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Sample records for acanthina monodon gastropoda

  1. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

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    RUBÉN E. SOTO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 % y cirripedios (5 %. La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energéticaWe investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the

  2. The effects of temperature and oxygen availability on intracapsular development of Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae El efecto de la temperatura y la disponibilidad de oxígeno sobre el desarrollo intracapsular de Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae

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    MIRIAM FERNÁNDEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater and marine organisms show similar models of parental care and are faced with similar constraints to brood, which suggest that comparable environmental limits drive the evolution of parental care in aquatic systems. In fact, the low diffusion coefficient and solubility of oxygen in aquatic environments affect oxygen acquisition and therefore the capacity to aggregate embryos. The effect of other critical environmental variables, such as temperature, is less clear. We assessed the effects of temperature and oxygen availability on (1 the number of developed and undeveloped encapsulated embryos, (2 the proportion of embryos reaching advanced stages during intracapsular development (counting not only developed and undeveloped embryos but also abnormal embryos, (3 asynchrony in development (estimated only in capsules in which development occurred, and (4 final embryo size, as the first step toward identifying the main factors constraining parental care in the ocean. We used the gastropod Acanthina monodon as a model because it has an extended latitudinal range of distribution and exhibits feeding larvae during intracapsular development. The latter factor is relevant because previous studies have suggested that sibling cannibalism could be triggered by intracapsular competition for oxygen. Freshly laid egg capsules were collected and incubated until embryos hatched under different experimental temperatures (7, 11, 15 and 19 °C and oxygen conditions (hypoxia: 50-60 % air saturation; normoxia; and hyperoxia: 150-160 %. More embryos remained in early stages at the end of the experimental period under hypoxia and at the highest experimental temperature. The mean number of developed embryos was significantly lower under hypoxia conditions than under normoxia and hyperoxia, but was not influenced by temperature. However, temperature negatively affected embryo size of developed embryos and the level of asynchrony (number of different developmental

  3. Building the Method to Determine the Rate of Freezing Water in Penaeus monodon of the Freezing Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Tan Dzung; Trinh Van Dzung; Tran Duc Ba

    2012-01-01

    The method of determination the rate of freezing water in Penaeus monodon of freezing process was established on base the equation of energy balance in warming up process Penaeus monodon after freezing to determine specific heat of Penaeus monodon. The result obtained was built the mathematical model (19) to determine the rate of freezing water according to the freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon. The results indicated that when water was completely frozen (ω = 1 or 100%), the optimal fre...

  4. Influence of vaccination on vibriosis resistance of the giant black tiger shrimp Peneaus monodon (Fabricius).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, O.S.P.; Faber, R.; Booms, G.H.R.; Latscha, T.; Boon, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The study aims to test the influence of vaccination with polyvalent vaccine prototypes on the vibriosis resistance of Penaeus monodon. Vaccinated P. monodon post-larvae were challenged with a virulent Vibrio alginolyticus strain 10, 20, and 30 days post-vaccination. Results showed that vaccination

  5. Effects of crushed conspecifics on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon Fabricius post larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nga, B.T.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Scheffer, M.; Nghia, T.T.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the hypothesis tested was that Penaeus monodon post-larvae (PL) experience lower growth when exposed to crushed conspecifics, which was achieved by exposing individual P. monodon PL with abundant food for 4 weeks to a gradient from 0 to 100 crushed conspecific PL L1. Both dry

  6. Length and weight relationship of laboratory reared penaeid prawn Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) (Crustacea: Penaeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Chatterji, A.

    A parabolic relationship was obtained while studying the length-weight relationship of the postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. The b value (multiplying constant) showed that in the laboratory reared penaeid prawns, length-weight relationship strictly...

  7. Fungal infection in the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and in other crustaceans from the Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.; Meenakshikunjamma, P.P.; Purushan, K.S.

    Infection of the two species of fungi (Phycomycetes) in the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and three species in amphipods (Gammarus sp.) and tanaeidaceans (Apseudes sp.) was observed. Of the two pathogens in the shrimp, Leptolegnia marina produced...

  8. Life history parameters of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Hansen, Steen H; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Life history parameters for narwhals (Monodon monoceros) were estimated based on age estimates from aspartic acid racemization of eye lens nuclei. Eyes, reproductive organs, and measures of body lengths were collected from 282 narwhals in East and West Greenland in the years 1993, 2004, and 2007–...... projection matrix was parameterized with the data on age structure and fertility rates. The annual rate of increase of narwhals in East Greenland was estimated to be 3.8% while narwhals in West Greenland had a rate of increase at 2.6%. Key words:......Life history parameters for narwhals (Monodon monoceros) were estimated based on age estimates from aspartic acid racemization of eye lens nuclei. Eyes, reproductive organs, and measures of body lengths were collected from 282 narwhals in East and West Greenland in the years 1993, 2004, and 2007......–2010. Age estimates were based on the racemization of L-aspartic acid to D-aspartic acid in the nucleus of the eye lens. The ratio of D- and L-enantiomers was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The age equation used, 420.32X − 24.02·year where X is the D/L ratio, was determined from data...

  9. Monoclonal antibodies against haemocyte molecules of Penaeus monodon shrimp react with haemolymph components of other crustaceans and disparate taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van de C.B.T.; Botterblom, M.H.A.; Taverne, N.; Knaap, van der W.P.W.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    In a previous study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against different haemolymph molecules of the marine shrimp Penaeus monodon were produced and characterised. It was suggested that these mAbs could be used in studying haemocyte differentiation, behaviour and function in P. monodon. In the present

  10. De nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior in Nederland (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyne, de R.

    2002-01-01

    The narrow whorlsnail Vertigo angustior in the Netherlands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) In June and July 2001, a special survey was held in several coastal areas in the province of Zuid- Holland, the Netherlands. The main objective was retrieving additional data on the occurrence of Vertigo angustior

  11. Biological activity of Penaeus monodon GILT in shrimp pathogen protection

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    Aekkaraj Nualla-ong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT contains a CXXC active site motif that possesses thiol reductase activity by catalyzing the disulfide bond reduction of exogenous antigens. Mutating the active site of human GILT to change the cysteine residues to serine residues eliminates this property. Our previous study reported that Penaeus monodon GILT (PmGILT contained a CXXS active site motif. Therefore, we assessed the enzymatic activity of PmGILT and demonstrated that it displayed identical thiol reductase activity at an acidic pH. In addition, the biological activity of PmGILT against shrimp pathogens, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and Gram-negative bacteria, was investigated. The neutralization of WSSV with PmGILT indicated the inhibition of WSSV invasion into shrimp hemocyte cells. Moreover, the relative percentage survival of shrimp injected with PmGILT-treated virus solution was 75%. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of PmGILT was confirmed by the growth inhibition of Vibrio harveyi. These results establish the role of PmGILT in the inhibition of the virulence of two major shrimp pathogens.

  12. Effects of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijackers, R.M.M.; Nghia, T.T.; Ut, V.N.; Scheffer, M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of different concentrations of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves and their leachates on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon under laboratory conditions. Shrimp mortality was highly dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the water, which in turn was strongly

  13. Protection of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus using a WSSV subunit vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    Although invertebrates lack a true adaptive immune response, the potential to vaccinate Penaeus monodon shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the WSSV envelope proteins VP19 and VP28 was evaluated. Both structural WSSV proteins were N-terminally fused to the maltose binding protein

  14. Elimination of Chloramphenicol by Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon and White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Heny Suseno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloramphenicol (CAP has been illegally used in many shrimp farms in South East Asia, including Indonesia. We performed an experiment of elimination simulation of CAP in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. After 5 days of depuration process, the concentration of CAP in P. monodon decreased to 94.85% (muscle, 97.98% (cephalothoraxes, and 90.30% (exoskeleton. The elimination half-life of CAP in P monodon was 0.596 day in the muscle, 0.716 day in cephalothorax, and 0.437 day in exoskeleton. On the other hand, concentrations of CAP in L. vannamei decreased to 97.74% (muscle, 90.30% (cephalothoraxes, and 97.63% (exoskeleton. The elimination half-life of CAP in L. vannamei was 0.6624 day (muscle, 0.859 day (cephalothorax, and 0.796 day (exoskeleton. CAP was retained better by P. monodon compared to L. vannamei.

  15. STUDY ON FRY PERFORMANCE OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS MORPHOLOGY AND RNA/DNA RATIO ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanti Haryanti; Ketut Mahardika; Sari Budi Moria; I Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2006-01-01

    Standard method to asses the performance of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) fry was needed for successful shrimp culture. The main purpose of this study was to determine standard method fry performance of P. monodon assesment based on its morphology and molecular RNA/DNA ratio analysis. Samples of P. monodon fry were collected from hatcheries in Bali, six hatcheries in East Java, three hatcheries in Central Java and six hatcheries in South Sulawesi. Each hatchery gave 25 appropriate size...

  16. DIVERSITAS DAN KERAPATAN MANGROVE, GASTROPODA DAN BIVALVIA DI ESTUARI PERANCAK, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Susiana; Ali, Syamsu Alam; Rukminasari, Nita

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan diversitas dan kerapatan mangrove dengan kepadatan gastropoda dan bivalvia di mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi. Pengukuran ekosistem mangrove menggunakan transek kuadrat 10 m x 10 m. Kelimpahan dan kepadatan gastropoda dan bialvia menggunakan transek kuadrat berukuran 1 m x 1 m. Analisis nMDS, cluster untuk melihat hubungan karekteristik mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi dianalisis secara deskriptif dan analisis regresi untuk mendetermi...

  17. BIOACCUMULATION AND DEPURATION STUDIES OF LEAD NITRATE ON ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT SHRIMP PENAEOUS MONODON

    OpenAIRE

    S.Palani Kumar; A.S.Sharadhamma

    2013-01-01

    Current study of Bioaccumulation and Depuration of Lead nitrate on marine shrimp Penaeous monodon shows Lead nitrate accumulation more in hepatopancreas compared to muscle and the depuration level of heavy metal Lead nitrate was more through hepatopancreas comparing to muscle tissues, when comparing to the control animals.This shows the major role of Hepatopacreas in Bioaccumulation and depuration in this study on muscle tissues and hepatopancreas tissues

  18. Effects of extraction parameters on physicochemical and functional characteristics of chitosan from Penaeus monodon shell

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    Jubril Olayinka Akolade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of extraction parameters with particular interest during the microwave deacetylation process on the characteristics of chitosan produced from Penaeus monodon (P. monodon sourced within the coastal region of Lagos, Nigeria for applications of controlled release systems for pharmaceutical industries. Methods: Chitosan was extracted from shrimp (P. monodon shell and evaluated as a controlled release system for curcumin. Effects of relevant processing parameters on physicochemical and functional characteristics of the extracted chitosan were assessed. The crude chitosan was purified and used to prepare controlled release formulations for curcumin via ionic gelation with tripolyphosphate. Results: Data from the study showed that increasing time and temperature during deproteinization significantly improved the removal of protein bound to the shell matrix. Also, the ratio of the weight of the deproteinized sample to the volume of HCl used for demineralization influenced the process. During microwave-assisted production of chitosan from chitin, increase in the concentration of the deacetylating medium significantly increased solubility, viscosity and degree of deacetylation, whereas increasing temperature and time during deacetylation of chitin degraded the biopolymer to give low molecular weight chitosan. Optimized extraction and purification process yielded absolutely soluble medium to low molecular weight chitosan. The encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, percentage yield, release efficiencies in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids of curcumin loaded in the formulations of chitosan from P. monodon were compared favorably to encapsulation and release characteristics of the encapsulated curcumin in commercially available chitosan used as the reference. Conclusions: Valorization of shrimp waste into pharmaceutically graded medium molecular weight chitosan was achieved. The chitosan obtained can be used as

  19. Transferable chloramphenicol resistance determinant in luminous Vibrio harveyi from penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon larvae

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    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant luminous Vibrio harveyi strains isolated from Penaeus monodon larvae were screened for the possession of transferable resistance determinants. All the strains were resistant to chloramphenicol and the determinant coding for chloramphenicol resistance was transferred to Escherichia coli at frequencies of 9.50x10-4 to 4.20x10-4. The results probably suggest the excessive use of chloramphenicol in shrimp hatcheries to combat luminous vibriosis.

  20. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF Vibrio harveyi ISOLATED FROM TIGER PRAWN Penaeus monodon HATCHERIES AND GROW OUT PONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Muliani Muliani; Ince Ayu Khairana Kadriah; Andi Parenrengi; Sulaeman Sulaeman

    2006-01-01

    ibrio harveyi is known as one among the most harmful bacteria infecting tiger prawn at every stage of its life’s. The present research was aimed to reveal the genetic diversity of Vibrio harveyi isolated from tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) culture. The samples of bacteria were collected from hatchery (brood-stock, larvae, natural feed, artemia, and larval rearing water) and grow-out (juveniles, water, shrimp, sediment, plankton, crab, mollusc, microalgae, and wild fish).  The taxonomic identif...

  1. Effect of Probiotics on the Hatchery Seed Production of Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Soundarapandian; R. Babu

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the diseases of shrimps hindered the development of shrimp culture. Hence, the use of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture has tremendous scope and the study of the application of probiotics in aquaculture has a glorious future. In the present study, the probiotics was applied (experimental) for the larval rearing of P. monodon which is compared with control tanks (without probiotics). The temperature and alkalinity of both control and experimental tanks were more of less same. ...

  2. STUDY OF PROBIOTICS ON THE SEED PRODUCTION OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon

    OpenAIRE

    M. Abdul Kader; Sheikh Aftab Uddin; M. Nurul Azim Sikder; M. Abdul Hakim; M. Mahbub Alam; Ashraful Haque Azad; Chowdhury Kamrul Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Currently, antibiotics are widely used in shrimp hatcheries to control bacterial infections. Appearance of antibiotic resistant pathogens and restriction on the use of antibiotics have led to the development of alternatives to antibiotics in hatchery systems. In light of this, an attempt was undertaken to investigate the effects of probiotics on the larval rearing of Penaeus monodon, compared with control tanks (without probiotics). The results showed that several issues significantly improve...

  3. Immunomodulatory and Growth-Promoting Potential of Lowcost Probiotic Product in Penaeus Monodon Culture System

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    Chandran Manohar Navin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The capability of a low-cost probiotic product was evaluated in Penaeus monodon reared under an outdoor culture system for a period of 90 days. The low-cost probiotic product was formulated by mixing the broth culture of Bacillus cereus along with commercial chalk powder in 1:1 ratio. The prepared probiotic product as a powdered supplement was incorporated along with the shrimp diet at various concentrations (1 to 5%. The viability of B. cereus in the experimental diet was tested once in 30 days up to 90 days during the experimentation. After 90 days of feeding experiments, the growth performance of shrimp was determined with a maximum production of 11.98 ± 0.367 g, SGR of 5.030 ± 0.171% and FCE of 86.63 ± 1.300% in P. monodon fed D4 diet (4% probiotic supplement. The immunological parameters determined at the end of the culture experiment showed variation among diets. The total haemocyte count (273.66 ± 3.09 x 105 cells/ml, phenoloxidase activity (0.132 ± 0.007 OD and respiratory burst activity (0.291 ± 0.020 O.D were high in P. monodon fed D4 diet. Similar effects were observed for plasma protein concentration (68.00 ± 1.41 mg/ ml, lysozyme activity (0.483 ± 0.014 U/ml and bactericidal activity (81.0 ± 1.33% in shrimp fed D4 diet. The results of the present investigation conclude that the probiotic product at a concentration of 4% was effective in elevating the growth and immune performances in shrimp P. monodon.

  4. Invasion of Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, in the western north Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Pam L.; Knott, David M.; Kingsley-Smith, Peter R.; Morris, James A.; Buckel, Christine A.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hartman, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    After going unreported in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for 18 years (1988 to 2006), the Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has recently reappeared in the South Atlantic Bight and, for the first time ever, in the Gulf of Mexico. Potential vectors and sources of this recent invader include: 1) discharged ballast water from its native range in Asia or other areas where it has become established; 2) transport of larvae from established non-native populations in the Caribbean or South America via ocean currents; or 3) escape and subsequent migration from active aquaculture facilities in the western Atlantic. This paper documents recent collections of P. monodon from the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Mexico, reporting demographic and preliminary phylogenetic information for specimens collected between North Carolina and Texas from 2006 through 2012. The increased number of reports in 2011 and 2012, ranging from 102 mm to 298 mm total length, indicates that an adult population is present in densities sufficient for breeding, which is indicative of incipient establishment. Based on these reports of P. monodon, its successful invasion elsewhere, and its life history, we believe that this species will become common in the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico in less than 10 years. Penaeus monodon is an aggressive predator in its native range and, if established, may prey on native shrimps, crabs, and bivalves. The impacts of an established P. monodon population are potentially widespread (e.g., alterations in local commercial fisheries, direct and indirect pressures on native shrimp, crab and bivalve populations, and subsequent impacts on the populations of other predators of those organisms) and should be considered by resource managers. The impacts of P. monodon on native fauna and the source(s) or vector(s) of the invasion, however, remain unknown at this time.

  5. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon.

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    Wanilada Rungrassamee

    Full Text Available The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium, ii Firmicutes (Fusibacter, and iii Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium. The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.

  6. RESPON UDANG WINDU ( Penaeus monodon Fabr. TERHADAP ANTIGEN WSSV YANG DIINAKTIVASI DENGAN FORMALDEHID

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    Melta Rini Fahmi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui respon udang windu (Penaeus monodon terhadap pemberian antigen virus WSSV (White Spot Syndrome Virus yang diinaktifkan dengan menggunakan formaldehid. Penelitian dibagi menjadi dua tahapan, tahapan pertama yaitu menentukan nilai VID50 (Virus Infective Doze dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap, tahap kedua untuk melihat pengaruh pemberian virus WSSV yang diinaktifkan dengan formaldehid terhadap respon imunitas, tingkah laku, dan tingkat sintasan. Pada tahap kedua penelitian dilakukan secara faktorial, faktor yang digunakan adalah konsentrasi virus terdiri atas 2 level serta konsentrasi formaldehid yang terdiri atas 3 level. Masing-masing kombinasi di atas dibuat sebanyak 6 kali, yang digunakan untuk 3 kelompok penelitian yaitu kelompok tanpa diuji tantang, diuji tantang dilakukan setelah 14 hari, dan uji tantang dilakukan setelah 21 hari, dilaksanakan sebanyak 2 kali ulangan. Untuk semua kelompok percobaan respons udang paling sensitif berupa berenang ke permukaan terjadi setelah 1 jam perlakuan diberikan, diikuti oleh penurunan aktivitas dan penurunan nafsu makan. Tingkat kerusakan organ paling tinggi terdapat pada kelompok penelitian ke-2 (uji tantang setelah 14 hari. Untuk kelompok 1 (divaksinasi kondisi organ hampir normal, hal ini menandakan virus berhasil dilemahkan dan mampu memacu timbulnya antibodi. Tingkat sintasan udang lebih tinggi setelah diuji tantang dibandingkan yang tidak divaksinasi. The purpose of the research was to determine response of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon toward formaldehyde inactivated White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV.The study was divided into two phases, the first phase was to determine the VID50 (Virus Infective Doze using Completely Randomize Design, the second phase was to determine of effectiveness of inactive WSSV antigen on the immune response of Penaeus monodon, behavior and pathological respond of Penaeus monodon larvae. VID50 value determined during research was

  7. Ultrastructural and pathogenesis of Monodon baculovirus in SPF shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei imported to Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bahari-Meimandi, S.A.; Afsharnasab, M.; Motallebi Moghanjoghi, A.A.; Azaritakami, G.; Sharifrohani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Viral pathogens are major causes of outbreaks in shrimp farms throughout the world. Monodon baculovirus has been known to be invasive in 85-100% of the shrimp hatcheries, in early or late stages of shrimp. Three-hundred and sixty juvenile of Litopenaeus vannamei with average (±SD) size of 7.99±0.54 g and 3600 post larvae 10-15 were prepared from Shrimp Research Station located in Helleh and 3 hatcheries from Bushehr Province, southern part of Iran, respectively. They were allocated to 9 glass...

  8. KARAKTERISTIK SEKUEN cDNA PENGKODE GEN ANTI VIRUS DARI UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon

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    Andi Parenrengi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transgenesis pada ikan merupakan sebuah teknik modern yang berpotensi besar dalam menghasilkan organisme yang memiliki karakter lebih baik melalui rekombinan DNA gen target termasuk gen anti virus dalam peningkatan resistensi pada udang. Gen anti virus PmAV (Penaeus monodon Anti Viral gene merupakan salah satu gen pengkode anti virus yang berasal dari spesies krustase. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui karakteristik gen anti virus yang diisolasi dari udang windu, Penaeus monodon. Isolasi gen anti virus menggunakan metode Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR dan selanjutnya dipurifikasi untuk sekuensing. Data yang dihasilkan dianalisis dengan program Genetyx Versi 7 dan basic local alignment search tool (BLAST. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gen anti virus PmAV yang berhasil diisolasi dari cDNA udang windu dengan panjang sekuen 520 bp yang mengkodekan 170 asam amino. BLAST-N menunjukkan tingkat similaritas yang sangat tinggi (100% dengan gen anti virus yang ada di GeneBank. Komposisi asam amino penyusun gen anti virus yang paling besar adalah serin (10,00%, sedangkan yang terkecil adalah asam amino prolin dan lisin masing-masing 1,76%. Analisis sekuen gen dan deduksi asam amino (BLAST-P memperlihatkan adanya C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD yang memiliki kemiripan dengan gen C-type lectin yang diisolasi dari beberapa spesies krustase. Transgenic fish technology is a potential modern technique in producing better character organism through DNA recombinant of target genes including anti viral gene for improvement of shrimp immunity. PmAV (Penaeus monodon Anti Viral gene is one of anti viral genes isolated from crustacean species. The research was conducted to analyze the characteristics anti viral gene isolated from tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon. Anti viral gene was isolated using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technique and then purified for sequencing. Data obtained were analyzed using Genetyx Version 7 software and basic local alignment

  9. Urea as a Nitrogen Source in a Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) Closed Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Supannee SUWANPAKDEE; Sataporn DIREKBUSARAKOM; Piyapong CHOTIPUNTU; Putth SONGSANGJINDA

    2010-01-01

    Urea [(NH2)2CO] is an organic compound that serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compound by animals. Urea is widely used in aquaculture systems. This study investigated the effects of urea on growth of Penaeus monodon. Shrimp were reared in 500 l fiber tanks. There was no exchange of water throughout the experiment. Shrimp with an average body weight of 10.99 ± 0.19 g were stocked at a density of 32 shrimp/m2 in 20 ppt diluted seawater and fed with 38 % protein d...

  10. Moult-inhibiting fusion protein augments while polyclonal antisera attenuate moult stages and duration in Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vrinda, S.; Jasmin, C.; Sivakumar, K.C.; Jose, B.; Philip, R; BrightSingh, I

    thioredoxin-fused mature MIH I protein (mf-PmMIH I) of P. monodon in a bacterial system and its use as antigen to raise polyclonal antiserum (anti-mf-PmMIH I). The mature MIH I gene of 231 bp, that codes for 77 amino acids, was cloned into the Escherichia coli...

  11. Chemical and physical effects of crowding on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon Fabricius post-larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nga, B.T.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Scheffer, M.; Nghia, T.T.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that crowding effects through physical and/or chemical interference may be an important factor in lowering the chance of survival and reducing growth of Penaeus monodon post-larvae under high stocking densities was tested. To separate physical interference from chemically-exerted

  12. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toms C. Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV, Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae.

  13. STUDY OF PROBIOTICS ON THE SEED PRODUCTION OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Kader

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, antibiotics are widely used in shrimp hatcheries to control bacterial infections. Appearance of antibiotic resistant pathogens and restriction on the use of antibiotics have led to the development of alternatives to antibiotics in hatchery systems. In light of this, an attempt was undertaken to investigate the effects of probiotics on the larval rearing of Penaeus monodon, compared with control tanks (without probiotics. The results showed that several issues significantly improved with administering probiotics in the experimental tanks compared with the tanks without probiotics. For example, the concentration of ammonia was estimated to be 1.25 mg/L that was less than half of what was measured in the control tanks. The size variation was observed more in the control tanks than in the experimental tanks. Moreover, the muscle gut ratio of PL15 was about 85 to 92% in the probiotic treated tank and 70 to 80% in the control tank during the eight cycles of production. The fouling organisms were more in the control tank compared to the experimental tanks. The average length of PL15 was maximum when reared in the experimental tanks compared to the control tanks. The final survival rate of PL15 from the control and experimental tank was 35 and 52%, respectively. The present investigation indicated that probiotics played an important role in the growth, survival and health status of P. monodon larvae.

  14. Microbiome analysis and detection of pathogenic bacteria of Penaeus monodon from Jakarta Bay and Bali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetama, Vincensius S P; Hennersdorf, Philipp; Abdul-Aziz, Muslihudeen A; Mrotzek, Grit; Haryanti, Haryanti; Saluz, Hans Peter

    2016-09-30

    Penaeus monodon, the Asian black tiger shrimp is one of the most widely consumed marine crustaceans worldwide. In this study, we examine and compare the fecal microbiota of P. monodon from highly polluted waters around Jakarta Bay, with those of less polluted waters of Bali. Using next generation sequencing techniques, we identified potential bacterial pathogens and common viral diseases of shrimp. Proteobacteria (96.08%) was found to be the most predominant phylum, followed by Bacteriodetes (2.32%), Fusobacteria (0.96%), and Firmicutes (0.53%). On the order level, Vibrionales (66.20%) and Pseudoaltermonadales (24.81%) were detected as predominant taxa. qPCR profiling was used as a confirmatory step and further revealed Vibrio alginolyticus and Photobacterium damselae as two potential pathogenic species present in most of the samples. In addition, viral diseases for shrimp were discovered among the samples, WSSV in Jakarta free-living samples, YHV in Bali free-living samples and IHHNV in both. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficiency of probiotics (Ecoforce in the growth and survival of Peneaus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Elumalai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplementation of live microorganisms in aquaculture aids in preventing disease, thereby increasing production and decreasing economic loss. Application of probiotics bacteria in aquaculture systems plays significant role that determines the fate and success rate of culture. The present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of commercially available probiotics (The major active ingredients include Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus faecium, Bacillus mesentericus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus natto, Clostridium butyricum, Saccharomyces cerevivisiae, Alkaline Protease and Lipase in the growth and survival of Peneaus monodon in grow-out conditions. At the end of the culture, the survival rate of Pond I (treatment pond was 76%, whereas for Pond II (control pond it was only 59%. Pond I (29.2g where as shrimps in the Pond II showed the least average body weight of 22.6g. It is evident that application of probiotics has improved the growth and survival of P. monodon and which in turn paved way to reap better profit for the farmers. This investigation showed that administration of mixed Bacillus probiotics significantly improved growth and survival of shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp culture and enhanced water quality for parameter., it seems likely that the use of probiotics will gradually increase in the days to come that will open new vistas in the arena of aquaculture.

  16. Crustin protein Amk1 from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon inhibits Vibrio harveyi and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moltira Tonganunt1*

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A crustin gene (Amk1 was identified from a haemocyte library of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The full-length cDNA consists of 411 bp encoding a deduced precursor of 136 amino acids with a signal peptide of 17 aminoacids. Amk1 contains a hydrophobic and a Gly-rich region at the N-terminus and a 12 conserved cysteine domain (6-DSC at the C-terminus. Transcripts of Amk1 are mainly detected in haemocytes and gills by RT-PCR analysis. A recombinant Amk1was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli. This has a molecular mass of 43.66 kDa with a predicted pI of 8.23. Antibacterial assays demonstrated that recombinant Amk1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegativebacteria with strong inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio harveyi.

  17. Past and present population dynamics of narwhals Monodon monoceros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva

    The narwhal, Monodon monoceros, is a medium-sized odontocete whale, endemic to the Atlantic sector of the Arctic and sub-Arctic. In both Canada and Greenland, subsistence hunting of narwhals by the Inuit has existed for centuries and still today the narwhals are hunted for their precious tusks...... of both marine and terrestrial mammals, although the technique still requires both optimization and further validation. In addition, the thesis includes a study of past population dynamics in narwhals. We have investigated the genetic response to climate change and the emographic history of the narwhal...... as 50.000 years. The results are compared with results from the beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, revealing two very different demographic histories....

  18. The effect of gamma irradiation on physical and nutritional quality of Penaeus Monodon shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.L.; Jobin, M.; Latreille, B.; Nouchpramool, K.; Gagnon, M.

    1995-01-01

    Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thailand ''PENAEUS MONODON'' Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the chemical and physical qualities of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the color measurement expressed in terms of lightness (L*) showed a relative stability during storage of processed shrimps. However, based on the value (θ) a more intense red color was observed for the control and the reference. The cooked irradiated and nonirradiated shrimps presented a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.01) of 22% in firmness during the first week of storage. Thus, irradiation did not impair the firmness of shrimps after treatment or during storage. Also, based on the statistical analysis, the irradiation treatment did not affect the content of amino acids of precooked shrimps. (Author)

  19. Phylogenetic reconstruction and shell evolution of the Diplommatinidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nicole B; Van Dooren, Tom J M; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2012-06-01

    The fascinating and often unlikely shell shapes in the terrestrial micromollusc family Diplommatinidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda) provide a particularly attractive set of multiple morphological traits to investigate evolutionary patterns of shape variation. Here, a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction, based on five genes and 2700 bp, was undertaken for this family, integrated with ancestral state reconstruction and phylogenetic PCA of discrete and quantitative traits, respectively. We found strong support for the Diplommatininae as a monophyletic group, separating the Cochlostomatidae into a separate family. Five main clades appear within the Diplommatininae, corresponding with both coiling direction and biogeographic patterns. A Belau clade (A) with highly diverse (but always sinistral) morphology comprised Hungerfordia, Palaina, and some Diplommatina. Arinia (dextral) and Opisthostoma (sinistroid) are sister groups in clade B. Clade C and D solely contain sinistral Diplommatina that are robust and little ornamented (clade C) or slender and sculptured (clade D). Clade E is dextral but biogeographically diverse with species from all sampled regions save the Caroline Islands. Adelopoma, Diplommatina, Palaina, and Hungerfordia require revision to allow taxonomy to reflect phylogeny, whereas Opisthostoma is clearly monophyletic. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests a sinistral origin for the Diplommatinidae, with three reversals to dextrality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and molecular identification of planctomycete bacteria from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, J A; Gwilliam, H G; Lindsay, M; Lichanska, A; Belcher, C; Vickers, J E; Hugenholtz, P

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria phenotypically resembling members of the phylogenetically distinct planctomycete group of the domain Bacteria were isolated from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon. A selective medium designed in the light of planctomycete antibiotic resistance characteristics was used for this isolation. Planctomycetes were isolated from both healthy and monodon baculovirus-infected prawn postlarvae. The predominant colony type recovered from postlarvae regardless of viral infection status was nonpigmented. Other, less commonly observed types were pink or orange pigmented. A planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA-directed probe was designed and used to screen the isolates for their identity as planctomycetes prior to molecular phylogenetic characterization. 16S rRNA genes from nine prawn isolates together with two planctomycete reference strains (Planctomyces brasiliensis and Gemmata obscuriglobus) were sequenced and compared with reference sequences from the planctomycetes and other members of the domain Bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses and sequence signatures of the 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the prawn isolates were members of the planctomycete group. Five representatives of the predominant nonpigmented colony type were members of the Pirellula group within the planctomycetes, as were three pink-pigmented colony type representatives. Homology values and tree topology indicated that representatives of the nonpigmented and pink-pigmented colony types formed two discrete clusters within the Pirellula group, not identical to any known Pirellula species. A sole representative of the orange colony type was a member of the Planctomyces group, virtually identical in 16S rDNA sequence to P. brasiliensis, and exhibited distinctive morphology. PMID:8979353

  1. Moult-inhibiting fusion protein augments while polyclonal antisera attenuate moult stages and duration in Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrinda, S; Jasmin, C; Sivakumar, K C; Jose, Blessy; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-07-01

    Moulting in crustaceans is regulated by moult-inhibiting hormone (MIH) of the CHH family neuropeptides. The inhibitory functions of MIH have pivotal roles in growth and reproduction of Penaeus monodon. In this study, we report the expression of a thioredoxin-fused mature MIH I protein (mf-PmMIH I) of P. monodon in a bacterial system and its use as antigen to raise polyclonal antiserum (anti-mf-PmMIH I). The mature MIH I gene of 231bp, that codes for 77 amino acids, was cloned into the Escherichia coli thioredoxin gene fusion expression system. The translation expression vector construct (mf-PmMIH I+pET32a+) upon induction produced 29.85kDa mature MIH I fusion protein (mf-PmMIH I). The purified fusion protein was used as exogenous MIH I and as antigen to raise polyclonal antisera. When fusion protein (mf-PmMIH I) was injected into D2 and D3 stages of juvenile shrimp, the moult cycle duration was extended significantly to 16.67±1.03 and 14.67±1.03days respectively compared to that of 11.67±1.03days in controls. Moult duration was further reduced to 8.33±0.82days when polyclonal antiserum (anti-mf-PmMIH I - 1:500 dilutions) was injected. Anti-mf-PmMIH I immunolocalized MIH I producing neurosecretory cells in the eyestalk of P. monodon. In short, the present manuscript reports an innovative means of moult regulation in P. monodon with thioredoxin fused MIH I and antisera developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Abundance and composition of benthic fauna in Penaeus monodon Fabricius culture pond on the west coast of Malaysia peninsular

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Hena, M.K.; Hishamuddin, O.; Misri, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the benthic faunal abundance and diversity of tiger shrimp P. monodon culture ponds in Perak, west coast of Malaysia Peninsular. Sampling was carried out at three weeks interval throughout the 116 days culture period. In addition, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, transparency, pH and organic matter of soil were also measured. Results showed that the major groups of macro-benthos comprised of gastropod, foraminifera, polychaetes, bivalve and insects;...

  3. Comparison of ovarian maturation and spawning after unilateral eyestalk ablation of wild-caught and pond-reared Penaeus monodon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, W.; Yang, Q.; Ma, Z.; Jiang, S.; Qiu, L.; Huang, J.; Zhou, F.; Qin, J.G.

    2015-07-01

    The present study compares the efficiency of ovarian maturation and spawning success between wild-caught and pond-reared Penaeus monodon females after unilateral eyestalk ablation. The earliest spawning time after eyestalk ablation was 5.9 days in wild-caught females, which is significantly shorter than the spawning time in pond-reared females (10.5 days). Both wild-caught and pond-reared females repeatedly spawned after eyestalk ablation. On average, each wild-caught female spawned 2.94 times while each pond-reared female spawned only 1.09 times. The spawning induction rate, egg hatching rate, and the number of eggs per spawning were significantly greater in wild-caught females than in pond-reared females. However, the egg size was not significantly different between wild-caught and pond-reared females. Four shrimp sizes (60, 80, 100 and 120 (± 1.0) g) were tested in this study and body weight significantly affected ovarian induction in pond-reared females but not in wild-caught females. Within the same body-weight class, the egg number per spawn in wild-caught females was significantly greater than that in pond-reared females. The egg production per spawn of the pond-reared females in the 120-g size group was two times higher than that in the pond-reared females in the 80-g size group. In conclusion, the fecundity of wild-caught P. monodon females is significantly higher than that of pond-reared P. monodon females. In breeding pond-reared P. monodon, the recommended minimum body weight of females is over 80 g, and the desirable body weight is over 100 g. (Author)

  4. Persistence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus delays mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus infection in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Persistent infection of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) (also called IHHNV) and its non-infectious inserts in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) genome are commonly found without apparent disease. Here, we introduced the method of multiplex PCR in order to differentiate shrimp with viral inserts from ones with the infectious virus. The method allowed us to study the effect of pre-infection of IHHNV, in comparison to IHHNV inserts, on WSSV resistance in P. monodon. Results A multiplex PCR system was developed to amplify the entire IHHNV genome, ensuring the accurate diagnosis. Field samples containing IHHNV DNA templates as low as 20 pg or equivalent 150 viral copies can be detected by this method. By challenging the two groups of diagnosed shrimp with WSSV, we found that shrimp with IHHNV infection and those with viral inserts responded to WSSV differently. Considering cumulative mortality, average time to death of shrimp in IHHNV-infected group (day 14) was significantly delayed relative to that (day 10) of IHHNV-inserted group. Real-time PCR analysis of WSSV copy number indicated the lower amount of WSSV in the IHHNV-infected group than the virus-inserted group. The ratio of IHHNV: WSSV copy number in all determined IHHNV-infected samples ranged from approximately 4 to 300-fold. Conclusion The multiplex PCR assay developed herein proved optimal for convenient differentiation of shrimp specimens with real IHHNV infection and those with insert types. Diagnosed shrimp were also found to exhibit different WSSV tolerance. After exposed to WSSV, the naturally pre-infected IHHNV P. monodon were less susceptible to WSSV and, consequently, survived longer than the IHHNV-inserted shrimp. PMID:23414329

  5. Antimicrobial effects of essential oils of Cinnamosma fragrans on the bacterial communities in the rearing water of Penaeus monodon larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Samira; Randrianarivelo, Roger; Ruez, Philippe; Raherimandimby, Marson; Danthu, Pascal

    2011-04-01

    Farmed shrimps are vectors of various Vibrio species that are considered a potential health hazard. Previous study has shown that Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio alginolyticus dominated in the water and larval samples of shrimp hatchery (Randrianarivelo et al. 2010 ). The effects of two essential oils (EOs) of Cinnamosma fragrans, an endemic plant to Madagascar (B8: linalool-type and B143: 1,8-cineole-type), were determined on the total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and the Vibrio concentrations in the rearing water of Penaeus monodon hatchery. The assays took place in OSO Farming's shrimp hatchery in Madagascar. EOs were directly added to the water tank. The bacterial concentrations of water tank were assessed on marine agar and thiosulfate citrate bile sucrose agar. The larvae culture corresponded to four replicates each of B8, B143, erythromycin (E), and control (oil and antibiotic free). The bacterial concentration of the rearing water in B8, B143, and antibiotic (E) tanks were significantly lower (p  0.05) between the three treatments B8, B143, and E. This study demonstrated that both EOs of C. fragrans, like antibiotic, inhibited bacterial growth in the rearing water of P. monodon larvae. The potential of C. fragrans EO to control the bacterial load in in vivo conditions of P. monodon hatchery makes it a relevant option for producers to minimize risk of Vibrio growth in the rearing water of larvae, which is the primary source of colonization of shrimp larvae.

  6. Diversity of Indo-West Pacific Siphonaria (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Euthyneura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C; White, Tracy R

    2014-03-14

    Species of the limpet genus Siphonaria (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) are commonly found in the rocky intertidal, worldwide, except in the Arctic. In total, 205 species-group names are available and not permanently invalid. However, estimating the actual species diversity of Siphonaria has remained challenging, mainly because past authors have interpreted differently the variation of shell characters, resulting in different taxonomic accounts. Species diversity of Siphonaria is evaluated for the first time here based on DNA sequence data (three mitochondrial gene fragments: COI, 12S, and 16S) and a large sampling focusing on the tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific (from eastern Africa to Hawaii): new sequences are provided for 153 individuals, 123 of which were collected from 93 locations throughout the Indo-West Pacific. In total, 41 species (molecular units) are recognized worldwide (31 from the Indo-West Pacific), all of which are strongly supported. Potential names are discussed for those 41 species, based on traditional taxonomy. The shells of 66 of the individuals from which DNA was extracted are illustrated: intra- and inter-specific variation is documented in detail and discussed in the light of new molecular results. It is shown that many species could hardly be identified based on the shell only, because the variation of shell characters is too high and overlaps between species. Geographically, no species is found across the entire Indo-West Pacific, where quite a few species seem to be endemic to restricted areas. The biogeography of Siphonaria in the Indo-West Pacific is compared to other groups.

  7. QTL for white spot syndrome virus resistance and the sex-determining locus in the Indian black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas A; Gopikrishna, Gopalapillay; Baranski, Matthew; Katneni, Vinaya Kumar; Shekhar, Mudagandur S; Shanmugakarthik, Jayakani; Jothivel, Sarangapani; Gopal, Chavali; Ravichandran, Pitchaiyappan; Gitterle, Thomas; Ponniah, Alphis G

    2014-08-28

    Shrimp culture is a fast growing aquaculture sector, but in recent years there has been a shift away from tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to other species. This is largely due to the susceptibility of P. monodon to white spot syndrome virus disease (Whispovirus sp.) which has impacted production around the world. As female penaeid shrimp grow more rapidly than males, mono-sex production would be advantageous, however little is known about genes controlling or markers associated with sex determination in shrimp. In this study, a mapped set of 3959 transcribed single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to scan the P. monodon genome for loci associated with resistance to white-spot syndrome virus and sex in seven full-sibling tiger shrimp families challenged with white spot syndrome virus. Linkage groups 2, 3, 5, 6, 17, 18, 19, 22, 27 and 43 were found to contain quantitative trait loci significantly associated with hours of survival after white spot syndrome virus infection (P shrimp.

  8. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta associados a Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme R. Gorni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Amplullaridae belongs to this class Gastropoda and is made up of freshwater organisms with a wide geographical distribution in tropical regions. Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Samples were collected during winter and spring 2003 and summer 2004. From a total of 209 snails collected, the presence of Oligochaeta worms was observed in only 58 of them (27.75%. In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. The species Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 and Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 were the most abundant (43.68%, 12.32% and 10.08%, respectively. Haemonais waldvogeli was found in all of the seasons studied, what demonstrates its affinity for this kind of substrate. The results indicate that several Naididae species find in the umbilicus of these snails's shells (which contains fine detritus a favorable habitat for establishing themselves.A família Ampullaridae, pertencente à classe Gastropoda, é caracterizada por organismos de água doce com ampla distribuição na região tropical. Vermes Oligochaeta associados a esses caracóis podem ser encontrados habitando o umbílico de suas conchas. Devido à carência de informação sobre a ecologia desses vermes, o presente trabalho centrou-se em um levantamento de espécies de Oligochaeta associadas ao molusco Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Em amostragens realizadas no inverno e na primavera de 2003 e no verão de 2004, foram observados 209 caracóis, sendo que somente em 58 deles foi detectada a presença de vermes Oligochaeta, correspondendo a uma incidência de 27,75%. Foram encontrados, no total, 89 oligoquetos, todos da fam

  9. Effect of guava leaves on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhuo-Jia; Yang, Keng; Lin, Hei-Zhao; Guo, Zhi-Xun

    2014-09-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extracts have antiviral and antibacterial activity against shrimp pathogens such as yellow-head virus (YHV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and Vibrio harveyi, which make it a potential water disinfectant for use in shrimp culture. In this study, the safety of guava leaf supplementation in shrimp was evaluated by studying its influence on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon. Six diets containing different levels of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.025% [G1], 0.05% [G2], 0.1% [G3], 0.2% [G4], and 0.4% [G5]) were fed to groups of shrimp (1.576 ± 0.011 g body weight) in triplicate for 56 days. Growth performance (final body weight, WG, PWG, SGR) of shrimp fed guava leaf diets was significantly higher (P 0.05) were found. Dietary supplementation with guava leaf improved the activities of prophenoloxidase (PO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in serum, and of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and lysozyme (LSZ) both in serum and hepatopancreas of shrimp. In the experimental groups, the activities of these enzymes followed a similar pattern of change; they increased initially at low levels of dietary supplementation and then decreased with increasing concentrations of dietary guava leaf. Serum PO and SOD activities in shrimp fed the G1 diet reached 7.50 U ml(-1) and 178.33 U ml(-1), respectively, with PO activity being significantly higher than in controls. In shrimp fed the G1 diet, SOD, ACP, and AKP activities in hepatopancreas were significantly higher than in the controls, reaching 57.32 U g(-1), 23.28 U g(-1), and 19.35 U g(-1) protein, respectively. The highest activities of serum ACP, AKP, LSZ, and of hepatopancreas LSZ, were observed in the G3 diet group. Total nitric oxide synthase (TNOS) activity was highest (64.80 U ml(-1)) in the G4 diet group, which was significantly higher than that observed in the control group. These results suggest that dietary

  10. Gamma radiation effects on bacterial contamination and organoleptic characteristics of frozen Ponaeus Monodon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedi Sedeh, F.; Afsharian, R.; Zolfagarieh, H.; Nikbakht, M.; Shafaee, S. K.; Ayazi, M.; Fatolahi, H.; Moharami, A.; Babaee, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was the application of irradiation process to decrease bacterial contamination of the penaeus monodon. The shrimp samples were obtained from Hormozgan and were sent to the microbiological laboratory. Bacterial contamination of shrimp were determined by counting the aerobic mesophil bacteria, Staphylococcus areus, Coliforms, Vibrio. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella. The shrimp samples were irradiated at different doses of gamma ray. Finally, the optimum dose of the gamma ray for bacterial decontamination of shrimp, especially of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, was obtained to be 2 kGy. Also, the chemical factors of irradiated and non-irradiated samples such as Protein, Fat, total volatile Nitrogen, Non Protein Nitrogen, Peroxide Value and Amino Acids were measured. There were not any important difference among them. Also, there were not any significant difference between total volatile Nitrogen and Peroxide Value (P>0.05) for the irradiated and non-irradiated shrimp samples. Study of bacterial contaminations of the irradiated and non irradiated samples after 12 months showed that irradiation by 2 kGy can control the microbial contaminations. Four types of films for packaging: Pet.pe, Pp.pe, Bopp, and Pe.20 were used for storage of the irradiated and non irradiated shrimp samples in-18 d egree C during 12 months. All of the packages were studied on the aspects of color, odor, tissue and taste of shrimp samples and elasticity and pressing of packages. For the irradiated and non irradiated shrimp Pet.pe and Pp.pe were preferred, respectively.

  11. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassanee Eamkamon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in shrimp exposed to 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L of chlorpyrifos were significantly lower (1.7 and 3.3 times than that of control shrimp after 30 min of exposure (p<0.05. In sub-lethal exposure tests, the AChE activity of shrimp was significantly lower (1.9 times than that of control shrimp after exposure to 1.942 nmol/L of chlorpyrifos for 72 h (p<0.05. The sensitive reduction of AChE activity at the sub-lethal concentration, which was 30 times lower than 96 h LC50 value found in this study, indicates the potential use as a biomarker of chlorpyrifos exposure.

  12. Induction of ovarian maturation in Penaeus monodon by molecular signal interventional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Halagowder; Saravanakumar, Marimuthu; Thiyagu, Mani

    2012-11-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis in the hepatopancreas and ovary is negatively regulated by vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) produced in the neurosecretory cell of X-organ/sinus gland complex of the eyestalks of penaeid shrimp. Eyestalk ablation is used commercially to induce ovarian maturation in shrimps which leads to an eventual loss of the spawner. The aim of the present study was to understand the molecular mechanism of VIH regulation in ovarian development and its inhibition of VTG gene expression by using a MEK-specific inhibitor (U0126). The real-time quantitative PCR results showed VTG mRNA level was progressively increased in the ovary and hepatopancreas of unilateral eyestalk-ablated and inhibitor-treated shrimps. Western blot analysis also showed that phosphoMEK was detected only in the unilateral eyestalk-ablated and control shrimp, whereas phospho-MEK was not detected in inhibitor-treated shrimp. DAX-1, SF-1, and StAR expression correlated with changes in VIH mRNA and altered phospho-ERK levels. This is consistent with the hypothesis that suppression of DAX-1 results in SF-1-mediated StAR protein upregulation of estradiol that is implicated in vitellogenesis. This is the first report that demonstrates the molecular mechanism of VIH suppression via MEK pathway to induce ovarian maturation in female Penaeus monodon by molecular signal intervention, a less-invasive method than traditional eyestalk ablation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Histological and three dimensional organizations of lymphoid tubules in normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangsuwan, Pornsawan; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2008-04-01

    The normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon (which tested negative for WSSV and YHV) was composed of two parts: lymphoid tubules and interstitial spaces, which were permeated with haemal sinuses filled with large numbers of haemocytes. There were three permanent types of cells present in the wall of lymphoid tubules: endothelial, stromal and capsular cells. Haemocytes penetrated the endothelium of the lymphoid tubule's wall to reside among the fixed cells. The outermost layer of the lymphoid tubule was covered by a network of fibers embedded in a PAS-positive extracellular matrix, which corresponded to a basket-like network that covered all the lymphoid tubules as visualized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Argyrophilic reticular fibers surrounded haemal sinuses and lymphoid tubules. Together they formed the scaffold that supported the lymphoid tubule. Using vascular cast and SEM, the three dimensional structure of the subgastric artery that supplies each lobe of the lymphoid organ was reconstructed. This artery branched into highly convoluted and blind-ending terminal capillaries, each forming the lumen of a lymphoid tubule around which haemocytes and other cells aggregated to form a cuff-like wall. Stromal cells which form part of the tubular scaffold were immunostained for vimentin. Examination of the whole-mounted lymphoid organ, immunostained for vimentin, by confocal microscopy exhibited the highly branching and convoluted lymphoid tubules matching the pattern of the vascular cast observed in SEM.

  14. PENGARUH PAKAN ALAMI Chaetoceros spp. TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN DAN SINTASAN LARVA UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lante

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pakan alami berupa mikroalga merupakan salah satu faktor pendukung dalam keberhasilan usaha pembenihan udang windu, Penaeus monodon. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis pakan alami, Chaetoceros spp., yang dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan sintasan larva udang windu. Penelitian ini menggunakan 15 buah bak fiber berukuran 60 cm x 40 cm x 50 cm dengan volume 120 liter yang disi air sebanyak 100 liter. Kepadatan naupli adalah 90 ekor/liter atau 9.000 ekor/bak dan lima jenis pakan alami Chaetoceros spp. yang diuji yaitu: Chaetoceros simplex, Chaetoceros ceratosporum, Chaetoceros calcitrans, Chaetoceros amami, dan Chaetoceros gracilis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi kelima jenis pakan alami memberikan laju perkembangan larva yang relatif sama sampai stadia PL-1. Aplikasi Chaetoceros gracilis memberikan sintasan larva udang windu tertinggi yaitu 41,48% dan dengan Chaetoceros simplex memberikan sintasan larva terendah (28,02%. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa aplikasi Chaetoceros spp. yang berbeda pada pemeliharaan larva berpengaruh terhadap sintasan larva udang windu, namun tidak berpengaruh terhadap laju metamorfosis larva. Aplikasi Chaetoceros gracilis sebagai pakan alami adalah terbaik untuk sintasan larva udang windu.

  15. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by coastal plant Prosopis chilensis (L.) and their efficacy in controlling vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Manickaswami, Gayathridevi; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Ayyavu, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of leaf extract from coastal plant Prosopis chilensis on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as a substrate and to find their antibacterial potential on pathogenic Vibrio species in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The leaf extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, as evident by gradual change in colour of the reaction mixture consisted of the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 to dark brown. The silver nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to the presence of silver nanocrystal, as evident by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The peaks corresponding to flavanones and terpenoids were found to be stabilizing agents of the nanoparticles, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average of 11.3 ± 2.1 nm and was mostly of spherical in shape, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were found to inhibit Vibrio pathogens viz., Vibrio cholerae, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus and this antibacterial effect was better than that of leaf extract, as proved by disc diffusion assay. The nanoparticles were then tested in the shrimp Penaeus monodon challenged with the four species of Vibrio pathogens for 30 days. The shrimps fed with silver nanoparticles exhibited higher survival, associated with immunomodulation in terms of higher haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of haemolymph of P. monodon which is on par with that of control. Thus, the present study proved the possibility of using silver nanoparticles produced by coastal Prosopis chilensis as antibacterial agent in controlling vibriosis.

  16. Regulating gonad inhibition and vitellogenin/vitellin induction in Penaeus monodon using mature GIH fusion protein and polyclonal antisera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vrinda, S.; Jasmin, C.; Sivakumar, K.C.; Jose, S.; Jose, B.; Philip, R; BrightSingh, I

    September 2016 Available online 15 September 2016 Keywords: Gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) Fusion/chimeric proteinaa r t i c l e i n f o b s t r a c tRegulating gonad inhibition and vitellogen Penaeus monodon using mature GIH fusion polyclonal antisera... restriction site overhangs to match with that of the expression vector; pET32a+. The forward primer (GIH-F- 5′-GAAT TCAACATCCTGGACAGCAAATGCAGGGGTGC-3′) contained EcoR I site (italics) and 29 nucleotide residues encoding the N terminal amino acid residues...

  17. Pengaruh getah pepaya (Carica papaya) terhadap sintasan tokolan udang windu (Panaeus monodon) pada kepadatan yang berbeda selama pengangkutan

    OpenAIRE

    Sofyatuddin Karina; Wahyu Tursina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of present study was to evaluate the possibility of papaya’s latex (Carica papaya) as anti stress or larvaside for tiger shrimp (Panaeus monodon) post larvae Pl 14-30 during transportation. The tiger shrimp post larvae was collected from BBAP Ujung Batee, Aceh Besar on September, 2012. Reseach method used the completely random design with two factors, density of post larvae with three treatments (1000; 1500 dan 2000 ind/l) and concentration of papaya’s latex with four treatments...

  18. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Ages of marine mammals have traditionally been estimated by counting dentinal growth layers in teeth. However, this method is difficult to use on narwhals (Monodon monoceros) because of their special tooth structures. Alternative methods are therefore needed. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR......) technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid D/L ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in tusks (n=9). Two racemization rates were...

  19. Homologous genetic recombination in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses infecting Penaeus monodon shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijegoonawardane, Priyanjalie K M; Sittidilokratna, Nusra; Petchampai, Natthida; Cowley, Jeff A; Gudkovs, Nicholas; Walker, Peter J

    2009-07-20

    Yellow head virus (YHV) is a highly virulent pathogen of Penaeus monodon shrimp. It is one of six known genotypes in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses which also includes mildly pathogenic gill-associated virus (GAV, genotype 2) and four other genotypes (genotypes 3-6) that have been detected only in healthy shrimp. In this study, comparative phylogenetic analyses conducted on replicase- (ORF1b) and glycoprotein- (ORF3) gene amplicons identified 10 putative natural recombinants amongst 28 viruses representing all six genotypes from across the Indo-Pacific region. The approximately 4.6 kb genomic region spanning the two amplicons was sequenced for three putative recombinant viruses from Vietnam (genotype 3/5), the Philippines (genotype 5/2) and Indonesia (genotype 3/2). SimPlot analysis using these and representative parental virus sequences confirmed that each was a recombinant genotype and identified a recombination hotspot in a region just upstream of the ORF1b C-terminus. Maximum-likelihood breakpoint analysis predicted identical crossover positions in the Vietnamese and Indonesian recombinants, and a crossover position 12 nt upstream in the Philippine recombinant. Homologous genetic recombination in the same genome region was also demonstrated in recombinants generated experimentally in shrimp co-infected with YHV and GAV. The high frequency with which natural recombinants were identified indicates that genetic exchange amongst genotypes is occurring commonly in Asia and playing a significant role in expanding the genetic diversity in the yellow head complex. This is the first evidence of genetic recombination in viruses infecting crustaceans and has significant implications for the pathogenesis of infection and diagnosis of these newly emerging invertebrate pathogens.

  20. MBV infection in various stages of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available MBV infection in various stages of Penaeus monodon were studied. In hatcheries, MBV infection was detected early in nauplii stage using PCR technique, whereas rates of infection of 11.15-49.50% were observed in PL1 using histological technique, rising up to 15.26-100% in PL 10. In earthen ponds, the infection in PL15 was initially in the range of 68.68-96.00%. The infection was decreased toward the end of the first, second and third month of rearing period ranging between 13.63-54.83%. The laboratory trial showed that types of feed might affect the rate of MBV infection of larvae. Postlarva fed with artemia showed lowest infection rate at 29.41±7.98%, whereas the infection rates of shrimp fed with minced cockle flesh and commercial feed were 39.09±12.08% and 52.81±11.91, respectively. In stress test trial, a significant MBV infection was detected in the group of larvae that were raised with 25ºC and 34ºC and the salinity at 6 ppt and 18 ppt for 12 hours then rearing in normal condition for 3 days. In the 24 hour-stress trial, and transferred to normal condition for 7 day, the groups that were exposed to stress conditions had significantly higher rates of infection than the control group (p<0.05. The 24 hour - transportationcondition resulted in highest MBV infection rate (73.61±1.25%. From the present study, it was concluded that MBV infection in larvae from hatcheries increases with period of rearing and stress exposure, but the infection tended to decreased with rearing period in earthen pond condition. Proper feeding management and prevention of stress conditions could reduce of MBV infection in black tiger shrimp.

  1. Bacterial population in intestines of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon under different growth stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanilada Rungrassamee

    Full Text Available Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15, 1- (J1, 2- (J2, and 3-month-old (J3 juveniles using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length = 442±24 bases were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences, J1 (3,055 sequences, J2 (13,130 sequences and J3 (1,890 sequences. Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities.

  2. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF Vibrio harveyi ISOLATED FROM TIGER PRAWN Penaeus monodon HATCHERIES AND GROW OUT PONDS

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    Muliani Muliani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available ibrio harveyi is known as one among the most harmful bacteria infecting tiger prawn at every stage of its life’s. The present research was aimed to reveal the genetic diversity of Vibrio harveyi isolated from tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. The samples of bacteria were collected from hatchery (brood-stock, larvae, natural feed, artemia, and larval rearing water and grow-out (juveniles, water, shrimp, sediment, plankton, crab, mollusc, microalgae, and wild fish.  The taxonomic identification of Vibrio spp.was performed based on the physiological and biochemical characteristic following the isolation by Thiosulphate Citrate Bile-salt Sucrose Agar (TCBSA media. Amplified Ribosomoal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA for 16S-rRNA analysis and Macrorestriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (MLFP analysis using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE were applied to reveal the genetic diversity of V. harveyi. According to the taxonomic identification, of 361 isolates of Vibrio spp., 129 isolates (35.7% were identified as V. harveyi. The result of ARDRA analysis showed that the 16S-rRNA gene of V. harveyi digested by RsaI and HhaI enzyme, each generated three and four identical fragments respectively for the all samples. These meaned that ARDRA could not reveal any genetic variation on V. harveyi. The size range of all DNA fragment was less than 500 bp. This result indicated that the high genetic diversity of V. harveyi was revealed by MFLP-PFGE analysis. DNA fragment of V. harveyi was digested by NotI enzyme.

  3. Bacterial population in intestines of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under different growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length = 442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities.

  4. Application of Irradiated Pro biotic Microorganism in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areechon, Nontawith; Purivrojkul, Watchariya; Srisapoome, Prapansak; Piadiang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    Marine shrimp culture in Thailand has been developed continuously for the past two decades. This development will ensure the highest level of shrimp quality that will be suitable for the consumption of the people in the country and also aboard. The trend of culture system emphasizes on disease prevention more than treatment which will consequently limit the application of drug and chemicals. Application of pro biotic has been one means of this prevention that are commonly practiced by shrimp farmers. This research was conducted to compare the efficacy of normal Bacillus subtilis isolate from shrimp intestine and an irradiated B. subtilis as a pro biotic in shrimp feed. It was found that overall results were quite the same. These included the broth Co-culture assay. Effects on immune functions were conducted with Penaeus monodon with initial average weight of 17 gms by feeding with 3 gms/kg feed of spore of these two pro biotic for two mouths. The results indicated that both pro biotic caused significant improvement on percent phagocytosis only at the forth week of feeding trial and the overall enhancement of bactericidal activity. However, total haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity were not altered. Total bacterial count in shrimp intestine was also conducted during the two month trial. the results indicated significant reduction of Vibrio spp. of both pro biotic groups when compared with the control. Number of Bacillus spp. in intestine were continuously high even after pro biotic treatment had been stopped Growth rate of experiment and control shrimp was not significantly different.

  5. ANALYSIS OF IMMUNE RESPONSES ON TRANSGENIC TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIUM Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibriosis is one of main diseases of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon infected by pathogenic bioluminous bacterium Vibrio harveyi that can cause mass mortalities in shrimp culture. The bacteria can also trigger the disease white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. An effort to produce shrimp disease-resistant strains has been done through transgenesis technology with antiviral gene transfection. By this technology, it is expected an increase in the immune response of shrimp in a variety of diseasecausing pathogens. This study aimed to determine the immune responses (total haemocytes, haemocyte differentiation, and phenoloxydase activity of transgenic tiger shrimp against pathogenic bacterium V. harveyi. Research using completely randomized design, which consists of two treatments and three replications. Test animals being used were transgenic and non-transgenic shrimp with size, weight 3.93±1.25 g and a total length of 7.59±0.87 cm. Treatments being tested were the injection of bacterium V. harveyi (density of 5x106 cfu/mL of 0.1 mL/individual on transgenic (A and non-transgenic shrimp (B. Immune response parameters such as total haemocytes, haemocyte differentiation, and phenoloxydase activity were observed on day 1, 3, and 6 days after challenging. Data were analyzed using t-test by SPSS software. The results showed that the total haemocyte of transgenic shrimp was not significantly different (P>0.05 from non-transgenic shrimp, but haemocyte differentiation and phenoloxydase activity were significantly different (P<0.05 especially on sixth days after being exposed to the bioluminescent bacteria. The study results implied that transgenic shrimp has a better immune response compared than non-transgenic shrimp.

