstroke at low and high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds the bats use a pitch-up rotation to produce a backward flick which creates thrust and some weight support. At higher speeds this mechanism disappears and the upstroke generates weight support but no thrust. This is reflected by the changes in e.g. angle of attack, span ratio, camber and downstroke ratio. We also determined how different parameters vary throughout a wingbeat over the flight speeds studied. Both the camber and the angle of attack varied over the wingbeat differently at different speeds, suggesting active control of these parameters to adjust to the changing aerodynamic conditions. This study of the kinematics strongly indicates that the flight of bats is governed by an unsteady high-lift mechanism at low flight speeds and points to differences between birds and bats.

  18. Short notes and reviews Birds in the sales catalogue of Adriaan Vroeg described by Pallas and Vosmaer

    Rookmaaker, L.C.; Pieters, Florence F.J.M.


    On 6 October 1764, Adriaan Vroeg sold his collection of birds, insects and a few other animals by auction. The sales catalogue was published anonymously, but contained several scientific names of birds, which have nomenclatorial standing. Only three copies of this catalogue are known. The appendix e

  19. Physiological plasticity is key to the presence of the isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas) in the Baltic Sea

    Wood, Hannah L.; Nylund, Göran; Eriksson, Susanne P.


    The low salinity of the Baltic Sea presents a physiological challenge to marine species. The marine isopod Idotea baltica is notably dominant among the shallow sublittoral of the Baltic Sea in association with Fucus vesiculosus, with permanent populations documented in salinities as low as 3 psu. To investigate the role of physiological plasticity in the successful colonisation of the Baltic by I. baltica three populations from the Swedish coast were here studied, one from the Kattegat (Malmö) and two from the Baltic Sea (Kalmar and Öregrund). These three sites cover the geographic range of this species within the Baltic Sea on the Swedish coast, and also the salinity range of this species within the Baltic Sea (10-5 psu). Individuals from these populations were exposed in the laboratory to a fully crossed experiment with the factors salinity and food source, to test for differences in the physiology of these populations under different conditions that may indicate local adaptation, or no differences that indicate physiological plasticity to differing salinity and food source. Metabolic rate, growth and thermal tolerance responses did not differ between the three populations across salinity treatments after a 12 week exposure. The results of this study indicate that the physiology of adult I. baltica is highly plastic with regard to salinity; this plasticity is likely to have facilitated their colonisation of the Baltic Sea.

  20. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

    L.J. Fourie


    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  1. Effects of temporal fluctuation in population processes of intertidal Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) aggregations on its ecosystem engineering

    Alves, Renata M. S.; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Vincx, Magda; Van Colen, Carl


    Ecosystem engineers contribute to ecosystem functioning by regulating key environmental attributes, such as habitat availability and sediment biogeochemistry. While autogenic engineers can increase habitat complexity passively and provide physical protection to other species, allogenic engineers can regulate sediment oxygenation and biogeochemistry through bioturbation and/or bioirrigation. Their effects rely on the physical attributes of the engineer and/or its biogenic constructs, such as abundance and/or size. The present study focused on tube aggregations of a sessile, tube-building polychaete that engineers marine sediments, Lanice conchilega. Its tube aggregations modulate water flow by dissipating energy, influencing sedimentary processes and increasing particle retention. These effects can be influenced by temporal fluctuations in population demographic processes. Presently, we investigated the relationship between population processes and ecosystem engineering through an in-situ survey (1.5 years) of L. conchilega aggregations at the sandy beach of Boulogne-sur-Mer (France). We (1) evaluated temporal patterns in population structure, and (2) investigated how these are related to the ecosystem engineering of L. conchilega on marine sediments. During our survey, we assessed tube density, demographic structure, and sediment properties (surficial chl-a, EPS, TOM, median and mode grain size, sorting, and mud and water content) on a monthly basis for 12 intertidal aggregations. We found that the population was mainly composed by short-lived (6-10 months), small-medium individuals. Mass mortality severely reduced population density during winter. However the population persisted, likely due to recruits from other populations, which are associated to short- and long-term population dynamics. Two periods of recruitment were identified: spring/summer and autumn. Population density was highest during the spring recruitment and significantly affected several environmental properties (i.e. EPS, TOM, mode grain size, mud and water content), suggesting that demographic processes may be responsible for periods of pronounced ecosystem engineering with densities of approx. 30 000 ind·m-2.

  2. Structure, histochemistry and seasonal variations of the male reproductive accessory glands in the Pallas's mastiff bat, Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae).

    Christante, Caroline M; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Negrin, Ana C; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R


    Due to their wide geographical distribution, bats suffer considerable influence from abiotic factors on their reproductive strategies, detected through behavioural or functional assessment of the gonads and accessory glands. The present study aimed to characterise anatomically and morphologically the reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of Molossus molossus (Molossidae) and evaluate their seasonal variations. The RAGs were removed, fixed, sectioned after histological processing and submitted to the following stains: haematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid--Schiff (PAS) and Gömöri's reticulin. Our data demonstrated that the RAGs of M. molossus are composed of a semi-lobed prostatic complex associated with the urethra and a pair of inguinal bulbourethral glands. Histology and three-dimensional reconstruction of the prostatic complex demonstrated the existence of two regions: ventral and dorsal (named according to the position around the urethra). The two regions had distinctive morphological and histological differences, with the ventral region being the most prominent and the dorsal formed by four lobes. Considering the seasonal evaluation, we can infer that the prostatic complex of M. molossus is active throughout the seasons in São Paulo State (Brazil) and, although each of the prostatic regions has inherent characteristics, they synchronise to establish the main reproductive peak in spring (early rainy season).

  3. Contribuição ao conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva de Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766 (Chiroptera, Molossidae

    Marta Elena Fabián


    Full Text Available Study of 179 specimens of Molossus molossus in Ceará, Brazil, showed morphological and functional ovarian asymmetry in adult females, with the right side more developed. Blastocyst implantation occurred also in the right uterine horn. Active male testicles were bigger (x = 5,38mm than inactive ones (x = 3,25mm. Pregnancy with subsequent offspring was found in March-April and November, during the wet season.

  4. Assessing the Heavy Metal Content in Forest Dormouse (Dryomys nitedula Pallas, 1778 from an Agricultural Region in Bulgaria

    Georgi G. Markov


    Full Text Available The heavy metals load in the forest dormouse (Dryomys nitedula, inhabiting in forest shelter belts in the agricultural region was assessed. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (expressed in mg/kg of dry tissue were established in the liver, using an atomic-absorption analysis. The fact that the highly toxic metals (Cd and Pb were found in considerable concentrations together with other metals with concentration dependent toxic effect (Cu, Ni, Zn and Co in the liver of forest dormice, suggests that it is necessary to carry out regular assessment and forecasting of accumulation of these metals in species, which are not direct targets of cultivation and control activities in agricultural ecosystems. The obtained values were used to create a baseline for estimation of heavy metal accumulation in the internal organs of the forest dormouse, both in anthropogenically transformed habitats and natural biotopes, as well as for using this species as a monitor of environmental status.




    Full Text Available Se efectuaron muestreos de Molossus molossus en el área urbana de Sincelejo, en el período comprendido entre abril de 2004 y diciembre de 2005, utilizando redes de niebla de 12 x 2. La abundancia relativa calculada a partir del número de individuos que cayeron en las redes y el número de redes utilizadas, fue de 65.4 %. Se visitaron 487 viviendas y otras edificaciones humanas y se anotó su localización y estado físico (buena, regular o mala así como la presencia- ausencia de esta especie. La proporción de edificaciones con presencia de M. molossus fue de 42.3 %. Las casas más infestadas fueron las que se hallaban en regular y mal estado. El estado de los techos de muchas de esas edificaciones era deplorable, con presencia de excremento, orina y numerosos organismos como cucarachas, roedores y otros. También se determinó que M. molossus ingiere 1.5 g de insectos nocturnos en una noche como promedio, lo que, considerando su gran abundancia, implica una cantidad importante de insectos consumidos anualmente. Una encuesta realizada a la población cuyas viviendas fueron visitadas arrojó que la mayoría desconoce los daños y beneficios que puede ocasionar esta especie a la población humana. Las condiciones de clima cálido, relativamente estable todo el año y la abundancia de refugios y alimento, hace que M. molossus pueda reproducirse todo el año, lo que unido a que no tiene muchos depredadores, la convierte en una especie de mucho éxito ecológico. Se recomienda tomar las medidas pertinentes para reducir su convivencia con el hombre, pero sin dañar sus poblaciones, teniendo en cuenta los beneficios que aporta


    Arief Taslihan


    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has become epidemic in Indonesia and affecting shrimp aquaculture interm of its production. White spot syndrome virus is transmitted from one to other ponds, through crustacean, included planktonic copepode as carrier for WSSV and through water from affected shrimp pond. A cluster model, consist of shrimp grow out ponds surrounded by non-shrimp pond as a role of biosecurity has been developed. The model aimed to prevent white spot virus transmission in extensive giant tiger shrimp pond. The study was conducted in two sites at Demak District, Central Java Province. As the treatment, a cluster consist of three shrimp ponds in site I, and two shrimp ponds in site II, each was surrounded by buffer ponds rearing only finfish. As the control, five extensive shrimp grow out ponds in site I and three shrimp grow out ponds in site II, with shrimp pond has neither applied biosecurity nor surrounded by non-shrimp pond as biosecurity as well considered as control ponds. The results found that treatment of cluster shrimp ponds surrounded by non-shrimp ponds could hold shrimp at duration of culture in the grow out pond (DOC 105.6±4.5 days significantly much longer than that of control that harvested at 60.9±16.0 days due to WSSV outbreak. Survival rate in trial ponds was 77.6±3.6%, significantly higher than that of control at 22.6±15.8%. Shrimp production in treatment ponds has total production of 425.1±146.6 kg/ha significantly higher than that of control that could only produced 54.5±47.6 kg/ha. Implementation of Better Management Practices (BMP by arranging shrimp ponds in cluster and surrounding by non-shrimp ponds proven effectively prevent WSSV transmission from traditional shrimp ponds in surrounding area.

  7. Rapid diagnosis of vibriosis and white spot syndrome (WSS) in the culture of shrimp, Penaeus monodon in Philippines.

    Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Aguana, Mary Paz N


    Viral and bacterial pathogens have raised serious concerns in the sustainability of the shrimp culture industry in the Philippines. Heavy mortality associated with luminous vibriosis and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection has been the major problem besetting the industry. Using published PCR protocols for the diagnosis of vibriosis and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) disease in shrimp, we optimized these assays that could be suited to the shrimp aquaculture setting in the Philippines. Genomic DNAs of Vibrio spp. that exhibited luminescence as well as those that grew on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (TCBS) were used for the PCR amplification of the ribonuclease P (RNase P) gene. There was differential amplification of the RNase P gene based on the phenotypic characters of the Vibrio spp. Similar results were also obtained using direct colony PCR of the bacterial colonies. White spot syndrome virus was also detected in the infected shrimp and there were differences in the detection frequency in relation to the tissues used for PCR amplification. Duplex PCR was also optimized that could be used for simultaneous detection of these pathogens in shrimp.

  8. Identification of Stressors that Affect White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Infection and Outbreak in Pond Cultured Penaeus monodon

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a big problem to the worldwide shrimp industry. Exposure to stressors related to physicochemical water parameters affect WSSV infection but not all WSSV infections result in outbreaks. This paper describes a detailed monitoring of important physicochemical w

  9. The potential effect of greenwater technology on water quality in the pond culture of Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Tendencia, E.A.; Bosma, R.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.


    Whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused severe production drops in the shrimp industry. Numerous scientific manuscripts deal with WSSV epidemiology, but reports on minimizing disease outbreaks through ecological means are rare. Industry stakeholders resorted to various innovative techniques to re

  10. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick


    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems.

  11. Genetic diversity of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon in relation to trace metal pollution at the Tanzanian coast.

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc; Mdegela, Robinson H; Gwakisa, Paul; Kochzius, Marc


    The genetic diversity of giant tiger prawns in relation to trace metals (TMs) pollution was analysed using 159 individuals from eight sites at the Tanzanian coast. The seven microsatellites analysed showed high degree of polymorphism (4-44 alleles). The measured genetic diversity (Ho=0.592±0.047) was comparable to that of populations in the Western Indian Ocean. Apart from that, correlation analysis revealed significant negative associations between genetic diversity and TMs pollution (ppollution. This suggests that TMs affect larvae settlement and it may account for the measured deficiency of heterozygosity. This calls for strengthened pollution control measures in order to conserve this commercially important species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery of protein hydrolysate and chitosan from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) heads: approaching a zero waste process.

    Phuong, Pham Thi Dan; Minh, Nguyen Cong; Cuong, Hoang Ngoc; Van Minh, Nguyen; Han, Nguyen The; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Yen, Ha Thi Hai; Trung, Trang Si


    Shrimp heads are considered as a potential source for the recovery of many valuable components such as chitin, protein and carotenoids. In the present study, both protein hydrolysate and chitin/chitosan were recovered using combination of physical, biological and chemical treatments. Shrimp heads were separated from liquid phase by a facile and efficient physical pretreatment. The liquid fraction was then hydrolyzed using formic acid and vacuum concentrated to obtain an astaxanthin-rich protein hydrolysate. The solid fraction was used to produce chitin by deproteination and demineralization. The hydrolysate consisted of a high astaxanthin (192 ppm) and protein (26.3 wt%) content. Chitosan prepared from chitin showed a high degree of deacetylation (85.4%) with low protein (0.25 wt%) and mineral (0.22 wt%) contents. The relative crystalline structure of the chitin and chitosan were 54.7 and 10.4%, respectively. The deacetylation of chitin was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The present procedure approached to produce maximum valuable components including astaxanthin-rich protein hydrolysate and chitin/chitosan from shrimp head waste.

  13. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei

    Ngo Xuan, T.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vlak, J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. I

  14. The development of a high density linkage map for black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon based on cSNPs.

    Matthew Baranski

    Full Text Available Transcriptome sequencing using Illumina RNA-seq was performed on populations of black tiger shrimp from India. Samples were collected from (i four landing centres around the east coastline (EC of India, (ii survivors of a severe WSSV infection during pond culture (SUR and (iii the Andaman Islands (AI in the Bay of Bengal. Equal quantities of purified total RNA from homogenates of hepatopancreas, muscle, nervous tissue, intestinal tract, heart, gonad, gills, pleopod and lymphoid organs were combined to create AI, EC and SUR pools for RNA sequencing. De novo transcriptome assembly resulted in 136,223 contigs (minimum size 100 base pairs, bp with a total length 61 Mb, an average length of 446 bp and an average coverage of 163× across all pools. Approximately 16% of contigs were annotated with BLAST hit information and gene ontology annotations. A total of 473,620 putative SNPs/indels were identified. An Illumina iSelect genotyping array containing 6,000 SNPs was developed and used to genotype 1024 offspring belonging to seven full-sibling families. A total of 3959 SNPs were mapped to 44 linkage groups. The linkage groups consisted of between 16-129 and 13-130 markers, of length between 139-10.8 and 109.1-10.5 cM and with intervals averaging between 1.2 and 0.9 cM for the female and male maps respectively. The female map was 28% longer than the male map (4060 and 2917 cM respectively with a 1.6 higher recombination rate observed for female compared to male meioses. This approach has substantially increased expressed sequence and DNA marker resources for tiger shrimp and is a useful resource for QTL mapping and association studies for evolutionarily and commercially important traits.

  15. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.


    , indicating a temporal decrease of SigmaPCBs. SigmaPCBs, DDTs, HCHs and toxaphenes seem to be at similar levels in West Greenland and Arctic Canada, which can be explained by the close winter distributions of populations as well as large ranges in concentrations, time span, number of analyses and the size....../age composition of the data. PCB and DDT concentrations in West Greenland narwhals were half those found in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stable-carbon isotope ratios in muscle of 150 narwhals showed a decreasing trend in the first year when they gradually reduced their dependency on mother's milk, after which...

  16. Cellular and molecular markers in monitoring the fate of lymphoid cell culture from Penaeus monodon Fabricius (1798).

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Jose, Seena; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright


    Lymphoid cell culture from penaeid shrimps has gained much acceptance as an in vitro platform to facilitate research on the development of prophylaxis, and therapeutic strategies against viruses and for cell line development. However, lymphoid cells can be used as platform for in vitro research, only if they are in metabolically and mitotically active state in vitro with unaltered cell surface receptors. Through this study, we addressed the response of lymphoid cells to a new microenvironment at cellular and molecular levels; including the study of mitotic events, DNA synthesis, expression profile of cell cycle genes, cytoskeleton organization, metabolic activity and viral susceptibility. The S-phase entry and synthesis of new DNA was recorded by immunoflourescent technique. Cdc2, CycA, CycB, EF-1α and BUB3 genes involved in cell cycle were studied in both the cells and tissue, of which EF-1α showed an elevated expression in cells in vitro (∼ 19.7%). Cytoskeleton network of the cell was examined by studying the organization of actin filaments. As the markers for metabolic status, mitochondrial dehydrogenase, protein synthesis and glucose assimilation by the cells were also assessed. Viral susceptibility of the cell was determined using WSSV to confirm the preservation of cellular receptors. This study envisages to strengthen the shrimp cell line research and to bring forth lymphoid cell culture system as a 'model' in vitro system for shrimp and crustaceans altogether.


    S. Sahu


    Full Text Available Shrimp culture can give miracles towards socio-economic development for a large number of rural people. Its sustainable development can be achieved through the application of scientific methodology, input of technical knowledge at the crisis time, quality control mechanism targeted to marketing strategy, sufficient supply of institutional credit and Government involvement in the marketing strategy. An optimum output cannot be assured even after taking the risk of huge investment. The export policy promotion and distinct quality measures are the major thrust area for the recent days. Government efforts in implementing a proper planning and management oriented marketing strategies are required for the sustainability of the industry.


    Gunarto Gunarto


    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk membandingkan pengaruh penambahan sumber C- karbohidrat (tepung tapioka dan fermentasi probiotik pada budidaya udang windu dengan pola intensif di tambak terutama melihat efeknya terhadap perbaikan kualitas air, pertumbuhan, sintasan, dan produksi udang windu. Enam petak tambak masing-masing ukuran sekitar 4.000 m2, setelah selesai tahap persiapan tambak (pengeringan, pembalikan tanah dasar, pengapuran, pengisian air, dan pemupukan, kemudian tambak ditebari tokolan udang windu PL-25 dengan padat tebar 20 ekor/m2. Tiga perlakuan diuji yaitu A. Penambahan tepung tapioka  ke air tambak dengan dosis 62% dari total pakan yang diberikan per hari dan diberikan dalam selang waktu lima hari sekali selama masa pemeliharaan pada bulan pertama dan kemudian dengan selang waktu tiga hari sekali selama masa pemeliharaan bulan kedua hingga menjelang panen; B. Pemberian fermentasi probiotik ke air tambak sebanyak 5 mg/L/minggu; dan C. Pemberian fermentasi probiotik ke air tambak sebanyak 10 mg/L/minggu. Masing-masing perlakuan dengan dua ulangan. Sampling pertumbuhan, kualitas air, dan bakteri dilakukan setiap dua minggu sekali. Sintasan, produksi, dan nilai konversi pakan dihitung setelah udang dipanen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian tepung tapioka menyebabkan konsentrasi amoniak relatif lebih rendah di perlakuan A daripada di perlakuan B dan C, namun menunjukkan perbedaan yang tidak nyata (P>0,05 di antara ketiga perlakuan tersebut. Bahan Organik Total (BOT pada hari ke-112 di perlakuan C paling rendah dan menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata (P0,05 di antara ketiga perlakuan yang diuji. The objective of the research was to compare the effect of addition of carbohydrate source (starch flour and probiotics fermentation to the water quality and the growth, survival, and production of tiger shrimp in intensive brackishwater pond system. Six pond compartments each sized approximately of 4,000 m2, went through preparation stages (pond drying, ploughing, liming, filling the pond with sea water and fertilyzing. Then the ponds were stocked with tiger shrimp post larvae day 25 at stocking density of 20 ind./m2. Three treatments were tested, A. the addition of starch flour in pond water column at a dosage of 62% of the total given feed per day, and applied every five days during the first month of shrimp culture, and then every three days from the second month to harvest time; B. the addition of probiotic fermentation to the pond water column and was given at 5 mg/L/week; and C. the addition of probiotic fermentation to the pond water column and was given at 10 mg/L/week. Result of the research showed that the addition of starch flour was able to decrease the ammonia concentration in treatment A, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05 with the ammonia concentration compared to the treatment B and C. Total Organic Matter (TOM at day 112 in treatment C was the lowest and significantly different (P0.05 among those treatments.


