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Sample records for acanthina monodon gastropoda

  1. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBÉN E. SOTO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 % y cirripedios (5 %. La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energéticaWe investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the

  2. The effects of temperature and oxygen availability on intracapsular development of Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae El efecto de la temperatura y la disponibilidad de oxígeno sobre el desarrollo intracapsular de Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRIAM FERNÁNDEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater and marine organisms show similar models of parental care and are faced with similar constraints to brood, which suggest that comparable environmental limits drive the evolution of parental care in aquatic systems. In fact, the low diffusion coefficient and solubility of oxygen in aquatic environments affect oxygen acquisition and therefore the capacity to aggregate embryos. The effect of other critical environmental variables, such as temperature, is less clear. We assessed the effects of temperature and oxygen availability on (1 the number of developed and undeveloped encapsulated embryos, (2 the proportion of embryos reaching advanced stages during intracapsular development (counting not only developed and undeveloped embryos but also abnormal embryos, (3 asynchrony in development (estimated only in capsules in which development occurred, and (4 final embryo size, as the first step toward identifying the main factors constraining parental care in the ocean. We used the gastropod Acanthina monodon as a model because it has an extended latitudinal range of distribution and exhibits feeding larvae during intracapsular development. The latter factor is relevant because previous studies have suggested that sibling cannibalism could be triggered by intracapsular competition for oxygen. Freshly laid egg capsules were collected and incubated until embryos hatched under different experimental temperatures (7, 11, 15 and 19 °C and oxygen conditions (hypoxia: 50-60 % air saturation; normoxia; and hyperoxia: 150-160 %. More embryos remained in early stages at the end of the experimental period under hypoxia and at the highest experimental temperature. The mean number of developed embryos was significantly lower under hypoxia conditions than under normoxia and hyperoxia, but was not influenced by temperature. However, temperature negatively affected embryo size of developed embryos and the level of asynchrony (number of different developmental

  3. A Circo-Like Virus Isolated from Penaeus monodon Shrimps.

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hanh T.; Yu, Qian; Boisvert, Maude; Van, Hanh T; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A virus with a circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (CRESS-DNA) genome (PmCV-1) was isolated from Penaeus monodon shrimps in Vietnam. The gene structure of the 1,777-nucleotide (nt) genome was similar to that of circoviruses and cycloviruses, but the nucleic acid and protein sequence identities to these viruses were very low.

  4. A Circo-Like Virus Isolated from Penaeus monodon Shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hanh T; Yu, Qian; Boisvert, Maude; Van, Hanh T; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A virus with a circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (CRESS-DNA) genome (PmCV-1) was isolated from Penaeus monodon shrimps in Vietnam. The gene structure of the 1,777-nucleotide (nt) genome was similar to that of circoviruses and cycloviruses, but the nucleic acid and protein sequence identities to these viruses were very low. PMID:24435870

  5. Building the Method to Determine the Rate of Freezing Water in Penaeus monodon of the Freezing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tan Dzung

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of determination the rate of freezing water in Penaeus monodon of freezing process was established on base the equation of energy balance in warming up process Penaeus monodon after freezing to determine specific heat of Penaeus monodon. The result obtained was built the mathematical model (19 to determine the rate of freezing water according to the freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon. The results indicated that when water was completely frozen (ω = 1 or 100%, the optimal freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon was-22.00°C.

  6. Life history parameters of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Hansen, Steen H; Ditlevsen, Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    assessed based on data from reproductive organs and was estimated to be 8–9 years for females and 12–20 years for males. Pregnancy rates for East and West Greenland were estimated to be 0.38–0.42 and 0.38, respectively. Maximum life span expectancy was found to be approximately 100 years. A population......Life history parameters for narwhals (Monodon monoceros) were estimated based on age estimates from aspartic acid racemization of eye lens nuclei. Eyes, reproductive organs, and measures of body lengths were collected from 282 narwhals in East and West Greenland in the years 1993, 2004, and 2007...

  7. Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus detection using an immunochromatographic strip test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangman, Pradit; Longyant, Siwaporn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Sridulyakul, Pattarin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2012-08-01

    An immunochromatographic strip test is described for detection of the polyhedrin protein of Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV). The test employs one monoclonal antibody (MAb MBV5) conjugated to colloidal gold to bind to polyhedrin protein and a 1:1:1 mixture of 3 other MAbs (MBV8, 14 and 21) to capture colloidal-gold MAb-protein complexes at a test (T) line on the nitrocellulose strip. A downstream control (C) line of goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G (GAM) antibody is used to capture excess free colloidal-gold conjugated MBV5 to validate test performance. Heating of homogenates of PemoNPV-infected P. monodon postlarvae prepared in PBS for 30min was necessary to maximize T line color intensity, and homogenates of infected postlarvae could still be scored as PemoNPV-positive when diluted 1:64. A strip test result was obtained within 15min of sample application, and although about 200-fold lower than a one-step PCR test for PemoNPV, its detection sensitivity was comparable to a dot blot. Due to its simplicity not reliant on sophisticated equipment or specialized skills, the strip test could be adopted to screen easily for PemoNPV infections at shrimp hatcheries and farms. PMID:22580094

  8. Immune response of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) against Vibrios furnissii pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumaran Subramanian; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Rajasekar Thirunavukarasu; Suresh Gopal; Pugazhvendan Sampath Renuka; Alagappan Kumarappan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyse experimental infection and immune system of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) against Vibrios furnissii (V. furnissii). Methods: Experimental animals were collected and acclimatized by maintaining specific temperature, pH and salinity to avoid mortality. Shrimps were experimentally infected with V. furnissii and their immune responses were monitored. After the infection all the shrimps were monitored for any symptoms, death rate in 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 h. Then haemolymph were collected and tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium and lysozyme were monitored in every 12 h at the interval of 48 h. Results: Shrimps infected by live V. furnissii had showed gradual increase in tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase activity, nitro-blue-tetrazolium and lysozyme activity comparing with the killed and control.Conclusions:The live V. furnissii shows infection in experimental shrimps comparing with killed V. furnissii. So the V. furnissii in nature cause the infection in shrimp Penaeus monodon immune system. This report could be applied to control of the infection in shrimp hatchery.

  9. De nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior in Nederland (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyne, de R.

    2002-01-01

    The narrow whorlsnail Vertigo angustior in the Netherlands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) In June and July 2001, a special survey was held in several coastal areas in the province of Zuid- Holland, the Netherlands. The main objective was retrieving additional data on the occurrence of Vertigo angustior Jeff

  10. Duplex real-time PCR for detection and quantification of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) in Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kathy F J; Lightner, Donald V

    2011-02-22

    We describe a duplex real-time PCR assay using TaqMan probes for the simultaneous detection of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV). Both MBV and HPV are shrimp enteric viruses that infect intestinal and hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. Both viruses can cause significant mortalities and depressed growth in infected larval, postlarval, and early juvenile stages of shrimp, and thus present a risk to commercial aquaculture. In this duplex assay, we combined 2 single real-time PCRs, amplifying MBV and HPV, in a one-tube PCR reaction. The 2 viruses were distinguished by specific fluorescent labels at the 5' end of TaqMan probes: the MBV probe was labeled with dichlorodimethoxyfluorescein (JOE), and the HPV probe was labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM). The duplex real-time PCR assay was performed in a multi-channel real-time PCR detection system, and MBV and HPV amplification signals were separately detected by the JOE and FAM channels. This duplex assay was validated to be specific to the target viruses and found to have a detection limit of single copies for each virus. The dynamic range was found to be from 1 to 1 x 10(8) copies per reaction. This assay was further applied to quantify MBV and HPV in samples of infected Penaeus monodon collected from Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The specificity and sensitivity of this duplex real-time PCR assay offer a valuable tool for routine diagnosis and quantification of MBV and HPV from both wild and farmed shrimp stocks.

  11. Purge lecithin for less-expensive diet formulation for black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon

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    Shanmugam Velmurugan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the nutrient requirements and practical diet formulations for Penaeus monodon is fully known. In the production cost, the cost of diet alone comes around 50 to70%. This ismainly because of the addition of lecithin which is a relatively expensive dietary ingredient. It isimportant to determine the usefulness of lecithin in the growth of P. monodon. In order to keep the dietcost as low as possible this experiment was designed with and without lecithin. The objective of thepresent study was to assess the growth of shrimp with varying lecithin doses. To study the water qualityparameters and to study the growth and survival of animals feed containing different percentage oflecithin. Trials conducted indicated the soybean lecithin did not have any effect on shrimp’s growth. Theshrimp weight varied from 3.15 to 8g in Control, 2.58 to 6g in Treatment A, 2.87 to 6.62g in TreatmentB, 3.1 to 6.75g in Treatment C. These confirm that under a controlled clear water culture system, partialor complete replacement of soybean lecithin in a commercial diet for P. monodon resulted in nodetriment in growth. Purge lecithin in the diet may allow for less-expensive diet formulations for P.monodon and may reduce the diet cost for producers, who are supplying feed. As diet cost representsthe largest variable cost in a commercial aquaculture operation, increased knowledge of specific dietaryrequirements is essential for formulating a cost-effective commercial P. monodon diet.

  12. The Marine Mollusca of Suriname (Dutch Guiana) Holocene and recent Part III. Gastropoda and Cephalopoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1975-01-01

    CONTENTS 1. Introduction, systematic survey and page references....... 3 2. Gastropoda and Cephalopoda............. 8 3. List of corrections of and additions to Part II......... 89 4. References.................. 92 5. Plates ................... 100 1. INTRODUCTION, SYSTEMATIC SURVEY AND PAGE REFERE

  13. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is facilitated by housekeeping molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinayak Biradar; Santosh Narwade; Mandar Paingankar; Deepti Deobagkar

    2013-12-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. Identification of host cellular proteins interacting with WSSV will help in unravelling the repertoire of host proteins involved in WSSV infection. In this study, we have employed one-dimensional and two-dimension virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the host proteins of Penaeus monodon that could interact with WSSV. The VOPBA results suggest that WSSV interacted with housekeeping proteins such as heat shock protein 70, ATP synthase subunit , phosphopyruvate hydratase, allergen Pen m 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, actin and 14-3-3-like protein. Our findings suggest that WSSV exploits an array of housekeeping proteins for its transmission and propagation in P. monodon.

  14. Effect of Probiotics on the Hatchery Seed Production of Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Soundarapandian; Babu, R

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the diseases of shrimps hindered the development of shrimp culture. Hence, the use of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture has tremendous scope and the study of the application of probiotics in aquaculture has a glorious future. In the present study, the probiotics was applied (experimental) for the larval rearing of P. monodon which is compared with control tanks (without probiotics). The temperature and alkalinity of both control and experimental tanks were more of less same. ...

  15. Protective Efficacy of Clinacanthus nutans on Yellow-head Disease in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    OpenAIRE

    Direkbusarakom, S.; Ruangpan, L.; Ezura, Y.; Yoshimizu, M.

    1998-01-01

    The leaves of Clinacanthus nutans Lindua, a well-known Thai traditional medicine against viral disease in human being, were used to extract antiviral substances by ethanol using soxhlet apparatus. The extract was tested for its activity against yellow-head rhabdovirus (YRV) in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Virucidal effect was investigated by observation of mortality of the shrimp injected with the extract-treated virus. The results showed that extract of C. nutans inhibited YRV in vi...

  16. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Leobert D; Cabillon, Nikko Alvin R; Catedral, Demy D; Amar, Edgar C; Usero, Roselyn C; Monotilla, Wilberto D; Calpe, Adelaida T; Fernandez, Dalisay Dg; Saloma, Cynthia P

    2015-10-27

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. It has also been described as early mortality syndrome (EMS) due to mass mortalities occurring within 20 to 30 d after stocking of ponds with postlarvae. Here, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon from shrimp farms in the Philippines were examined for the toxin-producing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus due to AHPND-like symptoms occurring in marketable size shrimp. In the P. vannamei, histology revealed typical AHPND pathology, such as sloughing of undifferentiated cells in the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium. Analysis using the IQ2000 AHPND/EMS Toxin 1 PCR test generated 218 bp and 432 bp amplicons confirmative of the toxin-producing strain of V. parahaemolyticus among shrimp sampled from 8 of 9 ponds. In the P. monodon, histology revealed massive sloughing of undifferentiated cells of the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium in the absence of basophilic bacterial cells. PCR testing generated the 2 amplicons confirmatory for AHPND among shrimp sampled from 5 of 7 ponds. This study confirms the presence of AHPND in P. vannamei and P. monodon farmed in the Philippines and suggests that the disease can also impact late-stage juvenile shrimp.

  17. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of MAT1 gene in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Fu, M J; Zhao, C; Bao, W Y; Zhou, F L; Yang, Q B; Jiang, S G; Qiu, L H

    2016-01-01

    MAT1 (ménage à trois 1), an assembly factor and targeting subunit of the CDK-dependent kinase (CAK), can regulate the cell cycle, transcription, and DNA repair. This study was intended to investigate the role of MAT1 in the reproductive maturation of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). In this study, the P. monodon MAT1 (PmMAT1) gene was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of PmMAT1 was 1490 bp in length with an open-reading frame of 993 bp corresponding to 330 amino acids. The temporal expression of PmMAT1 in various tissues was measured by quantitative real-time PCR with the highest expression observed in ovaries. In the ovaries, the PmMAT1 gene was continuously but differentially expressed during the maturation stages. Comparative analyses of MAT1, CDK7, and cyclin H in the CAK complex of P. monodon indicated that the expression of CDK7 and cyclin H coincided with that of MAT1 during the ovary maturation stages. Serotonin (5-HT) injection promoted the expression level of PmMAT1 in the ovaries of shrimp at 6-48 h post-injection. These results indicate that PmMat1 plays a prominent role in the process of ovarian maturation. PMID:26909956

  18. Changes in oviduct structure in the black tiger shrimp,Penaeus monodon, during ovarian maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sitthichai IAMSAARD; Siriporn SRIURAIRATANA; Boonsirm WITHYACHUMNARNKUL

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the structure of the oviduct of the shrimp Penaeus monodon.Methods:The oviducts of P.monodon with three different major groups of ovarian development (Group (Gr.) 1:Stages Ⅰ & Ⅴ; Gr.2:Stages Ⅱ & Ⅲ; and Gr.3:Stage Ⅳ)were examined by light,transmission electron,and scanning electron microscopies,respectively.Results:The epithelium of the oviduct in Gr.1 was composed of tall simple columnar cells with their basal nuclei located on the basement membrane and its thick collagen fibers.In Gr.2,the oviduct seemed to produce some substances and their epithelial cells became transitional with centrally located nuclei and formed some vacuoles.Obviously,the epithelial cells in Gr.3 (at Stage Ⅳ) were disorganized,disrupted,and shed accumulated spherical secretory substances including some cellular contents into the lumen.Conclusions:The structural changes of the P.monodon oviduct were related to ovarian maturation stages (Grs.1-3).Prior to spawning,only the oviduct epithelium at ovary Stage Ⅳ produced and secreted a number of spherical secretion substances into the lumen.These substances may act as the oviductal lubricants to facilitate the spawning process.

  19. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M

    2014-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon.

  20. Invasion of Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, in the western north Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Pam L.; Knott, David M.; Kingsley-Smith, Peter R.; Morris, James A.; Buckel, Christine A.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hartman, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    After going unreported in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for 18 years (1988 to 2006), the Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has recently reappeared in the South Atlantic Bight and, for the first time ever, in the Gulf of Mexico. Potential vectors and sources of this recent invader include: 1) discharged ballast water from its native range in Asia or other areas where it has become established; 2) transport of larvae from established non-native populations in the Caribbean or South America via ocean currents; or 3) escape and subsequent migration from active aquaculture facilities in the western Atlantic. This paper documents recent collections of P. monodon from the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Mexico, reporting demographic and preliminary phylogenetic information for specimens collected between North Carolina and Texas from 2006 through 2012. The increased number of reports in 2011 and 2012, ranging from 102 mm to 298 mm total length, indicates that an adult population is present in densities sufficient for breeding, which is indicative of incipient establishment. Based on these reports of P. monodon, its successful invasion elsewhere, and its life history, we believe that this species will become common in the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico in less than 10 years. Penaeus monodon is an aggressive predator in its native range and, if established, may prey on native shrimps, crabs, and bivalves. The impacts of an established P. monodon population are potentially widespread (e.g., alterations in local commercial fisheries, direct and indirect pressures on native shrimp, crab and bivalve populations, and subsequent impacts on the populations of other predators of those organisms) and should be considered by resource managers. The impacts of P. monodon on native fauna and the source(s) or vector(s) of the invasion, however, remain unknown at this time.

  1. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.

  2. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    OpenAIRE

    Tassanee Eamkamon; Sirawut Klinbunga; Kumthorn Thirakhupt; Piamsak Menasveta; Narongsak Puanglarp

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L) and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L) concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in sh...

  3. Distribution of Bacteria Injected in Body of Giant Black Shrimp, Penaeus Monodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhixun(郭志勋); Karin van de Braak; Magriet Botterbloom

    2004-01-01

    Distribution of injected Vibrio anguillarum in body of Penaeus monodon was studied with immunohistochemical method. Bacteria could be detected throughout the experiment in some individuals; however in lymphoid tissue, gill, heart and haemolymph of all vibrio injected shrimp, the bacteria could be observed only 5 min after injection. The bacteria density in haemolymph, haemolymph of the hepatopancreas and gills decreased with time. In the lymphoid organ and heart, the bacteria density was the highest 48 h after injection, then decreased. Nodules could be formed in the heart, lymphoid organ and injection site.

  4. Effect of farm made feeds on polyculture of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and three brackishwater finfish species

    OpenAIRE

    Shofiquzzoha, A.F.M; Islam, M.L; Ahmed, S.U.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed made from locally available ingredients on polyculture of shrimp and three brackishwater finfish species. Hatchery produced post-larvae (PL) of shrimp Penaeus monodon (0.005g) were stocked at the rate of 15,000 PLs/ha. Brackishwater finfish species Liza parsia, Mugil cephalus and Rhinomugil corsula of 0.63-1.4lg collected from local rivers were stocked at the rate 8,000, 1,000 and 2,000/ha, respectively in four treatments. Shrimp and fi...

  5. The role of haemocytes and the lymphoid organ in the clearance of injected Vibrio bacteria in Penaeus monodon shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van de C.B.T.; Botterblom, M.H.A.; Huisman, E.A.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Knaap, van der W.P.W.

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the reaction of Penaeus monodon haemocytes, live Vibrio anguillarum bacteria were injected and the shrimp were periodically sampled. Immuno-double staining analysis with specific antisera against the haemocyte granules and bacteria showed that large numbers of haemocytes encapsulat

  6. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toms C. Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV, Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae.

  7. Melanosis in Penaeus monodon: Involvement of the Laccase-like Activity of Hemocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bris, Cédric Le; Cudennec, Benoit; Dhulster, Pascal; Drider, Djamel; Duflos, Guillaume; Grard, Thierry

    2016-01-27

    In shrimp, the development of postmortem melanosis resulting from phenoloxidase activities leads to important economic losses. Phenoloxidase enzymes include catechol oxidases, laccases, and tyrosinases, but hemocyanin is also capable of phenoloxidase activities. These activities have been explored in Penaeus monodon, using different substrates. Results highlighted that tyrosinase-specific substrates were little oxidized, whereas hydroquinone (laccase-specific substrate) was more highly oxidized than l-DOPA (nonspecific substrate) in the pereopods and pleopods. Global phenoloxidase activity, assayed with l-DOPA, did not appear thermally stable over time and probably resulted from phenoloxidase enzymes. Conversely, the laccase-like activity assayed with hydroquinone was thermally stable over time, reflecting the thermal stability of hemocyanin. Independently of the anatomical compartment, the temperature, or the substrate, the highest activities were assayed in the cuticular compartments. This study demonstrates the complexity of phenoloxidase activities in P. monodon, and the importance of considering all the activities, including laccase-like activities such as that of hemocyanin. PMID:26671070

  8. Impaired telomerase activity hinders proliferation and in vitro transformation of Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayesh, P; Vrinda, S; Priyaja, P; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2016-08-01

    Retaining terminal transferase activity of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein enzyme which add telomeric repeats on chromosome end is thought to be required to prevent cellular ageing. Additionally, telomerase considered as a marker for cell proliferation and immortalization in eukaryotes. We examined telomerase activity in tissues and lymphoid cell culture of Penaeus monodon. Along with telomerase activity, telomere repeats and an attempt on identification of telomerase reverse transcriptase (PmTERT) were made. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol revealed that telomerase-dependent telomeric lengthening has been taking place in P. monodon and the adult tissues were retaining this capacity throughout their lifespan with the highest activity in ovary, testis and lymphoid organ. However, telomerase activity could not be detected in lymphoid cells in culture. The canonical telomeric repeats added by telomerase of lymphoid tissue extract were identified as TTAGG, but pentameric repeats GGTTA and AGGTT were also added by the telomerase. PmTERT protein sequence (partial) shared 100 % identity with the TERT sequence of Daphnia pulex, 27 % sequence identity with Purple sea urchin and 24-25 % with Zebra fish. Undetectable telomerase activity in lymphoid cell culture supports the hypothesis that the inadequate telomerase activity or gene expression may be a reason that prevents neoplastic transformation and spontaneous immortalization of the cells in vitro. Thus, it is envisaged that telomerase activation in lymphoid cells may surmount cellular ageing for in vitro transformation and cell line establishment. PMID:26084784

  9. Impaired telomerase activity hinders proliferation and in vitro transformation of Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayesh, P; Vrinda, S; Priyaja, P; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2016-08-01

    Retaining terminal transferase activity of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein enzyme which add telomeric repeats on chromosome end is thought to be required to prevent cellular ageing. Additionally, telomerase considered as a marker for cell proliferation and immortalization in eukaryotes. We examined telomerase activity in tissues and lymphoid cell culture of Penaeus monodon. Along with telomerase activity, telomere repeats and an attempt on identification of telomerase reverse transcriptase (PmTERT) were made. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol revealed that telomerase-dependent telomeric lengthening has been taking place in P. monodon and the adult tissues were retaining this capacity throughout their lifespan with the highest activity in ovary, testis and lymphoid organ. However, telomerase activity could not be detected in lymphoid cells in culture. The canonical telomeric repeats added by telomerase of lymphoid tissue extract were identified as TTAGG, but pentameric repeats GGTTA and AGGTT were also added by the telomerase. PmTERT protein sequence (partial) shared 100 % identity with the TERT sequence of Daphnia pulex, 27 % sequence identity with Purple sea urchin and 24-25 % with Zebra fish. Undetectable telomerase activity in lymphoid cell culture supports the hypothesis that the inadequate telomerase activity or gene expression may be a reason that prevents neoplastic transformation and spontaneous immortalization of the cells in vitro. Thus, it is envisaged that telomerase activation in lymphoid cells may surmount cellular ageing for in vitro transformation and cell line establishment.

  10. STUDY OF PROBIOTICS ON THE SEED PRODUCTION OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Kader

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, antibiotics are widely used in shrimp hatcheries to control bacterial infections. Appearance of antibiotic resistant pathogens and restriction on the use of antibiotics have led to the development of alternatives to antibiotics in hatchery systems. In light of this, an attempt was undertaken to investigate the effects of probiotics on the larval rearing of Penaeus monodon, compared with control tanks (without probiotics. The results showed that several issues significantly improved with administering probiotics in the experimental tanks compared with the tanks without probiotics. For example, the concentration of ammonia was estimated to be 1.25 mg/L that was less than half of what was measured in the control tanks. The size variation was observed more in the control tanks than in the experimental tanks. Moreover, the muscle gut ratio of PL15 was about 85 to 92% in the probiotic treated tank and 70 to 80% in the control tank during the eight cycles of production. The fouling organisms were more in the control tank compared to the experimental tanks. The average length of PL15 was maximum when reared in the experimental tanks compared to the control tanks. The final survival rate of PL15 from the control and experimental tank was 35 and 52%, respectively. The present investigation indicated that probiotics played an important role in the growth, survival and health status of P. monodon larvae.

  11. Ammonia and salinity tolerance of Penaeus monodon across eight breeding families

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jinsong; Zhou, Falin; Huang, Jianhua; Ma, Zhenhua; Jiang, Shigui; Qiu, Lihua; Jian G Qin

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia nitrogen and salinity tolerance of Penaeus monodon from eight selected breeding families were evaluated at the concentration of 67.65 mg L−1 ammonia-N and reducing salinity from 15 to 0 ‰. The final survival of family A (88.67 ± 9.81 %) was highest, and the final survival of family B was lowest (24.33 ± 14.01 %) after the ammonia tolerance test. Upon completing the sudden drop salinity test from 15 to 0 ‰, the highest survival was observed in family B (98.00 ± 1.73 %), and the lowest ...

  12. A crustin isoform from black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon exhibits broad spectrum anti-bacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Banerjee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans have a powerful non-specific immune mechanism that responds to pathogen invasion and together with cellular responses, generates powerful humoral factors such as antimicrobial peptides. Crustins are a diverse class of antimicrobial peptides that are expressed by the circulating haemocytes of crustaceans. Several isoforms of this molecule are reported and in this study, one isoform from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli SG 13009. The purified recombinant crustin peptide had a molecular weight of 22 kDa and exhibited potent anti-bacterial activity in vitro against several Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria that included pathogens of aquatic animals and humans. The recombinant crustin showed a minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.5 μg ml−1 against the vibrio pathogens of shrimp, which suggests its promise for application in aquaculture.

  13. The effect of gamma irradiation on physical and nutritional quality of Penaeus Monodon shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thailand ''PENAEUS MONODON'' Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the chemical and physical qualities of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the color measurement expressed in terms of lightness (L*) showed a relative stability during storage of processed shrimps. However, based on the value (θ) a more intense red color was observed for the control and the reference. The cooked irradiated and nonirradiated shrimps presented a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.01) of 22% in firmness during the first week of storage. Thus, irradiation did not impair the firmness of shrimps after treatment or during storage. Also, based on the statistical analysis, the irradiation treatment did not affect the content of amino acids of precooked shrimps. (Author)

  14. Crustin protein Amk1 from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon inhibits Vibrio harveyi and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moltira Tonganunt1*

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A crustin gene (Amk1 was identified from a haemocyte library of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The full-length cDNA consists of 411 bp encoding a deduced precursor of 136 amino acids with a signal peptide of 17 aminoacids. Amk1 contains a hydrophobic and a Gly-rich region at the N-terminus and a 12 conserved cysteine domain (6-DSC at the C-terminus. Transcripts of Amk1 are mainly detected in haemocytes and gills by RT-PCR analysis. A recombinant Amk1was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli. This has a molecular mass of 43.66 kDa with a predicted pI of 8.23. Antibacterial assays demonstrated that recombinant Amk1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegativebacteria with strong inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio harveyi.

  15. Past and present population dynamics of narwhals Monodon monoceros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva

    The narwhal, Monodon monoceros, is a medium-sized odontocete whale, endemic to the Atlantic sector of the Arctic and sub-Arctic. In both Canada and Greenland, subsistence hunting of narwhals by the Inuit has existed for centuries and still today the narwhals are hunted for their precious tusks......, are vital. Estimation of life history parameters for the narwhal has previously been hindered by lack of a reliable age estimation technique. The Aspartic Acid Racemization (AAR) technique is a relatively novel method that I have applied to narwhals. This PhD thesis focuses, in part, on current population...... dynamics and life history of the narwhal by estimating life history parameters and creating age distributions using the AAR technique. The thesis includes several studies involving the application of AAR in age estimation. We conclude that the AAR technique is indeed a reliable method for age estimation...

  16. Interaction of Vibrio spp. with the Inner Surface of the Digestive Tract of Penaeus monodon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipasiri Soonthornchai

    Full Text Available Several species of Vibrio are the causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi (Vh and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp have long been considered as shrimp pathogens in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Here we show by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM that Penaeus monodon orally inoculated with each of these two pathogens via an Artemia diet had numerous bacteria attached randomly across the stomach surface, in single and in large biofilm-like clusters 6 h post-infection. A subsequent marked proliferation in the number of V. harveyi within the biofilm-like formations resulted in the development of infections in the stomach, the upper and middle midgut, but neither in the posterior midgut nor the hindgut. SEM also revealed the induced production of peritrichous pili-like structures by the Vp attaching to the stomach lining, whilst only a single polar fibre was seen forming an apparent physical bridge between Vh and the host's epithelium. In contrast to these observations, no such adherences or linkages were seen when trials were conducted with non-pathogenic Vibrio spp. or with Micrococcus luteus, with no obvious resultant changes to the host's gut surface. In naive shrimp, the hindgut was found to be a favorable site for bacteria notably curved, short-rod shaped bacteria which probably belong to Vibrio spp. Data from the current study suggests that pathogens of P. monodon must be able to colonize the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, where chitin is present, and then they use an array of virulent factors and enzymes to infect their host resulting in disease. Oral infection is a better way of mimicking natural routes of infection; investigating the host-bacteria interactions occurring in the digestive tract may lead to new strategies for the prevention or control of bacterial infections in penaeids.