  6. Evaluasi penggunaan tepung cangkang rajungan sebagai bahan baku pakan juwana udang windu Penaeus monodon

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    Agus Kurnia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimum dietary level of the crab shell meal (CSM for replacement of fish meal (FM for growth and survival rate of black tiger shrimp larvae. The shrimp (initial weight: 0,0134±0,02 g were fed with six experimental diet for six weeks which were formulated to replace FM protein by with CSM at various substitution levels: diet A (0% CSM substitution level, diet B (25% CSM substitution level, diet C (50% CSM substitution level, diet D (75% CSM substitution level, diet E (100% CSM substitution level, diet F (commercial diet. Results from the feeding trial indicates that the shrimp fed with all treatment diet were not significantly different in weight gain and FCR. However, survival rate on the shrimp fed with diet F was significantly different to the other groups. The present study conclude that CSM could be used as protein ingredient in the diet of monodon shrimp juvenile. Keywords: replacement, crabs shell meal, fish meal, black tiger shrimp, survival rate  ABSTRAK Penelitian pakan dilakukan untuk menentukan dosis optimum tepung cangkang rajungan (TCR untuk mengganti tepung ikan (TI dalam pakan terhadap pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup larva udang windu. Udang windu (berat awal: 0,00134±0,02 g diberi pakan uji selama enam minggu yang diformulasi untuk mengganti TI dengan tingkat persentasi penggantian TCR dengan desain formulasi pakan A (0% substitusi TCR, pakan B (25% substitusi TCR, pakan C (50% substitusi TCR, pakan D (75% substitusi TCR, pakan E (100% substitusi TCR, dan pakan F (pakan komersial sebagai pakan kontrol. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa udang yang diberi pakan untuk semua perlakuan tidak memberikan pengaruh nyata terhadap pertumbuhan dan laju pertumbuhan harian. Akan tetapi kelompok udang yang diberi pakan F berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelangsungan hidup dibanding dengan perlakuan lainnya. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa tepung cangkang rajungan

  7. Copper accumulation and transport in a marine food chain composed of Platymonas subcordiformis, brachionus plicatilis and Penaeus monodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, A.-Gen; Chen, Wei-Qi; Li, Wen-Quan

    1997-09-01

    Accumulation, transport and toxicity of Cu in the food chain consisting of Platymonas subcordiformis, Brachionus plicatilis and Penaeus monodon were studied. Effects of Cu on the growth of organisms in the food chain were investigated and the inhibiting effect concentration (EC50) of Cu was then determined according to the dynamics of the relative number of cells or total individuals of organisms, expressed in percentages with reference to the controlled system, under different culture conditions. On the basis of the variations in accumulation and percentages of accumulation of Cu in the biological phase, the relationship between the accumulation of Cu in organisms and its toxicity was analyzed and the main approach for determining the transport of Cu in the food chain was then discussed.

  8. Effect of dietary pigment on growth performance and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyaratpalin, M.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary pigment on survival and disease (white spot syndrome virus: WSSV resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius (PL15 for a 30-day period were studied. The results showed that not only was mean survival of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed with supplementation of Lucarotene or Betatene at 125 mg/kg diet significantly higher (P<0.05 but also the body color was increased. There were no effects of dietary pigment on mean weight, percent weight gain and WSSV resistance. However, mean WSSV resistance of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed diet containing Lucantin pink 50 mg/kg diet, Spirulina 30 g/kg diet or Betatene 125 mg/kg diet was higher than that of control.

  9. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulating Bacillus spp. improve the survival, growth and robustness of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) postlarvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranja, Joseph Leopoldo Q; Ludevese-Pascual, Gladys L; Amar, Edgar C; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; De Schryver, Peter

    2014-10-10

    Low larval survival resulting from suboptimal culture conditions and luminous vibriosis poses a major problem for the larviculture of penaeid shrimp. In this study, a poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulating mixed bacterial culture (mBC; 48.5% PHB on cell dry weight) and two PHB accumulating bacterial isolates, Bacillus sp. JL47 (54.7% PHB on cell dry weight) and Bacillus sp. JL1 (45.5% PHB on cell dry weight), were obtained from a Philippine shrimp culture pond and investigated for their capacity to improve growth, survival and robustness of Penaeus monodon postlarvae (PL). Shrimp PL1 and shrimp PL30 were provided with the PHB containing bacterial cultures in the feed for 30 days followed by, respectively, a challenge with pathogenic Vibrio campbellii and exposure to a lethal dose of ammonia. Prior to the pathogenic challenge or ammonia stress, growth and survival were higher for shrimp receiving the PHB accumulating bacteria as compared to shrimp receiving diets without bacterial additions. After exposure to the pathogenic challenge the shrimp fed PHB accumulating bacteria showed a higher survival as compared to non-treated shrimp, suggesting an increase in robustness for the shrimp. Similar effects were observed when shrimp PL30 were provided with the PHB accumulating bacterial cultures during a challenge with pathogenic V. campbellii through the water. The survival of shrimp exposed to lethal ammonia stress showed no significant difference between PHB accumulating bacteria-fed shrimp and non-PHB treated shrimp. The data illustrate that bacilli capable of accumulating PHB can provide beneficial effects to P. monodon post-larvae during culture in terms of growth performance, survival and resistance against pathogenic infection and ammonia stress. Further investigations are required to verify the PHB effect of the bacterial cultures on the shrimp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Adding the White Legged Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on Growth and Survival of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon in Intensive Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Tarsim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in the framework of a project to develop a viable shrimp polyculture technology under intensive farming. The objectives were to assess the effect of adding white legged shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on growth and survival of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in intensive Farming. Tiger shrimp were stocked in 2800-3400 m2 earthen ponds at 40 individuals/m2 and reared for 133 days. White legged shrimp added at 70 day at 8±2 individuals/m2. Growth rate and total yield affected by addition of this species. Final  affected by white legged shrimp addition. No adding effects were found on the water quality parameters. The results indicate that, at densities tested, white legged shrimp addition to the intensive farming of tiger shrimp polyculture is viable as species increase crop production Key words: Penaeus vannamei, P. monodon, growth, survival, polyculture

  11. A cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, for identification of genes relevant to testicular development in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinbunga Sirawut

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor reproductive maturation in captive male broodstock of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon is one of the serious problems to the farming industries. Without genome sequence, EST libraries of P. monodon were previously constructed to identify transcripts with important biological functions. In this study, a new version of cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, was constructed from the Peneaus monodon EST libraries of 12 tissues, containing 5,568 non-redundant cDNA clones from 10,536 unique cDNA in the P. monodon EST database. UniShrimpChip was used to study testicular development by comparing gene expression levels of wild brooders from the West and East coasts of Thailand and domesticated brooders with different ages (10-, 14-, 18-month-old. Results The overall gene expression patterns from the microarray experiments revealed distinct transcriptomic patterns between the wild and domesticated groups. Moreover, differentially expressed genes from the microarray comparisons were identified, and the expression patterns of eight selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. Among these, expression levels of six subunits (CSN2, 4, 5, 6, 7a, and 8 of the COP9 signalosome (CSN gene family in wild and different ages of domesticated brooders were examined by RT-qPCR. Among the six subunits, CSN5 and CSN6 were most highly expressed in wild brooders and least expressed in the 18-month-old domesticated group; therefore, their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Conclusions This study is the first report to employ cDNA microarray to study testicular development in the black tiger shrimp. We show that there are obvious differences between the wild and domesticated shrimp at the transcriptomic level. Furthermore, our study is the first to investigate the feasibility that the CSN gene family might have involved in reproduction and development of this economically important

  12. MARINE SPONGE Aaptos suberitoides, IT’S POTENTIAL SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTIBACTERIAL FOR CONTROLLING Vibrio harveyi ON TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon) CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmiati Rosmiati; Andi Parenrengi; Emma Suryati

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to isolate and identify the natural antibacterial compounds potential from Aaptos suberitoides for Vibrio harveyi control on tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture. The agar diffusion method using paper discs was used to determine the antibacterial activity of extracts (diethyl ether (DEE), butanol (BUE) and aqueous (HOE) and compounds successfully isolated against Vibrio harveyi. Findings showed that the antibacterial activity was concentrated in BUE with the inhibition zone o...

  13. Patterns of larval distribution and settlement of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789) (Gastropoda, Muricidae) in fjords and channels of southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    MOLINET, CARLOS; ARÉVALO, ALEJANDRA; GONZÁLEZ, MARÍA TERESA; MORENO, CARLOS A.; ARATA, JAVIER; NIKLITSCHEK, EDWIN

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae) is limited to the coasts of Chile and southern Peru. Almost all studies of this gastropod have been carried out in open coastal systems, rather than the fjords and channels of southern Chile, despite the fact that this area represents ca. 95 % of the total coastline in this country. Although there is a large volume of background literature on C. concholepas, almost nothing is published about early larval development...

  14. Penapisan Bakteri yang Diisolasi dari Tambak Udang sebagai Kandidat Probiotik pada Budi daya Udang Windu, Penaeus monodon

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    Muliani Muliani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan bakteri probiotik untuk budi daya udang windu P. monodon. Penelitian meliputi beberapa tahapan yaitu (1 isolasi bakteri dari tambak udang; (2 uji daya hambat terhadap Vibrio  harveyi; (3 karakterisasi secara fisiologi dan biokimia; (4 pertumbuhan bakteri pada beberapa konsentrasi NaCl; (5 pertumbuhan bakteri pada beberapa tingkat salinitas; (6 uji patogenisitas bakteri terhadap pascalarva udang windu; (7 uji tantang dengan V. harveyi dalam wadah pemeliharaan pascalarva udang windu; dan (8 analisis gen 16S-rRNA bakteri yang diisolasi dari tambak. Sedikitnya 14 isolat dari 2.228 isolat bakteri yang diisolasi dari tambak, potensial dijadikan probiotik pada budi daya udang windu. Sintasan udang windu tertinggi pada perlakuan yang menggunakan isolat BN2067. Isolat BT950 dan BT95 paling potensial menghambat pertumbuhan V. harveyi baik secara In vitro maupun In vivo. Hasil analisis gen 16Sr-RNA menunjukkan bahwa BT950 dan BT951 termasuk dalam kelompok Brevibacillus sp., sedangkan BN2067 termasuk dalam kelompok Vibrio vulnificus CMCP6 chr. This experiment was aimed for finding-out probiotic bacteria on tiger shrimp P. monodon culture. The research included several steps i.e. 1 isolation of bacteria from tiger shrimp pond; 2 inhibition test of  bacteria against V. harveyi; 3 biochemical and physiological characterization; 4 growth of bacteria at different concentration of NaCl; (5 growth of bacteria at different salinities; (6 pathogenicity test of bacteria to tiger shrimp post larvae, (7 challenge test of bacteria against V. harveyi in tiger shrimp culture media; (8 16S-rRNA gene analysis of  bacteria isolated from shrimp pond. Fourteen isolates of 2,228 isolates of bacteria isolated from tiger shrimp pond were potential for probiotic bacteria on tiger shrimp culture. The highest survival rate of tiger shrimp was obtained from those treated with BN2067 isolate. The potential isolates to inhibit V. harveyi both In

  15. Improving the quality of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon through dietary incorporation of algae as a source of natural pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Mondal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiger shrimp is one of the major candidate species for export oriented aquaculture which dominates the seafood market in regions of European Union, Japan and USA. Carotenoid content in seafood has now become one of the important criteria in determining the quality of edible product. Recent trends in supplementing fish diets with natural pigment source are an alternative to the utilization of expensive synthetic pigments. In this context, green algae Enteromorpha intestinalis was selected as a source of natural pigment for inclusion in the diet of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Astaxanthin being an important category of carotenoid pigment was monitored in shrimp muscle tissue during the feeding trial. Significant variation (p<0.05 was observed between the experimental groups as confirmed through ANOVA thus exhibiting higher astaxanthin content of shrimps (18.70 Å} 4.48 ppm fed with E. intestinalis incorporated diet as compared to control (15.80 Å} 2.33 ppm. The present programme therefore emphasizes on the quality improvement of aquaculture product by dietary inclusion of algae as a natural pigment source.

  16. Inhibition of luminescence and virulence in the black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) pathogen Vibrio harveyi by intercellular signal antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manefield, M; Harris, L; Rice, S A; de Nys, R; Kjelleberg, S

    2000-05-01

    Expression of luminescence in the Penaeus monodon pathogen Vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is N-hydroxy butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. Indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in V. harveyi are coregulated. In this study the effects of an acylated homoserine lactone antagonist produced by the marine alga Delisea pulchra on luminescence and toxin production in a virulent strain of V. harveyi were analyzed. Luminescence and toxin production were both inhibited by the signal antagonist at concentrations that had no impact on growth. Toxin production was found to be prematurely induced in V. harveyi cultures incubated in a 10% conditioned medium. Additionally, a significant reduction in the toxicity of concentrated supernatant extracts from V. harveyi cultures incubated in the presence of the signal antagonist, as measured by in vivo toxicity assays in mice and prawns, was observed. These results suggest that intercellular signaling antagonists have potential utility in the control of V. harveyi prawn infections.

  17. Inhibition of Luminescence and Virulence in the Black Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Pathogen Vibrio harveyi by Intercellular Signal Antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manefield, Michael; Harris, Lachlan; Rice, Scott A.; de Nys, Rocky; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2000-01-01

    Expression of luminescence in the Penaeus monodon pathogen Vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is N-hydroxy butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. Indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in V. harveyi are coregulated. In this study the effects of an acylated homoserine lactone antagonist produced by the marine alga Delisea pulchra on luminescence and toxin production in a virulent strain of V. harveyi were analyzed. Luminescence and toxin production were both inhibited by the signal antagonist at concentrations that had no impact on growth. Toxin production was found to be prematurely induced in V. harveyi cultures incubated in a 10% conditioned medium. Additionally, a significant reduction in the toxicity of concentrated supernatant extracts from V. harveyi cultures incubated in the presence of the signal antagonist, as measured by in vivo toxicity assays in mice and prawns, was observed. These results suggest that intercellular signaling antagonists have potential utility in the control of V. harveyi prawn infections. PMID:10788385

  18. A probiotic Bacillus strain containing amorphous poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) stimulates the innate immune response of Penaeus monodon postlarvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranja, Joseph Leopoldo Q; Amar, Edgar C; Ludevese-Pascual, Gladys L; Niu, Yufeng; Geaga, Mary Joy; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the PHB-accumulating Bacillus sp. JL47 strain (capable of accumulating 55% PHB on cell dry weight) was investigated for its effects on the immune response of giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) postlarvae (PL) before and after the Vibrio campbellii challenge. Briefly, shrimp PL were cultured and fed with Artemia nauplii enriched with Bacillus sp. JL47. Shrimp receiving the Artemia nauplii without JL47 enrichment were used as control. After 15 days of feeding, the shrimp were challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii LMG 21363 at 10 6  cells mL -1 by immersion. Relative expression of the immune related genes encoding for prophenoloxidase (proPO), transglutaminase (TGase) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the shrimp were measured before (0 h) and after (3, 6, 9, 12, 24 h) the Vibrio challenge by quantitative real-time PCR using β-actin as the reference gene. The expressions of TGase and proPO were significantly up-regulated (p PHB-accumulating Bacillus sp. JL47 in shrimp was due to its capacity to stimulate the innate immune related genes of the shrimp, specifically the proPO and TGase genes. The application of probiotic Bacillus species, capable of accumulating a significant amount of PHB, is suggested as potential immunostimulatory strategy for aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of gamma irradiation and frozen storage time on the quality of tiger shrimps (Penaeus Monodon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Khan Ayob; Azizah Ali; Jalil Kadir

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 1, 2, 4 and kGy) and frozen storage (-10 0 C) of 6 months on the microbiological, chemical and organoleptic qualities of whole (WSI) and peeled (PS2) tiger shrimps (Peneaus monodon) were studied. The qualities of the products were compared with blanched shrimps (PSI) ordinarily prepared at a factory. The irradiation dose up to 6 kGy reduced the total bacterial count (TBC) by at least 3 log cycles with D value = 2.13 kGy. The survival of pathogenic microbes was effectively retarded. Although blanching eliminated the pathogenic microbes, the TBC of PSI before storage is still in a range of 10 5 /g. There was an increase in TBC of 1-2 log cycles during storage in all samples. Peeling effectively reduced the TBC of the shrimps. Gamma irradiation and shorter period of storage time did not influence the pH and protein contents of the products. Indole production was slowed down by irradiation at 1-4 kGy, which is comparable to blanching treatment. Organoleptic qualities (colour, ordour and texture) of the products were not effected by irradiation and storage time except for samples irradiated at 6 kGy in which the pink colour faded. There was no significant difference in the organoleptic qualities of irradiated (2 kGy) samples as compared to blanched products. (author)

  20. The efficacy of Poly-β-Hydroxy Butyrate (PHB)/biosurfactant derived from Staphylococcus hominis against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica, M; Priyanka, T; Akshaya, Murugesan; Rajeswari, V; Sivakumar, Lingappa; Somasundaram, S T; Shenbhagarathai, R

    2017-12-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is one of the most important causative agents of Penaeid shrimps diseases that incur heavy losses to the shrimp aquaculture. It has severe impact on the sustainability and the production of Penaeus monodon. Hence, the present study focussed on the investigation of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate/biosurfactant as immunostimulants against WSSV infected shrimps. Infection of WSSV was periodically checked in all the experimental shrimps using PCR diagnostic kit. After ensuring all shrimps were free of viral infection, experiments were carried out to analyze the nonspecific immune responses (prophenol oxidase, nitro blue tetrazolium reduction assay and total haemocyte count) both in control and experimental group. Further, gills and muscles of Penaeus monodon were subjected to proteome analysis after treated it with PHB/biosurfactant independently in the concentration of 2% and 5% each. Increase in the level of haemocytes was observed in both PHB (26 ± 2 × 10⁴ cells)/biosurfactant (28 ± 2 × 10 4  cells) treated shrimps, when compared with control (17 ± 2 × 10⁴ cells). proPhenolOxidase (proPO) activity was also enhanced in treated groups compared to WSSV infected shrimps. Less production of superoxide anion was observed in control and treated groups. Differences in the protein expression was analyzed in muscle tissue of control, WSSV infected and PHB/biosurfactant treated shrimps. Our finding suggested that partial substitution of feed with 2% PHB and biosurfactant showed increased rate on the survival of WSSV infected P. monodon which might be due to either the over expression/down regulation of proteins that play a vital role in enhancing the immune system/the progression of the disease respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of SKT-b Vibrio probiotic bacteria addition at different developmental stages on tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon larvae survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Widanarni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effect of probiotic bacteria SKT-b Vibrio addition at different developmental stages on survival rates of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon larva.  Main activity of this experiment consisted of tiger shrimp rearing started from nauplius stage until Pl10 and addition of 106 CFU/ml SKT-b Vibrio probiotic bacteria at various developmental stages namely at early nauplius stage, early zoea zoea stage, early mysis stage, early postlarva (Pl stage, every developmental stage changes, everyday, and control (without probiotic bacteria addition. Results showed that survival rates of shrimp larva ranged at 24,17%-35,83% with the higest value in the treatment of probiotic bacteria addition at every developmental stage changes namely 35,83%, whereas the lowest was found at control (without probiotic bacteria addition namely 24,17%.  No significantly different was found in term of shrimp growth rate among control and treatment. Growth rate in length of tiger shrimp larva ranged 18,64%-19,09% for SKT-b Vibrio addition and 18,47% for control. Key word: Probiotic bacteria, SKT-b Vibrio, Penaeus monodon, shrimp larvae stages   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mempelajari pengaruh pemberian bakteri probiotik Vibrio SKT-b pada stadia yang berbeda terhadap kelangsungan hidup larva udang windu Penaeus monodon. Kegiatan utama dari penelitian ini adalah pemeliharaan udang windu yang dimulai dari stadia nauplius sampai Pl10 dan diberi bakteri probiotik Vibrio SKT-b dengan dosis 106 CFU/ml pada waktu yang berbeda yaitu pada awal stadia nauplius, awal stadia zoea, awal stadia mysis, awal stadia postlarva (Pl, setiap pergantian stadia, setiap hari, dan kontrol (tanpa pemberian bakteri probiotik. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa tingkat kelangsungan hidup larva udang berkisar antara 24,17%-35,83% dengan nilai tertinggi terdapat pada perlakuan pemberian bakteri probiotik pada setiap pergantian stadia yaitu

  2. Effect of Adding the White Legged Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) on Growth and Survival of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in Intensive Farming

    OpenAIRE

    . Tarsim

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in the framework of a project to develop a viable shrimp polyculture technology under intensive farming. The objectives were to assess the effect of adding white legged shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) on growth and survival of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in intensive Farming. Tiger shrimp were stocked in 2800-3400 m2 earthen ponds at 40 individuals/m2 and reared for 133 days. White legged shrimp added at 70 day at 8±2 individuals/m2. Growth rate and total yield af...

  3. MOLLUSCA' BIODIVERSITY (GASTROPODA AND BIVALVIA AS A BIO INDICATOR OF QUALITY OF WATER IN THE COASTAL ISLAND OF TUNDA ISLAND, BANTEN

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    Indria Wahyuni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research has been done on Juli 2017 in the coastal region of Tunda Island. This study aims to determine the Biodiversity of Mollusca (Gastropoda and Bivalvia As Bioindicator of Water Quality In Coastal Area of Tunda Island, Banten. Sampling consists of 2 observation stations, namely the mangrove coastal area (3 transects and the seagrass coastal area (2 transects determined by purposive sampling. The observation of each station is done by using the quadratic transect method with 100 m transect line distance, and in each transect line there are 5 observation plots measuring 1m2 x 1m2. The data analysis includes density, biodiversity, bio-indicators of water quality based on diversity index. Result of research on 5 transect found 45 type Mollusca which represent 2 class, that is Gastropoda class of 29 species Gastropoda joined in 14 Family. As for Bivalvia class found 16 species incorporated in 9 families. The total density of Mollusca is 541.2 ind / m2 which consists of 392.4 ind / m2 for Gastropoda class and 148.8 ind / m2 for Bivalvia class. Mollusca diversity was calculated using the diversity index of Shannon-Wienner (H '. The results of diversity index ranged from 3.1356 - 3.3314 with high category. Bioindicator of aquatic quality using diversity index indicates that the coastal area of Tunda Island belongs to a very mildly polluted category.

  4. White spot syndrome virus isolates of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricious) in India are similar to exotic isolates as revealed by polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S S; Shekhar, M S

    2005-07-01

    Microbiological analysis of samples collected from cases of white spot disease outbreaks in cultured shrimp in different farms located in three regions along East Coast of India viz. Chidambram (Tamil Nadu), Nellore (Andhra Pradesh) and Balasore (Orissa), revealed presence of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas spp. but experimental infection trials in Penaeus monodon with these isolates did not induce any acute mortality or formation of white spots on carapace. Infection trials using filtered tissue extracts by oral and injection method induced mortality in healthy P. monodon with all samples and 100% mortality was noted by the end of 7 day post-inoculation. Histopathological analysis demonstrated degenerated cells characterized by hypertrophied nuclei in gills, hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ with presence of intranuclear basophilic or eosino-basophilic bodies in tubular cells and intercellular spaces. Analysis of samples using 3 different primer sets as used by other for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) generated 643, 1447 and 520bp amplified DNA products in all samples except in one instance. Variable size virions with mean size in the range of 110 x 320 +/- 20 nm were observed under electron microscope. It could be concluded that the viral isolates in India involved with white spot syndrome in cultured shrimp are similar to RV-PJ and SEMBV in Japan, WSBV in Taiwan and WSSV in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China and Japan.

  5. Novel alternative to antibiotics in shrimp hatchery: effects of the essential oil of Cinnamosma fragrans on survival and bacterial concentration of Penaeus monodon larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianarivelo, R; Danthu, P; Benoit, C; Ruez, P; Raherimandimby, M; Sarter, S

    2010-08-01

    The activity of two essential oils (EOs) of Cinnamosma fragrans, an endemic plant to Madagascar (B8: linalool-type and B143: 1,8-cineole-type), against bacterial isolates from a shrimp hatchery of Penaeus monodon and their effects on the survival and bacterial concentration of larvae were determined. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using a broth dilution technique. The bacterial concentrations of both larvae and water tank were assessed on Marine agar and Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Sucrose agar. The assays took place in OSO Farming's shrimp hatchery in Madagascar. EOs were directly added to the water tank. Regarding the survival, the assays in larval culture (four replicates each of B8, B143, E and control) showed that B8 oil had a similar effect (P > 0.05) as the antibiotic (Erythromycin) and was more active than B143 (P larvae for all assays. Both C. fragrans essential oils, as antibiotic, exhibited significantly higher survival rates and lower bacterial concentrations of the larvae than the control (oil and antibiotic free). The potential of C. fragrans essential oil to control the bacterial load in in vivo conditions, thereby enhancing survival rate of P. monodon larvae, makes it a relevant option for developing a novel alternative to antibiotics in shrimp hatchery culture.

  6. Bioaccumulation and public health implications of trace metals in edible tissues of the crustaceans Scylla serrata and Penaeus monodon from the Tanzanian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Leermakers, Martine; Mdegela, Robinson H; Kochzius, Marc; Elskens, Marc

    2017-09-30

    The coastal population in East Africa is growing rapidly but sewage treatment and recycling facilities in major cities and towns are poorly developed. Since estuarine mangroves are the main hotspots for pollutants, there is a potential for contaminants to accumulate in edible fauna and threaten public health. This study analysed trace metals in muscle tissues of the giant mud crabs (Scylla serrata) and the giant tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) from the Tanzanian coast, in order to determine the extent of bioaccumulation and public health risks. A total of 180 samples of muscle tissues of S. serrata and 80 of P. monodon were collected from nine sites along the coast. Both species showed high levels of trace metals in the wet season and significant bioaccumulation of As, Cu and Zn. Due to their burrowing and feeding habits, mud crabs were more contaminated compared to tiger prawns sampled from the same sites. Apart from that, the measured levels of Cd, Cr and Pb did not exceed maximum limits for human consumption. Based on the current trend of fish consumption in Tanzania (7.7 kg/person/year), the measured elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are not likely to present health risks to shellfish consumers. Nevertheless, potential risks of As and Cu cannot be ruled out if the average per capita consumption is exceeded. This calls for strengthened waste management systems and pollution control measures.

  7. PmVRP15, a Novel Viral Responsive Protein from the Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon, Promoted White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Prapavorarat, Adisak; Jaree, Phattarunda; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2014-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization of Penaeus monodon hemocytes challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has identified the viral responsive gene, PmVRP15, as the highest up-regulated gene ever reported in shrimps. Expression analysis by quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed 9410–fold up-regulated level at 48 h post WSSV injection. Tissue distribution analysis showed that PmVRP15 transcript was mainly expressed in the hemocytes of shrimp. The full-length cDNA of PmVRP15 transcript was obtained and showed no significant similarity to any known gene in the GenBank database. The predicted open reading frame of PmVRP15 encodes for a deduced 137 amino acid protein containing a putative transmembrane helix. Immunofluorescent localization of the PmVRP15 protein revealed it accumulated around the nuclear membrane in all three types of shrimp hemocytes and that the protein was highly up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimps. Double-stranded RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of PmVRP15 in P. monodon significantly decreased WSSV propagation compared to the control shrimps (injected with GFP dsRNA). The significant decrease in cumulative mortality rate of WSSV-infected shrimp following PmVRP15 knockdown was observed. These results suggest that PmVRP15 is likely to be a nuclear membrane protein and that it acts as a part of WSSV propagation pathway. PMID:24637711

  8. Revealing localization and regulation of GTPase PmRab7 in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon after WSSV infection

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    Amrendra Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify white spot syndrome virus (WSSV entry into the host-cells of the cultured shrimp Penaeus monodon, we have attempted to localize PmRab7 (Ras-related in brain which is playing a vital role in the WSSV internalization. Methods: In this study, we have cloned PmRab7 and expressed in Escherichia coli, further purified rPmRab7 was used for antibody production, isolation of lysosomal sub-cellular fractions and western blot against lysosomal protein. Moreover, high fold-change in PmRab7 regulation with increasing copy number of WSSV has been studied by using real-time PCR. Results: 651 bp amplicon size gene was successfully amplified, ligated amplicon with pTZ T-tail vector confirmed by colony PCR and retriction enzyme digestion on agarose gel. Subcloned (pRSET-B 651 bp gene transformed successfully in Rosetta and after 6 h of induction expressed rPmRab7 was on SDS page, furthermore soluble fraction of rPmRab7 (26 kDa was purified by ni-NTA column. AntiPmRab7 antibody was received by Merk Pvt. Ltd., and western blot analysis revealed that PmRab7 is present in the lysosomal sub-cellular fraction. Copy number of WSSV was increased 5 fold in 24 h and 20 fold in 72 h of infection and subsequently transcrtipt of PmRab7 was Ct = 1.0 to Ct = 8.5. Conclusions: Presence of PmRab7 on lysosome clearly indicating PmRab7 participating in lysosomal maturation, other hand WSSV may follow the same route of entry. WSSV internalization has directly linked with regulation of PmRab7.

  9. Attempts on producing lymphoid cell line from Penaeus monodon by induction with SV40-T and 12S EIA oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Prabhakaran, Priyaja; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt of in vitro transformation, transfection mediated expression of Simian virus-40 (T) antigen (SV40-T) and transduction mediated expression of Adenovirus type 12 early region 1A (12S E1A) oncogene were performed in Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells. pSV3-neo vector encoding SV40-T oncogene and a recombinant baculovirus BacP2-12S E1A-GFP encoding 12S E1A oncogene under the control of hybrid promoters were used. Electroporation and lipofection mediated transformation of SV40-T in lymphoid cells confirmed the transgene expression by phenotypic variation and the expression of GFP in co-transfection experiment. The cells transfected by lipofection (≥ 5%) survived for 14 days with lower toxicity (30%), whilst on electroporation, most of the cells succumbed to death (60%) and survived cells lived up to 7 days. Transduction efficiency in primary lymphoid cells was more than 80% within 14 days of post-transduction, however, an incubation period of 7 days post-transduction was observed without detectable expression of 12S E1A. High level of oncogenic 12S E1A expression were observed after 14 day post-transduction and the proliferating cells survived for more than 90 days with GFP expression, however, without in vitro transformation and immortalization. The study put forth the requirement of transduction mediated 'specific' oncogene expression along with telomerase activation and epigenetic induction for the immortalization and establishment of shrimp cell line. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Gene expression profiling in gill tissues of White spot syndrome virus infected black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, M S; Gomathi, A; Gopikrishna, G; Ponniah, A G

    2015-06-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) continues to be the most devastating viral pathogen infecting penaeid shrimp the world over. The genome of WSSV has been deciphered and characterized from three geographical isolates and significant progress has been made in developing various molecular diagnostic methods to detect the virus. However, the information on host immune gene response to WSSV pathogenesis is limited. Microarray analysis was carried out as an approach to analyse the gene expression in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in response to WSSV infection. Gill tissues collected from the WSSV infected shrimp at 6, 24, 48 h and moribund stage were analysed for differential gene expression. Shrimp cDNAs of 40,059 unique sequences were considered for designing the microarray chip. The Cy3-labeled cRNA derived from healthy and WSSV-infected shrimp was subjected to hybridization with all the DNA spots in the microarray which revealed 8,633 and 11,147 as up- and down-regulated genes respectively at different time intervals post infection. The altered expression of these numerous genes represented diverse functions such as immune response, osmoregulation, apoptosis, nucleic acid binding, energy and metabolism, signal transduction, stress response and molting. The changes in gene expression profiles observed by microarray analysis provides molecular insights and framework of genes which are up- and down-regulated at different time intervals during WSSV infection in shrimp. The microarray data was validated by Real Time analysis of four differentially expressed genes involved in apoptosis (translationally controlled tumor protein, inhibitor of apoptosis protein, ubiquitin conjugated enzyme E2 and caspase) for gene expression levels. The role of apoptosis related genes in WSSV infected shrimp is discussed herein.

  11. OPTIMISATION OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF ASTAXANTHIN FROM PENAEUS MONODON WASTE USING ETHANOL-MODIFIED CARBON DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAZANA A. RADZALI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Some studies demonstrated that astaxanthin surpasses the antioxidant benefits of beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, vitamin C, and vitamin E. Penaeus monodon (Tiger shrimp is one of the most valuable traded crustacean products in which astaxanthin can be found in its by-products. The extraction of thermolabile compound like carotenoids at lower temperatures through supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 can reduce the potential isomerization and degradation of the extraction product. In this study, astaxanthin had been extracted using SC-CO2 with 15% (v/v ethanol as an entrainer and the recovered astaxanthin was analyzed using High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. A central composite design (CCD was employed to study the effect of three SC-CO2 parameters namely temperature (X1 from 40 to 80°C, pressure (X2 from 150 to 250 bar and extraction flow rate (X3 from 1 to 3 ml/min on the astaxanthin complex yield, (Y1 and free astaxanthin content, (Y2. The nonlinear regression equations were significantly (p0.9261, which had no indication of lack of fit. The results indicated that a combined set of values of temperature (56.88°C, pressure (215.68 bar and extraction flow rate (1.89 ml/min was predicted to provide the optimum region in terms of astaxanthin complex yield, (58.50 ± 2.62 µg/g and free astaxanthin content (12.20 ± 4.16 µg/g studied.

  12. Relationships within Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) based on RNA-Seq data: an initial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodheart, Jessica A; Bazinet, Adam L; Collins, Allen G; Cummings, Michael P

    2015-09-01

    Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) is a diverse (approx. 1000 species) but understudied group of sea slug molluscs. In order to fully comprehend the diversity of nudibranchs and the evolution of character traits within Cladobranchia, a solid understanding of evolutionary relationships is necessary. To date, only two direct attempts have been made to understand the evolutionary relationships within Cladobranchia, neither of which resulted in well-supported phylogenetic hypotheses. In addition to these studies, several others have addressed some of the relationships within this clade while investigating the evolutionary history of more inclusive groups (Nudibranchia and Euthyneura). However, all of the resulting phylogenetic hypotheses contain conflicting topologies within Cladobranchia. In this study, we address some of these long-standing issues regarding the evolutionary history of Cladobranchia using RNA-Seq data (transcriptomes). We sequenced 16 transcriptomes and combined these with four transcriptomes from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive. Transcript assembly using Trinity and orthology determination using HaMStR yielded 839 orthologous groups for analysis. These data provide a well-supported and almost fully resolved phylogenetic hypothesis for Cladobranchia. Our results support the monophyly of Cladobranchia and the sub-clade Aeolidida, but reject the monophyly of Dendronotida.

  13. Deep-water Drilliinae, Cochlespirinae and Oenopotinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Turridae from the Campos Basin, southeast Brazil

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    Raquel Medeiros Andrade Figueira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Samples of a soft-bottom community from the continental slope of Campos Basin, off southeast Brazil, were obtained between 2001 and 2003 by the Research Vessel “Astro-Garoupa” with a 0.25 m2 box corer or by dredging with a Charcot dredge. A total of 177 samples were taken at depths ranging from 700 to 1950 m. Mollusks were present at all of the stations and among Gastropoda the Turridae showed the highest diversity. Within the family Cochlespirinae we found: Leucosyrinx tenoceras (Dall, 1889, L. verrillii (Dall, 1881, expanding the known distribution of the latter species farther south, and L.? subgrundifera (Dall, 1888, which is the first record of this species for the South Atlantic and the shallowest depth at which it has ever been found. Within the family Drilliinae we found Splendrillia centimata (Dall, 1889, also the first record of this species for the South Atlantic and its shallowest depth. Within the subfamily Oenopotinae we describe here three new species in the genus Oenopota Mörch, 1852: O. seraphina n. sp., O. diabula n. sp. and O. carioca n. sp.

  14. Three New Records of Gastropoda (Mollusca) from the Nansha Islands, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyun; Shi, Wei; Gong, Li

    2018-04-01

    The Nansha Islands, China, have extremely high marine biodiversity and hundreds of mollusks have been reported there. Benthos resources investigations of the intertidal and subtidal zone around the Nansha Islands have been continuously performed for decades, and recently, dozens of new species and new records of mollusks have been reported from this area. This paper dealt with three new record species of the Gastropoda from Chinese waters: Cerithium salebrosum Sowerby II, 1855, Vexillum militare (Reeve, 1845) and Vexillum bizonale (Dautzenberg et Bouge, 1923), respectively belonging to three families: Cerithiidae Fleming, 1822, and Costellariidae MacDonald, 1860. All specimens were collected from the Nansha Islands during the benthos resources investigations on the intertidal zone of islands and reefs in the South China Sea in recent years. Diagnosis and geographic descriptions of both genus and species, illustrations of each species were given in this contribution, and discussion of taxonomy, identification features and faunal characteristics were presented. All examined specimens were deposited in the Marine Biodiversity Collections of South China Sea, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Development of SYBR Green and TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR assays for hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infecting Penaeus monodon in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Reena; Paria, Anutosh; Mankame, Smruti; Makesh, M; Chaudhari, Aparna; Rajendran, K V

    2015-12-01

    Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infects Penaeus monodon and causes mortality in the larval stages. Further, it has been implicated in the growth retardation in cultured P. monodon. Though different geographical isolates of HPV show large sequence variations, a sensitive PCR assay specific to Indian isolate has not yet been reported. Here, we developed a sensitive SYBR Green-based and TaqMan real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of the virus. A 441-bp PCR amplicon was cloned in pTZ57 R/T vector and the plasmid copy number was estimated. A 10-fold serial dilution of the plasmid DNA from 1 × 10(9) copies to 1 copy was prepared and used as the standard. The primers were tested initially using the standard on a conventional PCR format to determine the linearity of detection. The standards were further tested on real-time PCR format using SYBR Green and TaqMan chemistry and standard curves were generated based on the Ct values from three well replicates for each dilution. The assays were found to be sensitive, specific and reproducible with a wide dynamic range (1 × 10(9) to 10 copies) with coefficient of regression (R(2)) > 0.99, calculated average slope -3.196 for SYBR Green assay whereas, for TaqMan assay it was >0.99 and -3.367, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay variance of the Ct values ranged from 0.26% to 0.94% and 0.12% to 0.81%, respectively, for SYBR Green assay, and the inter-assay variance of the Ct values for TaqMan assay ranged from 0.07% to 1.93%. The specificity of the assays was proved by testing other DNA viruses of shrimp such as WSSV, IHHNV and MBV. Standardized assays were further tested to detect and quantify HPV in the post-larvae of P. monodon. The result was further compared with conventional PCR to test the reproducibility of the test. The assay was also used to screen Litopeneaus vannamei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Scylla serrata for HPV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Homology and homoplasy of swimming behaviors and neural circuits in the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, James M.; Sakurai, Akira; Lillvis, Joshua L.; Gunaratne, Charuni A.; Katz, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    How neural circuit evolution relates to behavioral evolution is not well understood. Here the relationship between neural circuits and behavior is explored with respect to the swimming behaviors of the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opithobranchia). Nudipleura is a diverse monophyletic clade of sea slugs among which only a small percentage of species can swim. Swimming falls into a limited number of categories, the most prevalent of which are rhythmic left–right body flexions (LR) and rhythmic dorsal–ventral body flexions (DV). The phylogenetic distribution of these behaviors suggests a high degree of homoplasy. The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying DV swimming has been well characterized in Tritonia diomedea and in Pleurobranchaea californica. The CPG for LR swimming has been elucidated in Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris, which are more closely related. The CPGs for the categorically distinct DV and LR swimming behaviors consist of nonoverlapping sets of homologous identified neurons, whereas the categorically similar behaviors share some homologous identified neurons, although the exact composition of neurons and synapses in the neural circuits differ. The roles played by homologous identified neurons in categorically distinct behaviors differ. However, homologous identified neurons also play different roles even in the swim CPGs of the two LR swimming species. Individual neurons can be multifunctional within a species. Some of those functions are shared across species, whereas others are not. The pattern of use and reuse of homologous neurons in various forms of swimming and other behaviors further demonstrates that the composition of neural circuits influences the evolution of behaviors. PMID:22723353

  17. Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Lakhra Formation (Earliest Eocene, Sindh, Pakistan): systematics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Didier; Pacaud, Jean-Michel; Métais, Grégoire; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lashari, Rafiq A; Brohi, Imdad A; Solangi, Sarfraz H; Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

    2014-06-27

    The paleobiodiversity of the Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Ranikot Group (Sindh, Pakistan) and particularly of the Lakhra Formation (SBZ 5 biozone, Earliest Eocene), is reconsidered on the basis of new material collected during recent field trips. Ten new species are described (Mitreola brohii sp. nov., Lyrischapa vredenburgi sp. nov., L. brevispira sp. nov., Athleta (Volutopupa) citharopsis sp. nov., A. (Volutocorbis) lasharii sp. nov., Volutilithes welcommei sp. nov., V. sindhiensis sp. nov., Pseudaulicina coxi sp. nov., Sindhiluta lakhraensis sp. nov. and Pakiluta solangii sp. nov.) and one species is in open nomenclature (Lyria sp.). Three new genera are described: Lyriopsis gen. nov. [Volutinae, ?Lyriini, type species: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923)], Sindhiluta gen. nov. [Volutilithinae, type species: Sindhiluta lakhraensis n. sp.] and Pakiluta gen. nov. [?Volutodermatinae, type species: Pakiluta solangii n. sp.]. Two new combinations are proposed: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923) comb. nov. and Athleta (Volutopupa) intercrenatus (Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909) comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Lyria cossmanni Vredenburg, 1923, L. feddeni Vredenburg, 1923, Volutospina noetlingi Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909, V. intercrenata Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909 and Athleta (Volutocorbis) victoriae Vredenburg, 1923. With 21 species, this volutid fauna is the most diverse recorded from the Tethys Ocean during Earliest Eocene time. The assemblage is characterized by a strong turnover marked by regional speciation and the appearance of many western Tethyan invaders. Although at the species level, the assemblage documents a strong provincialism, at the genus level, the high number of shared genera between Eastern Tethyan and Old World Tethyan realms begins a phase of long-term homogeneity of volutid assemblages from the Tethyan paleobiogeographic province.

  18. The novel white spot syndrome virus-induced gene, PmERP15, encodes an ER stress-responsive protein in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Jiann-Horng; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Wang, Yu-Bin; Lin, Chung-Yen; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2015-04-01

    By microarray screening, we identified a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-strongly induced novel gene in gills of Penaeus monodon. The gene, PmERP15, encodes a putative transmembrane protein of 15 kDa, which only showed some degree of similarity (54-59%) to several unknown insect proteins, but had no hits to shrimp proteins. RT-PCR showed that PmERP15 was highly expressed in the hemocytes, heart and lymphoid organs, and that WSSV-induced strong expression of PmERP15 was evident in all tissues examined. Western blot analysis likewise showed that WSSV strongly up-regulated PmERP15 protein levels. In WSSV-infected hemocytes, immunofluorescence staining showed that PmERP15 protein was colocalized with an ER enzyme, protein disulfide isomerase, and in Sf9 insect cells, PmERP15-EGFP fusion protein colocalized with ER -Tracker™ Red dye as well. GRP78, an ER stress marker, was found to be up-regulated in WSSV-infected P. monodon, and both PmERP15 and GRP78 were up-regulated in shrimp injected with ER stress inducers tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Silencing experiments showed that although PmERP15 dsRNA-injected shrimp succumbed to WSSV infection more rapidly, the WSSV copy number had no significant changes. These results suggest that PmERP15 is an ER stress-induced, ER resident protein, and its induction in WSSV-infected shrimp is caused by the ER stress triggered by WSSV infection. Furthermore, although PmERP15 has no role in WSSV multiplication, its presence is essential for the survival of WSSV-infected shrimp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. GENETIC STATUS, SOURCE AND ESTABLISHMENT RISK OF THE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEIDAE: Penaeus monodon, AN INVASIVE SPECIES IN COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. AGUIRRE-PABÓN

    2015-01-01

    El camarón tigre (Penaeus monodon es una especie del Indo-Pacífico. Su producción mundial entre 1970 y 1980 superó todas las otras especies de camarón, lo que favoreció su introducción y cultivo fuera del área de distribución natural en varios países de África, Europa, EE.UU. y América del Sur. Actualmente se encuentra en la costa del Océano Atlántico (México, Estados Unidos, Puerto Rico, Brasil, Guyana, Venezuela y Colombia. A pesar del riesgo que implica, no se han realizado estudios para evaluar su impacto como posible especie invasora y su condición genética. Este estudio evaluó el estado genético y el origen de la población de P. monodon en el norte del Caribe colombiano, analizando la región control del ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt-CR. 16 individuos fueron recolectados al azar del Golfo de Salamanca y 342 secuencias originales de muestras del Indo- Pacífico fueron obtenidas de GenBank. Se analizaron los parámetros de diversidad genética y las relaciones genéticas. Se analizaron un total de 358 secuencias y se identificaron 303 haplotipos. En la población de Colombia se identificaron tres haplotipos, mostrando una baja diversidad genética en comparación con las poblaciones del Indo-Pacífico. Estos haplotipos se encontraron cercanamente relacionados con secuencias obtenidas de muestras de Filipinas y Taiwán, principalmente. Se discute la necesidad de crear una red regional para caracterizar las poblaciones establecidas en el Gran Caribe, con el propósito de inferir los procesos de colonización y el establecimiento de medidas de manejo

  20. A new terrestrial snail species (Gastropoda: Bulimulidae from the Región de Antofagasta, northern Chile

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    Juan Francisco Araya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Scutalus Albers, 1850 (Gastropoda: Bulimulidae, Scutalus chango sp. n., is described from a coastal area of northern Chile. Empty shells of this new species were found buried in sand and under boulders and rocks in the foothills of the Chilean Coastal Range at Paposo, Región de Antofagasta. This new species is distinguished from all other Chilean terrestrial snails by its slender shell with a flared and reflected aperture, and by the presence of a columellar fold. This is the first record of Scutalus in Chile, and the southernmost record for this endemic South American bulimulid genus. The presence of this species in Paposo highlights the need for further research and for conservation guidelines in coastal areas of northern Chile, which have comparatively high levels of biodiversity and endemism.

  1. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia) Sevinç KAPAN, Sinem KABASAKAL, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department sevinckapan_yesilyurt@hotmail.com In this study, paleontology and stratigraphy of Neogene and Quaternary units around south of the Dardanelles have been examined using Gastropoda and Bivalvia fauna. In the investigation area, the base of the sediments that belongs to Neogene, consist of the volcanics which are formed with basalts, andesites and tuff. Neogene begins unconformity with basal conglomerate which are formed with basalt and tuff gravels. The measurable thickness of the Neogene sediments is approximately 200meters in total. First fossiliferius level which consist of Lymnocardium (Euxinicardium) nobile Sabba has showed similarities with the Pontian (Late Miocene) fauna of the Eastern Paratethys. The existence of Melanopsis and Psidium species indicate that the basin has been brackish water feeding by fresh water in the Early Pliocene. Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linne), Theodoxus (Calvertia) aff. imbricata Brusina, Theodoxus (Calvertia) licherdopoli scriptus (Stefanescu), Viviparus mammatus (Stefanescu), Valvata (Valavata) sulekiana Brusina, Valvata (Cincinna) crusitensis Fontannes, Hydrobia cf grandis Cobalcescu, Hydrobia ventrosa Monfort, Melanopsis (Melanopsis) cf. bergeroni Stefanescu, , Melanopsis (Melanopsis) sandbergeri rumana Tournouer, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma anili Taner, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma amaradica Fontannes, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) lanceolata Neumayr, Amphimelania fossariformis (Tournouer), Melanoides tuberculata monolithica (Bukowski), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller), Planorbarius thiollierei (Michaud), Potamida (Potamida) craiovensis craiovensis (Tournouer), Potamida (Potamida) berbestiensis (Fontannes), Unio pristinus davilai Porumbaru, Unio subexquisitus Jatzko, Anadonta zmaji

  2. Patterns of larval distribution and settlement of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789) (Gastropoda, Muricidae) in fjords and channels of southern Chile Patrones de distribución de larvas y asentamiento de Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789) (Gastropoda, Muricidae) en fiordos y canales del sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS MOLINET; ALEJANDRA ARÉVALO; MARÍA TERESA GONZÁLEZ; CARLOS A. MORENO; JAVIER ARATA; EDWIN NIKLITSCHEK

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae) is limited to the coasts of Chile and southern Peru. Almost all studies of this gastropod have been carried out in open coastal systems, rather than the fjords and channels of southern Chile, despite the fact that this area represents ca. 95 % of the total coastline in this country. Although there is a large volume of background literature on C. concholepas, almost nothing is published about early larval development...

  3. Screening of probiotics bacteria from coral reef using co-culture method for controlling vibriosis in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon larvae

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    Ade Dwi Sasanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was carried out to obtain bacteria isolates from coral reef using co-culture method which potentially inhibit Vibrio harveyi growth. A total of 110 isolates were isolated from Acropora sp., Merulina sp., Hystrix sp., Poecillophora sp., Porites sp., and Haliophora sp., and were screened for their antagonistic activity against V. harveyi in in vitro and in vivo test. Five candidate probiotics (5H1 candidate probiotics isolated from Acropora sp., 11I and 11G isolates isolated from Hystrix sp. and 13B and 13G1 isolates isolated from Poecillophora sp., was able to inhibit growth of V. harveyi MR5339 RFR up to 101‒102 cfu/mL. Two isolates (13B and 13G1 were not pathogenic at concentration 106 cfu/mL bacteria and could increase of survival rate of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon larvae in in vivo test. Survival rate of tiger shrimp larvae that treatment with 13B and 13G1 were 86,67% and 88,33%, and have a significant different with positive control (61,67%. Partial sequencing of 16S-rRNA showed that 13G1 isolate was similar to V. alginolyticus.Keywords: vibriosis, Vibrio harveyi, tiger shrimp, probiotic, coral reefABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bakteri probiotik asal terumbu karang dengan metode kultur bersama untuk pengendalian penyakit vibriosis pada larva udang windu (Penaeus monodon. Sebanyak 110 isolat berhasil diisolasi dari Acropora sp., Merulina sp., Hystrix sp., Poecillophora sp., Porites sp., dan Heliophora sp. dan dilakukan penapisan untuk melihat aktivitas kemampuannya melawan Vibrio harveyi MR 5339 RfR dalam uji in vitro dan in vivo. Sebanyak 56 isolat menghasilkan daya hambat terhadap V. harveyi MR5339 RfR pada metode kultur bersama. Lima isolat kandidat probiotik (isolate 5H1 diisolasi dari Acropora sp., isolat 11I dan 11G diisolasi dari Hystrix sp., serta isolat 13B dan 13G1 yang diisolasi dari Poecillophora sp., mampu menekan pertumbuhan V. harveyi MR5339 RfR hingga 101–102 cfu/mL. Kedua isolat

  4. Prevention of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection on Penaeus monodon by Immersion in CEPM Extract of Avicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp.

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    D. Wahjuningrum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality and survival rate are still being the problem that hampers the productivity of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon culture.  Impaired quality of larval shrimp and environmental conditions can confer shrimp be infected by diseases, including viruses such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV.  Prevention of disease infection using chemicals can offer negative impacts on water, pathogen resistance and consumers.  This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of an alternative prevention compound as liquid mangrove extract (CEPM from Avicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp. By immersion in different dose of CEPM, i.e. 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm, the patogenicity of WSSV was found to be different.  Patogenicity of WSSV decreased after treatment by CEPM, hence this could be used to induce shrimp immunity.  Optimum dose of CEPM was 250 ppm, which could increased survival rate of shrimp after challenging by WSSV, up to 98.4% shrimp survived. Keywrods: WSSV, black tiger shrimp, extract, Avicennia sp., Sonneratia sp.   ABSTRAK Kualitas dan kelangsungan hidup merupakan masalah yang masih membatasi produktivitas budidaya udang windu Penaeus monodon. Kondisi udang dan kualitas lingkungan yang kurang baik dapat menyebabkan udang terserang penyakit, termasuk yang disebabkan oleh virus termasuk white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Upaya pengendaliannya menggunakan bahan kimia secara berlebih dapat menimbulkan dampak negatif bagi lingkungan perairan, kesehatan konsumen dan menimbulkan resistensi patogen. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efektivitas bahan alternatif berupa cairan ekstrak pohon mangrove (CEPM dari jenis Avicennia sp. dan Sonneratia sp. sebagai upaya pencegahan. Dengan perendaman beberapa konsentrasi yang berbeda (250, 500, 750 dan 1000 ppm penggunaan cairan ekstrak pohon mangrove (CEPM Avicennia sp. dan Sonneratia sp., memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap patogenitas WSSV dan udang uji pada setiap perlakuan. Tingkat

  5. Cariotipos de los caracoles de tinte Plicopurpura pansa y Plicopurpura columellaris (Gastropoda: Muricidae

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    Lenin Arias-Rodriguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El cariotipo de Plicopurpura pansa y P. columellaris fue determinado a partir de 17 y 13 especímenes adultos respectivamente. Adicionalmente, se utilizaron ocho cápsulas de P. pansa. Contamos 186 campos mitóticos en P. pansa: 59 en los adultos y 127 en los embriones; y 118 campos en P. columellaris. En ambas especies se observaron números cromosómicos desde 30 hasta 42. Las variaciones en número cromosómico fueron identificadas en cada individuo, no habiendo ninguna relación con los tejidos (branquias, músculo y estómago empleados. El número modal diploide típico fue de 2n=36 cromosomas en ambas especies. En los especímenes adultos seleccionamos cinco de las mejores dispersiones cromosómicas para armar el cariotipo. Calculamos los estadísticos citogenéticos clásicos, longitudes relativas, proporción de brazos, índice centromérico y la diferencia entre brazos. Identificamos en ambas especies tres pares de cromosomas metacéntricos y quince pares de cromosomas telocéntricos. Esta clasificación no fue suficientemente robusta, por lo que dividimos el complemento cromosómico de cada especie en cuatro grupos ("a", "b", "c" y "d" utilizando como criterio las longitudes relativas (p+q. Hubo diferencias significativas entre grupos cromosómicos por especie y entre especies, los tres primeros pares de cromosomas (grupo "a" birrámeos y los dos últimos pares (grupo "d" monorrámeos menores (análisis de varianza de dos vías, pKaryotypes of the purple snails Plicopurpura pansa and Plicopurpura columellaris (Gastropoda: Muricidae. The karyotypes of the purple snails Plicopurpura pansa (Gould, 1853 and P. columellaris (Lamarck, 1816 were established from 17 and 13 adults, respectively; and from eight capsules with embryos of P. pansa. In P. pansa were counted 59 mitotic fields in the adults and 127 in embryos; and 118 fields in P. columellaris. Chromosome numbers from 30 to 42 were observed in both species. Such a variation was

  6. Daños por depredación y tamano de concha del caracol diádromo Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) en el Río Mameyes, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Felipe Blanco-Libreros; Andrea. Arroyave-Rincón

    2009-01-01

    Predator damage and shell size on the diadromous snail Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico. We compared predators’ damage with shell size in live individuals and empty shells (n=5066) of the snail Neritina virginea in the Mameyes River (Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles). According to the literature and direct observations, damages...

  7. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

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    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  8. MARINE SPONGE Aaptos suberitoides, IT’S POTENTIAL SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTIBACTERIAL FOR CONTROLLING Vibrio harveyi ON TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon CULTURE

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    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to isolate and identify the natural antibacterial compounds potential from Aaptos suberitoides for Vibrio harveyi control on tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon culture. The agar diffusion method using paper discs was used to determine the antibacterial activity of extracts (diethyl ether (DEE, butanol (BUE and aqueous (HOE and compounds successfully isolated against Vibrio harveyi. Findings showed that the antibacterial activity was concentrated in BUE with the inhibition zone of 17.2±0.1 mm. Meanwhile, two other extracts (DEE and HOE did not exhibit any antibacterial activity against V. harveyi. From the active BUE, it was successfully isolated two compounds giving a strong anti-vibrio activity with the inhibition zone of 22±0.1 mm. The IR, 1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and MS spectrum analysis indicated that both active compounds identified as aaptamine (1 and 9-demethyloxyaaptamine (2. The study suggested that marine sponge A. suberitoides may have potential compounds source for controlling of V. harveyi on tiger shrimp culture.

  9. Expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR, in lymphoid organ of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in response to Vibrio harveyi infection

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    Mundanda Muthappa Dechamma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptors (TLR, being pattern recognition molecules, are a powerful first line of defense in response to pathogen invasion. They are known to play a crucial role in detecting and binding to the microbial molecule and triggering a non-specific immune response. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR expression of the TLR gene was studied in healthy and Vibrio harveyi infected black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Lymphoid tissue expression of TLR in V. harveyi infected animals 24 h post injection showed statistically significant up regulation of the gene as compared to the control animals sham injected with phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The qPCR expression pattern of TLR at different time points in shrimp administered with the immunostimulant glucan for 6 days by oral feeding followed by challenge with V. harveyi showed statistically significant level at 48 h post bacterial challenge as compared to the control (immunostimulant treated animals sham injected with PBS. The novelty of the study is that it elicits the role of TLRs as important response proteins of the innate immune system in the shrimp.

  10. Model Polikultur Udang Windu (Penaeus monodon Fab, Ikan Bandeng (Chanos-chanos Forskal dan Rumput Laut (Gracillaria Sp. Secara Tradisional

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    Murachman - -

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Polikultur merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk mengatasi permasalahan air yang mengakibatkan penurunan produksi ikan di kolam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui menyusun pola manajemen polikultur udang windu (Penaeus monodon Fab., ikan bandeng (Chanos-chanos Forskal dan rumput laut (Gracillaria sp.. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode studi kasus di Dusun Tanjung Sari, Desa Kupang, Kecamatan Jabon, Kabupaten Sidoarjo. Sampel penelitian diambil pada 18 lokasi polikultur dari tiga komoditas tersebut (udang windu, ikan bandeng dan rumput laut dan 20 lokasi polikultur dari dua komunitas (udang windu dan ikan bandeng. Variabel yang dipergunakan pada penelitian ini adalah Variabel penelitian meliputi lingkungan makro tambak, karakteristik pembudidaya, cara pengelolaan tambak dan perlakuan–perlakuan yang diberikan, padat tebar, kualitas air, kesuburan air, produksi tambak, keuntungan pembudidaya polikultur dan model budidaya polikultur tiga komoditas. Model budidaya polikultur terdiri dari enam komponen yaitu penentuan lokasi tambak, persiapan tambak, pemeliharaan, panen, kelembagaan sosial dan kelembagaan ekonomi. Masing-masing komponne tersebut saling berhubungan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa terdapat tiga faktor yang mendukung penentuan lokasi kolam, yaitu jenis tanah di atas kolam, sumber air tawar, sumber air laut, dan keberadaan hutan mangrove. Kualitas dan kesuburan air cukup baik dan berada pada kisaran standard kualitas air untuk tambak. Tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara padat tebar untuk udang windu dan ikan bandeng pada tipe polikultur tiga komoditas dan polikultur dua komoditas. Padat tebar rumput laut pada polikultur tiga komoditas adalah 975 kgha-1. Keberadaan rumput laut pada polikultur tiga komoditas dapat meningkatkan kualitas air menjadi lebih baik dibandingkan pada polikultur dua komoditas. Kandungan oksigen terlarut pada tambak adalah 165 mgl-1, tingkat kejernihan air 50.875 cm, NH3 0

  11. Comparison of Penaeus monodon (Crustacea,Penaeidae) growth between commercial feed vscommercial shrimp feed supplemented with Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae)seaweed sap

    OpenAIRE

    Kotiya Anil S.; Gunalan Balakrishanan; Jetani Kanji L.; Solanki Jitesh B.; Ramchandran Kumaran

    2011-01-01

    The consumer of seafood relates the potential development of animals to the constant use of commercial growth promoters. Nevertheless, nowadays with the development of non antibiotic feed additives, cultured shrimps performance has improved to great level. Present experiment was carried conducted from 27th May 2009 to 11th October 2009 in shrimp grow out ponds at Diu (U.T) region of Saurashtra coast. The stocking density of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798 was 7.5 no/m2 in both th...

  12. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination.