    Muliani Muliani


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui beberapa model metode stressing yang dapat menginduksi perkembangan WSSV pada benur, sehingga dapat terdeteksi dengan PCR konvensional. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Basah Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Air Payau (BPPBAP. Wadah yang digunakan adalah kontainer plastik bervolume 40 L diisi dengan air laut sebanyak 30 L dan dilengkapi dengan aerasi kecuali pada perlakuan oksigen. Setiap wadah ditebari benur (PL-12 sebanyak 500 ekor yang diambil dari panti perbenihan komersil di Kabupaten Barru yang sebelumnya telah diketahui negatif WSSV. Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah: (A stressing dengan suhu yaitu: 10oC±2oC, 28oC±2oC, dan 40oC±2oC; (B stressing dengan salinitas yaitu: 5 ppt, 28 ppt, dan 51 ppt; (C stressing dengan oksigen yaitu: 1 mg/L, 3 mg/L, dan 5 mg/L; (D stressing dengan pH yaitu: pH 5, pH 6, dan pH 7; dan (E stressing dengan formalin yaitu: 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, dan 300 mg/L. Sampling dilakukan 1 jam, 3 jam, dan 5 jam setelah perendaman untuk pengecekan WSSV dengan mengambil contoh benur sebanyak 50-100 ekor/wadah lalu dicek dengan PCR untuk WSSV-nya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa stressing dengan oksigen (1 mg/L, 3 mg/L, dan 5 mg/L memberikan hasil yang terbaik dalam memicu perkembangan WSSV pada benur, disusul dengan suhu (suhu 10oC dan 40oC, pH 5; kemudian penggunaan formalin, dan salinitas. Hasil PCR menunjukkan bahwa benur yang awalnya  negatif menjadi positif dengan kategori ringan hingga berat. Semakin lama waktu perendaman maka semakin memicu perkembangan WSSV dalam badan benur.

  20. Regulating gonad inhibition and vitellogenin/vitellin induction in Penaeus monodon using mature GIH fusion protein and polyclonal antisera

    Vrinda, S.; Jasmin, C.; Sivakumar, K.C.; Jose, S.; Jose, B.; Philip, R.; BrightSingh, I.S.

    ) starting from 1:200 to 1:4 09,600 (double dilution series) was added and incubated for 1 h. Experiment was done in triplicates. In the control wells, serum from animals prior to immunization, and PBS were added instead of antiserum. An aliquot of 0.1 ml... a,1 hin 6 , Ind and Article history: ilar to GIH, like Sinus IH-B), were isolated 05) and Metapenaeus localization of the hor- in the Norway lobster, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A 203 (2017) 167–178 Contents lists available...

  1. Moult-inhibiting fusion protein augments while polyclonal antisera attenuate moult stages and duration in Penaeus monodon

    Vrinda, S.; Jasmin, C.; Sivakumar, K.C.; Jose, B.; Philip, R.; BrightSingh, I.S.

    ., 2001; Okumura et al., 2005; Yodmuang et al., 2004). The recombinant hormone studies are advantageous in obtaining exogenous MIH for in vitro and in vivo experiments as the endoge- nousMIH levels present in the animals are very low, ranging from 4 to 6..., K , Ke ienc Article history: Received 2 November 2015 Revised 7 May 2016 Accepted 10 May 2016 Available online 11 May 2016 1998; Krungkasem et al., 2002; Wang and Xiang (2003); Chen et al., 2007), fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Yang...

  2. Enumeration of coliforms and Escherichia coli in frozen black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by conventional and rapid methods.

    Suwansonthichai, Sasithorn; Rengpipat, Sirirat


    Conventional (most probable number, MPN) and rapid methods-including Chromocult coliform agar (CCA), Fluorocult(R) LMX broth (LMX), and Petrifilm Escherichia coli count plates (PEC) for enumeration of coliforms and E. coli in frozen black tiger shrimp from Thailand were compared in order to assess the possibility of using one of the rapid methods for routine analysis. Enumeration of coliforms and E. coli from 18 samples of regular frozen black tiger shrimp and 156 samples of frozen black tiger shrimp experimentally contaminated with coliforms or E. coli at concentrations of approximately 10, approximately 10(2), and approximately 10(3) CFU g(-1) revealed that at the level of approximately 10 CFU g(-1), coliform numbers ranked as LMX>CCA>MPN=PEC and E. coli as MPN=LMX=PEC=CCA. At the level of approximately 10(2) CFU g(-1), coliform numbers ranked as LMX>MPN=PEC=CCA and E. coli as MPN=LMX>PEC=CCA. At the level of 10(3) CFU g(-1), coliforms ranked as LMX>MPN=CCA>PEC and E. coli as MPN>LMX>CCA>PEC. Agreements with the conventional MPN method for coliforms were LMX 108%, PEC 87.2%, and CCA 91.2% and agreements for E. coli were LMX 101%, PEC 95.7%, and CCA 96.3%. Sensitivities (%) ranked LMX>MPN>CCA=PEC for coliforms and E. coli, whereas equal specificities (100%) of all methods for coliforms and E. coli were demonstrated. Rankings for the other parameters compared were: convenience, PEC>CCA=LMX>MPN; time to detection, MPN>LMX=PEC=CCA; expense, MPN=PEC>CCA>LMX; labor, MPN>LMX=CCA>PEC; accuracy for coliforms, PEC>CCA>MPN>LMX; and accuracy for E. coli, PEC=CCA>LMX>MPN.

  3. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Andi Noor Asikin


    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  4. Separar el gra de la palla a la web Separating the Wheat from the Chaff on the Web Separar el grano de la paja en la web

    Francina Martí Cartes


    Full Text Available L'article exposa diverses teories d'experts sobre l'avaluació de la informació a Internet. Aquestes teories es comparen amb el comportament d'uns estudiants d'ESO a l'hora de buscar informació a Internet, a partir de dades extretes d'observacions i entrevistes. Finalment, es fan algunes propostes d'estratègies que es poden ensenyar als estudiants perquè siguin capaços de valorar la credibilitat dels webs que visiten, tot analitzan-ne l'autoria, l'objectivitat i els propòsits. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Cet article explore diverses théories sur l'evaluation de l'information sur Internet. Ces théories sont comparées avec le comportement de certains élèves de l'enseignement secondaire (ESO à la recherche d'information sur Internet, à partir de données extraites d'observations et d'entrevues. Enfin, l'article fait quelques propositions de stratégies qui peuvent être enseignées aux élèves afin qu'ils soient capables d'evaluer la crédibilité des sites web visités, en analysant leurs auteurs, leur objectivité et leurs propos.This article explores various theories about evaluating information on the Internet. The theories are tested against data taken from observations and interviews concerning the behaviour of secondary school (ESO students searching for information on the Internet. Lastly, a number of strategies are proposed to equip students to be better able to assess the credibility of the websites they browse, analysing their authorship, objectivity and purpose.El artículo explora diversas teorías sobre la evaluación de la información en Internet. Estas teorías se comparan con el comportamiento de unos estudiantes de ESO en la búsqueda de información en Internet, a partir de datos extraídos de observaciones y entrevistas. Finalmente, se hacen algunas propuestas de estrategias que se pueden enseñar a los estudiantes para que sean capaces de valorar la credibilidad de las webs que visitan, analizando su autoría, objetividad y propósitos.

  5. Separar el gra de la palla a la web Separating the Wheat from the Chaff on the Web Separar el grano de la paja en la web

    Francina Martí Cartes


    L'article exposa diverses teories d'experts sobre l'avaluació de la informació a Internet. Aquestes teories es comparen amb el comportament d'uns estudiants d'ESO a l'hora de buscar informació a Internet, a partir de dades extretes d'observacions i entrevistes. Finalment, es fan algunes propostes d'estratègies que es poden ensenyar als estudiants perquè siguin capaços de valorar la credibilitat dels webs que visiten, tot analitzan-ne l'autoria, l'objectivitat i els propòsits. ________________...

  6. Is web oscillation in the orb-web spider Argiope lobata (Pallas, 1772)(Araneidae) an anti-predatory behaviour?

    Cedhagen, Tomas; Björklund, S.


    of the spider allow it to move the centre of gravity quickly, and thereby to oscillate. (2) The great elasticity and strength of its web allow the spider to control the oscillations so that slow movements are reduced to a minimum. (3) When it is oscillating. the eyes of a predator cannot accommodate to keep...... it in focus, but will focus on the background. (4) The irregular shape and variegated coloration of its body reduce its contrast against the background when it is sitting still, but also during oscillation....

  7. Dynamics of cell and tissue genesis in the male reproductive system of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Amblyomma cajennense [corrected] (Fabricius, 1787) and Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772): a comparative analysis.

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel


    Ticks are classified into three families: Argasidae, Ixodidae, and Nutalliellidae. The taxonomy and phylogeny within Ixodidae are still discussed by the specialists, thus requiring further studies. Amblyomma cajennese and Amblyomma aureolatum (Brazil) belong to two species complexes known as "cajennese" and "ovale", respectively, and are directly related to the transmission of the Brazilian spotted fever. This confirms the medical and veterinary significance of these species, as well as the need for further morphological studies that will bring a better understanding of their taxonomy, phylogeny, and control. In this context, the present study aimed to characterize the morphology of the male reproductive system of A. cajennese and A. aureolatum when unfed and after 4 days of feeding, thereby seeking to: (a) distinguish the two species or "complexes", and (b) study an internal system which has the potential to be targeted by acaricides. Therefore, males from both species (unfed and after 4 days of feeding) were cold-anesthetized, dissected, and had their reproductive systems removed for histological analysis. The results showed that the morphology of the male reproductive system is generally similar between both species, like in other Ixodidae ticks, exhibiting a multilobed accessory gland complex related to seminal fluid secretion, a pair of vasa deferentia and a pair of testes housing germ cells (spermatocytes) in different stages. The main differences were found in the development of the accessory gland complex cells and germ cells, showing that the maturation of the male reproductive system starts later in A. aureolatum, when compared to A. cajennese. However, during the blood meal, A. aureolatum development is increased, thus making germ cell maturation and gland complex activity higher than in A. cajennese. This study shows the differences in the development of the male reproductive systems of both species, while providing information that can assist in the establishment of new control methods.

  8. Trofejni parametri muflona (Ovis ammon musimon Pallas, 1811) u državnom lovištu VIII/6 “Kalifront”

    Krapinec, Krešimir; Grubešić, Marijan; Šegrt, Viktor; Maričić, Kristijan


    U radu je načinjena analiza ovisnosti elemenata izmjere muflonskog trofeja, analiza prirasta duljine i opsega tuljca te usporedba s nekim srednjeeuropskim populacijama i korzičkom populacijom. Glede elemenata ocjene rogova muflona s lovišta “Kalifront” najveću ovisnost o starosti pokazuju duljina tuljaca (r = 0,83), opseg na trećoj trećini roga (r = 0,83) i ukupna vrijednost trofeja (r = 0,82). Na ukupnu trofejnu vrijednosti najviše utječe duljina tuljaca (r = 0,98), nakon toga slijedi opseg ...

  9. Accumulation of nutrients and heavy metals in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel and Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla in a constructed wetland of the Venice lagoon watershed

    Bragato, Claudia [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Padova, Agripolis, 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Brix, Hans [Department of Biological Sciences, Plant Biology, University of Aarhus, Ole Worms Alle, Building 1135, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark); Malagoli, Mario [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Padova, Agripolis, 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy)]. E-mail:


    A recently constructed wetland, located in the Venice lagoon watershed, was monitored to investigate growth dynamics, nutrient and heavy metal shoot accumulation of the two dominating macrophytes: Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus maritimus. Investigations were conducted over a vegetative season at three locations with different distance to the inlet point to assess effects on vegetation. The distance from the inlet did not affect either shoot biomass or nutrients (N, P, K and Na) and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) shoot content. With the exception of Na, nutrient and heavy metal concentrations were higher in shoots of P. australis than in B. maritimus. Heavy metal concentration in the incoming water and in the soil was not correlated to the plant content of either species. Shoot heavy metal concentrations were similar to those reported in the current literature, but accumulation generally increased towards the end of the growing season. - Heavy metal shoot concentration in Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus maritimus increased significantly at the end of the growing season.

  10. Sopravvivenza e dispersione della lepre comune (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 in relazione alla densità di popolazione e alle caratteristiche ambientali

    Francesca Pella


    Full Text Available La presente ricerca è stata effettuata con lo scopo di valutare la sopravvivenza di lepri autoctone non traslocate in relazione alle caratteristiche ambientali e alla densità di popolazione. Inoltre è stata analizzata la capacità delle lepri di colonizzare territori a bassa densità, al di fuori delle aree protette, al fine di ricavare indicazioni utili per una gestione della lepre basata sulla corretta pianificazione delle aree protette. Lo studio è stato effettuato dal gennaio del 1999 al luglio del 2001 in due Zone di Ripopolamento e Cattura della Pianura Padana, caratterizzate da colture a seminativi irrigui una (Vistarino e colture a seminativi asciutti l?altra (Portalbera. Per determinare la densità di popolazione sono stati effettuati, in primavera ed autunno, censimenti notturni da autovettura, con proiettore alogeno orientabile manualmente. Per analizzare la sopravvivenza, l?uso dello spazio e la dispersione sono state catturate, con reti a tramaglio, valutate (peso, sesso, classe d?età e condizioni sanitarie e radiomarcate 16 lepri a Vistarino e 20 a Portalbera. I censimenti hanno evidenziato una differenza tra le due aree nelle densità che sono risultate comprese tra gli 11 ed i 20 individui per km² a Vistarino e tra i 29 e gli 83 a Portalbera. La sopravvivenza media delle lepri radiomarcate è stata di 295,5 giorni (ES=43,2, considerando le aree cumulate, e la probabilità di sopravvivenza nel periodo di studio è risultata pari a 0,36 (ES=0,094. Nell?area di studio di Vistarino la sopravvivenza media è stata di 426,4 giorni (ES=61,6 e la probabilità di sopravvivenza di 0,67 (ES=0,12 mentre a Portalbera la sopravvivenza media era di 142,2 giorni (ES=13,9 con una probabilità di sopravvivenza di 0,00 (ES=0,00. La dimensione media dell?area vitale per tutte le lepri catturate in entrambe le aree è stata pari a 47,9 ha (ES=6,08; minimo=0,01; massimo=171,1 se calcolata con il metodo del Minimo Poligono Convesso, mentre era di 63,7 ha (ES=8,09; minimo= 0,00; massimo=248,6 utilizzando la ?Kernel analysis? al 95%. La sopravvivenza delle lepri è risultata positivamente associata alla dimensione dell?area vitale e alla distanza tra il punto di cattura/rilascio e l?ultima localizzazione (rispettivamente: r di Pearson= 0.44 P=0.007; r di Pearson=0.34 P=0.046, mentre negativamente alla distanza media tra localizzazioni successive (r di Pearson=-0.39 P=0.02. Mentre i Modelli Lineari Generalizzati individuano anche un ruolo svolto dal sesso, dall?età degli animali e dall?area di studio, che in misura minore condizionano anche la dispersione.

  11. Re-introduction of globally threatened Arabian Gazelles Gazella Arabica (Pallas, 1766 (Mammalia: Bovidae in fenced protected area in central Saudi Arabia

    M.Z. Islam


    Full Text Available The Arabian Gazelle is a globally threatened antelope (Vulnerable in Saudi Arabia. Small relict populations remain in limited areas, while historically Arabian Gazelles occurred in Mahazat as-Sayd protected area in central Saudi Arabia but were exterminated by anthropogenic and other pressures, including habitat loss and hunting. Important habitat has been lost to agricultural developments, fencing of pasture for livestock and the construction of human settlements and roads. The reintroduction of Arabian Gazelles was undertaken in Mahazat during 2011-2014 to bring back this locally extinct species study its ecology and biology in a fenced protected area. We released a total of 49 (12 males, 37 females animals. A year after release animals started breeding and six calves have been recorded so far with more to come. The gazelles prefer to use more rocky areas where shrubs and acacia trees occur in the reserve, and do not move long distances except for one individual that moved more than 50km. Mahazat is fenced, which prevents local people from entering the reserve to poach or otherwise disturb animals. Management lessons include the need for continued monitor-ing of reintroduced populations. Interactions between Arabian and Sand Gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica and Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx were also studied.

  12. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Paramphistomoidea, Diplodiscidae), an intestinal fluke of the pool frog Rana lessonae (Amphibia, Anura).

    Bakhoum, A J S; Torres, J; Shimalov, V V; Bâ, C T; Miquel, J


    Spermiogenesis in Diplodiscus subclavatus begins with the formation of the zone of differentiation presenting two centrioles associated with striated roots and an intercentriolar body. The latter presents seven electron-dense layers with a fine central plate and three plates on both sides. The external pair of these electron-dense layers is formed by a granular row. Each centriole develops into a free flagellum, both of them growing orthogonally in relation to the median cytoplasmic process. After the flagellar rotation and before the proximodistal fusion of both flagella with the median cytoplasmic process four attachment zones were already observed in several cross-sections indicating the area of fusion. Spinelike bodies are also observed in the differentiation zone before the fusion of flagella. Finally, the constriction of the ring of arched membranes gives rise to the young spermatozoon that detaches from the residual cytoplasm. The mature spermatozoon of D. subclavatus shows all the classical characters observed in Digenea spermatozoa such as two axonemes of different length of the 9+"1" trepaxonematan pattern, nucleus, mitochondrion, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules and granules of glycogen. However, some peculiarities such as a well-developed lateral expansion associated with external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and spinelike bodies combined with their area of appearance distinguish the ultrastructural organization of the sperm cells of D. subclavatus from those of other digeneans.

  13. Morphometric and meristic variation in two congeneric archer fishes Toxotes chatareus (Hamilton 1822) and Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters

    Simon, K D; Bakar, Y; Temple, S E; Mazlan, A G


    A simple yet useful criterion based on external markings and/or number of dorsal spines is currently used to differentiate two congeneric archer fish species Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix...

  14. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters.

    Simon, K D; Bakar, Y; Samat, A; Zaidi, C C; Aziz, A; Mazlan, A G


    Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied. Growth pattern by length-weight relationship (W=aL(b)) for the sexes differed, and exhibited positive allometric growth (male, female and combined sexes of T. chatareus; female and combined sexes of T. jaculatrix) and isometric growth (male samples of T. jaculatrix only). Trophic levels of both species were analyzed based on 128 specimens. The results show that, in both species, crustaceans and insects were the most abundant prey items, and among crustaceans the red clawed crab Sesarma bidens and Formicidae family insects were the most represented taxa. The estimated mean trophic levels for T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were 3.422+/-0.009 and 3.420+/-0.020, respectively, indicating that they are largely carnivores. Fecundity of T. chatareus ranged from 38 354 to 147 185 eggs for females with total length ranging from 14.5 to 22.5 cm and total body weight from 48.7 to 270.2 g, and T. jaculatrix 25 251 to 150 456 eggs for females with total length ranging from 12.2 to 23.0 cm and total body weight from 25.7 to 275.0 g. Differences in values of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes calculated for both species in this study may have resulted from uneven sample size ranges.

  15. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters

    Simon, K D; Bakar, Y; Samat, A; Zaidi, C C; Aziz, A; Mazlan, A G


    Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied...

  16. Effects of Thai medicinal plants on pathogenic bacterial, growth performance, health condition and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Klowkliang, T.


    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa extracts using TLC/densitometry, showed an extract contain 21.57%w/w of three important curcuminoids: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. GC and MS were used to analyze volatile oils. Aromatic turmerone, α-turmerone and zingiberene were also obtained. Qualitative and quantitative analyses alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata using TLC, revealed that the extracts contain three important compounds in total lactone of 30.49% w/w. There are andrographolide,14-deoxy-11-12-didehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide. TLC-chromatogram of Clinacanthus nutans extract after reacted with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid showed a 9 key compounds, while preliminary neutralization test of the compounds revealed that there were active compounds against HSV-1 virus. In vitro efficacy test revealed that Curcuma longa and Andrographis paniculata extracts at 250 and 1,500 mg/L could eradicate 15 isolates of Vibrio spp. which were isolated from infected shrimps. Effects of medicinal plant extracts incorporated into the diet on shrimp immune responses were investigated. Shrimp fed diet containing Clinacanthus nutans extract at 20 mg/kg of diet had good growth, FCR and immune responses. The shrimp that were fed diet containing Curcuma longa extracts at 25 mg/kg of diet for 7-14 days showed high resistance to Vibrio harveyi. Likewise, the shrimp fed Andrographis paniculata extract at 25 mg/ kg of diet for 14 days had a higher resistance to WSSV. Incorporating the medicinal extracts at higher levels resulted in reduction in diet palatability which consequently had an effect on a decrease in growth, immune responses and resistance to bacterial and WSSV infection.

  17. Effect of three innovative culture systems on water quality and whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral load in WSSV-fed Penaeus monodon cultured in indoor tanks

    Alapide-Tendencia, E.V.; Bosma, R.H.; Rose Sorio, L.


    White spot syndrome virus is the most important among the shrimp diseases. It has been devastating the shrimp industry for more than 3 decades. Previous studies reported that greater percentage of yellow colonies on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (yellow vibrios) in the rearing water, ab

  18. Lymphoid organ cell culture system from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) as a platform for white spot syndrome virus and shrimp immune-related gene expression.