  17. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta associados a Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme R. Gorni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Amplullaridae belongs to this class Gastropoda and is made up of freshwater organisms with a wide geographical distribution in tropical regions. Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Samples were collected during winter and spring 2003 and summer 2004. From a total of 209 snails collected, the presence of Oligochaeta worms was observed in only 58 of them (27.75%. In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. The species Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 and Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 were the most abundant (43.68%, 12.32% and 10.08%, respectively. Haemonais waldvogeli was found in all of the seasons studied, what demonstrates its affinity for this kind of substrate. The results indicate that several Naididae species find in the umbilicus of these snails's shells (which contains fine detritus a favorable habitat for establishing themselves.A família Ampullaridae, pertencente à classe Gastropoda, é caracterizada por organismos de água doce com ampla distribuição na região tropical. Vermes Oligochaeta associados a esses caracóis podem ser encontrados habitando o umbílico de suas conchas. Devido à carência de informação sobre a ecologia desses vermes, o presente trabalho centrou-se em um levantamento de espécies de Oligochaeta associadas ao molusco Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Em amostragens realizadas no inverno e na primavera de 2003 e no verão de 2004, foram observados 209 caracóis, sendo que somente em 58 deles foi detectada a presença de vermes Oligochaeta, correspondendo a uma incidência de 27,75%. Foram encontrados, no total, 89 oligoquetos, todos da fam

  18. Comparison of ovarian maturation and spawning after unilateral eyestalk ablation of wild-caught and pond-reared Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigeng Wen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study compares the efficiency of ovarian maturation and spawning success between wild-caught and pond-reared Penaeus monodon females after unilateral eyestalk ablation. The earliest spawning time after eyestalk ablation was 5.9 days in wild-caught females, which is significantly shorter than the spawning time in pond-reared females (10.5 days. Both wild-caught and pond-reared females repeatedly spawned after eyestalk ablation. On average, each wild-caught female spawned 2.94 times while each pond-reared female spawned only 1.09 times. The spawning induction rate, egg hatching rate, and the number of eggs per spawning were significantly greater in wild-caught females than in pond-reared females. However, the egg size was not significantly different between wild-caught and pond-reared females. Four shrimp sizes (60, 80, 100 and 120 (± 1.0 g were tested in this study and body weight significantly affected ovarian induction in pond-reared females but not in wild-caught females. Within the same body-weight class, the egg number per spawn in wild-caught females was significantly greater than that in pond-reared females. The egg production per spawn of the pond-reared females in the 120-g size group was two times higher than that in the pond-reared females in the 80-g size group. In conclusion, the fecundity of wild-caught P. monodon females is significantly higher than that of pond-reared P. monodon females. In breeding pond-reared P. monodon, the recommended minimum body weight of females is over 80 g, and the desirable body weight is over 100 g.

  19. Oxidative stress response of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to enrofloxacin and to culture system

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Tu, H.; Silvestre, F.; A. Bernard; Douny, C.; Thanh Phuong, N.; Tai Tao, C.; Maghuin-Rogister, G; KESTEMONT P.

    2008-01-01

    In Vietnam, enrofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in shrimp farms. Although the European Union set a maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 µg/kg for enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in edible tissues of aquatic animals for human consumption, only few data are available on its potential deleterious effects on shrimp. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of enrofloxacin on oxidative stress in hepatopancreas and gills of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). ...

  20. Two plasmolipins from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon and their response to virus pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Pongsomboon, Siriporn; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2012-10-01

    Two isoforms of plasmolipin were initially identified from the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) EST database and completed using 50 RACE to reveal complete cDNAs of 558 bp (PmPLP1) and 537 bp(PmPLP2) with 87% nucleotide sequence identity. The deduced amino acid sequences contained four-transmembrane domains and showed the highest amino acid identity (49% and 51%, respectively) to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) chemokine-like factor (CKLF), with a very similar hydrophobic pattern to other plasmolipins. Transcripts of PmPLP1 and PmPLP2 were observed in all tested shrimp tissues with the highest expression levels in the gill and epipodite for PmPLP1 and in the hemocytes and antennal gland for PmPLP2. PmPLP1 transcript levels were significantly upregulated in hemocytes at 24 and 72 h post infection (hpi) with yellow head virus (YHV) (7.4- and 14.7- fold, respectively), but only after 72 hpi by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In contrast, PmPLP2 was only slightly (but statistically significant)up-regulated with YHV and WSSV. Thus, PmPLPs have the potential to be a part of viral infection mechanisms or defense response. This is the first characterization of a plasmolipin gene in crustaceans. PMID:22766100

  1. Subtracted Transcriptome Profile of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon That Survived WSSV Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict A. Maralit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increased interest in the development of virus-resistant or improved shrimp stock because production is currently hindered by outbreaks and limited understanding of shrimp defense. Recent advancement now allows for high-throughput molecular studies on shrimp immunity. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS coupled with suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to generate a transcriptome database of genes from tiger shrimp that survived White spot syndrome virus (WSSV challenge. A total of 9,597 unique sequences were uploaded to NCBI Sequence Read Archive with accession number SRR577080. Sixty-five unique sequences, 6% of the total, were homologous to genes of Penaeus monodon. Genes that were initially related to bacterial infection and environmental stress such as 14-3-3 gene, heat shock protein 90, and calreticulin were also found including a few full-length gene sequences. Initial analysis of the expression of some genes was done. Hemocyanin, ferritin, and fortilin-binding protein exhibited differential expression between survivor and control tiger shrimps. Furthermore, candidate microsatellite markers for brood stock selection were mined and tested. Four trinucleotide and one dinucleotide microsatellites were successfully amplified. The study highlights the advantage of the NGS platform coupled with SSH in terms of gene discovery and marker generation.

  2. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassanee Eamkamon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in shrimp exposed to 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L of chlorpyrifos were significantly lower (1.7 and 3.3 times than that of control shrimp after 30 min of exposure (p<0.05. In sub-lethal exposure tests, the AChE activity of shrimp was significantly lower (1.9 times than that of control shrimp after exposure to 1.942 nmol/L of chlorpyrifos for 72 h (p<0.05. The sensitive reduction of AChE activity at the sub-lethal concentration, which was 30 times lower than 96 h LC50 value found in this study, indicates the potential use as a biomarker of chlorpyrifos exposure.

  3. Genetic diversity and differentiation of three populations of Penaeus monodon Fabricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guizhong; TAN Shuhua; LI shaojing; YE Haihui

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity of two wild Penaeus monodon populations sampled from the coastal waters of Qinglan ( Hainan Province of China, HN) and Malaysia (KD),and the F1 generation of a Thailand broodstock population (CP) were examined by vertical polyacryl- amide gel electrophoresis.Of 21 loci encoded by ten enzymes,11 were polymorphic.The mean proportions of polymorphic loci of HN,KD and CP were 36.36%,45.45% and 50.00%,with the average heterezygosities of 0.135,0.181 and 0.191,and the effective numbers of alleles per loci were 1.300,1.330 and 1.329,respectively.The divergent indexes of HN,KD and CP were 0.023,0.124,and 0.117,respectively.The genetic distance between the two wild populations was 0.005,and the gene differ- entiation coefficient was also very low (0.014).The results indicated that the F1 generation population had a higher genetic di- versity than the two wild populations,and that the HN population had the lowest one.There was no significant differentiation be- tween HN and KD populations and all populations existed with a slight heterozygote excess.

  4. Differentially expressed transcripts in stomach of Penaeus monodon in response to AHPND infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornchai, Wipasiri; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Thongda, Wilawan; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Yoocha, Thippawan; Jarayabhand, Padermsak; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2016-12-01

    Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) is an emerging disease in aquacultured shrimp caused by a pathogenic strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. As with several pathogenic bacteria, colonization of the stomach appeared to be the initial step of the infection for AHPND-causing Vibrio. To understand the immune responses in the stomach of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in the stomach during V. parahaemolyticus strain 3HP (VP3HP) infection was examined using Ion Torrent sequencing. From the total 42,998 contigs obtained, 1585 contigs representing 1513 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed with 1122 and 391 unigenes up- and down-regulated, respectively. Among the DETs, there were 141 immune-related unigenes in 10 functional categories: antimicrobial peptide, signal transduction pathway, proPO system, oxidative stress, proteinases/proteinase inhibitors, apoptotic tumor-related protein, pathogen recognition immune regulator, blood clotting system, adhesive protein and heat shock protein. Expression profiles of 20 of 22 genes inferred from RNA sequencing were confirmed with the results from qRT-PCR. Additionally, a novel isoform of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor, PmALF7 whose transcript was induced in the stomach after challenge with VP3HP was discovered. This study provided a fundamental information on the molecular response in the shrimp stomach during the AHPND infection that would be beneficial for future research. PMID:27339467

  5. Construction of full length cDNA expression library of hepatopancreas of Penaeus monodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗田; 徐洵

    2002-01-01

    --mRNA was isolated from the hepatopancrease of shrimp Penaeus monodon with a PolyATtract System 1000 Kit. By using mRNA as template, double- strand cDNA with EcoR I/Xho I ends was synthesized by using a ZAP Express cDNA Synthesis Kit. The cDNA was inserted into the lambda ZAP Express vector predigested with EcoR I/Xho I, and the recombinant DNA was in vitro packaged into larnbda phage with GigapackⅢ Gold packaging extracts. These recombinant phages were then used to transfect E. coli XLl - Blue MRF', and finally a cDNA expression library was constructed. The library is 7.2 × 105pfu in capacity and its recombination ratio is higher than 99%. The size of the inserted cDNAs was determined by EcoR I/Xho I digestion of 9 phagemids prepared by in vivo excision of plaques selected randomly from amplified cDNA library . The longest inserted cDNA is about 1.6 kb in length. The complete sequence (about 1.2 kb) of actin cDNA was amplified from the library by PCR reveals that this library contains full-length cDNAs of Penaeus mod on hepatopancreas and is available for screening and expression of shrimp genes.

  6. Transgene expression in Penaeus monodon cells: evaluation of recombinant baculoviral vectors with shrimp specific hybrid promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    It has been realized that shrimp cell immortalization may not be accomplished without in vitro transformation by expressing immortalizing gene in cells. In this process, efficiency of transgene expression is confined to the ability of vectors to transmit gene of interests to the genome. Over the years, unavailability of such vectors has been hampering application of such a strategy in shrimp cells. We report the use of recombinant baculovirus mediated transduction using hybrid promoter system for transgene expression in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon. Two recombinant baculovirus vectors with shrimp viral promoters (WSSV-Ie1 and IHHNV-P2) were constructed (BacIe1-GFP and BacP2-GFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as the transgene. The GFP expression in cells under the control of hybrid promoters, PH-Ie1 or PH-P2, were analyzed and confirmed in shrimp cells. The results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus with shrimp specific viral promoters (hybrid) can be employed for delivery of foreign genes to shrimp cells for in vitro transformation.

  7. Antioxidant status of Penaeus monodon fed with Dunaliella salina supplemented diet and resistance against WSSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MADHUMATHI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the protection of shrimp Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV using Dunaliella salina algal cells which contains an antioxidant betacarotene for the shrimp nonspecific immunity. To determine the antioxidant activity, the shrimp were treated in vivo (orally with feed methods at the concentration of 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2 % D. salina incorporated with pellet feed, respectively. In the present study, anti-WSSV activity of D. salina incorporated diet by in vivo methods showed strongantioxidant activity and the immunological parameters such as proPO, SOD,catalase were higher in the WSSVinfected shrimp treated with D. salina incorporated diet when compared to control groups. These results strongly indicate that in vivo of D. salina incorporated diet enhances immunity of the shrimp. Based on the present data and the advantages of harvesting D. salina at low price, we believe that oral administration of D. salina live cells along with the pellet feed is a potential prophylactic agent against WSSV infection of shrimp tosome extent.

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by coastal plant Prosopis chilensis (L.) and their efficacy in controlling vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Manickaswami, Gayathridevi; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Ayyavu, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of leaf extract from coastal plant Prosopis chilensis on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as a substrate and to find their antibacterial potential on pathogenic Vibrio species in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The leaf extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, as evident by gradual change in colour of the reaction mixture consisted of the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 to dark brown. The silver nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to the presence of silver nanocrystal, as evident by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The peaks corresponding to flavanones and terpenoids were found to be stabilizing agents of the nanoparticles, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average of 11.3 ± 2.1 nm and was mostly of spherical in shape, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were found to inhibit Vibrio pathogens viz., Vibrio cholerae, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus and this antibacterial effect was better than that of leaf extract, as proved by disc diffusion assay. The nanoparticles were then tested in the shrimp Penaeus monodon challenged with the four species of Vibrio pathogens for 30 days. The shrimps fed with silver nanoparticles exhibited higher survival, associated with immunomodulation in terms of higher haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of haemolymph of P. monodon which is on par with that of control. Thus, the present study proved the possibility of using silver nanoparticles produced by coastal Prosopis chilensis as antibacterial agent in controlling vibriosis.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of chitin deacetylase 1 gene from the gills of Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Katreena P; Panes, Vivian A; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-08-01

    Chitin deacetylases have been identified and studied in several fungi and insects but not in crustaceans. These glycoproteins function in catalyzing the conversion of chitin to chitosan by the hydrolysis of N-acetamido bonds of chitin. Here, for the first time, the full length cDNA of chitin deacetylase (CDA) gene from crustaceans was fully cloned using a partial fragment obtained from a transcriptome database of the gills of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that survived White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection employing Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR. The shrimp CDA, named PmCDA1, was further characterized by in silico analysis, and its constitutive expression determined in apparently healthy shrimp through reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Results revealed that the P. monodon chitin deacetylase (PmCDA1) is 2176 bp-long gene with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1596 bp encoding for 532 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PmCDA1 belongs to Group I CDAs together with CDA1 and CDA2 proteins found in insects. Moreover, PmCDA1 is composed of a conserved chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain (CBD), a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain (LDL-A) and a catalytic domain that is part of CE4 superfamily, all found in group I CDAs, which are known to serve critical immune function against WSSV. Finally, high expression of PmCDA1 gene in the gills of apparently healthy P. monodon was observed suggesting important basal function of the gene in this tissue. Taken together, this is a first report of the full chitin deacetylase 1 (CDA1) gene in crustaceans particularly in shrimp that exhibits putative immune function against WSSV and is distinctly highly expressed in the gills of shrimp. PMID:27335260

  10. Inventarisatie van de landslakken van de Zeeuwse kust, met de nadruk op de nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveld, A.

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of the land snails of the province of Zeeland, with special emphasis on Vertigo angustior (Mollusca: Gastropoda) In 2005 the land snail fauna of the coast of the province of Zeeland was mapped. In total 98 soil and litter samples were taken and on 54 localities records were gathered

  11. Exotic molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia in Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil region: check list and regional spatial distribution

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    A. Ignacio Agudo-Padrón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty-one exotic mollusc taxa were assessed for Santa Catarina State (SC, fifteen Gastropoda andsix Bivalvia (twelve terrestrial, five limnic/freshwater - three gastropods and two bivalves, and four marinebivalves. Of these, fourteen are confirmed as invasive species (nine terrestrial, three limnic/freshwater, andtwo marine.

  12. Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysate produced by alcalase hydrolysis from shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Satya Sadhan; Dora, Krushna Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis of shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus) for 90 min. using Alcalase enzyme following pH-stat method. Antioxidative activities of SWPH were assessed determining FRAP, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities, which increased linearly with increasing concentration of protein hydrolysate upto 5 mg/ml maintaining good correlation. SWPH showed high stability over wide ranges of pH (2–11) and temperature (up to 100 °C for 150 min), in whic...

  13. Record of Phyllidiella zeylanica (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia after 42 years from Gujarat, India

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    M. Matwal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies available on Opisthobranch fauna of Gujarat coast. Field surveys were carried out along the Mithapur reef under the “Coral reef restoration programme” of Wildlife Trust of India funded by Tata chemicals and supported by Gujarat State Forest Department and Marine National Park authorities. A species of nudibranch Phyllidiella zeylanica (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia was recorded for Gujarat after 42 years. This species was last reported by Narayanan in 1968 at Pirotan Islands, Gulf of Kutch Gujarat.

  14. Morphological Description of a Newly Recorded Strombus luhuanus (Strombidae: Gastropoda from Korea

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    Junhee Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Strombus Linne, 1758 is a genus of marine mollusks belonging to the class Gastropoda, and is distributed in the tropical waters of the world. Typically, the family Strombidae includes five extant genera (Strombus, Lambis, Terebellum, Tibia, and Rimella, all of which are mostly found in tropical waters. Five individuals of Strombus luhuanus Linne, 1758 were collected from Uljin, Gyeongsangbuk-do province for the first time. In this study, we describe details of shell morphology and radula characters of the species with scanning electron microscopy images of the radula. This is a new record of Strombus luhuanus Linne, 1758 from Korean waters.

  15. Studies on the fungal diseases in Crustaceans II.Halipthoros Philippinensis sp. nov. isolated from cultivated larvae of the jumbo tiger Prawn Penaeus monodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KishioHATAI; ZhongBIAN; Ma.CeciliaL.BATICADOS; SyuzoEGUSA

    1986-01-01

    Haliphthoros, philippinensis, a marine mastigomycete isolated from larvae of the jumbo tiger p.rawn Penaeus monodon, is described and illustrated as new. The fungus grew at a temperature range of 13.5 to 36.3℃, with the optimum of 29.3-34.5℃.

  16. Evidence of WSSV transmission from the rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis to the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon postlarvae and means to control rotifer resting eggs using industrial disinfectants

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    Valeriano Corre, Jr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotifers are considered possible vectors of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and have been implicated in its recurrence inpond-cultured shrimp. However, direct evidence of the transmission and the pathogenicity of this virus from rotifers to shrimp has been lacking.In the present study, the pathogenicity of WSSV transmitted from infected rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis to post larval black tiger shrimp(Penaeus monodon was investigated. Results show that WSSV transmitted from infected rotifers to post-larval P. monodon caused an 82%cumulative mortality as compared to a 9% mortality in the non-infected control group. We also investigated the possibility of industrial disinfectants(sodium hypochlorite, granulated calcium hypochlorite and formalin as possible means to inhibit the viability of rotifer resting eggs,considered a biological reservoir of WSSV in earthen ponds. Among the disinfectants that were tested, granulated calcium hypochlorite at 5mg/L was the most effective. The present study provides direct evidence of the high pathogenicity of WSSV transmitted from rotifers to postlarval P. monodon and shows the potential use of granulated calcium hypochlorite in pond disinfection. This treatment could be a promisingstrategy to inhibit the spread and recurrence of WSSV outbreaks in P. monodon culture.

  17. LARVAS DE DIGENEA EN Melanoides tuberculata (GASTROPODA: THIARIDAE EN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA Larval stages of digenea from Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae in Medellín, Colombia

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    DANIELA VERGARA

    Full Text Available Se describen las larvas de digeneos que se obtuvieron en Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae, molusco dulceacuícola del que se colectaron 125 especímenes en el lago del Jardín Botánico Joaquín Antonio Uribe de Medellín. En el laboratorio se individualizaron y se estimuló la emisión cercariana con una fuente luminosa. El 9,6 % de los caracoles emitió cercarias. Los moluscos emisores se sacrificaron para obtener los demás estadios larvarios. Las larvas se montaron al microscopio, se midieron y luego se dibujaron. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron establecer la presencia de Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae y de dos Philophthalmidae. Uno de estos es primer registro para Colombia. Se confirma la sensibilidad de M. tuberculata a infecciones por digeneos, así como la especificidad de los filoftálmidos por moluscos hospedadores de la superfamilia Cerithioidea.The larvae of two trematodes found in the freshwater mollusk Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae are described. 125 snails from the Medellin’s Botanical Garden Joaquín Antonio Uribe were collected. In the laboratory, each individual was placed alone and stimulated with light in order to have cercaria emission. 9.6% of the snails released cercariae. These were separated in three morphologies. From each one, 15 individuals were measured and drawn. Photographs were taken. Based on their morphological characteritics the presence of Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae was determined. The other two morphologies were classified in the family Philophthalmidae. One of them constitutes the first register for Colombia. The sensibility of M. tuberculata to infections by digeneans, and the specificity of the family Philophthalmidae to mollusk hosts of the superfamily Cerithioidea are confirmed

  18. Application of Irradiated Pro biotic Microorganism in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine shrimp culture in Thailand has been developed continuously for the past two decades. This development will ensure the highest level of shrimp quality that will be suitable for the consumption of the people in the country and also aboard. The trend of culture system emphasizes on disease prevention more than treatment which will consequently limit the application of drug and chemicals. Application of pro biotic has been one means of this prevention that are commonly practiced by shrimp farmers. This research was conducted to compare the efficacy of normal Bacillus subtilis isolate from shrimp intestine and an irradiated B. subtilis as a pro biotic in shrimp feed. It was found that overall results were quite the same. These included the broth Co-culture assay. Effects on immune functions were conducted with Penaeus monodon with initial average weight of 17 gms by feeding with 3 gms/kg feed of spore of these two pro biotic for two mouths. The results indicated that both pro biotic caused significant improvement on percent phagocytosis only at the forth week of feeding trial and the overall enhancement of bactericidal activity. However, total haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity were not altered. Total bacterial count in shrimp intestine was also conducted during the two month trial. the results indicated significant reduction of Vibrio spp. of both pro biotic groups when compared with the control. Number of Bacillus spp. in intestine were continuously high even after pro biotic treatment had been stopped Growth rate of experiment and control shrimp was not significantly different.

  19. Expression of immune-related genes in larval stages of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Puanglarp, Narongsak; Petkon, Sasithon; Donnuea, Seri; Söderhäll, Irene; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2007-10-01

    Shrimp undergo several morphologically different stages during development and therefore the expression of some immune-related genes such as prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (Prx), crustin (Crus), penaeidin (Pen), transglutaminase (TGase), haemocyanin (Hc) and astakine (Ak) were determined during larval development of the shrimp (Penaeus monodon), i.e. nauplius 4 (N4), protozoea 1 and 3 (Z1 and 3), mysis 3 (My 3), post-larvae 3 (PL3) and also in haemocytes of juveniles. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that all transcripts were already present in the early larval stage of N4 but at different levels. The transcript of proPO was found to be extremely low or even absent at N4, whereas Prx, Crus, Pen, TGase, Hc and Ak were significantly expressed at all larval stages. Up to now expression of proPO and Prx has only been reported from haemocytes in crustaceans and in this study Prx also appeared to be expressed in stages which appear to lack haemocytes. Thus, this may suggest that Prx is expressed in other cells than haemocytes. It is well known among invertebrates that the proPO system plays a crucial role as an immune effector molecule against microbes. However, in this study, the transcript of proPO was low during the larval stages and hardly present at all at N4. This might indicate that the development of immune-competent haemocytes during the larval stages is not completed and as a consequence they are likely to be more susceptible to infectious diseases during these stages.

  20. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in normal and white spot syndrome virus infected Penaeus monodon

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    Juan Hsueh-Fen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White spot syndrome (WSS is a viral disease that affects most of the commercially important shrimps and causes serious economic losses to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. However, little information is available in terms of the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction. In this study, we used an expressed sequence tag (EST approach to observe global gene expression changes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-infected postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Results Sequencing of the complementary DNA clones of two libraries constructed from normal and WSSV-infected postlarvae produced a total of 15,981 high-quality ESTs. Of these ESTs, 46% were successfully matched against annotated genes in National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant (nr database and 44% were functionally classified using the Gene Ontology (GO scheme. Comparative EST analyses suggested that, in postlarval shrimp, WSSV infection strongly modulates the gene expression patterns in several organs or tissues, including the hepatopancreas, muscle, eyestalk and cuticle. Our data suggest that several basic cellular metabolic processes are likely to be affected, including oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, the glycolytic pathway, and calcium ion balance. A group of immune-related chitin-binding protein genes is also likely to be strongly up regulated after WSSV infection. A database containing all the sequence data and analysis results is accessible at http://xbio.lifescience.ntu.edu.tw/pm/. Conclusion This study suggests that WSSV infection modulates expression of various kinds of genes. The predicted gene expression pattern changes not only reflect the possible responses of shrimp to the virus infection but also suggest how WSSV subverts cellular functions for virus multiplication. In addition, the ESTs reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp.

  1. Bacterial population in intestines of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon under different growth stages.

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    Wanilada Rungrassamee

    Full Text Available Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15, 1- (J1, 2- (J2, and 3-month-old (J3 juveniles using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length = 442±24 bases were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences, J1 (3,055 sequences, J2 (13,130 sequences and J3 (1,890 sequences. Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities.

  2. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in shrimps Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei sampled from slow growth ponds in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Narayanan; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Raj, Mithun; Shanmugam, Venu; Baskaran, Babu; Govindan, Umamaheswari; Kumaresan, Gayathri; Kasthuriraju, Karthick Kannan; Chellamma, Thampi Sam Raj Yohannan

    2016-08-01

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon is caused by the newly emerged pathogen Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). It has been detected in shrimp cultured in China, Vietnam and Thailand and is suspected to have occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia and to be associated with severely retarded growth. Due to retarded shrimp growth being reported at farms in the major grow-out states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in India, shrimp were sampled from a total of 235 affected ponds between March 2014 and April 2015 to identify the presence of EHP. PCR and histology detected a high prevalence of EHP in both P. monodon and L. vannamei, and infection was confirmed by in situ hybridization using an EHP-specific DNA probe. Histology revealed basophilic inclusions in hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells in which EHP was observed at various developmental stages ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. The sequence of a region of the small subunit rDNA gene amplified by PCR was found to be identical to EHP sequences deposited in GenBank. Bioassays confirmed that EHP infection could be transmitted orally to healthy shrimp. Histology also identified bacterial co-infections in EHP-infected shrimp sampled from slow-growth ponds with low-level mortality. The data confirm that hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by EHP is prevalent in shrimp being cultivated in India. EHP infection control measures thus need to be implemented urgently to limit impacts of slowed shrimp growth. PMID:27503918

  3. Original molluscan radula: comparisons among Aplacophora, Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, and the Cambrian fossil Wiwaxia corrugata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltema, Amélie H; Kerth, Klaus; Kuzirian, Alan M

    2003-08-01

    As the original molluscan radula is not known from direct observation, we consider what the form of the original radula may have been from evidence provided by neomenioid Aplacophora (Solenogastres), Gastropoda, Polyplacophora, and the Cambrian fossil Wiwaxia corrugata (Matthews). Conclusions are based on direct observation of radula morphology and its accessory structures (salivary gland ducts, radular sac, anteroventral radular pocket) in 25 species and 16 genera of Aplacophora; radula morphogenesis in Aplacophora; earliest tooth formation in Gastropoda (14 species among Prosobranchia, Opisthobranchia, and Pulmonata); earliest tooth formation in four species of Polyplacophora; and the morphology of the feeding apparatus in W. corrugata. The existence of a true radula membrane and of membranoblasts and odontoblasts in neomenioids indicates that morphogenesis of the aplacophoran radula is homologous to that in other radulate Mollusca. We conclude from p redness of salivary gland ducts, a divided radular sac, and a pair of anteroventral pockets that the plesiomorphic state in neomenioids is bipartite, formed of denticulate bars that are distichous (two teeth per row) on a partially divided or fused radula membrane with the largest denticles lateral, as occurs in the genus Helicoradomenia. The tooth morphology in Helicoradomenia is similar to the feeding apparatus in W. corrugata. We show that distichy also occurs during early development in several species of gastropods and polyplacophorans. Through the rejection of the null hypothesis that the earliest radula was unipartite and had no radula membrane, we conclude that the original molluscan radula was similar to the radula found in Helicoradomena species. PMID:12833382

  4. From sea to land and beyond – New insights into the evolution of euthyneuran Gastropoda (Mollusca

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    Streit Bruno

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Euthyneura are considered to be the most successful and diverse group of Gastropoda. Phylogenetically, they are riven with controversy. Previous morphology-based phylogenetic studies have been greatly hampered by rampant parallelism in morphological characters or by incomplete taxon sampling. Based on sequences of nuclear 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA as well as mitochondrial 16S rRNA and COI DNA from 56 taxa, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Euthyneura utilising Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The evolution of colonization of freshwater and terrestrial habitats by pulmonate Euthyneura, considered crucial in the evolution of this group of Gastropoda, is reconstructed with Bayesian approaches. Results We found several well supported clades within Euthyneura, however, we could not confirm the traditional classification, since Pulmonata are paraphyletic and Opistobranchia are either polyphyletic or paraphyletic with several clades clearly distinguishable. Sacoglossa appear separately from the rest of the Opisthobranchia as sister taxon to basal Pulmonata. Within Pulmonata, Basommatophora are paraphyletic and Hygrophila and Eupulmonata form monophyletic clades. Pyramidelloidea are placed within Euthyneura rendering the Euthyneura paraphyletic. Conclusion Based on the current phylogeny, it can be proposed for the first time that invasion of freshwater by Pulmonata is a unique evolutionary event and has taken place directly from the marine environment via an aquatic pathway. The origin of colonisation of terrestrial habitats is seeded in marginal zones and has probably occurred via estuaries or semi-terrestrial habitats such as mangroves.

  5. Effect of dietary pigment on growth performance and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius

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    Boonyaratpalin, M.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary pigment on survival and disease (white spot syndrome virus: WSSV resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius (PL15 for a 30-day period were studied. The results showed that not only was mean survival of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed with supplementation of Lucarotene or Betatene at 125 mg/kg diet significantly higher (P<0.05 but also the body color was increased. There were no effects of dietary pigment on mean weight, percent weight gain and WSSV resistance. However, mean WSSV resistance of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed diet containing Lucantin pink 50 mg/kg diet, Spirulina 30 g/kg diet or Betatene 125 mg/kg diet was higher than that of control.

  6. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 from Penaeus monodon (ALFPm3) exhibits antiviral activity by interacting with WSSV structural proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraprasit, Sivalee; Methatham, Thanachai; Jaree, Phattarunda; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Senapin, Saengchan; Hirono, Ikuo; Lo, Chu Fang; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya

    2014-10-01

    In innate immunity, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a vital role in combating microbial pathogens. Among the AMPs identified in Penaeus monodon, only anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 (ALFPm3) has been reported to exhibit activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). However, the mechanism(s) involved are still not clear. In the present study, ALFPm3-interacting proteins were screened for from a WSSV library using the yeast two-hybrid screening system, revealing the five potential ALFPm3-interacting proteins of WSSV186, WSSV189, WSSV395, WSSV458 and WSSV471. Temporal transcriptional analysis in WSSV-infected P. monodon revealed that all five of these WSSV gene transcripts were expressed in the late phase of infection (24h and 48h post-infection). Of these, WSSV189 that was previously identified as a structural protein, was selected for further analysis and was shown to be an enveloped protein by Western blot and immunoelectron microscopy analyses. The in vitro pull-down assay using recombinant WSSV189 (rWSSV189) protein as bait confirmed the interaction between ALFPm3 and WSSV189 proteins. Moreover, pre-incubation of rWSSV189 protein with rALFPm3 protein interfered with the latter's neutralization effect on WSSV in vivo, as shown by the increased cumulative mortality of shrimp injected with WSSV following prior treatment with pre-incubated rWSSV189 and rALFPm3 proteins compared to that in shrimp pre-treated with rALFPm3 protein. Thus, ALFPm3 likely performs its anti-WSSV action by binding to the envelope protein WSSV189 and possibly other WSSV structural proteins.