  13. Biochemical profile of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Amaral, Ludimila Santos; Mota, Esther Maria; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Garcia, Juberlan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of experimental infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode, Metastrongylidae) on the activities of the aminotransferases and concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of total proteins in the exposed snails to 5000 or more larvae. This change was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of urea and uric acid in the hemolymph, suggesting a higher rate of deamination of the amino acids. Besides this, variations in the activities of the aminotransferases were also observed, with the highest values recorded in the groups exposed to greater parasite load. These results suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities. Infection was verified by the fact that L3 larvae recovered from the snails was proportion to the exposure dose of L1 larvae. Histopathological results also indicated presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, favoring an increase of both transaminases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deep-water Mangeliinae, Taraninae and Clathurellinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Conoidea: Turridae from the Campos Basin, southeast Brazil

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    Raquel Medeiros Andrade Figueira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available During the program “Environmental Characterization of the Campos Basin, RJ, Brazil”, from 2001 to 2003, samples were taken of soft bottoms from the continental slope of Campos Basin (off southeast Brazil by the Research Vessel “Astro-Garoupa” with a 0.25 m2 box corer or by dredging with a Charcot dredge; 117 stations with depths from 700 to 1950 m were sampled. There were molluscs in all samples, and among Gastropoda the Turridae showed the highest diversity. Here we present the results obtained for the subfamilies Mangeliinae, Taraninae and Clathurellinae. Two species were found within Mangeliinae: Benthomangelia cf. macra (Watson, 1881 and Benthomangelia enceladus n. sp. Within Taraninae only one undescribed species was found: Taranis tanata n. sp. Within Clathurellinae we found four species: Corinnaeturris leucomata (Dall, 1881, recorded for the first time in the South Atlantic; Corinnaeturris rhysa (Watson, 1881, extending its described depth range; Corinnaeturris angularis n. sp., Typhlomangelia nivalis (Lovén, 1846, expanding its known distribution farther south; and Drilliola pulchella (Verrill, 1880. The type material of Drilliola loprestiana (Calcara, 1841, previously considered lost, has been located and is illustrated here. Drilliola crispata (Cristofori and Jan, 1832 is considered to be a nomen dubium.

  15. Integrating Morphology, Breeding Ground and Mitochondrial COI Gene Analysis for Species Identification of Bellamya lithophaga (Gastropoda: Viviparidae in China.

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    Youzhu Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic public health concern that causes human severe eosinophilic meningitis in Southeast Asia and China. As a medically important intermediate host of A. cantonensis, Bellamya lithophaga (Gastropoda: Viviparidae is often confused with other morphologically similar sibling species of genus Bellamya, such as B. aeruginosa and B. purificata in the past. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate evidences to discriminate these equivocal Bellamya species.This study was carried out by getting Bellamya snail samples from Fujian Province in the South-East of China. The snail morphological features, breeding grounds and phylogenetic relationship according to mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene marker were analyzed.Based on external morphology, radular shape and cusp formula, as well as major breeding environment, B. lithophaga could be distinguished from B. aeruginosa, B. purificata. The phylogenetic tree also unconfirmed that B. lithophaga belongs to a different genetic clade from other morphologically similar species.Our findings demonstrate the significant differences in B. lithophaga and other sibling species, which supports the traditional species delimitation in the genus Bellamya.

  16. Effect of molases addition on survival and growth of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fab. larva treated with SKT-b Vibrio probiotic bacteria

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    , Widanarni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTProbiotic bacteria SKT-b Vibrio that belong to heterotrophic bacteria have been tested can suppress the growth of pathogenic Vibrio harveyi in tiger shrimp larvae. One of the most important energy sources of heterotrophic bacteria is organic carbon such as sucrose and glucose found in molasses. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of molasses addition on the survival and growth rate of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon larvae treated with SKT-b Vibrio probiotic bacteria. This experiment was done both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro tests performed by growing bacteria in media containing molasses, fish meal and premix. Whereas in vivo tests performed with the addition of molasses to shrimp larva culture media inoculated with SKT-b Vibrio bacteria which included five treatments: the control treatment without bacteria and molasses addition (K, the addition of bacteria without molasses (B, the addition of molasses 1 ppm and bacteria (MB1, the addition of molasses 3 ppm and bacteria (MB3, and the addition of molasses 5 ppm and bacteria (MB5. The result of in vitro tests showed the SKT-b Vibrio bacteria can grow on molasses media with a population reached 0,41 × 108 CFU/ml. In vivo test results showed that treatment MB3 gave the highest survival (93.3% and growth weight (35.94%, but were not significantly different from control result in the survival and growth weight that respectively were 83.3% and 30.38%.Keywords: probiotic bacteria, SKT-b Vibrio, molasses, tiger shrimp larvae ABSTRAKBakteri probiotik Vibrio SKT-b yang tergolong bakteri heterotrof telah diuji dapat menekan pertumbuhan Vibrio harveyi yang bersifat patogen pada larva udang windu. Salah satu sumber energi yang paling penting bagi bakteri heterotrof adalah karbon organik seperti sukrosa dan glukosa yang terdapat pada molase. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan molase terhadap kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhan larva udang

  17. Immunostimulation and yellow head virus (YHV) disease resistance induced by a lignin-based pulping by-product in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisapoome, Prapansak; Hamano, Kaoru; Tsutsui, Isao; Iiyama, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Yellow head virus (YHV) is classified as one of the most serious pathogens causing a harmful disease in many penaeids, especially black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), with high economic loss. To determine a potent and practical prophylactic strategy for controlling this disease, the toxicity of the by-product kraft lignin and its ability to control severe YHV infection were investigated in juvenile black tiger shrimp (15.9 ± 1.2 g body weight). The median lethal dosage at 96 h (96-hrs LD 50 ) of lignin in shrimp was 297 mg/L. Lignin was further added to shrimp diets via top-dressing to assess its ability to elicit immune stimulation activity. At 14 days after feeding, shrimp fed 1, 3, 5 and 10 g of lignin/kg of diet exhibited significantly higher levels of phagocytic activity (PA) than the control group (P  0.05). Additionally, lignin supplementation at 1-10 g/kg for 14 days failed to protect experimental shrimp against YHV infection. The antiviral activity of lignin against YHV in black tiger shrimp was notable in vitro because compared to control shrimp (96.7 ± 5.8%; P by-product kraft lignin efficiently inhibits YHV infection in black tiger shrimp. This information will facilitate the development of practical methods to control yellow head disease in the marine shrimp culture industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Type I and type II crustins from Penaeus monodon, genetic variation and antimicrobial activity of the most abundant crustinPm4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donpudsa, Suchao; Visetnan, Suwattana; Supungul, Premruethai; Tang, Sureerat; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien

    2014-11-01

    An antimicrobial protein, crustin, is involved in the innate immunity of crustacean by defending the host directly against the microbial pathogens. By data mining the Penaeus monodon EST database, two type I crustins, carcininPm1 and 2, and ten type II crustins, crustinPm1-10, were identified. The abundant crustins were crustinPm1, 4 and 7, each with variation in the length of Gly-rich repeat among its members. A few crustinPm1, 4 and 7 with deletion in the Cys-rich region were also observed. Furthermore, the crustinPm4 with the longest N-terminal Gly-rich region was characterized. The crustinPm4 allelic genes were expressed mainly from the hemocytes. Its expression was up-regulated readily by WSSV infection and gradually decreased to normal level afterwards. The recombinant crustinPm4-1 (rcrustinPm4-1) isoform was produced using the Escherichia coli expression system and tested for its antimicrobial activity. The rcrustinPm4-1 was able to inhibit the growth of a Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus megaterium but not Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus. It also inhibited the growth of two Gram-negative bacteria, E. coli 363 and Vibrio harveyi 639 at lower potency. The rcrustinPm4-1 affected the WSSV infection because the expression of an intermediate early gene ie1 in WSSV-infected hemocyte cell culture was reduced. It was shown further that the rcrustinPm4-1 could delay by about one and a half days the manifestation of disease by WSSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of carotenoid sources on growth performance, blood parameters, disease resistance and stress tolerance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

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    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding trial were conducted to determine the effects of various sources of carotenoid on growth performance, disease resistance, blood parameters, stress tolerance and pigmentation in juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Trial I was performed in small shrimp (1 g average body weight. The shrimp were fed with control diet without carotenoid (diet 1 while diets 2 to 6 contained 50 mg/kg astaxanthin (Lucanthin Pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 200 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 125 mg/kg Betatene® extracted from Dunaliella and 3% dried Spirulina respectively. There was an improvement in color in all groups of shrimp fed caroteniod supplemented diets, but no significant differences in weight gain or survival among the shrimps fed each test diet (p>0.05. Resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection and stress tolerance (salinity stress, were not significantly different among treatments. Trial II was performed in juvenile shrimp (10 g average body weight fed test diets containing 100 ppm astaxanthin (Lucanthin pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg Betatene® and 3% dried Spirulina compared with those fed control diet without carotenoid. At the end of 6 weeks feeding period, shrimp fed control diet as well as astaxanthin and dried Spirulina supplemented diets had higher levels of total hemocyte counts than those of all β-carotene supplemented diets feeding group. However, phenoloxidase activity and clearance of pathogenic vibrio from the hemolymphwere not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05. Astaxanthin levels were highest in the shrimp fed all carotenoid-supplemented diets. In conclusion, a natural carotenoid i.e. dried Spirulina and carotenoid extracted from Dunaliella which have a lower production cost than analytical carotenoid showed beneficial effects on shrimp feed supplement.

  20. The embryonic life history of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia under ambient and elevated ocean temperatures

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    Rael Horwitz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ocean warming represents a major threat to marine biota worldwide, and forecasting ecological ramifications is a high priority as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions continue to rise. Fitness of marine species relies critically on early developmental and reproductive stages, but their sensitivity to environmental stressors may be a bottleneck in future warming oceans. The present study focuses on the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia, a common species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Its ecological importance is well-established, particularly as a specialist grazer of the toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula. Although many aspects of its biology and ecology are well-known, description of its early developmental stages is lacking. First, a detailed account of this species’ life history is described, including reproductive behavior, egg mass characteristics and embryonic development phases. Key developmental features are then compared between embryos developed in present-day (ambient and predicted end-of-century elevated ocean temperatures (+3 °C. Results showed developmental stages of embryos reared at ambient temperature were typical of other opisthobranch species, with hatching of planktotrophic veligers occurring 4.5 days post-oviposition. However, development times significantly decreased under elevated temperature, with key embryonic features such as the velum, statocysts, operculum, eyespots and protoconch developing approximately 24 h earlier when compared to ambient temperature. Although veligers hatched one day earlier under elevated temperature, their shell size decreased by approximately 20%. Our findings highlight how an elevated thermal environment accelerates planktotrophic development of this important benthic invertebrate, possibly at the cost of reducing fitness and increasing mortality.

  1. REDESCRIPCIÓN DE POTAMOLITHUS SUPERSULCATUS PILSBRY, 1896 (GASTROPODA, TATEIDAE DEL SUR DE LA CUENCA DEL PLATA

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    MICAELA DE LUCÍA

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El género Potamolithus Pilsbry, 1896 (Gastropoda; Tateidae, posee 31 especies, 22 de las cuales se hayan en la Argentina distribuidas principalmente en la cuenca Del Plata, definiendo al río Uruguay y al Río de la Plata como una zona caliente de diversidad en gasterópodos dulceacuícolas. Sin embargo, la mayoría de sus especies han sido descriptas solo por caracteres conquilógicos y, unas pocas tienen datos anatómicos, conllevando a la descripción de subespecies o morfos que se superponen unos a otros. A Potamolithus lapidum algunos autores le atribuyen cuatro subespecies (con datos conquiológicos, y una con datos parciales de anatomía blanda, sin embargo otros incluyen ocho “morfos”. Aquí nosotros damos un comienzo en el estudio de Potamolithus lapidum elevando a Potamolithus lapidum supersulcatus Pilsbry, 1896 a la categoría de especie, de la cual solo se conocen caracteres conquiológicos y radulares parcialmente. Aportamos datos de: concha, órganos paleales, cabeza, pie, pene, rádula, sistemas reproductor femenino y masculino, sistema nervioso y, secuencia parcial del gen mitocondrial citocromo c oxidasa subunidad I. Es necesario realizar una buena descripción de las especies del género Potamolithus debido a que algunas de las especies ya han sido citadas como especies vulnerables y que habitan ríos que están siendo modificados por la actividad humana y por la presencia del bivalvo invasor Limnoperna fortunei.

  2. Nyctemeral variations of magnesium intake in the calcitic layer of a Chilean mollusk shell ( Concholepas concholepas, Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareth, Claire E.; Guzman, Nury; Poitrasson, Franck; Candaudap, Frederic; Ortlieb, Luc

    2007-11-01

    Mollusk shells are increasingly used as records of past environmental conditions, particularly for sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstructions. Many recent studies tackled SST (and/or sea-surface salinity) tracers through variations in the elementary (Mg and Sr) or stable isotope (δ 18O) composition within mollusk shells. But such attempts, which sometimes include calibration studies on modern specimens, are not always conclusive. We present here a series of Mg and Sr analyses in the calcitic layer of Concholepas concholepas (Muricidae, Gastropoda) with a very high time-resolution on a time window covering about 1 and a half month of shell formation, performed by Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The selected specimen of this common Chilean gastropod was grown under controlled environmental conditions and precise weekly time-marks were imprinted in the shell with calcein staining. Strontium variations in the shell are too limited to be interpreted in terms of environmental parameter changes. In contrast, Mg incorporation into the shell and growth rate appear to change systematically between night and day. During the day, Mg is incorporated at a higher rate than at night and this intake seems positively correlated with water temperature. The nightly reduced Mg incorporation is seemingly related to metabolically controlled processes, formation of organic-rich shell increments and nocturnal feeding activity of the animals. The nyctemeral Mg changes in the C. concholepas shell revealed in this study might explain at least part of the discrepancies observed in previous studies on the use of Mg as a SST proxy in mollusk shells. In the case of C. concholepas, Mg cannot be used straightforwardly as a SST proxy.

  3. Studies on the immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharide gel extracted from Durio zibethinus in Penaeus monodon shrimp against Vibrio harveyi and WSSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholdaeng, Komsil; Pongsamart, Sunanta

    2010-04-01

    Oral administration of polysaccharide gel (PG) in shrimp diets revealed immunostimulating potential and disease resistance in Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp). PG from the fruit-rind of Durio zibethinus has been characterized to be a pectic polysaccharide with immunomodulating and antibacterial activities. PG inhibited growth of the shrimp bacterial pathogen, Vibrio harveyi 1526, by agar diffusion and broth microdilution tests. Clear inhibition zones on agar plates were observed at the lowest PG concentration of 3.1 mg/ml, where minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for PG were 6.3 and 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. Each group of juvenile shrimps, initial mean body weight 0.29 +/- 0.04 g, was housed in a closed-recirculating treated water system and was fed with PG-supplemented diets containing 1, 2 and 3% PG or shrimp basal diet in the control group for 8 and 12 weeks. PG-supplemented diets did not contribute to the overall growth of black tiger shrimp. The immune response was evaluated by analysis of prophenoloxidase activity and total hemocyte count in the shrimp fed PG-supplemented diets for 12 weeks. Prophenoloxidase activity in shrimp fed the 1, 2 and 3% PG-supplemented diet and total hemocyte count in shrimp fed the 1 and 2% PG-supplemented diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group. The percent survival was higher in groups fed the 1-3% PG-supplemented diets in challenge tests with either white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or the bacterium V. harveyi 1526 than that of the control group. Relative percent survival (RPS) values in groups fed the 2% PG-supplemented diet showed the highest RPS value for disease resistance of 100% (at Day 6) and 36% (at Day 4) in treated shrimp against viral and bacterial infection, respectively. Mortality of PG-supplemented diets in treated shrimps against WSSV infection was also found to be much lower (P < 0.05) than that of the control group. Copyright 2009

  4. New location for Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium and its distribution in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Dana, Elías D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a new population of Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae found in the province of Almería (Southeast Spain. B. truncatus is an intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, the trematode which causes urinary schistosomiasis in humans. Individuals were identified to species level by double-nested PCR, resulting in 100% homology. This population is located under the driest climate conditions of the Iberian Peninsula. Data on the distribution of this species in the Iberian Peninsula was gathered and is provided in this paper. Improved knowledge of the distribution of Bulinus truncatus is key to assess the risk of new outbreaks of schistosomiasis in the Iberian Peninsula.En este trabajo se reporta una nueva población de Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae en la provincia de Almería (Sureste de España. Se trata de una especie que presenta considerable interés tanto zoológico como epidemiológico por su papel como hospedador intermediario de Schistosoma haematobium, responsable de la esquistosomiasis urogenital humana. Los ejemplares fueron determinados a nivel específico mediante PCR doble anidada, con un 100% de homología. Se trata de la población localizada más al Sureste y en condiciones de mayor aridez en la península Ibérica. Se recopilaron los datos de presencia publicados para conocer su distribución en la península. El conocimiento de la distribución de Bulinus truncatus es una pieza clave para evaluar el riesgo de nuevos focos de esquistosomiasis en la península Ibérica.

  5. Revision of the genus Cuvierina Boas, 1886 based on integrative taxonomic data, including the description of a new species from the Pacific Ocean (Gastropoda, Thecosomata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Alice K; Janssen, Arie W; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A

    2016-01-01

    Shelled pteropods (Gastropoda, Thecosomata, Euthecosomata) are a group of holoplanktonic gastropods that occur predominantly in the surface layers of the world's oceans. Accurate species identifications are essential for tracking changes in species assemblages of planktonic gastropods, because different species are expected to have different sensitivities to ocean changes. The genus Cuvierina has a worldwide warm water distribution pattern between ~36°N and ~39°S. Based on an integrative taxonomic approach combining morphometric, genetic, and biogeographic information, the two subgenera of Cuvierina , Cuvierina s. str. and Urceolarica , are rejected. A new species is introduced: Cuvierina tsudai sp. n. , which has to date been considered the same species as Cuvierina pacifica . Cuvierina tsudai sp. n. is endemic to the Pacific Ocean and is characterised by a shell height of 7.2-8.0 mm, a moderately cylindrical shell shape, the absence of micro-ornamentation and a triangular aperture. Cuvierina pacifica is restricted to the centre of the oligotrophic southern Pacific gyre, has a shell height of 6.6-8.5 mm, a more cylindrical shell shape, no micro-ornamentation and a less triangular aperture than Cuvierina tsudai sp. n.

  6. Relationship between anti-oxidant capacity and manganese accumulation in the soft tissues of two freshwater molluscs: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia

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    Oscar RAVERA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an element of great importance in the life cycle of plants and animals. For example, it plays an essential role as an activator of various enzymatic systems such as isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase. Freshwater Unionidae concentrate relatively large amounts of manganese in their tissues, but little is known about the physiological role of this metal. The aim of this research is to acquire a better knowledge of the role of manganese in molluscs which accumulate large amounts of this metal and in those with low manganese concentrations. As manganese is one of the metals present in the superoxide molecule, the possible relationship between manganese concentration in the soft tissues of molluscs and the antioxidant capacity of the metal can usefully be tested. To this end two species of molluscs were analysed: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae, which is very rich in manganese, and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia which has a low manganese content. The adults of both species were analysed for manganese concentration by ICP, and for antioxidant capacity as RAC (Relative Antioxidant Capacity by a superoxide dismutase method. The results clearly demonstrate the active role played by manganese against free radicals and consequently the important role of the metal in protecting Unio against oxidative stress. The low concentration of manganese in Viviparus may be the result of the effective excretion of this metal, as was found for ruthenium.

  7. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2010-31 January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng

    2011-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Patterns of larval distribution and settlement of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae in fjords and channels of southern Chile Patrones de distribución de larvas y asentamiento de Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae en fiordos y canales del sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS MOLINET

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae is limited to the coasts of Chile and southern Peru. Almost all studies of this gastropod have been carried out in open coastal systems, rather than the fjords and channels of southern Chile, despite the fact that this area represents ca. 95 % of the total coastline in this country. Although there is a large volume of background literature on C. concholepas, almost nothing is published about early larval development under natural conditions, mostly because early veligers have rarely been found in nature. This study is the first attempt to determine the spatial and temporal abundance and size patterns of C. concholepas larvae in their natural environment throughout all of their developmental stages until they settle. Weekly plankton samples were obtained at the surface and at 8 m depth in four locations in southern Chile in combination with temperature and salinity records in each location. Settlement was quantified using artificial substrates in all locations. We have observed that C. concholepas larval development occurs throughout the entire year in Chilean inland seas, with early veliger larvae being released mostly from August to March, reaching the competent stage around June to August, and settling between July and August. Thus, larvae appear to have a long planktonic development that can last between 6 and 12 months. Differences in local hydrology could affect larval development of C. concholepas in this region. Further oceanographic and ecological investigation is necessary in order to answer the questions and hypotheses originated from this studyConcholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae se distribuye entre las costas del sur de Perú y extremo sur de Chile. Prácticamente todos los estudios sobre este gastrópodo han sido realizados en costas expuestas, sin considerar los fiordos y canales del sur de Chile, a pesar de que estos representan

  9. CAROTENOID-ENRICHED DIET FOR PRE-MATURATION STAGE OF POND-REARED TIGER SHRIMP, Penaeus monodon PART I. THE EFFECTS ON GROWTH, PIGMENTATION AND WHOLE BODY NUTRIENT CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids, besides as a natural pigment, may have vital roles in the growth of crustacean. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of combined carotenoids given since pre-maturation stage on the growth performances, pigmentation and biochemical composition of the whole body of pond-reared tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Two experimental diets were supplemented with or without carotenoid mixture consisting of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and other carotenoids contained in Spirulina. The carotenoid mixture was supplemented in the commercial diet normally used as a starter feed for tiger shrimp, re-pelleted and fed to tiger shrimp with an initial body weight of 31.7±1.3 g. Shrimp were stocked in four 1,000 m2 concrete ponds with a density of 1 shrimp/m2 and fed until the shrimp reached maturation stage (broodstock size. Variables observed were growth performances and pigmentation properties during the pre-maturation stage and total carotenoid content in several tissues of the female broodstock after being fed with the diets until maturation stage. After 16 weeks, shrimp fed with carotenoid-enriched diet (PC diet produced significantly (P<0.05 higher biomass than the diet without the enrichment (PO. The color of raw shrimp fed with PC diet was darker with greenish-brown compared to shrimp fed PO diet which was greenish blue. The visual appearances of 3-min steamed shrimp produced the color of red-orange for shrimp fed carotenoid compared to orange-yellow for control PO. The total carotenoid content in the whole body of shrimp fed PC diet were significantly (P<0.05 enhanced compared to control PO diet which was 42.8 ±5.8 and 55.8± 5.1 µg/g for PO and PC diet, respectively. Supplemental carotenoid in the pre-maturation diet increased the biomass production from 23.1±1.9 kg to 30.2 ±0.1 kg and enhanced the color of the shrimp which was in line with carotenoid content in the whole body of pond-reared tiger shrimp.

  10. A associação entre Crepidula aculeata (Gastropoda, Calyptraeidae a alga calcárea Amphiroa beauvoisii, na Baía de Santos, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setuko Masunari

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Association Crepidula aculeata - Amphiroa beauvoisii. Population study of Crepidula aculeata Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda Calyptraeidae and analysis of protocooperative association between the mollusc and the alga were carried out in the phytal of calcareous alga Amphiroa beauvoisii Lamouroux, 1816 at Ilha das Palmas, Santos Bay (24º00'S - 46º19'W. Samples were collected at three sites of different degree of water movement in the intertidal zone and sublittoral fringe during 1975 and 1976. From 93,916 organisms belonging to 172 species, 5,331 were Crepidula, the most abundant among sessile species. Also, Crepidula constitutes a substratum to attachment of Amphiroa, accounting for 30% of total phytal area. There was a positive correlation between the growth of shell and epizoic alga. Higher level of the phytal belt was more suitable for attachment and/or growth of the epizoic alga, without influence from water movement or season of the year. This association depends on the external morphology of the shell, filter-feeding habit, high adhesive power and lacking of mechanisms avoiding attachment of epizoics of Crepidula. Exuberant growth of the epizoic tuft over Crepidula female shell would constitute camouflage and protection of offsprings against predators.

  11. BIOAKUMULASI MERKURI DAN STRUKTUR HEPATOPANKREAS PADA TEREBRALIA SULCATA DAN NERITA ARGUS (MOLUSKA: GASTROPODA DI KAWASAN BEKAS PENGGELONDONGAN EMAS, MUARA SUNGAI LAMPON, BANYUWANGI, JAWA TIMUR(Bioaccumulation of mercury and the hepatopancreas structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susintowati Susintowati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Amalgamasi pada proses penggelondongan emas tradisional di muara sungai Lampon menggunakan Merkuri (Hg. Limbah dibuang langsung ke muara dan lingkungan sekitar. Walaupun aktivitas penggelondongan emas telah dihentikan, efek cemar Merkuri terhadap lingkungan termasuk biota terus berlangsung. Bioakumulasi Merkuri dapat ditelusuri menggunakan bioindikator anggota Gastropoda. Penelusuran bioakumulasi Merkuri menggunakan spesimen Terebralia sulcata yang hidup di hutan mangrove sekitar lokasi penggelondongan, dan Nerita argus yang hidup di muara pantai. Analisis Merkuri berdasar metode SNI 06-6992.2-2004 menggunakan perangkat Mercury Analyzer. Hepatopankreas sebagai organ detoksifikasi Merkuri digunakan sebagai parameter patologis. Hepatopankreas masing-masing spesimen dipreparasi dengan metode parafin, diwarnai dengan Hematoksilin Ehrlich’s-Eosin untuk pengamatan struktur mikroskopis. Bioakumulasi Merkuri dalam tubuh T. sulcata hingga 3,10 ppm, sedangkan dalam tubuh N. argus hingga 3,03 ppm. Tampak banyak vesikula residu diduga berisi inklusi pemadatan elektron dan metalotionin sebagai dampak detoksifikasi ion logam Merkuri dalam hepatopankreas. Tubulus hepatopankreas N. argus mengalami disintegrasi dan atropi cukup parah. Walaupun tambang emas di Lampon berskala kecil dan telah ditutup, efek patologis pencemaran Merkuri terhadap biota terutama Gastropoda sangat signifikan.   ABSTRACT Traditional gold mining at Lampon Banyuwangi district was used mercury amalgamation. Tailings are discharged to waters, that caused mercury pollution. Mercury accumulation can be trace in sediments and benthic organisms such as Gastropods. Although the gold mining has been ceased, the impact of mercury pollution can be traced. The purposes of this study are to know the mercury accumulation in sediments, to know mercury bioaccumulation in the soft body of Gastropod bioindicators, to know mercury pathological effect in hepatopancreas. Terebralia sulcata and

  12. Adiciones a los Gastropoda del mar peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan por primera vez para el mar peruano seis especies de gasterópodos: Sthenorytis turbinus Dall, 1908, Crucibulum (Crucibulum umbrella (Deshayes, 1830, Favartia (Murexiella lappa (Broderip,1833, Cantharus (Cantharus shaskyi Berry, 1959, Cantharus (Solenosteira macrospira (Berry, 1957, Cancellaria (Bivetopsia haemastoma Sowerby, 1832. Se informa sobre la distribución, el hábitat y comentarios relevantes acerca de cada una de las especies.

  13. Morphological studies on Bulinus sp. (Gastropoda: Planorbidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several samples have been tentatively identified as B. natalensis (Küster, 1841) on the basis of observations on the shell and radula. The present study is a preliminary analysis of the characteristics of the shell and the radula of the snails from Nchout Monoun Crater Lake (Monoun Koumogoum) for adequate comparisons ...

  14. Notes on Buccinulum (Gastropoda, Buccinidae), a reappraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt was made to assemble what is known at present of Buccinulum in the Indo-Western Pacific Region, fossil and Recent, more scope being offered by the discovery of new Miocene fossils from Java and Sumatra, and the recognition of further fossil species from India and Burma. This induced

  15. Complete regeneration of ablated eyestalk in penaeid prawn, Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, U.M.; Achuthankutty, C

    regenerated in less than 6 months and assumed the shape, size, structure and pigmentation of the unablated eye. Significance of this observation in the context of captive broodstock development and the need for detailed examination of the regeneration process...

  16. Levels of PAHs in shrimps, Penaeus monodon from Jones Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High concentrations were recorded during the rainy season and during the first quarter of the year. The investigated samples were classified as minimally contaminated when compared with FDA levels of PAHs in shrimp samples. Distribution patterns showed that PAHs with 3 and 4 rings dominated confirming the pyrogenic ...

  17. IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon THROUGH PROBIOTICS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irsyaphiani Insan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Brebes District, the North coast of Java. Tiger shrimp farming in Indonesia, particularly in this area faced some problems which caused by improper pond preparation, disease, and low seed quality. Probiotic was applied in pond to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of tiger shrimp in ponds with probiotic applications. Six experimental ponds (each measuring 0.5 ha were selected of which three were probiotic ponds and three were controlled. Tiger shrimp postlarvae (PL-30 were stocked at density of four shrimps/m2. Tiger shrimps were reared for three months. Shrimps were fed by commercial pellet. In the first month, shrimp were fed about 7%-5% of the total biomass; in the second months, 3.5%-3% of the total biomass; and in the third month, 2.5%-2% of the total biomass. The treatments in this study were the application of probiotics with concentration of 3 mg/L that were given every five days and control (without probiotics. The results showed the rearing period was 92 ± 6 days in probiotic ponds and 76 ± 16 days in controlled pond. The shrimp in controlled pond should be harvest earlier caused by the high mortality. The average final weight was 16.2 ± 0.7 g in probiotic pond and 15.6 ± 1.9 g in controlled pond. The survival rate was 64.13 ± 12.63% in probiotic pond and 44.17 ± 14.15% in controlled pond. Production was 208 ± 46 kg/pond/cycle in probiotic pond and 123 ± 6 kg/pond/cycle in controlled pond. The result showed that probiotic plays an important role in maintaining water quality parameters and health management as well as increases the survival of shrimp.

  18. Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van de K.

    2002-01-01

    Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays

  19. Immune defence White Spot Syndrome Virus infected shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen of cultured penaeid shrimp worldwide. Since the initial discovery of the virus inTaiwanin 1992, it has spread to shrimp farming regions in Southeast Asia, the

  20. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. Identification of host cellular proteins interacting with WSSV will help in unravelling the repertoire of host proteins involved in WSSV infection. In this study, we have employed ...

  1. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-06

    assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the host ..... and early feature of cell death in different cell types triggered to die with different suicidal stimuli (Ucker et al. 2012).

  2. Planaxidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyun; Zhang, Junlong; Lian, Xiping; Tan, Yehui

    2018-03-01

    Planaxidae is a family of tropical and subtropical marine gastropods that are adapted to an intertidal, rocky environment. The present study deals with three species in the family Planaxidae from the South China Sea: Planaxis sulcatus (von Born, 1778), Angiola longispira (Smith, 1872), and Supplanaxis niger (Quoy and Gaimard, 1833), based on specimens deposited in the Marine Biodiversity Collections of the South China Sea, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The taxonomic status, main morphological characteristics of the shell and radula, distribution, and habitat of these three planaxid species are presented. We also briefly discuss their morphological differences and the biogeographic distribution.

  3. The phylogeography of Indoplanorbis exustus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Jose L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The freshwater snail Indoplanorbis exustus is found across India, Southeast Asia, central Asia (Afghanistan, Arabia and Africa. Indoplanorbis is of economic importance in that it is responsible for the transmission of several species of the genus Schistosoma which infect cattle and cause reduced livestock productivity. The snail is also of medical importance as a source of cercarial dermatitis among rural workers, particularly in India. In spite of its long history and wide geographical range, it is thought that Indoplanorbis includes only a single species. The aims of the present study were to date the radiation of Indoplanorbis across Asia so that the factors involved in its dispersal in the region could be tested, to reveal potential historical biogeographical events shaping the phylogeny of the snail, and to look for signs that I. exustus might be polyphyletic. Results The results indicated a radiation beginning in the late Miocene with a divergence of an ancestral bulinine lineage into Assam and peninsular India clades. A Southeast Asian clade diverged from the peninsular India clade late-Pliocene; this clade then radiated at a much more rapid pace to colonize all of the sampled range of Indoplanorbis in the mid-Pleistocene. Conclusions The phylogenetic depth of divergences between the Indian clades and Southeast Asian clades, together with habitat and parasitological differences suggest that I. exustus may comprise more than one species. The timescale estimated for the radiation suggests that the dispersal to Arabia and to Southeast Asia was facilitated by palaeogeographical events and climate change, and did not require human involvement. Further samples from Afghanistan, Africa and western India are required to refine the phylogeographical hypothesis and to include the African Recent dispersal.

  4. Imposex in endemic volutid from Northeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda

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    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Imposex is characterized by the development of masculine sexual organs in neogastropod females. Almost 120 mollusk species are known to present imposex when exposed to organic tin compounds as tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT. These compounds are used as biocide agents in antifouling paints to prevent the incrustations on boats. Five gastropod species are known to present imposex in Brazil: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum and Olivancillaria vesica. This paper reports the first record of imposex observed in the endemic gastropod Voluta ebraea from Pacheco Beach, Northeast Brazil. Animals presenting imposex had regular female reproductive organs (capsule gland, oviduct and sperm-ingesting gland and an abnormal penis. As imposex occurs in mollusks exposed to organotin compounds typically found at harbors, marinas, shipyards and areas with high shipping activities, probably contamination of Pacheco Beach is a consequence of a shipyard activity located in the nearest areas.O imposex caracteriza-se pelo surgimento de estruturas sexuais masculinas, em fêmeas de gastrópodes. Cerca de 120 espécies de moluscos que exibem o fenômeno quando expostas a contaminação por compostos orgânicos de estanho tais como o Tributilestanho (TBT e o Trifenilestanho (TPT. Esses compostos são utilizados, sobretudo em embarcações, no intuito de evitar a bioincrustração que danifica as embarcações e eleva os custos das viagens marítimas. No Brasil se conhecem 5 espécies de moluscos gastrópodes que manifestam imposex, são elas: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum e Olivancillaria vesica. No Nordeste, monitoramentos da contaminação por organoestânicos foram realizados utilizando o imposex em gastrópodes como biomarcador. O presente estudo tem por objetivo notificar a primeira ocorrência de imposex na espécie endêmica do Nordeste brasileiro, Voluta ebraea. De um total de 11 animais observados, duas fêmeas apresentaram imposex, provenientes da Praia do Pacheco no litoral do Ceará. Observou-se nesses indivíduos a presença de glândula de cápsulas, ovidutos e receptáculo seminal concomitantemente ao pênis o que caracteriza o imposex. Como o imposex só se manifesta em moluscos expostos a compostos organoestânicos tipicamente encontrados em portos, marinas, estaleiros e locais com grande fluxo de embarcações atribui-se a origem dessa contaminação provavelmente a um estaleiro localizado nas proximidades da área de coleta.

  5. A phylogenetic analysis of rissooidean and cingulopsoidean families (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscione, Francesco; Ponder, Winston Frank

    2013-03-01

    The Rissooidea is one of the largest and most diverse molluscan superfamilies, with 23 recognized Recent families including marine, freshwater and terrestrial members. The Cingulopsoidea are a group of three marine families previously included within the Rissooidea. A previous molecular analysis including two rissooideans and one cingulopsoidean, indicated the possibility that the Rissooidea is at least diphyletic. We use new molecular data to investigate the polyphyly of Rissooidea and test the monophyly of Cingulopsoidea with a greatly increased taxon set. This study includes the greatest sampling to date with 43 species of 14 families of Rissooidea and all families of Cingulopsoidea. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of 16S and 28S show that there are two major clades encompassing taxa previously included in Rissooidea. These are the Rissooidea s.s. containing Rissoidae and Barleeiidae and the Truncatelloidea containing Anabathridae, Assimineidae, Falsicingulidae, Truncatellidae, Pomatiopsidae, Hydrobiidae s.l., Hydrococcidae, Stenothyridae, Calopiidae, Clenchiellidae, Caecidae, Tornidae, and Iravadiidae. Rissoidae is not monophyletic, with Lironoba grouping with Emblanda (Emblandidae) and Rissoina forming a separate clade with Barleeiidae. Iravadiidae is not monophyletic, with Nozeba being sister to the Tornidae. Tatea, usually included within Hydrobiidae, is distinct from that family and Nodulus, previously included in Anabathridae, groups with the hydrobiids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Familia Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Archaeopulmonata en el litoral peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan 8 especies de Ellobiidae para la Costa Peruana, pertenecientes a las subfamilias Ellobiinae: Ellobium stagnale (Orbigny, 1835 y Sarnia frumentum Petit, 1842; Melampodinae: Melampus carolianus (Lesson, 1842, Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 y Detracia graminea Morrison, 1846; y Pedipedinae: Marinula acuta (Orbigny, 1835, Marinula concinna (C.B Adams, 1852 y Marinula pepita King, 1831. Seis especies viven asociadas al bosque de manglar en el departamento de Tumbes, y dos en las playas de canto rodado en los límites de la Provincia Peruana. Cuatro especies tropicales se registran por primera vez para el mar peruano: E. stagnale, M. olivaceus, D. graminea y M. acuta.

  7. Dispersion factors in the arboreal snail Sitala jenynsi (Gastropoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coefficient was enhanced by grassy habitats, continuous vegetation cover, absence of edible plants and ... I III green card-board qUtldraL The quadrat, with its ... Season. relea~~ duratioll I cast Illl ... 13 (10). Dry FL:bruary. 21 (3). Dry March. 14 (13). 01 ,nail" rec(w~red. 4R. 43. :'0 ...... test Cilse f()r prcscnt gcncralillitinn~.

  8. (Gmelin, 1791) and Patella concolor Krauss, 1848 (Gastropoda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-11-21

    Nov 21, 1986 ... Trans Roy. Soc. S. Afr. 41: 111-160. BRANCH, G.M. 1975. Notes on the ecology of Patella concolor and Cellana capensis and the effects of human consumption on limpet populations. 2001 Afr. 10: 75-85. BRANCH, G.M. 1981. The biology of limpets: physical factors, energy flow, and ecological interactions.

  9. The Genus Theba (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Helicidae), Systematics and Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Ripken, Th. E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning taxonomy and zoogeography of the fossil and recent species of the helicid genus Theba is summarized and enlarged. The fossil T. arinagae spec. nov. is described from Gran Canaria. The recent T. andalusica spec. nov. and T. sacchii spec. nov. are described from the

  10. Nematodes from Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the nematode cysts and larvae found in Achatina fulica, the giant African snail, in the northeast of Argentina. A total of 373 snails were collected from the cities of Puerto Iguazú and Corrientes. Cysts (N= 2958 containing nematodes identified as L3 Strongyluris sp. were found in the mantle cavity of 87 snails from Puerto Iguazú City (Prevalence 23 %; Mean Intensity= 34; Mean Abundance= 8. The shell size correlated with prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance (p < 0.05 indicating that there is an exposure-infection constant rather than an accidental one. In other hand, the absence of infection in the smallest shell size suggests a threshold of size to be infected. Taking into account that there exist records of A. fulica infected by nematodes of medical and veterinary importance such as Angiostrongylus and Aelurostrongylus in some Brazilian states near Puerto Iguazú, we emphasize the need for snail surveillance.

  11. The Genus Cerion (Gastropoda: Cerionidae in the Florida Keys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesha Shrestha

    Full Text Available The systematic relationships and phylogeography of Cerion incanum, the only species of Cerion native to the Florida Keys, are reviewed based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes derived from 18 populations spanning the range of this species and including the type localities of all four described subspecies. Our samples included specimens of Cerion casablancae, a species introduced to Indian Key in 1912, and a population of C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrids descended from a population of C. casablancae introduced onto Bahia Honda Key in the same year. Molecular data did not support the partition of C. incanum into subspecies, nor could populations be apportioned reliably into subspecies based on morphological features used to define the subspecies. Phylogenetic analyses affirmed the derived relationship of C. incanum relative to other cerionids, and indicated a Bahamian origin for the Cerion fauna of southern Florida. Relationships among the populations throughout the Keys indicate that the northernmost populations, closest to the Tomeu paleoislands that had been inhabited by Cerion petuchi during the Calabrian Pleistocene, are the oldest. The range of Cerion incanum expanded as the archipelago that is the Florida Keys was formed since the lower Tarantian Pleistocene by extension from the northeast to the southwest, with new islands populated as they were formed. The faunas of the High Coral Keys in the northeast and the Oölite Keys in the southwest, both with large islands that host multiple discontinuous populations of Cerion, are each composed of well supported clades that are characterized by distinctive haplotypes. In contrast, the fauna of the intervening Low Coral Keys consist of a heterogeneous series of populations, some with haplotypes derived from the High Coral Keys, others from the Oölite Keys. Individuals from the C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrid population inhabiting the southeastern coast of Bahia Honda Key were readily segregated based on their mitogenome lineage, grouping either with C. incanum or with C. casablancae from Indian Key. Hybrids with C. casablancae mitogenomes had haplotypes that were more divergent from their parent mitogenome than were hybrids with C. incanum mitogenomes.

  12. Snail arboreality: the microdistribution of Sitalajenyn.si (Gastropoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G = the number or snails in grasses, % = percentage proportion of shruh snail s to the total number ot' snails in both habitats, ..... transmission pylons (P.F. Kasigwa personal observations). .... ation and k is any positive integer. References.

  13. Snail arboreality: the microdistribution of Sitala jenynsi (Gastropoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The habitats and patterns of vertical migration of the shell banding morphs of the snail Sitala jenynsi (Pfeiffer) were studied in Dar es Salaam and Wazo regions of central coastal Tanzania Both dimorphic and trimorphic populations were arboreal throughout the year. The snails occurred randomly within mid-heights 180 to ...

  14. Mitrella albovittata [Gastropoda: Columbellidae]: range extension to Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Mitrella albovittata Lopes, Coelho & Cardoso, 1965, was originally described from Bahia, Salvador, Itapuã (type locality), Alagoas, Maceió and Rio de Janeiro, Cabo Frio. These three localities are all situated on the east coast of Brasil. Recently, it was found in a dredge sample collected near

  15. Origins of Semisulcospira libertina (gastropoda: semisulcospiridae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Bor, Hor; Kuo, Po-Hsun; Hsu, Kui-Ching; Tan, Mian-Shin; Wang, Wei-Kuang; Lin, Hung-Du

    2017-07-01

    The most accepted hypothesis has suggested that the fauna in Taiwan Island originated from South China, but some studies supported the Japan, Ryukyu Archipelago, and Taiwan Islands as a unique biogeographical district. This study examines whether the populations of freshwater snail Semisulcospira libertina in Taiwan are closer to those in Japan based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Our study shows the populations in North Taiwan originated from Japan and the cyclic glacial caused the migrations among islands and continent repeatedly; the populations in South Taiwan might originate from South China or South Asia. Our results will not only affect the conclusions in phylogeography of freshwater species in Taiwan but also change the sampling plans in the future studies about evolutionary of freshwater species in East Asia.

  16. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae: a morphological and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873 from Lake Valencia (type locality and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis. In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacustrine populations refered to Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 by several authors correspond in shell characters to an extreme variant of B. prona from the Lake and really belong to the last*mentioned species. They may be regarded as the result of a process of directional selection favoring a shell phenotype other than those making up the modal class in the Lake.

  17. New species of Cyclodontina from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small forest fragment in the city of Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia state, Brazil. Bahia is known for a high diversity of land snails and Bom Jesus da Lapa is an interesting locality, since it is close to the interface between two major Brazilian biomes: Cerrado and Caatinga. The new species is described as Cyclodontina tapuia sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its brown shell, conical spire, convex whorls, a sculpture comprised of strong ribs, and an aperture with four barriers: a median parietal tooth, a median palatal tooth, a median basal tooth and a strong columellar lamella. This discovery is also a reminder of how little the Brazilian continental molluscan fauna is known and of the urgency in studying and preserving the rich (though usually overlooked fauna of the Caatinga.

  18. Deep-diving by narwhals Monodon monoceros: differences in foraging behavior between wintering areas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laidre, K. L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Dietz, R.

    2003-01-01

    Variation in resource selection among sub-populations may elucidate differences in fitness and life history strategies. Specifically for top marine predators, differences in movements and behavior may result from responses to variation in a patchy, dynamic environment. Satellite-linked time...

  19. TRANSFER GEN ANTIVIRUS PADA EMBRIO UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon DALAM BERBAGAI KONSENTRASI DEOXYRIBO NUCLEIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi transgenesis khususnya rekayasa genetik untuk menghasilkan udang windu resisten penyakit merupakan salah satu strategi yang dapat dilakukan dalam upaya pemecahan masalah penyakit yang menimpa budidaya udang windu. Teknologi transgenesis khususnya transfer gen antivirus pada udang windu telah berhasil dilakukan melalui teknik transfeksi. Meskipun demikian optimalisasi komponen teknologi tersebut masih perlu dilakukan. Konsentrasi DNA gen merupakan salah satu komponen teknologi transgenesis yang harus dioptimalkan untuk mendapatkan efisiensi dalam transfer gen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui konsentrasi DNA gen antivirus yang optimal sebagai bahan transfer gen ke embrio menggunakan metode transfeksi. Embrio udang windu yang diperoleh dari hasil pemijahan induk asal Aceh, dikoleksi 5-10 menit setelah memijah dengan kepadatan 625 telur/2 mL. Transfeksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan media larutan transfeksi jetPEI dengan konsentrasi DNA gen antivirus sebagai perlakuan, yakni: 5, 10, dan 15 µg serta kontrol positif (tanpa plasmid DNA dan negatif (tanpa plasmid DNA dan larutan transfeksi, masing-masing 3 ulangan. Embrio hasil transfeksi ditetaskan pada stoples berisi air laut sebanyak 2 L yang diletakkan pada waterbath. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gen antivirus telah berhasil diintroduksi ke embrio udang windu. Hasil analisis ragam menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan konsentrasi DNA (5-15 µg tidak berpengaruh nyata (P>0,05 terhadap daya tetas embrio udang windu. Analisis ekspresi gen pada larva udang windu juga menunjukkan adanya aktivitas ekspresi gen antivirus pada semua perlakuan konsentrasi DNA, di mana ekspresi gen antivirus pada larva transgenik lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kontrol (tanpa transfeksi. Sintasan pasca-larva PL-1 yang didapatkan pada penelitian ini adalah 12,0%; 10,0%; 10,6%; 12,3%; dan 14,2% masing-masing untuk perlakuan konsentrasi plasmid DNA 5 µg, 10 µg, 15 µg, kontrol positif dan negatif, di mana konsentrasi DNA yang berbeda tidak memperlihatkan pengaruh nyata (P>0,05 terhadap sintasan larva PL-1. Hasil penelitian ini berimplikasi bahwa untuk alasan efisiensi, konsentrasi DNA 5 µg disarankan untuk digunakan dalam transfer gen pada embrio udang windu.

  20. EXPRESSION OF ANTIVIRAL GENE ON TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon AT DIFFERENT TISSUE AND BODY SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of tiger shrimp defense against invading pathogen on molecular level such antiviral gene expression is limited to be reported. Gene expression is a process which codes information of genes that is converted to the protein as a phenotype. Distribution of PmAV antivirus gene, that has been reported as an important gene on non-specific response immune, is needed to be observed to several organs/tissues and size of tiger shrimp. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of gene antiviral expression at several organ/tissue and size of shrimp. The organs/tissues observed in this study were: gill, hepatopancres, muscle tissue, eyes, heart, stomach, gonad, and intestine. While the size of shrimp consisted of three groups, those are: (A 10-20 g/ind., (B 30-40 g/ind., and (C 60-70 g/ind. Analysis of antiviral gene expression was performed by RNA extraction, followed by the cDNA syntesis, and amplification of gene expression by semi-quantitative PCR. The result of PCR optimation showed the optimal concentration of cDNA and primer was 1 μL and 50 mol, respectively for PCR final volume of 25 μL. Antiviral gene was expressed on the hepatopancreas and stomach in percentage of 50.0% and 16.7%, respectively. While the highest percentage of individual expressing the antiviral gene was observed in the shrimp size of C (66.7%, followed by B (50.0% and A (16.7%. The result of study implied that the hepatopancreas has importantly involed in tiger shrimp defense mechanism on viral infection.

  1. Efficiency of probiotics (Ecoforce) in the growth and survival of Peneaus monodon

    OpenAIRE

    V. Elumalai; G. Ramesh; D. Mohan, et al.

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation of live microorganisms in aquaculture aids in preventing disease, thereby increasing production and decreasing economic loss. Application of probiotics bacteria in aquaculture systems plays significant role that determines the fate and success rate of culture. The present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of commercially available probiotics (The major active ingredients include Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus faecium, Bacillus mesentericus, Bac...

  2. Paradoxical escape responses by narwhals (Monodon monoceros)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Terrie M.; Blackwell, Susanna B.; Richter, Beau

    2017-01-01

    -regulation (extreme bradycardia with heart rate ≤4 beats per minute) superimposed on exercise up-regulation (stroke frequency >25 strokes per minute and energetic costs three to six times the resting rate of energy expenditure) that rapidly depleted onboard oxygen stores. We attribute this unusual reaction...

  3. Vibrio harveyi modulated gene expression in Penaeus monodon and Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.

    : Gammaproteobacteria Order : Vibrionales Family : Vibrionaceae Genus : Vibrio Species : harveyi Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative bioluminescent marine bacterium. It is both a free- living, as well as a symbiont with many... marine animals. In free-living form, it can be found throughout the water column, in the sediment as well as on the exterior surfaces of marine organisms. It causes systemic infection resulting in mortalities in larvae and post-larvae, which sometimes...

  4. Effect of new aeration technology on the bacteriology of shrimp ponds growing Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karekar, S.V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, P.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Bergheim, A.; Vogelsang, C.

    in the recent past arid are mentioned for their principle, use and performance (Boyd, 1998) in aquaculture practices. HOBAS technology developed by HOBAS Water Engineering. Norway mechanically mixes air and water in order to replace oxygen deficits... and competition from other user community of natural resources. Intensification of farming practices can have an adverse affect on the health of the farm as a result of stressed conditions, which may result in the outbreak of disease (Bachere. 2000; Otta et a...

  5. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK PAKIS SEBAGAI MOULTING STIMULAN PADA INDUK UDANG WINDU (Penaeus monodon. Fab DI HATCHERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Suryati

    2013-08-01

    kandungan senyawa steroid yaitu fitoekdisteroid dalam bentuk 20-Hydroxyecdyson atau Ecdysteron berfungsi sebagai moulting stimulan pada krustase. Pada umumnya ecdysteron ditemukan pada krustase baik yang ada di darat maupun yang berada di dalam air seperti kepiting, udang, dan krustase lainnya yang ditemukan secara alami dan berfungsi sebagai pengatur proses penggantian kulit dan mengontrol pembentukan exoskeleton baru untuk menggantikan exoskeleton yang lama. Selain ablasi proses moulting pada udang dapat diinduksi melalui penambahan 20-hydroksi ecdysteron (20 E pada hemolim sehingga fase premoulting dapat diatur sesuai dengan kebutuhan. 20-hydroksiecdysteron dapat diperoleh dari ekstrak tumbuhan di antaranya bayam, asparagus, pakis, dan lain-lain melalui pemisahan dengan ekstraksi, fraksinasi, dan pemurnian dengan HPLC dilanjutkan dengan elusidasi struktur. Pemberian ekstrak pakis pada induk udang windu untuk memacu terjadinya pergantian kulit dilakukan melalui dengan beberapa konsentrasi menggunakan desain Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL. Hasil analisis memperlihatkan bahwa kandungan phytoecdysteron pada pakis perkisar 230-730 mg/L dari larutan ekstrak yang setara dengan 20 g bahan segar. Konsentrasi ECD 25 mg/L, memperlihatkan respon yang paling baik sebagai moulting stimulan.

  6. Identification of upregulated immune-related genes in Vibrio harveyi challenged Penaeus monodon postlarvae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.; Singh, S.K.; Ramaiah, N.; Sreepada, R.A.

    at the early life-stages of shrimps are of great significance. An understanding therefore, of molecular responses and defense mechanism(s) in shrimps against bacterial pathogens is essential. Besides production of antimicrobial biomolecules, the innate... of this strain grown for 24h in seawater nutrient broth were used for the experimental challenge. Cells were harvested by centrifugation and re-suspended in sterilized seawater and the PL were ‘bath’ challenged by adding the harvested cells to attain 2.5- 3...

  7. Low-input Modified Extensive Shrimp Culture System for Penaeus monodon Restrian Vibriosis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Karekar. S.V.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Vogelsang, C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    by the polymerase chain reaction test were procured from a local hatchery. Larvae were actively moving around with no visible signs of disease or morbidity and were transferred into the two production ponds at a stocking density of 5 PL m-2. No water exchange... and Kitao (1991). Additional biochemical tests were performed as per standard methods and compared with standard reactions for confirmation (Alsina and Blanch, 1994; Holt et al., 1994). Species level identification was carried out wherever possible...

  8. Penaeus monodon post-larvae and their interaction with Rhizophora apiculata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nga, B.T.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, expansion of shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam has brought considerable financial benefits to farmers and local communities. In the coastal provinces in the Mekong Delta, brackish shrimp aquaculture is the major economy activity. Extensive shrimp-mangrove culture systems are popularly

  9. Penaeus monodon post-larvae and their interaction with Rhizophora apiculata

    OpenAIRE

    Nga, B.T.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, expansion of shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam has brought considerable financial benefits to farmers and local communities. In the coastal provinces in the Mekong Delta, brackish shrimp aquaculture is the major economy activity. Extensive shrimp-mangrove culture systems are popularly practiced here. Although the average shrimp production is low, due to over-exploitation and destruction of mangrove forests and salt marshes, these systems are of special interest in view of the pro...

  10. POTENCY OF VIBRIO ISOLATES FOR BIOCONTROL OF VIBRIOSIS IN TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. LAY

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain Vibrio isolates able to function as biocontr ol of vibriosis in shrimp hatchery. Thirty one Vibrio isolates were isolated from tiger shrimp larvae and hatchery environments, i.e. Labuan, Pangandaran, and Lampung, Indonesia. Pathogenic V. harveyi MR5339 was obtained from Maros, South-Sulawesi and was made as a rifampicin resistant mutant (RFR to screen for those 31 Vibrio isolates in in vitro assays and to allow us to monitor their presence in shrimp larvae and larval rearing water. Almost all Vibrio isolates could inhibit the growth of pathogenic V. harveyi MR5339 RFR. SKT-b isolate from Skeletonema was the most effective to inhibit the growth of V. harveyi MR5339 Rf* and significantly reduced larval mortality in pathogen challenge assays. These prospective biocontrol bacteria, at concentration of 10" CFU/ml, did not show pathogenicity to shrimp larvae. SKT-b was Gram negative, short rod-shape, exhibited yellow colonies on TCBS and swarming on SWC-agar media, motile, u tilized glucose and sucrose but not lactose: produced extra-cellular protease and amylase, but did not produce chitmase. Partial sequencing of 16S-rRNA gene SKT-b showed SKT-b similarity to Vibrio alginofyticus.

  11. PENTOKOLAN UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon DENGAN KEPADATAN BERBEDA DALAM KERAMBA JARING APUNG (KJA DI LAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifuddin Tonnek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Produksi tokolan udang windu PL 54 menggunakan hapa pada unit keramba jaring apung (KJA di laut telah dilakukan di Teluk Labuange, Kabupaten Barru dari bulan Mei—Juli 2002. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan padat penebaran terbaik untuk pendederan benur udang windu dalam KJA di laut. Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah padat penebaran benur PL 12 sebanyak padat tebar 2.000 ekor/m2 (A, 3.000 ekor/m2 (B, dan 4.000 ekor/m2 (C masing-masing 3 kali ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan tokolan pada perlakuan 2.000 dan 3.000 ekor/m2 tidak berbeda nyata (0,57—0,65 g/ekor (P>0,05, tetapi berbeda nyata pada padat penebaran 4.000 ekor/m2 (0,39 g/ekor (P0.05, but significantly different with stocking density of 4,000 pcs/m2 (P<0.05. Nevertheless average survival rate of juvenile shrimps was not significant on stocking density 2,000 pcs and 3,000 pcs/m2, but significant different with stocking density of 4,000 pcs/me.Therefore, for juvenill production in floating net cages, the best (maximum stocking density of potensial 12 is 3,000 pcs/m2.

  12. PENYEBARAN DAN PREVALENSI WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV PADA BUDI DAYA UDANG WINDU (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliani Muliani

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this experiment was to know the distribution and prevalences of WSSV on tiger shrimp. Sample collection and WSSV detection conducted with PCR method was carried out during April 2004 to November 2006. Tiger shrimp broodstock samples were collected from Central Java, South Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Kalimantan, and Timika waters, and the other samples (tiger shrimp post larvae, juveniles, and cultured shrimp were collected from several region in South Sulawesi. The pleopod, pereiopod, eye stalk, carapax, gill, tail, muscle of broodstock, juveniles, and cultured shrimp, and 30 pcs of postlarvae were extracted using lysis buffer to collect genomic DNA. WSSV DNA amplification was carried out using first and nested PCR technique by specific sequence amplification kit (IQ2000TM  Detection and Prevention system. The WSSV DNA was visualized by gell documentation system. The result showed that more than 33% of broodstock resources of Indonesia waters and 90% of shrimp culture area of South Sulawesi were contaminated by WSSV. WSSV was also infected tiger shrimp broodstock, postlarvae, juveniles, and tiger shrimp cultured with the highest prevalence (40.4% was on tiger shrimp cultured and the lowest prevalence (5.4% was on postlarvae.

  13. Isolation of probiotics bacterium from coral reef for controlling vibriosis in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Dwi Sasanti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Vibrio, especially luminous Vibrio harveyi, could cause mass mortality in tiger shrimp culture. One of the technique to work against luminous Vibrio is, using probiotic bacteria to inhibit the luminous Vibrio growth. This study was carried out to obtain bacteria isolates from coral reef which potentially inhibit V. harveyi growth. A total of 110 isolates were isolated from Acropora sp, Merulina sp, Hystrix sp., Poecillophora sp, Porites sp and Haliophora sp., and have probiotic activity against V. harveyi in in vitro and in vivo test.Of the total 110 isolates, 54 isolates show the inhibiting zone. Two isolates(8A and 1Cwere not pathogenic and have the most effective activity in inhibiting growth of V. harveyi and significantly reduced larval mortality in in vitro and in vivo test. Treatment using probiotics candidate have significant different survival rate (83.33% compared with positive control (61.67%. The growth rate of lenght of larvae treatment with isolate of 8A (5.25% and 1C (5.06% show the significant different compared with positive control (3.54%. The growth rate of weight of larvae treatment withisolate of 8A (17.51% and 1C (17.61% show significant different compared with negative (15.27% and positive control (14.69%.Key word: coral reef, probiotic, tiger shrimp, vibriosis, V. harveyi. ABSTRAKVibrio patogen, khususnya Vibrio harveyi berpendar, dapat menyebabkan kematian massal pada budidaya udang windu. Salah satu alternatif untuk menghambat Vibrio harveyi berpendar adalah dengan menggunakan bakteri probiotik yang dapat menekan pertumbuhan Vibrio tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan isolat bakteri dari terumbu karang yang potensial menghambat pertumbuhan V. harveyi. Total 110 isolat diisolasi dari Acropora sp, Merulina sp., Hystrix sp., Poecillophora sp., Porites sp. dan Haliophora sp, dilakukan penapisan untuk melihat aktivitas kemampuannya melawan V. harveyi MR 5339 RfR dalam uji in vitro dan uji in vivo. Sebanyak 54 isolat teridentifikasi mampu menghasilkan zona hambat. Dua isolat (8A dan 1C terbukti tidak bersifat patogen dan memiliki aktivitas probiotik melawan V. harveyi MR 5339 RfR pada uji in vitro dan in vivo. Tingkat kelangsungan hidup larva pada perlakuan yang diberi kandidat probiotik dari kedua isolat tersebut adalah 83,33%, dan menunjukkan hasil yang berbeda nyata dengan kontrol positif (61,67%. Laju pertumbuhan panjang larva yang diberi isolat 8A (5,25% dan 1C (5,06%menunjukkan hasil yang berbeda nyatajika dibandingkan dengan kontrolpositif (3,54%. Laju pertumbuhan bobot yang diberi isolat 8A (17,51% dan 1C (17,61% menunjukkan hasil yang berbeda nyata terhadap kontrol negative (15,27% dan kontrol positif (14,69%.Kata kunci: probiotik, terumbu karang,udang windu, V. harveyi, vibriosis.