    Jose, S; Jayesh, P; Sudheer, N S; Poulose, G; Mohandas, A; Philip, R; Singh, I S Bright


    Shrimp cell lines are yet to be reported and this restricts the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens, especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, development of primary cell cultures from lymphoid organs was standardized. Poly-l-lysine-coated culture vessels enhanced growth of lymphoid cells, while the application of vertebrate growth factors did not, except insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Susceptibility of the lymphoid cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluoresence assay using monoclonal antibody against the 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. Expression of viral and immune-related genes in WSSV-infected lymphoid cultures could be demonstrated by RT-PCR. This emphasizes the utility of lymphoid primary cell culture as a platform for research in virus-cell interaction, virus morphogenesis, up and downregulation of shrimp immune-related genes, and also for the discovery of novel drugs to combat WSSV in shrimp culture.

  19. Truncated VP28 as oral vaccine candidate against WSSV infection in shrimp: an uptake and processing study in the midgut of Penaeus monodon

    Kulkarni, V.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Singh, I.S.B.; Sudheer, N.S.; Vlak, J.M.; Caipang, C.M.A.; Brinchmann, M.; Kiron, V.


    Several oral vaccination studies have been undertaken to evoke a better protection against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a major shrimp pathogen. Formalin-inactivated virus and WSSV envelope protein VP28 were suggested as candidate vaccine components, but their uptake mechanism upon oral deliver

  20. Effect of different mangrove-to-pond area ratios on influent water quality and WSSV occurence in panaeus monodon Semi-intensive farms using the greenwater culture technique

    Tendencia, E.A.; Bosma, R.H.; Primavera, J.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been affecting the shrimp industry worldwide for two decades now. It continues to bring economic losses to affected farms. Despite the many studies on its epidemiology, there is no proven treatment or control measure. Diseases, like the WSSV, results from the int

  1. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) risk factors associated with farming practices in polyculture and monoculture P. monodon farms in the Philippines

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.


    White spot sydrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most important viral disease of shrimp. Several studies to control the disease have been done. Tank experiments identified WSSV risk factors related to the physico chemical properties of the water. A few studies reported pond level WSSV risk factors. Thi

  2. WSSV risk factors related to water physico-chemical properties and microflora in semi-intensive P .monodon culture ponds in the Philippines

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.


    Whitespot syndrome virus, WSSV, is the most important among the shrimp diseases. One of the suggested WSSV risk factors is the occurrence of stress since stressors could compromise the shrimp defence system thus increasing the risk of WSSV infection. Stressors are usually related to the physico-chem

  3. Trace metals in the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon and mangrove sediments of the Tanzania coast: Is there a risk to marine fauna and public health?

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Mdegela, Robinson H; Kochzius, Marc; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc


    Mangroves ecosystems support livelihood and economic activities of coastal communities in the tropics and subtropics. Previous reports have documented the inefficiency of waste treatment facilities in Tanzania to contain trace metals. Therefore, the rapidly expanding coastal population and industrial sector is likely to threaten mangrove ecosystems with metal pollution. This study analysed trace metals in 60 sediment samples and 160 giant tiger prawns from the Tanzanian coast in order to document the distribution of trace metals and to establish if measured levels present a threat to mangrove fauna and are of public health importance. High levels of Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and V was observed in mangroves of river Pangani, Wami, and Rufiji. Multivariate analysis showed that they originate mainly from weathering and erosion in the river catchments. Extreme enrichment of Cd was observed in a mangrove affected by municipal sewage. The distribution of Hg, Pb, and Zn was related with urbanisation and industrial activities along the coast. The metal pollution index was high at Pangani, Saadani, and Rufiji, suggesting that these estuarine mangroves are also affected by human activities in the catchment. Moderate to considerable ecological risks were observed in all sampled mangroves, except for Kilwa Masoko. It was revealed that As, Cd, and Hg present moderate risks to fauna. High levels of Cu, Fe and Zn were observed in prawns but the level of the non-essential Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed the maximum allowed levels for human consumption. However, based on the trends of fish consumption in the country, weekly intake of Hg is likely to exceed provisional tolerable weekly intake level, especially in fishing communities. This calls for measures to control Hg emissions and to strengthen sewage and waste treatment in coastal cities and urban centres in the basin of major rivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of three innovative culture systems on water quality and whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral load in WSSV-fed Penaeus monodon cultured in indoor tanks

    Alapide-Tendencia, E.V.; Bosma, R.H.; Rose Sorio, L.


    White spot syndrome virus is the most important among the shrimp diseases. It has been devastating the shrimp industry for more than 3 decades. Previous studies reported that greater percentage of yellow colonies on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (yellow vibrios) in the rearing water,

  5. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based flow-through immunoassay (FTA) for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Patil, R; Shankar, K M; Kumar, B T N; Kulkarni, A; Patil, P; Moger, N


    A flow-through immunoassay (FTA), an improved version of immunodot, was developed using a nitrocellulose membrane baked onto adsorbent pads enclosed in a plastic cassette to detect white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. Sharp purple dots developed with WSSV against the white background of the nitrocellulose membrane. The detection limits of WSSV by the FTA and immunodot were 0.312 and 1.2 μg mL(-1) crude WSSV protein, respectively. The FTA could be completed in 8-10 min compared with 90 min for immunodot. The FTA was 100 times more sensitive than 1-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in between that of the 1- and 2-step PCR protocol recommended by the Office of International Epizootics (OIE). In experimental, orally infected shrimp post-larvae, WSSV was first detected 14, 16 and 18 h post-infection (hpi) by FTA, immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA detected WSSV 2 and 4 h earlier than immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA was more sensitive (25/27) than one-step PCR (23/27) and immunodot (23/27) for the detection of WSSV from white spot disease outbreak ponds. The reagent components of the FTA were stable giving expected results for 6 m at 4-8 °C. The FTA is available as a rapid test kit called 'RapiDot' for the early detection of WSSV under field conditions.




    Full Text Available Rifampicin-resistant marker w as empl oyed as a repor ter t o detect the ad here nce and colonization of V. harve yi in s hrimp larvae. Vibri o h arve yi P1B and YA3 2. 2 were isolated f rom dead s hrimp la rv ae i n Besuki, Norther n C oast of East Jav a, while V. harveyi HB3, was isolated from pris tine sea water in Pacita n, S outhe rn Coast of E ast Ja va . Vi brio metsc hnikovii used a s bioc ontr ol a gent was i solated fr om healthy shrimp larvae in Serang, We st Java. Spontane ous mutation was c onducted to generate V. harveyi P1B, YA32.2 and HB3 resistant to rifampi cin. These mutants exhibit ed similar survival ability to t heir parent al (wild type strai ns. Signifi cant larval mortalit y was o bserv ed i n s hrimp l arv ae i noculated with YA32.2 than that of larvae ino culated with P1B. Larvae inoculated with H B 3 showed the lo w est mortality. Bacterial cell c ount of Vi brio Rf* in dead larvae w ere 103-104 cells/larvae. Isolates of Vi brio metschnikovii Z an d M as biocontrol candid ates effectively r educed the growth a nd a dherence ability of YA32.2 t o shrimp larvae. Larval mort ality in rearing water inoculat ed simultaneousl y w ith YA32.2 and V. metschnikovii was lower than the one inoculated with YA32.2 alone. Therefore, Vibrio metschnikovii Z or M could be develope d as an effective pro biotic or biocontrol agent for V. harvey i in shrimp hatcheri es.


    Asda Laining


    Full Text Available Very low naturally mating rate of pond-reared tiger shrimp broodstock is probably due to the slow maturation of the male stock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salmon gonadotrophin releasing hormone analoque (sGnRHa in stimulating the gonadal maturation of male stock of pond-reared tiger shrimp. The treatments were three dosages of sGnRHa at 0.1 (OV-1, 0.2 (OV-2, and 0.3 (OV-3 mL/kg of shrimp weight and control was eye stalk ablation (AB. The sGnRHa was administered via injection three times with one week interval. Male stocks with average initial body weight of 82.1 g were randomly distributed into four of 10 m3 concrete tanks, 26 males for each tank. Variables observed were performances of spermatophores and profiles of amino acid and fatty acid of muscle of the male stocks. After induction, number of male maturing indicated by spermatophores releasing from terminal ampullas was higher in shrimp induced with OV-1 (80.8% compared to control which was only 46.1%. Furthermore, shrimp treated OV-2 had the highest spermatophore weight of 0.16 g compared to control (0.11 g and other two groups. Amino acid profiles improved as the dose of sGnRHa increased up to 0.2 mL/kg from 61.23% for ablated male becoming 71.27% for OV-2. Total fatty acid also tended to improve by increasing the dose of hormone injection, however, the ablated male had higher total fatty acid content than that of OV-1. The present finding demonstrated that the dose of sGnRHa to stimulate the gonadal maturation of pond-reared male tiger shrimp could be applied at range between 0.1-0.2 mL/kg of shrimp weight.

  8. Evaluation of an immunodot test to manage white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) during cultivation of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Patil, R.; Palaksha, K.J.; Anil, T.M.; Guruchannabasavanna; Patil, P.; Shankar, K.M.; Mohan, C.V.; Sreepada, R.A.

    results, farms F5, F6, F13, and F14 gave positive results for WSSV by 2-step PCR, and they were successfully harvested at 105 d post stocking. Our results indicate that an inexpensive immunodot assay can be used to replace the more expensive 1-step PCR...

  9. Vilma Tugi 20. II 1924 - 24. XII 2007


    Kunstniku elust ja loomingust. 1942. a. astus Vilma Tugi kõrgemasse kunstikooli Pallas, 1949. aastani jätkas õpinguid Tartu Riiklikus Kunstiinstituudis. 2003. a. sai temast kunstiühingu Pallas liige

  10. Effects of Avermectin on Various Developmental Stages of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)%阿维菌素对异色瓢虫不同发育阶段的影响

    王秀梅; 侯志广; 李天昊; 阮长春


    [目的]测定阿维菌素对异色瓢虫不同发育阶段影响,明确对天敌异色瓢虫的毒力,为其安全性评价及科学使用提供依据.[结果]阿维菌素对异色瓢虫不同虫态均有毒杀作用,但敏感性有差异,对幼虫具有明显的抑制作用,阻碍蛹到成虫的变态,影响成虫的存活,对成虫毒性最低,处理24 h后的LC50值为14.69 mg/L.[结论]阿维菌素对异色瓢虫具有活性,在田间使用该杀虫剂时,要避开异色瓢虫敏感期.%[Aims] The study was to determine the effects of avermectin on the ladybird Harmonia axyridis and determine its toxicity in order to provide theoretical basis for the safety evaluation and rational use of avermectin. [Results]Avermectin had toxicity tO different development stages of Harmonia axyridis,but the sensitivity was different. It had an obvious inhibitory effect on the larvae of ladybird,blocked the larval-pupal metamorphosis and affected the survival of the adults.And it had the lowest toxicity to adults,the LC50 value was 14.69 mg/L after the adults were treated 24 h.[Conclusions]Avermectin has toxicity to Harmonia axyridis,when avermectin is used in fields,the susceptible developmental stages of the ladybird should be avoided.

  11. The study of genetic diversity and population structure of Vimba vimba persa (Pallas, 1814 populations in the Eastern and Western coastline of the Caspian sea (Havigh River and GorganRoud River using microsatellite markers

    Samira Mohamadian


    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of Vimba vimba persa was investigated using microsatellite markers from two regions of the Iranian coastline of southern Caspian sea (Havigh River in Guilan province, GorganRoud River in Golestan province. The purpose of this research was the study of Vimba vimba persa’s possible populations related to genetic diversity and population structure in the Caspian sea and introducing the useful genetic markers. To investigate the genetic structure of Vimba vimba persa populations, we sampled 50 specimens of Vimba vimba persa caught by beach seine from GorganRoud River in Golestan Province (30 specimens and Havigh River in the Guilan Province (20 specimens. Genomic DNA was extracted from fin tissue by phenol-Chlorophorm method and PCR reaction was accomplished with 17 microsatellite primers 10 of which were amplified with reasonable polymorphism. Means of alleles were on 6.75 averages, observed and expected heterozygosity averages were 0.817 and 0.735, respectively. Most cases, significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p≤0.01. According to the Fst values, there are two significant populations of Vimba vimba persa in the eastern and western coasts of the Caspian Sea which restocking of these species should be considered. Based on the survey revealed, since the population of this species is decreasing with its high genetic diversity, the Caspian Vimba had an enormous diversity in the past.

  12. Age and growth comparisons of Hovsgol grayling (Thymallus nigrescens Dorogostaisky, 1923), Baikal grayling (T. baicalensis Dybowski, 1874), and lenok (Brachymystax lenok Pallas, 1773) in lentic and lotic habitats of Northern Mongolia

    Tsogtsaikhan, Pureviin; Mendsaikhan, Budiin; Jargalmaa, Ganzorigiin; Ganzorig, Batsaikhanii; Weidel, Brian C.; Filosa, Christopher; Free, Christopher; Young, Talia; Jensen, Olaf P.


    Despite concern over the conservation status of many Mongolian salmonids and the importance of their ecological role in Mongolia's aquatic ecosystems, little is known about their basic biology. Hovsgol grayling (Thymallus nigrescens) is endemic to Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia and listed as endangered on the Mongolian Red List. Baikal grayling (T. baicalensis) and lenok (Brachymystax lenok) are found in lakes and rivers throughout the Selenge drainage. A detailed study of the age and growth of these three salmonids was conducted based on 1,682 samples collected from July 2006 to July 2013 in Lake Hovsgol, its outlet the Eg River, and one of the Eg's largest tributaries, the Uur River. Our results suggest that Hovsgol grayling in particular can reach a much older maximum age (17 years in our samples) than previously believed based on aging from scales. Female Hovsgol grayling were heavier at a given length than their male counterparts. Lenok had a greater average length-at-age in Lake Hovsgol compared to the rivers and greater weight-at-length in the warmer Uur River than in the Eg; female lenok from the rivers had a greater average length-at-age than their male counterparts. This study provides critical new information for the management and conservation of these threatened salmonid species in Mongolia.

  13. The ecological role of overwintering fish in the food web of the Culbin Sands lagoon ecosystem, NE Scotland: Identifying major trophic links and testing effects of the fish Pomatoschistus microps (Pallas on benthic invertebrates

    Vanda Mariyam Mendonça


    Full Text Available The Culbin Sands lagoon ecosystem in NE Scotland was studied during a three-year period (1994-1996 to identify the major trophic links from benthic invertebrates to epibenthic predators, and to assess impacts of overwintering fish on their prey communities. Every 2-4 weeks, samples of mobile fauna were collected to study their diets. The major trophic links identified between benthic invertebrates and epibenthic predators were from benthic invertebrates to the shrimp Crangon crangon, and to the common goby Pomatoschistus microps and the plaice Pleuronectes platessa. The energy flow from benthic invertebrates to overwintering fish was estimated at 133 kJ m–2 yr–1. A flow of 10 kJ m–2 yr–1 was also observed from eggs and larval stages of the overwintering shrimp Crangon crangon to the overwintering fish. Nevertheless, manipulative field experiments showed no significant impacts of the most abundant overwintering fish Pomatoschistus microps on prey community densities, despite an overall individual ingestion rate of 89 J day–1.

  14. 鸭绿江水系唇鱼骨肌肉营养成分与品质的评价%Evaluation of Nutritive Quality and Nutrient Components in the Muscle of Hemibarbus labeo Pallas

    李军; 骆小年; 李敬伟; 金广海; 夏大明; 齐政; 刘宗英; 刘涌; 赵良炜


    The purpose of this work is to understand the nutritive quality and nutrient components in the muscle of Hemibarbus labeo, and the main nutrient components in the muscle of Hemibarbus labeo were analyzed in this paper. The results showed that the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and crude ash in fresh muscle of Hemibarbus labeo were (75.45±0.64)%,(19.10±0.28)%, (3.70±0.71)% and (1.30±0.03)%. Eighteen common amino acids were found in the muscle of Hemibarbus labeo.The total content of amino acids (TAA) was (18.71±0.23)% including the content of essential amino acids(EAA) (7.61±0.11%) and delicious amino acids(DAA) (6.91±0.21%). The content of glutamic acid was (2.95±0.01)%, which was higher than that of other delicious amino acids. The first limited amino acid was Trp. The ratio of the total essential amino to total amino acids (WEAA/WTAA) was 40.67%, and the ratio of the total essential amino acids to total nonessential amino acids (WEAA/WNEAA) was 78.82%. It was suggested that the ratio met the amino acids balance and the protein is the highgrade protein. 15 kinds of fatty acids i.e.3 kinds of saturated fatty acids, 4 kinds of unsaturated fatty acids and 8 kinds of polyunsaturated fatty acid were found in muscle of Hemibarbus labeo. The content of PUFA were (45.17±1.51)%, which is the higher than that of other PUFA. The content of linoleic acid was the highest in the PUFA, followed by DHA, Arachidonic acid, EPA, α- Linolenic acid, Dihomo-γ-Linolenic-acid, Cis,cis-ll,14-Eicosadienoic acid and DPA. The composition of mineral trace in muscle of Hemibarbus labeo were iodine, zinc, ferrum, copper, selenium, manganese. It is concluded that Hemibarbus labeo is a quality fish with high nutritional value and is good for health.%用生化分析方法,对鸭绿江水系唇鱼骨肌肉一般营养成分、氨基酸、脂肪酸和微量元素的组成成分进行分析,并对其营养品质进行评价.结果表明:肌肉中水分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪和粗灰分的含量分别为:(75.45±0.64)%、(19.10±0.28)%、(3.70±0.71)%和(1.30±0.03)%.氨基酸组成分析表明,肌肉鲜样中含有18种氨基酸,氨基酸总量为(18.71±0.23)%,其中必需氨基酸和鲜味氨基酸总量分别为(7.61±0.11)%和(6.91±0.21)%,鲜味氨基酸中符氨酸含量最高为(2.95±0.01)%;鸭绿江水系唇鱼骨的第一限制性氨基酸是色氨酸.必需氨基酸占总氨基酸的比值(WEAA/WTAA)为40.67%,必需氨基酸与非必需氨基酸的比值(WEAA/WNEAA)为78.82%,氨基酸平衡效果较好.脂肪酸组成分析表明,其主要有3种饱和脂肪酸(SFA),4种单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)和8种多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA),其中PUFA含量最高为(45.17±1.51)%,PUMA中亚油酸含量最高,其次分别为DHA、花生四烯酸、EPA、α-亚麻酸、二高-γ-亚麻酸、顺,顺-11,14-二十碳二烯酸和DPA.微量元素组成分析得出,碘含量最高,其次依次为锌、铁、铜、硒和锰.研究表明,鸭绿江水系唇鱼骨是一种营养丰富,肉味鲜美的经济鱼类,具有食用价值和保健作用.

  15. Respiration and water-loss characteristics in a desert insect Julodis variolaris Pallas (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)%荒漠昆虫天花吉丁虫的呼吸及体内水分损失特征

    宋菁; 吕昭智; 王登元; 吴文岳; 苏延乐; 王晶


    为研究荒漠地区昆虫的呼吸及水分损失特征,以专性寄生在荒漠植物梭梭上的天花吉丁虫Julodis variolarisPallas为对象,采用L1-6400光合分析仪测定在20K:下天花吉丁虫的呼吸量,并采用重量法测定了不同温度下其水分散失率.结果表明:天花吉丁虫呼吸为典型的不连续气体交换循环(discontinuous gas exchange cycle,DGC)的模式,DGC平均周期约需12.96 min,爆发问期历时平均约占整个DGC历时的80%,CO2平均释放率为23.45μL/mim.在25℃、30℃、35℃和40℃恒温条件下,单位时间内水分散失随温度升高而增加,10 h内25℃和30℃之间的水分损失率无显著差异,但25℃和30℃与35℃、40℃之间的水分损失率具有显著性差异;10~24 h内25℃、30℃、35℃之间的水分损失率具有显著性差异.荒漠昆虫天花吉丁虫在高温下的高脱水率和高死亡率说明,其在没有水分来源的情况下很难存活,而不连续呼吸模式是其适应高温干旱环境的对策之一.

  16. The fossil vertebrates of Ksâr'akil, a palaeolithic rock shelter in the Lebanon

    Hooijer, D.A.


    CONTENTS Introduction................... 4 Systematic part.................. 5 Pisces.................... 5 Amphibia................... 6 Hyla arborea (L.) subsp............... 6 Reptilia................... 6 Testudo spec.................. 6 Ophisaurus apodus (Pallas).............. 8 Chamaeleo chama


    Untung, Muhammad; Yuniar Mulyani; Indah Ryantini


    Bacterial deseases are seriousness problem in aquaculture. The uncontrolled of quality degradation of pond sites because of wastes and organic matters decompotition and also global climate changes has been predicted affect triggered the bacterial infections.