  7. Development of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR Assay for the Detection of Philippine Isolates of the Penaeus monodon-type Baculovirus (MBV

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    Christopher Marlowe A. Caipang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Penaeus monodon-type baculovirus (MBV is a DNA virus that infects postlarvae and early juveniles of shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Several variants of this virus occur through nucleotide analysis of its genomic DNA. In the present study, a one-step PCR method was developed for the detection of the Philippine isolates of MBV by designing PCR primers on the least conserved region of the Philippine MBV. Using genomic DNA of MBV-infected shrimp postlarvae, the PCR assay amplified a 193-bp PCR product. Its sensitivity was comparable to the published PCR assays. The strain-specific primers did not cross-react with other DNA viruses including White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV. This PCR assay could be used for regular monitoring and surveillance of MBV in shrimp as well as tracing the movement of the Philippine MBV in shrimp farms in different geographic regions.

  8. Distribución y abundancia de larvas de Heterocarpus reedi Bahamonde, 1955, Cervimunida johni Porter, 1903 y Pleuroncodes monodon (H. Milne Edwards, 1837, frente a Coquimbo y Caldera, Chile Distribution and abundance of Heterocarpus reedi Bahamonde, 1955, Cervimunida johni Porter, 1903, and Pleuroncodes monodon (H. Milne Edwards, 1837, larvae off Coquimbo and Caldera, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Mujica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Como aporte a la dinámica poblacional de especies que constituyen recursos pesqueros, se analizaron 160 muestras de zooplancton obtenidas con redes Bongo en 40 estaciones oceanógraficas entre Caldera y Coquimbo, en octubre y diciembre de 2005. De ellas se separó la totalidad de las larvas de crustáceos decápodos y se identificaron las de Heterocarpus reedi, Cervimunida johni y Pleuroncodes monodon. Las mayores abundancias de zoeas tempranas de las tres especies se encontraron en octubre en la zona de Coquimbo, mientras que en diciembre predominaron los estados más avanzados de desarrollo. En la zona de Caldera, en ambos meses de muestreo, predominaron los estados avanzados de desarrollo de H. reedi y P. monodon y zoeas tempranas de C. johni. La frecuencia de ocurrencia de las larvas de H reedi en la zona de Coquimbo fue similar en ambos meses, mientras que en la zona de Caldera fue mayor en octubre. La frecuencia de ocurrencia de las larvas de P. monodon y C. johni fue mayor en octubre en ambas zonas. Todas las megalopas capturadas en las dos zonas y meses de muestreo corresponden sólo a un morfotipo, con características morfológicas similares a los juveniles más pequeños de P. monodon. Sobre la base de la distribución y abundancia de larvas de las tres especies, se postula que el desove ocurre antes en la zona de Caldera que en la de Coquimbo, principalmente en zonas próximas a la costa, dada las diferencias de abundancia de los estados de desarrollo.To better understand the population dynamics of fishery resource species, 160 zooplankton samples were obtained with a Bongo net at 40 oceanographic stations around Caldera and Coquimbo in October and December, 2005, and analyzed. All crustacean decapod larvae were sorted, and Heterocarpus reedi, Cervimunida johni, and Pleuroncodes monodon larvae were identified. For all three species, the highest abundances of early zoea were found in October in Coquimbo, whereas advanced larval

  9. Effects of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol on growth performance and immuno-physiological parameters in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

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    Kidchakan Supamattaya

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA and deoxynivalenol (DON, naturally occurring contaminants of animal feed, have been implicated in several mycotoxicoses in farm livestock but there is little information on their toxicity in aquatic invertebrates. Therefore, in the present study an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon to assess the effects of OTA and DON on growth performance, haemolymph parameters and histopathology of shrimp. Results showed that feed supplemented with DON caused no effect on growth or survival rate of the shrimp. However, shrimps fed DON feed diet with 1,000 ppb showed significantly higher growth performance. No significant difference in total haemocyte counts (THC was found in shrimp fed mycotoxins-supplemented feed. Feeding high level of OTA (1,000 ppb caused a decrease in phenoloxidase (PO activity. Although no histopathological change was observed, decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT levels in shrimp fed OTA or DON indicated that mycotoxin may impair the functioning of hepatopancreatic cells. Since no adverse effect occurred with the highest levels of OTA and DON (1,000 and 2,000 ppb, respectively on haemolymph parameters and no residue was detected at the completion of the 8-week feeding period, it can be concluded that shrimp feeds occasionally contaminated with OTA or DON have no negative impact on the shrimp culture industry.

  10. Attempts on producing lymphoid cell line from Penaeus monodon by induction with SV40-T and 12S EIA oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Prabhakaran, Priyaja; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt of in vitro transformation, transfection mediated expression of Simian virus-40 (T) antigen (SV40-T) and transduction mediated expression of Adenovirus type 12 early region 1A (12S E1A) oncogene were performed in Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells. pSV3-neo vector encoding SV40-T oncogene and a recombinant baculovirus BacP2-12S E1A-GFP encoding 12S E1A oncogene under the control of hybrid promoters were used. Electroporation and lipofection mediated transformation of SV40-T in lymphoid cells confirmed the transgene expression by phenotypic variation and the expression of GFP in co-transfection experiment. The cells transfected by lipofection (≥ 5%) survived for 14 days with lower toxicity (30%), whilst on electroporation, most of the cells succumbed to death (60%) and survived cells lived up to 7 days. Transduction efficiency in primary lymphoid cells was more than 80% within 14 days of post-transduction, however, an incubation period of 7 days post-transduction was observed without detectable expression of 12S E1A. High level of oncogenic 12S E1A expression were observed after 14 day post-transduction and the proliferating cells survived for more than 90 days with GFP expression, however, without in vitro transformation and immortalization. The study put forth the requirement of transduction mediated 'specific' oncogene expression along with telomerase activation and epigenetic induction for the immortalization and establishment of shrimp cell line.

  11. Study on the Toxicity of Three Drugs on Penaeus monodon Postlarvae%3种药物对斑节对虾仔虾的毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白东清; 穆祥兆; 李玉华; 任东悦; 吴旋; 宁博

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The study aimed to discuss the acute toxicity and united toxicity of formaldehyde, potassium permanganate, povidone iodine on Penaeus monodon postlarvac. [Method] With 1 000 tails of health Penaeus monodon postlarvae as the tested objects, the acute toxicity test with single drug and the joint toxicity test with 2 kinds of drugs on Penaeus monodon postlarvae were conducted by using 3 kinds of drugs,namely, formaldehyde, potassium permanganate, povidone iodine. [ Result ] The half lethal concentration of 3 kinds of drugs to Penaeus monodon postlarvae at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were as follows: 80.67, 55.81,42.26, 33.56 mg/L of formaldehyde, respectively; 7.93, 6.31,5.14, 4.77mg/L of potassium permanganate, respectively; 6.95, 5.78, 5. 00, 4. 32 mg/L of povidone iodine, respectively. The safe concentration of formaldehyde, potassium permanganate and povidone iodine to Penaeus monodon postlarvae were 3.56, 0.48, 0.43 mg/L, respectively. The order of the toxicity of 3 drugs was as follows: povidone iodine > potassium permanganate > formatdehyde. [ Conclusion ] The toxicity of the mix of formaldehyde, potassium permanganate and povidone iodine showed a synergism on their toxicity to Penaeus monodon postlarvae.%[目的]探讨甲醛、高锰酸钾、聚维酮碘对斑节对虾仔虾的急性毒性和联合毒性作用.[方法]以1 000尾健康的斑节对虾仔虾为试验对象,用高锰酸钾、甲醛、聚维酮碘3种药物分别进行单一药物和任2种药物组合的急性毒性和联合毒性试验.[结果]3种药物对斑节对虾仔虾24、48、72、96 h的半致死浓度分别为:甲醛80.67、55.81、42.26、33.56 mg/L;高锰酸钾7.93、6.31、5.14、4.77 mg/L;聚维酮碘6.95、5.78、5.00、4.32 mg/L.对斑节对虾仔虾的安全浓度分别为甲醛3.56、高猛酸钾0.48、聚维酮碘0.43 mg/L.3种药物毒性大小依次为:聚维酮碘>高锰酸钾>甲醛.[结论]高锰酸钾和甲醛,与聚维酮碘混合后,对凡纳滨对虾仔虾的毒性表现为协同作用.

  12. Two new species of Naticidae (Mollusca ,Gastropoda) from the coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Suping

    2008-01-01

    Two new species of Naticidae (Mollusca,Gastropoda) collected from the coast of China are described:Cryptonaitca huanghaien- sis sp.nov.and Sinum vittatum sp.nov.The morphological characteristics between the new species were described and the relat- ed information was provided.The similarities and differences between the new species and related species were also compared and discussed.The new species Cryptonaitca huanghaiensis differed from Cryptonaitca hirasei and Cryptonaitca andoi in outer shape, operculum and radula.The new species Sinum vittatum is similar to Sinum japonicum (Lischke,1869),but the shell of the for- mer is flat-elliptical in shape,spire very small,slightly convex.While the latter is flat-globular in shape,apex light brown in col- or,without a brown band on the body whorl.The comparison results revealed that Cryptonaitca huanghaiensis and Sinum vittatum were two new species from the coast of China.Specimens studied were obtained from collections in the Marine Biological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. With a little help from DNA barcoding: investigating the diversity of Gastropoda from the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Luísa M S; Hollatz, Claudia; Lobo, Jorge; Cunha, Ana M; Vilela, Ana P; Calado, Gonçalo; Coelho, Rita; Costa, Ana C; Ferreira, Maria S G; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Filipe O

    2016-02-15

    The Gastropoda is one of the best studied classes of marine invertebrates. Yet, most species have been delimited based on morphology only. The application of DNA barcodes has shown to be greatly useful to help delimiting species. Therefore, sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene from 108 specimens of 34 morpho-species were used to investigate the molecular diversity within the gastropods from the Portuguese coast. To the above dataset, we added available COI-5P sequences of taxonomically close species, in a total of 58 morpho-species examined. There was a good match between ours and sequences from independent studies, in public repositories. We found 32 concordant (91.4%) out of the 35 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) generated from our sequences. The application of a ranking system to the barcodes yield over 70% with top taxonomic congruence, while 14.2% of the species barcodes had insufficient data. In the majority of the cases, there was a good concordance between morphological identification and DNA barcodes. Nonetheless, the discordance between morphological and molecular data is a reminder that even the comparatively well-known European marine gastropods can benefit from being probed using the DNA barcode approach. Discordant cases should be reviewed with more integrative studies.

  14. In situ hybridization demonstrates that Litopenaeus vannamei, L. stylirostris and Penaeus monodon are susceptible to experimental infection with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Poulos, Bonnie T; Redman, Rita M; Lightnere, Donald V

    2005-02-28

    Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) was recently found to be the cause of necrosis in the skeletal muscle of farm-reared Litopenaeus vannamei from northeastern Brazil. Nucleic acid extracted from semi-purified IMN virions showed that this virus contains a 7.5 kb RNA genome. A cDNA library was constructed, and a clone, designated as IMNV-317, was labeled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP and used as a gene probe for in situ hybridization (ISH). This probe specifically detected IMNV in infected tissues. To determine the susceptibility of 3 species of penaeid shrimp (L. vannamei, L. stylirostris, Penaeus monodon) to IMNV infection, juveniles were injected with purified virions and observed for clinical signs of infection and mortality over a 4 wk period. All L. vannamei exhibited typical lesions after 6 d, and lesions were visible in all L. stylirostris by Day 13. The clinical signs of opaque muscle were not seen in P. monodon, due to their highly pigmented exoskeleton precluding visual detection of lesions. Moderate mortality (20%) occurred in infected L. vannamei. No mortalities were observed in either L. stylirostris or P. monodon. Histological examination and ISH indicated that all 3 species are susceptible to IMNV infection. Using ISH, IMNV was detected in tissues including the skeletal muscle, lymphoid organ, hindgut, and phagocytic cells within the hepatopancreas and heart. In all 3 species, skeletal muscle cells produced the strongest ISH reactions. Based on the onset of clinical signs of infection and mortality, L. vannamei appears to be the most susceptible of these 3 species to IMNV infection. PMID:15819442

  15. Cloning, characterization, and expression of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene from the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bobo; Fu, Mingjun; Zhao, Chao; Shi, Jinxuan; Shi, Gongfang; Jiao, Zongyao; Qiu, Lihua

    2016-09-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an ancient cytokine that engages in innate immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, the MIF gene homologue (PmMIF) was cloned from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The full-length cDNA sequence of PmMIF was 838 bp and contained 78 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) and 397 bp 3' UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 363 bp which coded 120 amino acids (aa). Multiple alignment analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared 98% identities with MIF from closely related species of Litopenaeus vannamei. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that PmMIF was highly expression observed in hepatotpancreas and gills. After Vibrio harveyi challenge, PmMIF mRNA level in hepatopancreas and gills were sharply up-regulated at 6 h post-injection, and reached the maximum at 12 h. PmMIF expression level in the hepatopancreas and gills were up-regulated markedly under low (2.3%) and high (4.3%) salinity exposure, respectively. PmMIF expression level in gills increased significantly at 12 h and reached peak values (2.5- fold, 6.4-fold and 1.8-fold compared with the control) at 12 h, 48 h and 12 h after zinc, cadmium and copper exposure, respectively. In the hepatopancreas, the expression of PmMIF reached maximum levels (8.5- fold, 6.2-fold and 2.1-fold compared with the control) at 24 h, 6 h and 48 h after zinc, cadmium and copper exposure, respectively. All the results indicate that PmMIF plays an important role in responding in the innate immune system of shrimps. PMID:27514787

  16. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal (Monodon monoceros eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks

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    Eva Garde

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ages of marine mammals have traditionally been estimated by counting dentinal growth layers in teeth. However, this method is difficult to use on narwhals (Monodon monoceros because of their special tooth structures. Alternative methods are therefore needed. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in tusks (n=9. Two racemization rates were estimated: one by linear regression (r2=0.98 based on the assumption that age was known without error, and one based on a bootstrap study, taking into account the uncertainty in the age estimation (r2 between 0.88 and 0.98. The two estimated 2kAsp values were identical up to two significant figures. The 2k Asp value from the bootstrap study was found to be 0.00229±0.000089 SE, which corresponds to a racemization rate of 0.00114−yr±0.000044 SE. The intercept of 0.0580±0.00185 SE corresponds to twice the (d/l0 value, which is then 0.0290±0.00093 SE. We propose that this species-specific racemization rate and (d/l0 value be used in future AAR age estimation studies of narwhals, but also recommend the collection of tusks and eyes of narwhals for further improving the (d/l0 and 2kAsp estimates obtained in this study.

  17. Revealing localization and regulation of GTPase PmRab7 in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon after WSSV infection

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    Amrendra Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify white spot syndrome virus (WSSV entry into the host-cells of the cultured shrimp Penaeus monodon, we have attempted to localize PmRab7 (Ras-related in brain which is playing a vital role in the WSSV internalization. Methods: In this study, we have cloned PmRab7 and expressed in Escherichia coli, further purified rPmRab7 was used for antibody production, isolation of lysosomal sub-cellular fractions and western blot against lysosomal protein. Moreover, high fold-change in PmRab7 regulation with increasing copy number of WSSV has been studied by using real-time PCR. Results: 651 bp amplicon size gene was successfully amplified, ligated amplicon with pTZ T-tail vector confirmed by colony PCR and retriction enzyme digestion on agarose gel. Subcloned (pRSET-B 651 bp gene transformed successfully in Rosetta and after 6 h of induction expressed rPmRab7 was on SDS page, furthermore soluble fraction of rPmRab7 (26 kDa was purified by ni-NTA column. AntiPmRab7 antibody was received by Merk Pvt. Ltd., and western blot analysis revealed that PmRab7 is present in the lysosomal sub-cellular fraction. Copy number of WSSV was increased 5 fold in 24 h and 20 fold in 72 h of infection and subsequently transcrtipt of PmRab7 was Ct = 1.0 to Ct = 8.5. Conclusions: Presence of PmRab7 on lysosome clearly indicating PmRab7 participating in lysosomal maturation, other hand WSSV may follow the same route of entry. WSSV internalization has directly linked with regulation of PmRab7.

  18. Use of Streptomyces fradiae and Bacillus megaterium as probiotics in the experimental culture of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea, Penaeidae

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    Sheikh Aftabuddin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp hatcheries often beset with diseases, mainly the bacterial infection and antibiotics arewidely used for prevention of disease. Presently, beneficial bacteria (probiotics are used to preventdiseases instead of antibiotics and increasing the production. In the present study, the two new microbialstrains Bacillus megaterium and Streptomyces fradiae isolated from mangrove sediments were applied(experimental culture for the post larval rearing of Penaeus monodon which is compared with controlculture tanks (without probiotics. The water quality condition such as temperature (27-29oC, salinity(26-28‰ and dissolved oxygen (4.7-5.0 mg L-1 of both control and experimental culture were more orless similar. Concentration of ammonia and pH were significantly different (p<0.05 between the controland experimental culture during the study period. The feed assimilation efficiency is higher (above 80%in experimental culture tank when compared to control tank (74.76%. The growth rate was higher -1.70 and 1.67 in S. fradiae, 1.66 and 1.63 in B. megaterium - through feed and water, respectively,while in control tank it was 1.4. The FCR values were 2.06 and 2.12 in S. fradiae treated tanks throughfeed and water, respectively, while 2.51 and 2.55 were observed in B. megaterium treated through feedand water respectively. The FCR value was found higher (4.02 in the control tank. The average totalheterotrophic bacteria (THB and total presumptive Vibrio bacteria both in culture water and post larvaewere lower during experimental culture in compared to control culture. The present study indicates thatthe probiotic treatment using two new microbial strains such as B. megaterium and S. fradiae would helpin better aquaculture production.

  19. Immune gene expression profile of Penaeus monodon in response to marine yeast glucan application and white spot syndrome virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wilsy; Lowman, Douglas; Antony, Swapna P; Puthumana, Jayesh; Bright Singh, I S; Philip, Rosamma

    2015-04-01

    Immunostimulant potential of eight marine yeast glucans (YG) from Candida parapsilosis R20, Hortaea werneckii R23, Candida spencermartinsiae R28, Candida haemulonii R63, Candida oceani R89, Debaryomyces fabryi R100, Debaryomyces nepalensis R305 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii R340 were tested against WSSV challenge in Penaeus monodon post larvae (PL). Structural characterization of these marine yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan. PL were fed 0.2% glucan incorporated diet once in seven days for a period of 45 days and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The immunostimulatory activity of yeast glucans were assessed pre- and post-challenge WSSV by analysing the expression profile of six antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5 and 13 immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, caspase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, haemocyanin, peroxinectin, pmCathepsinC, prophenol oxidase (proPO), Rab-7, superoxide dismutase and transglutaminase. Expression of seven WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, thymidine kinase and VP28 were also analysed to detect the presence and intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals post-challenge. The study revealed that yeast glucans (YG) do possess immunostimulatory activity against WSSV and also supported higher survival (40-70 %) post-challenge WSSV. Among the various glucans tested, YG23 showed maximum survival (70.27%), followed by YG20 (66.66%), YG28 (60.97%), YG89 (58.53%), YG100 (54.05%), YG63 (48.64%), YG305 (45.7%) and YG340 (43.24%). PMID:25555812

  20. Expression and characterisation of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon penaeidin (mo-penaeidin) in various tissues, during early embryonic development and moulting stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Tzu-Ting; Lu, Jenn-Kan; Wu, Jen-Leih; Chen, Thomas T; Ko, Chi-Fong; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2007-01-01

    A penaeidin family, mo-penaeidin was cloned from the haemocytes of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon using genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by gene specific primers. Analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that this mo-penaeidin consists of 1348 bp containing one intron (680 bp) and two exons (210 and 458 bp). It has an open reading frame (ORF) of 222 p, which encodes a protein of 74 amino acids including a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (55 amino acids) is 6.059 kDa with an estimated pI of 9.3. The deduced amino acid sequence of mo-penaeidin has similarity to that of penaeidin from Fenneropenaeus chinensis (73%), Farfantepenaeus paulensis (66%), Litopenaeus schmitti (53-67%), L. stylirostris (50-67%), L. setiferus (50-62%), L. vannamei (44-66%), and Marsupenaeus japonicus (33%), respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that penaeidin (including mo-penaeidin, penaeidin, and penaeidin 5, 2, 3k, 3c1) of P. monodon is distinct from penaeidin 1, penaeidin 2, penaeidin 3 and penaeidin 4 of other penaeid shrimps. The mo-penaeidin mRNA was detected in various tissues including ovary and mandibular organ. The mo-penaeidin mRNA was present in one cell to postlarva stage with higher level at nauplius I (9h post hatching) and higher expression during the intermoult stage indicating an early innate immunity and different immunity at moulting stage. PMID:16820207

  1. Osmo and ionic regulation of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon Fabricius 1798) juveniles exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water at different salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantulo, Uras; Fotedar, Ravi

    2007-02-01

    An 11-day trial was conducted to investigate the osmoregulatory capacity (OC) and regulation of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) of Penaeus monodon juveniles when exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water (ISW) of four different salinities (5, 15, 25 and 35 ppt). The survival of juveniles showed a positive linear relationship (R(2) ranging from 0.72 to 0.98) with salinity. At the end of the trial, juveniles were able to survive only in 5 ppt of ISW and showed no changes in OC when transferred from ocean water (OW) to ISW. Further, the OC of juveniles in 5 ppt of ISW was significantly different (Pjuveniles exposed to 15, 25 and 35 ppt and exhibited strong serum K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) regulation monitored over 16 h. In contrast, at 35 ppt, significant decrease (Pjuveniles, which in turn causes decrease in the OC of the juveniles. The results of this study suggest that K(+) deficiency in ISW has a negative effect on survival, OC and the ability of P. monodon juveniles to regulate serum Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations. These effects are compounded as salinity increases.

  2. GENETIC STATUS, SOURCE AND ESTABLISHMENT RISK OF THE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEIDAE: Penaeus monodon, AN INVASIVE SPECIES IN COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN WATERS

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    J.C. AGUIRRE-PABÓN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon is an Indo-Pacific species. Its global production between 1970 and 1980 exceeded all other shrimp species, which favored its introduction and cultivation outside its natural range in several countries of Africa, Europe, USA and South America. It is currently found in the coast of the Atlantic Ocean (Mexico, United States, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela and Colombia. Despite the risk involved, no studies have been conducted to evaluate their impact as a possible invasive species and their genetic condition. This study evaluated the genetic status and population origin of P. monodon in the northernmost Colombian Caribbean, analyzing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA-CR. 16 individuals were randomly collected from Golfo de Salamanca and 342 original Indo-Pacific sequences were obtained from GenBank. Parameters of genetic diversity and genetic relationships were analyzed. There were a total of 358 sequences compared and 303 haplotypes identified. Three haplotypes were identified in the Colombian population. This results showed lower genetic diversity compared with Indo-Pacific populations. These haplotypes were closely related to those found in samples from the Philippines and Taiwan. We discuss the need to create a regional network to characterize the established populations in the Great Caribbean, with the purpose of inferring colonization processes and the establishment of management measures.Estado genético, origen y riesgo de establecimiento del camarón tigre gigante (Penaeidae: Penaeus monodon, una especie inavasora en aguas del Caribe colombianoEl camarón tigre (Penaeus monodon es una especie del Indo-Pacífico. Su producción mundial entre 1970 y 1980 superó todas las otras especies de camarón, lo que favoreció su introducción y cultivo fuera del área de distribución natural en varios países de África, Europa, EE.UU. y América del Sur. Actualmente se encuentra en la costa del

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the nudibranch Roboastra europaea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) supports the monophyly of opisthobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Cristina; Templado, José; Cervera, J Lucas; Zardoya, Rafael

    2002-10-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence (14,472 bp) of the mitochondrial genome of the nudibranch Roboastra europaea (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) was determined. This highly compact mitochondrial genome is nearly identical in gene organization to that found in opisthobranchs and pulmonates (Euthyneura) but not to that in prosobranchs (a paraphyletic group including the most basal lineages of gastropods). The newly determined mitochondrial genome differs only in the relative position of the trnC gene when compared with the mitochondrial genome of Pupa strigosa, the only opisthobranch mitochondrial genome sequenced so far. Pupa and Roboastra represent the most basal and derived lineages of opisthobranchs, respectively, and their mitochondrial genomes are more similar in sequence when compared with those of pulmonates. All phylogenetic analyses (maximum parsimony, minimum evolution, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian) based on the deduced amino acid sequences of all mitochondrial protein-coding genes supported the monophyly of opisthobranchs. These results are in agreement with the classical view that recognizes Opisthobranchia as a natural group and contradict recent phylogenetic studies of the group based on shorter sequence data sets. The monophyly of opisthobranchs was further confirmed when a fragment of 2,500 nucleotides including the mitochondrial cox1, rrnL, nad6, and nad5 genes was analyzed in several species representing five different orders of opisthobranchs with all common methods of phylogenetic inference. Within opisthobranchs, the polyphyly of cephalaspideans and the monophyly of nudibranchs were recovered. The evolution of mitochondrial tRNA rearrangements was analyzed using the cox1+rrnL+nad6+nad5 gene phylogeny. The relative position of the trnP gene between the trnA and nad6 genes was found to be a synapomorphy of opisthobranchs that supports their monophyly. PMID:12270894

  4. Homology and homoplasy of swimming behaviors and neural circuits in the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, James M; Sakurai, Akira; Lillvis, Joshua L; Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2012-06-26

    How neural circuit evolution relates to behavioral evolution is not well understood. Here the relationship between neural circuits and behavior is explored with respect to the swimming behaviors of the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opithobranchia). Nudipleura is a diverse monophyletic clade of sea slugs among which only a small percentage of species can swim. Swimming falls into a limited number of categories, the most prevalent of which are rhythmic left-right body flexions (LR) and rhythmic dorsal-ventral body flexions (DV). The phylogenetic distribution of these behaviors suggests a high degree of homoplasy. The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying DV swimming has been well characterized in Tritonia diomedea and in Pleurobranchaea californica. The CPG for LR swimming has been elucidated in Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris, which are more closely related. The CPGs for the categorically distinct DV and LR swimming behaviors consist of nonoverlapping sets of homologous identified neurons, whereas the categorically similar behaviors share some homologous identified neurons, although the exact composition of neurons and synapses in the neural circuits differ. The roles played by homologous identified neurons in categorically distinct behaviors differ. However, homologous identified neurons also play different roles even in the swim CPGs of the two LR swimming species. Individual neurons can be multifunctional within a species. Some of those functions are shared across species, whereas others are not. The pattern of use and reuse of homologous neurons in various forms of swimming and other behaviors further demonstrates that the composition of neural circuits influences the evolution of behaviors. PMID:22723353

  5. The long way to diversity--phylogeny and evolution of the Heterobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinapoli, Angela; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-04-01

    Heterobranchia are one of the most species rich groups within Gastropoda, with poorly resolved phylogenetic relationships especially in basal taxa. In order to resolve phylogenetic relationships within the Heterobranchia, we pursued a molecular systematic approach by sequencing and analysing a variety of genetic markers (including nuclear 28S rDNA+18S rDNA and mitochondrial 16S rDNA+COI sequences). Maximum likelihood as well as Bayesian inference methods were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, data quality was estimated for the purpose of proving the plausibility of the novel phylogenetic hypothesis using a variety of statistical tests as well as network analyses. Finally, a case study was conducted in order to estimate divergence ages using a "relaxed" molecular clock approach with fossils as minimum age constraints. All phylogenetic analyses revealed the Heterobranchia as monophyletic. Within the Heterobranchia, several well supported clades could be resolved. However, the traditional classification based on morphological data could not be confirmed due to paraphyletic Euthyneura as well as paraphyletic Pulmonata and polyphyletic Opisthobranchia. The estimation of data quality yielded a high degree of substitution saturation in many of the nucleotide positions while the Relative-Rate-Test revealed the highest evolution rates within the "Lower Heterobranchia". Although the dataset shows much conflict, many of the proposed hypotheses are supported by splits of the network analysis. The molecular clock approach was able to confirm some evolutionary hypotheses based on fossils such as the late occurrence of Pulmonata and Stylommatophora, respectively, during the Mesozoic. However, large 95% highest posterior density (HPD) intervals at some of the nodes made a precise dating of these nodes difficult. This molecular phylogenetic investigation provides the most comprehensive molecular study of relationships within the Heterobranchia to date. Due to the

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Galba pervia (Gastropoda: Mollusca, an intermediate host snail of Fasciola spp.

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    Guo-Hua Liu

    Full Text Available Complete mitochondrial (mt genomes and the gene rearrangements are increasingly used as molecular markers for investigating phylogenetic relationships. Contributing to the complete mt genomes of Gastropoda, especially Pulmonata, we determined the mt genome of the freshwater snail Galba pervia, which is an important intermediate host for Fasciola spp. in China. The complete mt genome of G. pervia is 13,768 bp in length. Its genome is circular, and consists of 37 genes, including 13 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, 22 genes for tRNA. The mt gene order of G. pervia showed novel arrangement (tRNA-His, tRNA-Gly and tRNA-Tyr change positions and directions when compared with mt genomes of Pulmonata species sequenced to date, indicating divergence among different species within the Pulmonata. A total of 3655 amino acids were deduced to encode 13 protein genes. The most frequently used amino acid is Leu (15.05%, followed by Phe (11.24%, Ser (10.76% and IIe (8.346%. Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated amino acid sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and bayesian analysis, all revealed that the families Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae are closely related two snail families, consistent with previous classifications based on morphological and molecular studies. The complete mt genome sequence of G. pervia showed a novel gene arrangement and it represents the first sequenced high quality mt genome of the family Lymnaeidae. These novel mtDNA data provide additional genetic markers for studying the epidemiology, population genetics and phylogeographics of freshwater snails, as well as for understanding interplay between the intermediate snail hosts and the intra-mollusca stages of Fasciola spp..