  14. Detection of Vibrio harveyi using hemolysin primer in tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Suriyani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was aimed to analyze the sensitivity and ability of primer hemolysin in detecting pathogenetic Vibrio on tiger shrimp post-larvae (PL exposed under different exposure times in media inoculated with Vibrio harveyi. The PL of tiger shrimp were infected with 106 cfu/mL of V. harveyi by immersion method for three, six, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The presence of hemolisin genes was detected by PCR techniques. The electrophoresis detected narrow hemolysin genes after PL were exposed for three and six hours. Clear visible bands of DNA Vibrio were observed for 12 hours of exposure. In contrast, no detected hemolysin gene of Vibrio was observed for PL exposed within 24, 48, and 72 hours. The rapid detection on Vibrio pathogenic for tiger shrimp PL should be conducted within three to 12 hours of exposure. No recommendation in utilizing this rapid detection for tiger shrimp PL exposed beyond 12 hours of V. harveyi. Keywords: specific primer, luminous Vibrio bacteria, pathogenic, PCR method, hemolysin gene  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan atau sensitivitas primer hemolisin dalam mendeteksi Vibrio patogen dengan lama pemaparan berbeda. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menginfeksikan Vibrio harveyi pada benur udang dengan metode perendaman pada konsentrasi 106 cfu/mL. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan pada waktu tiga, enam, 12, 24, 48, dan 72 jam pascainfeksi. Keberadaan gen hemolisin pada bakteri V. harveyi dideteksi menggunakan teknik polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Hasil elektroforesis memperlihatkan bahwa pada pemaparan tiga dan enam jam keberadaan gen hemolisin dari bakteri Vibrio patogen yang diinfeksikan sudah dapat terdeteksi pada benur walaupun masih terlihat tipis. Pada pemaparan 12 jam terlihat sangat jelas pita-pita DNA dari bakteri patogen. Sedangkan pada pemaparan 24, 48, dan 72 jam sudah tidak terdeteksi lagi gen hemolisin dari bakteri Vibrio. Hal ini diduga disebabkan terjadinya penurunan populasi bakteri Vibrio yang hidup dalam tubuh dan media pemeliharaan udang. Pentingnya deteksi cepat diawal udang terinfeksi bakteri (3–12 jam karena setelah 12 jam infeksi sudah sulit untuk mendeteksi keberadaan bakteri patogen di dalam tubuh udang. Kata kunci: primer spesifik, bakteri Vibrio berpendar, patogenik, metode PCR, gen hemolisin 

  15. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF DISQUALIFIED TIGER PRAWN (PENAEUS MONODON FAB. BROODSTOCK USING DOPAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ETTY RIANI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Disqualified tiger prawn broodstock has undergone ablation after two breeding periods, which causes high production cost, pollution of environment and difficulties in providing the broodstock continuously with enough quantity at an exact time. The purpose of this study was to find the proper dosage of dopamine to improve the quality for breeding of the disqualified tiger prawn, because dopamine inhibits maturation, so there will be enough time for maturation and improvement of the eggs quality.This experiment used 15 pairs of the twice breeding tiger prawn, which was collected from -9Perigi (Central Java. The samples were treated with different dosages of dopamine (dosage 10 , -8 -7 -6 10 , 10 , 10 moll and control/injected with aquabidest. The parameters identified in this experiment were duration (days for eggs maturation, fecundity, fertilizing rate, hatching rate, egg diameter and phototaxis response of the nauplii.The research concluded that the average duration for eggs maturation on the broodstock -9 -8 -7 -6that were injected with dopamine, dosage 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 moll and control, were 14, 12, 4, 2, 5 days, respectively. Fecundities were 561.489, 503.000, 384.205, 230.850 and 150.034. Fertilizing rates were 89.8%, 82.1%, 56.0%, 46.3%, and 23.2%. Hatching rates were 79.53%, 72.53%, 47.75%, 12.27%, and 36.6%. Diameters were 0.29; 0.29; 0.29; 0.27; and 0.27 mm. The nauplii -9 -8 -7produced by injecting broodstock with dopamine dosages of 10 , 10 , 10 , have positive -6phototaxis response, while for dosage 10 and control the responses were weak.

  16. Advantages of liquid nitrogen freezing of Penaeus monodon over conventional plate freezing

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, R.; Chaudhury, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen frozen products are biochemically and organoleptically superior to conventional plate frozen products but beneficial effect of liquid nitrogen freezing over conventional plate freezing can exist only up to 59 days at a commercial storage temperature of -18°C.

  17. Studies on luminous, Vibrio harveyi associated with shrimp culture system rearing Panaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kannapiran, E.; Ravindran, J.; Chandrasekar, R.; Kalaiarasi, A.

    feed, fertilizers and vitamins. This observation reconciles with the earlier findings that the artificial feed and other organic additions in the aquaculture farms enhanced the heterotrophic bacterial population (MacLean et al., 1994; Sharmila et al... the pond bottom preparation and low level of organic matter in the pond. As culture period progresses, accumulation of organic wastes in the shrimp pond takes placed due to the application of organic manure and fertilizers, feed waste, fecal matter...

  18. SELEKSI BAKTERI PROBIOTIK UNTUK BIOKONTROL VIBRIOSIS PADA LARVA UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon MENGGUNAKAN CARA KULTUR BERSAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widanarni Widanarni

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh bakteri probiotik yang mampu menghambat pertumbuhan Vibrio harveyi mengggunakan metode kultur bersama. Sebanyak 51 isolat kandidat probiotik berhasil diisolasi dari larva udang dan lingkungan pemeliharaannya di Balai Pengembangan Benih Ikan Air Payau dan Udang (BPBILAPU, Pangandaran serta hatcheri udang PT Biru Laut Khatulistiwa dan tambak udang intensif di Lampung. Dari total isolat tersebut setelah diseleksi secara in vitro menggunakan metode kultur bersama dipilih 3 isolat kandidat probiotik yang paling potensial dalam menekan atau menghambat pertumbuhan V. harveyi MR 5399 RfR yakni 1Ub, P20Bf, dan 10a. Ketiga isolat tersebut selanjutnya digunakan pada uji patogenisitas dan uji tantang pada larva udang windu. Hasil uji patogenisitas dengan konsentrasi bakteri 106 CFU/mL menunjukkan bahwa ketiga isolat tersebut tidak bersifat patogen pada larva udang windu. Hasil uji tantang pada larva udang juga menunjukkan bahwa ketiga isolat tersebut mampu meningkatkan sintasan larva udang windu. Nilai sintasan larva pada perlakuan yang selain diinfeksi dengan V. harveyi MR5399 RfR juga ditambah probiotik 1Ub, P20Bf, dan 10a masing-masing adalah 90,0%; 86,7%; dan 78,3% sedangkan pada perlakuan yang hanya diinfeksi dengan V. harveyi MR5399 RfR tanpa probiotik nilai sintasannya hanya mencapai 73,3%. Populasi bakteri V. harveyi pada perlakuan dengan penambahan bakteri probiotik lebih rendah dibanding perlakuan tanpa probiotik, hal ini menunjukkan kemungkinan adanya kompetisi antara bakteri V. harveyi dengan 1Ub. This research was aimed to obtain probiotic bacteria that can be used to inhibit the growth of Vibrio harveyi using co-culture method. This method succeeded in isolating 51 probiotic bacteria candidates from shrimp larva and their rearing environment in Balai Pengembangan Benih Ikan Laut Payau dan Udang (BPBILAPU, Pangandaran and shrimp hatchery of PT Biru Laut Khatulistiwa and intensively managed shrimp pond in Lampung. After in vitro selection of the total isolates using co-culture method, three most potential probiotic bacteria candidates in inhibiting or suppressing growth of V. harveyi MR 5399 RfR bacteria were chosen. The three isolates were then used in pathogenicity and challenge test in tiger shrimp larva. Results of pathogenicity test at the concentration of 106 CFU/mL bacteria showed that the three isolates were not pathogen to tiger shrimp larvae. Challenge test results in shrimp larvae also showed that the three isolates could increase survival rates of tiger shrimp larva. Larva survival rate value of treatment using V. harveyi MR5399 RfR with 1Ub, P20Bf, dan 10a probiotic were 90.0%, 86.7% dan 78.3%, respectively; whereas infection treatment merely using V. harveyi MR5399 RfR without probiotic only gave 73.3% survival rate. V. harveyi population in treatment with addition of probiotic bacteria were lower than that of without probiotic. This suggested the existence of possible competition between V. harveyi and 1Ub bacteria.

  19. Studies on luminous, Vibrio harveyi associated with shrimp culture system rearing Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannapiran, E; Ravindran, J; Chandrasekar, R; Kalaiarasi, A

    2009-09-01

    Microbiological studies in a modified extensive shrimp culture system at Nambuthalai, southeast coast of India were carried out fora period of 120 days. Population dynamics and distribution profile of luminous bacteria and total heterotrophic bacteria in the water sediment and animal samples were monitored. Luminous bacteria associated with exoskeleton, gills and gut were isolated and quantified. The total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 1.3 x 10(4) to 25.3 x 10(4) CFU ml(-1) in water and 1.5 x 10(6) to 26.2 x 10(6) CFU g(-1) in sediment. The V. harveyi population density varied between 0.6 x 10(4) and 8.8 x 10(4) LCFU ml(-1) in water and from 1.2 x 10(6) to 10.4 x 10(6) LCFU g(-1) sediment respectively. The gut of the animal was found to harbor high density of V. harveyi than gills and exoskeleton. The total heterotrophic bacteria and V. harveyi population density showed increasing trend during the culture period. The high V harveyi density observed in this study at the end of the culture period correlated with the outbreak of white spot disease.

  20. Protection of Penaeus monodon against White Spot Syndrome Virus by oral vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.; Cifuentes, C.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) occurs worldwide and causes high mortality and considerable economic damage to the shrimp farming industry. No adequate treatments against this virus are available. It is generally accepted that invertebrates such as shrimp do not have an adaptive immune response

  1. APLIKASI INSEMINASI BUATAN PADA UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon ALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER DAN JUMLAH SPERMATOFOR YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu kendala utama dalam domestikasi udang windu adalah rendahnya tingkat perkawinan secara alami dalam wadah budidaya. Hal yang sama terjadi pada udang windu alam yang digunakan di unit pembenihan. Salah satu upaya untuk mendapatkan telur fertil adalah melalui inseminasi buatan (IB. Inseminasi buatan merupakan teknik mentransfer spermatofor dari induk jantan dengan cara memasukkannya ke dalam telikum udang betina. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui performa reproduksi udang windu betina alam pasca-inseminasi menggunakan sumber dan jumlah spermatofor induk jantan alam yang berbeda. Penelitian dilakukan dua tahap yaitu 1 IB menggunakan spermatofor induk jantan dari perairan Sulawesi Selatan (SS dan spermatofor induk jantan dari Aceh (SA dan 2 IB menggunakan jumlah spermatofor berbeda yaitu satu spermatofor (S-1 dan dua spermatofor (S-2 pada udang windu betina alam. Inseminasi spermatofor dilakukan pada induk udang windu betina setelah dua hari moulting. Hasil yang diperoleh pada IB tahap pertama menunjukkan bahwa daya tetas telur udang windu betina alam lokal tidak dipengaruhi oleh sumber (lokasi asal udang jantan, di mana daya tetas telur relatif sama pada kedua perlakuan, yaitu 61,6% pada SS dan 61,7% pada SA. IB pada tahap kedua menunjukkan bahwa daya tetas telur fertil yang diperoleh pada S-2 sebesar 40,5%; lebih rendah dari S-1 sebesar 44%. One of the main constraints in the domestication of black tiger shrimp is very low natural mating in the tank. Similar condition have been happened in commercial hatcheries. An effort to improve the eggs fertility is through artificial insemination (AI. This study aimed to know reproductive performance of wild black tiger shrimp after insemination with different sources and numbers of spermatophore. This study consisted of two trials.The first one was AI using spermatophores of wild male obtained from two different locations, namely from South Sulawesi (SS and Aceh (SA. The second trial was AI using different numbers of spermatophore namely one spermatophore (S-1 and two spermatophores (S-2. AI was applied to the females at two days post-moulting. The results of the first trial showed that the hatching rate (HR was not affected by the source of the male which was 61.6% for SS and 61.7% for SA. The second trial indicated that female inseminated S-2 had lower HR than S-1 (40.5% vs 44%.

  2. Evaluation of the use of Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) and Hastula cinerea (Gastropoda, Terebridae) as TBT sentinels for sandy coastal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Berenguel, Thayana Amorim; de Arruda, Noelle C L Patrício; del Matto, Lygia A; Amado, Lílian Lund; Corbisier, Thais Navajas; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Turra, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination is still recorded in the environment even after its ban in antifouling paints. Since most biomonitors of TBT contamination, through imposex evaluation, are hard-bottom gastropods, the identification of soft-bottom sentinels has become useful for regions where rocky shores and coral reefs are absent. Thus, an evaluation of Olivella minuta and Hastula cinerea as monitors of TBT contamination was performed in two sandy beaches located under influence area of São Sebastião harbor (São Paulo state, Brazil), where previous and simultaneous studies have reported environmental contamination by TBT. In addition, the imposex occurrence in H. cinerea was assessed in an area with low marine traffic (Una beach), also located in São Paulo State. A moderate imposex incidence in O. minuta was detected in Pernambuco (% I = 9.36, RPLI = 4.49 and RPLIstand = 4.27) and Barequeçaba (% I = 2.42, RPLI = 0.36 and RPLIstand = 0.81) beaches, indicating TBT contamination. In contrast, more severe levels of imposex were recorded for H. cinerea in Una beach (% I = 12.45) and mainly in Barequeçaba beach (% I = 98.92, RPLI = 26.65). Our results suggest that O. minuta and H. cinerea have good potential as biomonitors for TBT based on their wide geographical distribution, common occurrence in different coastal sediment habitats, easy collection, and association with TBT-contaminated sediments.

  3. Bakteri Simbion Gastropoda Pleuroploca trapesium Dari Perairan Ternate, Sebagai Alternatif Antibakteri MDR (Bacterial Symbiont Gastropoda Pleuroploca trapezium from Ternate, as Alternative Antibacterial MDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delianis Pringgenies

    2014-03-01

    The bacteria resistant to some antibiotics are known as multi drug resistant (MDR. To overcome the problem, it is needed to search for a new antibiotic compounds more effectively and efficiently. This study aims to identify potential from symbionts of Pleuroploca trapezium as a source of antibacteria MDR and identifying the bacteria that were active against the MDR. Samples were collected from Ternate, Maluku. Isolation of symbiotic bacteria, screening for bacteria which producing secondary metabolites as anti-MDR bacteria, antibacterial test, isolation of clinical pathogenic bacteria of MDR. Conducting anti-bacterial sensitivity test,  sensitivity test for antibacterial,  DNA exctraction, DNA amplification based on PCR method, DNA sequencing.  Result of 16S r-DNA sequence was then analyzed and edited using GENETYX program and followed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Screening of bacteria associated with P. trapezium resulted in 19 isolates with 5 active bacteria. Based on the size of the zone forming and the consistency of zone, so the best isolate is TPT 4.7. The identification shows that TPT 4.7 has a close relationship with the Paracoccus sp. MBIC4019 with homologi of 95%, which shows the relationship at the genus level. Its suggest that these results are very promising as a new antibacterial material. Keywords: antibacterial, symbiotic bacteria, Pleuroploca trapezium, multi drugs resistant

  4. CLUSTER MODEL FOR EXTENSIVE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon Fab. TO PREVENT TRANSMISSION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Taslihan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has become epidemic in Indonesia and affecting shrimp aquaculture interm of its production. White spot syndrome virus is transmitted from one to other ponds, through crustacean, included planktonic copepode as carrier for WSSV and through water from affected shrimp pond. A cluster model, consist of shrimp grow out ponds surrounded by non-shrimp pond as a role of biosecurity has been developed. The model aimed to prevent white spot virus transmission in extensive giant tiger shrimp pond. The study was conducted in two sites at Demak District, Central Java Province. As the treatment, a cluster consist of three shrimp ponds in site I, and two shrimp ponds in site II, each was surrounded by buffer ponds rearing only finfish. As the control, five extensive shrimp grow out ponds in site I and three shrimp grow out ponds in site II, with shrimp pond has neither applied biosecurity nor surrounded by non-shrimp pond as biosecurity as well considered as control ponds. The results found that treatment of cluster shrimp ponds surrounded by non-shrimp ponds could hold shrimp at duration of culture in the grow out pond (DOC 105.6±4.5 days significantly much longer than that of control that harvested at 60.9±16.0 days due to WSSV outbreak. Survival rate in trial ponds was 77.6±3.6%, significantly higher than that of control at 22.6±15.8%. Shrimp production in treatment ponds has total production of 425.1±146.6 kg/ha significantly higher than that of control that could only produced 54.5±47.6 kg/ha. Implementation of Better Management Practices (BMP by arranging shrimp ponds in cluster and surrounding by non-shrimp ponds proven effectively prevent WSSV transmission from traditional shrimp ponds in surrounding area.

  5. The development of a high density linkage map for black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon based on cSNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Baranski

    Full Text Available Transcriptome sequencing using Illumina RNA-seq was performed on populations of black tiger shrimp from India. Samples were collected from (i four landing centres around the east coastline (EC of India, (ii survivors of a severe WSSV infection during pond culture (SUR and (iii the Andaman Islands (AI in the Bay of Bengal. Equal quantities of purified total RNA from homogenates of hepatopancreas, muscle, nervous tissue, intestinal tract, heart, gonad, gills, pleopod and lymphoid organs were combined to create AI, EC and SUR pools for RNA sequencing. De novo transcriptome assembly resulted in 136,223 contigs (minimum size 100 base pairs, bp with a total length 61 Mb, an average length of 446 bp and an average coverage of 163× across all pools. Approximately 16% of contigs were annotated with BLAST hit information and gene ontology annotations. A total of 473,620 putative SNPs/indels were identified. An Illumina iSelect genotyping array containing 6,000 SNPs was developed and used to genotype 1024 offspring belonging to seven full-sibling families. A total of 3959 SNPs were mapped to 44 linkage groups. The linkage groups consisted of between 16-129 and 13-130 markers, of length between 139-10.8 and 109.1-10.5 cM and with intervals averaging between 1.2 and 0.9 cM for the female and male maps respectively. The female map was 28% longer than the male map (4060 and 2917 cM respectively with a 1.6 higher recombination rate observed for female compared to male meioses. This approach has substantially increased expressed sequence and DNA marker resources for tiger shrimp and is a useful resource for QTL mapping and association studies for evolutionarily and commercially important traits.

  6. MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON, FABRICIUS FARMING AT BHAGBANPUR REGION IN PURBA MEDINIPUR DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp culture can give miracles towards socio-economic development for a large number of rural people. Its sustainable development can be achieved through the application of scientific methodology, input of technical knowledge at the crisis time, quality control mechanism targeted to marketing strategy, sufficient supply of institutional credit and Government involvement in the marketing strategy. An optimum output cannot be assured even after taking the risk of huge investment. The export policy promotion and distinct quality measures are the major thrust area for the recent days. Government efforts in implementing a proper planning and management oriented marketing strategies are required for the sustainability of the industry.

  7. The potential effect of greenwater technology on water quality in the pond culture of Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia, E.A.; Bosma, R.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused severe production drops in the shrimp industry. Numerous scientific manuscripts deal with WSSV epidemiology, but reports on minimizing disease outbreaks through ecological means are rare. Industry stakeholders resorted to various innovative techniques to

  8. Improving the quality of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon through dietary incorporation of algae as a source of natural pigment

    OpenAIRE

    Kunal Mondal; Subhra Bikash Bhattacharyya; Abhijit Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Tiger shrimp is one of the major candidate species for export oriented aquaculture which dominates the seafood market in regions of European Union, Japan and USA. Carotenoid content in seafood has now become one of the important criteria in determining the quality of edible product. Recent trends in supplementing fish diets with natural pigment source are an alternative to the utilization of expensive synthetic pigments. In this context, green algae Enteromorpha intestinalis was selected as a...

  9. The changes of astaxanthin content and chemical characteristics of tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) due to processing: boiling, smoking and frying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastawati, F.

    2018-03-01

    Food processing using high temperatures can cause changes in pigment color and chemical characteristics in food stuffs, including prawn. The aim of this research was to evaluate the changes in pigment and chemical characteristics of tiger prawn caused by boiling, smoking and frying. Ten kg of tiger prawn was boiled, smoked and fried at the temperature of ± 100 °C for ± 10 min. The results showed that boiling, smoking and frying gave a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the astaxanthin pigment, pH, moisture, protein, salt content, Aw and color. The content of astaxanthin pigments in fresh prawn, boiled prawn, smoked prawn and fried prawn was: 132.79 ± 1.5 μg·g-1 82.89 ± 0.92 μg·g-1 78.28 ± 0.1 μg·g-1 and 91.35 ± 2.59 μg·g-1, respectively. The value of °Hue on fresh prawn, boiled prawn, smoked prawn and fried prawn was: 87.85° 52.5° 55.94° and 53.98°. The tiger prawn processed by the smoking method has preferable by panelist rather than processed by boiling and frying.

  10. PENGARUH APLIKASI SUMBER C- KARBOHIDRAT (TEPUNG TAPIOKA DAN FERMENTASI PROBIOTIK PADA BUDIDAYA UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon POLA INTENSIF DI TAMBAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunarto Gunarto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk membandingkan pengaruh penambahan sumber C- karbohidrat (tepung tapioka dan fermentasi probiotik pada budidaya udang windu dengan pola intensif di tambak terutama melihat efeknya terhadap perbaikan kualitas air, pertumbuhan, sintasan, dan produksi udang windu. Enam petak tambak masing-masing ukuran sekitar 4.000 m2, setelah selesai tahap persiapan tambak (pengeringan, pembalikan tanah dasar, pengapuran, pengisian air, dan pemupukan, kemudian tambak ditebari tokolan udang windu PL-25 dengan padat tebar 20 ekor/m2. Tiga perlakuan diuji yaitu A. Penambahan tepung tapioka  ke air tambak dengan dosis 62% dari total pakan yang diberikan per hari dan diberikan dalam selang waktu lima hari sekali selama masa pemeliharaan pada bulan pertama dan kemudian dengan selang waktu tiga hari sekali selama masa pemeliharaan bulan kedua hingga menjelang panen; B. Pemberian fermentasi probiotik ke air tambak sebanyak 5 mg/L/minggu; dan C. Pemberian fermentasi probiotik ke air tambak sebanyak 10 mg/L/minggu. Masing-masing perlakuan dengan dua ulangan. Sampling pertumbuhan, kualitas air, dan bakteri dilakukan setiap dua minggu sekali. Sintasan, produksi, dan nilai konversi pakan dihitung setelah udang dipanen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian tepung tapioka menyebabkan konsentrasi amoniak relatif lebih rendah di perlakuan A daripada di perlakuan B dan C, namun menunjukkan perbedaan yang tidak nyata (P>0,05 di antara ketiga perlakuan tersebut. Bahan Organik Total (BOT pada hari ke-112 di perlakuan C paling rendah dan menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata (P0,05 di antara ketiga perlakuan yang diuji. The objective of the research was to compare the effect of addition of carbohydrate source (starch flour and probiotics fermentation to the water quality and the growth, survival, and production of tiger shrimp in intensive brackishwater pond system. Six pond compartments each sized approximately of 4,000 m2, went through preparation stages (pond drying, ploughing, liming, filling the pond with sea water and fertilyzing. Then the ponds were stocked with tiger shrimp post larvae day 25 at stocking density of 20 ind./m2. Three treatments were tested, A. the addition of starch flour in pond water column at a dosage of 62% of the total given feed per day, and applied every five days during the first month of shrimp culture, and then every three days from the second month to harvest time; B. the addition of probiotic fermentation to the pond water column and was given at 5 mg/L/week; and C. the addition of probiotic fermentation to the pond water column and was given at 10 mg/L/week. Result of the research showed that the addition of starch flour was able to decrease the ammonia concentration in treatment A, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05 with the ammonia concentration compared to the treatment B and C. Total Organic Matter (TOM at day 112 in treatment C was the lowest and significantly different (P0.05 among those treatments.

  11. Adherence And Pathogenicity Assay Of Vibrio Harveyi In Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus Monodon) Larvae For Screening Biocontrol Agent

    OpenAIRE

    SUWANTO, ANTONIUS; HALA, YUSMINAH; AFFANDI, RIDWAN; Jr., MUHAMMAD ZAIRIN

    2002-01-01

    Rifampicin-resistant marker was employed as a reporter to detect the adherence and colonization of V. harveyi in shrimp larvae. Vibrio harveyi P1B and YA32.2 were isolated from dead shrimp larvae in Besuki, Northern Coast of East Java, while V. harveyi HB3, was isolated from pristine sea water in Pacitan, Southern Coast of East Java. Vibrio metschnikovii used as biocontrol agent was isolated from healthy shrimp larvae in Serang, West Java. Spontaneous mutation was conducted to generate V. h...

  12. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  13. Effects of γ-irradiation and cooking on vitamins B6 and B12 in grass prawns (Penaeus monodon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, L.-B.; Liew, M.-S.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radiation doses, irradiation temperature and a combined treatment of irradiation and cooking on the vitamin B 6 and B 12 contents of grass prawns have been studied. Grass prawns were irradiated at refrigerated (4 o C) or frozen (-20 o C) temperatures with different doses. A domestic cooling procedure was followed after irradiation. The changes in vitamins B 6 and B 12 of both raw and cooked grass prawns were evaluated. Results showed no significant changes of vitamin B 6 and B 12 in grass prawns with a radiation dose up to 7 kGy at either 4 o C or -20 o C. Irradiation at 4 o C caused more destruction of vitamin B 12 but not vitamin B 6 than did irradiation at -20 o C in grass prawns. There was significant destruction of both vitamins B 6 and B 12 in unirradiated samples during cooking. The introduction of the irradiation process before cooking had no effect on either vitamin. These results indicate that the loss of vitamins B 6 and B 12 in the combined treatments was caused mainly by thermal destruction. (author)

  14. Hepatic and renal histology and mercury concentrations of North West and North East Greenland narwhals (Monodon monoceros)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Leifsson, Pall S.; Sondergaard, Jens

    2018-01-01

    subadult females, 8 adult females, 3 subadult males, and 1 adult male) and compare data with previous observations of 12 North West Greenland specimens (1 subadult female, 4 adult females, 1 subadult male, and 6 adult males). The zoological length was significantly larger and hepatic and renal...... of glomerular lesions (capillary dilatation [0–100%], membrane thickening [0–100%], dilatation of space [0–80%], and sclerosis [0–70%]) and two tubular lesions (atrophy/hyalinization [0–40%] and casts [0–60%]). Hepatic tissues exhibited three portal lesions (fibrosis [0–33%], cell infiltrates [0–40%], and bile...... duct proliferation [0–40%]) and two parenchymal lesions (steatosis [83–100%] and lipid-filled Ito cells [0–33%]). All 12 lesions were found in adult whales from North West Greenland while eight were present in adult whales from North East Greenland. Six lesions were detected in subadults from North...

  15. Pathogenesis and virulence of Vibrio harveyi from southern part of Thailand in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecharat, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten isolates of bacteria were performed from diseased black tiger shrimp collected from farms in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Patthalung, Songkhla, Satun and Patthani. All isolates belonged to Vibrio harveyi, forming rounded colonies with smooth periphery and hemolysis of red blood cells. The colonies appearedgreen and yellow on TCBS selective media and indeeded both luminescent and non-luminescent groups. To support good growth as cell proliferation, an addition of 2-8% salt to the culture media was required. Sensitivity tests against antibiotics showed that all ten isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, norfloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, oxolinic acid, oxytetracyclin and sarafloxacin at 80, 60, 50, 40, 40 and 30%, respectively. When 12-15 g juvenile shrimp were tested for the virulence by injection, the isolates were highly virulent with OD at 640 nm in the range 0.007-0.139. The bacteria concentration of 1.60×106 - 7.27×107 CFU/ ml caused 50% juvenile mortality in ten days. The physiological changes after susceptibility included a decline in the blood cells (p<0.05, higher plasma pH (p<0.05, decrease in serum protein within 24 h (p<0.05, and a return to normal levels within 48 h. There were no differences in blood sugar levels and phenoloxidase activity between the healthy and the infected individuals. Histological study showed that at an early period of susceptibility, there were swollen tubular lumen, minor cell degeneration of the hepatic tubules and lymphoid organs and aggregation of blood cells around the degenerating cells. During 7-day susceptibility period, there was large scale cell degeneration of the hepatopancreas, lymphoid organs, gills and blood formingorgans with a great extent of blood cell aggregation and eventually mortalities occurred. During 14 day susceptibility period, there was almost entire degeneration of cells in hepatic tubules and lymphoid organs causing hepatopancreatic tubular necrosis. During this period, juveniles did not accept feed and total mortality occurred.

  16. Inhibitory Mechanism of Robiotic Bacteria on The Growth of Vibrio harveyi in Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Widanarni

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Three probiotics named SKT-b, 1Ub, and Ua had inhibitory activity against the growth of Vibrio harveyi. These strains were mutated by rifampicin resistant. The inhibitory effect of SKT-b,1Ub, and Ua on the growth of V. harveyi was investigated by concomitant incubation of the two bacteria in a culture shrimp larvae. Colony forming unit of V. harveyi, probiotic and total of bacteria in dead, live larvae and water culture was monitored, and survival rate of larvae was investigated. Shrimp inoculated probiotic previously had survival rate higher than control (without probiotic. Number of V. harveyi in treatment without probiotic inoculation also higher compared to treatment with probiotic inoculation in dead, live larvae and water culture.  It demonstrated possible inhibition of probiotic bacteria on V. harveyi through competition for adherence sites or nutrition source. Partial sequencing of 16S-rRNA gene showed that 1Ub was similar to Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, whereas SKT-b and Ua were similar to Vibrio alginolyticus. Keywords: probiotic bacteria, inhibitory mechanism, V. harveyi, tiger shrimp   ABSTRAK Tiga isolat bakteri probiotik yaitu 1Ub, SKT-b dan Ua telah diuji memiliki aktivitas penghambatan terhadap pertumbuhan V. harveyi secara in vitro. Ketiga isolat ini kemudian diberi penanda resisten rifampisin (RfR melalui mutasi spontan untuk mempelajari mekanisme penghambatannya pada larva udang windu.  Efek penghambatan dari 1Ub, SKT-b dan Ua terhadap pertumbuhan V. harveyi diamati melalui pemberian secara bersamaan antara bakteri probiotik dan V. harveyi tersebut dalam air pemeliharaan larva udang.  Jumlah sel bakteri probiotik, V. harveyi dan total bakteri baik pada larva mati, larva hidup dan air pemeliharaan diamati dan kelangsungan hidup larva dihitung.  Nilai kelangsungan hidup udang pada perlakuan yang diinokulasi bakteri probiotik lebih tinggi daripada kontrol (tanpa penambahan bakteri probiotik. Jumlah sel V. harveyi pada perlakuan tanpa penambahan probiotik juga lebih tinggi, dibanding pada perlakuan dengan penambahan probiotik baik pada larva mati, larva hidup maupun air media pemeliharaan. Hal ini menunjukkan adanya penghambatan bakteri probiotik terhadap V. harveyi yang kemungkinan melalui kompetisi tempat pelekatan atau sumber nutrisi. Hasil analisis sekuen sebagian gen 16-rRNA menunjukkan bahwa isolat 1Ub termasuk spesies Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, sedangkan SKT-b dan Ua termasuk spesies Vibrio alginolyticus.  Kata kunci: bakteri probiotik, mekanisme penghambatan, V. harveyi, udang windu

  17. Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Musthaq, S.; Madhan, Selvaraj; Sahul Hameed, A.S.; Kwang, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

  18. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Xuan, T.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vlak, J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood.

  19. Identification of Stressors that Affect White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Infection and Outbreak in Pond Cultured Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a big problem to the worldwide shrimp industry. Exposure to stressors related to physicochemical water parameters affect WSSV infection but not all WSSV infections result in outbreaks. This paper describes a detailed monitoring of important physicochemical

  20. siRNA injection induces sequence-independent protection in Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, M.; Heinhuis, B.; Zuidema, D.; Vlak, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major disease in crustaceans, particularly shrimp, due to the current intensity of aquaculture practices. Novel strategies including vaccination to control this virus would be highly desirable. However, invertebrates lack a true adaptive immune response system

  1. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased....../age composition of the data. PCB and DDT concentrations in West Greenland narwhals were half those found in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stable-carbon isotope ratios in muscle of 150 narwhals showed a decreasing trend in the first year when they gradually reduced their dependency on mother's milk, after which...... between stable isotope ratios and metal and OC concentrations....

  2. Reproductive performances of wild male tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon post-injection of oocyte developer without eyestalk ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dony Prasetyo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oodev on the gonadal maturation and characteristic of spermatophore and spermatozoa produced by the wild male black tiger shrimp against eyestalk ablation. The treatments were two doses of oodev injection at 0.5 (OD0.5 and 1 (OD1.0 mL/kg of body weight and a control was eyestalk ablation (AB. The male stock of tiger shrimp used was from wild with body weight ranged from 55‒85 g, stocked into three of 10 tonnages concrete tanks with density of 25 males/tank. Oodev injection was applied for two times with one week interval. Tiger shrimp of OD0.5 group produced the highest number of gonadal maturing which was 84% followed by AB (68% and OD1.0 (64%. Oodev injection was able to shorten the time required for spermatophore maturation at maturation phase which happened simultaneously within 7 days post injection compared to that of ablated males. Positive correlation (R2=0.612 was detected between the shrimp weight and weight of spermatophore of the tiger shrimp while correlation between spermatophore weight and number of spermatozoa was relatively low (R2=0.415. Total fatty acid tented to be higher in males injected with oodev compared to ablated males. Concentration of arachidonic acid in the muscle of male stock in OD1.0 group was extremely low of 0.0037% of total lipid compared to AB (0.3190% and OD0.5 (0.2806%. Oodev injection at the dose of 0.5 mL/kg of tiger shrimp could improve the number of males stock producing spermatophore compared to eyestalk ablation. Simultaneously matured-spermatophore of wild male tiger shrimp within short time could be achieved through oodev injection. Keywords: oodev, spermatophore, reproduction, tiger shrimp  ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi efek hormon oodev terhadap pematangan gonad dan karakter spermatofor dan spermatozoa yang dihasilkan oleh induk udang windu jantan alam dibandingkan dengan teknik ablasi tangkai mata. Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah dua dosis injeksi oodev yaitu 0,5 (OD0,5 dan 1 (OD1.0 mL/kg bobot tubuh dan kontrol yaitu ablasi tangkai mata. Induk udang windu jantan yang digunakan berasal dari alam berbobot antara 55‒85 g, ditebar dalam tiga bak pematangan gonad berkapasitas 10 ton dengan kepadatan 25 ekor/bak. Injeksi oodev dilakukan dua kali dengan interval satu minggu. Induk udang windu pada OD0,5 menghasilkan jumlah induk matang gonad tertinggi yaitu 84%, diikuti oleh AB (68% dan OD1 (64%. Injeksi oodev mampu mempersingkat masa pematangan spermatofor pada fase maturasi dan pematangan tersebut terjadi secara simultan  setelah 7 hari pascainjeksi dibandingkan dengan induk yang di ablasi. Korelasi positif (R2=0,612 dideteksi antara bobot tubuh dan bobot spermatofor induk udang windu, sedangkan korelasi antara bobot spermatofor dan jumlah spermatozoa relatif lemah (R2=0,415. Total asam lemak daging cenderung lebih besar pada induk udang windu jantan yang diinjeksi oodev dibandingkan yang diablasi. Konsentrasi arachidonic acid dalam daging induk yang diinjeksi OD1 sangat rendah sebesar 0,0037% dari lemak  dibandingkan AB (0,3190% dan OD0,5 (0,2806%. Injeksi oodev pada dosis 0,5 mL/kg udang windu dapat meningkatkan jumlah induk yang menghasilkan spermatofor dibandingkan ablasi tangkai mata. Pematangan gonad udang windu jantan alam secara simultan dan singkat dapat dilakukan melalui injeksi oodev.   Kata kunci: oodev, spermatofor, reproduksi, udang windu

  3. INDUKSI PEMATANGAN GONAD DAN PENINGKATAN TINGKAT PEMBUAHAN TELUR INDUK UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon MELALUI RANGSANGAN HORMONAL TANPA ABLASI MATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh rangsangan hormon gonadotropin (GTH dan antidopamin (AD terhadap performa induk betina alam sebagai pengganti ablasi. Dua perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah: 1 rangsangan hormon GTH dan AD pada betina udang windu alam tanpa ablasi; 2 kontrol berupa ablasi induk udang windu tanpa rangsangan hormon. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa pemijahan pertama terjadi setelah rangsangan ke-2 yaitu 4 ekor induk (23,5%. Pascainjeksi ke-3, jumlah induk yang memijah meningkat menjadi 92,7% atau sebanyak 11 ekor dari 12 ekor yang diinjeksi. Setelah empat kali rangsangan, dari 17 ekor yang diinjeksi ternyata 14 ekor dapat memijah (82% dan 3 ekor induk tidak memijah hingga akhir pengamatan. Kontrol menghasilkan 6 ekor induk memijah dari 10 ekor yang diablasi (60%. Fekunditas telur (fertil dan tidak fertil dari induk yang dirangsang GTH+AD adalah 219.313 butir/induk lebih tinggi dibandingkan induk yang diablasi yaitu 182.848 butir/induk. Tingkat pembuahan pada kontrol adalah 54%, lebih rendah jika dibandingkan dengan jumlah telur yang fertil dari induk yang dirangsang GTH+AD yaitu 76%. Meskipun tingkat pembuahan telur yang dihasilkan oleh induk pascainjeksi lebih tinggi, ternyata tingkat penetasan telurnya hanya 39%, lebih rendah dari induk yang diablasi yaitu 52%. Diameter telur dari induk yang mendapat rangsangan AD+GTH adalah 29,3 μm ± 0,8 (rerata ± SD lebih besar dari diameter telur induk yang diablasi (25,1 μm ± 0,3. Total asam amino karkas induk udang yang dirangsang GTH+AD adalah 61,4% relatif lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol. Berdasarkan jumlah induk yang matang gonad dan fekunditas telur yang dihasilkan, aplikasi AD+GTH secara injeksi cukup dilakukan 3x pada dosis 0,3 mL/100 g udang.

  4. Four marine digenean parasites of Austrolittorina spp. (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) in New Zealand: morphological and molecular data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    O'Dwyer, K.; Blasco-Costa, I.; Poulin, R.; Faltýnková, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2014), s. 133-152 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trematode parasites * life cycles * intertidal ecosystems * phylogenetics analysis * SW Iceland * Notocotylidae * history * snail Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  5. Recent history of the European Nassarius nitidus (Gastropoda) : phylogeographic evidence of glacial refugia and colonization pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albaina, Naiara; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Couceiro, Lucia; Miguel Ruiz, Jose; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    Because marine species respond differentially to factors governing survival and gene flow, closely related taxa may display dissimilar phylogeographic histories. New data for the patchily distributed gastropod Nassarius nitidus throughout its Atlantic-Mediterranean range (collected during 2008 and

  6. New records and new species of cones from deeper water off Fiji (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Conidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Röckel, D.; Bouchet, P.

    2008-01-01

    A little less than 100 species of cones are known in the literature from waters around the Fiji islands, all intertidal to subtidal. We report here on the species taken by recent offshore and deep-water benthic sampling expeditions. Samples were taken to depths of 1300 m, although cones were taken

  7. Size-mass relationships of Melanoides tuberculatus (Thiaridae: Gastropoda in a eutrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carvalho Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the relationships of certain allometric measurements in Melanoides tuberculatus Muller, 1774, in order to develop a statistical model to estimate the biomass of this mollusc species. We measured the total length and aperture of 70 shells. These measurements were correlated with the biomass values to construct exponential and power-function models, and both models showed high coefficients of determination. The exponential model was the better biomass predictor, with a coefficient of determination over 93%. These proposed models may be an effective tool to determine the biomass of M. tuberculatus in eutrophic Brazilian reservoirs.

  8. Pseudoglessula Libera, a new Subulinid land snail from Guinea, West Africa (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solem, A.; Bruggen, van A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Study of some land snails collected in Guinea, West Africa, by Ms. Diane deVry has led to the description of a new species, Pseudoglessula libera. It is currently known only from several localities near Conakry, but probably has a wide distribution. Detailed comparisons with previously described

  9. Histofisiología del epitelio renal de helix aspersa (mollusca, gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Aguayo, Inmaculada

    1983-01-01

    La excreción es, por definición, la separación de los productos de desecho de los fluidos tisulares y corporales, y su eliminación del organismo. Además, se considera como el resultado de la filtración del líquido de la sangre, de la reabsorción de ciertos compuestos y de la secreción de sustancias en el interior de túbulos excretores. Los productos de desecho son el resultado del metabolismo celular. Aunque en general son productos finales de procesos catabólicos, también pueden incluir ...

  10. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Ecuador?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Yannick; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Lounnas, Mannon; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482) in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences) and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482) and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482) of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador. © Y. Caron et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  11. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea in Ecuador?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Yannick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482 in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482 and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482 of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador.

  12. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that

  13. A new species of the operculate land snail genus Maizaniella from Liberia (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Maizaniella sapoensis spec. nov. from Liberia is described. The species is provisionally att ributed to the subgenus Spirulozania. It is by far the smallest known member of the genus, with an adult shell diameter of just over 2 mm.

  14. A review of the land snail genus Alycaeus (Gastropoda, Alycaeidae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    A total of 11 species and 1 subspecies of Alycaeus were recognised in Peninsular Malaysia prior to this study. However, these taxonomic descriptions of Alycaeus taxa were based on limited numbers of examined materials, where a whole spectrum of morphological variations were not accounted for and diagnoses were often provided without sufficient comparison between congeners from across the peninsula. We reviewed Peninsular Malaysian Alycaeus through the examination of 5137 specimens in 522 collection lots from all major museum collections and literature sources. Based on these examined materials, we utilised a more comprehensive revised set of 39 shell and operculum characters, as well as living animal colour to describe all Alycaeus species in this paper. We also noted their habitat and ecology, as well as updated the distribution of each species. Of the 12 previously described taxa, 10 are reconfirmed as present on Peninsular Malaysia ( Alycaeus balingensis , Alycaeus carinata , Alycaeus conformis , Alycaeus gibbosulus , Alycaeus kapayanensis , Alycaeus kelantanensis , Alycaeus liratulus , Alycaeus perakensis perakensis , Alycaeus perakensis altispirus and Alycaeus thieroti ) and 2 are confirmed as absent from the peninsula ( Alycaeus jagori and Alycaeus pyramidalis ). A new record of Alycaeus robeleni is reported for Peninsular Malaysia. One species, Chamalycaeus jousseaumei is confirmed as present on the peninsula and is reassigned to Alycaeus . The subspecies Alycaeus perakensis altispirus Möllendorff, 1902, is elevated to species. Examined Peninsular Malaysian materials that do not fit previously recognised species are described as new species. A total of 11 new species are proposed ( Alycaeus selangoriensis sp. n. , Alycaeus costacrassa sp. n. , Alycaeus ikanensis sp. n. , Alycaeus alticola sp. n. , Alycaeus charasensis sp. n. , Alycaeus kurauensis sp. n. , Alycaeus regalis sp. n. , Alycaeus virgogravida sp. n. , Alycaeus senyumensis sp. n. , Alycaeus expansus sp. n. , Alycaeus clementsi sp. n. ). Overall, 23 species of Alycaeus are now recognised in Peninsular Malaysia.

  15. A review of the land snail genus Alycaeus (Gastropoda, Alycaeidae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A total of 11 species and 1 subspecies of Alycaeus were recognised in Peninsular Malaysia prior to this study. However, these taxonomic descriptions of Alycaeus taxa were based on limited numbers of examined materials, where a whole spectrum of morphological variations were not accounted for and diagnoses were often provided without sufficient comparison between congeners from across the peninsula. We reviewed Peninsular Malaysian Alycaeus through the examination of 5137 specimens in 522 collection lots from all major museum collections and literature sources. Based on these examined materials, we utilised a more comprehensive revised set of 39 shell and operculum characters, as well as living animal colour to describe all Alycaeus species in this paper. We also noted their habitat and ecology, as well as updated the distribution of each species. Of the 12 previously described taxa, 10 are reconfirmed as present on Peninsular Malaysia (Alycaeus balingensis, Alycaeus carinata, Alycaeus conformis, Alycaeus gibbosulus, Alycaeus kapayanensis, Alycaeus kelantanensis, Alycaeus liratulus, Alycaeus perakensis perakensis, Alycaeus perakensis altispirus and Alycaeus thieroti) and 2 are confirmed as absent from the peninsula (Alycaeus jagori and Alycaeus pyramidalis). A new record of Alycaeus robeleni is reported for Peninsular Malaysia. One species, Chamalycaeus jousseaumei is confirmed as present on the peninsula and is reassigned to Alycaeus. The subspecies Alycaeus perakensis altispirus Möllendorff, 1902, is elevated to species. Examined Peninsular Malaysian materials that do not fit previously recognised species are described as new species. A total of 11 new species are proposed (Alycaeus selangoriensis sp. n., Alycaeus costacrassa sp. n., Alycaeus ikanensis sp. n., Alycaeus alticola sp. n., Alycaeus charasensis sp. n., Alycaeus kurauensis sp. n., Alycaeus regalis sp. n., Alycaeus virgogravida sp. n., Alycaeus senyumensis sp. n., Alycaeus expansus sp. n., Alycaeus clementsi sp. n.). Overall, 23 species of Alycaeus are now recognised in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:29133987

  16. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic ...

  17. Population ecology and fishery of Cittarium pica (Gastropoda: Trochidae on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Schmidt

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The West Indian Topshell Cittarium pica is artisanally collected on rocky shores along the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica. There are neither data on the state of its exploitation nor exist any regulation of the fishery. From October 2000 to March 2001, the population dynamics of this species were studied at an unexploited and two exploited sites to determine the present impact of the fishery on the resource. Average population density with 14 ind./m² about three times higher at the unexploited than at the exploited sites. Length-frequeney histograms showed a strong shift towards smaller specimens at the exploited sites, which is also reflected in significantly higher rates of total mortality (Z = 4.05 and 4.47 when compared to the unexploited site (Z = 1.47. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated as k = 0.19-0.28 (yr-1 and L∞= 104 mm. No significant differences were found among sites. From these values a range of the growth performance index Φ was computed ( Φ = 3.31-3.48 which lies at the lower end of the values reported for other tropical marine gastropods. The size at first maturity for both sexes combined was estimated as 29.20 ± 1.14 mm. Exploitation rates >0.6 for both exploited sites and a large fraction of small specimens (El caracol Cittarium pica (West Indian Top Shell es recolectado en forma artesanal en zonas rocosas de la costa Caribe de Costa Rica. A la fecha no hay datos sobre esta extracción ni existe regulación de su pesquería. La dinámica poblacional de esta especie fue evaluada, desde octubre del 2000 hasta marzo del 2001, en dos sitios en los cuales la especies es recolectada (Playa Negra y Cahuita, y en un sitio protegido de la actividad pesquera (Isla Uvita. La densidad promedio de la población fue 14 ind/m², cerca de tres veces más alta en el sitio protegido que en los dos no protegidos. Los histogramas de frecuencia de tallas mostraron un fuerte sesgo hacia los ejemplares más pequeños en los sitios no protegidos, lo que se refleja también en tasas de mortalidad total significativamente más altas (Z = 4.05 y 4.47 cuando se les compara con el sitio protegido (Z = 1.47. Los parámetros de crecimiento según von Bertalanffy fueron estirnados en k = 0.19 - 0.28 / año y L∞= 104 mm. No se encontró diferencias significativas entre los sitios. A partir de estos valores el índice Φ (performance index Φ estuvo en un αmbito de 3.31 a 3.48, el cual se encuentra entre los valores bajos informados para otros gastrópodos tropicales. La edad a la primera madurez sexual para ambos sexos combinados fue estimada en 29.20 ± 1.14 mm. Las tasas de explotación fueron mayores a 0.6 para los sitios no protegidos y un alto componente de ejemplares pequeños (menos de 30 mm en las recolectas, sugieren una sobre explotación de los adultos y sobrepesca en el reclutamiento. Con base en la estimación de la captura máxima sostenible (maximum sustainable yield, se recomienda algunas medidas reguladores de la pesquería como el control de un tamaño mínimo de desernbarque de 40 mm y la veda de la pesquería durante los rneses de reproducción (de julio a noviembre.

  18. Crecimiento del caracol Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae en cuatro ambientes de Quintana Roo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto de Jesús Navarrete

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la tasa de crecimiento de caracoles cultivados en corrales en cuatro ambientes diferentes. El cultivo se realizó de octubre de 1993 a marzo de 1994. 16 corrales de 50 m² de área cada uno, cuatro por ambiente, fueron colocados en los siguientes ambientes: Thalassia, Thalassia-arena, Arena y Coral, todos dentro de la laguna arrecifal en Punta Gavilán y Banco Chinchorro. En cada ambiente se introdujeron 20 caracoles de las siguientes tallas: 1 100-120, 2 120-140, 3 140-160 y 4 160-180 mm de longitud de concha. Los caracoles se midieron mensualmente con un vernier con una precisión de un mm. El crecimiento se evaluó por dos métodos: a el incremento marginal promedio de la concha y por el método de Gulland-Holt. En el primer método, el ambiente Arena mostró el mayor crecimiento (3.21 + 0.26 mm/mes en Punta Gavilán, mientras que en Banco Chinchorro, el mayor crecimiento ocurrió en coral (2.31 + 0.44 mm/mes. Con el segúndo método la mayor longitud asintótica en Punta Gavilán se midió en Thalassia-arena (287.5 mm, mientras que en Banco Chinchorro, la mayor longitud asintótica se midió en Arena (318.1 mm. Existieron diferencias significativas en el crecimiento entre los sitios y eso muestra que el crecimiento de los juveniles se relaciona con la cantidad de alimento disponible el cual fue mayor en Thalassia y Thalassia-arena. Sin embargo se requiere evaluar la cantidad de alimento, principalmente microfitobentos en los ambientes sin vegetación como Arena y Coral.The growth rate of queen conch cultured in pens was studied from October 1993 to March 1994. Sixteen pens (50 m² each, four pens per environment, were set in four environments: Thalassia, Thalassia-sand, Sand and Coral within a reef lagoon on Punta Gavilan and Banco Chinchorro. Twenty conchs were introduced in each pen (sizes: 100-120, 120-140, 140-160 and 160-180 mm shell length and measured monthly to the nearest mm. Growth rate was assessed by two methods: a shell marginal mean increase and b the Gulland-Holt method considering all conch within pens. In the first method, the environment Sand had the highest growth (3.21 + 0.26 mm/month at Punta Gavilan, whereas at Banco Chinchorro, highest growth was recorded in Coral (2.31 + 0.44 mm/month. Considering the second method, highest asymptotic length conch in Punta Gavilan occurred in Thalassia-sand (287.5 mm, whereas in Banco Chinchorro the highest asymptotic length was measured in Sand (318.1 mm. There were significant differences in growth between sites; juvenile growth is related with habitat quality mainly food availability.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the gray garden slug Deroceras reticulatum (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Stylommatophora)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete circular mitochondrial genome of D. reticulatum is 14,048 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes (GenBank accession number: KY765589). The overall base composition was 31.0 % A, 12.2 % C, 17.7 % G and 39...

  20. First record of Calma gobioophaga Calado and Urgorri, 2002 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. PRKIC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the nudibranch genus Calma were observed under stones at two Croatian localities while feeding on gobiid eggs. Some ambiguous morphological features compared with the original descriptions of the known species of the genus, C. glaucoides and C. gobioophaga, hampered an easy identification. Genetic data (COI and 16S sequences confirmed the distinction between the two species of the genus Calma, and allowed to unambiguously identify the Croatian specimens as Calma gobioophaga. This is the first record of this species for the Mediterranean and extends remarkably its distribution range. Finally, the eggs fed by the Croatian specimens have been taxonomically identified by using the 12S rDNA marker as Gobius cobitis.

  1. On the occurrence of Bullia tranquebarica (Roding) Nassaridae (Gastropoda) in Kavaratti atoll (Lakshadweep)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Namboodiri, P.N.; Sivadas, P.

    A live buccinid gastropod Bullia tranquebarica belonging to family Nassaridae was collected from Kavaratti atoll in Lakshadweep island of Indian Ocean. Interesting pattern of its distribution is described. This is the second record of occurrence...

  2. Prey preference follows phylogeny: evolutionary dietary patterns within the marine gastropod group Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodheart, Jessica A; Bazinet, Adam L; Valdés, Ángel; Collins, Allen G; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-10-26

    The impact of predator-prey interactions on the evolution of many marine invertebrates is poorly understood. Since barriers to genetic exchange are less obvious in the marine realm than in terrestrial or freshwater systems, non-allopatric divergence may play a fundamental role in the generation of biodiversity. In this context, shifts between major prey types could constitute important factors explaining the biodiversity of marine taxa, particularly in groups with highly specialized diets. However, the scarcity of marine specialized consumers for which reliable phylogenies exist hampers attempts to test the role of trophic specialization in evolution. In this study, RNA-Seq data is used to produce a phylogeny of Cladobranchia, a group of marine invertebrates that feed on a diverse array of prey taxa but mostly specialize on cnidarians. The broad range of prey type preferences allegedly present in two major groups within Cladobranchia suggest that prey type shifts are relatively common over evolutionary timescales. In the present study, we generated a well-supported phylogeny of the major lineages within Cladobranchia using RNA-Seq data, and used ancestral state reconstruction analyses to better understand the evolution of prey preference. These analyses answered several fundamental questions regarding the evolutionary relationships within Cladobranchia, including support for a clade of species from Arminidae as sister to Tritoniidae (which both preferentially prey on Octocorallia). Ancestral state reconstruction analyses supported a cladobranchian ancestor with a preference for Hydrozoa and show that the few transitions identified only occur from lineages that prey on Hydrozoa to those that feed on other types of prey. There is strong phylogenetic correlation with prey preference within Cladobranchia, suggesting that prey type specialization within this group has inertia. Shifts between different types of prey have occurred rarely throughout the evolution of Cladobranchia, indicating that this may not have been an important driver of the diversity within this group.

  3. Atlanta ariejansseni, a new species of shelled heteropod from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone (Gastropoda, Pterotracheoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall-Palmer, D.; Burridge, A.K.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantidae (shelled heteropods) is a family of microscopic aragonite shelled holoplanktonic gastropods with a wide biogeographical distribution in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate waters. The aragonite shell and surface ocean habitat of the atlantids makes them particularly susceptible to

  4. Variações anatômicas em Lymnaea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações anatômicas de espécimes de L. columella coletados de diferentes criadouros situados em diversos Municípios do Estado de São Paulo: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. As comparações morfométricas foram baseadas em estudos do aparelho genital, rim e rádula. Foram medidos, para cada criadouro, os comprimentos do conjunto útero-vagina, dueto da espermateca, prepúcio e bainha do pênis. Foram ainda calculados os índices de relação entre bainha do pênis/prepúcio e estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação entre comprimento da concha e comprimento do prepúcio. Cortes longitudiais do complexo peniano foram também objeto de estudo. Em relação a rádula foram determinados o número de fileiras transversais e o número de dentes por fileira, e estabelecida uma fórmula radular aproximada para os diversos criadouros.Soft parts of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied in order to determine morphometric variations. These morphometric cornparisons were made upon reproductive system, kidney and radula of snail samples collected in different municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Length measurementes of uterus, duct of spermatheca, prepuce and penis sheath were taken; the ratio penis sheath/prepuce and correlation coefficients between length of shell and length of prepuce were established. Longitudinal sections of penial complex were also studied. The number of trans verse rows, number of teeth per rows and the length of shell were determined. For each sample, the radular formula was indicated.

  5. Comparative anatomy of the fasciolariids Pustulatirus ogum and Hemipolygona beckyae from Brazil (Gastropoda: Buccinoidea: Peristerniinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo R. Couto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian species Pustulatirus ogum and Hemipolygona beckyae were examined, and certain morphological characters were described. Both species were originally assigned to the genus Latirus, considered as a heterogeneous complex. The radulae of both species are like that which characterizes Latirus, in which the innermost cusp of the rachidian tooth is well developed but always smaller than the other cusps. This feature differs from Leucozonia, in which this cusp is reduced or absent. The penis tapers terminally, and the tapered part may be long (more than half the total penis length, as in H. beckyae, or very short (less than half the total penis length, as in P. ogum. The anatomical data observed in both species are discussed under the framework of fasciolariid systematics and they appear to be widespread among other fasciolariid species. For this reason, to date, the soft-part features here provided and those known from previously studied species of Latirus are not useful for delineating precise generic diagnoses.

  6. Eine neue Deroceras-Art (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Agriolimacidae) von der Griechischen Insel Samos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rähle, W.

    1983-01-01

    Im Frühjahr 1982 sammelte Herr Jens Hemmen aus Wiesbaden (Bundesrepublik Deutschland) auf der Insel Samos zahlreiche Individuen einer noch unbekannten Deroceras-Art, die ihren anatomischen Merkmalen nach zur Untergattung Plathystimulus Wiktor, 1973 gehört. Die Tiere waren fast alle erwachsen und

  7. Record of imposex in Cronia konkanensis (Gastropoda, Muricidae) from Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VishwaKiran, Y.; Anil, A.C.

    that concentrations as low as 1 ng Sn/l induce imposex in Nucella lapillus and sterilization of females is initiated at around 4 ng Sn/l (Gibbs et al., 1988). This has led to the decline in the population of dog-whelks in and around the coast of the UK (Bryan et al..., G. W., Gibbs, P. E., & Burt, G. R. (1988). A comparison of the eC128ectiveness of Tri-n-buytin chloride and five other organotin compounds in promoting the development of imposex in the dog- whelk Nucella lapillus. Journal of Marine Biological...

  8. Integrative taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Onchidiidae

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    Benoît Dayrat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to clarify the species diversity of onchidiid slugs, the taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 is revised using an integrative approach. New, fresh specimens were collected in a large number of places, including type localities. The genus Onchidium is redefined here as a clade including only three species which are strongly supported by both morphological and molecular data. All three species were already named: the type species O. typhae Buchannan, 1800, O. stuxbergi (Westerlund, 1883, and O. reevesii (J.E. Gray, 1850. With the exception of a re-description of O. typhae published in 1869, all three species are re-described here for the first time. First-hand observations on the color variation of live animals in their natural habitat are provided. The anatomy of each species is described. Important nomenclatural issues are addressed. In particular, Labella Starobogatov, 1976 is regarded as a junior synonym of Onchidium and Labella ajuthiae (Labbé, 1935 and O. nigrum (Plate, 1893 are regarded as junior synonyms of O. stuxbergi. The nomenclatural status of several other species names is discussed as well. Many new records are provided across South-East Asia and precise ranges of geographic distributions are provided for the genus Onchidium and its three species. Distinctive features that help distinguish the genus Onchidium from other onchidiids are provided, as well as an identification key for the three species.

  9. Pseudo-imposex: male features in female volutes not TBT-induced (Gastropoda: Volutidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, C.; Horpet, P.

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of a penis in female gastropods of the superfamily Muricoidea (infraorder Neogastropoda) has commonly been accepted as an indicator of tributyltin (TBT) pollution. Some species seem less sensitive than others, and one belonging to the family Columbellidae has been reported that it

  10. [Growth of Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) snail in 4 environments of Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, A J

    2001-03-01

    The growth rate of queen conch cultured in pens was studied from October 1993 to March 1994. Sixteen pens (50 m2 each, four pens per environment), were set in four environments: Thalassia, Thalassia-sand, Sand and Coral within a reef lagoon on Punta Gavilan and Banco Chinchorro. Twenty conchs were introduced in each pen (sizes: 100-120, 120-140, 140-160 and 160-180 mm shell length) and measured monthly to the nearest mm. Growth rate was assessed by two methods: a) shell marginal mean increase and b) the Gulland-Holt method considering all conch within pens. In the first method, the environment Sand had the highest growth (3.21 +/- 0.26 mm/month) at Punta Gavilan, whereas at Banco Chinchorro, highest growth was recorded in Coral (2.31 +/- 0.44 mm/month). Considering the second method, highest asymptotic length conch in Punta Gavilan occurred in Thalassia-sand (287.5 mm), whereas in Banco Chinchorro the highest asymptotic length was measured in Sand (318.1 mm). There were significant differences in growth between sites; juvenile growth is related with habitat quality mainly food availability.

  11. New Odostomia species (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van J.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Odostomia nuttalli spec. nov. and O. coluhensis spec. nov. are described from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Columbian Amazonia. A third pyramidellid snail is also diagnosed. These species are indicators for marine influence in the late Middle to early Late Miocence of Western Amazonia.