  18. 1919. aasta kunsti ülevaatenäitus 1998. aastal


    20. veebruarist Tartu Kunstimuuseumi Kivisilla pildigaleriis avatud 1919. a. näituse "Eesti kunstnike ülevaatenäitus 79 aastat hiljem" rekonstruktsioonist. Kuraator Mare Joonsalu. 1919. a. näituse vastukajadest. Tartu Kunstimuuseumi põhimajas avatud kunstikooli "Pallas" lõpetanute tööde näitusest "Kunstikool "Pallas" 1919-1940". Kuraatorid Tiiu Talvistu, Epp Preem.

  19. On some eighteenth century animal portraits of interest for systematic zoology

    Tuijn, P.; Feen, van der P.J.


    The English zoologist Thomas Pennant (1726—1798) visited The Hague in 1765. There he met another zoologist, Dr. Peter Simon Pallas (1741—1811). On July 30th they visited together the Dutch painter Aart Schouman (1710—1792). Pennant’s diary records: “Accompanied Doctor Pallas a very ingenious young

  20. 1919. aasta kunsti ülevaatenäitus 1998. aastal


    20. veebruarist Tartu Kunstimuuseumi Kivisilla pildigaleriis avatud 1919. a. näituse "Eesti kunstnike ülevaatenäitus 79 aastat hiljem" rekonstruktsioonist. Kuraator Mare Joonsalu. 1919. a. näituse vastukajadest. Tartu Kunstimuuseumi põhimajas avatud kunstikooli "Pallas" lõpetanute tööde näitusest "Kunstikool "Pallas" 1919-1940". Kuraatorid Tiiu Talvistu, Epp Preem.

  1. Browse Title Index - African Journals Online

    Items 5451 - 5500 of 11090 ... ... cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) in .... Vol 12, No 10 (2013), Genetic diversity study of important Indian rice genotypes ... Vol 11, No 29 (2012), Genetic evaluation of domestic walnut ...

  2. Virus diseases risk-factors associated with shrimp farming practices in rice-shrimp and intensive culture systems in Mekong Delta Viet Nam

    Duc, P.M.; Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Nguyen Thanh Phuong,; Bosma, R.H.; Huynh V., Hien; Tran N., Tuan


    In Mekong Delta, viral infection, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), heptopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and gill-associated nidovirus (GAV) frequently infect cultured shrimp starting at the postlarvae

  3. 78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination


    ... rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown... and/or milk, and par-fried. The products included in the scope of this investigation are...

  4. Post-larval recruitment and the bait fishery

    estuaries and a final return to the marine breeding grounds. The major prawn ... slower current speeds and reduction of sampling time when ... recorded in the plankton. These are the ... P. monodon and P. semisulcatus did not show any clear.

  5. Virus diseases risk-factors associated with shrimp farming practices in rice-shrimp and intensive culture systems in Mekong Delta Viet Nam

    Duc, P.M.; Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Nguyen Thanh Phuong,; Bosma, R.H.; Huynh V., Hien; Tran N., Tuan


    In Mekong Delta, viral infection, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), heptopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and gill-associated nidovirus (GAV) frequently infect cultured shrimp starting at the postlarvae s

  6. Pallast tuleb iga päevaga juurde! / Kalev Kesküla

    Kesküla, Kalev, 1959-2010


    Enn Lillemetsa koostatud Tartu Kunstiühingu Pallas ülevaatenäitus "Pallase ees ja järel" Tartu Kunstimajas. Näituse koostaja kommentaarid eksponeeritud kunstnike kohta ; Sebra galeriis pallaslase Ann Audova isiknäitus

  7. Lijst van de Nederlandsche visschen aanwezig in 's Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden, tevens eene vermelding van de tot nu toe in en bij Nederland waargenomen visschen

    Popta, C.M.L.


    Afd.: CHORDATA. Groep III: CEPHALOCHORDATA. Fam.: BRANCHIOSTOMATIDAE. Branchiostoma lanceolata (Pallas) — slakprik, niet aanwezig. Groep IV: CRANIATA. Klasse: Marsipobranchii. Fam.: PETROMYZONIDAE. Petromyzon marinus L. — zeeprik. 1 ex. beschadigd, Noordzee, uit het oude kabinet, in spir. no. 4277.

  8. First record of Hesperomyces virescens (Laboulbeniales, Ascomycota on Harmonia axyridis (Coccinellidae, Coleoptera in Poland

    Michał Gorczak


    Full Text Available Hesperomyces virescens Thaxt. is a fungal parasite of coccinellid beetles. One of its hosts is the invasive harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas. We present the first records of this combination from Poland.

  9. Mode of overwintering of invasive Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Hemerik, L.; Jong, de P.W.; Lenteren, van J.C.


    After establishment of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Europe, population densities of native ladybird species have decreased. The post-hibernation onset of female reproduction, a key characteristic influencing population dynamics and competition with related species, was s

  10. Taxonomy of the European Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca (Aves: Muscicapidae)

    Salvador, Rodrigo B.; Van der Jeugd, Henk; Tomotani, Barbara M.


    The convoluted taxonomy of the European Pied Flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca ([Pallas], 1764) (Aves: Passeriformes: Muscicapidae) might present a challenge for researchers working in other areas of biology. We present here a historical review of this species’ nomenclature, discuss its generic

  11. Tänavu jagub presidendi tunnustust neljale ettevõtjale / Väinu Rozental

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-


    Ärimees Margus Reinsalu, Nopri talu peremees Tiit Niilo, ehitusfirma Aspi üks omanikke Ain Tromp ja Harju Elektri nõukogu esimees Endel Palla pälvisid president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt riiklikud teenetemärgid

  12. Inducible colony formation within the Scenedesmaceae: adaptive responses to infochemicals from two different herbivore taxa

    Verschoor, A.M.; Van der Stap, I.; Helmsing, N.R.; Lürling, M.; Van Donk, E.


    We studied the occurrence of colony formation within 40 different strains of Scenedesmaceae (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta) in response to grazing-released infochemicals from the herbivorous zooplankters Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas (Rotifera) and Daphnia magna Strauss (Cladocera). With the exceptio

  13. Inducible colony formation within the Scenedesmaceae: Adaptive responses to infochemicals from two different herbivore taxa

    Verschoor, A.M.; Stap, I.; Helmsing, N.R.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Donk, van E.


    We studied the occurrence of colony formation within 40 different strains of Scenedesmaceae (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta) in response to grazing-released infochemicals from the herbivorous zooplankters Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas (Rotifera) and Daphnia magna Strauss (Cladocera). With the exceptio

  14. Predicting the potential geographical distribution of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, using the CLIMEX model - BioControl

    Poutsma, J.; Loomans, A.; Aukema, B.; Heijerman, Th.


    Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a ladybird beetle native to temperate and subtropical parts of Asia. Since 1916 populations of this species have been introduced throughout the world, either deliberately, or by accident through international transport. Harmonia axyridi

  15. Eesti kunstnikud ajakirjandusgraafikas 1930. aastail / Merle Talvik

    Talvik, Merle, 1971-


    Kujundusgraafikute kahest koolkonnast: valdavalt Riigi Kunsttööstuskooli haridusega Tallinna kunstnikest ja Kõrgemas kunstikoolis Pallas hariduse saanud Tartu graafikutest. Koolkondade ühisjooneks kujunes art deco. Kunstnikud

  16. Predicting the potential geographical distribution of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, using the CLIMEX model - BioControl

    Poutsma, J.; Loomans, A.; Aukema, B.; Heijerman, Th.


    Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a ladybird beetle native to temperate and subtropical parts of Asia. Since 1916 populations of this species have been introduced throughout the world, either deliberately, or by accident through international transport. Harmonia axyridi

  17. Eesti kunstnikud ajakirjandusgraafikas 1930. aastail / Merle Talvik

    Talvik, Merle, 1971-


    Kujundusgraafikute kahest koolkonnast: valdavalt Riigi Kunsttööstuskooli haridusega Tallinna kunstnikest ja Kõrgemas kunstikoolis Pallas hariduse saanud Tartu graafikutest. Koolkondade ühisjooneks kujunes art deco. Kunstnikud

  18. Correlation between myocardial injury and expression of TNF-α on myocardium tissue of mice induced by agkistrodon halys pallas venom%蝮蛇毒介导的心肌损伤与TNF-α表达的相关性

    李招兵; 何军; 马小峰; 章若涵; 邓立普


    Objective To observe the expression of TNF - α on myocardium tissue of mice to explore the mechanisms by Agkistrodon snake venom - mediated myocardial injury. Methods The 96 male mice were divided into 12 groups(n = 8) randomly and snake venom was divided into three groups: normal saline ( control group) , venomous snake venom and saline ( experimental group) , venomous snake venom and TNF - α inhibitors (intervention group). Poisoning time to set up four levels: 1 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h. The level of serum cTnT were detected by ELISA and pathological changes of myocardial were observed and TNF - α protein expression of myocardial tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry. Linear correlation analysis were performed in myocardial histopathologic scores, serum cTnT levels and TNF - α expression. Results Myocardial histopathologic scores and the expression of TNF - α protein in myocardium at each time point in experimental group were higher than intervention group and intervention group were higher than control group (P < 0. 05 ) , 48 h group were higher than 24 h group, and 24 h group were higher than 12 h group, and 12 h group were higher than lh group, and, and these differences in experimental group and intervention group were statistically significant(P <0. 05) ; besides lh group, serum cTnT levels at each time point in experimental group were higher than intervention group and and intervention group were higher than control group ( P < 0. 05) , 48 h group were higher than 24 h group, and 24 h group were higher than 12 h group, and 12 h group were higher than 1 h group, and, and these differences in experimental group and intervention  group were statistically significant P < 0. 05 ) ; myocardial histopathologic scores was significant positive correlation with the expression of TNF - α protein in myocardium ( r = 0. 728 , P < 0. 05 ) ; serum cTnT levels was significant positive correlation with the expression of TNF - α protein in myocardium ( r = 0.666, P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Agkistrodon snake venom can lead to acute myocardial injury of mice, and with the extension of time, the more severe myocardial injury, the higher the expression of TNF - α protein increased significantly. TNF - α inhibitors can reduce the degree of Agkistrodon snake venom - mediated myocardial injury, the expression of TNF - α protein in myocardium and serum cTnT. Over - expression of TNF - α may be one of the mechanisms that agkistrodon snake venom - mediated myocardial injury.%目的 观察蝮蛇毒介导的心肌损伤与TNF-α的表达,探讨蝮蛇毒介导的心肌损伤的机制.方法 96只小鼠随机分成12组(n=8),共设3个组:生理盐水(对照组)、蝮蛇毒+生理盐水(实验组)、蝮蛇毒+TNF-α抑制剂(干预组);分4个时相点:1 h、12 h、24 h和48 h.ELISA检测血清cTnT水平,观察心肌组织病变,免疫组化检测心肌组织TNF-α蛋白的表达.对心肌病变积分、血清cTnT水平与心肌TNF-α表达行直线相关分析.结果 实验组各时相点心肌病变积分和心肌TNF-α蛋白表达均高于干预组和对照组(P<0.05),干预组各时相点均高对照组(P<0.05),实验组和干预组48 h>24 h>12 h>1 h(P<0.05);除1 h组外,实验组各时相点血清cTnT水平均高于干预组及对照组(P<0.05),干预组各时相点高于对照组(P<0.05),实验组和干预组48 h>24 h>12 h>1 h(P<0.05);小鼠心肌病变积分与心肌TNF-α表达呈显著正相关(r=0.728,P<0.05),小鼠血清cTnT水平与心肌TNF-α表达呈显著正相关(r=0.666,P<0.05).结论 蝮蛇毒可致小鼠急性心肌损伤,随时间的延长,心肌损伤越严重.TNF-α抑制剂能降低蝮蛇毒介导的心肌损伤程度、血清cTnT水平及心肌TNF-α蛋白的表达.TNF-α的过度表达可能是蝮蛇毒介导心肌损伤的机制之一.




    puissent franchir un mur vertical, le pourcentage de passage et le taux de réussite est beaucoup plus faible que pour les autres pentes testées. Une pente à 50°, et une charge de l’ordre de 1-2 mm sont les deux conditions ayant permis sur le pilote d’obtenir les meilleurs résultats. Le revêtement de la rampe s’est révélé être un facteur secondaire, le béton lisse constituant cependant le meilleur support. Les résultats de cette étude ont permis de proposer des critères de dimensionnement pour des dispositifs de franchissement adaptés aux sites et à l’espèce. La passe consiste en une rampe en béton lisse installée à une pente de 50° alimentée par déversement. Une alimentation non uniforme sur la largeur de la rampe permet d’obtenir, quel que soit le niveau amont, une zone favorable à la remontée du poisson.

  20. Effects of fenoxycarb,a juvenile hormone analog,on various developmental stages of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae)%保幼激素类似物苯氧威对异色瓢虫不同发育阶段的影响

    尹素芬; 赵鑫; 王丽晓; 李刚; 李光强; 赵静; 郑方强


    [Objective] This study focused on the effects of fenoxycarb, a juvenile hormone analog (JHA), on the ladybird Harmonia axyridis and discussed its mechanisms of action, so as to evaluate the risks of fenoxycarb application and provide theoretical basis for rational use of the JHA. [Methods] Toxicity of fenoxycarb to egg, 2nd instar larva, pupa and adult of H. Axyridis was determined in the laboratory by using the methods of dipping, topical contact and residual film, respectively. [Results] Fenoxycarb significantly disrupted embryonic development of newly-laid eggs at the minimum concentration of 0. 0001 μg/mL, but when the 2 d-old eggs were treated, the larvae could hatch even at the highest concentration of 20 000 μg/mL. The mortality of 2nd instar larvae was very low even at the highest concentration of 4 000 μg/mL. When pupae were treated, fenoxycarb had significant effects on pupal development with adult eclosion blocked, and pupa-adult intermediate and abnormalities of adults emerged at the minimum concentration of 0.0001 μg (a. I.)/larva. The adult vitality was affected significantly at 24 h after contact with fenoxycarb at the concentration of 0. 0125 μg/mL. [Conclusions] Fenoxycarb had an obvious ovicidal action on newly-laid eggs of H. Axyridis, seriously blocked the larval-pupal metamorphosis and affected the survival of the adults. When fenoxycarb is used in fields, the susceptible developmental stages of the ladybird should be avoided.%[目的]本研究旨在明确保幼激素类似物苯氧威对天敌异色瓢虫 Harmonia axyridis 的影响,并探讨其作用机理,以便进行安全性评价并为科学使用提供理论依据.[方法]应用连叶浸渍法、浸渍法、点滴法和药膜法分别处理异色瓢虫卵、2龄幼虫、蛹和成虫,观察苯氧威对4个虫态的影响.[结果]用浓度为0.0001 μg/mL的药液处理初产卵,能抑制胚胎的发育;但用高达20 000 μg/mL的药液处理发育2 d的卵,幼虫仍可正常孵化;用浓度高达4 000μg/mL的药液浸渍2龄幼虫,对幼虫的致死作用极小;用浓度为0.0001 μg/头的药液处理当天蛹,形成蛹一成虫中间体,羽化的成虫畸形;用浓度为0.0125 μg/mL的药液处理成虫,24 h后成虫的生命力受到明显影响.[结论]苯氧威对异色瓢虫初产卵有明显的毒杀作用,严重阻碍蛹到成虫的变态和影响成虫的存活.在田间使用该杀虫剂时,要避开异色瓢虫的敏感期.

  1. An in vivo effiacy validation and immune-modulatory potential of Streptomyces sp.

    Sujith Sugathan


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the in vivo efficacy and immune-modulatory potential of antagonistic strain, Streptomyces sp. MAPS15 isolated from marine sponge in Penaeus monodon (P. monodon. Methods: In this study, culture of Streptomyces sp. was incorporated into a commercial feed. P. monodon was orally administered with MAPS15 diet for a period of 21 days followed by a challenge experiment and survival rate was calculated. In addition, the effect of MAPS15 diet on immunological parameters of the haemolymph of P. monodon was also assessed. Results: The overall results of the study showed that survival performance was prominent in MAPS15 treated group when compared with un-treated control groups. That could pertain to the ability of MAPS15 to produce antibiotic compounds to suppress the growth of invading pathogens and thereby increase the disease resistance potency and survival rate. From the results of the immunological studies, it can be envisaged that the immune responses were generally more pronounced with MAPS15 diet treated group. Conclusions: Based on the overall findings, it could be inferred that the health of P. monodon is improved when they are fed with MAPS15 diet for a period of 21 days.

  2. Presencia de moluscos tropicales de la provincia panameña en la costa central del Perú y su relación con los eventos "El Niño"

    Carlos Paredes


    Full Text Available Se reporta el hallazgo de moluscos cuya distribución conocida se encuentra dentro de los límites de la Provincia Panameña, en diversas localidades de la Provincia Peruana entre los años 1972 y 1994, período en el que se presentaron varios eventos "El Niño". Fue posible determinar 15 especies de moluscos que ampliaron su distribución: Pteria stema, Orobitella peruviana, Cryptornya califomica, Cerithium (T stercusmuscarum, Malea ringens, Hexaplex brassica, Thais styllmanberryi, T (M. triangularis, T (T callaoensis, Acanthina brevidentata, Purpura pansa, Neorapana muricata, Anachis (C. nigricans, Cancellaria (C. decussata y C. (B. chrysostorna. Se postula una variabilidad en los límites de las provincias biogeográficas de la costa peruana, controlada por el ENSO.

  3. 南中国斑节对虾养殖中控制白斑综合症病的理论和策略%Theory and Strategies for Controlling White Spot Syndrome (WSS) of Cultured Penaeus monodon in South China


    @@ White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the causative agent of white spot syndrome (WSS) of cultured penaeid shrimps. WSS breaks out and prevails in cultured penaeid shrimps in many countries and regions of the world, especially in southeast Asia. WSSV is the virus most severe damaging to the cultured penaeid shrimps in the world. At the present time, the control of the outbreaks of WSSV will recover and develop the penaeid shrimp cultures in China and even in the world.

  4. 与晚期结直肠癌EGFR单克隆抗体靶向药物选择相关的分子标志物%Molecular markers associated with anti-EGFR monodonal antibody in treatment selection for advanced colorectal cancer

    李凡; 韩琤波; 马洁韬


    对于转移性结直肠癌而言,如何在标准化疗的基础上进行个体化靶向治疗是目前关注的热点.KRAS基因突变被认为是转移性结直肠癌对抗表皮生长因子受体(epidermal growth factor receptor,EGFR)单克隆抗体(anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody,anti-EGFR)靶向治疗反应不佳的独立预测因素.35%~45%的转移性结直肠癌患者存在KRAS基因的突变,且对anti-EGFR治疗抵抗;同时只有50%的野生型KRAS患者对anti-EGFR治疗有效,提示EGFR下游信号通路其他分子的激活和变异可能影响了其治疗反应.EGFR依赖的2条主要信号通路RAS-RAF-MAPK和PI3K-PTEN-AKT均与anti-EGFR治疗失败有关.EGFR基因拷贝数(gene copy number,GCN)增加与结肠癌anti-EGFR的疗效相关,但EGFR GCN增加并不意味着EGFR蛋白表达增加,且EGFR表达与anti-EGFR疗效无相关性.在野生型KRAS转移性结直肠癌患者中增加对BRAF和PIK3CA基因突变以及PTEN基因表达缺失的检测可能有助于筛选anti-EGFR抵抗患者.本研究对近年来转移性结直肠癌研究中所涉及的疗效预测和预后分子标志物进行综述,以进一步指导转移性结直肠癌的个体化分子靶向治疗.%Personalized targeted therapy in addition to standard chemotherapy has become a hot topic in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (Mcrc). KRAS gene mutation has been considered as a predictor for poor response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody (anti-EGFR) therapy in patients with Mcrc. The percentage of KRAS mutation is 35%-45% in patients with Mcrc, and these patients have poor response to anti-EGFR; while only 50% of patients with wild-type KRAS respond to anti-EGFR, which suggests that the activation and variation of other molecules in the downstream of EGFR signaling pathway can influence the therapeutic effects. The two major EGFR-dependent signaling pathways-RAS-RAF-MAPK and PI3K-PTEN-AKT may be involved in poor response to anti-EGFR in the treatment of Mcrc. In addition, the increased EGFR gene copy number (GCN) is associated with the efficacy of anti-EGFR therapy, but not associated with the expression level of EGFR protein which has no correlation with the efficacy of anti-EGFR therapy. Additional detection of mutations in BRAF and PIK3CA genes as well as deletion of PTEN gene in wild-type KRAS patients with Mcrc may be helpful in further selection of patients with anti-EGFR resistance. This paper reviews recent progress on molecular markers associated with treatment outcome and prognosis predictions in the treatment of Mcrc, in order to guide individualized molecular targeted therapy for Mcrc.

  5. Estimating the Economic Value of Narwhal and Beluga Hunts in Hudson Bay, Nunavut

    Hoover, C.; Bailey, M.L.; Higdon, J.; Ferguson, S.H.; Sumaila, R.