  7. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia) Sevinç KAPAN, Sinem KABASAKAL, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department sevinckapan_yesilyurt@hotmail.com In this study, paleontology and stratigraphy of Neogene and Quaternary units around south of the Dardanelles have been examined using Gastropoda and Bivalvia fauna. In the investigation area, the base of the sediments that belongs to Neogene, consist of the volcanics which are formed with basalts, andesites and tuff. Neogene begins unconformity with basal conglomerate which are formed with basalt and tuff gravels. The measurable thickness of the Neogene sediments is approximately 200meters in total. First fossiliferius level which consist of Lymnocardium (Euxinicardium) nobile Sabba has showed similarities with the Pontian (Late Miocene) fauna of the Eastern Paratethys. The existence of Melanopsis and Psidium species indicate that the basin has been brackish water feeding by fresh water in the Early Pliocene. Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linne), Theodoxus (Calvertia) aff. imbricata Brusina, Theodoxus (Calvertia) licherdopoli scriptus (Stefanescu), Viviparus mammatus (Stefanescu), Valvata (Valavata) sulekiana Brusina, Valvata (Cincinna) crusitensis Fontannes, Hydrobia cf grandis Cobalcescu, Hydrobia ventrosa Monfort, Melanopsis (Melanopsis) cf. bergeroni Stefanescu, , Melanopsis (Melanopsis) sandbergeri rumana Tournouer, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma anili Taner, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma amaradica Fontannes, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) lanceolata Neumayr, Amphimelania fossariformis (Tournouer), Melanoides tuberculata monolithica (Bukowski), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller), Planorbarius thiollierei (Michaud), Potamida (Potamida) craiovensis craiovensis (Tournouer), Potamida (Potamida) berbestiensis (Fontannes), Unio pristinus davilai Porumbaru, Unio subexquisitus Jatzko, Anadonta zmaji

  8. Development of SYBR Green and TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR assays for hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infecting Penaeus monodon in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Reena; Paria, Anutosh; Mankame, Smruti; Makesh, M; Chaudhari, Aparna; Rajendran, K V

    2015-12-01

    Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infects Penaeus monodon and causes mortality in the larval stages. Further, it has been implicated in the growth retardation in cultured P. monodon. Though different geographical isolates of HPV show large sequence variations, a sensitive PCR assay specific to Indian isolate has not yet been reported. Here, we developed a sensitive SYBR Green-based and TaqMan real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of the virus. A 441-bp PCR amplicon was cloned in pTZ57 R/T vector and the plasmid copy number was estimated. A 10-fold serial dilution of the plasmid DNA from 1 × 10(9) copies to 1 copy was prepared and used as the standard. The primers were tested initially using the standard on a conventional PCR format to determine the linearity of detection. The standards were further tested on real-time PCR format using SYBR Green and TaqMan chemistry and standard curves were generated based on the Ct values from three well replicates for each dilution. The assays were found to be sensitive, specific and reproducible with a wide dynamic range (1 × 10(9) to 10 copies) with coefficient of regression (R(2)) > 0.99, calculated average slope -3.196 for SYBR Green assay whereas, for TaqMan assay it was >0.99 and -3.367, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay variance of the Ct values ranged from 0.26% to 0.94% and 0.12% to 0.81%, respectively, for SYBR Green assay, and the inter-assay variance of the Ct values for TaqMan assay ranged from 0.07% to 1.93%. The specificity of the assays was proved by testing other DNA viruses of shrimp such as WSSV, IHHNV and MBV. Standardized assays were further tested to detect and quantify HPV in the post-larvae of P. monodon. The result was further compared with conventional PCR to test the reproducibility of the test. The assay was also used to screen Litopeneaus vannamei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Scylla serrata for HPV.

  9. Expression profile of key immune-related genes in Penaeus monodon juveniles after oral administration of recombinant envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu Saidumuhammed; Kiron, Viswanath; Bright Singh, Issac S; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2016-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most catastrophic pathogen the shrimp industry has ever encountered. VP28, the abundant envelope protein of WSSV was expressed in bacteria, the purified protein administered orally to Penaeus monodon juveniles and its immune modulatory effects examined. The results indicated significant up-regulation of caspase, penaeidin, crustin, astakine, syntenin, PmRACK, Rab7, STAT and C-type lectin in animals orally administered with this antigen. This revealed the immune modulations in shrimps followed by oral administration of rVP28P which resulted in the reduced transcription of viral gene vp28 and delay in mortality after WSSV challenge. The study suggests the potential of rVP28P to elicit a non-specific immune stimulation in shrimps.

  10. A new record of Morula anaxares with a description of the radula of three other species from Goa, Central West Coast of India (Gastropoda: Muricidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumbhar, J.V.; Rivonker, C.U.

    of Madras. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 42: 323-341, pls. 1-4. Egorov, R. V. 1993. Trophoninae (Muricidae) of Russian and adjacent waters. Ruthenica Supplement, 48 pp. Gravely, F. H. 1942. Shells and other animal remains found... of Lakshadweep, Mollusca: State Fauna ser., 2: 273-362, 3 pls. Rao, N. V. S. 2003. Indian seashells (Part- I): Polyplacophora and Gastropoda, Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper 19: 416 pp. Rao, N. V. S. and Rao, K. V. S. 1993...

  11. Phylogenetic relationships among Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) based on mitochondrial cox 1, trnV, and rrnL genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Cristina; Templado, Josè; Cervera, J Lucas; Zardoya, Rafael

    2004-11-01

    We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among 37 species representing seven main lineages within Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) based on a mitochondrial fragment that included partial cox 1, complete trnV, and partial rrnL genes (about 2500 bp). Phylogenetic analyses confirmed tentatively that all studied main opisthobranch lineages conformed monophyletic groups except Nudibranchia. The sacoglossan Ascobulla was placed as the most basal lineage of opisthobranchs. The basommatophoran pulmonate Siphonaria was recovered within Opisthobranchia between Ascobulla and the remaining opisthobranchs. The latter were divided into two different lineages that await formal description: on one side, Cephalaspidea, Tylodinoidea, and Anaspidea (sharing features in the reproductive, digestive, and circulatory systems) were grouped together and, on the other Architectibranchia and Nudipleura (sharing similarities in the circulatory system) were recovered as sister group taxa. Two well-supported clades were recovered within Nudipleura: Pleuroanthobranchia (new taxon) and Cladobranchia. Pleuroanthobranchia (Pleurobranchoidea plus Anthobranchia) was defined by the presence of blood gland, the presence of calcareous spicules in the integument and the presence of a caecum with an opening directly into the stomach. The new molecular phylogeny provided a robust framework for comparative studies, and prompted a revision of the morphological synapomorphies diagnosing the main clades within opisthobranchs. PMID:15336672

  12. Swollen hindgut syndrome (SHG of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Penaeidae post larvae: Identification of causing pathogenic bacteria and their sensitivity to some antibiotics

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    Sheikh Aftabuddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swollen Hindgut syndrome (SHG of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798post larvae has been reported from Bangladesh shrimp hatcheries in recent years. At present SHG is abudding problem causing significant economic loss to the shrimp hatcheries in Bangladesh. Unlike therapid mortalities associated with viral disease such as white spot syndrome and yellow head virus,progression of SHG is gradual leading to low level mortalities without affecting swimming activity. Thesign of SHG are a bloated or swollen in hind gut area, with the posterior digestive tract convolutingthrough the last abdominal segment. This syndrome tends to occur at later PL stages, typically afterPL10. Two types of Vibrio spp. were isolated from the swollen hindgut syndrome post larvae, identified asVibrio harveyi (Johnson and Shunk 1936and Vibrio alginolyticus (Miyamoto, Nakamura & Takizawa1961. Among these V. alginolyticus was dominant to V. harveyi. The bacterial isolates showed sensitiveto oxytetracycline (OTC, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin and resistant to penicillin, ampicillin andamoxycillin. The luminous V. harveyi showed resistant to many antibiotics and susceptibility to only twodrugs. The cause of swollen hindgut syndrome (SHG was probably bacterial infections and poor waterquality, possibly heavy metal i.e. iron, the presence of toxic substances from chemical prophylactics andlow quality or diseased nauplii.

  13. Expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR, in lymphoid organ of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in response to Vibrio harveyi infection

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    Mundanda Muthappa Dechamma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptors (TLR, being pattern recognition molecules, are a powerful first line of defense in response to pathogen invasion. They are known to play a crucial role in detecting and binding to the microbial molecule and triggering a non-specific immune response. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR expression of the TLR gene was studied in healthy and Vibrio harveyi infected black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Lymphoid tissue expression of TLR in V. harveyi infected animals 24 h post injection showed statistically significant up regulation of the gene as compared to the control animals sham injected with phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The qPCR expression pattern of TLR at different time points in shrimp administered with the immunostimulant glucan for 6 days by oral feeding followed by challenge with V. harveyi showed statistically significant level at 48 h post bacterial challenge as compared to the control (immunostimulant treated animals sham injected with PBS. The novelty of the study is that it elicits the role of TLRs as important response proteins of the innate immune system in the shrimp.

  14. Cholesterol Content of Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon at Various Sizes, Moulting and Maturity Stages from Pazhayar Coast (South East Coast of India

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    D. Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative study was made on the occurrence of cholesterol in the muscle of different maturity stages of the wilder tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon collected from Pazhayar coast, Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu. As the size increased from 8-10 cm to 14-16 cm the cholesterol content increased from 1.4-4.5 mg g-1. The shrimp contained almost the same level of cholesterol in both sexes. The variation in the cholesterol level in relation to moulting in the male and female shrimp revealed that in both the sexes high cholesterol content was noticed in the intermoult stage. Subsequently, in the premoult stage the cholesterol content decreased from 2.0-1.8 mg g-1 and it was found to be the lowest among all the moult stages. In the matured stages the shrimp contained higher level of cholesterol (2.1 mg g-1 and very less amount of cholesterol level (1.2 mg g-1 in the immature and early mature stages. It is inferred from this study that the cholesterol level was more in the intermoult stage suggesting that cholesterol may be converted to some moulting hormones.

  15. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  16. White Spot Syndrome Virus vulnerability of Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon cultured in the coastal ponds of Cox’s Bazar region, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Monwar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jumbo tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon is the world’s most popular cultivable species for itsfast growth, hardy nature, delicious taste and market demand. During the last three decades shrimpculture has been expanded rapidly. White spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV is a great treat to this cultureexpansion. In this research, WSSV free fries were stocked in four coastal ponds with different salinities.The stocking density was kept low and constant. Water parameters, fish growth, and WSSVcontamination were recorded fortnightly. The WSSV contamination was primarily detected by using EnbioShrimp Virus Detection Test Kit, ‘Shrimple’ and further confirmed by the PCR test. Among the ponds,Pond A, B, and C were in completely controlled environmental condition where as pond D was traditionalone that exposed to tidal variations. Physico-chemical parameter varied from as, temperature 29 to32ºC, salinity 0 to 31‰, water pH 7.1 to 8.3, dissolved oxygen 3.8 to 6.3 mL L-1, alkalinity 80-122 mg L-1,ammonia 0 to 1.5 mg L-1 and transparency 23 to 50 cm. The WSSV was found positive in the pond D justafter hundred days, when the average weight of the shrimps was 26.69 g. It is observed that rapidchange in the salinity and temperature, poor environmental conditions and uncontrolled exchange ofwater made the shrimp more vulnerable to the WSSV.

  17. Nyctemeral variations of magnesium intake in the calcitic layer of a Chilean mollusk shell ( Concholepas concholepas, Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareth, Claire E.; Guzman, Nury; Poitrasson, Franck; Candaudap, Frederic; Ortlieb, Luc

    2007-11-01

    Mollusk shells are increasingly used as records of past environmental conditions, particularly for sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstructions. Many recent studies tackled SST (and/or sea-surface salinity) tracers through variations in the elementary (Mg and Sr) or stable isotope (δ 18O) composition within mollusk shells. But such attempts, which sometimes include calibration studies on modern specimens, are not always conclusive. We present here a series of Mg and Sr analyses in the calcitic layer of Concholepas concholepas (Muricidae, Gastropoda) with a very high time-resolution on a time window covering about 1 and a half month of shell formation, performed by Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The selected specimen of this common Chilean gastropod was grown under controlled environmental conditions and precise weekly time-marks were imprinted in the shell with calcein staining. Strontium variations in the shell are too limited to be interpreted in terms of environmental parameter changes. In contrast, Mg incorporation into the shell and growth rate appear to change systematically between night and day. During the day, Mg is incorporated at a higher rate than at night and this intake seems positively correlated with water temperature. The nightly reduced Mg incorporation is seemingly related to metabolically controlled processes, formation of organic-rich shell increments and nocturnal feeding activity of the animals. The nyctemeral Mg changes in the C. concholepas shell revealed in this study might explain at least part of the discrepancies observed in previous studies on the use of Mg as a SST proxy in mollusk shells. In the case of C. concholepas, Mg cannot be used straightforwardly as a SST proxy.

  18. Detection of a new microsporidium Perezia sp. in shrimps Penaeus monodon and P. indicus by histopathology, in situ hybridization and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jee Eun; Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Lightner, Donald V; Redman, Rita M; Le Groumellec, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Samples of microsporidia-infected shrimps exhibiting clinical signs of cotton shrimp disease were collected from Madagascar, Mozambique, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2014. The tails of the infected shrimps appeared opaque and whitish; subsequent histological examination revealed the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions and mature spores in tissues of the muscle, hepatopancreas, gills, heart, and lymphoid organ. PCR analysis targeting the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) from infected samples resulted in the amplification of a 1.2 kbp SSU rDNA sequence fragment 94% identical to the corresponding region in the genome of the microsporidian Perezia nelsoni, which infects populations of Penaeus setiferus in the USA. Its SSU rDNA sequence was 100% identical among isolates from Madagascar and Saudi Arabia, indicating that shrimps from the Red Sea and Indian Ocean were infected with the same microsporidium, the novel Perezia sp. A 443 bp fragment of the SSU rDNA sequence was cloned, labeled with digoxigenin and subjected to an in situ hybridization assay with tissue sections of Perezia sp.-infected Penaeus monodon from Madagascar and Mozambique, and P. indicus from Saudi Arabia. The probe hybridized to the mature spores in the hepatopancreas and muscle from which the spores had been obtained for DNA isolation. This assay was specific, showing no reaction to another microsporidium, Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), infecting the hepatopancreas of shrimp P. stylirostris cultured in SE Asian countries. We also developed an SSU rDNA-based PCR assay, specific for the novel Perezia sp. This PCR did not react to EHP, nor to genomic DNA of shrimp and other invertebrates. PMID:27409240

  19. Primary hemocyte culture of Penaeus monodon as an in vitro model for white spot syndrome virus titration, viral and immune related gene expression and cytotoxicity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Seena; Mohandas, A; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2010-11-01

    Immortal cell lines have not yet been reported from Penaeus monodon, which delimits the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, a method of developing primary hemocyte culture from this crustacean has been standardized by employing modified double strength Leibovitz-15 (L-15) growth medium supplemented with 2% glucose, MEM vitamins (1×), tryptose phosphate broth (2.95 gl⁻¹), 20% FBS, N-phenylthiourea (0.2 mM), 0.06 μg ml⁻¹ chloramphenicol, 100 μg ml⁻¹ streptomycin and 100 IU ml⁻¹ penicillin and hemolymph drawn from shrimp grown under a bio-secured recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In this medium the hemocytes remained viable up to 8 days. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling assay revealed its incorporation in 22 ± 7% of cells at 24h. Susceptibility of the cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay using a monoclonal antibody against 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. A convenient method for determining virus titer as MTT(50)/ml was standardized employing the primary hemocyte culture. Expression of viral genes and cellular immune genes were also investigated. The cell culture could be demonstrated for determining toxicity of a management chemical (benzalkonium chloride) by determining its IC(50). The primary hemocyte culture could serve as a model for WSSV titration and viral and cellular immune related gene expression and also for investigations on cytotoxicity of aquaculture drugs and chemicals. PMID:20807537

  20. Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei sp. nov. (Microsporida: Enterocytozoonidae), a parasite of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Decapoda: Penaeidae): Fine structure and phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtip, Somjintana; Wongtripop, Somjai; Stentiford, Grant D; Bateman, Kelly S; Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Chavadej, Jittipan; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm

    2009-09-01

    A new microsporidian species, Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei sp. nov., is described from the hepatopancreas of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea: Decapoda). Different stages of the parasite are described, from early sporogonal plasmodia to mature spores in the cytoplasm of host-cells. The multinucleate sporogonal plasmodia existed in direct contact with the host-cell cytoplasm and contained numerous small blebs at the surface. Binary fission of the plasmodial nuclei occurred during early plasmodial development and numerous pre-sporoblasts were formed within the plasmodium. Electron-dense disks and precursors of the polar tubule developed in the cytoplasm of the plasmodium prior to budding of early sporoblasts from the plasmodial surface. Mature spores were oval, measuring 0.7x1.1microm and contained a single nucleus, 5-6 coils of the polar filament, a posterior vacuole, an anchoring disk attached to the polar filament, and a thick electron-dense wall. The wall was composed of a plasmalemma, an electron-lucent endospore (10nm) and an electron-dense exospore (2nm). DNA primers designed from microsporidian SSU rRNA were used to amplify an 848bp product from the parasite genome (GenBank FJ496356). The sequenced product had 84% identity to the matching region of SSU rRNA from Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Based upon ultrastructural features unique to the family Enterocytozoonidae, cytoplasmic location of the plasmodia and SSU rRNA sequence identity 16% different from E. bieneusi, the parasite was considered to be a new species, E. hepatopenaei, within the genus Enterocytozoon. PMID:19527727

  1. Effects of carotenoid sources on growth performance, blood parameters, disease resistance and stress tolerance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding trial were conducted to determine the effects of various sources of carotenoid on growth performance, disease resistance, blood parameters, stress tolerance and pigmentation in juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Trial I was performed in small shrimp (1 g average body weight. The shrimp were fed with control diet without carotenoid (diet 1 while diets 2 to 6 contained 50 mg/kg astaxanthin (Lucanthin Pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 200 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 125 mg/kg Betatene® extracted from Dunaliella and 3% dried Spirulina respectively. There was an improvement in color in all groups of shrimp fed caroteniod supplemented diets, but no significant differences in weight gain or survival among the shrimps fed each test diet (p>0.05. Resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection and stress tolerance (salinity stress, were not significantly different among treatments. Trial II was performed in juvenile shrimp (10 g average body weight fed test diets containing 100 ppm astaxanthin (Lucanthin pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg Betatene® and 3% dried Spirulina compared with those fed control diet without carotenoid. At the end of 6 weeks feeding period, shrimp fed control diet as well as astaxanthin and dried Spirulina supplemented diets had higher levels of total hemocyte counts than those of all β-carotene supplemented diets feeding group. However, phenoloxidase activity and clearance of pathogenic vibrio from the hemolymphwere not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05. Astaxanthin levels were highest in the shrimp fed all carotenoid-supplemented diets. In conclusion, a natural carotenoid i.e. dried Spirulina and carotenoid extracted from Dunaliella which have a lower production cost than analytical carotenoid showed beneficial effects on shrimp feed supplement.

  2. Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borredà, V.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata We describe a new endemic limacid slug, Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus n. sp. and we compare it with the nearest species, particularly with Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis, another Balearic endemism. Characteristic features of this new species include its small size, translucid and smooth body, and totally grey dorsum with no bands or spots. The reproductive system shows a well developed vas deferens surrounded by the distal part of prostatic gland, a thin penial retractor muscle, swollen prostate and small distal genitalia. The recent redescription of Limax majoricensis by Wiktor et al. (2007 is discussed and we consider that these authors refer to G. benjaminus n. sp., and so we dessign the neotype of Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis.

  3. New location for Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium and its distribution in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana, Elías D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a new population of Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae found in the province of Almería (Southeast Spain. B. truncatus is an intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, the trematode which causes urinary schistosomiasis in humans. Individuals were identified to species level by double-nested PCR, resulting in 100% homology. This population is located under the driest climate conditions of the Iberian Peninsula. Data on the distribution of this species in the Iberian Peninsula was gathered and is provided in this paper. Improved knowledge of the distribution of Bulinus truncatus is key to assess the risk of new outbreaks of schistosomiasis in the Iberian Peninsula.En este trabajo se reporta una nueva población de Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae en la provincia de Almería (Sureste de España. Se trata de una especie que presenta considerable interés tanto zoológico como epidemiológico por su papel como hospedador intermediario de Schistosoma haematobium, responsable de la esquistosomiasis urogenital humana. Los ejemplares fueron determinados a nivel específico mediante PCR doble anidada, con un 100% de homología. Se trata de la población localizada más al Sureste y en condiciones de mayor aridez en la península Ibérica. Se recopilaron los datos de presencia publicados para conocer su distribución en la península. El conocimiento de la distribución de Bulinus truncatus es una pieza clave para evaluar el riesgo de nuevos focos de esquistosomiasis en la península Ibérica.

  4. Divergencia intraespecífica y código de barras de ADN en Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae

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    Pedro Romero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El DNA barcoding es un análisis que se basa en la comparación de distancias genéticas para identificar especies utilizando principalmente un segmento del gen Citocromo C Oxidasa I (COI. Los retos para la identificación surgen al estudiar grupos que presentan gran diversidad genética como los moluscos. Por ello, los objetivos de nuestra investigación fueron estimar la divergencia intraespecífica en el molusco terrestre amazónico Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae y evaluar la utilización de los códigos de barras de ADN en la identificación molecular de esta especie. Las secuencias de nucleótidos fueron comparadas con las bases de datos Genbank y BOLD (Barcode of Life Data Systems. Se realizó un análisis de distancia genética mediante Neighbour Joining. Systrophia helicycloides presentó dos grupos de haplotipos con distancias genéticas intraespecíficas mayores a 4%. También se observó una superposición entre las distancias intraespecíficas y las interespecíficas. La gran divergencia intraespecífica puede estar relacionada a la rápida variación del genoma mitocondrial, la distribución poblacional de los moluscos la cual permite el aislamiento y diferenciación genética, y la presencia de polimorfismos ancestrales. Los perfiles COI enviados a la base de datos BOLD son los primeros registros para esta especie y permitieron diferenciar a Systrophia helicycloides de otras especies. Estos perfiles corroboran la gran variación que ocurre en el genoma mitocondrial de moluscos terrestres por lo que la asignación de especies en este grupo precisa de la combinación entre los valores de divergencia genética, la evaluación de sitios informativos y los estudios de taxonomía convencional.

  5. Application of chemometric studies to metal concentrations in molluscs from the Strait of Magellan (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2007-05-01

    Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd concentrations were determined in 126 mollusc samples belonging to five different species (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47; Nacella deaurata, n = 65; Aulacomya ater, n = 4; Fissurella picta, n = 4; Acanthina monodon, n = 6) collected from the coasts of the Strait of Magellan. The metals analysed presented significant differences between the mean concentrations for the mollusc species considered. Factor and discriminant analyses made possible the differentiation of the mollusc species. In addition, when discriminant analysis was used, good classifications were obtained according to sampling zone and weight-to-length ratio of the organisms. PMID:17375348

  6. Application of chemometric studies to metal concentrations in molluscs from the Strait of Magellan (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2007-05-01

    Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd concentrations were determined in 126 mollusc samples belonging to five different species (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47; Nacella deaurata, n = 65; Aulacomya ater, n = 4; Fissurella picta, n = 4; Acanthina monodon, n = 6) collected from the coasts of the Strait of Magellan. The metals analysed presented significant differences between the mean concentrations for the mollusc species considered. Factor and discriminant analyses made possible the differentiation of the mollusc species. In addition, when discriminant analysis was used, good classifications were obtained according to sampling zone and weight-to-length ratio of the organisms.

  7. MOLECULAR CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF METALLOTHIONEIN FROM PENAEUS MONODON%斑节对虾金属硫蛋白基因cDNA 克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽明; 周发林; 杨其彬; 黄建华; 邱丽华; 苏天凤; 江世贵

    2011-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight proteins (MW ranging from 500 to 14000 Da), which is the only kind of metal metabolism in a conspicuous role of small proteins in vivo. MT is concerned with trace elements in the storage, transport and metabolism, body growth and development, aging and certain diseases. In addition, it also has free radical scavenging, antagonism of ionizing radiation, toxic heavy metals and other unique biological functions. The MT widely distributes in the cells, where it exists almost tissues except the connective tissue. In the normal female animal reproductive system, the expression amount of MT might go change with the level of hormones of physiological cycles. In the aspect of the MT of vertebrates research reports showed, the mammals, like homo sapiens, guineas and Felis silvestris catus, the structure of gene, even the function of reproduction, were well studied. It revealed that Pm-MT might regulate the process of reproduction and afterborn, while in the aspect of Invertebrates, the research focus on its performance of detoxication of heavy metal. By so far, yet to see on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) MT(Pm-MT)gene structure and function of the coverage.We have cloned the full sequence of Penaeus monodon Metallothionein gene (Pm-MT) in this experiment. Firstly, we constructed a cDNA library by using the ovary and eyes stalks of mature Penaeus monodon as raw materials, through general T3 primer sequencing and BLAST analysis, we obtained the Penaeus monodon EST library. And then by the apply of the techniques of Rapid Amplification of cDNA ends, we cloned the Pm-MT gene, which complete gene sequence was consisting of 502 nucleotides, encoding corresponding 58 amino acids. The sequence of amino acids was rich in cysteine, free of aromatic amino acids. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of Pm-MT was Predicted about 6.05 KD and 7.75 respectively. Pm-MT owned a characteristic

  8. The Cylindrobulla/Ascobulla complex--unraveling problems in identification and adding to Cylindrobulla diversity (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Sacoglossa) by describing a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laetz, Elise; Christa, Gregor; Händeler, Katharina; Wägele, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Sacoglossa (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) are generally considered a monophyletic group, previously associated within the now defunct "Opisthobranchia", but now basally located within Panpulmonata. In the light of this new phylogenetic hypothesis, detailed knowledge of the most basal groups within Sacoglossa is of paramount importance. This study focuses on the genus Cylindrobulla, which is usually considered the most basal group within the Sacoglossa from a morphological point of view, because it does not share the typical elongate radula teeth of all other Sacoglossa. We describe a new species, Cylindrobulla schuppi sp. nov., and provide data on its food. We reexamined and clarify the radula of the type species C. beauii, review the genus with all other valid species, provide new characters to aid in the proper identification of species within this genus, compare it to the very similar genus Ascobulla, present a determination key using external characters to ensure proper identification of the two similar genera, and discuss phylogenetic relationships within the shelled sacoglossan, the Oxynoacea. PMID:25544526

  9. Incorporated nematocysts in Aeolidiella stephanieae (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Aeolidoidea) mature by acidification shown by the pH sensitive fluorescing alkaloid Ageladine A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, Dana; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Wägele, Heike

    2012-11-01

    The sequestration of nematocysts (a special group of cnidocysts) from cnidarian prey with subsequent use in defence is described for few metazoan phyla. Members of the taxon Aeolidoidea (Nudibranchia, Gastropoda) are well-known for this. Questions regarding the reasons some nematocysts do not discharge when the gastropod feeds and how these same nematocysts can be transported along the digestive tract into specialized morphological structures called cnidosacs, remain unanswered. Within the cnidosac, nematocysts are incorporated in cells and finally be used for defence against predators. The most plausible explanation for this phenomenon suggests there are immature and therefore non-functional nematocysts in the food. A recent study by Berking and Herrmann (2005) on cnidarians suggested that the nematocysts mature by acidification via proton transfer into the nematocyst capsule. According to this hypothesis only immature nematocysts are transported into the cnidosac where they are then made functional through an accumulation of protons. In this study we present a fluorescence staining method that tests the hypothesis by Berking and Herrmann (2005) and detects changes in the pH values of incorporated nematocysts, interpreted as changes in maturation stages. This marker, the fluorescent dye Ageladine A, stains nematocyst capsules according to their pH values. With Ageladine A we were able to show that kleptocnides indeed change their pH value after incorporation into the aeolidoidean cnidosac. PMID:22910369

  10. Present status of the endangered limpet Cymbula nigra (Gastropoda, Patellidae in Ceuta: how do substrate heterogeneity and area accessibility affect population structure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera–Ingraham, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cymbula nigra (Gastropoda, Patellidae is a threatened giant patellid limpet found on the North African coast from Namibia to Algeria. The objective of this study was to estimate the total number of individuals present in Ceuta (Strait of Gibraltar and to determine the effect of certain physical parameters on population structure and abundance. Between 2006 and 2010 we conducted an exhaustive census in the area. Results indicate that Ceuta could be home to 48,473 individuals. The most important populations were recorded on the North Bay, characterized by its Atlantic influence. While for other similar species, such as Patella ferruginea, human accessibility to the area plays an important role in determining the structure of populations, we found that substrate roughness (small scale topographic heterogeneity is the main determining factor in this species. Populations located on medium to low topographic heterogeneity substrates showed higher percentages of medium and large size individuals. However, recruitment rates did not differ between substrata of different roughness. Finally, and through the analysis of the C. nigra populations located on some recently constructed jetties, we obtained interesting new data regarding individual growth rates, thus contributing to our knowledge of the population structure of the species.

  11. Relationship between anti-oxidant capacity and manganese accumulation in the soft tissues of two freshwater molluscs: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar RAVERA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an element of great importance in the life cycle of plants and animals. For example, it plays an essential role as an activator of various enzymatic systems such as isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase. Freshwater Unionidae concentrate relatively large amounts of manganese in their tissues, but little is known about the physiological role of this metal. The aim of this research is to acquire a better knowledge of the role of manganese in molluscs which accumulate large amounts of this metal and in those with low manganese concentrations. As manganese is one of the metals present in the superoxide molecule, the possible relationship between manganese concentration in the soft tissues of molluscs and the antioxidant capacity of the metal can usefully be tested. To this end two species of molluscs were analysed: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae, which is very rich in manganese, and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia which has a low manganese content. The adults of both species were analysed for manganese concentration by ICP, and for antioxidant capacity as RAC (Relative Antioxidant Capacity by a superoxide dismutase method. The results clearly demonstrate the active role played by manganese against free radicals and consequently the important role of the metal in protecting Unio against oxidative stress. The low concentration of manganese in Viviparus may be the result of the effective excretion of this metal, as was found for ruthenium.