  12. Study on the contamination by transuranides of Pulmonata gastropoda collected in Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon, A.; Espinosa, A.; Anton, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    A study on the contamination levels and distribution of plutonium in gastropods collected in Palomares (south-east Spain) has been performed. This region is partially contaminated with actinides following the nuclear accident occurred in 1966. The existence of plutonium in gastropods (Helix albicans and Theba pisana) along with their great gastronomic interest in the area reinforces the concern in studying the incorporation of these radioelements into a trophic level of the alimentary chain. In this work, plutonium concentration levels have been determined in the excrements, washing waters, flesh and shell of different types of gastropods collected in the Palomares most contaminated area. Plutonium analyses have been carried out following normalized procedures for the determination of this radionuclide. The results show the distribution of plutonium in washing and boiling water, excrements, soft tissues and shell of the snails. In addition, it has been estimated that the consumption of one kilogram of snails collected in the most contaminated area of Palomares could contribute up to 1/3 of the effective dose (due to ingestion) to the inhabitants of the area. (author)

  13. Study on the contamination of transuranides in Pulmonata gastropoda collected in Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon, A.; Espinosa, A.; Anton, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    A study on the contamination levels and distribution of plutonium and americium in gastropods collected in Palomares (south-east Spain) was performed. This region is partially contaminated with actinides following the 1966 nuclear accident. The existence of plutonium and americium in gastropods (Helix albicans and Theba pisana), along with their great gastronomic interest in the area, reinforces the concern in studying the incorporation of these radioelements to a trophic level of the alimentary chain. In this work, plutonium concentration levels have been determined in the excrements, washing waters, flesh and shell of different types of gastropods collected in various sampling campaigns. Pretreatment of the snail samples for further transuranics analyses was based on culinary customs of the region. First, the gastropods had a biological rest, allowing the removal of the non-adsorbed or non-retained ingested material, and then the excrements were collected by washing the snails. Water with excrements was filtered using different filters and analyzed separately. Once rinsed, the snails were dipped into salty water to eliminate the slime, finally, after boiling, the soft tissue was separated from the shell. Plutonium and americium analyses have been carried out sequentially, following normalized procedures for the determination of these radionuclides. The results show the distribution of plutonium in washing and boiling water, excrements, soft tissues and shell of the snails. Autoradiographies performed to soft tissues made evident that the contamination was incorporated into the gastropods as radioactive particles. In addition, it has been estimated that the consumption of one kilogram of snails collected in the most contaminated area of Palomares could reach 1/3 of the effective dose (due to ingestion) to the inhabitants of the area. (author)

  14. Morphology and systematic position of Cingula tumidula G.O. Sars, 1878 Gastropoda: Rissoidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhaev, Ivan O

    2016-11-03

    Rissoidae is a family of small to minute marine gastropods distributed worldwide. The generic composition of the family was revised by Ponder (1984) based on characters of external morphology and internal anatomy. However, species level taxonomy within the family is still based mainly on conchological characters, which are less informative and usually not sufficient for resolving the systematic relationships of species. Northern Atlantic representatives of the family were revised by Warén (1974; 1996) and Bouchet & Warén (1993) based on shape and sculpture of both proto- and teleoconch, and were suggested to be members of several genera, widely distributed in boreal or even tropical Atlantic environments. These include Alvania Risso, 1826; Onoba H. & A. Adams, 1852; Obtusella Cossmann, 1921 and a few more. However, it was recently demonstrated that some these genera are not monophyletic (Criscione et al. 2016).

  15. New species of Rissoidae from the Cape Verde Islands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Rolán, E.

    1988-01-01

    Sediment samples collected at the Cape Verde Islands contained many interesting micromolluscs. Amongst them, four new species of the family Rissoidae ( Alvania peli, A. nicolauensis, A. stocki and A. planciusi).

  16. Patterns of Diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio P. Ávila; Jeroen Goud; António M. de Frias Martins

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species—those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species—those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean...

  17. Patterns of diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species--those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species--those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years.

  18. A new Indo-Pacific Zebina species (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Rissoidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sleurs, W.J.; Van Goethem, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    A new, widespread, but uncommon Indo-Pacific rissoinine species, Zebina ( ? Zebina) malagazzae sp. nov. is described. It is compared with its morphologically closest relative, the tropical Eastern Pacific species Zebina axeliana (STRONG & HERTLEIN, 1951 ), with the holotype of Zebina constricta LASERON, 1956 from Christmas Island and with Zebina ( ?Zebina) japonica (WEINKAUFF, 1881).

  19. Marginella orstomi, a new species from deeper water off the coast of West Africa (Gastropoda, Marginellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Marginella (s. str.) orstomi nov. spec. was collected at a depth of 200 to 250 m, off Pointe Noire, Congo. The species is related to M. huberti Clover, 1972, from Angola. Both species have a characteristic white tooth on the inside of the outer lip near the posterior end.

  20. Diversity and biogeography of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the limestone hills of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Limestone hills are now gaining global conservation attention as hotspots for short-range endemic species. Levels of land snail endemism can be high at limestone hills, especially at hill clusters that are geographically isolated. In the State of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, limestone hills have been opportunistically surveyed for land snails in the past, but the majority have yet to be surveyed. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically surveyed the terrestrial malacofauna of 12 limestone hills that, based on our opinion, are a representation of the limestone land snail assemblages within the State. Our inventory yielded high sampling completeness (>85%). We found 122 species of land snails, of which 34 species were unique to one of the surveyed hills. We identified 30 species that are potentially new to science. The number of land snail species recorded at each hill ranged between 39 and 63 species. Four of the sampled limestone hills namely, Prk 01 G. Tempurung, Prk 55 G. Pondok, Prk 47 Kanthan, and Prk 64 Bt Kepala Gajah, have high levels of species richness and unique species, representing 91% of the total species recorded in this study. We identified two clusters of limestone hills in central Perak with distinct differences in land snail species composition – a northern hill cluster on elevated granite bedrock and southern hill cluster in a low-lying valley surrounded by alluvial soils. As limestone hills continue to be quarried to meet the cement demand, the four identified limestone hills, along with other hills from the two clusters, warrant urgent conservation attention in order to maintain high species diversity within Perak’s terrestrial malacofauna. PMID:28769723

  1. Morphological variation, biogeography and local extinction of the northern New Zealand landsnail Placostylus hongii (Gastropoda : Bulimulidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, F.J.; McArdle, B.H.

    1999-01-01

    Placostylus hongii (Lesson) is recorded from sites between Whangaroa and Whangarei on the mainland Northland coast, and from the Poor Knights, Chicken, Mokohinau and Great Barrier islands offshore. There is considerable variation in shell morphology between the various populations, commonly with marked morphological divergence at a local scale but with overlapping variation overall across all populations of the taxon. Patterns of morphological variation show no clear geographic trends and are at least in part related to local environmental factors. Correlations are identified between shell shape and substratum type, and between shell size and vegetation type. Placostylus hongii has a very restricted stratigraphic distribution in mainland Northland, with most if not all of the few known fossil populations post-dating Polynesian settlement at c. 900-700 years BP. We suggest that P. hongii populations on the Poor Knights and possibly also those on the Mokohinau islands are endemic, whereas the mainland populations and those on Great Barier and the Chicken islands have originated from anthropic redistribution of snails in prehistoric time. A high proportion of the mainland P. hongii populations and some offshore island populations became extinct in the last few hundred years as a result of predation by introduced mammals and the modification and destruction of shrubland and forest habitat. (author). 54 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  2. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intidhar Abbes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an updated checklist of terrestrial gastropod from Tunisia, a revision of the species of Sphincterochilidae is presented, using bibliographic and museum records and the results of our own field work. As a result, only two species, Sphincterochila candidissima and S. tunetana, are accepted to occur in Tunisia, and their type specimens are illustrated. The study of the morphological characters of the genital organs of both species clarified their subgeneric affiliation. Comparison of S. tunetana with S. cariosa from Lebanon showed that the first has to be classified within the subgenus Albea, and the latter within Sphincterochila s. str.; the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 remains in the synonymy of Sphincterochila s. str. Bibliographic records of S. baetica and S. otthiana from Tunisia could not be confirmed, the latter probably lives close to the border with Algeria.

  3. Three new species of Scissurellidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia from the coast of Brazil

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    Pierre Ch. Montouchet

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available A consultation of the original descriptions of the genera of Scissurellidae led the author to conclude that the valid names for the genera of this family are: Scissurella d'Orbigny, 1823 (redescription by Sowerby, 1824, Anatoma Woodward, 1859, Incisura Hedley, 1904, Scissurona Iredale, 1924, Sinezona Finlay, 1927. Scissurella and Anatoma are cosmopolites, the first generally living in shallow waters, associated to sea-weeds, while the second is found in deep waters. The three last genera are restricted to Australasia. Three new species are described from the Brazilian coast: Scissurella alexandrei, Scissurella electilis and Scissurella morretesi. The internal anatomy of S. alexandrei is described. These three new species have been found in littoral shallow waters, the two first on the northeast Brazilian coast, the third on the coast of the State of São Paulo. The fourth known species of Scissurellidae from Brazil, Anatoma aedonia (Watson, 1886, was dredged by H.M.S, "Challenger", in 1873, off Pernambuco, 350 fm (640 m.Pela leitura das descrições originais dos gêneros de Scissurellidae , conclue-se que os nomes válidos destes gêneros são: Scissurella d'Orbigny, 1823 (redescrição por Sowerby, 1824, Anatoma Woodward, 1859, Incisura Hedley,1904, Scissurona Iredale, 1924 e Sinezona Finlay, 1927. Scissurella e Anatoma são cosmopolitas; o primeiro encontra-se geralmente em águas rasas e associado a algas; o segundo habita águas profundas. Os três últimos gêneros são restritos à Australásia. Três novas espécies são descritas para a costa do Brasil: Scissurella alexandrei, Scissurella electilis e Scissurella morretesi. Da primeira foi estudada a anatomia interna. Estas três espécies novas foram encontradas em águas rasas; S. alexandrei e S.electilis provém de amostras de algas do mesolitoral inferior. Conhece-se uma quarta espécie de Scissurellidae para o Brasil: Anatoma aedonia (Watson, 1886, dragada em 1873 pelo 'Challenger', ao largo da costa de Pernambuco, em profundidade de 640 m.

  4. [Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, H M; Vaz, J F; Fontes, L R; Domingos, M de F

    1997-06-01

    Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri country, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on.

  5. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Garcia, Juberlan; Mota, Esther Maria; Castro, Rosane Nora; Pontes, Emerson Guedes; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2018-06-01

    For the first time, alterations in the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica experimentally infected with different parasite loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined. For this, the hemolymph activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hexokinase and the glucose concentrations in the hemolymph, as well as the polysaccharide reserves in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass, were assessed. Additionally, the contents of some carboxylic acids in the hemolymph of infected and uninfected snails were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), permitting a better understanding of the alterations related to the host's oxidative metabolism. As the main results, activation of oxidative pathways, such as the glycolytic pathway, was demonstrated in response to the increase in the activity of hexokinase. This tendency was confirmed by the decrease in the contents of glucose in the hemolymph of parasitized snails, indicating that the infection by A. cantonensis alters the host's metabolism, and that these changes are strongly influenced by the parasite load. This metabolic scenario was accompanied by activation of the anaerobic fermentative metabolism, indicated not only by an increase in the activity of (LDH), but also by a reduction of the content of pyruvic acid and accumulation of lactic acid in the hemolymph of parasitized snails. In this circumstance, maintenance of the host's redox balance occurs through activation of the fermentative pathways, and LDH plays a central role in this process. Together, the results indicate that A. cantonensis infection induces activation of the anaerobic metabolism of A. fulica, characterized not only by the accumulation of lactic acid, but also by a reduction in the pyruvic acid and oxalic acid contents in the hemolymph of the infected snails.

  6. A new species of Nassarius (Gastropoda, Nassariidae from Canopus Bank, off Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abbate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nassarius levis sp. nov. is described from Canopus Bank, off Ceará, Northeast Brazil, based on shell morphology. It differs from other Brazilian species of the genus in having a more elongate shell, with a weakly developed parietal shield and a notably smooth surface. This last trait has not yet been described among the Western Atlantic Nassarius, but it is common to other congeners from the Eastern Atlantic, such as Nassarius elatus (Gould, 1845 and the Indo-Pacific, such as Nassarius excellens (Kuroda & Habe, 1961.

  7. Flexible colour patterns obscure identification and mimicry in Indo-Pacific Chromodoris nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Chromodorididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Kara K S; Gosliner, Terrence M; Wilson, Nerida G

    2018-07-01

    Chromodoris is a genus of colourful nudibranchs that feed on sponges and is found across the Indo-Pacific. While this was once the most diverse chromodorid genus, recent work has shown that the genus should be restricted to a monophyletic lineage that contains only 22 species, all of which exhibit black pigmentation and planar spawning behaviour. Earlier phylogenies of this group are poorly resolved and thus additional work is needed to clarify species boundaries within Chromodoris. This study presents a maximum-likelihood phylogeny based on mitochondrial loci (COI, 16S) for 345 Chromodoris specimens, including data from 323 new specimens and 22 from GenBank, from across the Indo-Pacific. Species hypotheses and phylogenetic analysis uncovered 39 taxa in total containing 18 undescribed species, with only five of 39 taxa showing stable colour patterns and distinct morphotypes. This study also presents the first evidence for regional mimicry in this genus, with C. colemani and C. joshi displaying geographically-based variation in colour patterns which appear to match locally abundant congenerics, highlighting the flexibility of these colour patterns in Chromodoris nudibranchs. The current phylogeny contains short branch lengths, polytomies and poor support at interior nodes, which is indicative of a recent radiation. As such, future work will employ a transcriptome-based exon capture approach for resolving the phylogeny of this group. In all, this study included 21 of the 22 described species in the Chromodoris sensu stricto group with broad sampling coverage from across the Indo-Pacific, constituting the most comprehensive sampling of this group to date. This work highlights several cases of undocumented diversity, ultimately expanding our knowledge of species boundaries in this group, while also demonstrating the limitations of colour patterns for species identification in this genus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A new record of Oxychilus alliarius (Gastropoda: Zonitidae with the species distribution in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Horáčková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new finding of the land snail species Oxychilus alliarius was recorded in the Czech Republic. This West European species was found in the six isolated sites during the last thirteen years always in western part of Bohemia. This paper brings new information on the distribution of Oxychilus alliarius in the Czech Republic.

  9. Organ- and species-specific accumulation of metals in two land snail species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.boshoff@ua.ac.be [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Jordaens, Kurt [Royal Museum for Central Africa (JEMU), Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Backeljau, Thierry [University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (JEMU), Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Lettens, Suzanna [Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Kliniekstraat 25, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Tack, Filip [Ghent University, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 265, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Bart [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Burg van Gansberghelaan 109, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); De Jonge, Maarten; Bervoets, Lieven [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of terrestrial gastropods as bioindicators there is a need for studies that simultaneously compare (1) concentrations of metals in reference and polluted plots, (2) species within the same polluted habitat, (3) metal accumulation patterns in different organs and (4) metal accumulation patterns in relation to soil physicochemical properties. This study aims to assess metal accumulation patterns in two land snail species. Instead of analyzing an organism as a whole, investigating the partitioning of metals in different organs can provide information on the actual toxicological relevant fractions. Therefore, concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were examined in five different organs of Cepaea nemoralis, as well as in the foot and the body of Succinea putris. Snails were sampled at four polluted dredged sediment disposal localities and three adjacent less polluted reference plots situated along waterways in Flanders, Belgium. Due to the small size and problematic dissection of S. putris only the concentrations in the foot of both species could be compared. For this reason only, C. nemoralis can be described as a better bioindicator species that allows a far more detailed analysis of organ metal accumulation. This study showed that organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. Furthermore, pH, soil fractionation (clay %, silt %, sand %) and organic matter, correlate with metal accumulation in organs. However, most often the soil metal concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations found in snail organs. Metal concentrations in organs of both species (1) differed among polluted plots but rarely between polluted and reference plots within a locality, (2) were organ-specific (digestive gland > foot > albumen gland = spermoviduct = ovotestis), (3) were species-specific and (4) depended on the metal type (high Cd and Cu concentrations were observed in the digestive gland and foot respectively). Our study emphasizes that background metal levels should be taken into account when using invertebrates as bioindicators of metal contamination and that bioindicators may show substantial differences in accumulation patterns even if they have a highly comparable ecology. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of accumulated metals differ among localities and between the snail species in the foot. ► Organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. ► Total metal concentrations and soil physicochemical properties alone are not enough to explain organ bioaccumulation.

  10. Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus (Gastropoda, Muricidae on a mixed shore of rocks and sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Papp

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

  11. Systematics of Ariantinae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae), a new approach to an old problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Subai, P.; Gittenberger, E.

    2016-01-01

    A new starting-point in Ariantinae systematics is presented by combining data on traditional shell morphology and genital anatomy, with phylogeny reconstructions based on DNA sequence data. For nearly all genera and subgenera one or more shells are depicted and drawings of the proximal part of the

  12. Intracellular Immunohistochemical Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda and Stylochoplana sp. (Turbellaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren R. Salvitti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX, is a potent neurotoxin targeting sodium channels that has been identified in multiple marine and terrestrial organisms. It was recently detected in the Opisthobranch Pleurobranchaea maculata and a Platyhelminthes Stylochoplana sp. from New Zealand. Knowledge on the distribution of TTX within these organisms is important to assist in elucidating the origin and ecological role of this toxin. Intracellular micro-distribution of TTX was investigated using a monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic technique. Tetrodotoxin was strongly localized in neutral mucin cells and the basement membrane of the mantle, the oocytes and follicles of the gonad tissue, and in the digestive tissue of P. maculata. The ova and pharynx were the only two structures to contain TTX in Stylochoplana sp. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, TTX was identified in the larvae and eggs, but not the gelatinous egg cases of P. maculata. Tetrodotoxin was present in egg masses of Stylochoplana sp. These data suggest that TTX has a defensive function in adult P. maculata, who then invest this in their progeny for protection. Localization in the digestive tissue of P. maculata potentially indicates a dietary source of TTX. Stylochoplana sp. may use TTX in prey capture and for the protection of offspring.

  13. Perotrochus caledonicus (Gastropoda: Pleurotomariidae revisited: descriptions of new species from the South-West Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Anseeuw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphological (shell and molecular examination of a large suite of specimens of pleurotomariids from around New Caledonia and the Coral Sea reveals the existence of four species in the complex of Perotrochus caledonicus: Perotrochus deforgesi Métivier, 1990 and P. pseudogranulosus sp. nov. live allopatrically on the plateaus and guyots of the Coral Sea; Perotrochus caledonicus Bouchet & Métivier, 1982 and Perotrochus wareni sp. nov. live sympatrically - but essentially not syntopically - on the slopes of New Caledonia, Norfolk Ridge and the Loyalty Ridge. All species live in the 300–500 m interval, and together form a significant component of the mollusc fauna living on hard bottoms in the SW Pacific, with individual dredge hauls containing up to 25 specimens of Perotrochus.

  14. A new genus and species of Aclididae (Gastropoda) from off Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Warén, A.

    1987-01-01

    Dr. Manuel Carrillo Pèrez (Universidad de la Laguna) has sent some dredge-samples to the first author. This material contained many interesting molluscs, not mentioned by Nordsieck & Talavera (1979). Amongst them was a very peculiar gastropod species, which was difficult to identify. Based on some

  15. Especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda presentes en el litoral del norte peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nakamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra las especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia registradas para el norte del Perú. El trabajo se basa en la recopilación de la literatura científica disponible para el área de interés. Se presentan las 17 especies reportadas para dicha zona, clasificadas dentro del Grupo Informal Opisthobranchia en 6 clados, 12 familias y 14 géneros. A pesar del alto potencial de diversidad que se le otorga a la costa norte peruana, el número de especies registradas es bajo, debido principalmente al escaso número de exploraciones e investigaciones realizadas.

  16. Intracellular immunohistochemical detection of tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda) and Stylochoplana sp. (Turbellaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvitti, Lauren R; Wood, Susanna A; Winsor, Leigh; Cary, Stephen Craig

    2015-01-28

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX), is a potent neurotoxin targeting sodium channels that has been identified in multiple marine and terrestrial organisms. It was recently detected in the Opisthobranch Pleurobranchaea maculata and a Platyhelminthes Stylochoplana sp. from New Zealand. Knowledge on the distribution of TTX within these organisms is important to assist in elucidating the origin and ecological role of this toxin. Intracellular micro-distribution of TTX was investigated using a monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic technique. Tetrodotoxin was strongly localized in neutral mucin cells and the basement membrane of the mantle, the oocytes and follicles of the gonad tissue, and in the digestive tissue of P. maculata. The ova and pharynx were the only two structures to contain TTX in Stylochoplana sp. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, TTX was identified in the larvae and eggs, but not the gelatinous egg cases of P. maculata. Tetrodotoxin was present in egg masses of Stylochoplana sp. These data suggest that TTX has a defensive function in adult P. maculata, who then invest this in their progeny for protection. Localization in the digestive tissue of P. maculata potentially indicates a dietary source of TTX. Stylochoplana sp. may use TTX in prey capture and for the protection of offspring.

  17. Molecular phylogenetics and systematic revision of the south-eastern Australian Helicarionidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyman, I.T.; Iglesia Lamborena, de la I.; Köhler, F.

    2017-01-01

    The south-eastern Australian helicarionid clade currently comprises six genera of snails and semislugs united by genital characters, including an epiphallic flagellum that produces a spiraling, spinose spermatophore, the absence of an epiphallic caecum, and the presence of at most a very short

  18. A taxonomic review of the Norwegian species of Raphitoma (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Raphitomidae

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    Tore Høisæter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problematic conoidean genus Raphitoma s.l. in inshore Norwegian waters is revised based on fresh material from all along the coast of Norway. This largely shallow water group is represented by at least six species in Norwegian waters of which two, Raphitoma obesa n.sp. and R. maculosa n.sp. are described as new, and another Raphitoma aequalis (Jeffreys, 1867 is reported from Norway for the first time. The taxonomic and nomenclatural status of R. reticulata (sensu Jeffreys 1867 and R. asperrima (sensu Forbes & Hanley 1853 are discussed. Empty shells of several additional species indicate that the number of Raphitoma-species living in the North East Atlantic will be further increased in the future. The morphological variability of each species is described if possible. Shell morphology, including microsculpture and protoconch details as deduced from LM photographs, are used for distinguishing the species. Some easily observable behaviour and soft part morphology features were found to bepromising areas for further studies.

  19. Sea Hare Aplysia punctata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Can Maintain Shell Calcification under Extreme Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Dupont, Sam; Sigwart, Julia D

    2016-10-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to cause energetic constraints upon marine calcifying organisms such as molluscs and echinoderms, because of the increased costs of building or maintaining shell material in lower pH. We examined metabolic rate, shell morphometry, and calcification in the sea hare Aplysia punctata under short-term exposure (19 days) to an extreme ocean acidification scenario (pH 7.3, ∼2800 μatm pCO 2 ), along with a group held in control conditions (pH 8.1, ∼344 μatm pCO 2 ). This gastropod and its congeners are broadly distributed and locally abundant grazers, and have an internal shell that protects the internal organs. Specimens were examined for metabolic rate via closed-chamber respirometry, followed by removal and examination of the shell under confocal microscopy. Staining using calcein determined the amount of new calcification that occurred over 6 days at the end of the acclimation period. The width of new, pre-calcified shell on the distal shell margin was also quantified as a proxy for overall shell growth. Aplysia punctata showed a 30% reduction in metabolic rate under low pH, but calcification was not affected. This species is apparently able to maintain calcification rate even under extreme low pH, and even when under the energetic constraints of lower metabolism. This finding adds to the evidence that calcification is a largely autonomous process of crystallization that occurs as long as suitable haeomocoel conditions are preserved. There was, however, evidence that the accretion of new, noncalcified shell material may have been reduced, which would lead to overall reduced shell growth under longer-term exposures to low pH independent of calcification. Our findings highlight that the chief impact of ocean acidification upon the ability of marine invertebrates to maintain their shell under low pH may be energetic constraints that hinder growth of supporting structure, rather than maintenance of calcification.

  20. Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda, prosobranchia): a potential TBT bioindicator for freshwater environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Bettin, C; Fioroni, P; Oehlmann, J; Stroben, E

    1995-12-01

    : The ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis (L., 1767) exhibits imposex (occurrence of male parts in addition to the female genital duct) under the influence of TBT (tributyltin) in laboratory experiments and accumulates this biocide in a time-and concentration-dependent manner. A comparison of BCF (bioconcentration factors) demonstrates that this limnic species accumulates more TBT than marine species. Evidence is given that TBT causes hormonal disorders which are responsible for imposex development. The testosterone/oestradiol quotient reflects the imposex development which can be described by a classification scheme differentiating four stages in Marisa cornuarietis. In the background of the constantly increasing organotin concentration in the limnic environment Marisa cornuarietis could be a well-suited bioindicator for TBT pollution. No other limnic species with a lower threshold concentration for measurable TBT effects is reported within the literature.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the giant ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingling; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2016-05-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the giant ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis, a biocontrol agent of freshwater weeds and snail vectors of schistosomes. The mitogenome is 15,923 bp in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. The mitogenome is A+T biased (70.0%), with 28.9% A, 41.1% T, 16.7% G, and 13.3% C. A comparison with Pomacea canaliculata, the other member in the same family (Ampullariidae) with a sequenced mitogenome, shows that the two species have an identical gene order, but their intergenic regions vary substantially in sequence length. The mitogenome data can be used to understand the population genetics of M. cornuarietis, and resolve the phylogenetic relationship of various genera in Ampullariidae.

  2. Bisphenol A Induces Superfeminization in the Ramshorn Snail (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlmann, Jörg; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Bachmann, Jean; Oetken, Matthias; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Ternes, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that bisphenol A (BPA) induces a superfeminization syndrome in the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis at concentrations as low as 1 μg/L. Superfemales are characterized by the formation of additional female organs, enlarged accessory sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct, and a stimulation of egg and clutch production, resulting in increased female mortality. However, these studies were challenged on the basis of incomplete experimentation. Therefore, the objective of the current approach was to bridge several gaps in knowledge by conducting additional experiments. In an initial series of experiments, study results from the reproductive phase of the snails were evaluated in the sub-micrograms per liter range. Before and after the spawning season, superfemale responses were observed [NOEC (no observed effect concentration) 7.9 ng/L, EC10 (effective concentration at 10%) 13.9 ng/L], which were absent during the spawning season. A further experiment investigated the temperature dependence of BPA responses by exposing snails at two temperatures in parallel. The adverse effect of BPA was at least partially masked at 27°C (EC10 998 ng/L) when compared with 20°C (EC10 14.8 ng/L). In M. cornuarietis, BPA acts as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, because effects were completely antagonized by a co-exposure to tamoxifen and Faslodex. Antiandrogenic effects of BPA, such as a significant decrease in penis length at 20°C, were also observed. Competitive receptor displacement experiments indicate the presence of androgen- and estrogen-specific binding sites. The affinity for BPA of the estrogen binding sites in M. cornuarietis is higher than that of the ER in aquatic vertebrates. The results emphasize that prosobranchs are affected by BPA at lower concentrations than are other wildlife groups, and the findings also highlight the importance of exposure conditions. PMID:16818258

  3. Bisphenol A induces superfeminization in the Ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) at environmentally relevant concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Oehlmann, Jörg; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Bachmann, Jean; Oetken, Matthias; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Ternes, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that bisphenol A (BPA) induces a superfeminization syndrome in the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis at concentrations as low as 1 μg/L. Superfemales are characterized by the formation of additional female organs, enlarged accessory sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct, and a stimulation of egg and clutch production, resulting in increased female mortality. However, these studies were challenged on the basis of incomplete experiment...

  4. Burnaia Miller, 2001 (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Nudibranchia): a facelinid genus with an Aeolidiidae's outward appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M.; Cervera, Juan Lucas

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, several morphological and molecular analyses have been undertaken to study the phylogenetic systematics of Aeolidiidae members. The monospecific genus Burnaia could not be included in the previous analysis, due to the lack of material. This study includes two specimens of Burnaia helicochorda from Australia and places them in their systematic position using two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes (COI and 16S, and H3, respectively). A description of its anatomy is also included with colour pictures of the animal and scanning electron micrographs of radula and jaws. Based on our results, B. helicochorda does not belong to Aeolidiidae since it appears nested among some facelinids.

  5. Foraminiferans as food for Cephalaspideans (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), with notes on secondary tests around calcareous foraminiferans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1996-01-01

    species, Ammonia batavus and two agglutinating species, Ammoscalaria pseudospiralis and Ammotium cassis. The test (shell) material of the latter two species was sand grains (quartz). It was inferred that the gastropods avoid agglutinating foraminiferans as food. Many calcareous but not agglutinating......The food of four species of Cephalaspidea (Philine aperta, Philine denticulata, Philine scabra and Cylichna cylindracea) was studied in animals collected on silty clay bottoms at 20-35 m depth on the west coast of Sweden. The specimens were dissected. Only calcareous foraminiferans were found...... foraminiferans surround themselves with a “secondary test”, a cyst or covering of foreign particles around the test. This structure has earlier been called a “reproductive cyst” or “feeding cyst” in some species. “Secondary tests” are primarily connected with feeding, but might also be a preadaptation for other...

  6. The genus Alvania on the Canary islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda), part 2 [final part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Five Alvania species from the Canary Islands and the Madeira Archipelago are revised. A new species to science, A. johannae is described and for three species lectotypes are designated. Altogether 13 littoral alvaniids are presently known from this area. Doubtful records are enumerated and a list of

  7. The genus Alvania on the Canary Islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Micromolluscs of the family Rissoidae and belonging to the genus Alvania s.l. from the Canary Islands and the Madeira archipelago are revised. For several species the type locality is restricted and lectotypes are designated for Rissoa canadensis d’Orbigny, 1839, R. euchila Watson, 1886, R.

  8. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

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    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.Shells of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied to determine morphometric variation. Samples were collected in the following municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Five measurements were taken from each shell: length and width of the shell, length and width of the aperture and lenght of the spire. Two ratios were also established: width/lenght of the shell and length of the aperture /length of the shell. The numbers of whorls and the length of the shell were also determined. Statistical tests (correlation coeficients, regression, and analysis of variance were used to compare the different samples. Also, com parisons of L. columella shells collected by us were made with those of L. columella, L. viator and L. cubensis from collections deposited in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. The results of these studies revealed that in most of the cases the snail populations of different areas were similar, showing constant proportions, but they diverged in their absolute dimensions. Data on aquatic environmental conditions (pH, alkalinity, hardness, and calcium concentration were also obtained. These Chemical factors were examined with respect to shell morphology. Our results revealed that only hardness of water was associated with the robustness of the shells.

  9. Effectiveness of vegetable extracts for the control of Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer (Gastropoda: Polygyridae

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    Carmen Verónica Martín Vasallo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Molluscs have become a serious problem for vegetable crops, especially the species Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the percentage of mortality of the plant extracts on P. griseola in both laboratory and field conditions. An "in vitro" assay was performed with vegetable extracts of maguey (Furcraea hexapetala (Jacq. Family: Agavaceae, spiny güirito (Solanum globiferum L., Family: Solanaceae, chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae, cardon (Euphorbia lactea Haw., Family: Euphorbiaceae. When evaluating three concentrations of the extract of each botanical species, a completely randomized design was used in "in vitro" conditions and random blocks on the field. The extraction of the chili pepper extract was carried out using the fruit baking method, the S. globiferum was obtained from the milling of the dried fruits and the F. hexapetala and E. lactea were obtained through the fragmentation of stalks. Extracts of F. hexapetala, S. globiferum, C. frutescens, E. lactea, are alternatives to be used by producers in the control of P. griseola. The highest percentages of mortality are reached with the extracts of C. frutescens and S. globiferum at 72 hours of application.

  10. Transcriptome analysis in Concholepas concholepas (Gastropoda, Muricidae): mining and characterization of new genomic and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Leyla; Sánchez, Roland; Gomez, Daniela; Fuenzalida, Gonzalo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristián; Tanguy, Arnaud

    2011-09-01

    The marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas, locally known as the "loco", is the main target species of the benthonic Chilean fisheries. Genetic and genomic tools are necessary to study the genome of this species in order to understand the molecular basis of its development, growth, and other key traits to improve the management strategies and to identify local adaptation to prevent loss of biodiversity. Here, we use pyrosequencing technologies to generate the first transcriptomic database from adult specimens of the loco. After trimming, a total of 140,756 Expressed Sequence Tag sequences were achieved. Clustering and assembly analysis identified 19,219 contigs and 105,435 singleton sequences. BlastN analysis showed a significant identity with Expressed Sequence Tags of different gastropod species available in public databases. Similarly, BlastX results showed that only 895 out of the total 124,654 had significant hits and may represent novel genes for marine gastropods. From this database, simple sequence repeat motifs were also identified and a total of 38 primer pairs were designed and tested to assess their potential as informative markers and to investigate their cross-species amplification in different related gastropod species. This dataset represents the first publicly available 454 data for a marine gastropod endemic to the southeastern Pacific coast, providing a valuable transcriptomic resource for future efforts of gene discovery and development of functional markers in other marine gastropods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora

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    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909 were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and G. messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and P. fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n. on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese G. phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of G. phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time.

  12. Patterns of Diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M.

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species—those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species—those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years. PMID:22693430

  13. Conus (Gastropoda, Conidae) from the Marquesas Archipelago: Description of a new endemic offshore fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Zandbergen, A.; Bouchet, P.

    2008-01-01

    Based on surveys conducted in the 1980s-1990s, especially the MUSORSTOM 9 expedition, we report on the bathymetric occurences of 35 species of Conus in the Marquesas Archipelago. Four are new records of shallow-water tropical Indo-Pacific species, and six are new species that were dredged,

  14. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

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    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  15. A checklist of land snails from the west coast islands of Sabah, Borneo (Mollusca, Gastropoda

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    Chee-Chean Phung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sabah, situated in one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, has the largest number of islands in Malaysia with more than 500 of various sizes and degrees of isolation. However, information on the islands’ biodiversity is limited. This study provides an up-to-date checklist of land snail species found on 24 west coast islands in Sabah. A total of 67 species (nearly 20% of the total number of land snail species in the state representing 37 genera and 19 families is enumerated based on systematic field surveys of 133 sampling plots, BORNEENSIS database records and species checklists published between 2000 and 2016. The number of species on the islands ranges from four to 29. Labuan Island has the highest number of species (29, followed by Tiga Island (25, Mantanani Besar Island (24 and Gaya Island (23. However, the populations of some land snail species may have declined as several previously recorded species on the islands were not found in a recent systematic field sampling. This checklist is provided as a baseline inventory for future island land snail studies and to better inform biodiversity conservation plans of marine parks and other islands on the Sabah west coast.

  16. Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea - I: the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Lebanon

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    F. CROCETTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reviewed knowledge of the opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples, is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa recorded from the Lebanese shores identified to species level. Special emphasis has mainly been given to the alien species, for which scattered notes are also given. The known opisthobranch biota is composed of 22 native (~ 63%, 12 alien (~ 34% and one cryptogenic (~ 3% taxa. Eleven of these (Berthella aurantiaca, B. ocellata, Aplysia fasciata, Felimare picta, Felimida britoi, F. luteorosea, F. purpurea, Phyllidia flava, Dendrodoris grandiflora, D. limbata and Aeolidiella alderi constitute new records for the Lebanese fauna, whilst the examined material of a further seven species (Elysia grandifolia, Pleurobranchus forskalii, Aplysia dactylomela, Bursatella leachii, Syphonota geographica, Goniobranchus annulatus, Flabellina rubrolineata anecdotally cited from Lebanon on the basis of the samples here studied, is here first explained. One additional taxon belonging to the genus Haminoea has been identified to genus level only. Despite the searching effort poning the basis of the material analyzed here, data reported clearly suggest that strong investments are still needed for a better understanding of the eastern Mediterranean opisthobranch fauna.

  17. Evolutionary position of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae among Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda

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    Jorge Ramirez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Bostryx and Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae are endemics from South America. They are mainly distributed on the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes. The goal of the present work was to assess their evolutionary position among the stylommatophoran gastropods based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial marker. Four sequences were obtained, and along with 28 sequences of other Stylommatophora retrieved from the GenBank, were aligned with ClustalX. The phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out using the methods of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. The multiple sequence alignment had 371 sites, with indels. The two genera of the family Orthalicidae for the first time included in a molecular phylogeny (Bostryx and Scutalus, formed a monophyletic group along with another member of the superfamily Orthalicoidea (Placostylus, result that is comparable with that obtained with nuclear markers. Their evolutionary relationship with other land snails is also discussed.

  18. Geochemical and Crystallographic Study of Turbo Torquatus (Mollusca: Gastropoda) From Southwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, L. M.; George, A. D.; Shaw, J.; Hart, R. D.; Roberts, M. P.; Becker, T.; Evans, N. J.; McDonald, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    Shells of the marine gastropod Turbo torquatus were sampled from three different locations along the Western Australian coastline, namely Marmion Lagoon (31°S), Rottnest Island (32°S), and Hamelin Bay (34°S). Marmion Lagoon and Rottnest Island have similar sea surface temperature ranges that are ˜1°C warmer than Hamelin Bay, with all sites influenced by the warm southward flowing Leeuwin Current. The shells were characterized using crystallographic, spectroscopic, and geochemical analyses. Shell mineral composition varies between the three sites suggesting the influence of sea surface temperature, oxygen consumption, and/or bedrock composition on shell mineralogy and preferential incorporation and/or elemental discrimination of Mg, P, and S. Furthermore, T. torquatus was found to exert control over the incorporation of most, if not all, the elements measured here, suggesting strong biological regulation. At all levels of testing, the concentrations of Li varied significantly, which indicates that this trace element may not be a suitable environmental proxy. Variation in Sr concentration between sites and between specimens reflects combined environmental and biological controls suggesting that Sr/Ca ratios in T. torquatus cannot be used to estimate sea surface temperature without experimentally accounting for metabolic and growth effects. The mineral composition and microstructure of T. torquatus shells may help identify sea surface temperature variations on geological time scales. These findings support the previously hypothesized involvement of an active selective pathway across the calcifying mantle of T. torquatus for most, if not all, the elements measured here.

  19. Parámetros reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata (Duelos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae, en la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata (Duclos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae in La Rinconada marine reserve, Antofagasta, Chile

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    Marcela Cantillánez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Para obtener antecedentes reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata que contribuyan a validar su actual normativa pesquera, se realizó un estudio en el área protegida de la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile, entre diciembre 2008 y enero 2010. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron a nivel reproductivo, que el desarrollo gonadal de la población es asincrónico, encontrándose ejemplares en diferentes etapas de maduración durante el año. Los individuos maduros se estratificaron entre 5 y 13 m de profundidad, y gran parte del año formaron agregaciones a 5 m de profundidad. Se determinaron períodos de mayor madurez en julio-agosto, y en noviembre-enero, manifestándose las agregaciones más importantes al final de ellos. Una relación se observó entre meses de mayor madurez y registro de agregaciones, con aquellos de mayor variación intradiaria de temperatura. A nivel poblacional los resultados permitieron estimar una población de 2,3*10(6 ejemplares, donde el 39% se encontró sobre la talla mínima legal (TML = 55 mm. Los parámetros de crecimiento mostraron crecimiento relativamente lento, que podría estar influenciado por la alta variabilidad que presenta la temperatura de fondo en este sector. Mientras que su talla crítica, y la talla de primera madurez sexual poblacional, resultaron ser mayores a la TML. Se determinó la necesidad de revisar la normativa pesquera actual de esta especie, y se demostró la efectividad de las reservas marinas propiciadas por el Estado en la conservación de los recursos marinos.Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata that would contribute to the validation of the current extraction standards were obtained by performing a study in the protected area of La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile, from December 2008 to January 2010. In terms of reproduction, the results revealed asynchronic gonad development in the population, with specimens in different stages of maturity throughout the year. Mature individuals were distributed between 5 and 13 m depth, forming aggregations at 5 m depth during much of the year. Periods of greater maturity were observed from July to August and November to January, with the most important aggregations at the end of both periods. A relationship was observed between the months with the greatest maturity and aggregations and the months with the highest daily temperature fluctuations. At the population level, the results allowed us to estimate 2.3*10(6 individuals, with 39% of this population over the minimum legal size (55 mm. The relatively slow growth estimated for this population was probably influenced by the high variability of the bottom temperature in this area. The critical size and size at first maturity of the population were higher than the minimal legal size, making it is necessary to review the current fishing regulation for this species. The effectiveness of the State marine reserves in the conservation of this marine resource was demonstrated.

  20. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

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    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  1. Estudo quantitativo de metais presentes na hemolinfa de Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infectadas e não infectadas com Schistosoma mansoni Quantitative study of metal present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infected and uninfected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Inicialmente, desenvolveu-se um estudo para quantificar e comparar as concentrações de alguns metais presentes em duas amostras de hemolinfa do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (infectados e não-infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. A espectrometria de emissão óptica com fonte de plasma induzido (ICP-OES, foi utilizada para analisar os metais nas duas amostras. Os metais estudados foram: alumínio, cálcio, cádmio, cobalto, cromo, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, chumbo e zinco. Os resultados mostram que, a princípio, os metais não são fatores determinantes no processo de defesa desses organismos contra este parasita, quando presente nos seus tecidos.We conducted a preliminary study to quantify and compare two concentrations of the same metals present in the hemolymph of snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In this context, we used Induction Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy technique (ICP-OES, to analyze the metals in the two samples (snails infected and not infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The metals studied were: aluminum, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, lead and zinc. Preliminary results showed that such metals are not involved in the defense of these organisms against the parasite, when present in their tissues.

  2. Atividade moluscicida de princípios ativos de folhas de Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanales, Solanaceae em Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Planorbidae Moluscicide activity of active principles in the leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanales, Solanaceae on Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Planorbidae

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    Vilma Leyton

    Full Text Available Foram obtidos extratos aquosos e alcoólicos a partir de pó de folhas secas de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. c.v. Cereja. Por extração metanólica e precipitação alcalina, foi obtido um produto que denominamos "glicoalcalóide esteroidal bruto" (GEb, no qual foi caracterizada a presença de tomatina. Em ensaios laboratoriais, os extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e o GEb apresentaram atividade moluscicida em Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818. O "glicoalcalóide esteroidal bruto" apresentou alta atividade moluscicida (CL50 = 8,01 ppm e CL90 = 13,17 ppm, comparável à atividade da tomatina. Desovas de B. glabrata mostraram-se resistentes aos extratos testados. Os níveis de atividade moluscicida apresentados pelos diversos extratos e o GEb, apontam apenas o GEb como candidato para a continuação dos estudos visando a sua possível utilização em campo.Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were obtained from crushed dried leaves of tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. c.v. Cherry. By the use of a methanolic extraction and alkaline precipitation, a product named crude steroidal glycoalkaloid (GEb, was obtained. The presence of tomatidine was characterized in this product. In laboratory, the aqueous and alcoholic extracts and GEb have shown molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818. The crude steroidal glycoalkaloid presented a high molluscicidal activity (LC50 = 8.01 ppm and LC90 = 13.17 ppm, similar to that of tomatine. None of the compounds tested affected B. glabrata egg masses. The level of activity showed by the different extracts and by the GEb, pointed out the GEb as the only candidate able to be considered for further tests toward field trials as molluscicidal agent.

  3. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in the northeast of Brazil Ecologia do caracol exótico Achatina fulica (Gastropoda:Pulmonata no nordeste do Brasil

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    FS. Albuquerque

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations.O objetivo deste estudo foi documentar a distribuição e o estabelecimento de Achatina fulica, assim como sua preferência alimentar e aspectos comportamentais in situ. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida na cidade de Lauro de Freitas, Estado da Bahia, Brasil, durante os meses de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Usamos o método de esforço de captura determinado por homem/hora para calcular a abundância e distribuição, habitats preferidos, além de preferência alimentar. Vimos que a abundância e distribuição de A. fulica foram mais representativas em áreas urbanas, sobretudo cerca da linha de costa. Os terrenos e jardins de casas foram os locais preferidos pelos caracóis quando estavam em atividade. Os resultados indicaram que os caracóis A. fulica iniciam sua atividade no final da tarde e hibernam no meio da manhã. A comida preferida destes caracóis foram plantas vasculares como Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus Communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Nossos dados sugerem que o A. fulica está plenamente adaptado e estabelecido nesta cidade e, também, que ambientes modificados facilitam seu estabelecimento e dispersão. Entretanto, a perturbação humana, como a limpeza de terrenos pode ser um fator limitante para a persistência da população de A. fulica.

  4. Avaliação dos problemas enfrentados no manejo do caramujo gigante africano Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata no Brasil Evaluation of the problems faced in the management of the giant African snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Colley

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 was introduced into Paraná, Brazil, in the 1980s. Since then, it has spread across the country, despite its known invasive status on a global scale. The main objective of this study was to assess the problems faced in the management of the giant African snail. To accomplish that, we gathered and analyzed information available on the internet, scientific databases, field studies, as well as interviews and consultations with official agencies, NGOs, museums, the scientific community and people that coexist with the species. Despite the fact that extensive information has been generated regarding A. fulica (1,340 articles, 65 summaries in national annals, 40,700 pages on the internet, essential to promote control measures to hinder the propagation of this species, the majority of the available information remains inaccessible to the world at large. Moreover, the environmental, economic and health impacts of this species remain unclear, which may contribute to discouraging the initiation of management actions. Finally, control measures are still inefficient due to the generalist profile of this species and the lack of knowledge concerning its biology and ecology. Thus, in conclusion, even though A. fulica has been an invasive species for over a century in many other countries, it is difficult to find evidence supporting the need to subsidize its management. This may be an indication that many other, poorly known exotic species will have time and the proper conditions to become established and cause problems before they come to be recognized as invasive.

  5. Desenvolvimento de Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae em Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae Development of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae in Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae

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    Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco Brandolini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available To follow the larval developmenl of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet, 1892 in Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 snails were separated in three classes using the shell diameter: Class A (14.5-10.2 mm, Class B (10.1-6.9 mm and Class C (6.8-2.6 mm. Only snails belonging to classes A and B acquired the infection. Specimens of E. coelomaticum removed from the pancreatic ducts were exposed to three physiological solutions: Earle, Locke and saline 0.85%, to obtain eggs for the experimental infections, The Locke solution induced the best egg release. The route of migration the intramolluscan development of E. coelomaticum was studied with the aid of histology. The minimal period of intramolluscan developmenl, ending at the expelling of daughter sporocysts, was 107 days for the snails infected in March, and 79 days for the snails infected in November. The Student "t" test and the Chi-square test showed a significant difference (α = 5% between the two periods, although the mean temperature registered during the experiments did not significantly differed (α = 5%. The elimination of daughter sporocysts occurred through the snail's pneumostome, and always at night. Most sporocysts were eliminated at intervals that varied between one to three days, without regularity. The time of elimination of the daughter sporocysts was different for the two infection period studied: 12 weeks for the snails infected in March, and three weeks for those infected in November. Positive correlation between the number of sporocysts expelled by the snail host and higher temperatures registered in the laboratory was observed. This correlation was more evident in November infection.

  6. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri county, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on.

  7. Effect of different mangrove-to-pond area ratios on influent water quality and WSSV occurence in panaeus monodon Semi-intensive farms using the greenwater culture technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia, E.A.; Bosma, R.H.; Primavera, J.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been affecting the shrimp industry worldwide for two decades now. It continues to bring economic losses to affected farms. Despite the many studies on its epidemiology, there is no proven treatment or control measure. Diseases, like the WSSV, results from the

  8. Effects of Thai medicinal plants on pathogenic bacterial, growth performance, health condition and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

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    Klowkliang, T.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa extracts using TLC/densitometry, showed an extract contain 21.57%w/w of three important curcuminoids: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. GC and MS were used to analyze volatile oils. Aromatic turmerone, α-turmerone and zingiberene were also obtained. Qualitative and quantitative analyses alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata using TLC, revealed that the extracts contain three important compounds in total lactone of 30.49% w/w. There are andrographolide,14-deoxy-11-12-didehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide. TLC-chromatogram of Clinacanthus nutans extract after reacted with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid showed a 9 key compounds, while preliminary neutralization test of the compounds revealed that there were active compounds against HSV-1 virus. In vitro efficacy test revealed that Curcuma longa and Andrographis paniculata extracts at 250 and 1,500 mg/L could eradicate 15 isolates of Vibrio spp. which were isolated from infected shrimps. Effects of medicinal plant extracts incorporated into the diet on shrimp immune responses were investigated. Shrimp fed diet containing Clinacanthus nutans extract at 20 mg/kg of diet had good growth, FCR and immune responses. The shrimp that were fed diet containing Curcuma longa extracts at 25 mg/kg of diet for 7-14 days showed high resistance to Vibrio harveyi. Likewise, the shrimp fed Andrographis paniculata extract at 25 mg/ kg of diet for 14 days had a higher resistance to WSSV. Incorporating the medicinal extracts at higher levels resulted in reduction in diet palatability which consequently had an effect on a decrease in growth, immune responses and resistance to bacterial and WSSV infection.

  9. Effect of three innovative culture systems on water quality and whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral load in WSSV-fed Penaeus monodon cultured in indoor tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alapide-Tendencia, E.V.; Bosma, R.H.; Rose Sorio, L.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus is the most important among the shrimp diseases. It has been devastating the shrimp industry for more than 3 decades. Previous studies reported that greater percentage of yellow colonies on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (yellow vibrios) in the rearing water,

  10. PERBAIKAN KUALITAS PETIS KEPALA UDANG WINDU (Penaeus monodon DENGAN PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG ARANG KAYU GALAM (Melaleuca cajuputi powell, SEKAM PADI (Oryza sativa L DAN TEMPURUNG KELAPA (Cocos nucifera

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    Juhana Suhanda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan waktu selama 4 bulan yaitu meliputi  pelaksanaan penelitian, analisis data, penyusunan laporan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat petis sari kepala udang Windu yang berkualitas dengan penambahan tepung arang kayu galam, sekam padi, dan tempurung kelapa. Sedangkan kegunaannya adalah untuk menghasilkan petis sari kepala udang Windu yang dapat diterima dan disukai oleh konsumen. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimental dan dilakukan berdasarkan pola Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan empat perlakuan yaitu A (tanpa penambahan tepung arang, perlakuan B (penambahan tepung arang kayu Galam 0,05%, perlakuan C (penambahan tepung arang sekam padi 0,05% dan perlakuan D (penambahan tepung arang tempurung kelapa 0,05%. Masing-masing perlakuan dilakukan 3 kali ulangan. Parameter yang diuji meliputi Uji Kadar Protein, Uji Kadar Air, Uji Kadar Abu, Uji Organoleptik yaitu rasa, warna, aroma dan tekstur. Penerimaan atau penolakan terhadap hipotesis didasarkan pada hasil Uji F (Analisis Sidik Ragam Dari hasil pengujian dan analisis keempat perlakuan tersebut untuk uji kadar protein yang tertinggi adalah perlakuan D (26,60%, uji kadar air terendah adalah pada perlakuan D (19,28% dan uji kadar abu terendah adalah perlakuan A (7,77%, tetapi antar perlakuan pada kadar abu tidak berbeda nyata sehingga dapat diartikan kadar abu pada tiap perlakuan tidak berbeda (tidak signifikan, sedangkan uji organoleptik untuk rasa, warna, aroma dan tekstur yang tertinggi adalah perlakuan D yaitu rasa (6,89, warna (7,31, aroma (6,48 dan tekstur (6,635. This research was conducted with time for 4 months which include the conduct of research, data analysis, report preparation. This study aims to make a paste shrimp head juice Windu quality with the addition of flour Galam wood charcoal, rice husk and coconut shell. While its use is to produce a paste shrimp head juice Windu acceptable and preferred by consumers. This study used an experimental method based on the pattern and made completely randomized design ( CRD with four treatments, namely A ( without the addition of charcoal powder , treatment B ( addition of charcoal powder Galam 0.05 %, treatment C ( addition of rice husk flour 0 , 05 % and treatment D ( addition of coconut shell charcoal powder 0.05 % . Each treatment was done 3 times repetition. The parameters tested include Protein Levels Test, Test Water Content, Content Test Abu, Organoleptic Test is taste, color, aroma and texture. Acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis based on the results of the F test ( analysis of variance From the results of the testing and analysis of the four treatments for the highest levels of the protein test is treatment D ( 26.60 % , the lowest moisture content test is in treatment D ( 19 , 28 % and lowest ash content test is treatment A (7.77 % , but among the treatments on ash content was not significantly different so that could mean ash content in each treatment did not differ    ( not significant , whereas organoleptic test for taste , color , flavor  and texture which is the highest treatment D is a sense of taste ( 6.89 , color (7.31 , flavor (6.48 and texture (6.635.

  11. Evaluation of an immunodot test to manage white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) during cultivation of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, R.; Palaksha, K.J.; Anil, T.M.; Guruchannabasavanna; Patil, P.; Shankar, K.M.; Mohan, C.V.; Sreepada, R.A.

    A monoclonal antibody-based immunodot test was compared to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for managing white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) on shrimp farms at Kundapur and Kumta situated in Udupi and Uttar Kannada Districts, respectively...

  12. ADHERENCE AND PA THOGENICITY ASSA Y OF VIBRIO HARVE YI IN TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON LARVAE FOR SC REENING BIOCONTROL AGE NT

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    YUSMINAH H ALA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rifampicin-resistant marker w as empl oyed as a repor ter t o detect the ad here nce and colonization of V. harve yi in s hrimp larvae. Vibri o h arve yi P1B and YA3 2. 2 were isolated f rom dead s hrimp la rv ae i n Besuki, Norther n C oast of East Jav a, while V. harveyi HB3, was isolated from pris tine sea water in Pacita n, S outhe rn Coast of E ast Ja va . Vi brio metsc hnikovii used a s bioc ontr ol a gent was i solated fr om healthy shrimp larvae in Serang, We st Java. Spontane ous mutation was c onducted to generate V. harveyi P1B, YA32.2 and HB3 resistant to rifampi cin. These mutants exhibit ed similar survival ability to t heir parent al (wild type strai ns. Signifi cant larval mortalit y was o bserv ed i n s hrimp l arv ae i noculated with YA32.2 than that of larvae ino culated with P1B. Larvae inoculated with H B 3 showed the lo w est mortality. Bacterial cell c ount of Vi brio Rf* in dead larvae w ere 103-104 cells/larvae. Isolates of Vi brio metschnikovii Z an d M as biocontrol candid ates effectively r educed the growth a nd a dherence ability of YA32.2 t o shrimp larvae. Larval mort ality in rearing water inoculat ed simultaneousl y w ith YA32.2 and V. metschnikovii was lower than the one inoculated with YA32.2 alone. Therefore, Vibrio metschnikovii Z or M could be develope d as an effective pro biotic or biocontrol agent for V. harvey i in shrimp hatcheri es.

  13. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based flow-through immunoassay (FTA) for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, R; Shankar, K M; Kumar, B T N; Kulkarni, A; Patil, P; Moger, N

    2013-09-01

    A flow-through immunoassay (FTA), an improved version of immunodot, was developed using a nitrocellulose membrane baked onto adsorbent pads enclosed in a plastic cassette to detect white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. Sharp purple dots developed with WSSV against the white background of the nitrocellulose membrane. The detection limits of WSSV by the FTA and immunodot were 0.312 and 1.2 μg mL(-1) crude WSSV protein, respectively. The FTA could be completed in 8-10 min compared with 90 min for immunodot. The FTA was 100 times more sensitive than 1-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in between that of the 1- and 2-step PCR protocol recommended by the Office of International Epizootics (OIE). In experimental, orally infected shrimp post-larvae, WSSV was first detected 14, 16 and 18 h post-infection (hpi) by FTA, immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA detected WSSV 2 and 4 h earlier than immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA was more sensitive (25/27) than one-step PCR (23/27) and immunodot (23/27) for the detection of WSSV from white spot disease outbreak ponds. The reagent components of the FTA were stable giving expected results for 6 m at 4-8 °C. The FTA is available as a rapid test kit called 'RapiDot' for the early detection of WSSV under field conditions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of different doses of skt-b vibrio probiotic bacteria addition on survival and growth rate of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon larva

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    . Widanarni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria has been widely used as biocontrol agents in tiger shrimp hatcheries.  Vibrio SKT-b is one of the probiotic bacteria candidates that could suppressed the growth of pathogenic bacteria Vibrio harveyi and could increase survival rate of tiger shrimp larva. This experiment was carried out to study the effects of probiotic bacteria SKT-b Vibrio addition at different doses on survival and growth rate of tiger shrimp larva.  Experiment was conducted with five treatments and three replications, consisted of SKT-b Vibrio probiotic bacteria addition at the doses of 103 CFU/ml, 104 CFU/ml, 105 CFU/ml, and 106 CFU/ml and control (0 CFU/ml.  Results showed that optimum dose of probiotic bacteria for tiger shrimp was 104 CFU/ml with a survival rate of 94.67%. However, the addition of probiotic bacteria at this particular dose did not significantly increase shrimp growth rate as compared with control. Key words: Probiotic bacteria, SKT-b Vibrio, doses, tiger shrimp larva   ABSTRAK Bakteri probiotik telah banyak digunakan sebagai agen biokontrol dalam pembenihan udang windu.  Vibrio SKT-b merupakan salah satu jenis bakteri kandidat probiotik yang telah diuji dapat menekan pertumbuhan bakteri patogen Vibrio harveyi dan dapat meningkatkan kelangsungan hidup larva udang windu.  Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian bakteri probiotik Vibrio SKT-b dengan dosis yang berbeda terhadap kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhan larva udang windu. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam 5 perlakuan dengan masing-masing 3 ulangan, yaitu penambahan bakteri probiotik Vibrio SKT-b dengan dosis 103 CFU/ml, 104 CFU/ml, 105 CFU/ml, dan 106 CFU/ml dan kontrol (0 CFU/ml.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dosis optimal untuk larva udang windu adalah 104 CFU/ml dengan nilai kelangsungan hidup 94,67%. Namun, pemberian bakteri probiotik tersebut belum menghasilkan pertumbuhan yang berbeda nyata dengan kontrol. Kata kunci: Bakteri probiotik, Vibrio SKT-b, dosis, larva udang windu

  15. Profitability and technical efficiency of Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus Monodon) culture and White leg shrimp (Penaeus Vannamei) culture in Song Song Cau district, Phu Yen province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Hoai An

    2012-01-01

    The research measure the profitability and technical efficiency of Black tiger shrimp farms and White leg shrimp farms in Song Cau district, Phu Yen province, Vietnam. Cross-sectional data of 62 Black tiger shrimp samples and 88 White leg shrimp samples were used for comparison two production systems. The profitability analysis shows that White leg shrimp farms achieved an average profit per hectare of 78,883,209 VND ($3,944.16), which was approximately 4 times as much as Black tiger shrimp f...

  16. INDUCTION OF GONADAL MATURATION OF POND CULTURED MALE TIGER SHRIMP, Penaeus monodon WITH DIFFERENT DOSAGES OF GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUE AGAINST EYE STALK ABLATION

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    Asda Laining

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Very low naturally mating rate of pond-reared tiger shrimp broodstock is probably due to the slow maturation of the male stock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salmon gonadotrophin releasing hormone analoque (sGnRHa in stimulating the gonadal maturation of male stock of pond-reared tiger shrimp. The treatments were three dosages of sGnRHa at 0.1 (OV-1, 0.2 (OV-2, and 0.3 (OV-3 mL/kg of shrimp weight and control was eye stalk ablation (AB. The sGnRHa was administered via injection three times with one week interval. Male stocks with average initial body weight of 82.1 g were randomly distributed into four of 10 m3 concrete tanks, 26 males for each tank. Variables observed were performances of spermatophores and profiles of amino acid and fatty acid of muscle of the male stocks. After induction, number of male maturing indicated by spermatophores releasing from terminal ampullas was higher in shrimp induced with OV-1 (80.8% compared to control which was only 46.1%. Furthermore, shrimp treated OV-2 had the highest spermatophore weight of 0.16 g compared to control (0.11 g and other two groups. Amino acid profiles improved as the dose of sGnRHa increased up to 0.2 mL/kg from 61.23% for ablated male becoming 71.27% for OV-2. Total fatty acid also tended to improve by increasing the dose of hormone injection, however, the ablated male had higher total fatty acid content than that of OV-1. The present finding demonstrated that the dose of sGnRHa to stimulate the gonadal maturation of pond-reared male tiger shrimp could be applied at range between 0.1-0.2 mL/kg of shrimp weight.

  17. WSSV risk factors related to water physico-chemical properties and microflora in semi-intensive P .monodon culture ponds in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Whitespot syndrome virus, WSSV, is the most important among the shrimp diseases. One of the suggested WSSV risk factors is the occurrence of stress since stressors could compromise the shrimp defence system thus increasing the risk of WSSV infection. Stressors are usually related to the

  18. EL GÉNERO ECHINOLITTORINA HABE, 1956 (GASTROPODA: LITTORINIDAE DE LOS ECOSISTEMAS ROCOSOS DE LA COSTA PACÍFICA COLOMBIANA

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    ÁLVARO GIRALDO-CARDONA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron taxonómicamente por medio de caracteres de la concha 233 especímenes del género Echinolittorina (familia Littorinidae recolectados en ecosistemas rocosos del Pacífico colombiano. Los especímenes revisados se encuentran depositados en la Colección de Referencia de Biología Marina de la Universidad del Valle (CRBMUV y provienen de localidades en los departamentos de Valle del Cauca (Bahía Málaga, Bahía de Buenaventura, Cauca (Isla Gorgona, Guapi y Nariño (Mulatos, Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga. Hasta este trabajo, se pensaba que esta familia estaba representada solamente por tres especies en el Pacifico colombiano y en este estudio se registran seis especies: Echinolittorina apicina, E. atrata, E. conspersa, E. dubiosa, E. paytensis, y E. tenuistriata. Se incluye una descripción morfológica de cada una de ellas para facilitar su identificación.