    Hunting of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in Hudson Bay is an important activity, providing food and income in northern communities, yet few studies detail the economic aspects of these hunts. We outline the uses of narwhal and beluga and estimate the revenues, costs,

  6. Current status of viral diseases in Indian shrimp aquaculture.

    Tandel, G M; John, K Riji; Rosalind George, M; Prince Jeyaseelan, M J

    The intensification of aquaculture has been unique in showing the overwhelming changes in global food production in the last 100 years. Presently, it is playing a vital role in the economies of several countries. Conversely, it is also to be noted that the progression of aquaculture has been the foundation of anthropogenic alteration of a gigantic hierarchy and hence not astonishingly, it resulted in spread and emergence of an increasing group of new unknown diseases. In India, Penaeus monodon, black tiger shrimp was previously the foremost-cultivated shrimp species. Subsequently in 2008, the American white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has effectively replaced it. The change in dominant species has affected disease concerns in India as well as in world shrimp aquaculture. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most deleterious for both species. Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), Monodon baculovirus (MBV) and Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) are the other significant infectious agents of P. monodon and L. vannamei. An emerging disease of loose shell syndrome (LSS) was already reported from India during late 1998. A more recent disease of L. vannamei in India is monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS), a component of which seems to be Laem-Singh virus (LSNV). Thus, most of the information in this review relates to new emerging pathogens that threaten the cultivation shrimp industry in India.

  7. Production of giant freshwater prawn postlarvae in penaeid prawn (shrimp) hatchery: An experience

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Chatterji, A.; Sripada, R.A.; Desai, U.M.

    and related techniques. A report on the subject entitled "Design and Specifications of a Pilot Scale Prawn Hatchery" was submitted to Union Department of Biotechnology (DBT) in March 1997 (NIO/SP-5/97). For the last two years, PL 20 stages of Penaeus monodon...

  8. Effect of eyestalk ablation on the metabolic activities of two penaeid prawns: Metapenaeous monoceros and M. dobsoni (De Man)

    Venkitraman, P.P.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    sexes of the estuarine grapsid crab, Chasmagnathus granulata was drawn by Stella et al. (2000). It has been observed by Trisak (1990) that inter-moult periods of Penaeus monodon fabricius increased with the increase in the size of the experimental...

  9. On the vaccination of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus

    Witteveldt, J.


    More than a decade after its discovery inSouth-East Asia, White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still the most important (viral) pathogen in the shrimp culture industry. Despite the shift from culturingPenaeusmonodon

  10. Three functionally diverged major White Spot Syndrome Virus structural proteins evolved by gene duplication

    Hulten, van M.C.W.; Goldbach, R.W.; Vlak, J.M.


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus causing considerable mortality in penaeid shrimp. The oval-to-bacilliform shaped virions, isolated from infected Penaeus monodon, contain four major proteins: VP28, VP26, VP24 and VP19 (28, 26, 24 and 19 kDa, respectively). VP26 and VP24 are

  11. Two new species of Hymenolepis (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) from Spalacidae and Muridae (Rodentia) from eastern Palearctic.

    Makarikov, Arseny A; Tkach, Vasyl V


    Previously unrecognized species of the genus Hymenolepis are described based on specimens from spalacid and murid (Murinae) rodents. Hymenolepis rymzhanovi sp. nov. from the Siberian zokor, Myospalax myospalax (Laxmann), from East Kazakhstan, and H. apodemi sp. nov. from Eurasian field mice, Apodemus peninsulae (Thomas), A. uralensis (Pallas) and A. agrarius (Pallas), from the south of Russian Far East, western Siberia and south-eastern Kazakhstan are characterized. The new species differ from other species of the genus by the morphology of the scolex, the relative position and length of the cirrus-sac and the relative position and arrangement of the testes. Differential criteria of species of Hymenolepis (sensu stricto) are also discussed.

  12. Parasites of the recently established round goby (Negobius melanostomus) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus) (Gobiidae) from the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA

    Pronin, Nikolai M.; Fleischer, Guy W.; Baldanova, Darima R.; Pronina, Svetlana V.


    Specimens of the recently established European round goby (Negobius melanostomus Pallas, 1811) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus Pallas, 1811) were collected from different locations in the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, USA and were examined for parasites. Parasites were observed in 76% of the round gobies and 35% of the tubenose gobies. Four species of parasites in the gobies occur in the Black Sea watershed. Two of them have been reported in North America for the first time: Sphaeromyxa sevastopoli Naidenova, 1970 and Ichthyocotylurus pileatus (Rudolphi, 1802). Three parasite species found in the gobies are endemic to North America and were most likely obtained locally.

  13. Tagasi looduse ja inimese juurde / Tiina Abel

    Abel, Tiina, 1951-


    Kunstipoliitika ja ametlik kunst. Heroiline alastuse motiiv. 1937. aasta Pariisi maailmanäitus. Väitlused kunsti rahvuslikkuse ja eesti stiili üle. Kunstikool ja kunstiühing Pallas. Prantsuse orientatsiooni süvenemine. Kaks Prantsuse kunstikultuuri manifestatsiooni

  14. Amanda Jasmiin, habras sidepidaja / Enn Lillemets

    Lillemets, Enn


    Rootsis elava, 30. märtsil 100-aastaseks saanud Amanda Jasmiini elust, õpingutest, skulptuuriloomingust, arvustustest. Lõpetas 1937. a. Pallase skulptorina, on töötanud joonistusõpetaja, moekunstniku ja illustraatorina, kavandanud teatrikostüüme, 1997. aastast kunstiühingu Pallas auliige

  15. Revision of the Indo-Pacific species of the genus Distichopora

    Boschma, H.


    Twenty-one species of Distichopora have been described after specimens from various localities in the Indo-Pacific region, viz., D. violacea (Pallas, 1766) from “Mare Indicum”, D. cinnabarina Nardo, 1844, from the Red Sea (?), D. gracilis Dana, 1848, from the Tuamotu Islands, D. coccinea Gray, 1860,

  16. Tylenchids nematodes (Tylenchida parasitizing field population of Harmonia axyridis, and Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae in Argentina

    Nora B. Camino


    Full Text Available For the first time in Argentina, we report that in Harmonia axyridis Pallas, 1773, and Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae parasitizing by nematodes which belong to the family of Allantonematidae (Nematoda, Tylenchida. The genera are Metaparasitylenchus Wachek, 1955 (Nickle, 1967, Sulphuretylenchus Rühm, 1956 (Nickle, 1967 and Contortylenchus Rühm, 1956. They will be described and photographied afterwards.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of the Early Powdery Mildew Infection Stages on Resistant Barley Genotypes

    Andersen, J. B.; Torp, J.


    A classification system was developed, that allowed quantification of the leaf surface development of the barley powdery mildew fungus on barley. An experiment with Manchuria and Pallas as susceptible controls and 4 resistance gene each represented by three lines with different gene backgrounds s...

  18. First observations of two talitrid crustaceans (Amphipoda: Talitridae from Gokceada island (NE Aegean Sea



    Full Text Available The present paper reports the occurrence of Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808 and Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas, 1766 which are the first records from Gokceada (Imbroz Island (NE Aegean Sea. It should be noted that, T. saltator is a new record for the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey.

  19. The Dutch rush: history and myth of the Equisetum trade

    Winter, de W.P.


    In England in the early 19th century at least two products went by the commercial name Dutch Rush, viz. the Rough Horsetail Equisetum hyemale L. used in cabinet making and similar crafts, and the Common Club-rush/Bulrush Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla used in matting and chair manufacturing. So

  20. Pallase peakoosolek / Enn Lillemets

    Lillemets, Enn


    Kunstiühingu "Pallas" peakoosolek 20. VI Tartus Kirjanduse Majas. Ühingu viimase pooleteise aasta tegevusest ja lähematest kavadest rääkis Enn Lillemets. Galeriide vähesusest Tartus, pallasliku maalihariduse andmisest Konrad Mäe Ateljees, kunstinäitustest jm. Juhatuse (esimees E. Lillemets) ja revisjonikomisjoni koosseis

  1. Diapause and post-diapause quiescence demonstrated in overwintering Harmonia axyeidis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in northwestern Europe

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Jong, de P.W.; Hemerik, L.; Lenteren, van J.C.


    The Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is regarded as an invasive species in many parts of the world. In a previous study we hypothesised that H. axyridis enters diapause at the end of October and then shifts to a quiescent state in December in northwestern Europe.

  2. Control of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei by treatment with mycelial extracts from cultured fungi

    Haugaard, H.; Jørgensen, H.J.L.; Lyngkjær, M.F.


    High levels of protection against infection from Blumeria graminis Esp. hordei in the susceptible barley cv. Pallas were obtained by pretreatment with mycelial extracts or culture filtrates from seven different fungi (Bipolaris oryzae, B. sorokiniana, Drechslera teres f. maculata, Fusarium culmorum...... resistance cannot be precluded....

  3. De Vries & Mul, A.M. Cooper, Pioneer of Puppet Animation

    Wells, Paul


    abstractReview of Tjitte de Vries and Ati Mul, ‘They Thought it was a Marvel’. Arthur Melbourne Cooper (1874-1961) Pioneer of Puppet Animation. Amsterdam (Pallas Publications/AmsterdamUniversity Press) 2009, 576 p., 105 ill.; includesdvd of 6 films, isbn 978 908 555016 7

  4. The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis

    Roy, Helen E.; Brown, Peter M.J.; Adriaens, Tim;


    The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is native to Asia but has been intentionally introduced to many countries as a biological control agent of pest insects. In numerous countries, however, it has been introduced unintentionally. The dramatic spread of H...

  5. Taxonomy of Mongolian Bulrushes (Cyperaceae Juss.

    Dashzeveg Nyambayar


    Full Text Available The taxonomic position of Mongolian species belonging to the genus Scirpus L. is revised here. Five species are included in this genus. In this paper, three of them are transferred to the genus Schoenoplectus (H.G.L. Reichenb. Palla. Keys for the identification of these two genera and species, species descriptions and data on their distribution in Mongolia are given.

  6. Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemiad


    1999. a. parim interjöör ئ Krista ja Jaak Roosi kujundatud hotell 'Pallas' Tartus, vormipreemia ئ Toivo Raidmetsa diivanilaud 'Tea'. Esile tõsteti: Priit Põldme kujundatud restoran 'Balthasar' ja Katrin Tombergi kujundatud AS Termesti büroohoone Tallinnas, Ivi-Els Schneideri 'Klaaskirst', Tiina Mangi klaaslaud 'Lii-Loo'.

  7. Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemiad


    1999. a. parim interjöör - Krista ja Jaak Roosi kujundatud hotell "Pallas" Tartus, parim disainiobjekt - Toivo Raidmetsa diivanilaud "Tea". Esile tõsteti: Priit Põldme, Katrin Tomberg (interjöörid), Ivi-Els Schneider, Tiina Mang (disain). 2 illustratsiooni

  8. Die geskiedenis van die Nasionale Bontebokpark, Swellendam

    A.P.J. van Rensburg


    Full Text Available A description of the early history of the Swellendam district is given. The following aspects of the bontebok Damaliscus dorcas dorcas (Pallas, 1766 are discussed: distribution; origins of the historical confusion between bontebok and blesbok (D. d. phillipsi Harper, 1939; decline of the sub-species; conservation measures and redistribution.

  9. Invasive alien species under attack: natural enemies of Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Wielink, van P.; Jong, de P.W.; Gort, G.; Haelewaters, D.; Helder, J.; Lenteren, van J.C.


    The aphid predator Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an invasive alien species in Europe and North America with negative effects on non-target species (including a decline of native ladybird populations), as well as fruit production, and human health. It is, therefore, import

  10. Het lieveheersbeestje Harmonia axyridis in Nederland: een aanwinst voor onze fauna of een ongewenste indringer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)?

    Cuppen, J.; Heijerman, Th.; Wielink, van P.; Loomans, A.


    Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands: a gain for the fauna or an unwanted intruder (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)? The coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773), a well-known aphid predator originating from Asia, was found for the first time in the Netherlands (Heilige Landstichting near Nijmegen) i

  11. Diapause and post-diapause quiescence demonstrated in overwintering Harmonia axyeidis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in northwestern Europe

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Jong, de P.W.; Hemerik, L.; Lenteren, van J.C.


    The Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is regarded as an invasive species in many parts of the world. In a previous study we hypothesised that H. axyridis enters diapause at the end of October and then shifts to a quiescent state in December in northwestern Europe.

  12. Larval life history responses to food deprivation in three species of predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    We studied life history responses of larvae of three coccinellid species, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), when deprived of food for different periods of time during the fourth stadium. The coccinellid species did not differ in ...

  13. Changes in the Ratio of the Sulcus Acusticus Area to the Sagitta Area of Pomatoschistus-Minutus and P-Lozanoi (Pisces, Gobiidae)

    Arellano, R.V.; Hamerlynck, O.; Vincx, M.; Mees, J.; Hostens, K.; Gijselinck, W.


    The Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas) and P. lozanoi (de Buen) stock of the ebb-tidal delta of the former Grevelingen estuary was sampled monthly from September 1992 to October 1993. Sagittae were extracted and the areas of the sagitta and sulcus acusticus were measured with a digitizer. The frequency

  14. The Ch-class asteroids: Connecting a visible taxonomic class to a 3-{\\mu}m band shape

    Rivkin, Andrew S; Howell, Ellen S; Emery, Joshua P


    Asteroids belonging to the Ch spectral taxonomic class are defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 {\\mu}m, which is interpreted as due to Fe-bearing phyllosilicates. Phyllosilicates also cause strong absorptions in the 3-{\\mu}m region, as do other hydrated and hydroxylated minerals and H2O ice. Over the past decade, spectral observations have revealed different 3-{\\mu}m band shapes the asteroid population. Although a formal taxonomy is yet to be fully established, the "Pallas-type" spectral group is most consistent with the presence of phyllosilicates. If Ch class and Pallas type are both indicative of phyllosilicates, then all Ch-class asteroids should also be Pallas-type. In order to test this hypothesis, we obtained 42 observations of 36 Ch-class asteroids in the 2- to 4-{\\mu}m spectral region. We found that 88% of the spectra have 3-{\\mu}m band shapes most consistent with the Pallas-type group. This is the first asteroid class for which such a strong correlation has been found. Because the Ch cl...

  15. First record of Saga pedo (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae in Suceava County with notes on its distribution in Eastern Romania

    Emilian Pricop


    Full Text Available The predatory bush-cricket Saga pedo Pallas, 1771 is mentioned for the first time from“Fâneţele Seculare Ponoare” Bosanci Natural Reserve, located few kilometers south of Suceava city,Suceava county (Romania. The general distribution of this species in eastern Romania is also discussedin this paper.

  16. De Vries & Mul, A.M. Cooper, Pioneer of Puppet Animation

    Wells, Paul


    abstractReview of Tjitte de Vries and Ati Mul, ‘They Thought it was a Marvel’. Arthur Melbourne Cooper (1874-1961) Pioneer of Puppet Animation. Amsterdam (Pallas Publications/AmsterdamUniversity Press) 2009, 576 p., 105 ill.; includesdvd of 6 films, isbn 978 908 555016 7

  17. Twenty five years of invasion: management of the round goby Neogobius melanostomus in the Baltic Sea

    Ojaveer, Henn; Galil, Bella S.; Lehtiniemi, Maiju


    The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814), is one of the most invasive non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea. It dominates coastal fisheries in some localities and is frequently found in offshore pelagic catches. This paper identifies management issues and suggests actions to be co...


    Rivkin, Andrew S. [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (United States); Thomas, Cristina A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Howell, Ellen S. [Arecibo Observatory, USRA (Puerto Rico); Emery, Joshua P. [University of Tennessee (United States)


    Asteroids belonging to the Ch spectral taxonomic class are defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 μm, which is interpreted as due to Fe-bearing phyllosilicates. Phyllosilicates also cause strong absorptions in the 3 μm region, as do other hydrated and hydroxylated minerals and H{sub 2}O ice. Over the past decade, spectral observations have revealed different 3 μm band shapes in the asteroid population. Although a formal taxonomy is yet to be fully established, the “Pallas-type” spectral group is most consistent with the presence of phyllosilicates. If Ch class and Pallas type are both indicative of phyllosilicates, then all Ch-class asteroids should also be Pallas-type. In order to test this hypothesis, we obtained 42 observations of 36 Ch-class asteroids in the 2 to 4 μm spectral region. We found that 88% of the spectra have 3 μm band shapes most consistent with the Pallas-type group. This is the first asteroid class for which such a strong correlation has been found. Because the Ch class is defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 μm, this demonstrates that the 0.7 μm band serves not only as a proxy for the presence of a band in the 3 μm region, but specifically for the presence of Pallas-type bands. There is some evidence for a correlation between band depth at 2.95 μm and absolute magnitude and/or albedo. However, we find only weak correlations between 2.95 μm band depth and semimajor axis. The connection between band depths in the 0.7 and 3 μm regions is complex and in need of further investigation.

  19. Heavy metals accumulation in crab and shrimps from Pulicat lake, north Chennai coastal region, southeast coast of India.

    Batvari, B Prabhu Dass; Sivakumar, S; Shanthi, K; Lee, Kui-Jae; Oh, Byung-Taek; Krishnamoorthy, R R; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan


    The accumulation of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) was examined in crab (Scylla serrata) and shrimps (Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus indicus, and Penaeus monodon) collected from Pulicat lake that receives effluents from industries located in north Chennai, southeast coast of India. The results showed limited difference between crab and prawns as well as significant variations between the organs. Pb is the highly accumulated metal in both crab and shrimps, except P. monodon. The highest metal concentration was mostly found in the liver followed by other organs. The concentration of metals in edible parts (muscle) was within the permissible level and safe for consumption. However, the results of the study clearly indicate the biomagnification of metals in Pulicat lake.

  20. A revision of the genus Thouarella Gray, 1870 (Octocorallia: Primnoidae), including an illustrated dichotomous key, a new species description, and comments on Plumarella Gray, 1870 and Dasystenella, Versluys, 1906.

    Taylor, M L; Cairns, S D; Agnew, D J; Rogers, A D


    A comprehensive revision of the genus Thouarella is presented. Thirty-five holotypes of the 38 nominal Thouarella species, two varieties, and one form were examined. The number of original Thouarella species has been reduced to 25, mostly through synonymy or new genus combinations. In the process several new species have also been identified, one of which is described here as Thouarella parachilensis nov. sp. The genus is split into two groups based on polyp arrangement: Group 1 with isolated polyps and Group 2 with polyps in pairs or whorls. An illustrated dichotomous key and detailed character table of the 25 Thouarella species are presented alongside an up-to-date account of all species described in the 19th and 20th centuries and summaries of the few described from 2000 onwards. We propose that Thouarella longispinosa is synonymous with Dasystenella acanthina, T. versluysi with T. brucei, and, T. tenuisquamis, T. flabellata, and T. carinata are synonymous with T. laxa. Lastly, we propose that T. bayeri and T. undulata be placed in Plumarella and support recent suggestions that T. alternata, T. recta, T. superba, and T. diadema are also Plumarella.

  1. Distribution of putative virulence genes and antimicrobial drug resistance in Vibrio harveyi

    Parvathi, A.; Mendez, D.; Anto, C.

    . monodon hatchery and grow out systems, where they can infect post larvae causing large scale mortalities [3, 4]. Infection with biofilm forming V. harveyi resistant to multiple antibiotics has been previously reported from India [5]. The pathogenic... resistant to neomycin. Since kanamycin, streptomycin and neomycin belong to aminoglycoside group of antibiotics, the resistance to multiple antibiotics of the same class is expected. Similarly, resistance to macrolids erythromycin and azithromycin, β...

  2. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Christian Reinhard Vogl; Brojo Gopal Paul


    In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798) aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Banglade...

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16080-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ru... 32 0.60 4 ( DW405368 ) ES-N-S03-0263-W Penaeus monodon Eyestalk cDNA lib... 40 0.61 2 ( EF207620 ) Exciro...te marker DNA (id T8). 36 4.4 2 ( AC181850 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-1022C20, W... 36 4.4 8 ( EF207629 ) Exciro

  4. Production and Characterization Chitosan Nano from Black Tiger Shrimpwith Ionic Gelation Methods

    Laode Muhamad Hazairin Nadia; Pipih - Suptijah; Bustami - Ibrahim


    Black tiger shrimp shell (Penaeus monodon) has a potential as raw materials in the manufacturing process of nano-chitosan that contains chitin. The purposes of this study is to formed nano-chitosan through ionic gelation process and size reduction by magnetic stirrer and determine the characteristic of nano-chitosan based on morphology and size of nanoparticles. Nano-chitosan were formed by ionic gelation method, which is polyelectrolite complexation between the positively charged chitosan an...

  5. Man in the Arctic, The Changing Nature of His Quest for Food and Water as Related to Snow, Ice, and Permafrost


    where they lived in the sea. For this reason a seal was given water when brought into the house. Beluga and balaena were given water on being When is was necessary to haul wale .’, the estension was unscrewed and the water pressure from below forced the gasoline out of the pipe, which...the whales proper but also the porpoises (Phocaena pho- caena), narwhals (Monodon monoceros), and the belugas (Delphinapterus leitcas) all of which

  6. Таксономический состав и количественное раз­витие эндосимбионтов моллюска Dreissena polymorphs (Pallas) (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) в р. Березина

    Мастицкий, С. Э.; Вежновец, Г. Г.