  12. 泰国输华斑节对虾传染性皮下和造血器官坏死病毒的检测与分析%Test and Analysis of Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus on Penaeus monodon Imported from Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于力; 刘莹; 郑晓聪; 王津津; 贾鹏; 何俊强; 刘荭

    2016-01-01

    为研究进口斑节对虾传染性皮下和造血器官坏死病毒(Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus, IHHNV)的风险,本文采用了世界动物卫生组织(OIE)2015版手册中推荐的PCR方法,对2015年从泰国输华的329批次斑节对虾进行了IHHNV检测分析。结果发现,其阳性率高达36.8%,且主要是感染1型和2型,以及风险不明的未知型。因此,来自泰国的斑节对虾具有较高的IHHNV传入风险,应加强针对IHHNV的进口监测,减少其对我国对虾养殖的影响。%In order to study the risks of Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus(IHHNV) of importedPenaeus monodon,PCR methods recommended by OIE manual(2015)were used to test IHHNV on 329 batches ofPenaeus monodon imported from Thailand. The results showed that positive rate was 36.8%,and major genotypes were genotype 1,2 and unknown type with unclear risk. Therefore,the IHHNV risk ofP. monodon imported from Thailand is high. Suggestions of reinforcing the surveillance of 1HHNV to control this disease and limit the negative effect on shrimp aquaculture of China were put forward.

  13. 斑节对虾腺苷酸转移酶(PmANT)基因的cDNA克隆与表达分析%Molecular cloning and expression analysis of adenine nucleotide translocase (PmANT) in Penaeus monodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文文; 周发林; 黄建华; 邱丽华; 杨其彬; 江世贵

    2013-01-01

    利用RACE技术获得了斑节对虾(Penaeus monodon)ANT基因(PmANT)的cDNA序列.该序列全长1 388 bp,开放阅读框(ORF)为930 bp,3’非编码区(UTR)为393 bp,5 '非编码区(UTR)为65 bp.ORF可编码309个氨基酸,分子量大约为33.622 ku.与所有ANT家族成员一样,PmANT蛋白具有3个重复同源的线粒体跨膜结构域,但不含信号肽和糖基化位点.相似性、同源性及系统进化树分析显示,斑节对虾的ANT基因与凡纳滨对虾的同源性和相似性最高,并与其聚为一支.采用荧光定量的方法研究了ANT基因在雌雄个体不同组织、卵巢不同发育阶段及未成熟和成熟精巢的差异表达情况.结果表明:PmANT的mRNA在各组织中都有表达,其中,在雄性个体的肌肉中表达量最高,其次为雌性肌肉,在精巢的表达量最低,且未成熟精巢低于成熟精巢.PmANT的mRNA在卵巢的表达量高于精巢,且在Ⅲ期卵巢表达量最高,Ⅳ期最低.为今后进一步研究该基因在斑节对虾性腺发育中的作用提供基础材料.%The adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is the most abundant mitochondrial inner membrane protein, which catalyzes the exchange of ADP and ATP between cytosol and mitochondria and participates in many models of mitochondrial apoptosis. In the present study, the full sequence of P. Monodon ANT gene was cloned and named PmANT. The full length cDNA of PmANT contained a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 65 bp, a 3' UTR of 393 bp and an ORF of 930 bp encoding a polypeptide of 309 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 33. 622 ku. Like other animal ANTs, the structure of the PmANT protein consists of three homologous repeated domains. But there are no signal peptide and glycosylation sites in PmANT protein. Sequence alignment analysis showed that the PmANT with the ANT of Litopenaeus vannamei shared a similarity of 98. 7% and the homology of 97. 4%. Analysis of the tissue expression pattern of the PmANT showed that the PmANT m

  14. Supercooling ability in two populations of the land snail Helix pomatia (Gastropoda: Helicidae) and ice-nucleating activity of gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Annegret; Vernon, Philippe; Lee, Marcia; Ansart, Armelle; Charrier, Maryvonne

    2005-02-01

    The land snail Helix pomatia (Gastropoda: Helicidae) is widely distributed in Northern and Central Europe where it may experience subzero temperatures during winter months. Its supercooling ability was studied in two populations of H. pomatia. One population originated from Southern Sweden (Gotaland) and the other from Central France (Auvergne). In the experimental design, they were acclimated, over 2 weeks, to artificial winter conditions (hibernation, T=5 degrees C). The Swedish snails showed a rather limited supercooling ability (temperature of crystallization, T(c)=-6.4+/-0.8 degrees C), significantly greater, however, than the supercooling capacity of the population from France (T(c)=-4.6+/-1.4 degrees C). In artificial spring conditions (3 months of hibernation followed by a progressive acclimation, over 2 weeks, to activity at T=20 degrees C), both populations exhibited a similar high T(c) (-2.0+/-1.0 degrees C). The lower T(c) of hibernating Swedish snails could be due to a greater loss of body water, accompanied by a higher concentration of solutes in the hemolymph. In both populations, the variation in hemolymph osmolality measured between hibernating (250-270 mOsm kg(-1)) and active (165-215 mOsm kg(-1)) snails may be explained by the variation in body water mass and did not suggest the production of colligative cryoprotectants. Moreover, the three bacterial strains, Buttiauxella sp., Kluyvera sp., and Tatumella sp. (Enterobacteriaceae) which were isolated from fed snails, but absent in starved snails, did not show any ice-nucleating activity at temperatures higher than -9 degrees C. Only the strain Kluyvera sp. initiated nucleation at -9 degrees C. This strain, therefore, is a weak, also termed a Type III or Class C ice-nucleating active bacterium, but with no influence on the supercooling ability of individual snails. In summary, fluctuations in body water mass of hibernating snail populations, triggering changes in osmolyte concentration, rather than

  15. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF THE NERITIDAE (GASTROPODA: NERITIMORPHA BASED ON THE MITOCHONDRIAL GENES CYTOCHROME OXIDASE I (COI AND 16S rRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Fernando Quintero Galvis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The family Neritidae has representatives in tropical and subtropical regions that occur in a variety of environments, and its known fossil record dates back to the late Cretaceous. However there have been few studies of molecular phylogeny in this family. We performed a phylogenetic reconstruction of the family Neritidae using the COI (722 bp and the 16S rRNA (559 bp regions of the mitochondrial genome. Neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference were performed.The best phylogenetic reconstruction was obtained using the COI region, and we consider it an appropriate marker for phylogenetic studies within the group. Consensus analysis (COI +16S rRNA generally obtained the same tree topologies and confirmed that the genus Nerita is monophyletic. The consensus analysis using parsimony recovered a monophyletic group consisting of the genera Neritina, Septaria, Theodoxus, Puperita, and Clithon, while in the Bayesian analyses Theodoxus is separated from the other genera. The phylogenetic status of the species from the genus Nerita from the Colombian Caribbean generated in this study was consistent with that reported for the genus in previous studies. In the resulting consensus tree obtained using maximum parsimony, we included information on habitat type for each species, to map the evolution by habitat. Species of the family Neritidae possibly have their origin in marine environments, which is consistent with conclusions from previous reports based on anatomical studies.Filogenia molecular de la familia Neritidae (Gastropoda: Neritimorpha con base en los genes mitocondriales citocromo oxidasa I (COI y 16S rRNALa familia Neritidae cuenta con representantes en regiones tropicales y subtropicales adaptadas a diferentes ambientes, con un registro fósil que data para finales del Cretáceo. Sin embargo no se han realizado estudios de filogenia molecular en la familia. En este estudio se realizó una reconstrucción filogen

  16. 斑节对虾细胞周期蛋白E基因的克隆与表达分析%Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the cyclin E gene from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵超; 傅明骏; 江世贵; 周发林; 杨其彬; 朱彩艳; 邱丽华

    2014-01-01

    为了解细胞周期蛋白 E(cyclin E)基因在斑节对虾(Penaeus monodon)发育过程中的作用,构建和测序了斑节对虾全组织cDNA文库,获得了斑节对虾细胞周期蛋白(Pmcyclin) E的部分表达序列。通过RACE技术克隆得到1条全长1706 bp的cDNA序列。Pmcyclin E开放阅读框(ORF)为1263 bp,编码420个氨基酸。生物信息学分析表明,该氨基酸序列含有周期蛋白家族特有的 CYCLIN保守区并含有 N-糖基化位点及磷酸化位点。经 BLAST同源性分析表明,该基因编码蛋白与红火蚁(Solenopsis invicta)、切叶蜂(Megachile rotundata)等多种节肢动物细胞周期蛋白 E 有很高的同源性。组织分布分析表明,该基因在斑节对虾精巢、卵巢、肠、脑、肝胰腺、胃和心脏组织中均有表达,其中卵巢中表达量较高,而心脏、胃及肝胰腺中表达量相对较低。分别对蜕皮抑制激素(MIH)注射和眼柄切除的对虾进行表达分析,发现眼柄切除后, Pmcyclin E大量表达,而注射MIH后细胞Pmcyclin E的表达量相对降低。结果表明,细胞cyclin E基因在斑节对虾卵巢发育过程中起重要作用,且眼柄切除对细胞cyclin E的表达具有影响,该结果为进一步探究斑节对虾卵巢的发育机理提供了理论依据。%Cyclins are the positive regulatory subunits of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). They play a critical role in the coordination of the eucaryotic cell cycle by binding to the catalytic subunits of CDKs. They share distant sequence homology over a 100 amino acid region called the cyclin box and have been classified into two phy-logenetically divergent subfamilies. The first contains A, B, D, E, F, and G cyclins and the second contains the C and H cyclins. Shrimp culture is limited by a lack of methods to breed adults in captivity. This is because female shrimp are unable to reach ovarian maturity without intervention using destructive, expensive, or time consuming methods such as eyestalk

  17. The incomings and outgoings budget of dissolved oxygenin Penaeus monodon desalting culture ponds in estuarine area%河口区斑节对虾淡化养殖塘溶氧收支平衡状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王为东; 臧维玲; 戴习林; 江敏; 徐桂荣

    2000-01-01

    The paper reported incomings and outgoings budget of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) desalting culture ecosystem in estuarine area in 1997 and 1998. The gross oxygen production (GOP) of water column in the surface layer was more (even significantly) than the oxygen consumption of aquatic respiration (AR),but the GOP in the bottom was less evidently than the corresponding AR,which was the common "oxygen debt" phenomenon. Among the oxygen consuming factors, AR was the largest oxygen consumer, which made up more than 70% of the total oxygen consumption of water column; benthic respiration (BR) was the second and accounted for about 20% of the total oxygen consumption; the proportion of prawn respiration (PR) was lower and increased remarkably with culture period. The ratio (B/P) of mean compensation depth (B) to mean transparency (P) in Giant tiger prawn pond, 1.42±0.53, was lower than that in fishpond (1.5~2.5). Therefore, the oxygen production in the depths of pond was reduced. DO in the Giant tiger prawn desalting culture pond was in disequilibrium, the outgoings outweighed the incomings.%本文报道了1997年与1998年河口区斑节对虾淡化养殖塘生态系中溶氧收支平衡状况。表层水水柱毛产氧量均大于或显著大于水呼吸耗氧量,底层水毛产氧量却显著小于水呼吸耗氧量,呈现常有的"氧债"现象。在池塘氧耗因子中,水呼吸是最大的溶解氧消耗者,占水柱总耗氧量的70%以上;其次是底泥耗氧量,约占20%;虾呼吸耗氧量所占比例较小,但随养殖时间的延长明显上升。斑节对虾塘平均补偿深度(B)和平均透明度(P)之比(B/P)与通常鱼池所具有的比值(1.5~2.5)相比偏低,为1.42±0.53。说明池塘深层的产氧能力受到限制。斑节对虾淡化养殖塘溶氧处于支大于收的不平衡状态。

  18. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2010-31 January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng

    2011-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii. PMID:21457476

  19. Imposex and butyltin contamination still evident in Chile after TBT global ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Rodrigo Moço; Castro, Italo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2016-10-01

    Imposex in gastropods (Acanthina monodon, Oliva peruviana and Xanthochorus cassidiformis), butyltin levels in surface sediments (Coquimbo and Concepcion) and tissues (Valparaiso and Concepcion) were assessed in three areas under the influence of maritime activities along the central Chilean coast. The highest TBT concentrations were observed in São Vicente Bay (Concepcion), reaching 122.3ngSng(-1) in surface sediments and 59.7ngSng(-1) in gastropods tissue, while in Valparaiso ranged from 7.4 to 15.8ngSng(-1) in biota. The lowest TBT concentrations were detected in sediments from Coquimbo (MBT were the predominant analytes, recent inputs of TBT were evident in some areas. In fact, fishing boats may be a relevant source since they were the predominant maritime activity in the most contaminated sites. In addition, the absence of significant differences within BTs levels between both genders of A. monodon suggests that tissues from distinct sexes can be indistinctly used for future contamination studies. Imposex incidence was detected in 11 out of 15 sampled sites, indicating that environmental levels of TBT have been sufficient to induce deleterious effects on the exposed organisms. Thus, the impacts caused by TBT in Chilean coastal areas were detectable and consistent with other studies performed in South America. This present environmental contamination is probably due to the lack of regulations forbidding the use of TBT-based antifouling paints in Chile. PMID:27232971

  20. Molecular phylogeny of euthyneura (mollusca: gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Cristina; Templado, José; Cervera, J Lucas; Zardoya, Rafael

    2004-02-01

    A new phylogenetic hypothesis for Euthyneura is proposed based on the analysis of primary sequence data (mitochondrial cox1, trnV, rrnL, trnL(cun), trnA, trnP, nad6, and nad5 genes) and the phylogenetic utility of two rare genomic changes (the relative position of the mitochondrial trnP gene, and an insertion/deletion event in a conserved region of the mitochondrial Cox1 protein) is addressed. Both sources of phylogenetic information clearly rejected the monophyly of pulmonates, a group of gastropods well supported so far by morphological evidence. The marine basommatophoran pulmonate Siphonaria was placed within opisthobranchs and shared with them the insertion of a Glycine in the Cox 1 protein. The marine systellommatophoran pulmonate Onchidella was recovered at the base of the opisthobranch + Siphonaria clade. Opisthobranchs, Siphonaria, and Onchidella shared the relative position of the mitochondrial trnP gene between the mitochondrial trnA and nad6 genes. The land snails and slugs (stylommatophoran pulmonates) were recovered as an early split in the phylogeny of advanced gastropods. The monophyly of the Euthyneura (Opisthobranchia + Pulmonata) was rejected by the inclusion of the heterostrophan Pyramidella. PMID:14660702

  1. Clausiliidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) from western New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.E.

    1956-01-01

    During the zoological exploration of Netherlands New Guinea sponsored by the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, in 1954-1955, four specimens of Clausiliidae were found. There are no previous records of the occurrence of Clausiliidae in New Guinea; the most eastern locality in the Indo-Aus

  2. 不同环境条件下斑节对虾家系生长和免疫酶活性差异%Analysis on growth and characteristic of immune enzymes activity of Penaeus monodon family under environment-stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨其彬; 王专伟; 周发林; 温为庚; 苏天凤; 邱丽华; 黄建华

    2013-01-01

    研究了正常生长、低温胁迫和高氨氮胁迫下10个斑节对虾家系生长特性及超氧化物歧化酶(Superoxide Dismutase, SOD)、酸性磷酸酶(Acid Phosphatase, ACP)、酚氧化酶(Phenoloxidase, PO)3种免疫酶活性的变化。生长试验结果表明,10个家系特定生长率(SGR)呈现明显差异,家系077与家系017和661的ACP活性存在极显著差异,家系4612与家系017的 SOD活性存在极显著性差异,而其他家系的免疫酶活性无显著差异。斑节对虾在48h低温胁迫下, ACP和SOD活性先升高后降低, PO活性则不断降低,而对照组的3种酶活性呈无规律轻微变化。斑节对虾在48h高氨氮胁迫下, ACP活性不断升高, SOD在0-8h活性上升,8-48h活性快速降低, PO活性不断下降,而对照组的3种酶活性呈无规律轻微变化;一些家系间的3种免疫酶活性存在显著性差异,其中家系4612的3种酶活性均高于其他家系。3个试验中,家系的特定生长率与免疫酶活性均呈负相关。%The response of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Acid Phosphatase (ACP), and Phenoloxidase (PO) in Penaeus monodon families to normal growth, low temperature stress and high ammonia stress was studied under laboratory condition. Growth in terms of specific growth rate (SGR) was significant difference among the selected families (p<0.05). The activities of ACP were significant difference among family 077, 017 and 661. The activities of SOD were significant difference between family 4612 and family 017. When the rearing temperature decreased from 27℃to 20℃, the activities of ACP and SOD first increased and then decreased, the activities of PO reduced prolonged according to the low temperature stress, and the minor changes of control trial were not regular. Under the high ammonia stress, the activities of ACP increased prolonged, the activities of SOD increased in 0−8 h, then rapidly decreased in 8−48 h, the activities of PO reduced in 0−48 h, and the minor

  3. Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van de C.B.T.

    2002-01-01

    Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays for the eva

  4. Complete regeneration of ablated eyestalk in penaeid prawn, Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, U.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    - larvae) increased tremendously, due to large - scale expansion of prawn farming activities all over the world. Th is was made possible by the pioneering work of Panouse 1 on the endocrine regulation of reproduction in female Palaemon serratus... of the regenerated eyestalk exactly resembled those of the unablated one. This is an interesting observation, as no report is available on this aspect in penaeid prawns. This may also have important practical application in captive broodstock development...

  5. Sodium, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations in molluscs from the Magellan Strait (Chile): their contribution to dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2005-08-01

    The concentrations of the essential metals Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined in 126 specimens of molluscs belonging to five different species: Mytilus chilensis, n=47; Nacella deaurata, n=65; Aulacomya ater, n=4; Fissurella picta, n=4; Acanthina monodon, n=6, collected from the coastline of the Magellan Strait. Significant differences were obtained among the mean metal concentrations in the mollusc species considered. The contribution to the dietary daily intake of these metals for the consumption of one serving of these molluscs was high, especially the contribution to the Fe intake for the consumption of N. deaurata. Some significant differences were observed among the mean concentrations for the studied metals according to the zone of sampling. The influence of the zone of sampling on the mean concentration of metals in N. deaurata was higher than in M. chilensis. The application of lineal discriminant analysis (LDA) made it possible to differentiate statistically between specimens according to the mollusc species. Within the each mollusc species, the LDA helped to identify specimens according to the zone of sampling and weight/length ratio. PMID:16236595

  6. Sodium, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations in molluscs from the Magellan Strait (Chile): their contribution to dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2005-08-01

    The concentrations of the essential metals Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined in 126 specimens of molluscs belonging to five different species: Mytilus chilensis, n=47; Nacella deaurata, n=65; Aulacomya ater, n=4; Fissurella picta, n=4; Acanthina monodon, n=6, collected from the coastline of the Magellan Strait. Significant differences were obtained among the mean metal concentrations in the mollusc species considered. The contribution to the dietary daily intake of these metals for the consumption of one serving of these molluscs was high, especially the contribution to the Fe intake for the consumption of N. deaurata. Some significant differences were observed among the mean concentrations for the studied metals according to the zone of sampling. The influence of the zone of sampling on the mean concentration of metals in N. deaurata was higher than in M. chilensis. The application of lineal discriminant analysis (LDA) made it possible to differentiate statistically between specimens according to the mollusc species. Within the each mollusc species, the LDA helped to identify specimens according to the zone of sampling and weight/length ratio.

  7. Environ: E00643 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00643 Monodon monoceros maxillary incisor Crude drug Monodon monoceros [TAX:40151]... Physeteridae Monodon monoceros left side maxillary incisor Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals E00643 Monodon monoceros maxillary incisor ...

  8. The radular morphology of Nassariidae (Gastropoda:Caenogastropoda) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jingwen; ZHANG Suping

    2011-01-01

    The family Nassariidae includes a number of species that are distributed throughout the world.Each species has a characteristic shell shape,tooth shape,and behavior.However,the classification of species in this family of the Rhachiglossa is controversial.We describe the radulae of 22 species from China in detail using optical and scanning electron microscopy.These species are considered to be representatives of two subfamilies,two genera,and 10 subgenera.Our results suggest that the morphology of the central tooth and the pair of lateral teeth and the presence or absence of a pair of intermediate accessory lateral teeth could be used to distinguish among species.We found no support for the subgeneric differentiation of the species.However,the presence or absence of the intermediate lateral accessory plate was characteristic of species divisions.We noted sexual dimorphism in the shape of the teeth in some species,and considerable variability of the shape of teeth within a single species.Based on our results,the genus Nassarius cannot be split into subgenera using radula morphology.

  9. Phylogenetics, development, and Cenozoic paleontology of Buccinidae (Mollusca:Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Vendetti, Jann Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The buccinid gastropods (family Buccinidae) are a species-rich clade of mostly North Pacific taxa with an abundant fossil record that dates to the Cretaceous. Here, the evolution, systematics, and biology of fossil and extant members of this family are treated using a variety of analytical and methodological approaches. In chapter one, a new fossil species of Bruclarkia, an endemic eastern Pacific buccinid from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene, is described from the Astoria Formation of the...

  10. A cladistic phylogeny of the family Patellidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    A phylogenetic hypothesis for the patellid limpets is reconstructed by cladistic analysis of morphological characters from 37 species, representing all but one of the living members of the family. Characters included in the analysis are derived from shell shape and microstructure, headfoot and pallial complex, radula and sperm. The species fall into four clades, providing the basis for a new phylogenetic classification into four monophyletic genera: Helcion (four species; southern Africa), Cymbula (eight species; southern Africa, eastern Atlantic, southern Indian Ocean), Scutellastra (17 species; southern and southwestern Africa, Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Eastern Pacific) and Patella (nine species; northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean). The analysis suggests sister-group relationships between Helcion and Cymbula, and between Scutellastra and Patella. In combination with present-day patterns of geographical distribution, this phylogenetic hypothesis is used to discuss the historical biogeography of the Patellidae. Scutellastra may have originated in southern Africa and dispersed across the Pacific, or alternatively may be a primitively Tethyan group. Both Helcion and Cymbula appear to have originated in southern Africa, but three Cymbula species have dispersed respectively to northwest Africa, St Helena and the southern Indian Ocean. The patellids of the northeastern Atlantic form a single clade, Patella (including P. pellucida), which may have arrived by northward dispersal of an ancestor from southern Africa, or possibly by vicariance of a widespread ancestral Tethyan distribution. The known fossil record of patellids is too fragmentary to permit choice between these alternatives.

  11. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships among Atlantic Ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Reijnen, B.T.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Gittenberger, E.

    2010-01-01

    Ovulid gastropods and their octocoral hosts were collected along the leeward coast of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. New molecular data of Caribbean and a single Atlantic species were combined with comparable data of Indo-Pacific Ovulidae and a single East-Pacific species from GenBank. Based on two DNA markers, viz. CO-I and 16S, the phylogenetic relationships among all ovulid species of which these data are available are reconstructed. The provisional results suggest a dichotomy between the ...

  12. Variation in Cavolinia inflexa (Lesueur, 1813) (Gastropoda: Pteropoda: Euthecosomata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.; Pierrot-Bults, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Cavolinia inflexa (Lesueur, 1813) proves not to be composed of subspecies or formae, or to show clinal variation. Maximum shell length varies between 4 and 7 mm, shell width between 2 and 4 mm, length/width ratio between 0.51 and 0.81. A geographic pattern in the occurrence of different length/width

  13. Variation in Cavolinia inflexa (Lesueur, 1813) (Gastropoda: Pteropoda: Euthecosomata)

    OpenAIRE

    Spoel, van der, S.; Pierrot-Bults, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Cavolinia inflexa (Lesueur, 1813) proves not to be composed of subspecies or formae, or to show clinal variation. Maximum shell length varies between 4 and 7 mm, shell width between 2 and 4 mm, length/width ratio between 0.51 and 0.81. A geographic pattern in the occurrence of different length/width ratios, on which the subdivision of this species was always based in literature, could not be found. Frequency analyses of length for all samples combined did not show subdivision in local populat...

  14. The phylogeny and systematics of the Nassariidae revisited (Gastropoda, Buccinoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Lee Ann; Puillandre, Nicolas; Utge, José; Lozouet, Pierre; Bouchet, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Nassariidae are a group of scavenging, predominantly marine, snails that are diversified on soft bottoms as well as on rocky shores, and are the subject of numerous research papers in ecology, ecotoxicology or paleontology. A weak and/or apparently continuous variation in shell characters has resulted in an intimidating taxonomy, with complex synonymy lists. Over 1320 extant nominal species have been described, of which 442 are currently regarded as valid. Above species level, the state of the art is equally hazy, with four subfamilies and twelve genera currently accepted, and many other names in the graveyard of synonymy. A molecular analysis based on three mitochondrial (COI, 16S, 12S) and two nuclear (28S, H3) markers was conducted. Our dataset includes 218 putative nassariid species, comprising 9 of the 12 valid genera, and 25 nominal genera represented by their type species. The monophyly of the Nassariidae as classically construed is not confirmed. Species of Antillophos, Engoniophos, Phos, Nassaria, Tomlinia and Anentome (formerly considered Buccinidae) are included inside the Nassariidae clade. Within the Nassariinae, the tree unexpectedly demonstrates that species from the Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific form different clades which represent several independent diversification events. Through an integrative approach, the reconstruction of ancestral states was addressed for eight characters supposedly informative for taxonomy. Using numerous fossil calibration points, Nassariidae appear to have originated 120 MYA ago in Atlantic temperate waters during the Lower Cretaceous. Our results have a profound impact on nassariid taxonomy, especially with regard to the validity of subfamily- and genus-level names. PMID:27012605

  15. Acid phosphatase localization in neurons of Bulla gouldiana (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, L J; Fisher, S K

    1975-01-01

    The organization of the ganglia and the ultrastructure of the neurons of Bulla gouldiana are similar to those described for other molluscs. Acid phosphatase positive reactions were found in the large pigmented granules, small dense bodies, multivesicular bodies, and Golgi lamellae and associated vesicles. The small dense bodies and multivesicular bodies may be stages in the formation of the larger pigmented granules which are interpreted as lysosomes. Comparison is made between the pigmented granules in Bulla and the lipofuscin bodies of vertebrate neurons. The possible involvement of these pigmented granules in the hyperpolarization of Bulla and Aplysia neurons to light is discussed. PMID:1122539

  16. La familia Acmaeidae (Gastropoda, Archaeogastropoda en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan siete especies de la familia Acmaeidae de la zona litoral rocosa del Departamento de Lima: Scurria viridula (Lamarck, S. parasitica (Orbigny, S. variabilis (Sowerby, S. zebrina (Lesson, Collisella orbignyi (Dall, C. ceciliana (Orbigny y C. araucana (Orbigny. Se amplía el límite norte de la distribución geográfica de las dos últimas especies y asimismo para S. zebrina y S. parasitica. Se informa sobre la zonación vertical de las especies, su dominancia relativa y otras observaciones ecológicas. De la revisión de la literatura y los resultados del presente estudio se concluye que, conjuntamente con Scurria scurra (Lesson, 1830, son ocho las especies de Acmaeidae presentes en la Provincia Peruana.

  17. New species of Cyclodontina from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small forest fragment in the city of Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia state, Brazil. Bahia is known for a high diversity of land snails and Bom Jesus da Lapa is an interesting locality, since it is close to the interface between two major Brazilian biomes: Cerrado and Caatinga. The new species is described as Cyclodontina tapuia sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its brown shell, conical spire, convex whorls, a sculpture comprised of strong ribs, and an aperture with four barriers: a median parietal tooth, a median palatal tooth, a median basal tooth and a strong columellar lamella. This discovery is also a reminder of how little the Brazilian continental molluscan fauna is known and of the urgency in studying and preserving the rich (though usually overlooked fauna of the Caatinga.

  18. Distribution of the Strombus gibberulus complex in Indonesia (Gastropoda, Strombidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, Henry E.; Amsterdam, van Mieke L.M.