  19. A good compromise: rapid and robust species proxies for inventorying biodiversity hotspots using the Terebridae (Gastropoda: Conoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modica, Maria Vittoria; Puillandre, Nicolas; Castelin, Magalie; Zhang, Yu; Holford, Mandë

    2014-01-01

    Devising a reproducible approach for species delimitation of hyperdiverse groups is an ongoing challenge in evolutionary biology. Speciation processes combine modes of passive and adaptive trait divergence requiring an integrative taxonomy approach to accurately generate robust species hypotheses. However, in light of the rapid decline of diversity on Earth, complete integrative approaches may not be practical in certain species-rich environments. As an alternative, we applied a two-step strategy combining ABGD (Automated Barcode Gap Discovery) and Klee diagrams, to balance speed and accuracy in producing primary species hypotheses (PSHs). Specifically, an ABGD/Klee approach was used for species delimitation in the Terebridae, a neurotoxin-producing marine snail family included in the Conoidea. Delimitation of species boundaries is problematic in the Conoidea, as traditional taxonomic approaches are hampered by the high levels of variation, convergence and morphological plasticity of shell characters. We used ABGD to analyze gaps in the distribution of pairwise distances of 454 COI sequences attributed to 87 morphospecies and obtained 98 to 125 Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs). The PSH partitions were subsequently visualized as a Klee diagram color map, allowing easy detection of the incongruences that were further evaluated individually with two other species delimitation models, General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) and Poisson Tree Processes (PTP). GMYC and PTP results confirmed the presence of 17 putative cryptic terebrid species in our dataset. The consensus of GMYC, PTP, and ABGD/Klee findings suggest the combination of ABGD and Klee diagrams is an effective approach for rapidly proposing primary species proxies in hyperdiverse groups and a reliable first step for macroscopic biodiversity assessment.

  20. Biosynthesis and composition of sterols and sterol esters in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) (gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Voogt, P.A.

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. The biosynthesis and composition of sterols and sterol esters were studied in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis after injection of Na-1-14C-acetate. 2. 2. Free and esterified sterols appeared to be synthesized by the animals, whilst the specific radioactivity of the sterols from the esters

  1. Isolation and characterization of cultivable fermentative bacteria from the intestine of two edible snails, Helixpomatia and Cornu aspersum (Gastropoda: Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAR YVONNE CHARRIER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota of the edible snails Cornu aspersum fSyn: H. aspersa, and Helix pomatia were investigated by culture-based methods, 16S rRNA sequence analyses and phenotypic characterisations. The study was carried out on aestivating snails and two populations of H. pomatia were considered. The cultivable bacteria dominated in the distal part of the intestine, with up to 5.10(9 CFU g -1, but the Swedish H. pomatia appeared significantly less colonised, suggesting a higher sensitivity of its microbiota to climatic change. All the strains, but one, shared ≥ 97% sequence identity with reference strains. They were arranged into two taxa: the Gamma Proteobacteria with Buttiauxella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Kluyvera, Obesumbacterium, Raoultella and the Firmicutes with Enterococcus, Lactococcus, and Clostridium. According to the literature, these genera are mostly assigned to enteric environments or to phyllosphere, data in favour of culturing snails in contact with soil and plants. None of the strains were able to digest filter paper, Avicel cellulose or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. Acetogens and methanogenic archaea were not cultivated, so the fate of hydrogen remains questionable. This microbiota could play important roles in the digestive process (fermentation and the energy supply of the snail (L-lactate, acetate. The choice of cereals and plants by snail farmers should take into account the fermentative abilities of the intestinal microbiota

  2. Opisthobranchs from the western Indian Ocean, with descriptions of two new species and ten new records (Mollusca, Gastropoda

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    Nathalie Yonow

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Seventy species of opisthobranchs are described in this work based on collections from the Persian Gulf, Socotra, Kenya, Zanzibar, Madagascar, La Réunion, Mauritius, the Seychelles, the Maldives, and Sri Lanka. Ten species are newly recorded from the western Indian Ocean and four species are recorded in the scientific literature for the first time since their original descriptions. Two species are described as new: Cyerce bourbonica sp. n. from La Réand Doriopsilla nigrocera sp. n. from the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. Chromodoris cavae is removed from its synonymy with C. tennentana and redescribed from specimens from La Réunion, while several new synonyms are proposed for some commonly occurring species. Risbecia bullockii is recorded for the second time from the Indian Ocean and assigned to its correct genus.

  3. Eco-physiological adaptation of the land snail Achatina achatina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in tropical agro-ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian O. Chukwuka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival of land snails in an adverse environmental condition depends on the integral physiological, morphological and behavioural adaptations. These adaptations are essential in understanding the species-specific habitat requirements and in predicting their environmental responses. In this study, the monthly and the periodic patterns of eco-physiological adaptation of land snail, Achatina achatina in Nsukka tropical agro-ecosystem were assessed from December 2012 to July 2013. Standard methods were employed in sampling the land snail and determination of the water content, biochemical fuel reserves and enzyme concentrations of the samples. The present results showed that lipids were high at the beginning of aestivation and depleted as the aestivation progressed. Glycogen was significantly low throughout the aestivation months (December–March and increased in the active months (April–July. Protein content recorded a definite pattern all through the months studied. Catabolism of lactate and a decrease in activity of LDH during aestivation and substantial increase upon activation were observed. Data showed that transaminase and aspartate enzymes depleted during the aestivation months indicating that the snails may have developed potential cell injury due to oxidative stress and thermal heat. A disassociation between the physiological responses and climatic data was recorded. The physiological adaptation of A. achatina ensures regular adjustment under extreme conditions and compensates for its metabolic regulation in the tropics. It is concluded that survival of A. achatina is not environmentally predicted; rather it depends on the species-specific inherent process in predicting responses for survival.

  4. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

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    Abraham Breure

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Z. quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = O. bensoni (Reeve, 1849; Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789; Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848; Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909; Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821; Bulimus (Eurytus corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007 and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  5. Halgerda dalanghita Fahey & Gosliner, 1999 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia: Discodorididae - a new record for India from the Andaman Islands

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    Titus Immanuel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Halgerda dalanghita Fahey & Gosliner, 1999, a discodoridid nudibranch was reported from Havelock Island of Ritchie’s Archipelago representing a new addition to the Opisthobranch fauna of India. This species is characterized by a firm, bright orange coloured mantle with a network of angular ridges on the dorsum that is ornate with white lines and dots; rhinophores with 17 brown lamellae on a translucent white stalk; highly pinnate gills with eight branchial leaves. The present record extends the known geographical distribution of H. dalanghita and this is the sixth species representing the genus in India. 

  6. A new species of Casmaria H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (Gastropoda, Cassidae from the Philippines identified by molecular data

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    Alexander Fedosov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Casmaria H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (family Cassidae is widespread in the tropical Indo-Pacific and has been documented from some Atlantic localities as well. Two Casmaria species, C. erinaceus (Linnaeus, 1758 and C. ponderosa (Gmelin, 1791, are common in Indo-Pacific shallow-water sandy bottom communities and are characterized by high morphological variability; both species encompass multiple, often sympatric forms of uncertain status. In the present study we carry out a phylogenetic analysis of some Philippine Casmaria morphs and demonstrate that one of the distinctive morphs earlier assigned to Casmaria ponderosa is in fact a different species, which we describe as Casmaria boblehmani sp. nov. The smooth form of Casmaria ponderosa, C. ponderosa ponderosa, and the solid nodulose form, widely called “form nodulosa” despite being strikingly different in shell morphology, are shown to be conspecific. Studied specimens of these two morphs even from different localities share the same haplotype of the CO1 gene. In light of these new data on the morphological variability of Casmaria species, we discuss criteria of species delimitation in the genus Casmaria and possible affinities of Casmaria boblehmani sp. nov. within the genus.

  7. Marine Mollusca of isotope stages of the last 2 million years in New Zealand. Part 3, Gastropoda (Vetigastropoda - Littorinimorpha)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beu, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Three new species: Grandicrepidula hemispherica (Nukumaruan, S Hawke's Bay), Pelicaria Granttaylori (Mangapanian-early Nukumaruan, Wanganui-Hawke's Bay), Pelicaria arahura (Waipipian-early Mangapanian, Westland and Hawke's Bay). Drawings of marine species in Smith's (1874) three plates of New Zealand molluscan types are republished. Further Australian molluscs in Wanganui Basin: Sabia australis (Lamarck), Clanculus plebejus (Philippi), both early Nukumaruan. Further northern New Zealand molluscs in Wanganui Basin: Stephopoma roseum (Quoy and Gaimard), OIS 13, 9. Distinctive gastropods extinct at end Nukumaruan: Struthiolaria frazeri (Hutton), Taxonia suteri (Marwick). Taniella planisuturalis (Marwick) (Opoitian-Nukumaruan, southern NZ) and Trivia (Ellatrivia) zealandica (Kirk) (Nukumaruan, Hawke's Bay-Wanganui; Castlecliffian, North Canterbury) occur in Castlecliffian (OIS 15?) rocks at Whakatane. Cantharidella tessellate (A. Adams) and Risellopsis varia (Hutton), formerly Haweran, are recorded from Nukumaruan and Castlecliffian rocks, respectively. New fossil late Nukumaruan-early Castlecliffian records listed from Mikonui-1 offshore well, Westland, include Malluvium calcareum (Suter) and 10 other species. Other biostratigraphically useful gastropods: Calliostoma (Maurea) nukumaruense (Laws) (Mangapanian-OIS 17); Argobuccinum pustulosum (Lightfoot), Semicassis labiate (Perry) (both earliest in OIS 7). New synonymy: Zeacumantus perplexus (Marshall and Murdoch) =Z. lutulentus (Kiener); Pelicaria vermis (Martyn) =all named Nukumaruan-Recent forms (other than P. rugosa (Marwick) and P. granttaylori n. sp.); Trivia flora Marwick =T.zealandica Kirk. Taxonomy revised: Zelippistes benhami (Suter) (OIS 13 and 9 at Wanganui), distinguished from Lippistes and Separatista; Stiracolpus species, informally; Maoricrypta profunda (Hutton), Waipipian-early Castlecliffian (- OIS 19); M. radiata (Hutton) (=incurva Zittel,=hochetteriana Woods, =wilckensi Finlay), (Middle Miocene?) Tongaporutuan-Opoitian; Eunaticina cincta (Hutton), holotype illustrated. (author). 427 refs., 22 figs.

  8. Fusceulima and Halielloides (Gastropoda: Eulimidae in the southwestern Atlantic, with descriptions of two new species of Fusceulima

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    Leonardo Santos de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusceulima Laseron, 1955 and Halielloides Bouchet & Warén, 1986 are reported from the southwestern Atlantic for the first time. Halielloides ingolfiana Bouchet & Warén, 1986 is considered a valid name, and the taxon is distinct from its previous senior synonym Eulima verrilliana Bush, 1909 in shell shape and absence of an umbilicus. Fusceulima saturata sp. nov. is characterized by a conical shell, domed at the apex, a short ovoid aperture, and a distinct dark-brown spiral band near the suture. Fusceulima toffee sp. nov. also has a conical shell and a dome-shaped apex, but has a taller high aperture and the entire shell is dark brown. Halielloides cf. ingolfiana, Fusceulima cf. boscheineni, and Fusceulima cf. minuta, are here recorded from the continental shelf off southeastern Brazil. The nominal species of these taxa were originally described from the northeastern Atlantic. Their status remains dubious because of lack of information on their biology, anatomy and molecular data. Regarding shell morphology, we cannot distinguish the Brazilian specimens from species in the northeastern Atlantic with the material available. A series of short grooves close to the suture of the protoconch in all species of Fusceulima, including the type species Fusceulima jacksonensis Laseron, 1955, is a possible diagnostic character for this genus.

  9. Composición de ácidos grasos de los caracoles marinos Phyllonotus pomum y Chicoreus brevifrons (Gastropoda: Muricidae

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    Haydelba D’Armas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el contenido de ácidos grasos en los lípidos totales de los caracoles Phyllonotus pomum y Chicoreus brevifrons, recolectados en tres diferentes épocas del año en Punta Arena, estado Sucre, Venezuela. Las concentraciones lipídicas oscilaron entre 0.87 y 1.85%, correspondiendo el valor mínimo y el máximo a C. brevifrons colectado en lluvia y sequía, respectivamente. La esterificación de los ácidos grasos presentes en estos lípidos seguida de la cromatografía de gases permitió la caracterización y cuantificación de los ácidos grasos. En los lípidos totales de las dos especies, en todas las épocas, se observaron elevadas concentraciones de ácidos grasos insaturados (57.21-70.05% seguido de los saturados (20.33-31.94%. Entre los ácidos grasos insaturados, predominaron los de tipo poliinsaturados, exceptuándose el extracto lipídico de P. pomum en época de transición donde las grasas monoinsaturadas fueron las mayoritarias (38.95%. Los ácidos grasos que prevalecieron fueron: C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:1, C22:1 ω- 11, C22:1 ω-9, C18:3 ω-3, C20:5 ω-3 y el C22:6 ω-3, siendo este ϊltimo el predominante entre los αcidos grasos poliinsaturados, presentando porcentajes de distribuciσn comprendidos entre 4.62 y 33.11%. Debido a las altas concentraciones de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados encontradas en ambos caracoles, se recomienda su consumo para la alimentación de los seres humanos.

  10. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-01-01

    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmissi...

  11. Keeping Nerves: Central Nervous System of the Interstitial Acochlidiid Parhedyle cryptophthalma (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerger, Katharina; Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Unusually well-preserved fossils of a Halicyne-like cycloid crustacean frequently occur in the early Late Triassic lacustrine clay bed at Krasiejów in Opole Silesia, southern Poland. Its gill-like structures form a horseshoe-shaped pair of units composed of numerous calcified blades with reverse ...

  12. Population structure and accompanying biota of the snail Turbo (Callopoma funiculosus (Gastropoda: Turbinidae, on Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico

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    Oscar E Holguin Quiñones

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The porcelain snail, Turbo funiculosus, is a potential fishery resource that almost has not been studied or used commercially. In March of 1992, we sampled T. funiculosus in Bahía Binners and Bahía Blanca, Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, using 25 m² quadrants. We found that total length varies between 3.0 and 85 mm, proportional weight between 3.0 and 228 g, and density between 6.21 and 9.87 ind/m². The largest organisms (over 50 mm contain 30.6 % of soft parts. Porcelain snail populations remain unexploited on Revillagedo Archipelago and could be a potential resource under an adequate management strategy. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1079-1084. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.El caracol porcelana, Turbo funiculosus, es un recurso pesquero potencial que casi no ha sido estudiado ni se ha utilizado comercialmente. En marzo de 1992, se realizó un muestreo de T. funiculosus en Bahía Binners y Bahía Blanca, isla Socorro, archipiélago Revillagigedo, empleando cuadrantes de 25 m2. Se encontraron variaciones en la longitud total entre 3.0 y 85 mm, el peso proporcional entre 3.0 y 228 g, y la densidad entre 6.21 y 9.87 ind/m2. Los organismos de mayor tamaño (más de 50 mm contienen 30.6 % de partes suaves. Las poblaciones del caracol porcelana siguen siendo inexplotadas en el archipiélago Revillagedo y podrían ser un recurso potencial de la industria pesquera bajo un adecuado plan de manejo.

  13. Mitochondrial phylogeny and biogeographic history of the Greek endemic land-snail genus Codringtonia Kobelt 1898 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsakiozi, Panayiota; Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Giokas, Sinos; Papanikolaou, Irene; Valakos, Efstratios D

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this work was to infer the phylogeny of the Greek endemic land-snail genus Codringtonia Kobelt 1898, estimate the time frame of the radiation of the genus, and propose a biogeographic scenario that could explain the contemporary distribution of Codringtonia lineages. The study took place in the districts of Peloponnese, Central Greece and Epirus of mainland Greece. Sequence data originating from three mtDNA genes (COI, COII, and 16S rDNA) were used to infer the phylogeny of the eight nominal Codringtonia species. Furthermore, the radiation time-frame of extant Codringtonia species was estimated using a relaxed molecular clock analysis and mtDNA substitution rates of land snails. The phylogenetic analysis supported the existence of six Codringtonia lineages in Greece and indicated that one nominal species (Codringtonia neocrassa) might belong to a separate genus distantly related to Codringtonia. The time frame of differentiation of Codringtonia species was placed in the Late Miocene-Pleistocene epoch. The dispersal-vicariance analysis performed indicated that most probably Codringtonia exhibited a north-to-south spread with the ancestral area being that of central Greek mainland, accompanied with duplication (speciation) and vicariance events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  15. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paracuellos, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002, systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea with the object to quantify the abundance of the species in the locality, as well as their external biometry and spatial distribution. As a result, the presence of a probable reproductive population of P. ferruginea was found on the island. The negative effect provoked by the continuous presence of man was proved, prejudicing the population in those zones which were more accessible for their harvesting. For this reason, it is necessary to regulate the use of the natural resources of the island to favour the conservation and spontaneous recolonisation of the zone by P. ferruginea.

  16. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000–2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  17. The Japanese oyster drill Ocinebrellus inornatus (Récluz, 1851) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae), introduced to the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Faasse, Marco; Gittenberger, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report on the o......The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report...... on the occurrence of the species in beds of European oysters (Ostrea edulis) in the Limfjord, NW Jutland, Denmark. The morphology-based identification has been confirmed by genetic analysis. The species was probably introduced with oysters imported from France in the 1970s and 1980s. The invasion is still...... relatively localized but as the species has established a reproductive population, it may eventually spread to other parts of the fjord and in time pose a problem to the oyster fishery. The species’ invasion history is reviewed...

  18. Anisospira velascorum, a new land snail from Mexico, with notes on the anatomy and histology (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Urocoptidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, A.S.H.

    1977-01-01

    During a collecting trip through southern and central Mexico (Breure, 1974) special attention has been paid to Bulimulidae and Urocoptidae. Among the material of urocoptids a new species has been found. Anisospira velascorum sp. n. (figs. 1-10, pl. 1) Description. — Shell up to 30.5 mm, 2.39 times

  19. New records of Vertigo moulinsiana (Gastropoda: Vertiginidae and notes on its distribution and habitats in the Czech Republic

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    Luboš Beran

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo moulinsiana (Dupuy, 1849 was found in 2003–2005 in Northern Bohemia (Czech Republic at 11 sites. All these sites are situated on floodplains of smaller streams in a sandstone area. The known occurrence of this endangered relict in the Czech Republic is concentrated in three areas – a large area of Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, a floodplain near villages Břežany and Božice (Dyje River Basin in Southern Moravia and small, isolated, treeless fens in the White Carpathians (Bílé Karpaty Mts.. The principal habitats where V. moulinsiana lives in the Czech Republic are sedge marshes, Typha swamps, reed swamps (with Carex spp., alder carrs (also with Carex spp. and tufa-forming spring fens.

  20. A new member of troglobitic Carychiidae, Koreozospeum nodongense gen. et sp. n. (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea) is described from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Adrienne; Prozorova, Larisa; Sharyi-Ool, Mariana; Páll-Gergely, Barna

    2015-01-01

    A new genus of troglobitic Carychiidae Jeffreys, 1830 is designated from Nodong Cave, North Chungcheong Province, Danyang, South Korea. This remarkable find represents a great range extension and thus, a highly distant distribution of troglobitic Carychiidae in Asia. The Zospeum-like, carychiid snails were recently included, without a formal description, in records documenting Korean malacofauna. The present paper describes Koreozospeum Jochum & Prozorova, gen. n. and illustrates the type species, Koreozospeum nodongense Lee, Prozorova & Jochum, sp. n. using novel Nano-CT images, including a video, internal shell morphology, SEM and SEM-EDX elemental compositional analysis of the shell.

  1. Cytogenetic and morphophysiological differences in snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) from reservoirs of the Chernobyl NPP resettling zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koneva, A.Yu.; Afonin, V.Yu.; Dramashka, S.Ya.; Golubew, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    A cytogenetic analysis of the molluscs obtained from animals of two populations of the Chernobyl NPP zone was carried out. Preservation of the raised number of cells with micronuclei in hemolymph of the molluscs obtained from animals lived under conditions with the highest level of radiation contamination was noted. Interpopulational distinctions in a number of biological parameters were revealed. Away of fertilization which is used for animal production under laboratory conditions affects sensitivity of molluscs to additional acute irradiation was established. (authors)

  2. Imposex incidence in Stramonita haemastoma (Gastropoda: Muricidae) from the Mediterranean and Atlantic coast after Tributyltin global ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayari, Tahani; Bierne, Nicolas; El Menif, Najoua Trigui

    2018-04-01

    The development of male genital tract by female gastropods, or imposex, can be caused by the tributyltin used in antifouling paints. A spatial survey of imposex in the gastropod Stramonita haemastoma was conducted across five Western Mediterranean and eleven North-Eastern Atlantic sites, in order to monitor the effectiveness of the tributyltin regulation imposed in the International Maritime Organisation. Imposex still occurs in eight out of eleven Mediterranean sites and in three out of five Atlantic sites. Extreme values of imposex incidence (I%) and degree (VDSI) were recorded in Tunisia, mainly in Bizerta channel (I% = 96.2%, VDSI = 0.96). However, the Relative Penis Length index (RPLI) was higher in Western Mediterranean sites where values varied between 0.56 in Algiers (Algeria) and 11.80 in Bouznika (Morocco). In the European sites, moderate to low imposex level and degree were recorded. All the affected sites were below the Ecotoxicological Assessment Criteria (EAC) derived for TBT.

  3. Thais (Stramonita rustica (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thaididae, a potential bioindicator of contamination by organotin northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antifouling paints containing the biocide compound tributyltin (TBT has been shown as an inductor of imposex in neogastropods mollusks. Imposex is characterized by the development of male features in females, mainly the appearance of a no functional vas deferens and penis. Samples of Thais rustica were collected in eight sites in the metropolitan area of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast Brazil, and examined for occurrence of imposex, which was found in many females. The higher imposex levels were presented by samples from sites near city harbor.A utilização de tintas antiincrustrantes contendo o composto biocida tributilestanho (TBT tem induzido moluscos neogastrópodes ao imposex. O imposex é caracterizado pelo surgimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos, sobretudo, pênis e vaso deferente não funcionais em fêmeas desses moluscos. Foram coletadas amostras de Thais rústica em oito estações ao longo da costa da cidade de Natal no Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais foram analisados quanto a presença e o grau de imposex que apresentavam. Os níveis mais elevados de imposex foram observados na estação mais próxima ao porto.

  4. Bioindicator Thais carinifera (mollusca, gastropoda: imposex response and consequences along the Pakistan coast during the period from 1993 to 2012

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    Nuzhat Afsar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endocrine mediated "imposex" phenomenon was investigated and recorded in the muricoid gastropod species Thais carinifera during the two decades from 1993 to 2012 at three (3 sites out of six (6 localities investigated along the Sindh and Balochistan coast, Pakistan. The VDS stages 1 to 4 were apparent in Thais carinifera. The intensity of imposex has remained comparatively low in the populations of harbours in close proximity to port Mohammad Bin-Qasim, namely; Old Korangi Fish Harbour (OKFH and New Korangi Fish Harbour (NKFH where shipping activities are sporadic as compared to those in Manora Channel and the adjoining Karachi Port area where intensive shipping activity is rather frequent. Target species found to be good bioindicators have shown a marked decrease over the prolonged study period. Investigations show that this decrease is solely due to globally imposed effective bans on tributyltin (TBT based antifouling paints over the past decade.

  5. Assessment of tributyltin contamination based on imposex in Stramonita rustica (Mollusca: Gastropoda along southern Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Zeidan

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex. The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.

  6. Assessment of tributyltin contamination based on imposex in Stramonita rustica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) along southern Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, G C; Boehs, G

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT) on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex). The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.

  7. Imposex induction in Stramonita haemastoma floridana (Conrad, 1837 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Muricidae submitted to an organotin-contaminated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernandes Alves de Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are affected by organotin compounds due to the cumulative, deleterious effects of these latter. The most evident and well known consequence of organotin contamination is imposex, a hormonal disruption that causes a superimposition of sexual male features in females of prosobranchia neogastropod molluscs such as Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Molluscs accumulate organotins mainly because of their poor ability to eliminate TBT and DBT from their tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze organotin uptake by ingestion experimentally, using uncontaminated subjects (S. haemastoma floridana fed with organotin-contaminated oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae. A total of 248 gastropods, distributed in 7 tanks with uncontaminated water and contaminated food, were used in this study, a control group being fed uncontaminated oysters. Every 15 days, the individuals of one of the tanks were examined for the presence of imposex. Development of imposex was measured using the VDSI, RPSI and RPLI indexes. The animals had already developed imposex within the first 15 days, all the indexes measured (RPLI, RPSI and VDSI having increased significantly with duration of exposure, indicating that the animals were probablycontaminated by the food and had accumulated the pollutant. New paths of imposex development were also observed.Organismos marinhos são afetados por compostos organoestânicos que causam uma série de efeitos deletérios aos mesmos. O mais conhecido efeito da contaminação por organoestânicos é o imposex. Esse fenômeno consiste na masculinização de fêmeas de moluscos neogastrópodes tais como Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Esses compostos tendem a se acumular em moluscos devido a sua baixa capacidade de eliminá-los. Um total de 248 indivíduos de S. haemastoma floridana foram coletados de uma população livre qualquer indício de imposex. Esses animais foram mantidos em 7 aquários, com aproximadamente 30 indivíduos cada, 1 desses aquários foi considerado como controle e os animas do mesmo alimentados com ostras obtidas de locais onde não se verificou a ocorrência de imposex em neogastrópodes nativos. Os animais nos outros 6 aquários foram alimentados com ostras obtidas em local onde a incidência de imposex entre os gastrópodes nativos revelou-se muito alta. A cada 15 dias, por um período total de 90 dias, os animais de um dos tanques eram retirados e analisados quanto à presença de imposex. Os níveis de imposex foram quantificados através da % de imposex e dos índices: RPLI, RPSI e VDSI. Observou-se a indução de imposex em S. haemastoma floridana através da dieta a partir de Crassostrea rhizophora e um aumento significativo dos índices com o decorrer do tempo de exposição. Os animais do aquário controle foram analisados ao fim do experimento não revelando qualquer indício de imposex.

  8. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Katharina; Geiß, Cornelia; Askem, Clare; Benstead, Rachel; Brown, Rebecca; Coke, Maira; Ducrot, Virginie; Egeler, Philipp; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lagadic, Laurent; Le Page, Gareth; Macken, Ailbhe; Matthiessen, Peter; Ostermann, Sina; Schimera, Agnes; Schmitt, Claudia; Seeland-Fremer, Anne; Smith, Andy J; Weltje, Lennart; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    Mollusks are known to be uniquely sensitive to a number of reproductive toxicants including some vertebrate endocrine disrupting chemicals. However, they have widely been ignored in environmental risk assessment procedures for chemicals. This study describes the validation of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum reproduction test within the OECD Conceptual Framework for Endocrine Disrupters Testing and Assessment. The number of embryos in the brood pouch and adult mortality serve as main endpoints. The experiments are conducted as static systems in beakers filled with artificial medium, which is aerated trough glass pipettes. The test chemical is dispersed into the medium, and adult snails are subsequently introduced into the beakers. After 28 days the reproductive success is determined by opening the brood pouch and embryo counting. This study presents the results of two validation studies of the reproduction test with eleven laboratories and the chemicals tributyltin (TBT) with nominal concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 ng TBT-Sn/L and cadmium with concentrations from 1.56 to 25 μg/L. The test design could be implemented by all laboratories resulting in comparable effect concentrations for the endpoint number of embryos in the brood pouch. After TBT exposure mean EC 10 , EC 50 , NOEC and LOEC were 35.6, 127, 39.2 and 75.7 ng Sn/L, respectively. Mean effect concentrations in cadmium exposed snails were, respectively, 6.53, 14.2, 6.45 and 12.6 μg/L. The effect concentrations are in good accordance with already published data. Both validation studies show that the reproduction test with P. antipodarum is a well-suited tool to assess reproductive effects of chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Field application of a set of cellular biomarkers in the digestive gland of the freshwater snail Radix peregra (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerlet, Edwige; Ledy, Karine; Giamberini, Laure

    2006-01-01

    An active biomonitoring study was performed in the vicinity of two pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) released in two different streams in northeastern France. Freshwater gastropods, Radix peregra (=Lymnaea peregra or Lymnaea pereger), were transplanted for 0, 3, 14 and 21 days at two to three sites located upstream and downstream from the mill discharge points in both rivers. Lysosomal and peroxisomal systems, as well as lipofuscin and neutral lipids, were tested using histochemical methods on cryostat sections of digestive gland tissues, and stereological data were obtained by image analysis. Evidence of structural changes in the lysosomal system was found in animals exposed to both effluents, comprising general stress responses such as enlarged and more numerous lysosomes; and also possible specific pluri-phasic effects. Modifications of the lysosomal and cytoplasmic contents of lipid-related materials were also described, namely enhanced lipofuscin deposit and neutral lipid depletion. The peroxisomal proliferation in exposed snails seems to show its implication in oxidative stress detoxication, without preventing higher lipoperoxidation, as indicated by the increased amounts of digestive lipofuscin. Structural changes of the lysosomal and peroxisomal systems, digestive lipofuscin and neutral lipid contents have potential for use as early cellular biomarkers in Radix peregra exposed to environmental stressors, which deserve further investigations

  10. Influence of joint application of heavy metals on level of each metal accumulated in the periwinkle Tympanotonus fuscatus (Gastropoda: Potamididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otitoloju, A.A.; Don-Pedro, K.N.

    2006-01-01

    Most laboratory assessments on toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have been concentrated on the accumulation of these metal ions when exposed singly to the test organisms. However, under the natural environmental settings, the metals are never present in isolation and may interact with each other, therefore justifying the need to study the influence of joint application of metals on accumulated levels in exposed animals. In this study, exposure of the periwinkle Tympanotonus fuscatus to sublethal concentrations (equivalent to 0.1 and 0.01 of 96 h LC 5 0) of heavy metals revealed that they were bioaccumulative varying amounts, depending on the type of metal, exposure period and concentration in the test media. while Zn and Pb ions accumulation increased steadily with exposure time, the amounts of Cu accumulated fluctuated regularly over the 30-day experimental period. The levels of Zn, Cu and Cd bioaccumulated over the 30-day experimental period were reduced by over 2-6 folds (with bioaccumulation radio values ranging from 0.15 to 0.81) when compared to concentrations of the respective metals accumulated during single bioaccumulation studies. However, Pb concentrations accumulated during the joint action studies increased nearly 2-fold (bioaccumulation ratio range 1.36 to 2.0-fold). (author) [es

  11. The ibero-balearic region: one of the areas of highest Hydrobiidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Rissooidea diversity in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arconada, Beatriz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The prosobranch mollusc family Hydrobiidae Troschel, 1857 has a cosmopolitan distribution and is made up of small to minute species that inhabit permanent aquatic ecosystems. It is one of the largest families within the superfamily Rissooidea. The evolutionary relationships between members of this family are still unclear due to: 1 insufficient available information regarding the morphological characters of many of the described taxa, 2 uncertainty concerning which morphological characters are of greatest taxonomic and phylogenetic interest, and 3 the rare use of molecular characters to study evolutionary relationships. In this work, we examine the reasons for the confusing systematics of hydrobiids. We include a diagnosis of the 13 genera and a list of the 43 species described and accepted to date for the Ibero-balearic region, along with data regarding their geographic distribution and a compilation of the most relevant bibliographical references. The Iberian Peninsula is one of the areas of greatest hydrobiid diversity in Europe, and has a large number of endemic genera and species in addition to those that have a typically circummediterranean distribution. Numerous hydrobiid species and populations are threatened, and in some cases, in danger of extinction due to the fragile nature of many of the ecosystems they inhabit.

    La familia Hydrobiidae Troschel, 1857 de moluscos prosobranquios, tiene distribución cosmopolita y está constituida por especies de tamaño pequeño (o incluso diminuto que habitan ecosistemas acuáticos permanentes. Se trata de una de las familias con mayor número de especies de la superfamilia Rissooidea. Las relaciones evolutivas entre los miembros de esta familia son aún confusas debido a: (1 la insuficiente información disponible sobre los caracteres morfológicos de muchos de los táxones descritos, (2 la indefinición de los caracteres morfológicos de interés taxonómico y filogenético, y (3 la escasa aplicación de los caracteres moleculares para este fin. En este trabajo se revisa la confusa sistemática de los hidróbidos y sus causas. Además, se incluye una diagnosis de los 13 géneros y un listado de las 43 especies hasta ahora descritas y aceptadas en el ámbito ibero-balear, con datos sobre su distribución geográfica y la bibliografía más relevante. Se constata que la Península Ibérica constituye una de las áreas de mayor diversidad de hidróbidos en Europa, conteniendo un alto número de géneros y especies endémicos a los que se añaden otros de distribución circunmediterránea. La fragilidad de muchos de los ecosistemas en los que viven hace que muchas de sus especies y/o poblaciones se hallen amenazadas e incluso en peligro de extinción.

  12. A morphological gap for Iberian Zospeum filled: Zospeum percostulatum sp. n. (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Carychiidae a new species from Asturias (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alonso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Zospeum percostulatum sp. n. from Cueva de La Herrería (Llanes, Asturias is described. It is characterized by a relatively large shell (1.4–1.8 mm height, conical, with ovate aperture, continuous peristome and thickened parietal callus; shell costulate except two first whorls; without any sort of inner formations. It is the first clearly costulate Iberian species, filling a morphological gap in the Iberian clade, and the largest species from the Cantabrian region, being the first species described from Asturias.

  13. Diversidade e distribuição do gênero Alvania (Mollusca, Gastropoda: Rissoidae) no litoral brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, Luciana Soares da

    2012-01-01

    Os Rissoidae Gray, 1847 são compostos por conchas pequenas ou micro-conchas, abundantes nos mares de todo mundo. Uma grande diversidade das espécies desse grupo é encontrada nas zonas de maré baixa e ao longo do litoral, onde há a maior ocorrência de algas, rochas, corais e outros locais que fornecem abrigo, todavia muitos ocorrem também em zonas de mar profundo. Em Rissoidae, Alvania é um dos mais diversos quanto ao número de espécies, sendo frequentes as descrições ou re-descrições de...

  14. Replacement names and nomenclatural comments for problematic species-group names in Europe's Neogene freshwater Gastropoda. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Neubauer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a new database project on Miocene to Recent freshwater gastropods of Europe, a great many of primary and secondary homonyms were revealed. Such nomenclatural issues need clarification in order to avoid misunderstandings and wrong statements about geographical distributions and temporal ranges. The following 16 new names are introduced to replace existing homonyms: Theodoxus militaris jurisicpolsakae nom. n., Viviparus stevanovici nom. n., Melanopsis haueri ripanjensis nom. n., Melanopsis wolfgangfischeri nom. n., Micromelania ramacanensis nom. n., Pseudamnicola welterschultesi nom. n., Muellerpalia haszprunari nom. n., Muellerpalia pseudovalvatoides nom. n., Lithoglyphus gozhiki nom. n., Valvata heidemariae willmanni nom. n., Radix macaleti nom. n., Gyraulus okrugljakensis nom. n., Gyraulus rasseri nom. n., Gyraulus vrapceanus nom. n., Planorbarius halavatsi nom. n., and Segmentina mosbachensis nom. n. Additionally, six cases of homonyms are discussed that are not replaced by new names, because they are considered junior synonyms.

  15. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Gálvez, L

    2009-08-01

    The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm). The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  16. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Omar dos Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns.

  17. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations.

  18. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Southeast and South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Maldonado Júnior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville. The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  19. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch (Gastropoda: Pulmonata shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FS. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm. The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  20. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Teles, Horácio M; Mota, Ester Maria; Lafetá, Cristiane; de Mendonça, Gomes Furtado; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel

    2003-01-01

    Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns.

  1. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Southeast and South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Arnaldo; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Motta, Esther M; Fernandez, Mônica A; Pereira, Zilene M; Monteiro, Simone S; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2010-11-01

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay) and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville). The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  2. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Teles, Horácio MS; Mota, Ester Maria; Mendonça, Cristiane Lafetá Gomes Furtado de; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel

    2003-01-01

    Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns. Exemplares de Achatina fulica foram experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Angiostrongylu...

  3. The genus Pirenella Gray, 1847 (= Cerithideopsilla Thiele, 1929) (Gastropoda: Potamididae) in the Indo-West Pacific region and Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David G; Ozawa, Tomowo

    2016-02-05

    Members of the genus Pirenella are abundant inhabitants of intertidal sedimentary shores, often found in association with mangroves, on the continental margins of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, and eastern Mediterranean Sea. Until recently, four morphological species were recognised in the tropical Indo-West Pacific region and classified in the genus Cerithideopsilla, while another species occupying the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean was classified as Pirenella conica. Molecular phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that all these species are congeneric and here it is shown that the valid name for the genus is Pirenella. A recently published molecular study recognised a total of 16 species and the present work is a systematic account of these species. Of the 16, nine are described as new. Other significant nomenclatural acts are: fixation of type species of Pirenella as Pirenella mammillata J.E. Gray, 1847; designation of neotypes for Cerithium alatum Philippi, 1849, Cerithium microptera Kiener, 1841, Cerithium conicum Blainville, 1829, Pirenella mammillata J.E. Gray, 1847 and Murex cingulatus Gmelin, 1791; designation of lectotype for Cerithium retiferum G.B. Sowerby II, 1855. The species accounts include full synonymies, detailed descriptions of shells (based on 831 museum samples), distribution records and maps, reviews of life history, of habitat and of ecology, and some images of radulae. Details of shell sculpture are adequate for the diagnosis of most species. Distorted shells are common in some populations and are suggested to represent parasitised individuals. Some species are pests of fishponds in Southeast Asia and P. conica is the intermediate host of a trematode responsible for the human disease heterophyiasis, while others are threatened by habitat destruction.

  4. Hoenselaaria, a new genus with the description of a new species (Gastropoda: Eulimidae) from the Indo-Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The type species of the genus Microstilifer, Stilifer auricula Hedley, 1907 is a rather common, but minute, Indo-Pacific micromollusc that needs a new generic and specific name due to misinterpretation of its identity. The genus Hoenselaaria new genus is introduced with its type species Hoenselaaria

  5. Role of temperature in the reproductive cycle of Thais chocolata (Gastropoda, Muricidae in Chanavaya, Tarapacá, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cantillanez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive condition of Thais chocolata (copulative aggregation establishment, clutch laying in capsules and specimen density, was studied monthly between February 2009 and January 2010, in the locality of Chanavaya (Tarapacá, Chile. Results showed that the specimens are mainly distributed in aggregations, and that their gonad development is asynchronous with the presence of mature females being registered during the entire year. Reproductive aggregations were found in the shallow stratus from late January to August 2009 and reappearing in January 2010. However, the larger ones (which sustained extraction occurred during June-July and January. An increase in specimen density in the 5 to 17 m stratum was registered in May-August and December-January, coinciding with the periods previous to, during and after the highest aggregation magnitudes registered. The aggregation periods coincided with temperatures over 15°C, with a lower reproductive activity associated to a decrease in temperature. We state that abrupt temperature changes occurring in short time periods could cause mature specimen to move, increasing their density in shallow waters for reproductive purposes. We suggest increasing protection for the resource during the reproductive aggregation processes given that extraction leaves the clutches unprotected and prone to predation from other organisms.

  6. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S H

    2013-01-01

    The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Zebra quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = Orthalicus bensoni (Reeve, 1849); Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789); Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus) dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848); Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909); Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus) reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821); Bulimus (Eurytus) corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus) stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus) psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007) and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  7. Effects of food type, feeding frequency, and temperature on juvenile survival and growth of Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selck, Henriette; Aufderheide, John; Pounds, Nadine; Staples, Charles; Caspers, Norbert; Forbes, Valery

    2006-06-01

    The present experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the ramshorn snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in order to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this paper we focus on the effects of a combination of food types and feeding frequencies (i.e., the frequency with which the snails were offered food) on juvenile growth and survival at different temperatures. Offspring produced in the laboratory by wild specimens of M. cornuarietis, from Puerto Rico, were used to test the effects of three types of food (lettuce, alginate with fish food, alginate with snail mix) fed at three frequencies (given ad libitum on 4/4, 2/4, or 1/4 d) on juvenile survival and growth. The 4-d feeding regimens were repeated four times, giving a total of 16 d for the experiments. The experiments were conducted at two temperatures (22 degrees and 25 degrees C) under a 12 h light:12 h dark photoperiod. Juvenile growth rates increased with increasing feeding frequency for all food types. The most rapid growth rates occurred in the high-frequency lettuce treatments and the slowest growth rates in the low-frequency lettuce and alginate with snail mix treatments. Juvenile snails grew faster at 25 degrees than at 22 degrees C, and mortality was about twice as high at the lower temperature. Growth rates were used to provide a rough estimate of time to maturity, which was determined to take about twice as long at 22 degrees than at 25 degrees C. The results showed that lettuce is the best food if supplied in abundance, but effects on growth are very dependent on feeding frequency and temperature. We conclude that 25 degrees C is a more appropriate temperature for maintaining populations than 22 degrees C, that lettuce provides a suitable food source, and that food should be supplied continuously for husbandry and toxicity testing of populations of M. cornuarietis.

  8. Effects of food type, feeding frequency, and temperature on juvenile survival and growth of Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Selck, Henriette; Aufderheide, John; Pounds, Nadine; Staples, Charles; Caspers, Norbert; Forbes, Valery

    2006-01-01

    The present experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the ramshorn snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in order to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this paper we focus on the effects of a combination of food types and feeding frequencies (i.e., the frequency with which the snails were offered food) on juvenile gr...

  9. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruppert, Katharina; Geiß, Cornelia; Askem, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Mollusks are known to be uniquely sensitive to a number of reproductive toxicants including some vertebrate endocrine disrupting chemicals. However, they have widely been ignored in environmental risk assessment procedures for chemicals. This study describes the validation of the Potamopyrgus ant...

  10. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Askem, Clare; Azam, Didier; Brettschneider, Denise; Brown, Rebecca; Charles, Sandrine; Coke, Maïra; Collinet, Marc; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Forfait-Dubuc, Carole; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas; Jach, Arne; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lacoste, Cédric; Le Page, Gareth; Matthiessen, Peter; Oehlmann, Jörg; Rice, Lynsey; Roberts, Edward; Ruppert, Katharina; Davis, Jessica Elphinstone; Veauvy, Clemence; Weltje, Lennart; Wortham, Ruth; Lagadic, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    The OECD test guideline development program has been extended in 2011 to establish a partial life-cycle protocol for assessing the reproductive toxicity of chemicals to several mollusk species, including the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we summarize the standard draft protocol for a reproduction test with this species, and present inter-comparison results obtained in a 56-day prevalidation ring-test using this protocol. Seven European laboratories performed semi-static tests with cultured snails of the strain Renilys® exposed to nominal concentrations of cadmium chloride (from 53 to 608μgCdL(-1)). Cd concentrations in test solutions were analytically determined to confirm accuracy in the metal exposure concentrations in all laboratories. Physico-chemical and biological validity criteria (namely dissolved oxygen content >60% ASV, water temperature 20±1°C, control snail survival >80% and control snail fecundity >8 egg-masses per snail over the test period) were met in all laboratories which consistently demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of Cd in snails using the proposed draft protocol. Effect concentrations for fecundity after 56days were reproducible between laboratories (68

  11. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF Concholepas Concholepas (GASTROPODA, MURICIDAE) VELIGER LARVAE IN THE INLAND SEAS OF NORTHWEST PATAGONIA.

    OpenAIRE

    MOLINET FLORES, CARLOS ALBERTO; MOLINET FLORES, CARLOS ALBERTO

    2005-01-01

    El presente estudio fue enfocado sobre la base de la hipótesis que el desarrollo larval extracapsular de C. concholepas ocurre en aguas profundas cerca del bentos y que larvas competentes de esta especie son transportadas a la superficie por mecanismos fí 124p.

  12. Phylogeography and Genetic Differentiation among Populations of the Moon Turban Snail Lunella granulata Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda: Turbinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuen-Tan Jean

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the genetic variation and phylogeographic relationships among 10 populations of Lunella granulata from mainland China, Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan Island, and Japan using mitochondrial COI and 16S markers. A total of 45 haplotypes were obtained in 112 specimens, and relatively high levels of haplotype diversity (h = 0.903 and low levels of nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0046 were detected. Four major phylogenetic lineage clusters were revealed and were concordant with their geographic distribution, agreeing with the haplotype network. These results suggested that geographic barrier isolating effects were occurring among the populations. This hypothesis was also supported by a significant genetic differentiation index (FST = 0.709 and by a spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA analysis. A mismatch distribution analysis, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots found a single significant population expansion. This expansion occurred on the coast of mainland China before 20–17 ka. Consequently, although the dispersal ability of the planktonic stage and the circulation of ocean currents generally promote genetic exchanges among populations, L. granulata has tended to maintain distinct genetic groups that reflect the respective geographic origins of the constituent lineages. Although the circulation of ocean currents, in principle, may still play a role in determining the genetic composition of populations, long-distance migration between regions is difficult even at the planktonic stage.

  13. Annotated type catalogue of the Megaspiridae, Orthalicidae, and Simpulopsidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S.H. Breure

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described for 65 taxa of the Orthalicoidea, classified within the families Megaspiridae (14, Orthalicidae (30, and Simpulopsidae (20; one taxon is considered a nomen inquirendum. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Helix brephoides d’Orbigny, 1835; Simpulopsis cumingi Pfeiffer, 1861; Bulimulus (Protoglyptus dejectus Fulton, 1907; Bulimus iris Pfeiffer, 1853. The type status of Bulimus salteri Sowerby III, 1890, and Strophocheilus (Eurytus subirroratus da Costa, 1898 is now changed to lectotype according Art. 74.6 ICZN. The taxa Bulimus loxostomus Pfeiffer, 1853, Bulimus marmatensis Pfeiffer, 1855, Bulimus meobambensis Pfeiffer, 1855, and Orthalicus powissianus var. niveus Preston 1909 are now figured for the first time. The following taxa are now considered junior subjective synonyms: Bulimus marmatensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Helix (Cochlogena citrinovitrea Moricand, 1836; Vermiculatus Breure, 1978 = Bocourtia Rochebrune, 1882. New combinations are: Kuschelenia (Bocourtia Rochebrune, 1882; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia aequatoria (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia aquila (Reeve, 1848; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia badia (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia caliginosa (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia coagulata (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kara indentata (da Costa, 1901; Clathrorthalicus magnificus (Pfeiffer, 1848; Simpulopsis (Eudioptus marmartensis (Pfeiffer, 1855; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia nucina (Reeve, 1850; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia ochracea (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia peaki (Breure, 1978; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846; Clathrorthalicus phoebus (Pfeiffer, 1863; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia polymorpha (d’Orbigny, 1835; Scholvienia porphyria (Pfeiffer, 1847; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia purpurata (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia quechuarum Crawford, 1939; Quechua salteri (Sowerby III, 1890; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia subfasciata Pfeiffer, 1853; Clathrorthalicus victor (Pfeiffer, 1854. In an addedum a lectotype is being designated for Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus var. pallidus Preston, 1909. An index is included to all taxa mentioned in this paper and the preceding ones in this series (Breure and Ablett 2011, 2012, 2014.

  14. Associated fauna and effects of epibiotic barnacles on the relative growth and reproductive indices of Stramonita haemastoma (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani El Ayari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the impacts of biofouling on the biological processes of the basibiont, the effects of epibiotic barnacles on the relative growth and reproductive indices of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 were assessed. A total of 1035 specimens were collected monthly for one year from Bizerta Channel (northern Tunisia. Endobiotic species comprised the lithophagous bivalves Lithophaga aristata and Rocellaria dubia of different sizes, communicating with the outside through tiny perforations. Intra-shell tunnels and galleries also sheltered annelids and sipunculids. Epibiotic species comprised algae and highly diversified invertebrates represented by crustaceans, polychaetes, molluscs, echinoderms, ascidians, sponges, bryozoans and sipunculids, with barnacles being the most common group. Comparison of growth features between non-fouled and fouled S. haemastoma revealed higher growth in non-fouled specimens. Differences in reproductive condition indices were detected in few months, being mostly higher in non-fouled snails, but showed no asynchrony in the spawning period for either fouled or non-fouled gastropods hosts.

  15. Dynamics and ecology of an Indo-Pacific conch,Conomurex persicus (Mollusca: Gastropoda in southeastern Turkey

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    Erhan Mutlu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conomurex persicus, one of the tropical conchs, has been introduced to one of the subtropical regions, the northeastern Mediterranean Sea, and invaded sandy bottoms between 1 and 10 m deep. Population dynamics were studied from specimens collected with a standard dredge (60 x 15 cm mouth opening, 0.5 x 0.5 cm eye opening of net. Samples of C. persicus were collected monthly along the 5 and 10 m depth contours off Erdemli, Mersin, Turkey, in February and May 2000. Intra-annual density depended on salinity levels, while inter-annual density was correlated with bottom water temperature. Specimens underwent spring emergences and winter burial and sheltering (disappearance. Emergence took place in March when temperatures rose and the disappearance occurred in October-November when temperatures dropped. Adults live at 10 m, juveniles are recruited at a 5 m depth. Recruitment began in April and continued for the next 6 months. In contrast to shell width or shell lip thickness, shell length was not a convenient index for estimation of growth parameters. Annual production and mortality were calculated to be 7.86 g m-2 and 3.80 g m-2, respectively, in April-November. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1: 117-129. Epub 2006 Mar 31.El gastrópodo tropical Conomurex persicurs, ha sido introducido a una región subtropical, el noreste del Mar Mediterráneo, y ha invadido los fondos arenosos en un rango de profundidad de 1 a 10 m. Se estudiarion las dinámicas poblacionales a partir de especímenes recolectados mediante un dragado estándard (60 x 15 cm de apertura de entrada y 0.5 x 0.5 cm de tramado. Muestras de C. persicus fueron recolectadas mensualmente a produndidades de 5 y 10 m en las cercanías de Erdemil, Mersin, Turkey, en los meses de febrero y mayo del año 2000. La densidad dentro de un mismo año depende de los niveles de salinidad, mientras que al comparar años distintos está correlacionada con la temperatura del agua.

  16. Growth rate fitting using the von Bertalanffy model: analysis of natural populations of Drepanotrema spp. snails (Gastropoda: Planorbidae

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    Alejandra Rumi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Drepanotrema includes six species in Argentina. The life cycle in natural systems of Drepanotrema depressissimum, and D. lucidum has been little studied, except for some casual observations. The aim of this study is to analyze main population trends (age structures, recruitment periods, life span and curves of individual growth in Paiva pond, Argentina. We explored growth model fitting and comparison methodologies between species and environments in Paiva pond and Isla Martín García (IMG, to determine interspecific patterns. Theoretical curves of von Bertalanffy’s model for each population were contrasted with samplings using the χ2 test. Expected sizes were transformed into a percentage of maximum size and cohorts started from zero time, which allowed them to be independent of the real or estimated starting date and a comparison was possible. A similar time scale was used, because the k values proved to be sensitive to time scale. Maximum size reached by D. lucidum was 6.9 mm and by D. depressissimum 9.38 mm. Growth rates (k fluctuated from 1.302 to 1.368 in the first and 1.339 to 1.509 in the second species. No statistically significant differences were found in growth curves among species inhabiting the Paiva pond and in the different IMG water bodies independent of the beginning of each cohort and maximum size. In general, no winter cohorts were observed, except in one population of D. kermatoides (IMG. Comparing circannual and biannual growth rhythms most of the species reached 60 % of their development during their first year, and 85 % or more during their second year. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 559-567. Epub 2007 June, 29.En Argentina se encuentran seis especies del género Drepanotrema. El ciclo de vida en sistemas naturales de Drepanotrema depressissimu y D. lucidum ha sido muy poco estudiado, excepto por algunas observaciones aisladas. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las principales tendencias de la población en la Laguna Paiva, Argentina. Usamos modelos de crecimiento y metodologías comparativas entre las especies y los ambientes en Paiva y la isla Martín García (IMG. Además, las curvas teóricas del modelo de von Bertalanffy para cada población fueron contrastadas con las muestras utilizando la prueba χ². Los tamaños esperados fueron transformados en porcentajes de tamaño máximo y las cohortes se iniciaron a partir del tiempo cero, lo cual les permitió ser independientes de la fecha inicial real o estimada y con ello ser comparables. Se utilizó una escala de tiempo similar debido a que los valores de k demostraron ser sensibles a la escala de tiempo. El tamaño máximo alcanzado por D. lucidum fue de 6.9 mm y por D. depressissimun fue de 9.38 mm. Las tasas de crecimiento (k fluctuaron de 1.302-1.368 en la primera especie y 1.339-1.509 para la segunda especie. No fueron encontradas diferencias significativas en las curvas de crecimiento entre las especies que habitaban en Paiva ni en los diferentes cuerpos de agua de IMG, independientes del inicio de cada cohorte y del tamaño máximo. En general no se observaron cohortes de invierno, excepto en una población de D. kermatoides (IMG. Al comparar los ritmos de crecimiento anuales y semestrales, la mayoría de las especies alcanzaron el 60 % de su desarrollo durante el primer año y el 85 % ó más durante su segundo año.

  17. Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda – more than just slimy slugs. Shell reduction and its implications on defence and foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wägele Heike

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general shell-less slugs are considered to be slimy animals with a rather dull appearance and a pest to garden plants. But marine slugs usually are beautifully coloured animals belonging to the less-known Opisthobranchia. They are characterized by a large array of interesting biological phenomena, usually related to foraging and/or defence. In this paper our knowledge of shell reduction, correlated with the evolution of different defensive and foraging strategies is reviewed, and new results on histology of different glandular systems are included. Results Based on a phylogeny obtained by morphological and histological data, the parallel reduction of the shell within the different groups is outlined. Major food sources are given and glandular structures are described as possible defensive structures in the external epithelia, and as internal glands. Conclusion According to phylogenetic analyses, the reduction of the shell correlates with the evolution of defensive strategies. Many different kinds of defence structures, like cleptocnides, mantle dermal formations (MDFs, and acid glands, are only present in shell-less slugs. In several cases, it is not clear whether the defensive devices were a prerequisite for the reduction of the shell, or reduction occurred before. Reduction of the shell and acquisition of different defensive structures had an implication on exploration of new food sources and therefore likely enhanced adaptive radiation of several groups.

  18. Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part III: Cyproterone acetate and vinclozolin as antiandrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, M; Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Duft, M; Markert, B; Oehlmann, J

    2001-12-01

    The effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed in laboratory experiments. In this last of three publications, the responses of the fresh water snail Marisa cornuarietis and of two marine prosobranchs (Nucella lapillus, Nassarius (Hinia) reticulatus) to the antiandrogenic model compounds cyproterone acetate (CPA) and vinclozolin (VZ) are presented. The snails were exposed to nominal CPA concentrations of 1.25 mg/L alone and simultaneously to a potent synthetic estrogen (ethinylestradiol), androgen (methyltestosterone) or an indirectly acting xeno-androgen (tributyltin) in experiments with adult specimens and in a life cycle test for 12 months. Marisa and Nucella were furthermore exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.03-1.0 microgram VZ/L for up to 5 months. The antiandrogens induced a number of biological responses in all three species. The length of the penis and of accessory male sex organs (e.g., penis sheath, prostate) were significantly reduced. For Marisa, this effect occurred only in sexually immature specimens and was reversible as the males attained puberty. Typical androgen-mediated responses (imposex development, delayed spermatogenesis, tubulus necrosis of the testis with orchitis and Leydig cell hyperplasia) were partially or totally suppressed by a simultaneous administration of CPA. In the two marine species even adult, sexually mature males responded to antiandrogens with a reduction of the male sex organs and an advancement of the sexual repose phase. The results for CPA and VZ are compared with the effects of an exposure to xeno-estrogens (bisphenol A, octylphenol) and xeno-androgens (triphenyltin, tributyltin) in the same species. Each group of endocrine disruptors induces a characteristic set of toxicological effects in prosobranch snails which can be used as endpoints in an organismic invertebrate test for the identification of endocrine mimetic test compounds. Estrogens cause primarily an induction of superfemales resulting in an increased female mortality by the enhancement of spawning mass and egg production. The main effects of androgens are a virilization of females by imposex development and a marked decrease of the fecundity. Compared with estrogens and androgens, the antiandrogen responses seem to be less drastic and might have--in contrast to the two other disruptor classes--no biologically significant effects at the population level.

  19. Bisphenol A induces superfeminization in the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis(Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlmann, Jörg; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Bachmann, Jean; Oetken, Matthias; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Ternes, Thomas A

    2006-04-01

    Previous investigations have shown that bisphenol A (BPA) induces a superfeminization syndrome in the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis at concentrations as low as 1 microg/L. Superfemales are characterized by the formation of additional female organs, enlarged accessory sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct, and a stimulation of egg and clutch production, resulting in increased female mortality. However, these studies were challenged on the basis of incomplete experimentation. Therefore, the objective of the current approach was to bridge several gaps in knowledge by conducting additional experiments. In an initial series of experiments, study results from the reproductive phase of the snails were evaluated in the sub-micrograms per liter range. Before and after the spawning season, superfemale responses were observed [NOEC (no observed effect concentration) 7.9 ng/L, EC10 (effective concentration at 10%) 13.9 ng/L], which were absent during the spawning season. A further experiment investigated the temperature dependence of BPA responses by exposing snails at two temperatures in parallel. The adverse effect of BPA was at least partially masked at 27 degrees C (EC10 998 ng/L) when compared with 20 degrees C (EC10 14.8 ng/L). In M. cornuarietis, BPA acts as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, because effects were completely antagonized by a co-exposure to tamoxifen and Faslodex. Antiandrogenic effects of BPA, such as a significant decrease in penis length at 20 degrees C, were also observed. Competitive receptor displacement experiments indicate the presence of androgen- and estrogen-specific binding sites. The affinity for BPA of the estrogen binding sites in M. cornuarietis is higher than that of the ER in aquatic vertebrates. The results emphasize that prosobranchs are affected by BPA at lower concentrations than are other wildlife groups, and the findings also highlight the importance of exposure conditions.

  20. Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part II: Triphenyltin as a xeno-androgen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Tillmann, M; Markert, B; Oehlmann, J; Watermann, B; Scherf, S

    2000-12-01

    In laboratory experiments the effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed. In this second of three publications the responses of the freshwater ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis and of two marine prosobranchs (the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus and the netted whelk Hinia reticulata) to the xeno-androgenic model compound triphenyltin (TPT) are presented. Marisa and Nucella were exposed via water (nominal concentrations 5-500 ng TPT-Sn/L) and Hinia via sediments (nominal concentrations 50-500 micrograms TPT-Sn/kg dry wt.) for up to 4 months. Female ramshorn snails but not the two marine species developed imposex in a time and concentration dependent manner (EC10 4 months: 12.3 ng TPT-Sn/L) with a comparable intensity as described for tributyltin. TPT reduced furthermore the fecundity of Marisa at lower concentrations (EC10 4 months: 5.59 ng TPT-Sn/L) with a complete inhibition of spawning at nominal concentrations > or = 250 ng TPT-Sn/L (mean measured +/- SD: > or = 163 +/- 97.0 ng TPT-Sn/L). The extension of the pallial sex organs (penis with accessory structures and prostate gland) of male ramshorn snails and dogwhelks were reduced by up to 25% compared to the control but not in netted whelks. Histopathological analyses for M. cornuarietis and H. reticulata provide evidence for a marked impairment of spermatogenesis (both species) and oogenesis (only netted whelks). The test compound induced a highly significant and concentration independent increase in the incidence of hyperplasia on gills, osphradia and other organs in the mantle cavity of N. lapillus indicating a carcinogenic potential of TPT. The results show that prosobranchs are sensitive to endocrine disruption at environmentally relevant concentrations of TPT. Also, M. cornuarietis is a promising candidate for a future organismic invertebrate system to identify endocrine-mimetic test compounds.