    This work was conducted in the River Berezina near Borisov city to study the species composition of endosymbionts of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The mantle cavity and visceral mass of molluscs were found to be inhabited by ciliates (Conchophthirus acuminatus, Ancistrumina limnica), trematodes (Bucephalus polymorphus, Phyllodistomum folium and Echinostomatidae), oligochaetes (Chaetogaster limnael and others), nematodes and chironomids (Limnochironomus gr. nervosus and L tritomus). The...


    Кирильцов, Е.В.


    Full Text Available В работе приведены данные о зараженности гельминтозами дзеренов, мигрирующих с территории Монголии в Забайкальский край. Изучен видовой состав выявленных паразитов. Выявлено 13 видов гельминтов, с высокой ЭИ до 100% и ИИ свыше 2000 экз./гол. Обнаруженные гельминты патогенны для сельскохозяйственных животных, а Echinococcus granulosus larva, Cysticercus tenuicollis, Trichostrongylus colubriformis и Trichostrongylus axei может заражаться и человек.

  8. Reproductive patterns in demersal crustaceans from the upper boundary of the OMZ off north-central Chile

    Gallardo, María de los Ángeles; González López, Andrés E.; Ramos, Marcel; Mujica, Armando; Muñoz, Praxedes; Sellanes, Javier; Yannicelli, Beatriz


    Pleuroncodes monodon (Crustacea: Munididae) supports one of the main trawling fisheries over the continental shelf off Chile between 25°S and 37°S within the upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Although the reproductive cycle of P. monodon has been described, the relationship between this key biological process and the variability of the OMZ has not been comprehensibly addressed neither for P. monodon nor for other OMZ resident species. In this study a set of 14 quasi-monthly oceanographic cruises carried out between June 2010 and November 2011 were conducted over the continental shelf off Coquimbo (30°S) to investigate the temporal variability of: i) dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature and chlorophyll-a at relevant depths ii) the presence and proportion of occurrence of P. monodon ovigerous females and juveniles from benthic trawls; iii) the presence of different stage larvae in the plankton, and iv) similar biological data for other species from the OMZ and shallower depths crustaceans. During summer months oxygen levels and bottom temperature were lower than in winter, while chlorophyll-a concentration was maximum in summer coinciding with an active (but not maximum) upwelling season. P. monodon maximum egg carrying occurred in winter during periods of increased oxygenation. Egg carrying females were never found at depths where oxygen concentration was below 0.5 ml L-1, while over 50% of the autumn and spring cohorts of juveniles occurred at oxygen concentrations below that level. The depth range occupied by ovigerous females was more restricted than the rest of the population and their depth of occurrence followed the variability of the upper OMZ. The larval release period of OMZ resident species extends over late winter and spring, and its main peak precedes that of coastal species (spring) and the spring-summer chlorophyll-a maximum. We propose that for OMZ resident species, brood carrying during warmer and more oxygenated conditions

  9. Bucephalus polymorphus Baer, 1827 - a new fish parasite in Austria?

    Michael Mühlegger, J; Jirsa, Franz; Konecny, Robert; Sattmann, Helmut; Frank, Christa


    During parasitological studies of the invasive round goby fish species Apollonia melanostoma (Pallas, 1814) from the Danube River in 2007 the digenean Bucephalus polymorphus Baer, 1827 was detected for the first time in Austria. Encysted metacercariae of the parasite were found on the fins, skin and gills of the fish. The occurrence of the parasite is strictly dependant on the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), which acts as the obligatory first intermediate host in its life cycle. The mussel has also invaded Austrian waters, but has appeared in 1870 already. It will not be possible to establish whether the parasite was introduced to Austria with the gobies, or has arrived earlier, but it should be the subject of future investigations to ascertain whether the parasite will be able to establish a firm population in Austria, and whether this introduction puts additional pressure on the native fish populations.

  10. Atmospheric Bulk Deposition of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Finland

    Markku Korhonen


    Full Text Available The deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs was studied during the period 2006–2008 in northern Finland (Pallas, 1998–2008 in southern Finland (Evo and 2002–2004 in the Gulf of Finland archipelago (Utö. Retrospective snow samples were taken from the whole snowbank in Evo in 2003 and 2004, and recently fallen snow was collected in Evo in 2006–2008. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the depositions were usually small. The limit of quantification (LOQ was often reached in Pallas and Utö. The analysis results of PCDD/F and PCB congeners from Evo were used to predict numerical results with linear regression for those congeners with results below LOQ. The deposition of PCDD/Fs in Pallas was mostly less than 0.4 pg·m−2·day−1 WHO-TEQ and less than 1.0 pg·m−2·day−1 WHO-TEQ and 0.5 pg·m−2·day−1 WHO-TEQ in Evo and Utö, respectively. The deposition of co-planar PCBs (cPCBs was between 0.01 and 0.1 pg·m−2·day−1 WHO-TEQ. Annual PCDD/F deposition, calculated from the amount of collected rain and chemical analysis results, varied in Pallas between 0.04 and 0.15 ng·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ, in Evo between 0.11 and 0.22 ng·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ and in Utö between 50 and 145 pg·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ. For cPCBs the annual deposition in Pallas was 2–11 pg·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ, in Evo 6–17 pg·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ and in Utö 4–8 pg·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ. Wind directions are considered to be the main reason for the variation between seasons. Congener 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD dominated in Pallas, Evo, and Utö, being 35%, 48%, and 47% of the overall WHO-TEQ, followed by 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF (about 10%. The calculated pg/L concentrations of 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD were about the same level as 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, but the TEF  correlations being twice as big ensured that all WHO-TEQ contributions were bigger. PCB126 accounted for 30% of WHO-TEQ in Pallas, whereas in Evo

  11. Conservation biology of the endangered orange coral. Astroides Calycularis

    Terrón Sigler, Alejandro


    Falta palabras clave El coral naranja, Astroides calycularis (Pallas 1766), se distribuye principalmente en el mar Mediterráneo sur-occidental debido a los requerimientos ambientales de la especie, sobre todo en temperatura y aguas trasparentes y bien oxigenadas. La especie habita fondos rocosos desde la superficie del mar hasta los 50 metros de profundidad y localmente se pueden encontrar poblaciones muy abundantes. Este emblemático coral se encuentra afectado por las actividades humanas ...

  12. Contrast of Eastern and Western Goddess of War—Athena and Empyrean Fairy



    Athena, she is also called she Pallas Athena, the daughter of Zeus and Metis, and one of the Dodekatheon. She is in charge of intelligence, war, agriculture, the dark clouds,the power of thunder and lightning, horticulture, graziery, and law. Empyrean Fairy,she is a blue bird of Xiwangmu,and she is the teacher of Huangdi. Athena is the western goddess of war and Empyrean Fairy is the Orient's. This paper contracts these two goddesses.


    Jones, Ryan


    Peter Simon Pallas was also a member of what European men of learning in the eighteenth century often called a Republic of Letters, an idealized society that cut through state borders and acknowledged no limits to its pursuit of knowledge. His intensive engagement with the leading theorists of the time, his attempts to separate himself from the dilettantish scientifi c eff orts of the nobility, and his struggle to craft a space of independent action within the Academy of Sciences all attest t...


    I. DUMA


    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the faunistical study made in the south-eastern Romania in the summers of 2004 and 2006. We found 118 species of araneae belonging to 21 families. Among them there were some rare species: Argiope lobata (Pallas, 1772 mentioned for the third time in Romania, Hariaeus melloteei (Simon, 1886 mentioned for the second time in our country and Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Rossi, 1890.

  15. Morfologia dos Coccinellini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Depositados na Coleção Entomológica dos Campos Gerais do Paraná, Ponta Grossa, Paraná

    Julianne Milléo; Willian Meira


    Foi realizada uma análise comparativa com base na morfologia detalhada do exoesqueleto e genitália do adulto de oito espécies de Coccinellini: Coleomegilla quadrifasciata (Schönherr, 1808); Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763); Cycloneda pulchella (Klug, 1829); Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824); Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773); Hippodamia convergens (Guérin, 1842); Neocalvia anastomozans (Crotch, 1874); Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866). É apresentado uma cha...

  16. AC maintenance and repair manual for diesel engines

    Pallas, Jean-Luc


    The aim of this book with its detailed step-by-step colour photographs and diagrams, is to enable every owner to fix their diesel engine with ease. Troubleshooting tables help diagnose potential problems, and there is advice on regular maintenance and winterising and repair. Jean-Luc Pallas's enthusiasm for passing on his knowledge, as well as his clear explanations, precise advice and step-by-step instructions make this a unique book.

  17. Inimene Pallases


    22. okt.-st Tartu Kunstimajas kõrgema kunstikooli 'Pallas' 80. aastapäevale pühendatud ideenäitus 'Inimene on inimene'. Väljas on 20 maali, 43 graafilist lehte, üks skulptuur Ferdi Sannamehelt. Kuraator Kaire Nurk. 4. XI Tartu Kunstimajas toimuva 'Pallase' kooli aastapäevale pühendatud vabakunsti õpetamise potensiaale ja probleeme käsitleva konverentsi kava, esinejad

  18. The Young Man’s Madness in The Raven

    WANG Chao


    The raven is a narrative poem written by American writer Edgar Allan Poe. It tells of a talking raven ’s mysterious visit in a midnight to a distraught lover, tracing the lover’s slow fall into madness. The lover is lamenting the loss of his beloved, Le⁃nore. The raven, sitting on a bust of Pallas, seems to further instigate his distress with its constant repetition of the word“Never⁃more”.

  19. Learning to Predict Social Influence in Complex Networks


    derived from the Enron Email Dataset by extracting the senders and the recipients and linking those that had bidirectional communications. It has 4,254...Kimura et al. (2008), which has 9, 481 nodes and 245, 044 directed links (the Wikipedia network). The third one is a network derived from the Enron ...It contains 4, 254 nodes and 44, 314 directed links (the Enron network). The last one is a coauthorship network employed in Palla et al. (2005). It

  20. NUEVAS CITAS DE BULBOSTYLIS (CYPERACEAE) PARA LAS FLORAS DE BOLIVIA Y PARAGUAY New records of Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae) for the flora of Bolivia and Paraguay

    María Gabriela López


    Durante la revisión del género Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae, Abildgaardieae) para la flora de
    América austral, se encontraron cinco nuevas citas, una de Bolivia: B. svensoniana Steyerm. y
    cuatro de Paraguay: B. consanguinea (Kunth) C.B.Clarke, B. loefgrenii (Boeck.) Prata &
    López, B. sellowiana (Kunth) Palla y B. papillosa Kük. Se hacen aclaraciones sobre estos&...

  1. Geochemistry and solute fluxes from volcano-hydrothermal system of Ketoy, Kuril Island arc

    Kalacheva, Elena; Taran, Yuri; Voloshina, Ekaterina; Tarasov, Kirill; Kotenko, Tatiana


    Ketoy is a volcanic island in the middle of the Kuril Island arc. With an area of ˜70 km2 it consists of two volcanic structures of different ages. The younger Pallas cone (960 m asl) is characterized by a strong fumarolic activity with maximum temperature of 720˚ C (August 2016) and hosts a cold acid crater lake in the summit crater. The older Ketoy cone (1172 m) at the NE of the island is cut by the erosion crater that open to the east and known as a canyon of Gorchichny Stream. There is a strong hydrothermal activity within the canyon with boiling springs and steam vents. We present our data obtained during the fieldwork in August 2016 on the chemical (major and trace elements including REE) and isotopic (H, O, C, S) composition of thermal fluids from both Gorchichny canyon and thermal fields on the slopes of the Pallas cone. Thermal field of the Gorchichny Stream discharges acid Ca-SO4 and near neutral unusual, Cl-poor, Na-Ca-SO4 hot-to-boiling waters with TDS 2-3 g/L. Thermal field of the summit plateau at the base of the Pallas cone discharges acid Ca-SO4 warm water that can be the seepage from the crater lake. Isotopic compositions of thermal waters are close to the meteoric water line but with a clear positive shift in both δ18O and δD with a trend directed to the isotopic composition of condensates of fumarolic gases of the Pallas cone. For the first time the outflow rates of the draining streams have been measured and hydrothermal solute fluxes from the volcano-hydrothermal system have been estimated. The total hydrothermal flux of chloride and sulfate from Ketoy Island is estimated as 8.5 t/d of Cl and 30 t/d of SO4. This work was supported by the RSF grant #15-17-20011.

  2. Sound Propagation in Shallow Water. Volume 2. Unclassified Papers


    sounds generated either by beluga whales [Ref. 24J or by any other marine mammal indigenous to the Bering Sea [Ref. 25]. Beluga whales migrate ...34, "chirping" and "whistling" were recorded near the ice/water boundary predominantly at site I, and to some extent at sites Da and D«* Beluga whales ...34Production of Underwater Sound by the White Whale or Beluga , Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas), "Journal of Marine Research, 20(2), 149-162 (1962

  3. Extending glacial refugia for a European tree: genetic markers show that Iberian populations of white elm are native relicts and not introductions

    Fuentes-Utrilla, P.; Venturas, M; Hollingsworth, P.M.; Squirrell, J; Collada, C.; Stone, G. N.; Gil, L.


    Conservation policies usually focus on in situ protection of native populations, a priority that requires accurate assessment of population status. Distinction between native and introduced status can be particularly difficult (and at the same time, is most important) for species whose natural habitat has become both rare and highly fragmented. Here, we address the status of the white elm (Ulmus laevis Pallas), a European riparian tree species whose populations have been fragme...

  4. Competitive relationship between members of the Gobiidae family and other fish species of waters of Pridneprovye region

    V. V. Khobot


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the species’ composition of Gobiidae, their quantitative and qualitative parameters in the coastal zone of the Pridneproovye water bodies. The structural and functional features of organization of coastal Gobies groups in the explored territory have been investigated, as well as characteristics of spatial arrangement of Gobiidae family representatives in water bodies and rivers and their role in the coastal groups of fishes. In the waters of Dnipropetrovsk region there were recorded 8 species of the Gobies family: round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814, big-headed goby N. kessleri (Gunter, 1861, monkey goby N. fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814, goad goby N. gymnotrachelus (Kessler, 1857, toad goby Mesogobius batrachocephalus (Pallas, 1814, tube-nosed goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas, 1814, starry goby Benthophilus stellatus (Sauvage, 1874, Brauner’s tadpole goby Benthophiloides brauneri (Beling et Iljin, 1927. The gobies are quickly settled in various water bodies. The highest numbers of Gobiidae were registered in Dneprovsky water basin – 113.8 specimens/100 m2. The dominant among the Gobiidae is monkey goby, and subdominant is round goby. The main food competitor of monkey goby are juveniles of commercial fish. In Samara river the index of trophic niche overlap between goby and roach reaches 0.95, between goby and silver bream – 0.91, between goby and crucian carp – 0.88, between goby and rudd – 0.87, between goby and common bream – 0.62. The number and biomass indicators in Samara river have fallen due to trophic competition between new aggressive fish species – pumpkinseed and Gobiidae. In the Ingulets river the total overlap of trophic niches is observed between N. fluviatilis and black-striped pipefish (1.0, almost complete overlap is recorded between monkey goby and pumpkinseed (0.97. It is found that native species of Dnipropetrovsk region (including commercial species undergo intense trophic

  5. Serotonin transporter activity of imidazolidine-2,4-dione and imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4-dione derivatives in aspect of their acid-base properties.

    Zagórska, Agnieszka; Czopek, Anna; Pawłowski, Maciej; Dybała, Małgorzata; Siwek, Agata; Nowak, Gabriel


    Affinities of arylpiperazinylalkyl derivatives of imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4-dione and imidazolidine-2,4-dione for serotonin transporter and their acid-base properties were evaluated. The dissociation constant (pK(a)) of compounds 1-22 were determinated by potentiometric titration and calculated using pKalc 3.1 module of the Pallas system. The data from experimental methods and computational calculations were compared and suitable conclusions were reached.

  6. Paeonol Suppresses Chondrosarcoma Metastasis through Up-Regulation of miR-141 by Modulating PKCδ and c-Src Signaling Pathway

    Chi-Ting Horng; Po-Chuen Shieh; Tzu-Wei Tan; Wei-Hung Yang; Chih-Hsin Tang


    Chondrosarcoma, a primary malignant bone cancer, has potential for local invasion and distant metastasis, especially to the lungs. Patients diagnosed with it show poor prognosis. Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone), the main active compound of traditional Chinese remedy Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity; whether paeonol regulates metastatic chondrosarcoma is largely unknown. Here, we find paeonol do not increase apoptosis. By contrast, at n...

  7. Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)

    Bogićević, Katarina; Nenadić, Draženko; Mihailović, Dušan


    Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

  8. Orbit Simulation for the Determination of Relativistic and Solar-System Parameters for the ASTROD Space Mission

    Chiou, D W; Chiou, Dah-Wei; Ni, Wei-Tou


    ASTROD (Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices) mission concept is to conduct high-precision measurement of relativistic effects,solar-system parameters and gravitational waves. In this paper, we first extend the stochastic model to simulate the determination of the masses of three big asteroids (Ceres, Vesta and Pallas). With one range observation per day for each spacecraft from 25 days to 800 days of the mission and ten range observations per day for each spacecraft from 800 days to 1050 days of the mission (when the apparent positions of the two spacecraft are close to the Sun), the accuracies of determining these parameters are 4.6*10**(-7) for gamma, 4.0*10**(-7) for beta, 1.2*10**(-8) for J2, and 6.4*10**(-5) M_Ceres, 7.6*10**(-4) M_Pallas, 8.1*10**(-5) M_Vesta for the mass determination of Ceres, Pallas and Vesta respectively. We then include in the simulation and determination the rate of change of the gravitational constant (G-dot), and an anomalous constant acceleration (aa) ...

  9. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne


    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  10. Application of bacterial lipopolysaccharide to improve survival of the black tiger shrimp after Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul


    This study investigates an effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as feed supplement to improve immunity of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). LPS was coated to commercial feed pellets and given to the shrimp once or twice a day for 10 days before an exposure with shrimp pathogenic bacterium Vibrio harveyi. The growth rates, percent weight gains, total hemocyte and granulocyte counts and survival rates of shrimp between the LPS-coated pellet fed groups and a control group where shrimp fed with commercial feed pellets were compared. After 10 days of the feeding trials, growth rates were not significantly different in all groups, suggesting no toxicity from LPS supplement. To determine beneficial effect of LPS diets, each group was subsequently exposed to V. harveyi by immersion method and the survival rates were recorded for seven days after the immersion. Regardless of the dosages of LPS, the shrimp groups fed with LPS-coated pellets showed higher survival rates than the control group. There was no significant difference in survival rates between the two LPS dosages groups. In addition to survival under pathogen challenge, we also determine effect of LPS on immune-related genes after 10-day feeding trial. Gene expression analysis in the P. monodon intestines revealed that antilipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 (ALF3), C-type lectin, and mucine-like peritrophin (mucin-like PM) were expressed significantly higher in a group fed with LPS supplemental diet once or twice a day than in a control group. The transcript levels of C-type lectin and mucin-like PM had increased significantly when LPS was given once a day, while significant induction of ALF3 transcripts was observed when shrimp were fed with LPS twice a day. The up-regulation of the immune gene levels in intestines and higher resistance to V. harveyi of the shrimp fed with LPS provide the evidence for potential application of LPS as an immunostimulant in P. monodon farming.

  11. Detection of ctx gene positive non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in shrimp aquaculture environments

    Madhusudana, Rao B.; Surendran, P. K.


    Water and post-larvae samples from black tiger (Penaeus monodon) shrimp hatcheries; pond water, pond sediment and shrimp from aquaculture farms were screened for the presence of V. cholerae. A V. cholerae-duplex PCR method was developed by utilizing V. cholerae species specific sodB primers and ctxAB genes specific primers. Incidence of V. cholerae was not observed in shrimp hatchery samples but was noticed in aquaculture samples. The incidence of V. cholerae was higher in pond water (7.6%) t...

  12. 光合细菌对鱼虾贝促长防病作用的初探

    何筱洁; 于方兆; 郑晓东; 沈江波; 马庆涛; 梁洲; 吴勇胜


    应用光合细菌(PSB)对花鲈(Lateolabrax japonicus)、白鲢(Hyop hthalmichthys molitrix)、斑节对虾(Penaeus monodon)、罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)、马氏珠母贝(Pinctada martensii)等分别进行试验,旨在对其在促长、运输、防病等方面所起作用进行初探,结果取得良好效果。用PSB10-30ppm,对幼体花鲈饲养20天,

  13. Ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leaves as a plant protein source in prawn diets

    Piedad-Pascual, Felicitas; Tabbu, Nilda S.