    1970-01-01

    Strombus gibberulus gibberulus L. is living in Indonesia at the western coast of Sumatra from Sabang to the Straits Sunda, and via the Straits in the Java Sea as far as Djakarta Bay. In all the rest of the Indonesian Archipelago the subspecies gibbosus (Röding) is found. The differences between gibb

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Babylonia borneensis (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda: Buccinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chia-Hsuan; Tseng, Chen-Te; Wang, Liang-Jong; Li, Yu-Chi; Lu, Jenn-Kan

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Babylonia borneensis is reported for the first time in this study. The length of genome was 15 556 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. The nucleotide composition of the mitogenome showed AT-rich feature, with the AT content of 68.2%. Comparison of the identity of the B. borneensis mitogenome with B. areolata, B. lani and B. lutosa was 87.5%, 87.4% and 86.9%, respectively. The construction of phylogenetic tree showed high bootstrap support value. Babylonia borneensis grouped together with other Babylons and the lineages of Buccinidae was strongly supported. In this study, our results could provide a further understanding in the phylogenetic relationships of the Neogastropoda. PMID:27158871

  20. New data on southern African Achatinidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1972-01-01

    Increasing knowledge of the genital anatomy of the species of the African land snail family Achatinidae has greatly improved our understanding of the delimitation of the species and the intricate interrelationships of the various taxa (Mead, 1950). The genitalia of many achatinids are still unknown

  1. Helicopsis persica n. sp. from northern Iran (Gastropoda: Geomitridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorf, Bernhard; Bössneck, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Helicopsis Fitzinger, 1833 is a mainly eastern European genus of the xerophilous Helicellinae (Geomitridae, Helicoidea; for family systematics see Razkin et al. 2015) that is characterized by two symmetrical dart and accessory sacs. This is probably the plesiomorphous character state within the Geomitridae and Hygromiidae. Therefore, the delimitation and relationships of Helicopsis remained questionable (Hausdorf 1996). Most Helicopsis species are characterized by a lateral attachment of the outer layer of the penial papilla at the penis wall so that a cavity is separated in the proximal part of the penis (Schileyko 1978; Giusti et al. 1992; Hausdorf 1996). However, a similar cavity is present in some other Helicellinae (e.g., Pseudoxerophila, Xerolenta, Xeromunda). Giusti et al. (1992) considered these cavities artefacts, but it cannot be excluded that they are actually homologous to the cavity of Helicopsis. Therefore, it is doubtful whether such a cavity can be considered as an autapomorphy of Helicopsis. About ten species of Helicopsis are spread from Turkey and Bulgaria to the Ukraine with a centre of diversity on the Crimean peninsula. Only the type species, Helicopsis striata (Müller, 1774) is more widespread from Alsace in the west, the island Öland in the Baltic Sea in the north to Bulgaria and Turkey in the south and western Russia in the east. Furthermore, species from Morocco, Greece, Cyprus, Iran and the Kopetdag were classified as Helicopsis. The relationships between these species have to be examined in more detail. Here we describe a new Helicopsis species from Iran. PMID:27395547

  2. Transferência do gênero monotípico Parodizia Medina de Bithyniidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia para Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia Transference of the monotypic genus Parodizia Medina from Bithyniidae Gray (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia to Pyramidellidae Gray (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Pons da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Propõe-se a transferência do gênero monitípico Parodizia Medina, 1959 de Bithyniidae (Prosobranchia para Pyramidellidae (Heterobranchia. A proposta está baseada em dados morfológicos de espécimens de P. uruguayensis Medina, 1959 procedentes da bacia do rio Tramandaí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The transference of the monotypic genus Parodizia Medina, 1959 from Bithyniidae (Prosobranchia to Pyramidellidae (Heterobranchia is proposed. The proposal is based on some morphological data of P. uruguayensis Medina, 1959 from Tramandaí river basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  3. The phylogeography of Indoplanorbis exustus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Jose L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The freshwater snail Indoplanorbis exustus is found across India, Southeast Asia, central Asia (Afghanistan, Arabia and Africa. Indoplanorbis is of economic importance in that it is responsible for the transmission of several species of the genus Schistosoma which infect cattle and cause reduced livestock productivity. The snail is also of medical importance as a source of cercarial dermatitis among rural workers, particularly in India. In spite of its long history and wide geographical range, it is thought that Indoplanorbis includes only a single species. The aims of the present study were to date the radiation of Indoplanorbis across Asia so that the factors involved in its dispersal in the region could be tested, to reveal potential historical biogeographical events shaping the phylogeny of the snail, and to look for signs that I. exustus might be polyphyletic. Results The results indicated a radiation beginning in the late Miocene with a divergence of an ancestral bulinine lineage into Assam and peninsular India clades. A Southeast Asian clade diverged from the peninsular India clade late-Pliocene; this clade then radiated at a much more rapid pace to colonize all of the sampled range of Indoplanorbis in the mid-Pleistocene. Conclusions The phylogenetic depth of divergences between the Indian clades and Southeast Asian clades, together with habitat and parasitological differences suggest that I. exustus may comprise more than one species. The timescale estimated for the radiation suggests that the dispersal to Arabia and to Southeast Asia was facilitated by palaeogeographical events and climate change, and did not require human involvement. Further samples from Afghanistan, Africa and western India are required to refine the phylogeographical hypothesis and to include the African Recent dispersal.

  4. On a new Andinia (Gastropoda, Clausiliidae) from Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.E.

    1957-01-01

    Some time ago Prof. Dr. W. Weyrauch at Lima, Peru, sent to me specimens of a species of the subfamily Neniinae that proved to be new to science. Already about 70 species of the subfamily have become known from Peru, for an important part discovered by Prof. Weyrauch himself. Andinia (Ehrmanniella) f

  5. Some Anatomical, systematical and Geographical data on Neniinae (Gastropoda, Clausiliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.A.; Loosjes-van Bemmel, A.C.W.

    1966-01-01

    I. INTRODUCTION Up to the moment more than one hundred species and subspecies of Neniinae are known from Central and South America. They are incorporated into 22 genera and subgenera, almost exclusively based on characters of the shells. Only little is known of the anatomy of the animals (Binney, 18

  6. Description of the ootheca of Turbinella laevigata (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Turbinella laevigata is found since the intertidal zone up to 40 m depth, being endemic of Brazil where it occurs from the state of Amapá to the state of Espirito Santo. The objective of this study was to describe the ootheca of this species. Fifteen samples collected in the Olho d'Água Beach, City of Icapuí and Fleixeiras Beach, City of Trairí, both in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil, were studied. The spawns were composed by 15 +/- 1.4 SD capsules and had 63 +/- 6.4 SD mm of length with 41 +/- 2.5 SD mm of width. They had a convex and a concave surface, and plaited edges that drew out until the basal membrane, to which they joined forming a medial ridge. This species apparently produced a high amount of nurse eggs. The early juveniles measured 6.4 +/- 0.7 SD mm of length and they presented a protoconch with three whorls.Turbinella laevigata é encontrada desde a zona entre marés até 40 m de profundidade, sendo endêmica do Brasil onde ocorre desde o Estado do Amapá até o Espírito Santo. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ooteca de Turbinella laevigata. Quinze amostras foram coletadas na Praia de Olho d'Água, Município de Icapuí e na Praia de Flexeiras, Município do Trairí, ambos no Estado do Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil, foram estudadas. As desovas de T. laevigata foram compostas por 15 +/- 1.4 SD cápsulas e mediram 63 +/- 6.4 SD mm de comprimento e 41 +/- 2.5 SD mm de largura. Todas as cápsulas estavam fixadas pela membrana basal, a qual tinha a extremidade modificada para se prender ao substrato. Elas possuem uma superfície concava e outra convexa, apresentando margens pregueadas, que se prolongavam até a membrana basal, à qual se uniam formando uma prega. Esta espécie aparentemente produz uma grande quantidade de ovos nutritivos. A concha dos juvenis mediu 6.4 +/- 0.7 SD mm de comprimento e apresentou uma protoconcha com 3 voltas.

  7. Hydrocarbons in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) (gastropoda, pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Oudejans, R.C.H.M.

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. The biosynthesis of hydrocarbons in the snail Cepaea nemoralis was studied after injection of the 14C-labelled precursors acetate, valine, isoleucine and palmitic acid. 2. 2. The highest incorporation was achieved with palmitic acid, although with the other precursors the hydrocarbons were al

  8. Length and weight relationship of laboratory reared penaeid prawn Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) (Crustacea: Penaeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Chatterji, A.

    followed the cube law. The weight of the prawn increased at the rate of more or less cube of the length. The relationship was found to be significant (p less than 0.001). At 95% confidence limit the b values were between 3.0524 and 4.3691. ANOVA showed...

  9. Low-input Modified Extensive Shrimp Culture System for Penaeus monodon Restrian Vibriosis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Karekar. S.V.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Vogelsang, C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    as the world’s fastest food-producing sector growing at an annual rate of almost 10% per year since 1970 (Subasinghe, 2005). Shrimp farming constitutes an important source of revenue and employment in many developing countries in Asia and Latin America... of shrimp aquaculture. Vibrios are among the most abundant cultivable microbes in aquatic environments (Heidelberg et al., 2002) and usually constitute a part of normal micro flora in farmed and wild penaeid shrimps. Opportunistic vibrios may turn...

  10. Effect of new aeration technology on the bacteriology of shrimp ponds growing Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karekar, S.V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, P.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Bergheim, A.; Vogelsang, C.

    and competition from other user community of natural resources. Intensification of farming practices can have an adverse affect on the health of the farm as a result of stressed conditions, which may result in the outbreak of disease (Bachere. 2000; Otta et a... in the recent past arid are mentioned for their principle, use and performance (Boyd, 1998) in aquaculture practices. HOBAS technology developed by HOBAS Water Engineering. Norway mechanically mixes air and water in order to replace oxygen deficits...

  11. Identification of upregulated immune-related genes in Vibrio harveyi challenged Penaeus monodon postlarvae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.; Singh, S.K.; Ramaiah, N.; Sreepada, R.A.

    be grouped into 12 categories based on their physiological and functional roles (Fig 1). Among these, three genes are likely to be immunorelevant and, eight others, related to antioxidant and ATP metabolism. The largest group comprised of the muscle... controlled tumor protein (TCTP). Various genes encoding antioxidant molecules, such as cytochrome C-oxidase subunit III, cytochrome C-oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit-I were also identified. This category of genes contributed to 6...

  12. Vibrio harveyi modulated gene expression in Penaeus monodon and Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.

    , appendage degradation, lethargy and loss of appetite. As the disease progresses, the skin may become discolored, red and necrotic. Contamination can spread all the way to egg and larval tanks, thus causing an even bigger problem for shrimp farmers...

  13. Studies on luminous, Vibrio harveyi associated with shrimp culture system rearing Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannapiran, E; Ravindran, J; Chandrasekar, R; Kalaiarasi, A

    2009-09-01

    Microbiological studies in a modified extensive shrimp culture system at Nambuthalai, southeast coast of India were carried out fora period of 120 days. Population dynamics and distribution profile of luminous bacteria and total heterotrophic bacteria in the water sediment and animal samples were monitored. Luminous bacteria associated with exoskeleton, gills and gut were isolated and quantified. The total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 1.3 x 10(4) to 25.3 x 10(4) CFU ml(-1) in water and 1.5 x 10(6) to 26.2 x 10(6) CFU g(-1) in sediment. The V. harveyi population density varied between 0.6 x 10(4) and 8.8 x 10(4) LCFU ml(-1) in water and from 1.2 x 10(6) to 10.4 x 10(6) LCFU g(-1) sediment respectively. The gut of the animal was found to harbor high density of V. harveyi than gills and exoskeleton. The total heterotrophic bacteria and V. harveyi population density showed increasing trend during the culture period. The high V harveyi density observed in this study at the end of the culture period correlated with the outbreak of white spot disease. PMID:20143707

  14. Temperature Fluctuation, Low Salinity, Water Microflora: Risk Factors for WSSV Outbreaks in Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been devastating the shrimp industry for almost a decade. This study compares water parameters, alkalinity, and microflora in three ponds on a farm on Negros Island (Philippines) during two production cycles where WSSV infection resulted in an outbreak in 2006 bu

  15. Penaeus monodon post-larvae and their interaction with Rhizophora apiculata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nga, B.T.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, expansion of shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam has brought considerable financial benefits to farmers and local communities. In the coastal provinces in the Mekong Delta, brackish shrimp aquaculture is the major economy activity. Extensive shrimp-mangrove culture systems are popularly p

  16. Quotas on narwhal (Monodon monoceros) hunting in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    /hunter; and suggest southwest- bound migration, implying potential immigration from non-hunted populations that was not considered in quota setting. The implementation of quotas without local consultations and legal basis in the relevant executive order is therefore in our opinion inappropriate. Conservation......This study evaluates the introduction of quotas on narwhal hunting in East Greenland with respect to effects on Inuit culture and based on trends in narwhal killed per hunter and assessment of migration patterns. Cultural aspects were assessed through group discussions and comparison between East...

  17. Population of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus (Pathogen and Bacillus (Beneficial Bacteria in Penaeus Monodon (Fabricus, 1798 Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pattukumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present work was attempted to evaluate the probiotic activity of Bacillus spp. in shrimp health management. Approach: Penaeid culture ecosystem as a confined environment with huge inputs always encourages the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria like Vibrios. Results: From the present study and earlier reports it is understood that these pathogens alone or combine with virus especially White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV lead to sudden disease outbreaks and mortality. However the unwarranted and unwanted usage of antibiotics causes negative impacts rather than controlling diseases. Conclusion: Based on this, it is concluded that application of suitable and effective probiotics (Bacillus will certainly reduce population of pathogens and provide a congenial pond environment for shrimp culture. However, this could be achieved by the effective usage of commercially available probiotics for maintaining good pond environment.

  18. Deep-diving by narwhals Monodon monoceros: differences in foraging behavior between wintering areas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laidre, K. L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Dietz, R.;

    2003-01-01

    wintering ground spent less time at shallow depths and most of their time diving to at least 800 m (13 to 26 dives per day, SE 1 to 3). A model of occupancy time at depth showed that whales making multiple daily deep dives spent over 3 h at >800 m (SD 0.6) and traveled 13 min (SD 1) per round trip to reach...... this depth. Whales diving to between 200 and 400 m spent approximately 2.5 h (SD 0.4) at this depth, traveling 5 min per round trip. The observed differences in time allocation and dive behavior indicate local variation between the 2 wintering grounds in the Baffin Bay ecosystem....

  19. Studies on luminous, Vibrio harveyi associated with shrimp culture system rearing Panaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kannapiran, E.; Ravindran, J.; Chandrasekar, R.; Kalaiarasi, A.

    with the outbreak of white spot disease. Key words: Luminescent bacteria, Vibrio harveyi, Shrimp culture, White spot disease PDF of full length paper is available online Introduction Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food production sectors in the world... (Subasinghe et al., 1998). Currently, aquaculture industry in India and other parts of the world has been facing serious problems due to microbial diseases. In aquatic environments, diseases in fishes and shrimps are caused by opportunistic pathogens (Lundin...

  20. Characterization of four lytic transducing bacteriophages of luminescent Vibrio harveyi isolated from shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hatcheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Sanjeevi; Chrisolite, Bagthasingh; Alavandi, Shankar V; Poornima, Modem; Kalaimani, Natarajan; Santiago, T Chinnappan

    2011-12-01

    Four lytic bacteriophages designated as φVh1, φVh2, φVh3, and φVh4 were isolated from commercial shrimp hatcheries, possessing broad spectrum of infectivity against luminescent Vibrio harveyi isolates, considering their potential as biocontrol agent of luminescent bacterial disease in shrimp hatcheries, and were characterized by electron microscopy, genomic analysis, restriction enzyme analysis (REA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Three phages φVh1, φVh2, and φVh4 had an icosahedral head of 60-115 nm size with a long, noncontractile tail of 130-329 × 1-17 nm, belonged to the family Siphoviridae. φVh3 had an icosahedral head (72 ± 5 nm) with a short tail (27 × 12 nm) and belonged to Podoviridae. REA with DraI and PFGE of genomic DNA digested with ScaI and XbaI and cluster analysis of their banding patterns indicated that φVh3 was distinct from the other three siphophages. PFGE-based genome mean size of the four bacteriophages φVh1, φVh2, φVh3, and φVh4 was estimated to be about 85, 58, 64, and 107 kb, respectively. These phages had the property of generalized transduction as demonstrated by transduction with plasmid pHSG 396 with frequencies ranging from 4.1 × 10(-7) to 2 × 10(-9) per plaque-forming unit, suggesting a potential ecological role in gene transfer among aquatic vibrios.

  1. ПОВЫШЕНИЕ ВИТАЛИТЕТА У БРЮХОНОГИХ МОЛЛЮСКОВ (GASTROPODA) В УСЛОВИЯХ НЕФТЯНОГО ЗАГРЯЗНЕНИЯ ПОСРЕДСТВОМ ВОЗДЕЙСТВИЯ ЭЛЕКТРОМАГНИТНЫМИ ПОЛЯМИ

    OpenAIRE

    Гордеева, Мария; Ильминских, Николай; Гашев, Сергей

    2011-01-01

    Исследовано стимулирующее воздействие электромагнитных полей на брюхоногих моллюсков (Gastropoda) в условиях нефтяного загрязнения (1,5 и 2 мг/л). Показаны повышение выживаемости моллюсков и кратное увеличение численности их потомства в сравнении с контролем, оценивается в целом как повышение виталитета. Рассматриваются механизмы токсикорезистентности....

  2. Development of a new sediment bioassay with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia); Entwicklung eines Sedimentbiotests mit der Zwergdeckelschnecke Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duft, M.; Tillmann, M.; Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany). Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik; Schulte-Oehlmann, U.; Oehlmann, J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Zoologisches Inst.

    2002-07-01

    Currently, only few organismic biotest systems are available for the assessment of effects on reproduction, which consider an exposure toward whole sediments. A well-suited test organism is the parthenogenetic mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. This ovoviviparous prosobranch snail lives in the upper layers of freshwater and brackish sediments. The number of (unshelled) embryos turned out to be a very sensitive parameter for the indication of sediment components affecting reproduction. Additionally, this endpoint allows to signal possible estrogenic sediment compounds. With this 28-day bioassay, laboratory tests on the effects of various chemicals on P. antipodarum were performed, e.g. triphenyltin and bisphenol A, in relevant environmental concentration ranges. Furthermore, the suitability of our test system for the investigation of complex and multiple level ranged contaminations was examined by means of various natural sediments from the Neisse and Odra rivers. (orig.) [German] Derzeit bestehen nur wenige etablierte organismische Testverfahren zur Erfassung von reproduktionstoxischen Effekten, die eine Exposition gegenueber Gesamtsedimenten beruecksichtigen. Ein hierfuer gut geeigneter Testorganismus ist die parthenogenetische Zwergdeckelschnecke Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Sie gehoert zu den ovoviviparen (lebendgebaerenden) Prosobranchiern und lebt in den obersten Schichten von Suess- und Brackwassersedimenten. Als empfindlicher Parameter zur Indikation reproduktionstoxisch wirkender Sedimentkomponenten erwies sich die Anzahl der (neugebildeten) Embryonen im Brutraum - dieser Endpunkt vermag zudem auf eventuell vorhandene oestrogene Wirkstoffe im Sediment hinzuweisen. Mit Hilfe dieses 28 Tage umfassenden Biotests wurden in Laboruntersuchungen die Wirkungen verschiedener Umweltchemikalien, wie z.B. Triphenylzinn und Bisphenol A, auf P. antipodarum in umweltrelevanten Konzentrationsreihen getestet. Darueber hinaus wurde die Eignung des Biotests fuer die Ermittlung und Untersuchung der Wirkung komplexer Kontaminanten anhand von verschiedenen realen Flusssedimenten unterschiedlichen Belastungsgrades - aus Neisse und Oder - erprobt. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of the use of Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) and Hastula cinerea (Gastropoda, Terebridae) as TBT sentinels for sandy coastal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Berenguel, Thayana Amorim; de Arruda, Noelle C L Patrício; del Matto, Lygia A; Amado, Lílian Lund; Corbisier, Thais Navajas; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Turra, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination is still recorded in the environment even after its ban in antifouling paints. Since most biomonitors of TBT contamination, through imposex evaluation, are hard-bottom gastropods, the identification of soft-bottom sentinels has become useful for regions where rocky shores and coral reefs are absent. Thus, an evaluation of Olivella minuta and Hastula cinerea as monitors of TBT contamination was performed in two sandy beaches located under influence area of São Sebastião harbor (São Paulo state, Brazil), where previous and simultaneous studies have reported environmental contamination by TBT. In addition, the imposex occurrence in H. cinerea was assessed in an area with low marine traffic (Una beach), also located in São Paulo State. A moderate imposex incidence in O. minuta was detected in Pernambuco (% I = 9.36, RPLI = 4.49 and RPLIstand = 4.27) and Barequeçaba (% I = 2.42, RPLI = 0.36 and RPLIstand = 0.81) beaches, indicating TBT contamination. In contrast, more severe levels of imposex were recorded for H. cinerea in Una beach (% I = 12.45) and mainly in Barequeçaba beach (% I = 98.92, RPLI = 26.65). Our results suggest that O. minuta and H. cinerea have good potential as biomonitors for TBT based on their wide geographical distribution, common occurrence in different coastal sediment habitats, easy collection, and association with TBT-contaminated sediments. PMID:26085280

  4. Histologia das glândulas salivares dos Limacoidea e Milacidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata Histology of the salivary glands of the Limacoidea and Milacidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The histology of the salivary glands of six species of Limacoidea, Boettgerilla pallens Simroth, 1912, Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774, Deroceras rodnae Grossu & Lupu, 1965, Malacolimax tenellus (Müller, 1774 and Lehmannia marginata (Müller, 1774, and a species of Milacidae, Tandonia budapestensis (Hazay, 1881 is comparatively described herein. In the glandular parenchyme four to five secretory cell types are distinguished and characterised, besides a cell type which is probably undifferentiated. The secretory cell types are classified into two groups, mucous and serous cells. Two types of mucous cells and two to three types of serous cells are distinguished. The salivary glands of the herein studied Limacoidea and Milacidae show a duct system composed of intralobular, interlobular and main ducts, each one presenting a characteristic type of epithelial lining. The results are comparatively discussed with the data available in the literature, in order to verify the correspondence between the different cell types described for other Pulmonata.

  5. Macrocyclis peruvianus (Gastropoda, Acavidae, an endemic land snail from Chile Macrocyclis peruvianus (Gastropoda, Acavidae, um caracol terrestre endêmico do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia F. da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclis peruvianus (Lamarck, 1822 is a large terrestrial snail which is endemic in Chile. A detailed description of its shell structure, jaw, radula, palial cavity and reproductive system is presented here for the first time.Macrocyclis peruvianus (Lamarck, 1822 é um grande caracol terrestre endêmico do Chile. Uma descrição detalhada da esculturação de sua concha, rádula, mandíbula, cavidade palial e sistema reprodutor são apresentados aqui pela primeira vez.

  6. Identification of Stressors that Affect White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Infection and Outbreak in Pond Cultured Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a big problem to the worldwide shrimp industry. Exposure to stressors related to physicochemical water parameters affect WSSV infection but not all WSSV infections result in outbreaks. This paper describes a detailed monitoring of important physicochemical w

  7. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  8. The potential effect of greenwater technology on water quality in the pond culture of Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia, E.A.; Bosma, R.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused severe production drops in the shrimp industry. Numerous scientific manuscripts deal with WSSV epidemiology, but reports on minimizing disease outbreaks through ecological means are rare. Industry stakeholders resorted to various innovative techniques to re

  9. The development of a high density linkage map for black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon based on cSNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Baranski

    Full Text Available Transcriptome sequencing using Illumina RNA-seq was performed on populations of black tiger shrimp from India. Samples were collected from (i four landing centres around the east coastline (EC of India, (ii survivors of a severe WSSV infection during pond culture (SUR and (iii the Andaman Islands (AI in the Bay of Bengal. Equal quantities of purified total RNA from homogenates of hepatopancreas, muscle, nervous tissue, intestinal tract, heart, gonad, gills, pleopod and lymphoid organs were combined to create AI, EC and SUR pools for RNA sequencing. De novo transcriptome assembly resulted in 136,223 contigs (minimum size 100 base pairs, bp with a total length 61 Mb, an average length of 446 bp and an average coverage of 163× across all pools. Approximately 16% of contigs were annotated with BLAST hit information and gene ontology annotations. A total of 473,620 putative SNPs/indels were identified. An Illumina iSelect genotyping array containing 6,000 SNPs was developed and used to genotype 1024 offspring belonging to seven full-sibling families. A total of 3959 SNPs were mapped to 44 linkage groups. The linkage groups consisted of between 16-129 and 13-130 markers, of length between 139-10.8 and 109.1-10.5 cM and with intervals averaging between 1.2 and 0.9 cM for the female and male maps respectively. The female map was 28% longer than the male map (4060 and 2917 cM respectively with a 1.6 higher recombination rate observed for female compared to male meioses. This approach has substantially increased expressed sequence and DNA marker resources for tiger shrimp and is a useful resource for QTL mapping and association studies for evolutionarily and commercially important traits.

  10. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Ditlevsen, Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    ) technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid D/L ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in tusks (n=9). Two racemization rates were...

  11. MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON, FABRICIUS FARMING AT BHAGBANPUR REGION IN PURBA MEDINIPUR DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp culture can give miracles towards socio-economic development for a large number of rural people. Its sustainable development can be achieved through the application of scientific methodology, input of technical knowledge at the crisis time, quality control mechanism targeted to marketing strategy, sufficient supply of institutional credit and Government involvement in the marketing strategy. An optimum output cannot be assured even after taking the risk of huge investment. The export policy promotion and distinct quality measures are the major thrust area for the recent days. Government efforts in implementing a proper planning and management oriented marketing strategies are required for the sustainability of the industry.

  12. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems.

  13. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.; Heide-Jorgensen, M.P.; Moller, P.; Cleemann, M.; Boer, de J.; Glasius, M.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased in the f

  14. Cellular and molecular markers in monitoring the fate of lymphoid cell culture from Penaeus monodon Fabricius (1798).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Jose, Seena; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-12-01

    Lymphoid cell culture from penaeid shrimps has gained much acceptance as an in vitro platform to facilitate research on the development of prophylaxis, and therapeutic strategies against viruses and for cell line development. However, lymphoid cells can be used as platform for in vitro research, only if they are in metabolically and mitotically active state in vitro with unaltered cell surface receptors. Through this study, we addressed the response of lymphoid cells to a new microenvironment at cellular and molecular levels; including the study of mitotic events, DNA synthesis, expression profile of cell cycle genes, cytoskeleton organization, metabolic activity and viral susceptibility. The S-phase entry and synthesis of new DNA was recorded by immunoflourescent technique. Cdc2, CycA, CycB, EF-1α and BUB3 genes involved in cell cycle were studied in both the cells and tissue, of which EF-1α showed an elevated expression in cells in vitro (∼ 19.7%). Cytoskeleton network of the cell was examined by studying the organization of actin filaments. As the markers for metabolic status, mitochondrial dehydrogenase, protein synthesis and glucose assimilation by the cells were also assessed. Viral susceptibility of the cell was determined using WSSV to confirm the preservation of cellular receptors. This study envisages to strengthen the shrimp cell line research and to bring forth lymphoid cell culture system as a 'model' in vitro system for shrimp and crustaceans altogether.

  15. Moult-inhibiting fusion protein augments while polyclonal antisera attenuate moult stages and duration in Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vrinda, S.; Jasmin, C.; Sivakumar, K.C.; Jose, B.; Philip, R.; BrightSingh, I.S.

    transformed with pET32a+ lacking any insert was transferred to nitrocellulose for Western blot. The nitrocellu- lose membrane was blocked with 5% skim milk in PBST, pH 7.2 (Phosphate Buffered Saline + Tween 20 (0.1%) for 1.5 h and then incubated overnight at 4... �C with primary antibody (mouse Anti- His antibody) diluted (1:2000) (Sigma, USA) in 5% skim milk- PBST, followed by three washes with PBST (5–10 min each). The membrane was incubated in the secondary antibody, anti-goat IgG alkaline phosphatase...

  16. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.;

    2004-01-01

    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased...

  17. Record of imposex in Cronia konkanensis (Gastropoda, Muricidae) from Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VishwaKiran, Y.; Anil, A.C.

    neogastropod species Cronia konkanensis (Melvill, 1893) (Fa: Muricidae) collected from Goa waters located along the west coast of India. The frequency of imposex was found to be in the range of 90-100% in the animals collected from Marmugao Harbour while...

  18. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  19. A new genus and species of Aclididae (Gastropoda) from off Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Warén, A.

    1987-01-01

    Dr. Manuel Carrillo Pèrez (Universidad de la Laguna) has sent some dredge-samples to the first author. This material contained many interesting molluscs, not mentioned by Nordsieck & Talavera (1979). Amongst them was a very peculiar gastropod species, which was difficult to identify. Based on some s

  20. New species of Rissoidae from the Cape Verde Islands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Rolán, E.

    1988-01-01

    Sediment samples collected at the Cape Verde Islands contained many interesting micromolluscs. Amongst them, four new species of the family Rissoidae ( Alvania peli, A. nicolauensis, A. stocki and A. planciusi).

  1. Reproductive biology of Oxychilus(Atlantoxychilus) spectabilis (Milne-Edwards, 1885) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): a gametogenic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ana Filipa; Martins, António M. de Frias; Cunha, Regina Tristão da; Melo, Paulo Jorge; A.R. Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomic status and anatomy of Oxychilus (Atlantoxychilus) spectabilis (Milne-Edwards, 1885), an endemic land snail from Santa Maria Island, Azores, has been subject of detailed study, yet information about its life history is wanting. This study describes the reproductive cycle of O. (A.) spectabilis and assesses the validity of three morphometric shell parameters as maturation diagnostic characters. Our results indicate that individuals are reproductively more active from May to Novemb...

  2. Systematics and Distribution of Siphocypraea mus and Propustularia surinamensis (Gastropoda, Cypraeidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1963-01-01

    The systematic place of “Cypraea” mus Linné is discussed, and it is concluded that the species belongs in Siphocypraea (Akleistostoma). The “varieties” tuberculata Gray and bicornis Sowerby should be withdrawn; they are only forms with callosities. Callus formations are often found in Cypraeidae. Th

  3. A new species of hydrobiid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae from central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canella Radea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new minute valvatiform species belonging to the genus Daphniola Radoman 1973, Daphniola eptalophos sp. n., from mountain Parnassos, Greece is described. The new species has a transparent valvatiform-planispiral shell, wide and open umbilicus, grey-black pigmented soft body and head and a black penis with a small colorless outgrowth on the left side near its base. A comparative table of shell dimensions and a key to the species known for this endemic genus for Greece are provided.

  4. A new species of Nassarius (Gastropoda, Nassariidae from Canopus Bank, off Northeast Brazil

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    Daniel Abbate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nassarius levis sp. nov. is described from Canopus Bank, off Ceará, Northeast Brazil, based on shell morphology. It differs from other Brazilian species of the genus in having a more elongate shell, with a weakly developed parietal shield and a notably smooth surface. This last trait has not yet been described among the Western Atlantic Nassarius, but it is common to other congeners from the Eastern Atlantic, such as Nassarius elatus (Gould, 1845 and the Indo-Pacific, such as Nassarius excellens (Kuroda & Habe, 1961.