  1. DNA multigene sequencing of topotypic specimens of the fascioliasis vector Lymnaea diaphana and phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pectinidens (Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Bargues

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater lymnaeid snails are crucial in defining transmission and epidemiology of fascioliasis. In South America, human endemic areas are related to high altitudes in Andean regions. The species Lymnaea diaphana has, however, been involved in low altitude areas of Chile, Argentina and Peru where human infection also occurs. Complete nuclear ribosomal DNA 18S, internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 and ITS-1 and fragments of mitochondrial DNA 16S and cytochrome c oxidase (cox1 genes of L. diaphana specimens from its type locality offered 1,848, 495, 520, 424 and 672 bp long sequences. Comparisons with New and Old World Galba/Fossaria, Palaearctic stagnicolines, Nearctic stagnicolines, Old World Radix and Pseudosuccinea allowed to conclude that (i L. diaphana shows sequences very different from all other lymnaeids, (ii each marker allows its differentiation, except cox1 amino acid sequence, and (iii L. diaphana is not a fossarine lymnaeid, but rather an archaic relict form derived from the oldest North American stagnicoline ancestors. Phylogeny and large genetic distances support the genus Pectinidens as the first stagnicoline representative in the southern hemisphere, including colonization of extreme world regions, as most southern Patagonia, long time ago. The phylogenetic link of L. diaphana with the stagnicoline group may give light to the aforementioned peculiar low altitude epidemiological scenario of fascioliasis.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Semisulcospira libertina (Gastropoda: Cerithioidea: Pleuroceridae): implications the history of landform changes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kui-Ching; Bor, Hor; Lin, Hung-Du; Kuo, Po-Hsun; Tan, Mian-Shin; Chiu, Yuh-Wen

    2014-06-01

    The mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences from 95 specimens of Semisulcospira libertina in Taiwan were identified as two major phylogroups, exhibiting a southern and northern distribution, north of Formosa Bank and south of Miaoli Plateau. The genetic distance between these two phylogroups was 12.20%, and the distances within-phylogroups were 4.97 and 5.56%. According to a molecular clock of 1.56% per lineage per million years, the divergence time between these two major phylogroups was estimated at 4.94 million years ago (mya), with the two phylogroups forming at 3.64 and 3.75 mya, respectively. Moreover, the geological events have suggested that Taiwan Island emerged above sea level at 4-5 mya, and became its present shape at 2 mya. These results suggested that these two phylogroups might originate from two independent ancestral populations or divergent before colonizing Taiwan. Within South phylogroup, the initial colonization was hypothesized to be in Kaoping River (WT), followed by its northward. The high divergence between south- and north of WT River was influenced by the formation of the Kaoping foreland basins. Within North phylogroup, the colonization was from central sub-region through paleo-Miaoli Plateau to northern and northeastern sub-regions. This study showed that the landform changes might have shaped the genetic structure of S. libertina in concert. Apparently, two cryptic species or five different genetic stocks of S. libertina could be identified; these results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of S. libertina in Taiwan.

  3. Fluctuating helical asymmetry and morphology of snails (Gastropoda in divergent microhabitats at 'Evolution Canyons I and II,' Israel.

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    Shmuel Raz

    Full Text Available Developmental instability of shelled gastropods is measured as deviations from a perfect equiangular (logarithmic spiral. We studied six species of gastropods at 'Evolution Canyons I and II' in Carmel and the Galilee Mountains, Israel, respectively. The xeric, south-facing, 'African' slopes and the mesic, north-facing, 'European' slopes have dramatically different microclimates and plant communities. Moreover, 'Evolution Canyon II' receives more rainfall than 'Evolution Canyon I.'We examined fluctuating asymmetry, rate of whorl expansion, shell height, and number of rotations of the body suture in six species of terrestrial snails from the two 'Evolution Canyons.' The xeric 'African' slope should be more stressful to land snails than the 'European' slope, and 'Evolution Canyon I' should be more stressful than 'Evolution Canyon II.' Only Eopolita protensa jebusitica showed marginally significant differences in fluctuating helical asymmetry between the two slopes. Contrary to expectations, asymmetry was marginally greater on the 'European' slope. Shells of Levantina spiriplana caesareana at 'Evolution Canyon I,' were smaller and more asymmetric than those at 'Evolution Canyon II.' Moreover, shell height and number of rotations of the suture were greater on the north-facing slopes of both canyons.Our data is consistent with a trade-off between drought resistance and thermoregulation in snails; Levantina was significantly smaller on the 'African' slope, for increasing surface area and thermoregulation, while Eopolita was larger on the 'African' slope, for reducing water evaporation. In addition, 'Evolution Canyon I' was more stressful than Evolution Canyon II' for Levantina.

  4. Effect of temperature on growth, mortality, reproduction, and production of adult Lymnaea obrussa Say (Mollusca:Gastropoda)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattice, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Shell lengths and egg production were measured weekly under constant (K; 10, 15, 20, 25 0 C) and varying temperature regimes during the reproductive period. Varying regimes included natural field temperature in a pond (F; diurnal and seasonal), mean daily field temperature (anti F; seasonal) and 5 and 10 0 C above anti F. Growth rate of large snails (>10 mm) was unaffected by temperature, but small snails (6 to 10 mm) grew fastest at 15 0 C(K). Growth and reproductive periods were longest, production was highest, and mortality rate was lowest at 15 0 C(K). Rate (per snail) of egg production increased with temperature. At equal mean temperature, regime affected growth rate only at anti F. Regime affected the following values as shown: mortality rate,F > anti F = K; rate of reproduction, F > K > anti F; and total production, K > anti F = F. The validity of extrapolation of energetic data from laboratory to field is discussed. Data relating production and temperature are valuable in thermal impact analysis. (U.S.)

  5. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

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    Abraham Breure

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837.The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston, 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus ( Drymaeus tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus ziczac da Costa, 1898.The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847.New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837; Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835; Drymaeus (Drymaeus lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855; Drymaeus (Drymaeus trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844; Drymaeus (Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (K. culmineus edwardsi (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (K. gayi (Pfeiffer, 1857; Kuschelenia (K. tupacii (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus aquilus (Reeve, 1848; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus caliginosus (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus ochracea (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus purpuratus (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus quechuarum (Crawford, 1939; Naesiotus cinereus (Reeve, 1849; Naesiotus dentritis (Morelet, 1863; Naesiotus fontainii (d’Orbigny, 1838; Naesiotus orbignyi (Pfeiffer, 1846; Protoglyptus pilosus (Guppy, 1871; Protoglyptus sanctaeluciae (E.A. Smith, 1889.Type material of the following taxa is figured herein for the first time: Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus coriaceus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimulus laxostylus Rolle, 1904; Bulimus pliculatus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus simpliculus Pfeiffer, 1855.

  6. A high molecular weight proteoglycan is differentially expressed during development of the mollusc Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca; Gastropoda; Muricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandan, E; González, M; Inestrosa, N C; Tremblay, C; Urrea, R

    1992-12-15

    Incorporation of radioactive sulfate to hatched veliger larvae of the gastropod muricid Concholepas concholepas indicated that over 87% of the sulfated macromolecules were found in the detergent insoluble fraction, rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The sulfated material was solubilized with guanidine salt followed by urea dialysis and fractionated by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. Three sulfated compounds eluting at 0.7, 1.1, and 3.0 M NaCl, called peaks I, II, and III, respectively, were obtained. The sulfated compound present in peak I was degraded by pronase or sodium alkaline treatment to a small sulfated resistant material, suggesting the presence of a proteoglycan (PG). Filtration analysis on Sephacryl S-500 and SDS-PAGE of the intact PG indicates that it has a high molecular weight (360,000 to over 1 x 10(6)). Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against this PG were produced. The specificity of one mAb, the 6H2, was demonstrated by size chromatography and ELISA analysis. The epitope recognized by this mAb seems to be present in the core protein of the PG. Both the extent of sulfation and the presence of different sulfated species of PGs were evaluated during the development of this mollusc. A twelvefold increase in the incorporation of sulfate to PGs per milligram of protein was found in veliger larvae compared to blastula-glastula stages. This change correlated well with the differential expression of the sulfated PG present in peak I. Biochemical and immunological analysis indicate that high levels of this PG are found in veliger and trocophore larvae in comparison with blastula-gastrula and early juveniles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Nyctemeral variations of magnesium intake in the calcitic layer of a Chilean mollusk shell (Concholepas concholepas, Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Lazareth, Claire E.; Guzman, Nury; Poitrasson, F.; Candaudap, F.; Ortlieb, Luc

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Mollusk shells are increasingly used as records of past environmental conditions, particularly for sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstructions. Many recent studies tackled SST (and/or sea-surface salinity) tracers through variations in the elementary (Mg and Sr) or stable isotope (δ18 O) composition within mollusk shells. But such attempts, which sometimes include calibration studies on modern specimens, are not always conclusive. We present here a series of Mg and S...

  8. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Morphology of the shell of Happiella cf. insularis (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Systrophiidae from three forest areas on Ilha Grande, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Brum Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study on shell morphology variation among three populations of Happiella cf. insularis (Boëttger, 1889 inhabiting different areas (Jararaca, Caxadaço, and Parnaioca trails at Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Linear and angular measurements, shell indices representing shell shape, and whorl counts were obtained from images drawn using a stereomicroscope coupled with a camera lucida. The statistical analysis based on ANOVA (followed by Bonferroni's test, Pearson's correlation matrix, and discriminant analysis enabled discrimination among the populations studied. The variable that most contributed to discriminate among groups was shell height. Mean shell height was greatest for specimens collected from Jararaca, probably reflecting the better conservation status of that area. Good conservation is associated with enhanced shell growth. Mean measurements were smallest for specimens from Parnaioca, the most disturbed area surveyed. Mean aperture height was smallest for specimens from Parnaioca, which may represent a strategy to prevent excessive water loss. Discriminant analysis revealed that the snails from Jararaca differ the most from snails collected in the two other areas, reflecting the different conservation status of these areas: shells reach larger sizes in the localities where the humidity is higher. The similarities in shell morphology were greater between areas that are more similar environmentally (Caxadaço and Parnaioca, suggesting that conchological differences may correspond to adaptations to the environment.

  10. Re-characterization of the Red-lip Megalobulimus (Gastropoda: Strophocheilidae from Peru with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Borda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Megalobulimus K. Miller, 1878 is a genus of land snails that includes the largest living snails in the Neotropics. The main goal of this paper was to review all species of Megalobulimus that have a red lip, and which are distributed in Peru. We carried out a detailed description of their shells and soft parts, and conducted a multivariate analysis on their shells and geographic distribution. There are two species reported from Peru, Megalobulimus capillaceus (Pfeiffer, 1855 and Megalobulimus separabilis (Fulton, 1903. Megalobulimus capillaceus is known to occur in three regions - San Martín, Huánuco and Cusco - but the Cusco population is undoubtedly different from all remaining populations, and is recognized herein as a new species, Megalobulimus florezi sp. nov. This species has a more elongated shell, penis club-shaped, epiphallus longer, and free oviduct longer than M. capillaceus. By contrast, the male genitalia of M. separabilis is filiform and does not present an external diverticulum in the free oviduct.

  11. Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Haliotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bravo Portela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium.

  12. Putative midkine family protein up-regulation in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanucci, Silvana; Minerdi, Daniela; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Mengoni, Alessio; Bazzicalupo, Marco

    2005-01-01

    A cDNA sequence of a putative midkine (MK) family protein was identified and characterised in the mollusc Patella caerulea. The midkine family consists of two members, midkine and pleiotrophin (PTN), and it is one of the recently discovered cytokines. Our results show that this putative midkine protein is up-regulated in specimens of P. caerulea exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (i.e. 0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real time RT-PCR estimations indicate elevated expression of midkine mRNA in exposed specimens compared to controls. Moreover, RT-PCR Real time values were higher in the viscera (here defined as the part of the soft tissue including digestive gland plus gills) than in the foot (i.e. foot plus head plus heart) of the limpets. At present, information on the functional signalling significance of the midkine family proteins suggests that the up-regulation of P. caerulea putative midkine family protein is a distress signal likely with informative value on health status of the organism and with potential prognostic capability

  13. Some fossil species of Babylonia seen in ultraviolet light, with description of a new species (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren, van C.O.; Gittenberger, E.

    1972-01-01

    When preparing a revision of the genus Babylonia for "Indo-Pacific Mollusca", edited by Dr. R. Tucker Abbott, we tried ultraviolet light to see the outline of the colour-pattern of some fossil species. Later on we saw the same method described by Mrs. Katherine Krueger (1971). Dr. H. E. Coomans of

  14. An integrative taxonomic investigation of the diversity of digenean parasites infecting the intertidal snail Austrolittorina unifasciata Gray, 1826 (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) in Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    O’Dwyer, K.; Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 6 (2015), s. 2381-2397 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Parorchis * Gorgocephalus * Renicola * Notocotylus * Cercariae * 28S rDNA * cox1 * Digenea * Austrolittorina unifasciata * Australia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2015

  15. Assessing the effects of fluoxetine on Physa acuta (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) and Chironomus riparius (Insecta, Diptera) using a two-species water-sediment test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Argueello, Paloma [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of the Environment, INIA, Crta, A Coruna km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: arguello@inia.es; Fernandez, Carlos; Tarazona, Jose V. [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of the Environment, INIA, Crta, A Coruna km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-01

    Fluoxetine has been tested in a two-species water-sediment system, which allowed a two-generation study with Chironomus riparius and a partial life-cycle with the freshwater snail Physa acuta to be performed at the same time. The design considered the continuous application of fluoxetine to overlaying water for nominal concentrations of 31.25, 62.5, 125 and 250 {mu}g/L. A fifth treatment (87.5 {mu}g/L) level consisted of pulse applications once a week. Measures of water and sediment concentrations were determined once a week and at the end of experiment (day 44), respectively. The fate study demonstrated that water dissipation can be explained by partitioning of fluoxetine to sediment. At the end of experiment, the percentage of detected fluoxetine was up to 10-fold higher in sediment than in overlaying water. The employed two-species test allowed distinguishing, in the same exposure conditions, effects due to waterborne exposure together ingestion at the sediment surface (freshwater grazing snail P. acuta) and exposure by burrowing activities (sediment-dwelling insect larvae C. riparius). The effect assessment showed a stimulation of P. acuta reproduction at lower concentrations (31.25 and 62.5 {mu}g/L), while the opposite effect was observed at the highest treatment (250 {mu}g/L). Additional studies should be conducted to establish if the statistically significant differences observed in F0 sex ratio at the 62.5 {mu}g/L and F1 adult emergence at 31.25 {mu}g/L of C. riparius have a toxicological significance. This study showed that fluoxetine can affect reproduction of freshwater molluscs. The results of the present study may contribute to knowledge on ecotoxicology of pharmaceuticals, about which little data is available. The possible consequences and implications for targeting the environmental risk assessment of fluoxetine are discussed.

  16. Assessing the effects of fluoxetine on Physa acuta (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) and Chironomus riparius (Insecta, Diptera) using a two-species water-sediment test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Argueello, Paloma; Fernandez, Carlos; Tarazona, Jose V.

    2009-01-01

    Fluoxetine has been tested in a two-species water-sediment system, which allowed a two-generation study with Chironomus riparius and a partial life-cycle with the freshwater snail Physa acuta to be performed at the same time. The design considered the continuous application of fluoxetine to overlaying water for nominal concentrations of 31.25, 62.5, 125 and 250 μg/L. A fifth treatment (87.5 μg/L) level consisted of pulse applications once a week. Measures of water and sediment concentrations were determined once a week and at the end of experiment (day 44), respectively. The fate study demonstrated that water dissipation can be explained by partitioning of fluoxetine to sediment. At the end of experiment, the percentage of detected fluoxetine was up to 10-fold higher in sediment than in overlaying water. The employed two-species test allowed distinguishing, in the same exposure conditions, effects due to waterborne exposure together ingestion at the sediment surface (freshwater grazing snail P. acuta) and exposure by burrowing activities (sediment-dwelling insect larvae C. riparius). The effect assessment showed a stimulation of P. acuta reproduction at lower concentrations (31.25 and 62.5 μg/L), while the opposite effect was observed at the highest treatment (250 μg/L). Additional studies should be conducted to establish if the statistically significant differences observed in F0 sex ratio at the 62.5 μg/L and F1 adult emergence at 31.25 μg/L of C. riparius have a toxicological significance. This study showed that fluoxetine can affect reproduction of freshwater molluscs. The results of the present study may contribute to knowledge on ecotoxicology of pharmaceuticals, about which little data is available. The possible consequences and implications for targeting the environmental risk assessment of fluoxetine are discussed

  17. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Kerchove

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05, suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM. Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 ± 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 ± 0.9 g, which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 µM with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 µM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively.

  18. Estado del conocimiento de la durofagia en el registro fósil: interacción depredador-presa en moluscos marinos (Clases Gastropoda y Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Gómez-Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La depredación como un mecanismo evolutivo, de diversificación y biomineralización es un tópico de gran interés. Un tipo específico de depredación es la durofagia que se define como el hábito alimenticio de los animales que consumen organismos con un esqueleto duro mineralizado, ya sea concha o exoesqueleto. Los moluscos representan una fuente muy importante para examinar la depredación durófaga en el registro fósil debido a su distribución mundial, abundancia, buena preservación y a que habitan en una gran variedad de ambientes. En este trabajo se revisa el número de artículos publicados en revistas de circulación internacional que se enfocan en el tema de la durofagia y que tienen como potenciales presas a gasterópodos y bivalvos marinos fósiles. Se recuperaron y revisaron 101 artículos sobre este tema, enfocados en seis tipos de evidencia: perforación, reparación y fragmentación de la concha, mordidas, “punctures” y coprolitos. La mayoría de los ejemplos correspondieron a moluscos del Cenozoico. En general hay más registros en la zona tropical. Durante el Paleozoico, la mayoría de las veces, no se identificó el potencial depredador; esta tendencia continuó en el Mesozoico pero se reconoció la depredación de gasterópodos y bivalvos por parte de gasterópodos carnívoros, artrópodos, peces y reptiles. Durante el Cenozoico dominó la depredación por parte de gasterópodos natícidos y murícidos y se reconoció también la depredación por parte de ar trópodos, peces y mamíferos.

  19. Los moluscos terrestres (Mollusca: Gastropoda de Costa Rica: clasificación, distribución y conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidett Barrientos Llosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los moluscos terrestres son un grupo muy poco estudiado a nivel mundial. Hay 183 especies reportadas para Costa Rica, 30% son endémicas y 7% posiblemente están extintas. Se espera que en el país haya alrededor de 400 especies, de más del 95% se desconoce su biología, ecología, distribución, genética y otros campos de estudio. En Costa Rica las familias con mayor número de especies son Spiraxidae, Orthalicidae y Subulinidae. No obstante, es posible que Euconulidae sea aun más diversa, pues habitan las zonas altas del país que es en donde menos trabajo se ha hecho. El estudio de regiones altas aumentará el porcentaje de endemismo. Los futuros trabajos malacológicos taxonómicos, biológicos y ecológicos deben considerar la poca movilidad de este grupo, su tendencia a formar especies nuevas en simpatría, la especificidad de requerimientos de microhábitat, el hermafroditismo, la alta tasa de evolución (10% por millón de años y la divergencia entre especies (2-30%. Para proteger adecuadamente la biodiversidad de la malacofauna costarricense, se requiere de estudios que determinen la distribución y abundancia de las especies y el efecto del uso de la tierra y del climático.

  20. On the identities of the molluscan names described in A Short Zoology of Tahiti in the Society Islands by Anthony Curtiss in 1938 (Mollusca: Cephalopoda, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Martyn E Y; Tan, Siong Kiat

    2014-02-11

    Anthony Curtiss described two species of cephalopod and nine species of gastropod molluscs from Tahiti. Herein, we discuss and determine the identities of these eleven names. Ten of these names are considered to be junior subjective synonyms of well-known taxa, and one an unavailable name.

  1. Nueva especie de Planorbidae (Gastropoda: Basommatophora en la Patagonia chilena: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. First record of Planorbidae (Mollusca: Basommatophora in Chilean Patagonia: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fuentealba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile la familia Planorbidae está representada por el género Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, compuesta por siete especies distribuidas desde Isluga hasta el río Puelo. De estas especies, solo B.peregrina, ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico, y Biomphalaria aymara de Isluga, han sido reconocidas sobre la base de la morfología del sistema reproductor y la rádula, caracteres que fueron utilizados en el presente estudio para diferenciar a Biomphalaria cristiani como nueva especie del grupo y primer registro de la familia en la Patagonia chilena, ampliando su actual rango de distribución. Los caracteres que permiten la diagnosis de B. cristiani son el saco vaginal vestigial truncado, ausencia del desarrollo de los músculos suspensores del pene, vaina del pene corta en relación al prepucio, oviducto largo en relación al espermioducto y vaso deferente más delgado y largo que la vaina del pene, de tamano similar al prepucio. La localidad tipo de Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. es Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S, 72°27'40.65"W, región de Aysén.The family Planorbidae in Chile is represented by the genus Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, consisting of seven species distributed from Isluga to Puelo River. Of these species, only Biomphalaria peregrina widely distributed in the neotropical and Biomphalaria aymara from Isluga are recognized based on the morphology of the reproductive system and radula, characters that were used in the following study to differentiate Biomphalaria cristiani as a new species of this group and first record of the family in Chilean Patagonia, extending its current distribution range. The characters for the diagnosis of B. cristiani are: truncated vestigial vaginal pouch, lack of development of the penis retractor muscles, penis sheath shorter than the prepuce, oviduct longer than the spermiduct and vas deferens thinner and longer than the penis sheath, similar size to the prepuce. The type locality of B. cristiani nov. sp. is Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S; 72°27'40.65"W, Aysén region.

  2. Observations on the symbiosis between Colus gracilis (Da Costa, 1778) (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and Hormathia digitata (O.F. Müller, 1776) (Cnidaria: Actiniaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Aquarium observations of the behaviour of the actinian Hormathia digitata when mounting live specimens of the gastropod Colus gracilis are fully described for the first time. C. gracilis actively initiates an association with H. digitata by approaching and remaining stationary near the actinian.

  3. Population genetic structure of the freshwater snail, Bulinus globosus, (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) from selected habitats of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkize, Lwamkelekile Sitshilelo; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Zishiri, Oliver Tendayi

    2016-09-01

    The freshwater snail Bulinus globosus is an important intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis. This disease is of major health concern, especially in Africa where the majority of cases have been reported. In this study the inter- and intra-genetic diversity and population genetic structure of B. globosus from nine locations in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa was studied using four polymorphic microsatellite loci (BgZ1-BgZ4). Moderate genetic diversity was detected within populations with a mean diversity (HE) of 0.49±0.09. The majority of populations significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05), due to a deficit of heterozygotes. Such deviations may be due to founder events that were caused by bottlenecks that occurred as a result of frequent droughts and flooding that these snails' habitats are exposed to. Overall, the populations studied seem to be partially inbreeders/selfers with mean estimates of 0.24/0.38. A discernable genetic structure was elucidated among populations as evident by the mean pairwise FST of 0.58±0.13. There was no significant association between genetic and geographical distance among populations, an indication of limited gene flow. This increases the chances of populations losing alleles due to genetic drift. Populations in close proximity demonstrated high genetic differentiation (58.77% total variation) due to allelic differences between them. The sample populations fell into 12 clusters, however, the populations from uMkhanyakude and uThungulu exhibited no discernable genetic structure. Genetically, the Bhobhoyi site found within the uGu district was equidistant to the two main sampling regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  5. Description of two new species of Rissoella Gray, 1847 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia from Venezuela, with a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Caballer Gutierrez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Rissoella Gray, 1847 are described from Venezuela, one from the National Park Morrocoy, Rissoella morrocoyensis sp. n. and the other from the Wildlife Refuge Isla de Aves, Rissoella venezolanicola sp. n. R. morrocoyensis sp. n. has a deep umbilicus (partly closed, preumbilical cord, black head, hypobranchial gland marked by a pale yellow boomerang-shaped ribbon and it lives on the leaves of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum Banks & König, 1805. R. venezolanicola sp. n. has an angled preumbilical cord which extends to the columella delimiting a trapezoid, a hypobranchial gland marked by a yellow quaver-shaped ribbon and protoconch with fuchsia highlights. It lives on the brown alga Dictyota spp. The records of Rissoella in the Caribbean are revised and illustrations, a comparative table and a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus are provided.

  6. Coat of many colours—DNA reveals polymorphism of mantle patterns and colouration in Caribbean Cyphoma Röding, 1798 (Gastropoda, Ovulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian T. Reijnen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The iconic gastropod genus Cyphoma is commonly observed in the Caribbean, where it lives in association with various octocorallian hosts. Each species in the genus Cyphoma has a unique, characteristic mantle pattern and colouration, which separates the valid taxa. Because of its abundance and recognisability Cyphoma gibbosum has been used as a model organism in several studies concerning allelochemicals, reef degradation, and physical defence mechanisms. Molecular analyses based on four molecular markers (COI, 16S, H3 and 28S for three Cyphoma species (C. gibbosum, C. mcgintyi, C. signatum and an unidentified black morph, collected from three localities in the Caribbean, show that they represent morphological varieties of a single, genetically homogeneous species. This outcome is in agreement with previous anatomical studies. As a result C. mcgintyi and C. signatum are synonymised with C. gibbosum, which is a key result for future work using C. gibbosum as a model organism. The striking morphological differences in mantle pattern and colouration are hypothesised to be the result of one of three possible scenarios: rapid divergence, supergenes (including balanced polymorphism, or incipient speciation.

  7. Revision of Dadagulella gen. nov., the “Gulella radius group" (Gastropoda: Streptaxidae of the eastern Afrotropics, including six new species and three new subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rowson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Dadagulella gen. nov. is described to include 16 species of small, dentate, ovate-acuminate Afrotropical snails. An identification key is provided and biogeography, anatomy and systematics are discussed. The type species is the Kenyan D. radius (Preston, 1910 comb. nov., whose name has informally been used for part of the group in the past. Substantial intraspecific variation occurs in three species: D. radius itself, D. browni (van Bruggen, 1969 comb. nov. and D. minuscula (Morelet, 1877 comb. nov. (= Ennea fischeriana Morelet, 1881 (non Gulella minuscula Emberton & Pearce, 2000 . We recognise subspecies within each of these: D.radius radius (Preston, 1910 comb. nov., D. r. calva (Connolly, 1922 comb. et stat. nov., D. browni browni (van Bruggen, 1969 comb. nov., D. b. mafiensis subsp. nov., D. b. semulikiensis subsp. nov., D. minuscula minuscula (Morelet, 1877 comb. nov., D. m. mahorana subsp. nov. Six new Tanzanian species are described: D. cresswelli sp. nov., D. delta sp. nov., D. ecclesiola sp. nov., D. frontierarum sp. nov., D. minareta sp. nov., and D. pembensis sp. nov. The genus includes seven other previously described species: D. cuspidata (Verdcourt, 1962 comb. nov.; D. rondoensis (Verdcourt, 1994 comb. nov.; D. conoidea (Verdcourt, 1996 comb. nov.; D. selene (van Bruggen & Van Goethem, 1999 comb. nov.; D. meredithae (van Bruggen, 2000 comb. nov.; D. nictitans (Rowson & Lange, 2007 comb. nov.; and D. delgada (Muratov, 2010 comb. nov.

  8. Análisis morfohistológico del sistema reproductor de Bostryx conspersus (Sowerby, 1833 (Gastropoda, Bulimidae de las lomas de Pacta. Lima, Perú.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela López

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bostryx spp es uno de los géneros demás alta diversidad de los Bulimulidae; B. conspersus es considerada una especie típica de la malacofauna de Lomas. Nuestro objetivo es contribuir al conocimiento morfohistológico del sistema reproductor a fin de enriquecer la información básica de la reproducción de la especie y que nos sirva a futuro como patrón para comparar otros individuos del mismo género. Se procesaron especímenes maduros, colectados de las Lomas de Pacta, Departamento de Lima, a mediados de 1994; el análisis conquiológico siguió la clave de Arrarte (1953; los especímenes fueron disecados, siguiendo los procedimientos de Beaumont & Cassier (1970. La coloración diferencia¡ siguió el método de la Hematoxilina de Harris-Eosina. Se describe en base a la lectura de las láminas la estructura morfohistológica del complejo gonadal de B. conspersus, destacando entre ellos la glándula del albumen con la presencia de depósitos calcáreos entre las células epiteliales.

  9. Biología reproductiva, crecimiento y dieta del caracol ciego Buccinanops cochlidium (Dillwyn, 1817) (Gastropoda: Nassariidae) en el golfo San José, Patagonia Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Averbuj, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    El genero Buccinanops (dŽOrbigny, 1841) (Caenogastropoda, Nassariidae) es endémico del océano Atlántico sudoccidental, y su nombre significa "sin ojos", debido a su ausencia en los adultos. El caracol Buccinanops cochlidium (Dillwyn, 1817) se distribuye en aguas someras de las costas desde el paralelo 19ºS (Brasil) hasta el golfo San Matias (43º44ŽS) en Argentina, a profundidades entre 5 y 50m. En el golfo San José habita aguas someras en fondos de sedimento fino. Se realizo un estudio de la ...

  10. Non-native molluscan colonizers on deliberately placed shipwrecks in the Florida Keys, with description of a new species of potentially invasive worm-snail (Gastropoda: Vermetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Bieler

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs created by deliberately sinking ships off the coast of the Florida Keys island chain are providing new habitat for marine invertebrates. This newly developing fouling community includes the previously reported invasive orange tube coral Tubastraea coccinea and the non-native giant foam oyster Hyotissa hyotis. New SCUBA-based surveys involving five shipwrecks spanning the upper, middle, and lower Florida Keys, show T. coccinea now also established in the lower Keys and H. hyotis likewise extending to new sites. Two additional mollusks found on the artificial reefs, the amathinid gastropod Cyclothyca pacei and gryphaeid oyster Hyotissa mcgintyi, the latter also common in the natural reef areas, are discussed as potentially non-native. A new species of sessile, suspension-feeding, worm-snail, Thylacodes vandyensis Bieler, Rawlings & Collins n. sp. (Vermetidae, is described from the wreck of the USNS Vandenberg off Key West and discussed as potentially invasive. This new species is compared morphologically and by DNA barcode markers to other known members of the genus, and may be a recent arrival from the Pacific Ocean. Thylacodes vandyensis is polychromatic, with individuals varying in both overall head-foot coloration and mantle margin color pattern. Females brood stalked egg capsules attached to their shell within the confines of their mantle cavity, and give rise to crawl-away juveniles. Such direct-developing species have the demonstrated capacity for colonizing habitats isolated far from their native ranges and establishing rapidly growing founder populations. Vermetid gastropods are common components of the marine fouling community in warm temperate and tropical waters and, as such, have been tagged as potentially invasive or with a high potential to be invasive in the Pacific Ocean. As vermetids can influence coral growth/composition in the Pacific and have been reported serving as intermediate hosts for blood flukes of loggerhead turtles, such new arrivals in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary are of concern. Growing evidence indicates that artificial reefs can act as permanent way-stations for arriving non-natives, providing nurseries within which populations may grow in an environment with reduced competition compared to native habitats. Consequently, artificial reefs can act as sentinels for the appearance of new species. Ongoing monitoring of the developing molluscan fauna on the artificial reefs of the Florida Keys is necessary to recognize new invasions and identify potential eradication targets, thereby assuring the health of the nearby natural barrier reef.

  11. A new record of Morula anaxares with a description of the radula of three other species from Goa, Central West Coast of India (Gastropoda: Muricidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumbhar, J; Rivonker, C

    konkanensis (Melvill 1893) and Purpura bufo Lamarck 1822 from Goa are described for the first time using SEM photographs. Keywords: Muricidae, Goa, new record, taxonomic diagnosis, radula, SEM. 190 J.V. Kumbhar and C.U. Rivonker / Turk. J. Fish... optical zoom). The specimens were subsequently identified up to species Figure 1. Map of study area indicating sampling sites J.V. Kumbhar and C.U. Rivonker / Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 189-197 (2012) 191...

  12. The Neotropical land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda collected by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S.H. Breure

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The land snails collected by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacifíco’ (CCP, a Spanish expedition to South and Central America from 1862–1866, are restudied and revised. The historical context of the expedition and the study of its collected material are described. Biographical data is given for the main persons involved. The land snails were previously studied by Joaquin Hidalgo between 1867 and 1893. A total of 3,470 specimens belonging to 211 species are treated in this paper. Of 34 species mentioned by Hidalgo is his catalogue, the corresponding material could not be located. Bulimus visendus Hidalgo, 1869 is now placed in the genus Synapterpes Pilsbry, 1896, a new combination.

  13. Single cell gel electrophoresis as a tool to assess genetic damage in Heleobia cf. australis (Mollusca: Gastropoda as sentinel for industrial and domestic pollution in Montevideo bay (Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Villar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in aquatic organisms in polluted areas is an important issue because contamination may alter their health at sublethal levels. Although molluscs have been widely used to monitor water pollution, there are no records of in vivo genotoxicity studies. Heleobia cf. australis, is distributed in almost all Uruguayan coastal ecosystems, including highly polluted sites. The comet assay is a damage genetic biomarker based on the migration of negatively charged DNA fragments produced by mutagenic agents in individual cells. Live individuals were collected in the Montevideo Bay (impacted area and Laguna Garzón (control to analyze the presence of mutagenic agents in the former site through comet assay. Cells from organisms of the impacted area showed significantly higher levels of genetic damage than those obtained in the control population, measured by percentage of DNA in the tail. Although preliminary, this approach supports the idea that H. cf. australis could be used as a sentinel to evaluate the presence of mutagenic agents in estuarine environments, alerting to the impact of contamination in its early stages.

  14. GENETIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF POPULATIONS BELONGING TO THE BULINUS TRUNCATUS/TROPICUS COMPLEX (GASTROPODA; PLANORBIDAE) IN SOUTH WESTERN ZIMBABWE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukaratirwa, S.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    1998-01-01

    , in respect of allozyme variation (5 polymorphic loci), shell morphology (9 variables), copulatory organ and chromosome number. Comparative data were obtained from snails from north western Zimbabwe identified definitely as B. tropicus. Analysis of the genetic structure revealed a high degree of polymorphism...... (P) ranging from 0.29-0.80 among populations from Plumtree and expected heterozygosity (He) from 0.02-0.22. No enzymatic diagnostic loci were found which could differentiate the different morphs or populations and discriminant function analysis on the morphological data showed an overlap of morphs...

  15. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro,Ricardo; Ávila,Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  16. On the doubtful records of Alvania platycephala, Alvania pagodula and Alvania didyma, with the description of two new rissoid species (Mollusca; Gastropoda: Rissoidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, M.J.; Moolenbeek, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two new species of Alvania are described from Bermuda. Both species have been wrongly identified in the past. The generic classification is discussed but a definitive statement based only on conchological characters seems impossible.

  17. El género Alvania (Gastropoda: Rissoidae) a lo largo de la costa turca del Egeo con la descripción de una nueva especie

    OpenAIRE

    Bitlis, Banu; Öztürk, Bilal

    2017-01-01

    Este estudio trata de la distribución de las especies del género Alvania a lo largo de la costa turca del Egeo. El material investigado fue recolectado de diferentes hábitats (fondos blandos y duros y camas de macrófitas) a una profundidad de 0-875 m, en 39 estaciones a lo largo de la costa del Egeo turco entre 1995 y 2014. Entre el material bentónico analizado, 537 especímenes vivos y se obtuvieron 249 conchas vacías pertenecientes a 20 especies del género Alvania. Alvania marmarisensis se d...

  18. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setiaalexandrae sp. n., Setiaermelindoi sp. n., Setianetoae sp. n., and Manzoniamartinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  19. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and food preferences of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Merambong shoal, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husna, Wan Nurul Wan Hassan; Mazlan, Abd Ghaffar; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2017-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium is one of the marine gastropod mollusks that have high commercial value, particularly in the aquaculture sector in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the feeding and food items of L. canarium at different ontogenetic stages (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) from Merambong shoals, Malaysia. Field observations on feeding activity were conducted, followed by detailed laboratory analysis on the stomach content. Five-minutes observations on randomly selected individuals were conducted at the field sampling site and their feeding activities were recorded with reference to age stage. Various shell sizes from each ontogenetic stage were randomly collected and quickly anaesthetized with ice and preserved in 10% formalin before being transported to the laboratory for stomach content analyses. Field observations showed that L. canarium mainly grazed on epiphytes occurring on seagrass (46.67%), followed by sediment surface (40%) and epiphytes occurring on macroalgae (13.33%). Stomach content analyses showed a significant difference ( P 0.05) was detected between the three main food items (diatoms, sand particles and detritus) among the ontogenetic stages. Therefore, feeding activity revealed the role of the dog conch in the marine food network. While, classification of the types of food consumed by L. canarium through stomach content analysis determines the particular position of the gastropod in the food chain. Further studies are needed to provide a better insight between trophic relationships of L. canarium with marine ecosystem.

  20. Prevalence and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Angiostrongylidae in Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rocha Guerino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A. cantonensis larval DNA. RESULTS Of the 540 snails analyzed, 117 (21.7% were infected by A. cantonensis. For morphological and morphometric analyses, 60 larvae were used. Second-stage larvae were, on average, 358.2µm long and 26.4µm wide, while third-stage larvae were, on average, 450µm long and 21.12µm wide. The tails of the larvae ended in a fine tip. CONCLUSIONS All municipalities comprising Baixada Santista had A. fulica that were naturally infected with A. cantonensis. All of the observed characteristics were typical of the species.

  1. Prevalence and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Angiostrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerino, Laura Rocha; Pecora, Iracy Lea; Miranda, Marcel Sabino; Aguiar-Silva, Cryslaine; Carvalho, Omar Dos Santos; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2017-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A. cantonensis larval DNA. Of the 540 snails analyzed, 117 (21.7%) were infected by A. cantonensis. For morphological and morphometric analyses, 60 larvae were used. Second-stage larvae were, on average, 358.2µm long and 26.4µm wide, while third-stage larvae were, on average, 450µm long and 21.12µm wide. The tails of the larvae ended in a fine tip. All municipalities comprising Baixada Santista had A. fulica that were naturally infected with A. cantonensis. All of the observed characteristics were typical of the species.

  2. New records of Omalonyx matheroni (Pontiez & Michaud, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae for the São Paulo and Paraná States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx matheroni is a succineid gastropod that lives on aquatic macrophytes and on emergent vegetation in the wetlands of inner deltas, lakes and dikes. Occurrences of this species were recorded in the municipalities of Ibitinga (SP and Paranaguá (PR, broadening its distribution southwards in South America. Until now this species had been recorded in Demerara (Guiana, Zanderij and Belwaarde (Suriname, Guiana Francesa, Peru, Limoncocha (Equador, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais (Brazil, as well as on the islands of Guadalupe and Trinidade.

  3. Glowing seashells: diversity of fossilized coloration patterns on coral reef-associated cone snail (Gastropoda: Conidae shells from the Neogene of the Dominican Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Hendricks

    Full Text Available The biology of modern Conidae (cone snails--which includes the hyperdiverse genus Conus--has been intensively studied, but the fossil record of the clade remains poorly understood, particularly within an evolutionary framework. Here, ultraviolet light is used to reveal and characterize the original shell coloration patterns of 28 species of cone snails from three Neogene coral reef-associated deposits from the Cibao Valley, northern Dominican Republic. These fossils come from the upper Miocene Cercado Fm. and lower Pliocene Gurabo Fm., and range in age from about 6.6-4.8 Ma. Comparison of the revealed coloration patterns with those of extant species allow the taxa to be assigned to three genera of cone snails (Profundiconus, Conasprella, and Conus and at least nine subgenera. Thirteen members of these phylogenetically diverse reef faunas are described as new species. These include: Profundiconus? hennigi, Conasprella (Ximeniconus ageri, Conus anningae, Conus lyelli, Conus (Atlanticonus? franklinae, Conus (Stephanoconus gouldi, Conus (Stephanoconus bellacoensis, Conus (Ductoconus cashi, Conus (Dauciconus garrisoni, Conus (Dauciconus? zambaensis, Conus (Spuriconus? kaesleri, Conus (Spuriconus? lombardii, and Conus (Lautoconus? carlottae. Each of the three reef deposits contain a minimum of 14-16 cone snail species, levels of diversity that are similar to modern Indo-Pacific reef systems. Finally, most of the 28 species can be assigned to modern clades and thus have important implications for understanding the biogeographic and temporal histories of these clades in tropical America.

  4. Revision of the genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 from Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago), with descriptions of new recent and fossil taxa (Gastropoda, Helicoidea, Geomitridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia, Willy De; Neiber, Marco T; Groh, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 is revised on the basis of conchological, anatomical and genetic characteristics. A new genus Wollastonia gen. n. , two recent species, W. jessicae sp. n. and W. klausgrohi sp. n ., and one recent subspecies, W. jessicae monticola ssp. n. are described as new to science, as well as five fossil taxa, H. microcarinata sp. n. , W. beckmanni sp. n. , W. falknerorum sp. n. , W. ripkeni sp. n. , and W. inexpectata sp. n. For Helix vermetiformis R. T. Lowe, 1855, H. leacockiana Wollaston, 1878, H. oxytropis R. T. Lowe, 1831, H. duplicata R. T. Lowe, 1831 and H. oxytropis var. ß subcarinulata Wollaston, 1878 lectotypes are designated. For the taxa Helix bicarinata G. B. Sowerby I, 1824, Helix bicarinata var. ß aucta Wollaston, 1878 and Discula bulverii W. Wood, 1828 neotypes are selected. The taxa aucta and subcarinulata are elevated to specific rank. For the hitherto monospecific (sub-) genus Callina R. T. Lowe, 1855 it is shown that it is not closely related to the genus Discula but to the Hystricella -group and its generic rank is confirmed. The taxon D. bulverii W. Wood, 1828 is transferred from the genus Discula s. str. to the genus Callina . A further fossil taxon C. waldeni sp. n. is described as new to science.

  5. The structure of the columellar muscle system in Clio pyramidata and Cymbulia peroni (Theocosomata, Gastropoda). With a note on the phylogeny of both species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pafort-van Iersel, Trudy; Spoel, van der S.

    1979-01-01

    The phylogenetic relation between Clio pyramidata Linnaeus, 1767, and Cymbulia peroni De Blainville, 1818, has been studied with regard to the structure of their muscle systems. Specimens of both species collected from the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean were sectioned 5 µm thick and

  6. Novos registros de Omalonyx matheroni (Pontiez & Michaud, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae para os Estados de São Paulo e Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n2p187 Omalonyx matheroni é um gastrópode sucineídeo que ocorre nas macrófitas aquáticas e vegetações adjacentes de planície de inundação de rios, em lagos e açudes. Registra-se a ocorrência dessa espécie para os municípios de Ibitinga (SP e Paranaguá (PR, estendendo sua distribuição mais ao sul da América do Sul. Até o presente momento, a espécie tinha sido registrada para Demerara (Guiana, Zanderij e Belwaarde (Suriname, Guiana Francesa, Peru, Limoncocha (Equador, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro e Minas Gerais (Brasil, além das ilhas de Guadalupe e Trinidade.

  7. Larval trematodes (Digenea) of the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.), (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Našincová, Vanda; Kablásková, Lenka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 39-51 ISSN 1252-607X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GP524/07/P086; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * Mollusca * cercaria * metacercaria * Lymnaea stagnalis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.713, year: 2007

  8. Diagenetic changes in Concholepas concholepas shells (Gastropoda, Muricidae) in the hyper-arid conditions of Northern Chile - implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, N.; Dauphin, Y.; Cuif, J. P.; Denis, A.; Ortlieb, L.

    2009-02-01

    Variations in the chemical composition of fossil biogenic carbonates, and in particular of mollusc shells, have been used in a range of palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. It is of primary importance, therefore, to detect and understand the diagenetic processes that may modify the original chemical signature. This microstructural and biogeochemical study focuses on modern and fossil (Holocene and Pleistocene) shells of a littoral gastropod of Northern Chile, and on the characterization of mineral component transformations at the nanometric scale and concomitant intracrystalline organic compound modifications. The inner aragonite layer of the shell exhibits more complex deteriorations than the calcite layer. This preliminary study confirms that physical and chemical alterations of various components of mollusc shell biocrystals are complex and might manifest in different ways even within a single individual. The single criterion of determining the mineralogical composition to verify the conservation state of shell samples is insufficient.

  9. Mother-offspring data in a study of the mating system in a natural population of Bulinus globosus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukaratira, S.; Chandiwana, S.K.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    1996-01-01

    The mating system of a natural population of Bulinus globosus from the Chiweshe area, Zimbabwe, was studied with mother-offspring data using isozyme genetic markers. The study was done in response to work on the genetic structure of this population which suggested a limited extent of cross......-fertilization. Of the 24 adults whose progenies were analysed, at least 15 showed evidence of outcrossing and 9 had results consistent with selfing. These results show that the two modes of reproduction are important under natural conditions and the mating system of this population is considered to be ‘partially-selfing'....

  10. Population Genetics and Genetic Variability ofBulinus globosus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) From the Two Main River Systems in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukaratirwa, S.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Kristensen, Thomas K.

    1996-01-01

    screened eight loci were resolved, and six of them were polymorphic in at least one of the populations sampled. Genotypic distributions showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions due to deficiency of heterozygotes and this was attributed to selfing. The Save River drainage system, which falls under...

  11. Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae; Gastropoda) populations in the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya show extreme nuclear genetic differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyakaana, Silvester; Stothard, J. Russell; Nalugwa, Allen

    2013-01-01

    . Average observed and expected heterozygosities across loci in each population ranged from 0.13 to 0.69 and from 0.39 to 0.79, respectively. Twenty-five of the seventy-six possible population-locus comparisons significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium proportions after Bonferroni corrections...

  12. Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part I: Bisphenol A and octylphenol as xeno-estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlmann, J; Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Tillmann, M; Markert, B

    2000-12-01

    The effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed in laboratory experiments. In this first publication, the responses of the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis and of the marine prosobranch Nucella lapillus to the xeno-estrogenic model compounds bisphenol A (BPA) and octylphenol (OP) are presented at nominal concentration ranges between 1 and 100 micrograms/L. Marisa was exposed during 5 months using adult specimens and in a complete life-cycle test for 12 months. In both experiments, the xeno-estrogens induced a complex syndrome of alterations in female Marisa referred to as "superfemales" at the lowest concentrations. Affected specimens were characterised by the formation of additional female organs, an enlargement of the accessory pallial sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct section resulting in an increased female mortality, and a massive stimulation of oocyte and spawning mass production. The effects of BPA and OP were comparable at the same nominal concentrations. An exposure to OP resulted in inverted U-type concentration response relationships for egg and spawning mass production. Adult Nucella from the field were tested for three months in the laboratory. As in Marisa, superfemales with enlarged accessory pallial sex glands and an enhancement of oocyte production were observed. No oviduct malformations were found probably due to species differences in the gross anatomical structure of the pallial oviduct. A lower percentage of exposed specimens had ripe sperm stored in their vesicula seminalis and additionally male Nucella exhibited a reduced length of penis and prostate gland when compared to the control. Because statistically significant effects were observed at the lowest nominal test concentrations (1 microgram BPA or OP/L), it can be assumed that even lower concentrations may have a negative impact on the snails. The results show that prosobranchs are sensitive to endocrine disruption at environmentally relevant concentrations and that especially M. cornuarietis is a promising candidate for a future organismic invertebrate model to identify endocrine-mimetic test compounds.

  13. Arresting mantle formation and redirecting embryonic shell gland tissue by platinum2+ leads to body plan modifications in Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, Leonie; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the threat that anthropogenic substances pose to animals when they are emitted into the environment, tests like the invertebrate embryo toxicity test with the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis have been developed. These tests are used to investigate substances like the heavy metal platinum (Pt) that is used in catalytic converters and is gradually released in car exhausts. In 2010, our group reported that high Pt concentrations cause body plan alterations in snails and prevent the formation of an external shell during M. cornuarietis embryogenesis. Now, this study presents scanning-electron micrographs and histological sections of platinum(2+) (Pt(2+))-treated and untreated M. cornuarietis embryos and compares "normally" developing and "shell-less" embryos during embryogenesis, to reveal the exact course of events that lead to this body plan shift. Both groups showed similar development until the onset of torsion 70- to 82-h postfertilization. In the Pt(2+)-exposed embryos, the rudimentary shell gland (=anlage of both shell gland and mantle, which usually evaginates, grows, and eventually covers the visceral sac) does not spread across the visceral sac but remains on its ventral side. Without the excessive growth of the shell gland, a horizontal rotation of the visceral sac relative to head and foot does not occur, as being normal during the process of torsion. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Genetical structure of populations of modelling species of terrestrial mollusks in conditions of the urbanized landscape on example Сhondrula tridens Müll (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard A Snegin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the analysis of the morphological and genetical variability revealed by a method of gel-electrophoresis of proteins in PAAG, the state of gene pools of populations of modeling species Сhondrula tridens Müll (threedens snail in conditions of the urbanized forest-steppe landscape of the south of Mid-Russia Upland is investigated. In the majority of the investigated bunches authentic decrease of a level of heterozygosity and the decrease of an allelic diversification caused, both is fixed by natural historical factors, and factors of an anthropogenic parentage. The genetic-automatic processes in populations are considered and vectors of natural selection are defined. Calculation of effective number of researched bunches is spent.

  15. DNA sequence characterisation and phylogeography of Lymnaea cousini and related species, vectors of fascioliasis in northern Andean countries, with description of L. meridensis n. sp. (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bargues M Dolores

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Livestock fascioliasis is a problem throughout Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela, mainly in Andean areas where the disease also appears to affect humans. Transmission patterns and epidemiological scenarios of liver fluke infection have shown to differ according to the lymnaeid vector snail species involved. These Andean countries present the vectors Lymnaea cousini, L. bogotensis and L. ubaquensis, unknown in the rest of Latin America. An exhaustive combined haplotype study of these species is performed by means of DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal 18S RNA gene, ITS-2 and ITS-1, and mitochondrial DNA cox1 gene. Results The conserved 5.8S rDNA sequence corroborated that no pseudogenes are involved in the numerous non-microsatellite/minisatellite-related indels appearing between the ITS-2 and ITS-1 sequences when comparing different L. cousini - L. bogotensis populations. Sequence analyses and phylogenetic reconstruction methods including other lymnaeid vector species show that (i L. bogotensis is a synonym of L. cousini, (ii L. ubaquensis is a synonym of Pseudosuccinea columella, and (iii populations of L. cousini hitherto known from Venezuelan highlands indeed belong to a new species for which the name L. meridensis n. sp. is proposed. This new species is described and a complete phenotypic differentiation provided. Conclusions ITS-2, ITS-1 and cox1 prove to be good markers for specimen classification and haplotype characterisation of these morphologically similar lymnaeids in endemic areas. Analysis of the 18S gene and phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that L. cousini and L. meridensis n. sp. cluster in an evolutionary line different from the one of P. columella, despite their external resemblance. This suggests an evolutionary phenotypic convergence related to similar environments and which has given rise to frequent specimen misclassification. Body size and phylogenetic relationships of L. meridensis n. sp. with well-known vectors as Lymnaea cousini and P. columella, as well as with Galba/Fossaria species, suggest that the new species may participate in disease transmission to both animals and humans in altitude areas during the yearly window in which temperatures are higher than the F. hepatica minimum development threshold. The involvement of L. cousini and P. columella in the transmission and geographical/altitudinal distribution of fascioliasis in these Andean countries is analysed.

  16. DNA sequence characterisation and phylogeography of Lymnaea cousini and related species, vectors of fascioliasis in northern Andean countries, with description of L. meridensis n. sp. (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Livestock fascioliasis is a problem throughout Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela, mainly in Andean areas where the disease also appears to affect humans. Transmission patterns and epidemiological scenarios of liver fluke infection have shown to differ according to the lymnaeid vector snail species involved. These Andean countries present the vectors Lymnaea cousini, L. bogotensis and L. ubaquensis, unknown in the rest of Latin America. An exhaustive combined haplotype study of these species is performed by means of DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal 18S RNA gene, ITS-2 and ITS-1, and mitochondrial DNA cox1 gene. Results The conserved 5.8S rDNA sequence corroborated that no pseudogenes are involved in the numerous non-microsatellite/minisatellite-related indels appearing between the ITS-2 and ITS-1 sequences when comparing different L. cousini - L. bogotensis populations. Sequence analyses and phylogenetic reconstruction methods including other lymnaeid vector species show that (i) L. bogotensis is a synonym of L. cousini, (ii) L. ubaquensis is a synonym of Pseudosuccinea columella, and (iii) populations of L. cousini hitherto known from Venezuelan highlands indeed belong to a new species for which the name L. meridensis n. sp. is proposed. This new species is described and a complete phenotypic differentiation provided. Conclusions ITS-2, ITS-1 and cox1 prove to be good markers for specimen classification and haplotype characterisation of these morphologically similar lymnaeids in endemic areas. Analysis of the 18S gene and phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that L. cousini and L. meridensis n. sp. cluster in an evolutionary line different from the one of P. columella, despite their external resemblance. This suggests an evolutionary phenotypic convergence related to similar environments and which has given rise to frequent specimen misclassification. Body size and phylogenetic relationships of L. meridensis n. sp. with well-known vectors as Lymnaea cousini and P. columella, as well as with Galba/Fossaria species, suggest that the new species may participate in disease transmission to both animals and humans in altitude areas during the yearly window in which temperatures are higher than the F. hepatica minimum development threshold. The involvement of L. cousini and P. columella in the transmission and geographical/altitudinal distribution of fascioliasis in these Andean countries is analysed. PMID:21749718

  17. Insights into the relationships of Palearctic and Nearctic lymnaeids (Mollusca : Gastropoda by rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and phylogeny of stagnicoline intermediate host species of Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bargues M.D.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica is the vector-borne disease presenting the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution known. F. hepatica shows a great adaptation power to new environmental conditions which is the consequence of its own capacities together with the adaptation and colonization abilities of its specific vector hosts, freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae. Several lymnaeid species only considered as secondary contributors to the liver fluke transmission have, however, played a very important role in the geographic expansion of this disease. Many of them belong to the so-called "stagnicoline" type group. Stagnicolines have, therefore, a very important applied interest in the Holarctic region, to which they are geographically restricted. The present knowledge on the genetics of stagnicolines and on their parasite-host interrelationships is, however, far from being sufficient. The present paper analyses the relationships between Palaearctic and Nearctic stagnicoline species on the base of the new light furnished by the results obtained in nuclear rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and corresponding phylogenetic studies of the lymnaeid taxa Lymnaea (Stagnicola occulta, L. (S. palustris palustris (topotype specimens and L.(S. p. turricula from Europe. Natural infections with F. hepatica have been reported in all of them. Surprisingly, ITS-2 length and G C content of L. occulta were similar and perfectly fitted within the respective ranges known in North American stagnicolines. Nucleotide differences and genetic distances were higher between L. occulta and the other European stagnicolines than between L. occulta and the North American ones. The ITS-2 sequence of L. p. turricula from Poland differed from the other genotypes known from turricula in Europe. The phylogenetic trees using the maximum-parsimony, distance and maximum-likelihood methods confirmed (i the inclusion of L. occulta in the branch of North American stagnicolines, (iii the link between the North American stagnicolines-L. occulta group with Galba truncatula, and (iii the location of the L. p. turricula genotype from Poland closer to L. p. palustris than to other European L. p. turricula genotypes. The Palaearctic species occulta is included in the genus Catascopia, together with the Nearctic species catascopium, emarginata and elodes. The results suggest a potential of transmission capacity for C. occulta higher than that of other European stagnicolines or Omphiscola glabra. The relatively low genetic distances between C. occulta and G. truncatula and the clustering of both species in the same clade suggest that C.occulta may be potentially considered as the second lymnaeid intermediate host species of F. hepatica in importance in eastern and northern Europe, and probably also western and central Asia, after G. truncatula. L. p. turricula may be considered as a potential secondary vector of F. hepatica, at a level similar tot that of L.p. palustris.

  18. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol and Carum carvi (limonene on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50 doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene. These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  19. Diagenetic changes in Concholepas concholepas shells (Gastropoda, Muricidae in the hyper-arid conditions of Northern Chile – implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ortlieb

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the chemical composition of fossil biogenic carbonates, and in particular of mollusc shells, have been used in a range of palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. It is of primary importance, therefore, to detect and understand the diagenetic processes that may modify the original chemical signature. This microstructural and biogeochemical study focuses on modern and fossil (Holocene and Pleistocene shells of a littoral gastropod of Northern Chile, and on the characterization of mineral component transformations at the nanometric scale and concomitant intracrystalline organic compound modifications. The inner aragonite layer of the shell exhibits more complex deteriorations than the calcite layer. This preliminary study confirms that physical and chemical alterations of various components of mollusc shell biocrystals are complex and might manifest in different ways even within a single individual. The single criterion of determining the mineralogical composition to verify the conservation state of shell samples is insufficient.

  20. El loco Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière, 1789) (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Muricidae) como recurso durante el Holoceno Temprano-Medio en Los Vilos, Chile central

    OpenAIRE

    Báez, Pedro; Arata, Javier; Jackson, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Se estudió la abundancia relativa del loco, Concholepas concholepas, y las causas posibles de su variabilidad en los conchales culturales más antiguos del Holoceno Temprano-Medio del litoral de Los Vilos (31º55'S, 71º32'W). Las muestras se obtuvieron en excavaciones arqueológicas de cinco sitios y se dataron con C14: Punta Purgatorio (LV079: 10.040 ± 70 años antes del presente, a.a.p.), Caleta Ñagué (LV098: 10.120 ± 80 a.a.p.), Dunas de Agua Amarilla (LV166: 6.700 ± 60 a.a.p.), Borde Norte de...

  1. The exotic jumping snail Ovachlamys fulgens (Gude, 1900 (Gastropoda: Helicarionidae in urban areas of the Upper-Paraná Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIEL A. BELTRAMINO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The exotic land gastropod Ovachlamys fulgens (Gude, 1900, aka the jumping snail, was registered in Eldorado city, Misiones province, constituting the first documented record of that species in Argentina-and for all of South America as well. Identities of the individuals were confirmed through morphological examination, and by a DNA sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. DNA sequences for the mitochondrial 16S-rRNA and the nuclear 18S-rRNA genes were also obtained from the morphologically-confirmed specimens to gain insights into the genetic background of this species in Argentina, and as additional markers for enhancing the rapidity of identification by governmental authorities who are responsible for managing the presence of exotic species. Different size classes suggested that the species had successfully reproduced and become established in the locality. Ovachlamys fulgens is emphasized in the literature as being a serious pest to orchids. Misiones province harbors a high species richness of orchids, representing about one half of the known species in Argentina. Owing to the use of the orchid as an ornamental plant, the commercial trade could have facilitated the introduction of the species into Argentina. Control measures, preventive education, and surveillance are needed to prevent the further spread of this snail.

  2. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic with an updated regional checklist for the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., S. ermelindoi sp. n., S. netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  3. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined. PMID:25685020

  4. Duration of pairing and use of allosperm in Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda: Planorbidae Duração do acasalamento e uso do aloesperma em Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropode: Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin homozygous black pigmented and albino Biomphalaria glabrata are paired during a period varying from 1 to 20 days. The rate of cross-fertilized parents is statistically similar for the various lengths of pairing. As a whole, nearly 80% of the albino snails produce a pigmented progeny. This production begins as soon as the snails are mated and continues after their separation. To measure the actual use of the allosperm, its use during the postmating period must be added to the length of mating. So, it appears that the real use of the allosperm is statistically constant (mean slightly inferior to 8 weeks and not related to the length of the previous pairing.Espécimes virgens de Biomphalaria glabrata (um melâncio e um albino são acasalados durante um período variável de 1 a 20 dias. A proporção de espécimes parentais albinos fecundados por cruzamento é semelhante estatisticamente para os diversos períodos de acasalamento. Em conjunto, cerca de 80% dos albinos produziram descendência pigmentada. Essa produção começa assim que os moluscos são acasalados e continua depois que são separados. Para medir a utilização real do aloesperma, sua utilização durante o período de pós-acasalamento. Parece, assim, que a utilização real do aloesperma é estatisticamente constante (média ligeiramente inferior a oito semanas e não relacionada a duração do acasalamento anterior.

  5. Succinea peruviana (Gastropoda en la dieta de la lagartija de las Lomas Microlophus tigris (Sauria en la Reserva Nacional de Lachay, Lima, Perú

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    José Pérez Z.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa de la presencia del caracol Succinea peruviana en la dieta de la lagartija de las Lomas Microlophus tigris, la misma que habita el mesohábitat de Lomas con árboles en la Reserva Nacional de Lachay. Este es el primer informe del consumo de caracoles por lagartijas del Desierto Costero Peruano

  6. Larval trematodes (Digenea of the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L., (Gastropoda, Pulmonata in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faltýnková A.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of cercariae and metacercariae (Trematoda, Digenea from the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis in Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, South-East Germany, Poland and Slovak Republic is presented, based on a study of 3,628 snails examined from 1998 to 2005. A total of 953 (26.3% L. stagnalis were infected with 24 trematode species comprising 19 species of cercariae and 11 species of metacercariae (six species occurred both as cercarie and metacercarie of eight families. The dominant cercariae were those of Opisthioglyphe ranae (159 hosts infected, Plagiorchis elegans (141 (both family Plagiorchiidae and Echinoparyphium aconiatum (153 (Echinostomatidae; 14 double infections were found. The most frequent metacercariae were those of Neoglyphe locellus (71 (Omphalometridae, E. aconiatum (66, Echinostoma sp. (59 and Moliniella anceps (48 (Echinostomatidae. In the previous studies carried out in Central Europe, a very similar spectrum of nine trematode families of 22 cercariae determined to species level and 43 types of cercariae reported under generic or provisional names, which can be in many cases conspecific with the previous taxa, were found. A simple key to identification of cercariae and metacercariae, together with their illustrations, is provided.