    Penaeus monodon juveniles were fed diets containing fish meal, shrimp head meal and ipil-ipil leaves soaked and unsoaked, local and peruvian varieties. Mean weight gain at the end of 8 wk was significantly highest among those given the diet containing commercial ipil-ipil leaves. Gain in length followed the same pattern as mean weight gains. Among the diets containing ipil-ipil leaves there was a direct relationship in the amount of mimosine in the diet and the survival rate, the lower the am...

  14. Isolation and characterization of chitosan from different local insects in Egypt.

    Marei, Narguess H; El-Samie, Emtithal Abd; Salah, Taher; Saad, Gamal R; Elwahy, Ahmed H M


    Chitin was extracted from four different local sources: the shrimp (Penaeus monodon), the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria), the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the beetles (Calosoma rugosa). Chitosan was then obtained by deacetylation of chitin and physicochemically characterized using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction. The moisture content, water binding capacity, fats binding capacity, ash content were determined and chitosans morphology was visualized using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The difference between the obtained chitosans from three insect sources and α-chitosan from shrimp in terms of crystallinity, fibrous structure was discussed.

  15. NMR Structure of rALF-Pm3, an Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factor from Shrimp: Model of the Possible Lipid A-Binding Site

    Yang, Yinshan; Boze, Helene; Chemardin, Patrick; Padilla, Andre; Moulin, Guy; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Pugniere, Martine; Roquet, Francoise; Destoumieux Garzon, Delphine; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachere, Evelyne; Aumelas, Andre


    The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor ALF-Pm3 is a 98-residue protein identified in hemocytes from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. It was expressed in Pichia pastoris from the constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter as a folded and N-15 uniformly labeled rALF-Pm3 protein. Its 3D structure was established by NMR and consists of three alpha-helices packed against a four-stranded beta-sheet. The C-34-C-55 disulfide bond was shown to be essential for the structure stab...

  16. Diversity and bioactive potentials of culturable heterotrophic bacteria from the surficial sediments of the Arabian Sea

    Anas, A.; Nilayangod, C.; Jasmin, C.; Vinothkumar, S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Nair, S.

    . BMC Bioinform 12:385 Pai SS et al (2010) Penaeus monodon larvae can be protected from Vibrio harveyi infection by pre-emptive treatment of a rearing system with antagonistic or non-antagonistic bacterial probiotics. Aquac Res 41:847–860 Paulmier A...). Preparation of organic extracts Organic extract of 131 isolates was prepared using ethyl acetate as solvent. Bacterial isolates for the production of secondary metabolites were prepared in basal medium. Briefly, 100 ll of bacterial inoculum (1.0 OD at 600 nm...

  17. The predictable narwhal: satellite tracking shows behavioural similarities between isolated subpopulations

    Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Nielsen, N.H.; Hansen, R. G.;


    Comparison of behavioural similarities between subpopulations of species that have been isolated for a long time is important for understanding the general ecology of species that are under pressure from large-scale changes in habitats. Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) east and west of Greenland...... are examples of separated populations that, in different ocean parts, will be coping with similar anthropogenic and climate-driven habitat alterations. To study this, 28 narwhals from the Scoresby Sound fjord system were tracked by satellite in 2010-2013. The average duration of contact with the whales was 124...


    Isti Koesharyani


    Full Text Available Budidaya udang Penaeus monodon dan Litopenaeus vannamei di Indonesia merupakan komoditas primadona untuk ekspor dan merupakan salah satu spesies unggulan dalam program budidaya pada Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. Kendala pada budidaya udang tersebut adalah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh infeksi virus, terutama white spot syndrome virus (WSSV dan infectiuos myonecrosis virus (IMNV. Deteksi secara molekuler yang berbasis DNA merupakan metode deteksi sangat akurat dan tepat. Saat ini sudah ada metode deteksi PCR sederhana yang dapat diaplikasi langsung di lapangan, yaitu dengan menggunakan alat Portable Polymerase Chain Reaction Pockit (iiPCR. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melakukan deteksi cepat WSSV dan IMNV pada udang P. monodon dan L. vannamei dengan menggunakan portabel-PCR. Aplikasi deteksi ini diujicobakan pada sampel udang yang diawetkan dan sudah diketahui kondisinya. Hasil analisis memperlihatkan hasil yang sesuai dengan hasil analisis sebelumnya dengan menggunakan PCR konvensional. Metode ini relatif lebih sederhana, cepat (hanya memerlukan waktu kurang dari 90 menit dan dapat diketahui hasilnya tanpa adanya proses elektroforesis. Metode deteksi ini sangat membantu pembudidaya dalam monitoring penyakit di lapangan secara on the spot, serta cepat dan tepat.

  19. A Phase Separation Fluoroimmunoassay of Estradiol

    WANG,Yong-Cheng(王永成); ZHAO,Jin-Fu(赵金富); LI,Yuan-Zong(李元宗); CHANG,Wen-Bao(常文保); GUO,Zhen-Quan(郭振泉)


    A competitive indirect fluoroinmnunoassay of free estradiol(E2) was established based on the thermal sensitivity of hy-drogel-poly-N-isopropylacrylamide.Free estradiol was cova-lently bound to bovine sermn albumin (BSA) to form com-plete antigen (F2-BSA),which was in turn labeled by fluores-cein isothiocyanate (FITC) as the fluorescence probe.The an-ti- F2 monodonal anfibody (Mc Ab) was prepared by anin vivo method,and coupled with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA)to make an immune copolymer,poly-N-isopropylacylamide-monodonal antibody (pNIPA-McAb),for the deterniiration of free F2.The immunoassay method was based on the com-petitive binding of free F2 and fluoresceinated antigen (F2-BSA-FITC) with limited amount of pNIPA-McAb.When theinmunological reaction was over,precipitation and centrifugalprocedures were carried ont to separate pNIPA-McAb-F2-BSA-FITC from other constituents in solution.The precipitatepNIPA-McAb-F2-BSA-FITC was dissolved in solution andthen the fluorescence intensity was measured.The calibrationcurve covered a range of 78-500 ng/mL for free F2.The re-coveries were 91,2-107.2%.``

  20. Coastal Aquaculture Development in Bangladesh: Unsustainable and Sustainable Experiences

    Azad, A. Kalam; Jensen, Kathe R.; Lin, C. Kwei


    Coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh consists mainly of two shrimp species ( Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Currently, there are about 16,237 marine shrimp ( P. monodon) farms covering 148,093 ha and 36,109 fresh water shrimp ( M. rosenbergii) farms covering 17,638 ha coastal area. More than 0.7 million people are employed in the farmed shrimp sector and in 2005-2006 the export value of shrimp was 403.5 million USD. Thus, coastal aquaculture contributes significantly to rural employment and economy but this is overshadowed by negative social and ecological impacts. This article reviews the key issues, constraints and opportunities of sustainable shrimp farming. In addition we present the results of two case studies from southwestern coastal areas where shrimp farming originated and central coastal areas where shrimp farming, especially M. rosenbergii, began in recent years. Lessons learned from the review and case studies are considered in the context of recommendations to encompass a socially equitable and ecologically sound coastal aquaculture.

  1. Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and its specific phage from shrimp pond in Palk Strait, South East coast of India.

    Stalin, Nattan; Srinivasan, Pappu


    Phage therapy is an alternative and eco-friendly biocontrol agent to prevent and control multidrug resistant bacteria in the aquatic system. The aim of this study is to isolate and characterize the Vibrio parahaemolyticus and its potential lytic phage from Penaeus monodon growing-out by rearing in shrimp ponds in Palk Strait, South East coast of India. The conventional phenotypic characteristics and molecular identification was confirmed using 16S rRNA sequence and to determine the antibiotic resistant profiles. The V. parahaemolyticus phage was effective against V. parahaemolyticus through one-step growth experiments, phage survival was determined by long-term storage at various temperatures and pH. Further, transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed that the lytic phage belongs to the Myoviridae family. The isolated lytic phage (VVP1) was more specific against N1A V. parahaemolyticus and was able to infect N7A V. parahaemolyticus, N3B and N13B Vibrio alginolyticus strains. Evaluation of microcosm studies with P. monodon larvae infected with V. parahaemolyticus showed the survival of larvae in the presence of phage treatment at 2.3 × 10(10) PFU/mL(-1) was enhanced when compared with the control. This study provides the application of phage as a useful strategy to prevent and eliminate or reduce shrimp pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in the aquaculture system.

  2. Complete genome sequence of virulence-enhancing Siphophage VHS1 from Vibrio harveyi.

    Khemayan, Krit; Prachumwat, Anuphap; Sonthayanon, Burachai; Intaraprasong, Aungkul; Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Flegel, Timothy W


    Vibrio harveyi siphophage 1 (VHS1) is a tailed phage with an icosahedral head of approximately 66 nm in diameter and an unornamented, flexible tail of approximately 153 nm in length. When Vibrio harveyi 1114GL is lysogenized with VHS1, its virulence for the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) increases by more than 100 times, and this coincides with production of a toxin(s) associated with shrimp hemocyte agglutination. Curiously, the lysogen does not show increased virulence for the whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus [Litopenaeus] vannamei). Here we present and annotate the complete, circular genome of VHS1 (81,509 kbp; GenBank accession number JF713456). By software analysis, the genome contains 125 putative open reading frames (ORFs), all of which appear to be located on the same DNA strand, similar to the case for many other bacteriophages. Most of the putative ORFs show no significant homology to known sequences in GenBank. Notable exceptions are ORFs for a putative DNA polymerase and putative phage structural proteins, including a portal protein, a phage tail tape measure protein, and a phage head protein. The last protein was identified as a component of the species-specific toxin mixture described above as being associated with agglutination of hemocytes from P. monodon.

  3. Prevalence and distribution of covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV) in cultured crustacean.

    Zhang, Qingli; Xu, Tingting; Wan, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Xiuhua; Li, Xiaoping; Dong, Xuan; Yang, Bing; Huang, Jie


    An emerging covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV) was proved to be the infectious agent of shrimp viral covert mortality disease (VCMD). Prevalence and distribution of CMNV were investigated by using the methods of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), nested reverse transcription PCR, gene sequencing, histopathology, in situ RNA hybridization (ISH) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) in this study. RT-LAMP results showed that CMNV positive samples appeared in the cultured crustaceans including Litopenaeus vannamei, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Marsupenaeus japonicus, Penaeus monodon, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and mostly distributed the coastal provinces in China. The prevalence rates of CMNV among the collected samples in 2013, 2014 and 2015 were 45.93% (130/283), 27.91% (84/301) and 20.85% (54/259), respectively. CMNV infection in M. japonicas and P. monodon was verified by ISH. The presence of CMNV particles were confirmed by TEM analysis in the CMNV positive samples diagnosed by RT-LAMP. The high prevalence and wide epidemic distribution of CMNV in this investigation revealed that it was necessary to pay close attention to the high risk of CMNV transmission in farmed crustaceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunostimulatory activity of sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri and development of resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp.

    Wongprasert, Kanokpan; Rudtanatip, Tawut; Praiboon, Jantana


    Sulfated galactans (SG) were isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri (G. fisheri). Chemical analysis revealed SG contains sulfate (12.7%) and total carbohydrate (42.2%) with an estimated molecular mass of 100 kDa. Structure analysis by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that SG is a complex structure with a linear backbone of alternating 3-linked β-D-galactopyranose and 4-linked 3,6-anhydrogalactose units with partial 6-O-methylate-β-D-galactopyranose and with sulfation occurring on C4 of D-galactopyranose and C6 of L-galactopyranose units. SG treatment enhanced immune parameters including total haemocytes, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anions and superoxide dismutase in shrimp Penaeus monodon. Shrimp fed with Artemia salina enriched with SG (100 and 200 μg ml(-1)) and inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) showed a significantly lower mortality rate and lower viral VP 28 amplification and expression than control. The results suggest that SG from G. fisheri exhibits immune stimulatory and antiviral activities that could protect P. monodon from WSSV infection.

  5. Sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri target the envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus and protect against viral infection in shrimp haemocytes.

    Rudtanatip, Tawut; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Wongprasert, Kanokpan


    The present study was aimed at evaluating an underlying mechanism of the antiviral activity of the sulfated galactans (SG) isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in haemocytes of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Primary culture of haemocytes from Penaeus monodon was performed and inoculated with WSSV, after which the cytopathic effect (CPE), cell viability and viral load were determined. Haemocytes treated with WSSV-SG pre-mix showed decreased CPE, viral load and cell mortality from the viral infection. Solid-phase virus-binding assays revealed that SG bound to WSSV in a dose-related manner. Far Western blotting analysis indicated that SG bound to VP 26 and VP 28 proteins of WSSV. In contrast to the native SG, desulfated SG did not reduce CPE and cell mortality, and showed low binding activity with WSSV. The current study suggests that SG from Gracilaria fisheri elicits its anti-WSSV activity by binding to viral proteins that are important for the process of viral attachment to the host cells. It is anticipated that the sulfate groups of SG are important for viral binding.

  6. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp.

    Haryadi, D; Verreth, J A J; Verdegem, M C J; Vlak, J M


    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina et al. 2013); therefore, it is a potential propagative vector for virus transmission. The major aim of this study was to determine whether WSSV can be transmitted from naturally infected Dendronereis spp. to specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) through feeding. WSSV was detected in naturally infected Dendronereis spp. and Penaeus monodon Fabricius from a traditional shrimp pond, and the positive animals were used in the current experiment. WSSV-infected Dendronereis spp. and P. monodon in a pond had a point prevalence of 90% and 80%, respectively, as measured by PCR. WSSV was detected in the head, gills, blood and mid-body of Dendronereis spp. WSSV from naturally infected Dendronereis spp was transmitted to SPF L. vannamei and subsequently from this shrimp to new naïve-SPF L. vannamei to cause transient infection. Our findings support the contention that Dendronereis spp, upon feeding, can be a source of WSSV infection of shrimp in ponds.

  7. Priming the immune system of Penaeid shrimp by bacterial HSP70 (DnaK).

    Phuoc, L H; Hu, B; Wille, M; Hien, N T; Phuong, V H; Tinh, N T N; Loc, N H; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P


    This study was conducted to test the effect of DnaK on priming immune responses in Penaeid shrimp. Juvenile-specific pathogen-free (SPF) P. vannamei shrimp were injected with 0.05 μg recombinant DnaK. One hour post-DnaK priming, a non-lethal dose of Vibrio campbellii (10(5) CFU shrimp(-1)) was injected. Other treatments include only DnaK or V. campbellii injection or control with blank inocula. The haemolymph of three shrimp from each treatment was collected at 1.5, 6, 9 and 12 h post-DnaK priming (hpp). It was verified that injection with DnaK and V. campbellii challenge affected the transcription of 3 immune genes, transglutaminase-1 (TGase-1), prophenoloxidase-2 (proPO-2) and endogenous HSP70 (lvHSP70). In P. monodon, shrimp were first injected with DnaK at a dose of 10 μg shrimp(-1) and one hour later with 10(6) CFU of V. harveyi (BB120) shrimp(-1). Shrimp injected with DnaK showed a significant increase in proPO expression compared to the control (P < 0.05). Yet a double injection (DnaK and Vibrio) seemed to cause an antagonistic response at the level of expression, which was not equalled at the level of PO activity. Those results suggest that DnaK is able to modulate immune responses in P. vannamei and P. monodon.

  8. Morfologia dos Coccinellini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae Depositados na Coleção Entomológica dos Campos Gerais do Paraná, Ponta Grossa, Paraná

    Julianne Milléo


    Abstract. A comparative analysis was carried out based on the detailed morphology of exoskeleton and genitalia of the adult of eight species of the Coccinellini: Coleomegilla quadrifasciata (Schönherr, 1808; Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763; Cycloneda pulchella (Klug, 1829; Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824; Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773; Hippodamia convergens (Guérin, 1842; Neocalvia anastomozans (Crotch, 1874; Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866. A dichotomic key, diagnoses for the species with description of new characters and records of the plants in which it was collected, are added.

  9. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S. H.; K. S. Lgu


    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and hi...

  10. Interspecific Interactions between the Invasive Beetle Harmonia axyridis, Native Anthocorids and Entomopathogenic Fungi

    Howe, Andrew Gordon

    . The harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was introduced to North America from Asia in the early 20th century as a biological control agent against insect agricultural pests. In the late 20th century a specific population in eastern North America became invasive. Invasive H...... that an invasive eastern North American and native Chinese population displayed greater dispersal activity than three other populations. Although an invasive/native dichotomy was not established, results suggest that trait differences may reflect population-level adaptions. Findings underline that intraspecific...

  11. Divergence of Populations of Yellow Wagtail, Motacilla flava, and Citrine wagtaill, Motacilla citreola (Motacillidae, Passeriformes, in the Middle Volga of Russia

    Artemieva E. A.


    Full Text Available Blood samples of “yellow” wagtails collected in the areas geographically representing the Middle Volga breeding populations of these species were investigated. After isolation of mtDNA barkoding of studied “yellow” wagtails species was conducted. Amplification of the subunit of cytochrome oxidase I gene used as a genetic marker for the comparison of the samples was carried out. After sequencing and sequence alignment of gene cytochrome c-oxidase I, based on the comparison of genetic distances between individuals of the studied species using Jalview phylogenetic trees of populations of species Motacilla flava Linnaeus, 1758 and Motacilla citreola Pallas, 1776 were constructed.

  12. An efficient protocol for copper-free palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling in aqueous media at low temperatures

    Marziale, Alexander N.


    A thorough study on copper-free Sonogashira cross-couplings in water was carried out using the palla-dacycle, [{Pd(μ-Cl){K2-P,C-P(iPr) 2(OC6H3-2-Ph)}}2] as pre-catalyst with different bases and palladium concentrations. The highly active pre-catalyst imparts good to near quantitative yields using a concentration of 0.25 mol % at 40 °C. This broadly applicable protocol exhibits high tolerance of functional groups and substitution patterns. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the tick Amblyomma aureolatum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Ogrzewalska, M; Bajay, M M; Schwarcz, K; Bajay, S K; Telles, M P C; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Pinter, A; Labruna, M B


    Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) is the main vector of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of Brazilian spotted fever. This disease is the most lethal human spotted fever rickettsiosis in the world. Microsatellite loci were isolated from a dinucleotide-enriched library produced from A. aureolatum sampled in Southeastern Brazil. Eight polymorphic microsatellites were further characterized among 38 individuals sampled from São Paulo metropolitan region. The number of observed alleles ranged from 2 to 9, observed heterozygosity was 0.184-0.647, and expected heterozygosity was 0.251-0.747. Cross-species amplifications suggested that these loci will be useful for other Amblyomma species.

  14. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali


    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  15. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

    M. Komppula


    Full Text Available This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In air masses of eastern origin almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in air masses of western origin most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle formation in a certain air mass type depends not only on the diurnal variation of the parameters causing the phenomenon (such as photochemistry but also on some properties carried by the air mass itself. The correlation in growth rates between the two sites was relatively good, which suggests that the amount of condensable vapour causing the growth must have been at about the same level in both sites. The condensation sink was frequently much higher at the downwind station. It seems that secondary particle formation related to biogenic sources dominate in many cases over the particle sinks during the air mass transport between the sites. Two cases of transport from Pallas to Värriö were further analysed with an aerosol dynamics model. The model was able to reproduce the observed nucleation events 250 km down-wind at Värriö but revealed some differences between the two cases. The simulated nucleation rates were in both cases similar but the organic concentration profiles that best reproduced the observations were different in the two cases indicating that divergent formation reactions may dominate under different conditions. The simulations also suggested that organic compounds were the main contributor to new particle growth, which offers a tentative hypothesis to the distinct features of new particles at the two sites: Air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean typically spent approximately only ten hours over land before arriving at Pallas, and thus the time for the

  16. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in invasive and native populations of Harmonia axyridis

    Ilya A. Zakharov


    Full Text Available The Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, is one of the most invasive insects in the world. Originally introduced into the USA and Europe for the biological control of pest insects, it has recently gained the status of an invasive species. There is little data on the differences between invasive and non-invasive populations at the genetic level. In this research mtDNA sequences of the COI gene from specimens of native and non-native populations were compared. The results indicate that individuals from invasive populations are similar to those from Far Eastern native populations.

  17. Application of ALOGPS 2.1 to predict log D distribution coefficient for Pfizer proprietary compounds.

    Tetko, Igor V; Poda, Gennadiy I


    Evaluation of the ALOGPS, ACD Labs LogD, and PALLAS PrologD suites to calculate the log D distribution coefficient resulted in high root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 1.0-1.5 log for two in-house Pfizer's log D data sets of 17,861 and 640 compounds. Inaccuracy in log P prediction was the limiting factor for the overall log D estimation by these algorithms. The self-learning feature of the ALOGPS (LIBRARY mode) remarkably improved the accuracy in log D prediction, and an rmse of 0.64-0.65 was calculated for both data sets.