  5. Atlanta ariejansseni, a new species of shelled heteropod from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone (Gastropoda, Pterotracheoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Burridge, Alice K.; Peijnenburg, Katja T.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Atlantidae (shelled heteropods) is a family of microscopic aragonite shelled holoplanktonic gastropods with a wide biogeographical distribution in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate waters. The aragonite shell and surface ocean habitat of the atlantids makes them particularly susceptible to ocean acidification and ocean warming, and atlantids are likely to be useful indicators of these changes. However, we still lack fundamental information on their taxonomy and biogeography, which is essential for monitoring the effects of a changing ocean. Integrated morphological and molecular approaches to taxonomy have been employed to improve the assessment of species boundaries, which give a more accurate picture of species distributions. Here a new species of atlantid heteropod is described based on shell morphology, DNA barcoding of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene, and biogeography. All specimens of Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. were collected from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans suggesting that this species has a very narrow latitudinal distribution (37–48°S). Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. was found to be relatively abundant (up to 2.3 specimens per 1000 m3 water) within this narrow latitudinal range, implying that this species has adapted to the specific conditions of the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone and has a high tolerance to the varying ocean parameters in this region. PMID:27551204

  6. Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea - I: the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Lebanon

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    F. CROCETTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reviewed knowledge of the opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples, is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa recorded from the Lebanese shores identified to species level. Special emphasis has mainly been given to the alien species, for which scattered notes are also given. The known opisthobranch biota is composed of 22 native (~ 63%, 12 alien (~ 34% and one cryptogenic (~ 3% taxa. Eleven of these (Berthella aurantiaca, B. ocellata, Aplysia fasciata, Felimare picta, Felimida britoi, F. luteorosea, F. purpurea, Phyllidia flava, Dendrodoris grandiflora, D. limbata and Aeolidiella alderi constitute new records for the Lebanese fauna, whilst the examined material of a further seven species (Elysia grandifolia, Pleurobranchus forskalii, Aplysia dactylomela, Bursatella leachii, Syphonota geographica, Goniobranchus annulatus, Flabellina rubrolineata anecdotally cited from Lebanon on the basis of the samples here studied, is here first explained. One additional taxon belonging to the genus Haminoea has been identified to genus level only. Despite the searching effort poning the basis of the material analyzed here, data reported clearly suggest that strong investments are still needed for a better understanding of the eastern Mediterranean opisthobranch fauna.

  7. Ecomorphological Analyses of Marine Mollusks' Shell Thickness of Rapana venosa (VALENCIENNES, 1846 (Gastropoda: Muricidae

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    Igor P. Bondarev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shell thickness of Rapana venosa was investigated from ecologically different places of the Azov – Black Sea basin. In the formation of the shell thickness there are two major trends: thickening with age, and inversely proportional to the size of the thickening of even-aged individuals of the same population. Shell thickness formation was analyzed in connection with biotic and abiotic environmental factors of influence. R. venosa ontogeny is not conducive to the rapid succession newly acquired characters in local populations. The formation of a thick shell is mainly the individual response of bions to the environment. Individuals’ of the same type reaction is the cause of formation of specific conchological characters of separate populations or parts thereof. Mechanical impacts (e.g. damage by breaking predators and storm waves hitting on rocks have no significant effect on the increasing of thickness of shells. Comparative analysis of the thickness of the shell of R. venosa from areas with different salinity shows that the direct relationship between these parameters is absent. R. venosa is capable of forming its own salinity medium in the mantle cavity, which is different from the external environment. The main factor influencing the formation of a thick-walled shell is the amplitude of the temperature fluctuations in the locality. Shell thickness of R. venosa was considered as ecomorphological character in comparison with the same feature of shell-bearing mollusks from the World Ocean at different latitude zones. It is shown that high temperature gradient is one of the most important factors of forming a thick shell. The greatest show this intertidal species and ecomorphs of temperate and high latitudes, where the temperature gradients are most expressed.

  8. Well-known and little-known: miscellaneous notes on Peruvian Orthalicidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, A.S.H.; Mogollón Avila, V.

    2010-01-01

    The family Orthalicidae is well represented in Peru but, like in other families, some species are wellknown and others have not been reported on since their original descriptions. In this paper we present new records for well-known species and elucidate the status of several lesser known taxa. Four

  9. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that jud

  10. New ultrastructural aspects of the spermatozoon of Aplysia depilans (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, P; Corral, L; Azevedo, C

    2001-01-01

    The spermatozoon of the sea hare Aplysia depilans was studied under scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous descriptions of this sperm and related species, both from light and electron microscopy, were inconsistent with each other. These descriptions include A. depilans, A. punctata, A. fasciata, A. kurodai and Bursatella leachiplei. Several detailed micrographs provide a new ultrastructural model and reveal new aspects such as the presence of acrosome and the absence of a glycogen piece, therefore the modified dense ring is the terminal structure. Results also show that previous models are incorrect in many aspects. The spermatozoon is a long slender uniflagellated cell with a complex helical structure and a length of approximately 165 microm. Observed in SEM the spermatozoon has an undifferentiated head and tail. The nucleus is cord-shaped and helically intertwined with the axoneme/mitochondrial derivative complex. The mitochondrial derivative has only one glycogen helix. Glycogen presence was demonstrated by Thiéry's method. Typical heterobranchia spermatozoa features are recognised. From bibliographic analysis, a high degree of similarity was found with the sperm of Pleurobranchea maculata (Notaspidea). PMID:11686398

  11. An annotated checklist of opisthobranch fauna (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia of the Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Sreeraj

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 52 species of opisthobranchs recorded from the Nicobar group of Islands. Of these, Aldisa erwinkoehleri, Dermatobranchus rodmani, Glossodoris pallida, Noumea simplex, Pectenodoris trilineata, Okenia kendi, Tambja morosa, Phyllidia elegans, Phyllidiopsis annae, Flabellina riwo and Phidiana indica represent new records for Indian waters.

  12. Microanatomy and ultrastructure of the excretory system of two pelagic opisthobranch species (Gastropoda: Gymnosomata and Thecosomata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrner, A; Haszprunar, G

    2000-04-01

    The microanatomy and ultrastructure of the excretory system of Pneumoderma sp. (Gymnosomata) and Creseis virgula Rang, 1828 (Thecosomata) have been investigated by means of semithin serial sections, reconstructions and transmission electron microscopy. The studies revealed a functional metanephridial system consisting of a heart with a single ventricle and auricle in a pericardial cavity and a single kidney in both species. Podocytes in the atrial wall of the pericardial epithelium are the site of ultrafiltration, whereas the flat epithelium of the kidney with numerous basal infoldings and a dense microvillous border on the luminal surface suggests modification of the ultrafiltrate. In Pneumoderma sp., additional loci of ultrafiltration with identical fine structure (meandering slits with diaphragms covered by extracellular matrix) occur in the solitary rhogocytes (pore cells). The presence of podocytes situated on the atrial wall in representatives of two higher opisthobranch taxa contradicts former ideas on the loss of the primary site of ultrafiltration in the ancestors of the Opisthobranchia. PMID:11085207

  13. A comparative ultrastructural investigation of the cephalic sensory organs in Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbbeler, K; Klussmann-Kolb, A

    2007-12-01

    Cephalic sensory organs (CSOs) are specialised structures in the head region of adult Opisthobranchia involved in perception of different stimuli. The gross morphology of these organs differs considerably among taxa. The current study aims at describing the cellular morphology of the CSOs in order to reveal cellular patterns, especially of sensory epithelia, common for opisthobranchs. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterise the fine structure of the organs and to compare the CSOs of four different opisthobranch species. The cellular composition of the sensory system is conserved among taxa. The epidermal cells in sensory regions are always columnar and ciliated cells are frequently apparent. The sensory cells are primary receptors arranged in subepidermal cell clusters. They extend dendrites which penetrate the epithelium and reach the surface. Some of the dendrites bear cilia, whereas others only build a small protuberance. Processing of sensory information takes place in the peripheral glomeruli of all species. Moreover, few taxa possess additional peripheral ganglia at the base of their CSOs. The results of the present study might support other investigations indicating that the posterior CSOs are primarily involved in distance chemoreception, whereas the anterior CSOs might be used for contact chemoreception and mechanoreception. PMID:17881026

  14. Sperm tail differentiation in the nudibranch mollusc Hypselodoris tricolor (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Moreno, F J; García-Herdugo, G

    1988-06-01

    The sperm axoneme of Hypselodoris tricolor forms from a single centriole that is located initially beneath the plasma membrane and then migrates to the nuclear surface. A conspicuous centriolar adjunct-like formation is present in the neck of midspermatids, but it becomes very reduced at the end of spermiogenesis. In spermatocyte and spermatid mitochondria, intracristal bodies originate from the accumulation of a dense material in some cristae. From our observations and foregoing reports, it may be concluded that the process of sperm tail differentiation in opisthobranchs resembles that in pulmonates, whereas it differs in many respects from that occurring in prosobranchs. The appearance of intracristal bodies in modified mitochondria seems to be a special feature of spermatogenesis in the opisthobranchs that does not occur in the two other groups of gastropod molluscs. PMID:3235038

  15. Catecholamines and dihydroxyphenylalanine in metamorphosing larvae of the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae Bergh (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A; Coon, S L; Hadfield, M G

    1997-09-01

    The content of catecholamines and dihydroxyphenylalanine in larvae of the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Dihydroxyphenylalanine, norepinephrine and dopamine were identified in larvae of all ages examined (5 through 12 days post-fertilization). Dihydroxyphenylalanine could be accurately quantified only in larvae of ages 8 through 12 days, when its average concentration increased from 0.62 to 6.71 x 10(-2) pmol micrograms protein-1. Between ages 5 and 12 days dopamine rose from 0.081 to 0.616 pmol microgram protein-1, and norepinephrine from 0.45 to 2.17 x 10(-2) pmol micrograms protein-1. Dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine and norepinephrine were also measured at different stages of metamorphic progress in 10- to 12-day larvae. Dihydroxyphenylalanine increased by a factor of 2.4 between the onset and completion of metamorphosis, but levels of dopamine and norepinephrine remained stable. One millimolar alpha-methyl-DL-m-tyrosine, an inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis, inhibited natural metamorphosis and depleted endogenous norepinephrine and especially dopamine, respectively, to 75% and 35% of control values. The existence of unexpectedly high levels of catecholamines in metamorphically competent larvae, and the association of catecholamine depletion with inhibition of metamorphosis, indicate that these compounds may participate in the control of gastropod development. PMID:9309865

  16. Larval rearing, metamorphosis, growth and reproduction of the eolid nudibranch hermissenda crassicornis (eschscholtz, 1831) (gastropoda: opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, J F; Alkon, D L

    1978-06-01

    1. Hermissenda crassicornis is a subannual nudibranch species that reproduces year-round. 2. There is a significant positive relationship between adult weight, diameter of the egg mass, estimated number of eggs per egg mass, and average number of eggs per capsule. 3. There is a planktonic veliger stage of 34 days minimum at 13 degrees -15 degrees C. 4. Larvae metamorphose on at least three species of hydroids. 5. To develop in reasonable numbers to a state competent to metamorphose veligers require a diet that includes phytoplankton of larger cell size (10-11 microm) than the commonly used Isochrysis and Monochrysis (5 microm). 6. Although Hermissenda feeds on a wide variety of sessile invertebrate species in the ocean, a diet of tunicate alone (Ciona intestinalis) promotes good growth and survival in the laboratory. 7. Egg mass deposition is initiated only after first copulation, except in the last month of life, and continues from about one-month post-metamorphosis to death, at about four months post-metamorphosis. Generation time (egg-to-egg) may be as short as 2.5 months. 8. A laboratory strain of Hermissenda is being established to provide animals of known history for research on the neural correlates of behavior. Animals, at least initially, are being selected for fast growth rate. PMID:20693369

  17. COMPARATIVE SPERM ULTRASTRUCTURE IN FIVE GENERA OF THE NUDIBRANCH FAMILY CHROMODORIDIDAE (GASTROPODA: OPISTHOBRANCHIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, NERIDA G.; Healy, JOHN M.

    2002-05-01

    Sperm ultrastructure is examined in representatives of five genera of the nudibranch gastropod family Chromodorididae: (Chromodoris, Hypselodoris, Glossodoris, Risbecia and Pectenodoris) and the results compared with previous work on other gastropods, especially other nudibranchs. As chromodoridid phylogeny is still incompletely understood, this study partly focuses on the search for new and as yet untapped sources of informative characters. Like spermatozoa of most other heterobranch gastropods, those of the Chromodorididae are elongate, complex cells composed of an acrosomal complex (small, rounded acrosomal vesicle, and columnar acrosomal pedestal), a condensed nucleus, sub-nuclear ring, a highly modified mid-piece (axoneme + coarse fibres surrounded by a glycogen-containing, helically-coiled mitochondrial derivative) and terminally a glycogen piece (or homologue thereof). The finely striated acrosomal pedestal is a synapomorphy of all genera examined here, but interestingly also occurs in at least one dorid (Rostanga arbutus). Substantial and potentially taxonomically informative differences were also observed between genera in the morphology of the nucleus, the neck region of the mid-piece, and also the terminal glycogen piece. The subnuclear ring is shown for the first time to be a segmented, rather than a continuous structure; similarly, the annular complex is shown to consist of two structures, the annulus proper and the herein-termed annular accessory body. PMID:12011239

  18. Reexamination of the gill withdrawal reflex of Aplysia californica Cooper (Gastropoda; Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J L; Edstrom, J; Lukowiak, K

    1989-06-01

    The gill withdrawal reflex (GWR), an important model system for neural mechanisms of learning, varies in form and amplitude within as well as between preparations and is therefore a heterogeneous collection of action patterns, not a reflex. At least 4 action patterns occur in response to mechanical stimulation of the siphon. It is often impossible to categorize a particular movement unambiguously. All may occur spontaneously. Gill movements may be described as combinations of 10 actions; 4 involving vein movements are described here. All actions and action patterns can occur in preparations lacking the central nervous system. Some vein movements may generate considerable force without markedly altering gill area. It is suggested that this explains why some early studies failed to identify the important role of the peripheral nervous system in the GWR. Studies based on the assumption that the GWR involves a single type of movement controlled by cells of the parietovisceral ganglion require reevaluation. PMID:2544202

  19. New record of a headshield slug Phanerophthalmus smaragdinus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia from Andaman Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narayana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Opisthobranchs are the least studied group of marine gastropod molluscs in India. They are purely marine animals and display a wide array of colours and forms. This paper presents a new record of an opisthobranch, Phanerophthalmus smaragdinus, from Andaman Islands. The species was found inhabiting the intertidal area on rocks covered with green and brown algae.

  20. Pharyngeal movements during feeding sequences of Navanax inermis (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) in successive stages of dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susswein, A J; Achituv, Y; Cappell, M S; Bennett, M V

    1987-03-01

    Feeding in Navanax inermis Cooper was filmed and analysed after various dissections. In preparations with a cut through the body wall exposing the pharynx and buccal ganglia, completely normal feeding was observed. In addition to seven motor acts previously described in intact animals, an eighth act, peristalsis, was observed. In preparations with the pharynx excised from the animal but attached to the buccal ganglia, four motor acts were observed: flaring, expansion, contraction and peristalsis. In addition to increasing information about the nature of feeding movements in Navanax, these data indicate that preparations suitable for neurophysiological studies are capable of producing a variety of feeding acts. PMID:3559467

  1. Slugs' last meals: molecular identification of sequestered chloroplasts from different algal origins in Sacoglossa (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händeler, Katharina; Wägele, Heike; Wahrmund, Ute; Rüdinger, Mareike; Knoop, Volker

    2010-11-01

    Some sacoglossan sea slugs have become famous for their unique capability to extract and incorporate functional chloroplasts from algal food organisms (mainly Ulvophyceae) into their gut cells. The functional incorporation of the so-called kleptoplasts allows the slugs to rely on photosynthetic products for weeks to months, enabling them to survive long periods of food shortage over most of their life-span. The algal food spectrum providing kleptoplasts as temporary, non-inherited endosymbionts appears to vary among sacoglossan slugs, but detailed knowledge is sketchy or unavailable. Accurate identification of algal donor species, which provide the chloroplasts for long-term retention is of primary importance to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms allowing long-term functionality of the captured chloroplast in the foreign animal cell environment. Whereas some sacoglossans forage on a variety of algal species, (e.g. Elysia crispata and E. viridis) others are more selective. Hence, characterizing the range of functional sacoglossan-chloroplast associations in nature is a prerequisite to understand the basis of this enigmatic endosymbiosis. Here, we present a suitable chloroplast gene (tufA) as a marker, which allows identification of the respective algal kleptoplast donor taxa by analysing DNA from whole animals. This novel approach allows identification of donor algae on genus or even species level, thus providing evidence for the taxonomic range of food organisms. We report molecular evidence that chloroplasts from different algal sources are simultaneously incorporated in some species of Elysia. NeigborNet analyses for species assignments are preferred over tree reconstruction methods because the former allow more reliable statements on species identification via barcoding, or rather visualize alternative allocations not to be seen in the latter. PMID:21565106

  2. Accumulation and identification of lipofuscin-like pigment in the neurons of Bulla gouldiana (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, L J

    1978-01-01

    A few reports suggest that pigmented granules found in molluscan neurons accumulate with age as do lipofuscin granules in vertebrate cells; however, no reports on molluscan neurons include detailed descriptions of granule accumulation or histochemical tests to identify the pigment as lipofuscin-like. In this study light microscope observations of living ganglia from 1.7, 2.7, and 3.0 cm and larger (shell length) sized Bulla gouldiana showed an increasing accumulation of orange-red pigment in the perikaryon corresponding to increasing shell size (i.e. age). With the electron microscope similar results were obtained, and lipofuscin-like granules were seen in the nerve cell cytoplasm of veliger larvae and in all adult sized Bulla. Staining with Sudan black B, Nile blue, chrome alum hematoxylin, PAS reagents, and exposure of the neurons to u.v. light to observe subsequent autofluorescence, yielded positive results in the areas of pigmented granule accumulation. Thus, the brillant orange-red granules that accumulate with age in the peripheral cytoplasm of adult Bulla neurons, and which are probably also present in larval stages, chemically resemble the lipofuscin granules of vertebrates. Similarities and differences between molluscan pigmented granules and vertebrate lipofuscin granules, in relation to structure and mechanisms of development and accumulation, are discussed. PMID:625150

  3. Especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda presentes en el litoral del norte peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nakamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra las especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia registradas para el norte del Perú. El trabajo se basa en la recopilación de la literatura científica disponible para el área de interés. Se presentan las 17 especies reportadas para dicha zona, clasificadas dentro del Grupo Informal Opisthobranchia en 6 clados, 12 familias y 14 géneros. A pesar del alto potencial de diversidad que se le otorga a la costa norte peruana, el número de especies registradas es bajo, debido principalmente al escaso número de exploraciones e investigaciones realizadas.

  4. Vitrinellidae (Marine Mollusca Gastropoda) from Holocene deposits in Surinam (Dutch Guiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1966-01-01

    Five species of Vitrinellidae have been found in the Holocene shell ridges of Surinam. Of these, Vitrinella (Striovitrinella) cupidinensis,Cochliolepis surinamensis, and Solariorbis guianensis are new species, while Cyclostremiscus caraboboensis Weisbord is known from Pliocene beds in Venezuela and

  5. Milax Clerxi nov. spec., eine neue Nacktschnecke aus Südjugoslawien (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Milacidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rähle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Durch das Entgegenkommen von Herrn Dr. C. O. van Regteren Altena, Leiden, erhielt der Verfasser eine Serie juveniler, fast erwachsener und erwachsener Nacktschnecken aus der Gattung Milax zur Bearbeitung, welche aus der Umgebung der Stadt Ohrid in Mazedonien stammen und dort im Sommer 1974 von Drs.

  6. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorded from Indian territory. But only basic information is known about their taxonomy and little is known of their population biology, ecology and their conservation status. In this paper, we briefly review status, threats and conservation strategies of land snails of India.

  7. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, S.; Ravikanth, G; N.A. Aravind

    2012-01-01

    Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorde...

  8. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909 were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and G. messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and P. fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n. on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese G. phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of G. phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time.

  9. Progenesis in the evolution of the nudibranch mollusks genus Dendronotus (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekimova, I A; Malakhov, V V

    2016-03-01

    The morphology and postlarval ontogenesis of the radula in 11 species of the genus Dendronotus Alder et Hancock, 1845, has been studied. Four types of radula are recognized in adult mollusks. Proposed evidence suggests that small species of Dendronotus have evolved by progenesis. PMID:27193883

  10. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardulyn, Patrick; Hardy, Olivier J.; Jordaens, Kurt; de Frias Martins, António Manuel; Backeljau, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758), the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is characterized by extremely high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.999 ± 0.001), high nucleotide diversity (π = 0.013 ± 0.001), and neutral nucleotide diversity above the threshold of 5% (πsyn = 0.0677). Haplotype richness is very high even at spatial scales as small as 100m2. Yet, mtDNA hyperdiversity does not affect the ability of DNA barcoding to identify M. neritoides. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is best explained by the remarkably high mutation rate at the COI locus (μ = 5.82 × 10−5 per site per year or μ = 1.99 × 10−4 mutations per nucleotide site per generation), whereas the effective population size of this planktonic-dispersing species is surprisingly small (Ne = 5, 256; CI = 1,312–3,7495) probably due to the putative influence of selection. Comparison with COI nucleotide diversity values in other organisms suggests that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more frequently linked to high μ values and that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more common across other phyla than currently appreciated. PMID:27761337

  11. Foraminiferans as food for Cephalaspideans (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), with notes on secondary tests around calcareous foraminiferans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1996-01-01

    The food of four species of Cephalaspidea (Philine aperta, Philine denticulata, Philine scabra and Cylichna cylindracea) was studied in animals collected on silty clay bottoms at 20-35 m depth on the west coast of Sweden. The specimens were dissected. Only calcareous foraminiferans were found in...... agglutinating foraminiferans surround themselves with a “secondary test”, a cyst or covering of foreign particles around the test. This structure has earlier been called a “reproductive cyst” or “feeding cyst” in some species. “Secondary tests” are primarily connected with feeding, but might also be a...... preadaptation for other purposes. It might, in species like Ammonia batavus, have become a kind of antipredatory device or mimicry. A predator might conceive such a species as an agglutinating species and neglect it. The secondary test is a delicate structure in most species and is easily destroyed by the rough...

  12. New Odostomia species (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Aartsen, van, J.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Odostomia nuttalli spec. nov. and O. coluhensis spec. nov. are described from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Columbian Amazonia. A third pyramidellid snail is also diagnosed. These species are indicators for marine influence in the late Middle to early Late Miocence of Western Amazonia. Some ecological implications are discussed.

  13. Comparative reproductive anatomy in the South African giant land snails (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Achatinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mead, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The history and current taxonomic status of 62 nominal taxa are revised that have been associated in the literature with the subgenus Tholachatina Bequaert, 1950, of genus Archachatina Albers, 1850, and the genus Cochlitoma Férussac, 1821, in the land snail family Achatinidae Swainson, 1840. Tangibl

  14. Biological aspects of Omalonyx convexus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae from the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx convexus (Heynemann, 1868 is widely spread throughout the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The studied specimens presented in vivo, tegument and mantle coloring in variations between milky-white, orange and beige. The shell presented itself covered by the mantle in different extents; however, it was not completely covered on any of the specimens. The feeding diet is basically constituted by vegetal tissues, although non-vegetal food items were also found. The specimens were found in preserved and in polluted fresh water environments, as well as on natural and artificial substrates. The temperature throughout the day influences their placement on habitat substrates.

  15. Diversity of Edible Mollusc (Gastropoda and Bivalvia at Selected Divison of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of edible mollusc was studied at eight divisions of Sarawak from August 2010 to May 2011. At each division, diversity and number of species were collected from road site selling out lets and local wet markets. Total number of mollusc was comprised of 29 species namely  Solen regularies, S. lamarckii,  Pharella acutidens, Anadara granosa, Pholas orientalis, Gluconome virens, Circe scripta, Anodonta woodina, Paphia undulata, Amusium pleuronectes, Meretrix meretrix, M. lyrata, Polymesoda bengalensis, P. erosa and P. expansa  for bivalve and  Cerithidea rizophorarum, C. obtusa, Telescopium telescopium, Clithon retropictus, Nerita articulate, N. chamaeleon, N. albicilla, Ellobium aurisjuda, Trochus radiates, Planaxis sulcatus, Monodonta labio, Turbo crasus, Thais aculate  and Melo melo  for gastropod. The species number of bivalve was recorded highest (15 species in mollusc group from Sarawak. Mollusc diversity was found highest (14 species in Bintulu and lowest (1 species in the division of Sarikei. From this study, there is a wide chance of research to further explore both on the possibility of commercial value and ecosystem conservation.

  16. [Growth of Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) snail in 4 environments of Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, A J

    2001-03-01

    The growth rate of queen conch cultured in pens was studied from October 1993 to March 1994. Sixteen pens (50 m2 each, four pens per environment), were set in four environments: Thalassia, Thalassia-sand, Sand and Coral within a reef lagoon on Punta Gavilan and Banco Chinchorro. Twenty conchs were introduced in each pen (sizes: 100-120, 120-140, 140-160 and 160-180 mm shell length) and measured monthly to the nearest mm. Growth rate was assessed by two methods: a) shell marginal mean increase and b) the Gulland-Holt method considering all conch within pens. In the first method, the environment Sand had the highest growth (3.21 +/- 0.26 mm/month) at Punta Gavilan, whereas at Banco Chinchorro, highest growth was recorded in Coral (2.31 +/- 0.44 mm/month). Considering the second method, highest asymptotic length conch in Punta Gavilan occurred in Thalassia-sand (287.5 mm), whereas in Banco Chinchorro the highest asymptotic length was measured in Sand (318.1 mm). There were significant differences in growth between sites; juvenile growth is related with habitat quality mainly food availability. PMID:11795173

  17. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

  18. Burnaia Miller, 2001 (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Nudibranchia): a facelinid genus with an Aeolidiidae's outward appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M.; Cervera, Juan Lucas

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, several morphological and molecular analyses have been undertaken to study the phylogenetic systematics of Aeolidiidae members. The monospecific genus Burnaia could not be included in the previous analysis, due to the lack of material. This study includes two specimens of Burnaia helicochorda from Australia and places them in their systematic position using two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes (COI and 16S, and H3, respectively). A description of its anatomy is also included with colour pictures of the animal and scanning electron micrographs of radula and jaws. Based on our results, B. helicochorda does not belong to Aeolidiidae since it appears nested among some facelinids.

  19. Eine neue Deroceras-Art (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Agriolimacidae) von der Griechischen Insel Samos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rähle, W.

    1983-01-01

    Im Frühjahr 1982 sammelte Herr Jens Hemmen aus Wiesbaden (Bundesrepublik Deutschland) auf der Insel Samos zahlreiche Individuen einer noch unbekannten Deroceras-Art, die ihren anatomischen Merkmalen nach zur Untergattung Plathystimulus Wiktor, 1973 gehört. Die Tiere waren fast alle erwachsen und erm

  20. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.Shells of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied to determine morphometric variation. Samples were collected in the following municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Five measurements were taken from each shell: length and width of the shell, length and width of the aperture and lenght of the spire. Two ratios were also established: width/lenght of the shell and length of the aperture /length of the shell. The numbers of whorls and the length of the shell were also determined. Statistical tests (correlation coeficients, regression, and analysis of variance were used to compare the different samples. Also, com parisons of L. columella shells collected by us were made with those of L. columella, L. viator and L. cubensis from collections deposited in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. The results of these studies revealed that in most of the cases the snail populations of different areas were similar, showing constant proportions, but they diverged in their absolute dimensions. Data on aquatic environmental conditions (pH, alkalinity, hardness, and calcium concentration were also obtained. These Chemical factors were examined with respect to shell morphology. Our results revealed that only hardness of water was associated with the robustness of the shells.

  1. A nomenclator of extant and fossil taxa of the Melanopsidae (Gastropoda, Cerithioidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This nomenclator provides details on all published names in the family-, genus-, and species-group, as well as for a few infrasubspecific names introduced for, or attributed to, the family Melanopsidae. It includes nomenclaturally valid names, as well as junior homonyms, junior objective synonyms, nomina nuda, common incorrect subsequent spellings, and as far as possible discussion on the current status in taxonomy. The catalogue encompasses three family-group names, 79 genus-group names, and 1381 species-group names. All of them are given in their original combination and spelling (except mandatory corrections requested by the Code), along with their original source. For each family- and genus-group name, the original classification and the type genus and type species, respectively, are given. Data provided for species-group taxa are type locality, type horizon (for fossil taxa), and type specimens, as far as available. PMID:27551193

  2. On Cyprian Helicellinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Helicidae), making a new start

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    1991-01-01

    Our fragmentary knowledge concerning the Cyprian Helicellinae is revised and summarized, while new data are added. "Helicella (Xerotricha) conspurcata distinguenda" Haas, 1936, is a Helicopsis species that has to be called H. cypriola (Westerlund, 1889) as a consequence of the selection of a neotype

  3. Summarizing data on the Inchoatia taxa, including Inchoatia megdova bruggeni subspec. nov. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Clausiliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Uit de Weerd, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    An annotated checklist for the genus Inchoatia is provided. The old distributional data are converted into modern geographical names and completed with UTM codes. A new subspecies is described as Inchoatia megdova bruggeni subspec. nov.

  4. New Odostomia species (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van J.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Odostomia nuttalli spec. nov. and O. coluhensis spec. nov. are described from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Columbian Amazonia. A third pyramidellid snail is also diagnosed. These species are indicators for marine influence in the late Middle to early Late Miocence of Western Amazonia.