  7. A new land snail from the Quaternary of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean: Darderia bellverica n. gen., n. sp. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaba, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of land snail is described from pre-human paleosoils at Bellver hill in the island of Mallorca. It is a medium-sized helicodontid with 6 tight coils, dome-shaped spire, obtuse peripheral keel, eccentric umbilicus, narrow aperture inclined forward, sinuous reflected peristome, a low angular tooth, 5 infrapalatal denticles, teleoconch with many regular riblets and widely scattered hair pits, and protoconch with simple wrinkles and very thin spiral lines. This very rare species had been reported as a member of the Iberian-Maghribian Oestophora. Similar Plio-Pleistocene fossils from the Balearics and Sardinia are placed in the new genus. This may constitute a biogeographic link within the Lindholmiolinae, now surviving at both ends of the Mediterranean basin. It remains unknown when, why or whether it became extinct.

  8. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF THE NERITIDAE (GASTROPODA: NERITIMORPHA BASED ON THE MITOCHONDRIAL GENES CYTOCHROME OXIDASE I (COI AND 16S rRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Fernando Quintero Galvis

    2013-05-01

    La familia Neritidae cuenta con representantes en regiones tropicales y subtropicales adaptadas a diferentes ambientes, con un registro fósil que data para finales del Cretáceo. Sin embargo no se han realizado estudios de filogenia molecular en la familia. En este estudio se realizó una reconstrucción filogenética de la familia Neritidae utilizando las regiones COI (722 pb y 16S rRNA (559 pb del genoma mitocondrial. Se realizaron análisis de distancias de Neighbor-Joining, Máxima Parsimonia e Inferencia Bayesiana. La mejor reconstrucción filogenética fue mediante la región COI, considerándola un marcador apropiado para realizar estudios filogenéticos dentro del grupo. El consenso de las relaciones filogenéticas (COI+16S rRNA permitió confirmar que el género Nerita es monofilético. El consenso del análisis de parsimonia reveló un grupo monofilético formado por los géneros Neritina, Septaria, Theodoxus, Puperita y Clithon, mientras que en el análisis bayesiano Theodoxus se encuentra separado de los otros géneros. El resultado en las especies del género Nerita del Caribe colombiano fue consistente con lo reportado para el género en estudios previos. En el árbol resultante del análisis de parsimonia se sobrepuso la

  9. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.

  10. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Teles Horácio Manuel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.

  11. Annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of the limpet Cellana grata (Gould, 1859) (Gastropoda: Nacellidae) in a rocky intertidal beach at Ulleungdo Island off the east coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Do-Hyung; Park, Heung-Sik; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-12-01

    Widely distributed from the northern coast of Vietnam to the northern Japan, the limpet Cellana grata (Gould, 1859) occurs commonly on the south and east coasts of Korea. Despite their wide distribution range, few studies have investigated the annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of C. grata. In an attempt to understand the reproductive physiology of the limpet, we investigated the annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of C. grata from Ulleungdo Island off the east coast of Korea. Histology revealed that the gonial mitosis commenced in January, as the female exhibited small oogonia (10-40 μm) in the follicle. From March to June, the oocyte size increased dramatically, and fully mature eggs (110-170 μm in diameter) appeared in early summer. First spawning males and females were observed in July, as the surface seawater temperature (SST) reached 22.1°C. The spawning male and females could be observed until the end of December. Gonad somatic index (GSI), a ratio of gonad mass to the total tissue weight, of the male ranged from 0.6 (April) to 17.9 (July), while the female GSI varied from 1.0 (February) to 18.3 (July). GSI of male and female declined rapidly from July to August, suggesting that the major purse of the spawning at the study site was between July and August. Our study suggested that the commercial catch of C. grata during July and August must be suspended at Ulleungdo Island, in order to protect the spawning limpets, which enhances C. grata recruitment and the population.

  12. Accumulation of free and covalently bound microcystins in tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda) following toxic cyanobacteria or dissolved microcystin-LR exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, Emilie; Neffling, Milla-Riina; Gerard, Claudia; Meriluoto, Jussi; Bormans, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of free microcystins (MCs) in freshwater gastropods has been demonstrated but accumulation of MCs covalently bound to tissues has never been considered so far. Here, we follow the accumulation of total (free and bound) MCs in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to i) dissolved MC-LR (33 and 100 μg L -1 ) and ii) Planktothrix agardhii suspensions producing 5 and 33 μg MC-LR equivalents L -1 over a 5-week period, and after a 3-week depuration period. Snails exposed to dissolved MC-LR accumulated up to 0.26 μg total MCs g -1 dry weight (DW), with no detection of bound MCs. Snails exposed to MCs producing P. agardhii accumulated up to 69.9 μg total MCs g -1 DW, of which from 17.7 to 66.7% were bound. After depuration, up to 15.3 μg g -1 DW of bound MCs were detected in snails previously exposed to toxic cyanobacteria, representing a potential source of MCs transfer through the food web. - The study concerns accumulation and elimination of both free and bound microcystins (MCs) in tissues of a gastropod exposed to MCs producing cyanobacteria or dissolved MC-LR.

  13. Accumulation of free and covalently bound microcystins in tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda) following toxic cyanobacteria or dissolved microcystin-LR exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Emilie; Neffling, Milla-Riina; Gérard, Claudia; Meriluoto, Jussi; Bormans, Myriam

    2010-03-01

    Accumulation of free microcystins (MCs) in freshwater gastropods has been demonstrated but accumulation of MCs covalently bound to tissues has never been considered so far. Here, we follow the accumulation of total (free and bound) MCs in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to i) dissolved MC-LR (33 and 100 microg L(-1)) and ii) Planktothrix agardhii suspensions producing 5 and 33 microg MC-LR equivalents L(-1) over a 5-week period, and after a 3-week depuration period. Snails exposed to dissolved MC-LR accumulated up to 0.26 microg total MCs g(-1) dry weight (DW), with no detection of bound MCs. Snails exposed to MCs producing P. agardhii accumulated up to 69.9 microg total MCs g(-1) DW, of which from 17.7 to 66.7% were bound. After depuration, up to 15.3 microg g(-1) DW of bound MCs were detected in snails previously exposed to toxic cyanobacteria, representing a potential source of MCs transfer through the food web. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Accumulation of free and covalently bound microcystins in tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda) following toxic cyanobacteria or dissolved microcystin-LR exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.lance@live.f [UMR CNRS Ecobio 6553, University of Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 265 Avenue du General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Neffling, Milla-Riina [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Gerard, Claudia [UMR CNRS Ecobio 6553, University of Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 265 Avenue du General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Meriluoto, Jussi [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Bormans, Myriam [UMR CNRS Ecobio 6553, University of Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 265 Avenue du General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2010-03-15

    Accumulation of free microcystins (MCs) in freshwater gastropods has been demonstrated but accumulation of MCs covalently bound to tissues has never been considered so far. Here, we follow the accumulation of total (free and bound) MCs in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to i) dissolved MC-LR (33 and 100 mug L{sup -1}) and ii) Planktothrix agardhii suspensions producing 5 and 33 mug MC-LR equivalents L{sup -1} over a 5-week period, and after a 3-week depuration period. Snails exposed to dissolved MC-LR accumulated up to 0.26 mug total MCs g{sup -1} dry weight (DW), with no detection of bound MCs. Snails exposed to MCs producing P. agardhii accumulated up to 69.9 mug total MCs g{sup -1} DW, of which from 17.7 to 66.7% were bound. After depuration, up to 15.3 mug g{sup -1} DW of bound MCs were detected in snails previously exposed to toxic cyanobacteria, representing a potential source of MCs transfer through the food web. - The study concerns accumulation and elimination of both free and bound microcystins (MCs) in tissues of a gastropod exposed to MCs producing cyanobacteria or dissolved MC-LR.

  15. Molecular phylogeny of the neritidae (Gastropoda: Neritimorpha) based on the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero Galvis, Julian Fernando; Castro, Lyda Raquel

    2013-01-01

    The family Neritidae has representatives in tropical and subtropical regions that occur in a variety of environments, and its known fossil record dates back to the late Cretaceous. However there have been few studies of molecular phylogeny in this family. We performed a phylogenetic reconstruction of the family Neritidae using the COI (722 bp) and the 16S rRNA (559 bp) regions of the mitochondrial genome. Neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference were performed. The best phylogenetic reconstruction was obtained using the COI region, and we consider it an appropriate marker for phylogenetic studies within the group. Consensus analysis (COI +16S rRNA) generally obtained the same tree topologies and confirmed that the genus Nerita is monophyletic. The consensus analysis using parsimony recovered a monophyletic group consisting of the genera Neritina, Septaria, Theodoxus, Puperita, and Clithon, while in the Bayesian analyses Theodoxus is separated from the other genera. The phylogenetic status of the species from the genus Nerita from the Colombian Caribbean generated in this study was consistent with that reported for the genus in previous studies. In the resulting consensus tree obtained using maximum parsimony, we included information on habitat type for each species, to map the evolution by habitat. Species of the family Neritidae possibly have their origin in marine environments, which is consistent with conclusions from previous reports based on anatomical studies.

  16. Ocorrência e controle de lesmas do gênero Omalonyx (Gastropoda, Succineidae, pragas de capim-elefante Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae em Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas Occurrence and control of Omalonyx slugs (Gastropoda, Succineidae, pests of the elephant-grass Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae in Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Bastos Garcia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesmas do gênero Omalonyx d'Orbigny, 1837 são hermafroditas, herbívoras, de distribuição neotropical e vivem em plantas aquáticas, nas demais vegetações adjacentes e em solo úmido próximo a ambientes de água doce. No presente trabalho reporta-se a ocorrência atípica de O. pattersonae Tillier, 1981 e de Omalonyx sp. em área de terra firme, distante de ambiente aquático. Estas espécies aqui reportadas são simpátricas e devido à alta densidade populacional e prejuízos causados às folhas do capim-elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, são caracterizadas como pragas agrícolas. No período da noite as lesmas se alimentavam das folhas do capim elefante e durante o dia permaneciam escondidas na base do caule, próximo a superfície úmida do solo. A aplicação de cal hidratada sobre agregados de indivíduos de Omalonyx spp foi um método efetivo para o controle das populações. As alterações ambientais dos ecossistemas amazônicos para uso agrícola e/ou urbanização tem promovido o aumento populacional de espécies que se adaptam a novos habitats e geralmente se tornam pragas de difícil controle.Slugs of the genus Omalonyx d'Orbigny, 1837 are hermaphrodites, herbivorous, distributed on Neotropical regions, living on aquatic plants, moist soil and terrestrial vegetation close to freshwater systems. The present paper reports the atypical occurrence of O. pattersonae Tillier, 1981 and Omalonyx sp. in an upland area far from any aquatic environment. Both species reported here are sympatric and due to the high populations density and damages caused on leaves of elephant-grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, they are recognized as agricultural pests. During the night, the slugs feed on the grass leaves and at the daylight they stayed hidden in the base of stems, near the moist soil surface. The use of hydrated lime distributed over the aggregations of Omalonyx spp. showed to be an effective method to control the populations. The environmental changes in the Amazonian ecosystems for agricultural or urban purposes have promoted the increase of populations of native species that adapt in the new habitat and usually become pests that are difficult to control.

  17. Variabilidad geográfica en la tolerancia térmica y economía hídrica del gastrópodo intermareal Nodilittorina peruviana (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822 Geographic variability in thermal tolerance and water economy of the intertidal gastropod Nodilittorina peruviana. (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE MIGUEL ROJAS

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available El gastrópodo Nodilittorina peruviana es un habitante común de la zona intermareal rocosa de la costa norte y centro de Chile. Las poblaciones de esta especie se caracterizan por presentar distribuciones agregadas. Por medio de mediciones de terreno y ensayos de laboratorio se evaluó la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades de termorregulación y conservación de agua, en individuos pertenecientes a dos localidades de la costa de Chile que presentan distintos regímenes termales (Taltal 25º 25' S; 70º 29' W y Las Cruces 33º 35' S; 71º 38' W. Los resultados indican que la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades termorregulatorias es dependiente de las condiciones locales. A pesar de que los individuos de ambas localidades presentaron puntos de tolerancia térmica similares, los caracoles de Taltal mostraron tasas de pérdidas de agua menores. El tamaño de las agregaciones se relacionó en forma negativa con la tasa de pérdida de agua de los individuos de ambas localidades. En el caso de Taltal se observó un límite de tolerancia menor que en Las Cruces y una relación positiva entre tamaño de la agregación y temperatura grupal. Los resultados demuestran que las condiciones ambientales locales puede ser determinante para la efectividad de los mecanismos de termorregulación.The gastropod Nodilittorina peruviana inhabit rocky intertidal of the north and center Chile. Populations of this species exhibits aggregated distributions. Through field and lab records we studied the effect of spatial distribution of snails on their thermoregulatory and water conservation efficiencies. We studied individuals from two localities of the Chilean coast with different climatic conditions (Taltal 25° 25 ` S; 70° 29 ` W and Las Cruces 33° 35 ` S; 71° 38 ` W. Results indicate that the influence of spatial distribution thermoregulatory efficiency is dependent of the local conditions. Although individuals from both localities presented similar thermal tolerances, snails from Taltal showed lower rates of water loss. Aggregations size were negatively related with the rate of water loss in individuals from both localities. Only, individuals from Taltal decreased their limit of thermal tolerance, and exhibited a positive relationship between aggregation size and the temperature of the group. Results demonstrated that the local environmental conditions are determinate thermoregulatory strategies.

  18. Avaliação de efeitos de espécies de mangue na distribuição de Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae no Ceará, nordeste do Brasil Evaluation of local effects of mangrove species on the distribution of Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae in Ceara, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela C. Maia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 é um gastrópode pulmonado, macrodetritívoro, importante na transferência de energia em manguezais neotropicais, mas sua distribuição em diferentes escalas espaciais ainda é pouco conhecida nas regiões brasileiras. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a distribuição de M. coffeus com relação: 1 às espécies Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2 à posição dos rizóforos de R. mangle e 3 à altura das árvores em diferentes manguezais. O seu comportamento ao longo do ciclo de marés também foi descrito. A densidade de M. coffeus foi similar entre R. mangle e L. racemosa, porém os maiores caramujos foram encontrados nas árvores de R. mangle. A distribuição dos caramujos encontrados no sedimento diferiu em relação aos rizóforos, com maior densidade no centro e o maior tamanho na borda da área amostral. Entretanto, não houve relação com a disponibilidade de recursos alimentares formados por folhas. A densidade também foi maior nos manguezais baixo e médio quando comparados ao alto, porém não foram encontradas diferenças de tamanho dos caramujos em mangues de alturas distintas. Observamos também que, durante a maré alta, M. coffeus sobe nas árvores mais próximas. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados principalmente com a disponibilidade de recursos e abrigos fornecidos por R. mangle. Desta forma, novos estudos sobre a distribuição de M. coffeus sob diversas condições são recomendáveis, já que as regiões de manguezais estão cada vez mais sujeitas a perturbações.Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a pulmonate, macrodetritivore gastropod, important in energy flows in neotropical mangroves, but its distribution in different spatial scales is still unknown in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of M. coffeus: 1 among the mangrove trees Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae and Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2 in relation to the position of R. mangle prop roots and 3 among mangroves with different tree heights. Further, its behavior along one tidal cycle was also described. The densities of M. coffeus did not differ between R. mangle and L. racemosa, but the largest snails were found on R. mangle. The distribution of snails found on the sediment differed relative to the position of the prop roots, with the highest density in the center and largest size in the edge of the studied areas. However, this distribution was not related with the availability of food resources provided by decayed leaves. Higher densities were also recorded in intermediate and low-stature mangroves when compared with taller ones, but no differences in snail's sizes among mangroves were found. During the high tide, M. coffeus individuals climb nearby trees. These results are possibly related to the availability of resources and shelter supplied by R. mangle. Thus, studies on the distribution of M. coffeus in diverse conditions are essential, because mangroves are being intensively disturbed.

  19. Ocorrência no Brasil de Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata (O.F. Muller, 1774 (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, primeiro hospedeiro intermediário de Clonorchis sinensis (Cobbold, 1875 (Trematoda, Plathyhelmintes Occurrence of Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata (O.F. Mullher, 1774 (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia in Brazil, first intermediate host of Clonorchis sinensis (Cobbold, 1875 (Trematoda, Plathyhelmintes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Faria Vaz

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a introdução em nosso meio de Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata possivelmente anterior a 1967, quando pela primeira vez foi coletada em Santos. Essa espécie pode comportar-se como primeiro hospedeiro intermediário de Paragonimus westermani e de Clonorchis sinensis. Somente o último trematódeo tem alguma possibilidade de vir a parasitar o homem, em nosso meio.Introduction of Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata in Brazil, is reported. This introduction may go back prior to 1967 when some specimens were collected at Santos, S.Paulo (Brazil. T. (M. tuberculata is an intermediate host of Paragonimus westermani and Clonorchis sinensis, both pathogenic for man. Only this last trematode has some potential for human infection in Brazil.

  20. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infecting Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Amazon region Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda na região amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanny Maria de Andrade-Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon region. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença.

  1. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971 Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) como hospedeiro intermediário potencial do Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971

    OpenAIRE

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho; Horácio MS Teles; Ester Maria Mota; Cristiane Lafetá Gomes Furtado de Mendonça; Henrique Leonel Lenzi

    2003-01-01

    Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns.Exemplares de Achatina fulica foram experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Angiostrongylus co...

  2. Aspectos ultraestruturais de hemócitos de Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae analisados sob microscopia eletrônica de transmissão Ultrastructural aspects of hemocytes from Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae analysed with transmission eletronic microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os hemócitos do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata, um importante transmissor do trematódeo Schistosoma mansoni no Brasil, foram coletados de especimens na região Bragantina, localizada a oeste do estado do Pará. Os hemócitos foram examinados por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. As células foram fixadas pelo método de rotina com o uso do tampão PHEM (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA e Magnésio. Foram descritos os aspectos ultra-estruturais celulares como inclusões citoplasmáticas limitadas por membranas, mitocôndrias, retículos endoplasmáticos e outros. As observações mostram que esse tampão possui a propriedade de preservação do citoesqueleto celular, apresentando bons resultados na preservação das estruturas dos hemócitos e suas organelas.The blood cells of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata from the region of Bragantina in the state of Pará, an important vector of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, were collected and fixed by routine method with PHEM buffer and examined with transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural cellular aspects like cytoplasmic inclusions, mitochondrion, vesicles and others organelles are described. The buffer used resulted in good preservations of the hemocytes and their organelles.

  3. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is facilitated by .... Down-regulation of human cytomegalovirus UL138, a novel latency-associated .... Effect of normabaric hyperoxia treatment on neuronal damage following fluid ...

  4. Efficacy of micro algae and cyanobacteria as a live feed for juveniles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... of feeding the juvenile with micro algal diets and cyanobacterial diets at the same concentrations. ... Key words: Penaeus monodon, micro algae, Synechococcus, Phormidium, ..... developments in cultivation and utilization.

  5. Virus diseases risk-factors associated with shrimp farming practices in rice-shrimp and intensive culture systems in Mekong Delta Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duc, P.M.; Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Nguyen Thanh Phuong,; Bosma, R.H.; Huynh V., Hien; Tran N., Tuan

    2015-01-01

    In Mekong Delta, viral infection, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), heptopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and gill-associated nidovirus (GAV) frequently infect cultured shrimp starting at the postlarvae

  6. 2633-IJBCS-Article-Luc Gangbe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Biology and breeding prospect of giant fresh water shrimp Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklots, 1857) ... give the hatch small larvae called nauplius that evolves zoe and mysis. After 15 larval stages, ...... monodon, Litopenaeus vannamei et.

  7. Biochemical evaluation of aestivation and starvation in two snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... ned by drying up of surface water from fresh water bodies either regularly in ... transferases; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; UUN ..... white spot syndrome virus infection in penaeus monodon (fabricius).

  8. Concentration peculiarities of radionuclides by freshwater molluscs of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, D.I.; Kuz'menko, M.I.; Nazarov, A.B.; Derevets, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The results of radionuclides 90 Sr and 137 Cs content in molluscs tissue of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. The age dynamics of radionuclides content in some species of Gastropoda was studied

  9. Contribuição de Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae na degradação da serapilheira do médio estuário do rio Pacoti, Ceará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva S Tavares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A degradação da serapilheira no médio estuário do rio Pacoti foi estudada na presença e na ausência do gastrópode Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758, visando verificar a possível contribuição desse invertebrado na ciclagem da matéria orgânica dos manguezais. A densidade populacional de M. coffeus e a distribuição das folhas, em termos de biomassa úmida, biomassa seca e abundância, presentes na serapilheira do local, foram estimadas a partir de uma amostragem. Um experimento em campo foi realizado com amostras de coloração e biomassas similares de folhas de Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae sem sinais de herbivoria, distribuídas igualmente entre 64 gaiolas. Em 32 destas foram colocados também exemplares de M. coffeus. Essas gaiolas foram distribuídas entre quatro pontos, sendo oito pares de gaiolas (controle e experimento por ponto. Durante oito semanas, quatro pares de gaiolas foram coletados semanalmente. Após coletadas, os sinais de pastagem nas folhas causados por M. coffeus foram contados e as biomassas úmida e seca das amostras foram determinadas. Comparando controle e experimento, verificou-se que M. coffeus é capaz de contribuir na degradação da serapilheira na área estudada, porém, não foi verificada uma participação significativa desse gastrópode na degradação das folhas quando comparados experimento e controle ao longo do experimento.

  10. Subdaily growth patterns and organo-mineral nanostructure of the growth layers in the calcitic prisms of the shell of Concholepas concholepas Bruguière, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Nury; Ball, Alexander D; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Dauphin, Yannicke; Denis, Alain; Ortlieb, Luc

    2007-10-01

    Fluorochrome marking of the gastropod Concholepas concholepas has shown that the prismatic units of the shell are built by superimposition of isochronic growth layers of about 2 mum. Fluorescent growth marks make it possible to establish the high periodicity of the cyclic biomineralization process at a standard growth rhythm of about 45 layers a day. Sulphated polysaccharides have been identified within the growth layers by using synchrotron radiation, whereas high resolution mapping enables the banding pattern of the mineral phase to be correlated with the layered distribution of polysaccharides. Atomic force microscopy has shown that the layers are made of nanograins densely packed in an organic component.

  11. Antibacterial Activity Test of Nudibranches Polka - Dot (Jorunna funebris (Gastropods : Molusc Extract Against Multi(Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Nudibranch Polka-Dot (Jorunna funebris (Gastropoda : Moluska Terhadap Bakteri Multidrug Resistant (MDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delianis Pringgenies

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Terjadinya resistensi antibiotik menjadi permasalahan dalam dunia kesehatan. Peningkatan kemampuan patogen dalam menahan efek obat menyebabkan timbulnya resistensi. Beberapa bakteri patogen pada manusia dilaporkan telah mengalami resistensi terhadap lebih dari satu kelas antibiotik. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut, maka perlu dilakukan pencarian senyawa antibiotik baru yang lebih efektif dalam mengatasi permasalahan bakteri Multi-drug Resistant (MDR. Metabolit sekunder yang diproduksi oleh invertebrata laut  mempunyai prospek sebagai bahan obat dari laut. Nudibranch diduga mampu menghasilkan metabolit sekunder sebagai mekanisme pertahanan diri. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui fraksi dari ekstrak nudibranch Jorunna funebris yang menunjukkan bioaktivitas terhadap bakteri Multi-drug Resistant (MDR. Proses ekstraksi dilakukan dengan metode maserasi. Fraksinasi dengan Kromatografi Kolom Terbuka (KKT. Uji aktivitas antibakteri menggunakan metode difusi agar. Analisis komponen senyawa dengan GC-MS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 8 fraksi ekstrak nudibranch J. funebris menunjukkan aktivitas antibakteri. Hasil uji aktivitas menunjukkan fraksi I paling aktif terhadap 5 bakteri uji yaitu Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter 5 dan Enterobacter 10 dengan rata-rata zona hambatan secara berurutan sebesar 12,78 mm; 12,51 mm; 15,47 mm; 14,09 mm dan 12,46 mm. Fraksi II paling aktif terhadap bakteri Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus dengan rata-rata zona hambatan sebesar 12,70 mm. Analisis GC-MS menunjukkan bahwa dalam fraksi II terdapat senyawa 1-oktadekanol yang berpotensi sebagai antibakteri. Kata kunci : nudibranch, Jorunna funebris, antibakteri, multi-drug resistant, 1-oktadekanol Emergence of antibiotic resistance become a problems on medical world. Increasing pathogen ability to hold the antibiotic effect caused resistance. Several human-patogen bacteria were resistance to one or more classes of antibiotics. To solve those problems, it is necessary to search new antibiotic compounds that more effective to solve the problem of Multi-drug Resistant (MDR. The secondary metabolite produced by marine invertebrates have prospect as a marine biomedical. Nudibranch may produce the secondary metabolite as chemical defense mechanism. The purpose of the research was to obtain fraction from extract nudibranch Jorunna funebris that capable of bioactivity for Multi-drug Resistant (MDR bacteria. Extraction process was conducted with maceration method. Crude extracts were fractionated by Open Column Chromatography. Antibacterial activity test was done using disk diffusion method. Chemical compounds were analyzed with GC-MS. The result showed that 8 fractions of nudibranch J. funebris extract showed antibacterial activity. Activity test showed fraction I has ability to inhibit Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter 5 and Enterobacter 10 with average value of inhibitory zone was 12,78 mm; 12,51 mm; 15,47 mm; 14,09 mm and 12,46 mm. Fraction II has ability to inhibit Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus with mean inhibitory zone was 12,70 mm. GC-MS analyses showed 1-octadecanol from fraction II, that capable as antibacterial compound. Key words: nudibranch, Jorunna funebris, antibacterial, multi-drug resistant, 1-octadecanol

  12. Presencia de moluscos tropicales de la provincia panameña en la costa central del Perú y su relación con los eventos "El Niño"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el hallazgo de moluscos cuya distribución conocida se encuentra dentro de los límites de la Provincia Panameña, en diversas localidades de la Provincia Peruana entre los años 1972 y 1994, período en el que se presentaron varios eventos "El Niño". Fue posible determinar 15 especies de moluscos que ampliaron su distribución: Pteria stema, Orobitella peruviana, Cryptornya califomica, Cerithium (T stercusmuscarum, Malea ringens, Hexaplex brassica, Thais styllmanberryi, T (M. triangularis, T (T callaoensis, Acanthina brevidentata, Purpura pansa, Neorapana muricata, Anachis (C. nigricans, Cancellaria (C. decussata y C. (B. chrysostorna. Se postula una variabilidad en los límites de las provincias biogeográficas de la costa peruana, controlada por el ENSO.

  13. 南中国斑节对虾养殖中控制白斑综合症病的理论和策略%Theory and Strategies for Controlling White Spot Syndrome (WSS) of Cultured Penaeus monodon in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the causative agent of white spot syndrome (WSS) of cultured penaeid shrimps. WSS breaks out and prevails in cultured penaeid shrimps in many countries and regions of the world, especially in southeast Asia. WSSV is the virus most severe damaging to the cultured penaeid shrimps in the world. At the present time, the control of the outbreaks of WSSV will recover and develop the penaeid shrimp cultures in China and even in the world.

  14. Current status of viral diseases in Indian shrimp aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandel, G M; John, K Riji; Rosalind George, M; Prince Jeyaseelan, M J

    The intensification of aquaculture has been unique in showing the overwhelming changes in global food production in the last 100 years. Presently, it is playing a vital role in the economies of several countries. Conversely, it is also to be noted that the progression of aquaculture has been the foundation of anthropogenic alteration of a gigantic hierarchy and hence not astonishingly, it resulted in spread and emergence of an increasing group of new unknown diseases. In India, Penaeus monodon, black tiger shrimp was previously the foremost-cultivated shrimp species. Subsequently in 2008, the American white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has effectively replaced it. The change in dominant species has affected disease concerns in India as well as in world shrimp aquaculture. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most deleterious for both species. Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), Monodon baculovirus (MBV) and Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) are the other significant infectious agents of P. monodon and L. vannamei. An emerging disease of loose shell syndrome (LSS) was already reported from India during late 1998. A more recent disease of L. vannamei in India is monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS), a component of which seems to be Laem-Singh virus (LSNV). Thus, most of the information in this review relates to new emerging pathogens that threaten the cultivation shrimp industry in India.

  15. Role of women in Indian shrimp farming

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, A.

    1996-01-01

    Women in India are involved in various facets of shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Penaeus indicus) farming, including pond construction, seed collection, collection of feed materials and preparation of feeds, pond maintenance and post-harvest handling. This study indicates that 40% of laborers involved in shrimp farm construction are women. The various roles of women in shrimp farming are also described.

  16. Food selection preference of different ages and sizes of black tiger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Key words: Aquaculture, natural food, Penaeus monodon, Malaysia. INTRODUCTION ... Many researchers who reported on the diet of Penaeus species in ..... matter, annelida, mollusca and small fish in estuarine water. .... planktonic and benthic communities to fertilizer and feed application in shrimp ...

  17. Genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) in Malaysia using six microsatellite markers (CSCUPmo1, CSCUPmo2, CSCUPmo3, CSCUPmo4, CSCUPmo6 and CSCUPmo7). The mean numbers of allele, observed heterozygosis, ...

  18. Impact of converison of mangrove ecosystem for aquaculture purposes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.

    ,000 hectare are produced. The species cultivated are mugil cephalus, Chanon-Chanos, Penaeus Monodon, P. indicus, Macrobrachium, etc. About 32.13% of this area is along west coast and the yield rate is about 500-600 kg/ha/yr. Some of the impacts of conversion...

  19. Studies on the water quality and biota of a tidal eutrophic creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... E.monodon, Navicula gracilis, N. mutica, Ulnariaulna, Nitzschia palea, Pinnularia braunii, P. gibba, Microcystis aeruginosa and Spirulina platensis. Of the 15 mudflat algae Nitzschia palea, Pinnularia braunii, P. gibba and Spirulina platensis were environmentally important species. The population of the benthic fauna was ...

  20. Food selection preference of different ages and sizes of black tiger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, it was found that the food selection preference of P. monodon is dependent on the availability of food items in the pond bottom. The tendency to prefer natural food by shrimps was observed when the food was available. The benthic organisms declined at the end of the culture period indicating that the culture ...

  1. Inventaire et aperçu bio-écologique de la malacofaune retrouvée ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOLO

    Mésogée. Volumes 64/2008 et 65/2009. pp. 47-57. [10] - B. GOMEZ, « Estudio sistematico y biogeografico de los Moluscos terrestres del Suborden. Orthurethra (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Stylommatophora) del Pais Vasco y regiones adyacentes, y catalago de las especias ibericas ». Tesis Doctoral. Universitat Pais Vasco.

  2. The responses of South African patellid limpets to invertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The starfish Marthasterias glacialis is a generalized predator, feeding particularly on Choromytilus meridionalis, but also on several limpets, notably Patella longicosta. Thais dubia (Gastropoda) feeds mainly on barnacles, mussels, and Patella granulans. The gastropods Burnupena delalandii and B. cincta are principally ...

  3. Applicability of the black slug Arion ater for monitoring exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their subsequent bioactivation into DNA binding metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.; Kalis, E.J.J.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Maas, L.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of terrestrial black slugs Arion ater (Mollusca, Gastropoda) was studied for biomonitoring environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In laboratory experiments, slugs were orally exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) for a short term (3 days) or a long term (119

  4. Neuropeptides predicted from the transcriptome analysis of the gray garden slug Deroceras reticulatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Gastropoda: Pulmonata), is one of the most common terrestrial molluscs. Studies on D. reticulatum have mainly focused on ecology and biology due to severe damages on a wide range of vegetables and field crops. However, little is known about hormonal signa...

  5. A new species of microphallid (Trematoda: Digenea) infecting a novel host family, the Muraenidae, on the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudlai, Olena; Cribb, T.H.; Cutmore, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 9 (2016), s. 863-876 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : phylogenetic analysis * molecular phylogeny * life cycle * platyhelminthes * parasites * gastropoda * helminths * marine * fishes * Canada Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  6. Inventaire et aperçu bio-écologique de la malacofaune retrouvée ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOLO

    (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Stylommatophora) de la Peninsula Iberica e Islas Baleares. Tesis Doctoral. (1997). (U.P.V. / E.M.U.) 970 pp + 33 lam. [14] - A. ORTIZ DE ZARATE, « Descripcion de los Moluscos terrestres del Valle del Najerilla ». Gobierno de la. Rioja: Consejena de Educacion Cultura y Deportes, Logrono. (1991) ...

  7. Descripción del cromosoma profásico en la meiosis I de Bostryx conspersus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Siles-Vallejos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bostryx es uno de los géneros de mayor diversidad dentro de los Orthalicidae (Gastropoda, siendo B. conspersus una especie endémica del ecosistema de Lomas, del desierto Costero peruano. En el presente trabajo los cromosomas de la profase I de meiosis de los espermatocitos de Bostryx conspersus son descritos.

  8. The evolution of shell form in tropical terrestrial microsnails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liew, Thor Seng

    2014-01-01

    Mollusca form an important animal phylum that first appeared in the Cambrian, and today is,after Arthropoda, the second largest animal phylum, with more than 100,000 extant species(Bieler, 1992, Brusca and Brusca, 2003), with the class Gastropoda accounting for 80% of the extant species in the

  9. The association between invertebrates and macrophytes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The invertebrate fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes in the littoral of Lake Kariba was studied over a three-month period in 2002. Animals from seven classes — Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Turbellaria, Insecta, Crustacea, Bivalvia and Gastropoda — were collected. Two hirudineans, Placobdella sp. and Haemopsis sp., ...

  10. Identification of Genes Related to Learning and Memory in the Brain Transcriptome of the Mollusc, "Hermissenda Crassicornis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamvacakis, Arianna N.; Senatore, Adriano; Katz, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    The sea slug "Hermissenda crassicornis" (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) has been studied extensively in associative learning paradigms. However, lack of genetic information previously hindered molecular-level investigations. Here, the "Hermissenda" brain transcriptome was sequenced and assembled de novo, producing 165,743…

  11. Non-Detriment Finding Regarding the Export of Queen conch (Lobatus gigas) from St Eustatius (Caribbean Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de M.; Meijer zu Schlochteren, M.; Boman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Queen conch (Lobatus gigas (Strombidae; Gastropoda) is a large, long-lived marine gastropod that is widely distributed throughout the coastal zones of the Wider Caribbean region. Because of concern for its future the species was listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in

  12. Litter-dwelling arthropod abundance peaks near coarse woody debris in loblolly pine forest of the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; J.L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that many litter-dwelling arthropod and other invertebrate taxa (e.g., Isopoda, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Araneae, Pseudo scorpionida, Coleoptera, and Gastropoda) are more numerous near dead wood than away from it in the broad-leaved forests of Europe (Jabin et al. 2004; Topp et al. 2006a, 2006b; Kappes et...

  13. Litter-dwelling arthropod abundance peaks near coarse woody debris in loblolly pine forests of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    litter-dwelling arthropod and other invertebrate taxa (e.g., Isopoda, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Araneae, Pseudoscorpionida, Coleoptera, and Gastropoda) are more numerous near dead wood than away from it in the broad-leaved forests of Europe(Jabin et al. 2004; Topp et al. 2006a, 2006b; Kappes et al. 2006; Kappes 2006; Jabin et al. 2007) and...

  14. A new name for the foraminiferal genus Heterospira

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1937-01-01

    A short time ago I described a new foraminiferal genus from the Tertiary of Borneo 1). I gave this genus the name of Heterospira. Mr. P. H. Oehser of Washington drew my attention to the fact that E. Koken as early as 1896²) had used the name Heterospira for a genus of triassic gastropoda from

  15. Distribución, ecología y origen de las poblaciones de Vitrina pellucida (O. F. Müller, 1774 y Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora en las Cordilleras Béticas Orientales (Andalucía, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrebola, J. R.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chorology and ecology of the andalusian terrestrial malacofauna (South of the Iberian Peninsula, has showed the presence of a group of climatic relicts characteristics from the Eurosiberian region, in the Eastern Betics Mountains Chains. The ecology and distribution of two of these species (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Millier, 1774: and Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeus, 1758 is exposed, being the main limiting factor the typical mediterranean summer drought. The adaptative response of these species against the scarcity of water depends on its different ecophysiologies. Vitrina pellucida (eurithermic lives in low-lands where the availability of water along the year is constant, as well as in dry soils of high mountains because of the cold weather. Cepaea nemoralis (stenothermic lives only in habitats with wet soils and heavy vegetal cover placed below 1500 m. The absence of similar vegetation over this altitude and the extreme climate conditions of the High Mediterranean Mountains prevents its appearance, contrarily to the High Eurosiberian Mountains.

    [fr]
    L'étude de la chorologie et de l'écologie de la malacofaune terrestre d'Andalousie (sud de la Péninsule Ibérique, a permis de déterminer la présence, dans les cordillères Bétiques Orientales, d'un groupe de reliques climatiques propres à la région Euro-sibérienne. L'écologie et la distribution de deux de ces espèces (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Müller, 1774 et Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeux, 1758 sont exposées ici, et on montre que le principal facteur limitant est la sécheresse estivale caractéristique du climat méditerranéen. La réponse adaptative de dex deux espèces face à la rareté de l'eau durant l'été est déterminée par leurs écophysiologies différentes, Vitrina pellucida (eurytherme utilise aussi bien les écosystèmes des terres basses là où la disponibilité en eau est constante tout au long de l'année (zones humides, que les écosystèmes secs de haute montagne, profitant de leur climat froid. En revanche, Cepaea nemoralis (sténotherme occupe seulement les habitats de sols humides, de couverture végétale dense et constante, a une altitude inférieure à 1500 m. L'absence de ce type de végétation et les conditions climatiques dures de la haute montagne méditerranéenne empêchent sa présence à une plus haute altitude, contrairement a ce qui se passe dans la haute montagne euro-sibérienne.
    [es]
    A partir del estudio de la corología y ecología de la malacofauna terrestre de Andalucía (sur de la Península Ibérica se determina la presencia en las cordilleras Bélicas Orientales de dos relictos climáticos propios de la región Eurosiberiana: Vitrina pellucida (O. F. Millier, 1774 y Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758. Se expone su ecología y distribución y se muestra que el principal factor que las limita es la sequía estival característica del clima mediterráneo. Sus respuestas adaptativas ante la escasez de agua del verano están definidas por diferencias ecofisiológicas. Vitrina pellucida (euriterma hace uso tanto de los ecosistemas de tierras bajas en los que la disponibilidad de agua es constante a lo largo del año (zonas húmedas como de los secos de alta montaña, gracias al clima frío. Cepaea nemoralis (estenoterma ocupa sólo hábitats de suelos húmedos y cobertura vegetal densa y constante situados por debajo de los 1500 m. La ausencia de este tipo de vegetación y la dureza del clima de la alta montaña mediterránea impiden su presencia a mayor altitud, al contrario de lo que ocurre en las montarías eurosiberianas.

  16. Antibacterial marine bacterium deter luminous vibriosis in shrimp larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Inhibitory activity of a marine pigmented bacterium - Alteromonas sp. - isolated from Penaeus monodon Fabricius larva against pathogenic and environmental isolates of Vibrio harveyi was studied. All the isolates were inhibited to varying degrees by Alteromonas sp. in vitro. The antibacterial substance produced by the Alteromonas sp. was soluble in organic solvent and closely bound to the external surface of bacterial cells. The antibacterial Alteromonas sp., when allowed to colonize on shrimp...

  17. Phenotypic and molecular typing of Vibrio harveyi isolates and their pathogenicity to tiger shrimp larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavandi, S V; Manoranjita, V; Vijayan, K K; Kalaimani, N; Santiago, T C

    2006-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify the biotype(s) and molecular type(s) of Vibrio harveyi associated with pathogenicity in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) larvae. Five luminescent and four nonluminescent V. harveyi isolates were subjected to phenotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting, and pathogenicity testing to P. monodon mysis. Four isolates induced 34-41% mortality of P. monodon mysis when challenged at the rate of 10(6) CFU ml(-1) within 60 h. Sucrose-fermenting biotypes of V. harveyi appeared to be associated with pathogenicity to larval shrimp. Higher temperature and salinity appeared to play a role on the onset of vibriosis and mortality in the challenged larval shrimp. Pathogenic isolates of V. harveyi could be demarcated as revealed by their clustering in the dendrogram constructed based on the RAPD fingerprints. Nonluminescent V. harveyi also appear to be important aetiological agents of vibriosis of shrimp larvae. Sucrose-fermenting biotypes are likely to be pathogenic. High temperature may trigger onset of vibriosis. Biotyping of V. harveyi isolates and looking for traits, such as ability to ferment sucrose may be helpful in identifying the pathogenic forms, and such approach requires to be investigated further with larger number of isolates.

  18. Effects of 4-ter-Octylphenol on Xenopus tropicalis in a Long Term Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    Aquat Toxicol 80, 1-22. Oehlmann, J., Fioroni, P., Stroben, E., and Markert, B., 1996. Tributyltin ( TBT ) effects on Ocinebrina aciculata (Gastropoda...Female gastropods exposed to the androgenic EDC, tributyltin , developed an imposex condition that prevented proper reproduction in these animals...induction and gonadal development. Aquat Toxicol 88, 39-47. Bailey, S.K. and Davies, I.M., 1988. Tributyltin contamination in the Firth of Forth

  19. Effects of CO-60 gamma radiation on the embryonary development of Biomphalaria Glabrata (Say, 1818)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, K.

    1988-01-01

    Some aspects of the effects of the ionizing radiation on the embryo and on the genetical material of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) are presented. The embryos weresubmitted at various stages of development to doses of 5,10,15,20 and 25 Gy of Co-60 gamma radiation. As a criteia of evaluation of the embryos radiosensitivity, four biological parameters were used: mortality, malformation, hatching and chromossomal aberrations. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Registros adicionales del carrao (Aramus guarauna en el estado de Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Palomera-García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan registros adicionales del carrao (Aramus guarauna para el interior del Estado de Jalisco, México. Esta información, en conjunto con la previa conocida, apoya la idea que dice que la distribución de la especie podría está relacionada con la del caracol (Pomacea flagellata, Gastropoda: Ampullaridae que le sirve de alimento.

  1. Protists from caves: preliminary data on populations of the "Covolo della guerra", Berici hills (Vicenza, Italy): Jamski enoceličarji: predhodne razsikave o njihovih populacijah v kraški jami "Covolo della guerra" v hribovju Berici (Vicenza, Italija):

    OpenAIRE

    Coppellotti Krupa, Olimpia; Guidolin, Laura

    1999-01-01

    Posledica povečanega zanimanja za speleologijo je nekaj prav presenetljivih odkritij iz obdobja zadnjih nekaj let v italijanskih jamah. Toda na podlagi zbranega favnističnega gradiva so bila do danes posebno raziskane le nekatere taksonomske skupine, na primer Insecta, Chilopoda, Gastropoda in Chiroptera. Zaradi pomena organizmov, ki živijo v skoraj vseh ekosistemih, se je zdelo še posebno zanimivo raziskati, kot preproste modele za sistem njihovega spremljanja (monitoringa), populacije enoce...

  2. Reproductive patterns in demersal crustaceans from the upper boundary of the OMZ off north-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, María de los Ángeles; González López, Andrés E.; Ramos, Marcel; Mujica, Armando; Muñoz, Praxedes; Sellanes, Javier; Yannicelli, Beatriz

    2017-06-01

    Pleuroncodes monodon (Crustacea: Munididae) supports one of the main trawling fisheries over the continental shelf off Chile between 25°S and 37°S within the upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Although the reproductive cycle of P. monodon has been described, the relationship between this key biological process and the variability of the OMZ has not been comprehensibly addressed neither for P. monodon nor for other OMZ resident species. In this study a set of 14 quasi-monthly oceanographic cruises carried out between June 2010 and November 2011 were conducted over the continental shelf off Coquimbo (30°S) to investigate the temporal variability of: i) dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature and chlorophyll-a at relevant depths ii) the presence and proportion of occurrence of P. monodon ovigerous females and juveniles from benthic trawls; iii) the presence of different stage larvae in the plankton, and iv) similar biological data for other species from the OMZ and shallower depths crustaceans. During summer months oxygen levels and bottom temperature were lower than in winter, while chlorophyll-a concentration was maximum in summer coinciding with an active (but not maximum) upwelling season. P. monodon maximum egg carrying occurred in winter during periods of increased oxygenation. Egg carrying females were never found at depths where oxygen concentration was below 0.5 ml L-1, while over 50% of the autumn and spring cohorts of juveniles occurred at oxygen concentrations below that level. The depth range occupied by ovigerous females was more restricted than the rest of the population and their depth of occurrence followed the variability of the upper OMZ. The larval release period of OMZ resident species extends over late winter and spring, and its main peak precedes that of coastal species (spring) and the spring-summer chlorophyll-a maximum. We propose that for OMZ resident species, brood carrying during warmer and more oxygenated conditions

  3. Assessment of radionuclide concentration in three crustaceans species of the bay of Bengal; Mesure de la concentration de radionucleides dans trois especes de crustaces du golfe du Bengale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, C.K.; Zafar, M. [Chittagong Univ., Institute of Marine Sciences (Bangladesh); Chowdhury, M.I.; Kamal, M. [Radioactivity Testing and Monitoring Laboratory, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Chittagong (Bangladesh)

    2006-10-15

    The natural ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K) and anthropogenic ({sup 137}Cs) radionuclides concentrations in three crustaceans species (Penaeus monodon, Metapenaeus monoceros and Panulirus versicolor), collected from the bay of Bengal, were determined with an aim of assessing any internal radiation hazard due to consumption of the shell fishes and establishing a database for radioactivity levels of the species. Very low level of radioactivity was observed in all the species. The average activity of {sup 226}Ra observed in P. monodon was 1.21 {+-} 0.27 Bq kg{sup -1} fw; in M. monoceros was 0.70 {+-}0.08 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, and in Panulirus versicolor was 1.04 {+-} 0.09 Bq kg{sup -1} fw. The activity of {sup 232}Th observed in these species was 1.30 {+-} 0.37, 0.76 {+-} 0.34 and 1.32 {+-} 0.70 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, and {sup 228}Th was 0.55 {+-} 0.26, 0.31 {+-} 0.14 and 0.74 {+-} 0.22 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, respectively. The average activity of {sup 40}K observed in these species was 12.56 {+-} 1.18, 6.38 {+-}1.02 and 10.07 {+-} 1.52 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, respectively. The activity of radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs) was below detection limit. The results indicate that the natural and artificial radionuclides observed in three crustaceans species are safe for human health. A significant relationship was observed between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in both the P. monodon (r = 0.839, p {<=} 0.05, df = 4) and the Panulirus versicolor (r = 0.906, p {<=} 0.05, df = 4). (authors)

  4. An overview of stygobiontic invertebrates of Poland based on published data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Dumnicka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on published literature, at least eighty species of stygobiontic invertebrates are confirmed in Poland. The highest number of these species is found in interstitial waters and wells, while a lower number was discovered in caves and springs. Hydrachnidia is represented by 45 species living mainly in interstitial waters, Crustacea by 24, Annelida by eleven species, while Turbellaria and Gastropoda are each represented by one species. As many as 14 endemic species were described from Poland but the taxonomical status of some of them is unclear. The highest number of stygobionts was stated in southern part of Poland, an area onto which most of the studies were focused on.

  5. FOOD COMPOSITION OF GRAYLING Thymallus thymallus L., FROM THE RIVER KRUŠNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Bećiraj Bakrač

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Total of 118 specimens of grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. is caught with sport fishing techniques in the river Krušnica. The objectives of this research was to obtain data about the diet composition of these species in natural biotopes. Dominant food of grayling from the river Kru{nica were Amphipoda and Ephemeroptera, while the most abundant number belonging to the group of Diptera. Secondary diet consists of Trichoptera with Hydrop%syche sp. as dominant species, then Gastropoda with Valvata sp., Coleoptera and Formicidae. Grayling occasionally consume Isopoda, Hirudinea, Plecoptera, Oligochaeta, Heteroptera, Aranea, Lepidoptera, Hydracarina and Hymenoptera, as well as plant detritus.

  6. Some ecological aspects and potential threats to an intertidal gastropod, Umbonium vestiarium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Ingole, B.S.; Sen, A.

    geographic range. Several trochid species such as, Umbonium costatum from Japan (Noda et al., 1995) and Astrea undosa from Mexico (Belmar- Perez et al., 1993) spawn twice a year. Incomplete spawning for a number of gastropods has been reported (Ramesh et al... and reproductive cycle of wavy turban snail (Astrea undosa Wood, 1828; Gastropoda: Turbinidae) in Bahai Tortugas, BCS. Anales del Instituto de Ciencias del Mary Limnologia Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 18, 169–87 (1993). Berry, A.J. and Bin O. Zamri...

  7. An examination on the ostracod genus Cytherelloidea from the Aptian deposits of west and northwest of Kerman, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Zohreh; Vaziri, Mohammad Reza; Arab, Ahmad Lotfabad

    2018-05-01

    This research provides the first detailed taxonomic study of Cytherelloidea species from the Aptian deposits of the Kerman area. One hundred and seventy-five samples from two measured stratigraphic sections, Baghin and Siriz, in west and northwest of Kerman, have been analyzed and 11 species identified among them three new species Cytherelloidea baghinensis, Cytherelloidea mazarensis and Cytherelloidea sirizensis are reported for the first time from the regions. The paleoecological aspects of the studied ostracods are discussed as well. A compatible age determination has been inferred through the analysis of benthic foraminifera, gastropoda, pelecypoda and brachiopoda, which have been recovered in the study areas.

  8. Catalog of taxa introduced by Luitfried Salvini-Plawen (1939-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affenzeller, Susanne; Steiner, Gerhard

    2017-10-17

    Luitfried Salvini-Plawen was one of the most distinguished researchers for molluscan phylogenetic systematics of the last decades. In his publications he described a total of 193 species: 134 Solenogastres, 34 Caudofoveata, 14 interstitial Gastropoda, one polyplacophoran and the remaining comprising Cnidaria, Priapulida, Kamptozoa, and Echinodermata. In addition, he introduced 47 genus-group names and 54 names for family-level and higher taxa. This catalog comprises lists of all taxon names published by Luitfried Salvini-Plawen. The catalog entries contain taxonomic information, original citations, type localities and type collections. It aims to facilitate further research on these and related taxa.

  9. Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.; Okazaki, K.; Kawano, T.; Ribeiro, A.A.G.F.C.

    1988-09-01

    Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos (MOllusca: Gastropoda), and important snail vector of schistosomiasis has not been explored. In the present work it was evaluated a suitable electron microscopical technique for embryos processing. Promising results was obtained with double fixation in 1% glutaraldehyde plus 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4), preliminary staining overnight in 1% uranyl acetate and embedding in EPON or Polylite under vacuum. It was used embryos at young trochophore stage wich is characterized by active organogenesis. Some ultrastructural aspects of B. glabrata embryos cells are presented. (author) [pt

  10. Variation in cheliped form in two species of squat lobsters (Decapoda: Anomura from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal H. Lezcano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe current study describes the variation in cheliped form of two species of squat lobsters that inhabit the continental margin off Chile: Cervimunida johni and Pleuroncodes monodon. We compared their cheliped form in the context of the reproductive strategy. The general tendency of form variation of both species is similar: chelipeds change, on average, from longer and narrower pollex with short manus to a relatively shorter and wider pollex with longer manus from small to large individuals, respectively. The degree of cheliped arching was greater in males than in females of similar carapace length, and only C. johni males showed fully arched morphology. The allometric trajectories (cheliped shape vs. carapace length were largely aligned with vectors of mean shape difference in both species. Cheliped form variation of C. johni (extended mate-guarding resembles the cheliped morphology reported for the related species Munida rugosa more than P. monodon (short mate-guarding. Our results are consistent with previous finding and suggest that the cheliped form variation (from straight and slender to a fully arched morphology is, or has been, subject to sexual selection through male-male competition for mates.

  11. Neutralization of White Spot Syndrome Virus by Monoclonal Antibodies against Viral Envelope Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Hui Shih

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs recognizing envelope proteins of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV, 6E1 against VP28 and 3E8 against VP19, were applied to demonstrate their neutralizing ability to this virus by using both in vitro and in vivo assays. Mixtures of MAb 6E1 with virus filtrate were inoculated into the primary explant monolayer culture derived from the lymphoid Oka organs of Penaeus monodon. Mab was likely to neutralize the infectivity of virus to monolayer since cytopathic effects were apparently blocked in experiment group. WSSV was titrated using Blue-Cell ELISA and the neutralizing index was calculated to be 6.90 for 6EI and 5.83 for 3E8. Neutralized virus fluids injected intramuscularly into post larvae of P. monodon. The shrimp in the positive control, which were injected with WSSV only showed an increasing mortality and a 100% mortality was reached at day 34, whereas no shrimp died in the negative control. The mortality for 6E1 was 6.7% and for 3E8 was 13.3%. These results suggest that Mabs recognizing the WSSV envelope proteins could neutralize viral infectivity to both cultured cells and shrimp.

  12. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryadi, D; Verreth, J A J; Verdegem, M C J; Vlak, J M

    2015-05-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina et al. 2013); therefore, it is a potential propagative vector for virus transmission. The major aim of this study was to determine whether WSSV can be transmitted from naturally infected Dendronereis spp. to specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) through feeding. WSSV was detected in naturally infected Dendronereis spp. and Penaeus monodon Fabricius from a traditional shrimp pond, and the positive animals were used in the current experiment. WSSV-infected Dendronereis spp. and P. monodon in a pond had a point prevalence of 90% and 80%, respectively, as measured by PCR. WSSV was detected in the head, gills, blood and mid-body of Dendronereis spp. WSSV from naturally infected Dendronereis spp was transmitted to SPF L. vannamei and subsequently from this shrimp to new naïve-SPF L. vannamei to cause transient infection. Our findings support the contention that Dendronereis spp, upon feeding, can be a source of WSSV infection of shrimp in ponds. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Are the effects of an invasive crayfish on lake littoral macroinvertebrate communities consistent over time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruokonen T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of invasive species requires assessment of their effects on recipient ecosystems. However, impact assessment of invasive species commonly lacks a long-term perspective which can potentially lead to false conclusions. We examined the effects of the invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana on the stony littoral macroinvertebrate communities of a large boreal lake and assessed the extent to which the patterns observed in previous short-term studies were stable over time. We used temporal macroinvertebrate data collected in five consecutive years from a site with a well-established crayfish population, a site with no crayfish and a site where crayfish had been recently introduced. Our results revealed that signal crayfish had temporally rather consistent negative effects on the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages but that the effects might be limited to certain taxa, in particular Gastropoda and Coleoptera. We also observed increases in Gastropoda density and taxa richness following a decline in crayfish density, indicating that the recovery of invertebrate assemblages might be fast. Hence, negative effects on benthic macroinvertebrates can likely be minimized by effective control of the signal crayfish population.

  14. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@rmit.edu.a [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  15. Metabolism of 60Co in mollusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu

    1983-01-01

    After mollusca were bred in 60 Co-labeled sea water or were given 60 Co-labeled feed for certain hours, their tissues including the liver were removed as experimental samples. 60 Co metabolism was observed by the Sephadex gel filtration profile. A gel chromatogram of the liver in gastropoda showed a marked peak of 60 Co on the high-molecular side. Although the peak was observed on both high- and low-molecular sides in pelecypoda, it was more marked on the high-molecular side than on the low-molecular side. In cephalopoda, the peak pattern was similar to that in the other mollusca, but the proportion of low-molecular components was comparatively large. The gel filtration profile of 60 Co in various tissues of cephalopoda revealed the incorporation of 60 Co into the high-molecular components in blood, three peaks in the kidneys, and the incorporation of 60 Co into the low-molecular components in the branchial heart. The metabolism of 60 Co was dependent upon the chemical form of Co in gastropoda, and organic 60 Co was specifically observed in the high-molecular components. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Accumulation of cesium-137 by useful mollusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi

    1978-01-01

    There are few data available on the radioactive contamination of marine mollusca, especially cephalopoda. Therefore, in this paper, data obtained on the radioactive contamination of cephalopoda were compared with those on pelecypoda and gastropoda. The uptake and elimination experiments were carried out by means of radioisotope tracer methods, and the concentration factors of 137 Cs due to radioactive fallout were estimated. The contamination of cephalopoda was also compared with those of other marine organisms in terms of concentration factor. The activity ratios in the organs or tissues of octopus were in the range of 3.5 and 12.8 on the 14th day after the beginning of exposure and those of squid were in the range of 8.8 and 10.9 on the 6th day after the commencement of the experiment. The biological half time was 90 days for octopus from the observation over 75 days, while it was 31 days for clam from the results of 75 days' experiment. The concentration factors of 137 Cs due to radioactive fallout were in the range of 3 and 23 for cephalopoda, 7 and 28 for pelecypoda and 24 and 30 for gastropoda, respectively. It was concluded that no difference in the concentration factors was clearly observable among the classes of mollusca, but the values were substantially similar to those of crustaceans and slightly lower than those of marine fish. (auth.)

  17. Application of bacterial lipopolysaccharide to improve survival of the black tiger shrimp after Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates an effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as feed supplement to improve immunity of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). LPS was coated to commercial feed pellets and given to the shrimp once or twice a day for 10 days before an exposure with shrimp pathogenic bacterium Vibrio harveyi. The growth rates, percent weight gains, total hemocyte and granulocyte counts and survival rates of shrimp between the LPS-coated pellet fed groups and a control group where shrimp fed with commercial feed pellets were compared. After 10 days of the feeding trials, growth rates were not significantly different in all groups, suggesting no toxicity from LPS supplement. To determine beneficial effect of LPS diets, each group was subsequently exposed to V. harveyi by immersion method and the survival rates were recorded for seven days after the immersion. Regardless of the dosages of LPS, the shrimp groups fed with LPS-coated pellets showed higher survival rates than the control group. There was no significant difference in survival rates between the two LPS dosages groups. In addition to survival under pathogen challenge, we also determine effect of LPS on immune-related genes after 10-day feeding trial. Gene expression analysis in the P. monodon intestines revealed that antilipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 (ALF3), C-type lectin, and mucine-like peritrophin (mucin-like PM) were expressed significantly higher in a group fed with LPS supplemental diet once or twice a day than in a control group. The transcript levels of C-type lectin and mucin-like PM had increased significantly when LPS was given once a day, while significant induction of ALF3 transcripts was observed when shrimp were fed with LPS twice a day. The up-regulation of the immune gene levels in intestines and higher resistance to V. harveyi of the shrimp fed with LPS provide the evidence for potential application of LPS as an immunostimulant in P. monodon farming. Copyright © 2013

  18. Seasonal narwhal habitat associations in the high Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laidre, K.L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Logdson, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Movements and behavior of top marine predators are often closely linked with productive oceanic fronts or regional prey aggregations. Consequently, it is of interest to quantify habitat needs and preferences, which can facilitate predictions of conditions favoring persistence and success....... Multivariate habitat models of movements and dive behavior of narwhals (Monodon monoceros, Linnaeus) in the eastern Canadian high Arctic and West Greenland were developed using data collected from satellite telemetry studies on three separate sub-populations. Twenty-six narwhals were captured between 1993...... and 2000 and fitted with satellite-linked time-depth recorders. Geographic positions of whales at 24-h time steps were linked to dive behavior variables compressed on a daily scale, including numbers of dives to different target depths or durations, time near the surface, daily dive rate, and travel speed...

  19. Milky hemolymph syndrome (MHS) in spiny lobsters, penaeid shrimp and crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Linda M; Poulos, Bonnie T; Navarro, Solangel; Redman, Rita M; Lightner, Donald V

    2010-09-02

    Black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, European shore crab Carcinus maenas and spiny lobster Panulirus spp. can be affected by milky hemolymph syndrome (MHS). Four rickettsia-like bacteria (RLB) isolates of MHS originating from 5 geographical areas have been identified to date. The histopathology of the disease was characterized and a multiplex PCR assay was developed for detection of the 4 bacterial isolates. The 16S rRNA gene and 16-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) were used to examine the phylogeny of the MHS isolates. Although the pathology of this disease appears similar in the various different hosts, sequencing and examination of the phylogenetic relationships reveal 4 distinct RLB involved in the infection process.

  20. Biomass production of Artemia in air-water-lift raceway system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Vijayaraghavan, S.; Krishnakumari, L

    - from Venkataraman, 1983). Crude Protein (N x6.25) Lipid Carbohydrate Crude Fiber Ash Moisture 55-65 2-6 10-15 1-4 6-15 5-10 o· ClS'- •• •• lM6M StrGft •~S,I LUlu STrOI,. • tOO A eo 10 ~ • i:f e & .... 0. eo E I w ,. .. en c eo en ~ c • z " 2 a 1M 0 U ji...!:Ta:Vijayaraghavan, Wafar andRoyail~l~n~n.Good growthrates wereobserved in Penaeui indicus, P. monoceros andM. monodon when fed with live adult Artemia (Royan, Sumitra-Vijayaraghavanand Krishna Kumari, 1987). Thus adult Artemia biomass can be used as an ingredient...