  18. Shallow-water Aplysina Nardo (Aplysinidae, Verongida, Demospongiae from the São Sebastião Channel and its environs (Tropical southwestern Atlantic, with the description of a new species and a literature review of other brazilian records of the genus

    Ulisses dos Santos Pinheiro


    Full Text Available Two species of Aplysina Nardo, 1834 are described in this article, Aplysina caissara sp. n. and A. fulva (Pallas, 1766. Additionally, a possible third species was identified as A. aff. cauliformis. Collections were done in the São Sebastião Channel area as an ongoing effort to assess the poriferan biodiversity of the northern sector of the São Paulo State coastline. Specimens were collected by scuba diving, and descriptions of external morphology are based on the observation of populations alive, and on extensive underwater photography. A literature review of other brazilian records of Aplysina was undertaken, and an ammended species list is offered.

  19. Notas de ixodologia: IX. O complexo ovale do gênero Amblyomma

    Henrique Aragão


    Full Text Available It was impossible to confirm either WARBUTON's conservative nor TONELLI RONDELLI's opposite belief on the number of valid species after studying many lots of ticks of the ovale group, mainly from Brazil. Two species are recognized: Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 and Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772, corresponding respectively to A. fossum Neumann, 1898 and A. stratum Koch, 1844. A list of synonyms is presented. Both species are redescribed and intraspecific morphological variation show to be the cause of the multiplication of species by those working with insufficient material. Color plates of both species are presented and hosts and localities of captures are recorded.

  20. Weyl conformastatic perihelion advance of small body objects

    Capistrano, Abraao J S; Valada, Rafael S


    In this paper we examine a static thin disk gravitational field symmetry over probe particles in the solar system. Using the Weyl conformastatic solution as thin disk model, we find a non-standard expression to perihelion advance due to the constraints imposed by the topology of the local gravitational field. We apply the model to a near-earth object 1566 Icarus asteroid and to the four main asteroids in the main belt (Ceres, Pallas, Juno and Vesta). As a result, we find a close agreement with observations.

  1. Tropospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at a northern boreal site in Finland: basic variations and source areas

    T. Aalto; J. Hatakka; J. Paatero; Tuovinen, J.-P.; Aurela, M.; Laurila, T.; Holmén, K.; Trivett, N.; Viisanen, Y.


    Diurnal and annual variations of CO2, O3, SO2, black carbon and condensation nuclei and their source areas were studied by utilizing air parcel trajectories and tropospheric concentration measurements at a boreal GAW site in Pallas, Finland. The average growth trend of CO2 was about 2.5 ppm yr−1 according to a 4-yr measurement period starting in October 1996. The annual cycle of CO2showed concentration difference of about 19 ppm between the summer minimum and winter maximum. The diurnal cycle...

  2. Biometric and statistical investigations on the cnidoma of the genus Hydra (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa

    Maria I. Deserti


    Full Text Available This paper deals about the nematocysts like a source of biometric information for comparison between the species Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766, Hydra vulgaris pedunculata Deserti et al., 2011 and Hydra pseudoligactis (Hyman, 1931. This biometric tool lets us carry out statistical comparisons and adding these results to the identification of specimens from different classificatory groups. In this particular study, we obtained significant differences between species, individuals of each species and nematocysts type when compared the biometry of its nematocysts. Another result was the variation in of particular nematocysts, like atrichous isorhiza and holotrichous isorhiza for the species H. vulgaris in relation to the column size.

  3. Sentetik piretroit alfa-sipermetrinin değişken desenli gece kurbağası, Bufotes variabilis iribaşlarındaki akut toksisitesi (Amphibia: Anura)

    Mert Gürkan; Seda Serbest; Sibel Hayretdağ


    In this study, acute toxic effects of alpha-cypermethrin were investigated in the tadpoles of Bufotes variabilis (Pallas, 1769). Tadpoles at Gosner stage 19 were exposed to 0, 0.1, 5 and 10 µgl-1 of alpha-cypermethrin concentrations for 96 hours. Mortality, the changes in some morphological measurements (snout-vent length, body width, tail length, and wet weight), morphological anomalies and behavioral changes were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The 96 hours LC50 value was calculate...

  4. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Daniela Dias


    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  5. Population dynamics of pest mosquitoes and potential malaria and West Nile virus vectors in relation to climatic factors and human activities in the Camargue, France.

    Ponçon, N; Toty, C; L'ambert, G; le Goff, G; Brengues, C; Schaffner, F; Fontenille, D


    The Camargue is an extensive wetland in the southeast of France, which is highly influenced by human activities. Large ponds, marshes and irrigated fields provide abundant potential breeding sites for mosquitoes. mosquitoes, which are important in terms of the nuisance they cause to people and animals, the limitations they impose on tourism and their potential threat to human health. Several of the mosquito species present are potential vectors of malaria and West Nile virus. Therefore, the population dynamics of these species were monitored over an entire breeding season during March-October 2005. Mosquito populations were sampled in two study areas once every 2 weeks, using CDC light traps baited with CO(2). Sixteen species were collected. The majority (98.7%) of the catch were Aedes caspius (Pallas) (Diptera: Culicidae), Culex modestus (Ficalbi), Culex pipiens L. and Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas). The population dynamics of these species varied considerably in relation to the species' biology, climatic conditions (rainfall, temperature and season), water management, implementation of mosquito control campaigns and landscape use.

  6. Seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae species.

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J


    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today.

  7. Modern Numerical Ephemerides of Planets and the Importance of Ranging Observations for Their Creation

    Pitjeva, E. V.


    The JPL planetary and lunar ephemerides - DE200/LE200, DE403/LE403, DE405/LE405 and the planetary and lunar ephemerides, EPM87, EPM98, and EPM2000, constructed in the Institute of Applied Astronomy of RAS are described. Common properties and differences of the various ephemerides are given. Graphical comparisons of the DE ephemerides with each other and with the EPM ephemerides are presented. A fairly good agreement of planetary orbits is between DE403, DE405 and EPM98, EPM2000, respectively, over the interval of 120 years (1886-2006) covered by EPM98 and EPM2000. Some differences are explained by a slight disagreement in representing the orbits of Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta as they affect the planets. The accurate radar observations of planets and spacecraft make it possible not only to improve the orbital elements of planets but to determine a broad set of astronomical constants as well: km/AU, parameters of Mars' rotation including its precessional rate, the masses of Jupiter, Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta, relativistic parameters of the PPN formalism, the variability of the gravitational constant G. These have been obtained in the fitting process of the DE405 and EPM2000 ephemerides to observational data, including nearly 80000 American and Russian radar observations of planets (1961-1997), ranging and doppler to the Viking and Pathfinder landers, and other miscellaneous measurements from various sources and spacecraft.

  8. On the infant weight loss of low- to intermediate-mass star clusters

    Weidner, C.; Kroupa, P.; Nürnberger, D. E. A.; Sterzik, M. F.


    Star clusters are born in a highly compact configuration, typically with radii of less than about 1 pc roughly independently of mass. Since the star formation efficiency is less than 50 per cent by observation and because the residual gas is removed from the embedded cluster, the cluster must expand. In the process of doing so it only retains a fraction fst of its stars. To date there are no observational constraints for fst, although N-body calculations by Kroupa, Aarseth & Hurley suggest it to be about 20-30 per cent for Orion-type clusters. Here we use the data compiled by Testi et al., Testi, Palla & Natta and Testi, Palla & Natta for clusters around young Ae/Be stars and by de Wit et al. and de Wit et al. around young O stars and the study of de Zeeuw et al. of OB associations and combine these measurements with the expected number of stars in clusters with primary Ae/Be and O stars, respectively, using the empirical correlation between maximal stellar mass and star cluster mass of Weidner & Kroupa. We find that fst < 50 per cent with a decrease to higher cluster masses/more massive primaries. The interpretation would be that cluster formation is very disruptive. It appears that clusters with a birth stellar mass in the range 10-103Msolar keep at most 50 per cent of their stars.

  9. Palladium-cobalt alloy for applications in electrical engineering and electronics. New coating processes; Palladium-Kobalt-Legierung fuer Elektrotechnik/Elektronik. Neue Verfahren zur Oberflaechenbeschichtung

    Abys, J.A.; Breck, G.F.; Straschil, H.K. [Lucent Technologies Electroplating Chemicals and Services, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Boguslavsky, I. [Molex Inc., Lisle, IL (USA); Holmbom, G. [CSM Materialteknik AB, Linkoping (Sweden)


    Surface properties are particularly important in plug-and-socket connections. Hard gold and palladium-nickel compounds are the most common. Lucent Electroplating Chemicals and Services (EC and S), a company of Lucent Technologies, recently developed a palladium-cobalt compound (PallaTechPdCo) with high abrasion resistance ensuring long life. The thickness of the coating layer can be controlled accurately during galvanization, which will reduce the cost as well. [German] Gerade bei elektronischen Steckverbindungen spielt die Oberflaeche eine entscheidende Rolle. Gaengig waren seither Hartgold-Ueberzuege oder Schichten aus Palladium-Nickel-Verbindungen. Bei der Lucent Electroplating Chemicals and Services (EC and S), einem Unternehmen von Lucent Technologies, hat man nun eine Palladium-Kobalt-Verbindung (PallaTechPdCo) als Legierungsmaterial entwickelt, die gegenueber den herkoemmlichen Galvanisierungswerkstoffen entscheidende Vorteile aufweisen soll. Laut Hersteller ist diese PdCo-Legierung aufgrund ihrer hohen Abriebfestigkeit haltbarer als herkoemmliche Verbindungen und gewaehrleistet somit eine groessere Zuverlaessigkeit und Sicherheit der Produkte. Weiterhin laesst sich die Masse der aufzutragenden Schicht beim Galvanisierungsprozess exakt kontrollieren. Diese Optimierung der Leistung verringert auch die anfallenden Kosten. (orig.)

  10. Olfactory Responses of Three Species of Ladybird Beetles to the Aphids and the Leaves of Their Host Plants%3种瓢虫对蚜虫及其寄主植物的嗅觉反应

    王进忠; 缪昆; 孙淑玲; 苏红田


    本试验测试了七星瓢虫、龟纹瓢虫和异色瓢虫对麦蚜、中国槐蚜、绣线菊蚜、棉蚜及其寄主植物的嗅觉反应.结果表明七星瓢虫对带白杨毛蚜的杨树叶片的反应比较显著,龟纹瓢虫对带绣线菊蚜的苹果叶片的反应比较显著,而异色瓢虫成虫对带有棉蚜的木槿叶片反应比较显著.%The olfactory responses of the Coccinella septempunctata Lewis, Prophlaea japonica Lewis and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) to Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius). Aphis sophoricola Zhong, Chaito phoruspopuleti (Pznzer), A. citricola van der Goot, A. gossypii Glover and their host plants were examined using a four-arm olfactometer. The results showed that the C. septempunctata Lewis was strongly attracted towards the combination of the aphid-infested leaves of the poplar tree and C. populeti (Pznzer) odors, P. japonica Lewis was strongly attracted towards the combination of the aphid: A. citricola van der Goot and the aphid-infested leaves of the apple tree and H. aryridis (Pallas) was strongly attracted towards the combination of A. gossypii Glover and the aphid-infested leaves of the rose mallow.

  11. Asteroid Perturbations and Mass Determination for the ASTROD Space Mission

    Tang, C J; Tang, Chien-Jen; Ni, Wei-Tou


    Due to the high-precision nature of the ASTROD (Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices) mission concept, the asteroid perturbations on the ASTROD spacecraft is crucial. These perturbations need to be modelled and determined together with relativistic effects and other solar-system parameters. In a previous investigation (Su et al., Planetary and Space Science, 47, 339-43[1999]), we used the mass estimation of Ceres, Pallas and Vesta in the literature to calculate their perturbations on the ASTROD spacecraft. Recently, we established an ephemeris framework (CGC 1) including the 3 big asteroids and used this ephemeris framework to simulate the determination of their masses together with other solar-system parameters and relativistic-gravity parameters. In this paper, we extend the CGC 1 to CGC 2 ephemeris framework to include 492 asteroids (with diameter > 65 km) . We then use CGC 2 to simulate the determination of ten parameters -- the masses of Ceres, Pallas and Vesta, the six average d...

  12. NUEVAS CITAS DE BULBOSTYLIS (CYPERACEAE PARA LAS FLORAS DE BOLIVIA Y PARAGUAY New records of Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae for the flora of Bolivia and Paraguay

    María Gabriela López


    Full Text Available

    Durante la revisión del género Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae, Abildgaardieae para la flora de
    América austral, se encontraron cinco nuevas citas, una de Bolivia: B. svensoniana Steyerm. y
    cuatro de Paraguay: B. consanguinea (Kunth C.B.Clarke, B. loefgrenii (Boeck. Prata &
    López, B. sellowiana (Kunth Palla y B. papillosa Kük. Se hacen aclaraciones sobre estos
    taxones, los cuales se describen e ilustran
    During the study of the genus Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae, Abildgaardieae for Austral America,
    five new records were found, one from Bolivia: B. svensoniana Steyerm. and four from
    Paraguay: B. consanguinea (Kunth C.B.Clarke, B. loefgrenii (Boeck. Prata & López, B.
    sellowiana (Kunth Palla and B. papillosa Kük. All the taxa are described and illustrated and
    considerations about them are given

  13. ROCKET AF adds more concerns about Digoxin safety in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    ElMaghawry, Mohamed


    In a recent article in the Journal, we have reviewed the adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed with digoxin use in the PALLAS study.(1) The PALLAS study was designed to determine if dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF).(2) However the study was stopped early because of safety reasons, as a significant number of patients on the dronedarone arm reached the co-primary end point composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, or cardiovascular death. Data sub-analyses suggested that digoxin-dronedarone interaction was responsible for the higher arrhythmic death rate observed in the trial. These observations are consistent with several other studies that demonstrate the potential hazard of the use of digoxin in heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation. A more recent article published in the Lancet studied the use and outcomes of digoxin in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial.(3) The investigators concluded that digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death in patients with AF.

  14. Super-cooled liquid water topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation - investigation based on combination of ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing observations

    Hirsikko, Anne; Brus, David; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Filioglou, Maria; Komppula, Mika; Romakkaniemi, Sami


    In the high and mid latitudes super-cooled liquid water layers are frequently observed on top of clouds. These layers are difficult to forecast with numerical weather prediction models, even though, they have strong influence on atmospheric radiative properties, cloud microphysical properties, and subsequently, precipitation. This work investigates properties of super-cooled liquid water layer topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation observed with ground-based in-situ (cloud probes) and remote-sensing (a cloud radar, Doppler and multi-wavelength lidars) instrumentation during two-month long Pallas Cloud Experiment (PaCE 2015) in autumn 2015. Analysis is based on standard Cloudnet scheme supplemented with new retrieval products of the specific clouds and their properties. Combination of two scales of observation provides new information on properties of clouds and precipitation in the sub-arctic Pallas region. Current status of results will be presented during the conference. The authors acknowledge financial support by the Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence Programme, grant no 272041; and ICINA project, grant no 285068), the ACTRIS2 - European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654109, the KONE foundation, and the EU FP7 project BACCHUS (grant no 603445).

  15. Thalassornectes (Alcidectes) aukletae, new subgenus and species (Acari: Hypoderatidae) from the crested and parakeet auklets (Aves: Charadriiformes; Alcidae).

    Pence, D B; Hoberg, E P


    In the genus Thalassornectes, a new subgenus, Alcidectes, and a new species, T. (Alcidectes) aukletae, are described from deutonymphs in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the crested auklet, Aethia cristatella (Pallas), and the parakeet auklet, Cyclorrhynchus psittacula (Pallas), from the eastern Pacific USSR. The new subgenus and species differ from one or both of the single species in each of the other two subgenera, Thalassornectes and Rallidectes, by (1) the normal size, position, and parallel arrangement of the genital papillae; (2) the larger size of seta sce; (3) the greater length and stronger development of setae sci, d1, l1, h, and sh; (4) the equal size of tarsi III and IV or their size subequal, with tarsus IV slightly longer than tarsus III; (5) both epimera I and sternum well developed and nearly equal in length; and (6) the free sclerotized posteriad extension from epimerite II on the ventral cuticular surface. This is the first hypoderatid reported from the host order Charadriiformes. The distribution of T. (Alcidectes) aukletae among auklets may be attributed to either cospeciation or may have an ecological basis; data are insufficient at present to sustain either hypothesis.

  16. Real time PCR quantification of WSSV infection in specific pathogen free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) exposed to antiviral nucleotide

    MA Badhul Haq; K Kalai Priya; R Rajaram; R Vignesh; M Srinivasan


    Objective: To investigate the level of WSSV transmission from the infected tiger prawn Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) to specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) in laboratory captivity condition in relation to PCR detection, histopathological observation and viral genome sequence. Methods: Viral DNA was isolated from purified virions by treatment with proteinase K (0.2 mg/mL) and Sarkosyl (1%). The purity and concentration of the DNA were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Moribund and dead shrimp were removed and processed for indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis. Histological observation of infected L. vannamei shrimps were revealed by the degenerated cells which were characterized by intranuclear inclusions in the tissues of WSSV infected mid-gut gland, lymphoid organ, gill lamellae and gut epithelium. Total DNA was extracted, from shrimp hemolymph and tissues, with a High Puree PCR template preparation kit. WSSV-DNA was detected using a commercial 2-step PCR detection kit. Results:The present study compares the real-time PCR results with SYBR Green I concentration ranging from 0.2 to 0.7×. The positive standard was used in the range of 102, 104 106, 108 and 1010 copies/ng of DNA in general. The PCR analysis showed the appearance of a prominent band from the PCR amplified product of WSSV-DNA at internal control band of 848 bp. Moderate and severe levels were observed as 650 bp and 910 bp (200 & 2 000 copies) in various transmission routes. The WSSV content in moribund shrimp of all the experimental species (L. vannamei) approximately ranged in nucleotide application by quantification method from 0.000 001 WSSV copies/μg of total DNA. In whole moribund infection animal, approximately 0.02 WSSV copies/μg of DNA was detected in nucleotide applied animal. Conclusion: These results indicate that wild brood stock and native culture shrimp P. monodon may be infected with WSSV and can get transferred into the SPF L. vannamei farming

  17. Deep-ocean predation by a high Arctic cetacean

    Laidre, K.L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Jørgensen, Ole A


    A bioenergetic model for two narwhal (Monodon monoceros) sub-populations was developed to quantify daily gross energy requirements and estimate the biomass of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) needed to sustain the sub-populations for their 5-month stay on wintering grounds in Baffin...... Bay. Whales in two separate wintering grounds were estimated to require 700 tonnes (s.e. 300) and 90 tonnes (s.e. 40) of Greenland halibut per day, assuming a diet of 50% Greenland halibut. Mean densities and length distributions of Greenland halibut inside and outside of the narwhal wintering grounds...... were correlated with predicted whale predation levels based on diving behavior. The difference in Greenland halibut biomass between an area with high predation and a comparable area without whales, approximately 19000 tonnes, corresponded well with the predicted biomass removed by the narwhal sub...

  18. Shrimp culture in Thailand: environmental impacts and social responses.

    Gronski, R


    Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a major aquaculture commodity among Southeast Asian producers and remains a popular food export world-wide. Food brokers in Japan and the United States purchase huge quantities of these farmed shrimp and return significant foreign exchange earnings to developing nations like Thailand, a major producer and exporter since the early 1990s. However, coastal areas cannot sustain intensive shrimp farm production and local growers often end up in debt. Can the needs of farm communities around the world be suitably met when they join into a corporate-managed and export-oriented food system? What are the sustainable benefits and eventual costs to susceptible localities? The shrimp industry in Thailand reveals the difficult terrain to cross and powerful obstacles to overcome if authentic sustainable development is to be realized.

  19. 养殖对虾病毒病的诊断和防治



    目前,我国养殖的对虾有10多种:凡纳滨对虾*Litopenaeus vannamei(凡纳对虾、南美白对虾、万氏对虾),中国明对虾*Fenneropenaeus chinensis(中国对虾)。斑节对虾*Penaeus monodon(草虾、虎虾),日本囊对虾*Marsupenaeus japonicus(日本对虾、竹节虾、车虾)。墨吉明对虾*F.merguiensis(墨吉对虾),长毛明对虾*F.penicillatus(长毛对虾),细角滨对虾*L.stylirostris(蓝对虾),

  20. Milky hemolymph syndrome (MHS) in spiny lobsters, penaeid shrimp and crabs.

    Nunan, Linda M; Poulos, Bonnie T; Navarro, Solangel; Redman, Rita M; Lightner, Donald V


    Black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, European shore crab Carcinus maenas and spiny lobster Panulirus spp. can be affected by milky hemolymph syndrome (MHS). Four rickettsia-like bacteria (RLB) isolates of MHS originating from 5 geographical areas have been identified to date. The histopathology of the disease was characterized and a multiplex PCR assay was developed for detection of the 4 bacterial isolates. The 16S rRNA gene and 16-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) were used to examine the phylogeny of the MHS isolates. Although the pathology of this disease appears similar in the various different hosts, sequencing and examination of the phylogenetic relationships reveal 4 distinct RLB involved in the infection process.