  5. The Model Organism Hermissenda crassicornis (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) Is a Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Tabitha; Valdés, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Hermissenda crassicornis is a model organism used in various fields of research including neurology, ecology, pharmacology, and toxicology. In order to investigate the systematics of this species and the presence of cryptic species in H. crassicornis, we conducted a comprehensive molecular and morphological analysis of this species covering its entire range across the North Pacific Ocean. We determined that H. crassicornis constitutes a species complex of three distinct species. The name Hermissensa crassicornis is retained for the northeast Pacific species, occurring from Alaska to Northern California. The name H. opalescens is reinstated for a species occurring from the Sea of Cortez to Northern California. Finally, the name H. emurai is maintained for the northwestern species, found in Japan and in the Russian Far East. These three species have consistent morphological and color pattern differences that can be used for identification in the field. PMID:27105319

  6. Population biology of the gastropod Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) on two sheltered beaches in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Tardelli, Daniel Teixeira; Turra, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The structure, dynamics and production of two populations of the olivid gastropod Olivella minuta were analyzed through monthly sampling from November 2009 through October 2011 on two sandy beaches, Pernambuco (very sheltered) and Barequeçaba (sheltered) in São Paulo state (23°48'S), southeastern Brazil. On both beaches, samples were taken along five transects established perpendicular to the waterline. Parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function were estimated for both populations from monthly length-frequency distributions. The production and turnover ratios were determined using the mass-specific growth rate method. The population on the less-sheltered Barequeçaba Beach was less abundant (120.02 ± 22.60 ind m-1) than on Pernambuco Beach (3295.30 ± 504.86 ind m-1 (±SE)), which we attribute to the greater environmental stability of the latter. Conversely, the mean length, size of the largest individual, and body mass were higher at Barequeçaba than at Pernambuco. The significant differences in the growth of individuals and the mortality rate (Z) between the beaches suggest that density-dependent processes were operating at Pernambuco Beach. The production and P/B ratio at Pernambuco (12.12 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.91 year-1) were higher than at Barequeçaba (0.82 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.06 year-1). The difference in production can be attributed to the higher abundance on Pernambuco, while the higher P/B ratio resulted from the scarcity of smaller individuals in the intertidal zone of Barequeçaba. The P/B ratio estimated for the Pernambuco population is the highest found so far for sandy-beach gastropods. This study reinforces the theory that biological interactions are important regulators of sheltered sandy-beach populations. Future studies with multi-beach sampling are needed to better understand the life-history variations of O. minuta along gradients of degree of exposure of sandy beaches.

  7. First record of Calma gobioophaga Calado and Urgorri, 2002 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. PRKIC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the nudibranch genus Calma were observed under stones at two Croatian localities while feeding on gobiid eggs. Some ambiguous morphological features compared with the original descriptions of the known species of the genus, C. glaucoides and C. gobioophaga, hampered an easy identification. Genetic data (COI and 16S sequences confirmed the distinction between the two species of the genus Calma, and allowed to unambiguously identify the Croatian specimens as Calma gobioophaga. This is the first record of this species for the Mediterranean and extends remarkably its distribution range. Finally, the eggs fed by the Croatian specimens have been taxonomically identified by using the 12S rDNA marker as Gobius cobitis.

  8. Gymnodoris pattani, a new dorid nudibranch from Pattani Bay, Gulf of Thailand (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, C.

    1996-01-01

    Several specimens of a new dorid nudibranch have been found in Yaring River, Pattani Province in southern Thailand. The species clearly belongs to the genus Gymnodoris, and is described and named G. pattani. It can be distinguished from all other species described in the genus by its translucently g

  9. The aquatic molluscs (Mollusca: Gastropoda and Bivalvia of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILIAN GEORGIEV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Till now 13 species of aquatic molluscs are known to inhabit the park area: 11 species of snails and 2 species of clams. Even included in the list the species of Grossuana and Radix balthica has to be studied anatomically for sure identification. Nine species are of conservation statute classified as "Least Concern" or "Vulnerable", and four does not have any statute. Three stygobiotic snail species are local endemics.

  10. Notes on Rivomarginella electrum (Reeve, 1865) from Lampung, South Sumatra (Gastropoda, Marginellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajasasmita, Machfudz; Coomans, Henry E.

    1980-01-01

    Specimens of the freshwater marginellid Rivomarginella electrum (Reeve) were collected in South Sumatra. The erroneous spelling of the type locality is corrected into Lake Jepara. The animal, radula and ecology are described for the first time; living specimens were observed in an aquarium. The spec

  11. Review of the geographic distribution of Hoffmannola hansi (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the Mexican Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Hernando Avila-Poveda; Quetzalli Yasú Abadia-Chanona; Raúl Herrera-Fragoso; Benoît Dayrat

    2014-01-01

    Hoffmannola hansi (Mexican intertidal leather slug) is traditionally reported as an endemic species to the Gulf of California, Mexico. However, its presence in the southern Mexican Pacific has been mentioned in regional checklists and reports. Here we provide new records of H. hansi populations from at least 3 locations from Oaxaca, Mexico. The anatomical characteristics useful for H. hansi identification are described for both, living and preserved specimens. Specimens reports from the Gulf ...

  12. New taxa of terrestrial molluscs from Turkey (Gastropoda, Pristilomatidae, Enidae, Hygromiidae, Helicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Gümüs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on results of several collecting trips of the authors in Turkey. In the course of this research, a long-lasting question was addressed. It could be proven that the nominal species Bulimus frivaldskyi L. Pfeiffer, 1847 is closely related to Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, and thus this species is shifted from the genus Ena Turton, 1831, to the genus Meijeriella Bank, 1985. Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, could be recorded from Turkey for the first time. The nomenclatural situation of the species Euchondrus septemdentatus (Roth, 1839 vs. its replacement name Euchondrus borealis (Mousson, 1874 is discussed. A new arrangement of the species formely comprised in the genus Zebrina Held, 1837 is presented, and the genera Rhabdoena Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1902, and Leucomastus A. Wagner, 1927 are re-established. The following species and subspecies new to science could be described: Vitrea gostelii sp. n. (Pristilomatidae, Turanena demirsoyi sp. n., Euchondrus paucidentatus sp. n., Rhabdoena gostelii sp. n. (all Enidae, Metafruticicola kizildagensis sp. n. (Hygromiidae, and Assyriella thospitis menkhorsti ssp. n. (Helicidae. For several other species, new distribution records are listed.

  13. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  14. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  15. The venomous cocktail of the vampire snail Colubraria reticulata (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Modica, Maria Vittoria; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Franchini, Paolo; Oliverio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Hematophagy arose independently multiple times during metazoan evolution, with several lineages of vampire animals particularly diversified in invertebrates. However, the biochemistry of hematophagy has been studied in a few species of direct medical interest and is still underdeveloped in most invertebrates, as in general is the study of venom toxins. In cone snails, leeches, arthropods and snakes, the strong target specificity of venom toxins uniquely aligns them to industrial an...

  16. Sense organs in Spongiobranchaea australis d’Orbigny, 1835 (Gastropoda, Pteropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1964-01-01

    The sense organs: the labial tentacles, eyes, rhinophores, osphradium and statocysts of Spongiobranchaea australis d’Orbigny, 1835 are described together with their innervation. The descriptions are based on serial sections of three animals.

  17. Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus (Gastropoda, Muricidae on a mixed shore of rocks and sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Papp

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

  18. Perotrochus caledonicus (Gastropoda: Pleurotomariidae revisited: descriptions of new species from the South-West Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Anseeuw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphological (shell and molecular examination of a large suite of specimens of pleurotomariids from around New Caledonia and the Coral Sea reveals the existence of four species in the complex of Perotrochus caledonicus: Perotrochus deforgesi Métivier, 1990 and P. pseudogranulosus sp. nov. live allopatrically on the plateaus and guyots of the Coral Sea; Perotrochus caledonicus Bouchet & Métivier, 1982 and Perotrochus wareni sp. nov. live sympatrically - but essentially not syntopically - on the slopes of New Caledonia, Norfolk Ridge and the Loyalty Ridge. All species live in the 300–500 m interval, and together form a significant component of the mollusc fauna living on hard bottoms in the SW Pacific, with individual dredge hauls containing up to 25 specimens of Perotrochus.

  19. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-01-01

    to metamorphosis. The postmetamorphic central nervous system (CNS) becomes concentrated, and the rhinophoral ganglia develop together with the anlage of the future rhinophores whereas oral tentacle ganglia are not found. The myogenesis in A. stephanieae begins with the larval retractor muscle followed...

  20. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia

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    Klussmann-Kolb Annette

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic data on opisthobranch gastropods we investigated the neuromuscular development in the nudibranch Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 using immunocytochemistry as well as F-actin labelling in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM. Results The ontogenetic development of Aeolidiella stephanieae can be subdivided into 8 stages, each recognisable by characteristic morphological and behavioural features as well as specific characters of the nervous system and the muscular system, respectively. The larval nervous system of A. stephanieae includes an apical organ, developing central ganglia, and peripheral neurons associated with the velum, foot and posterior, visceral part of the larva. The first serotonergic and FMRFamidergic neural structures appear in the apical organ that exhibits an array of three sensory, flask-shaped and two non-sensory, round neurons, which altogether disappear prior to metamorphosis. The postmetamorphic central nervous system (CNS becomes concentrated, and the rhinophoral ganglia develop together with the anlage of the future rhinophores whereas oral tentacle ganglia are not found. The myogenesis in A. stephanieae begins with the larval retractor muscle followed by the accessory larval retractor muscle, the velar or prototroch muscles and the pedal retractors that all together degenerate during metamorphosis, and the adult muscle complex forms de novo. Conclusions Aeolidiella stephanieae comprises features of the larval and postmetamorphic nervous as well as muscular system that represent the ground plan of the Mollusca or even the Trochozoa (e. g. presence of the prototrochal or velar muscle ring. On the one hand, A. stephanieae shows some features shared by all nudibranchs like the postmetamorphic condensation of the CNS, the possession of rhinophoral ganglia and the lack of oral tentacle ganglia as well as the de novo formation of the adult muscle complex. On the other hand, the structure and arrangement of the serotonergic apical organ is similar to other caenogastropod and opisthobranch gastropods supporting their sister group relationship.

  1. Keeping Nerves: Central Nervous System of the Interstitial Acochlidiid Parhedyle cryptophthalma (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerger, Katharina; Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    Unusually well-preserved fossils of a Halicyne-like cycloid crustacean frequently occur in the early Late Triassic lacustrine clay bed at Krasiejów in Opole Silesia, southern Poland. Its gill-like structures form a horseshoe-shaped pair of units composed of numerous calcified blades with reverse ...

  2. Systematics of Ariantinae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae), a new approach to an old problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Subai, P.; Gittenberger, E.

    2016-01-01

    A new starting-point in Ariantinae systematics is presented by combining data on traditional shell morphology and genital anatomy, with phylogeny reconstructions based on DNA sequence data. For nearly all genera and subgenera one or more shells are depicted and drawings of the proximal part of the g

  3. Clausiliidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) collected by the Netherlands biological expedition to Turkey in 1959

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.E.

    1963-01-01

    The route of the Netherlands Biological Expedition to Turkey in 1959 is published elsewhere (Hennipman a.o., 1961; Anonymus, 1963). As is mentioned there also, the zoological material collected is preserved in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden. I am greatly indebted to Dr. C. O. van

  4. Synopsis of Central Andean Orthalicoid land snails (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora), excluding Bulimulidae

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham S.H. Breure; Avila, Valentín Mogollón

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A faunal overview is presented of the molluscan families Amphibulimidae , Megaspiridae , Odontostomidae , Orthalicidae , Simpulopsidae in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. These Central Andean countries are known for their biodiverse malacofauna, of which the superfamily Orthalicoidea takes relatively a large share. In this paper the five families containing 103 (sub)species, for which systematic information (original publication, type locality, type depository, summarizing literature) and...

  5. Review of the genus Endothyrella Zilch, 1960 with description of five new species ( Gastropoda , Pulmonata , Plectopylidae )

    OpenAIRE

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Budha, Prem B.; Naggs, Fred; Backeljau, Thierry; Asami,Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract All known taxa of the genus Endothyrella Zilch, 1960 (family Plectopylidae ) are reviewed. Altogether 23 Endothyrella species are recognized. All species are illustrated and whenever possible, photographs of the available type specimens are provided. Five new species are described: Endothyrella angulata Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n., Endothyrella dolakhaensis Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n. and Endothyrella nepalica Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n. from Nepal, Endothyrella robustistriata Pál...

  6. Review of the genus Endothyrella Zilch, 1960 with description of five new species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Plectopylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pall-Gergely, Barna; Budha, Prem B.; Naggs, Fred; Backeljau, Thierry; Asami,Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    All known taxa of the genus Endothyrella Zilch, 1960 (family Plectopylidae) are reviewed. Altogether 23 Endothyrella species are recognized. All species are illustrated and whenever possible, photographs of the available type specimens are provided. Five new species are described: E. angulata Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n., E. dolakhaensis Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n. and E. nepalica Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n. from Nepal, E. robustistriata Páll-Gergely, sp. n. from the Naga Hills, India, and ...

  7. Systematics of Ariantinae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae), a new approach to an old problem

    OpenAIRE

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Subai, P.; Gittenberger, E.

    2016-01-01

    A new starting-point in Ariantinae systematics is presented by combining data on traditional shell morphology and genital anatomy, with phylogeny reconstructions based on DNA sequence data. For nearly all genera and subgenera one or more shells are depicted and drawings of the proximal part of the genital organs are shown to illustrate the morphological diversification within the subfamily. For as much as our material allowed it, partial sequences are presented for Histone H3 (H3), Cytochrome...

  8. Size clines and subspecies in the Streptaxid Genus Gulella PFR. (Mollusca, Gastropoda pulmonata) in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1980-01-01

    CONTENTS 1. Introduction.................. 3 2. Systematic part................. 6 Gulella adamsiana................. 7 Gulella darglensis................. 14 Gulella elliptica................. 19 Gulella farquhari................. 27 Gulella infrendens................ 33 Gulella planti.............

  9. Two new species of Thaumastus (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Meire Silva Pena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Thaumastus (Thaumastus from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, are described. They are diagnosed and characterized by the morphology of the shell and soft parts and compared with Brazilian species of the subgenus Thaumastus s.s. Martens, 1860. Thaumastus (T. parvus sp. nov. is similar to T. (T. baixoguanduensis Pena, Coelho & Salgado, 1996 but can be distinguished by the smaller size, smaller number of plates in the jaw, different number of follicle groups in the ovotestis and form of the fertilization complex. Thaumastus (T. caetensis sp. nov. is similar to T. (T. largillierti (Philippi, 1845 but differs by the width and the contour of the parietal side of the shell aperture. T. (T. caetensis is also closer to Thaumastus (T. baixoguanduensis but can be distinguished by the smaller dimensions (height, width and number of protoconch whorls, the lack of a transversal light band on the body whorl, the jaw with smaller number of plates, and the radula with 35 teeth. In the soft parts, this new species differs also in the number of follicle gatherings in ovotestis, fertilization complex with globose shape, and penian retractor muscle terminally and laterally attached to flagellum

  10. The Gastropods of Lake Eğirdir

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, Mehmet Zeki

    2004-01-01

    The Gastropoda species and its distribution was investigated in Lake Eğirdir. It was determined that 5 species belonging to Gastropoda, order Prosobranchia (Theodoxus heldreichi, Valvata naticina, Graecoanatolica lacustristurca, Falsipyrgula pfeiferi and Bithynia pseudemmericia) and 7 species belonging to the order Pulmonata (Radix peregra, Stagnicola palustris, Physa fontinalis, Physa acuta, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbis carinatus and Gyraulus albus) were present. Gastropoda species from 9 ...

  11. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil Ecologia do caracol exótico Achatina fulica (Gastropoda:Pulmonata) no nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    FS. Albuquerque; MC. Peso-Aguiar; MJT. Assunção-Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and ho...

  12. Microanatomia e histologia do sistema digestivo de Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae): V. Glândula digestiva Microanatomy and histology of the digestive system of Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae): V. Digestive gland

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet; José Willibaldo Thomé; Josef Hauser

    1993-01-01

    The digestive gland of Phyllocaulis soleiformis is a compound tubular gland. The secretory tubules are made up of two main cell types: the digestive cells and calcic cells. The digestive cells are the most numerous, usually columnar, and exhibit three different functional stages: absorptive, secretory and excretory. These cells contain two cytoplasmic granules types and, in the excretory stage, most of the cell is occupied by a large vacuole. The calcic cells occursingly or frequently in grou...

  13. Estudo quantitativo de metais presentes na hemolinfa de Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infectadas e não infectadas com Schistosoma mansoni Quantitative study of metal present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infected and uninfected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Inicialmente, desenvolveu-se um estudo para quantificar e comparar as concentrações de alguns metais presentes em duas amostras de hemolinfa do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (infectados e não-infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. A espectrometria de emissão óptica com fonte de plasma induzido (ICP-OES, foi utilizada para analisar os metais nas duas amostras. Os metais estudados foram: alumínio, cálcio, cádmio, cobalto, cromo, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, chumbo e zinco. Os resultados mostram que, a princípio, os metais não são fatores determinantes no processo de defesa desses organismos contra este parasita, quando presente nos seus tecidos.We conducted a preliminary study to quantify and compare two concentrations of the same metals present in the hemolymph of snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In this context, we used Induction Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy technique (ICP-OES, to analyze the metals in the two samples (snails infected and not infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The metals studied were: aluminum, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, lead and zinc. Preliminary results showed that such metals are not involved in the defense of these organisms against the parasite, when present in their tissues.

  14. Desenvolvimento de Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae em Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae Development of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae in Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae

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    Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco Brandolini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available To follow the larval developmenl of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet, 1892 in Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 snails were separated in three classes using the shell diameter: Class A (14.5-10.2 mm, Class B (10.1-6.9 mm and Class C (6.8-2.6 mm. Only snails belonging to classes A and B acquired the infection. Specimens of E. coelomaticum removed from the pancreatic ducts were exposed to three physiological solutions: Earle, Locke and saline 0.85%, to obtain eggs for the experimental infections, The Locke solution induced the best egg release. The route of migration the intramolluscan development of E. coelomaticum was studied with the aid of histology. The minimal period of intramolluscan developmenl, ending at the expelling of daughter sporocysts, was 107 days for the snails infected in March, and 79 days for the snails infected in November. The Student "t" test and the Chi-square test showed a significant difference (α = 5% between the two periods, although the mean temperature registered during the experiments did not significantly differed (α = 5%. The elimination of daughter sporocysts occurred through the snail's pneumostome, and always at night. Most sporocysts were eliminated at intervals that varied between one to three days, without regularity. The time of elimination of the daughter sporocysts was different for the two infection period studied: 12 weeks for the snails infected in March, and three weeks for those infected in November. Positive correlation between the number of sporocysts expelled by the snail host and higher temperatures registered in the laboratory was observed. This correlation was more evident in November infection.

  15. La Familia Trochidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda en el norte de Chile: consideraciones ecológicas y taxonómicas The trochidae family (Mollusca : Gastropoda in northern Chile: taxonomic and ecological considerations

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    DAVID VELIZ

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la diversidad, y la distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de los caracoles de la Familia Trochidae en el norte de Chile, mediante muestreos intermareales y submareales someros, realizados entre 1996 y 1999 entre Arica (18º S y Los Vilos (31º S, y de muestras de profundidad provenientes de la pesca de arrastre del camarón nylon, Heterocarpus reedi. En el norte de Chile, la Familia Trochidae está representada por cuatro géneros: Tegula y Diloma de distribución intermareal y submareal somero hasta los 20 m de profundidad, y Bathybembix y Calliostoma presentes en profundidades superiores a los 200 m. El género Tegula tiene seis especies (T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata y T. euryomphala distribuídas en sustratos rocosos intermareales y submarales someros. El género Diloma está representado por una especie, D. nigerrima, de distribución intermareal hasta pocos metros de profundidad. El género Calliostoma tiene dos especies C. chilena y C. delli, las que se distribuyen entre 200 y 750 m de profundidad. Finalmente, el género Bathybembix está representado por B. humboldti y B. macdonaldi distribuídas entre 200 y 1480 m de profundidad. Esta segregación batimétrica parece estar relacionada a las estrategias alimentarias de cada uno de los géneros de la familia Trochidae. Diloma y Tegula son herbívoros, las especies del género Bathybembix son alimentadoras de depósito y las de Calliostoma son carnívorasThis study reveals the diversity, and the bathimetric and latitudinal distribution of the snails of the Trochidae family members in northern Chile, throughout the analysis of all Trochidae gastropods entailed in intertidal and subtidal (from the `camarón naylon' fishery samples collected during 1996 and 1999 between Arica (ca 18º S and Los Vilos (ca 31º S. The Trochidae family in northern Chile have four genus: Tegula and Diloma that are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats, and Calliostoma and Bathybembix which occurr at dephts greather than 200 m. Tegula have 6 species: T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata, and T. euryomphala are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats. Diloma is a monospecific genus, whereas D. nigerrima is an intertidal species. The genus Calliostoma have two species C. chilena and C. delli occurring between 200 and 750 m depth and the Bathybembix with two species, B. Humboldti and B. macdonaldi, distributed between 200 and 1480 m depth. The bathimetric distribution of Trochidae shows a strong correlation with food strategy: Diloma and Tegula are herbivores, while Bathybembix species are deposit feeders and Calliostoma are carnivores

  16. Parámetros reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata (Duelos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae, en la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata (Duclos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae in La Rinconada marine reserve, Antofagasta, Chile

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    Marcela Cantillánez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Para obtener antecedentes reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata que contribuyan a validar su actual normativa pesquera, se realizó un estudio en el área protegida de la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile, entre diciembre 2008 y enero 2010. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron a nivel reproductivo, que el desarrollo gonadal de la población es asincrónico, encontrándose ejemplares en diferentes etapas de maduración durante el año. Los individuos maduros se estratificaron entre 5 y 13 m de profundidad, y gran parte del año formaron agregaciones a 5 m de profundidad. Se determinaron períodos de mayor madurez en julio-agosto, y en noviembre-enero, manifestándose las agregaciones más importantes al final de ellos. Una relación se observó entre meses de mayor madurez y registro de agregaciones, con aquellos de mayor variación intradiaria de temperatura. A nivel poblacional los resultados permitieron estimar una población de 2,3*10(6 ejemplares, donde el 39% se encontró sobre la talla mínima legal (TML = 55 mm. Los parámetros de crecimiento mostraron crecimiento relativamente lento, que podría estar influenciado por la alta variabilidad que presenta la temperatura de fondo en este sector. Mientras que su talla crítica, y la talla de primera madurez sexual poblacional, resultaron ser mayores a la TML. Se determinó la necesidad de revisar la normativa pesquera actual de esta especie, y se demostró la efectividad de las reservas marinas propiciadas por el Estado en la conservación de los recursos marinos.Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata that would contribute to the validation of the current extraction standards were obtained by performing a study in the protected area of La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile, from December 2008 to January 2010. In terms of reproduction, the results revealed asynchronic gonad development in the population, with specimens in different stages of maturity throughout the year. Mature individuals were distributed between 5 and 13 m depth, forming aggregations at 5 m depth during much of the year. Periods of greater maturity were observed from July to August and November to January, with the most important aggregations at the end of both periods. A relationship was observed between the months with the greatest maturity and aggregations and the months with the highest daily temperature fluctuations. At the population level, the results allowed us to estimate 2.3*10(6 individuals, with 39% of this population over the minimum legal size (55 mm. The relatively slow growth estimated for this population was probably influenced by the high variability of the bottom temperature in this area. The critical size and size at first maturity of the population were higher than the minimal legal size, making it is necessary to review the current fishing regulation for this species. The effectiveness of the State marine reserves in the conservation of this marine resource was demonstrated.

  17. Microanatomia e histologia do sistema digestivo de Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae: V. Glândula digestiva Microanatomy and histology of the digestive system of Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae: V. Digestive gland

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    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The digestive gland of Phyllocaulis soleiformis is a compound tubular gland. The secretory tubules are made up of two main cell types: the digestive cells and calcic cells. The digestive cells are the most numerous, usually columnar, and exhibit three different functional stages: absorptive, secretory and excretory. These cells contain two cytoplasmic granules types and, in the excretory stage, most of the cell is occupied by a large vacuole. The calcic cells occursingly or frequently in groups of two or three, are triangular shaped and have distinct apical granules, and yet calcic histochemical detected granules. In addition, there is a third cell type, without characteristic cytoplasmic granules and which correspond to the undifferentiated cells. The excretory duets system are represented by anterior and posterior vestibules, which branche to form the duets, that communicate with the secretory tubules. These excretory duets are lined with a simple epithelium of ciliated columnar cells, followed by a layer of connective tissue with circular and longitudinal muscular fibers. Subepithelial mucous cells are present only in the vestibules.

  18. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

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    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  19. Registro de cópula cruzada e concomitante em Phyllocaulis boraceiensis Thomé (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae Record of the concomitant cross copulation by Phyllocaulis boraceiensis Thomé (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae

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    José Willibaldo Thomé

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens of Phyllocaulis boraceiensis were found in concomitant cross copulation on 19.VII.1997. Each was in the "U"-shape position. Both specimens were the same age. One was 100 mm. long and weighed 14.53 g.; the other was 129 mm long and weighed 16.08 g. Thirty-one days later the largest one laid 11 eggs; all hatched 64 days later. The other died in October, 1997 without laying.

  20. Anatomia e microanatomia do sistema reprodutor de Rectartemon (Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Streptaxidae: complexo fálico Anatomy and microanatomy of the reproductive system of Rectartemon (Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Streptaxidae: the phallus complex

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    Mônica Picoral

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available It is described the anatomy and microanatomy of the phallus complex of Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann, 1868. The complex is composed by a phallus, a diverticle of the phallus and an epiphallus, where the deferens duct is thrown in: the retractor muscle is splitted in two parts, inserted into the region of the epiphallus through a smaller branch, and at the extremity of the diverticle, through a longer and thiner branch. The lumen of the phallus, epiphallus and diverticle have corrugations and thorns. On the phallus the thorns are arranged in a protuberance and disposed alternately in rows, ali with an aculeus form and with a chestnut collor point and a yellow basis.

  1. Fluctuating helical asymmetry and morphology of snails (Gastropoda in divergent microhabitats at 'Evolution Canyons I and II,' Israel.

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    Shmuel Raz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developmental instability of shelled gastropods is measured as deviations from a perfect equiangular (logarithmic spiral. We studied six species of gastropods at 'Evolution Canyons I and II' in Carmel and the Galilee Mountains, Israel, respectively. The xeric, south-facing, 'African' slopes and the mesic, north-facing, 'European' slopes have dramatically different microclimates and plant communities. Moreover, 'Evolution Canyon II' receives more rainfall than 'Evolution Canyon I.' METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined fluctuating asymmetry, rate of whorl expansion, shell height, and number of rotations of the body suture in six species of terrestrial snails from the two 'Evolution Canyons.' The xeric 'African' slope should be more stressful to land snails than the 'European' slope, and 'Evolution Canyon I' should be more stressful than 'Evolution Canyon II.' Only Eopolita protensa jebusitica showed marginally significant differences in fluctuating helical asymmetry between the two slopes. Contrary to expectations, asymmetry was marginally greater on the 'European' slope. Shells of Levantina spiriplana caesareana at 'Evolution Canyon I,' were smaller and more asymmetric than those at 'Evolution Canyon II.' Moreover, shell height and number of rotations of the suture were greater on the north-facing slopes of both canyons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data is consistent with a trade-off between drought resistance and thermoregulation in snails; Levantina was significantly smaller on the 'African' slope, for increasing surface area and thermoregulation, while Eopolita was larger on the 'African' slope, for reducing water evaporation. In addition, 'Evolution Canyon I' was more stressful than Evolution Canyon II' for Levantina.

  2. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

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    Abraham Breure

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837.The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston, 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus ( Drymaeus tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus ziczac da Costa, 1898.The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847.New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837; Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835; Drymaeus (Drymaeus lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855; Drymaeus (Drymaeus trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844; Drymaeus (Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (K. culmineus edwardsi (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (K. gayi (Pfeiffer, 1857; Kuschelenia (K. tupacii (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus aquilus (Reeve, 1848; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus caliginosus (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus ochracea (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus purpuratus (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus quechuarum (Crawford, 1939; Naesiotus cinereus (Reeve, 1849; Naesiotus dentritis (Morelet, 1863; Naesiotus fontainii (d’Orbigny, 1838; Naesiotus orbignyi (Pfeiffer, 1846; Protoglyptus pilosus (Guppy, 1871; Protoglyptus sanctaeluciae (E.A. Smith, 1889.Type material of the following taxa is figured herein for the first time: Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus coriaceus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimulus laxostylus Rolle, 1904; Bulimus pliculatus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus simpliculus Pfeiffer, 1855.

  3. Imposex induction in Stramonita haemastoma floridana (Conrad, 1837 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Muricidae submitted to an organotin-contaminated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernandes Alves de Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are affected by organotin compounds due to the cumulative, deleterious effects of these latter. The most evident and well known consequence of organotin contamination is imposex, a hormonal disruption that causes a superimposition of sexual male features in females of prosobranchia neogastropod molluscs such as Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Molluscs accumulate organotins mainly because of their poor ability to eliminate TBT and DBT from their tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze organotin uptake by ingestion experimentally, using uncontaminated subjects (S. haemastoma floridana fed with organotin-contaminated oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae. A total of 248 gastropods, distributed in 7 tanks with uncontaminated water and contaminated food, were used in this study, a control group being fed uncontaminated oysters. Every 15 days, the individuals of one of the tanks were examined for the presence of imposex. Development of imposex was measured using the VDSI, RPSI and RPLI indexes. The animals had already developed imposex within the first 15 days, all the indexes measured (RPLI, RPSI and VDSI having increased significantly with duration of exposure, indicating that the animals were probablycontaminated by the food and had accumulated the pollutant. New paths of imposex development were also observed.Organismos marinhos são afetados por compostos organoestânicos que causam uma série de efeitos deletérios aos mesmos. O mais conhecido efeito da contaminação por organoestânicos é o imposex. Esse fenômeno consiste na masculinização de fêmeas de moluscos neogastrópodes tais como Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Esses compostos tendem a se acumular em moluscos devido a sua baixa capacidade de eliminá-los. Um total de 248 indivíduos de S. haemastoma floridana foram coletados de uma população livre qualquer indício de imposex. Esses animais foram mantidos em 7 aquários, com aproximadamente 30 indivíduos cada, 1 desses aquários foi considerado como controle e os animas do mesmo alimentados com ostras obtidas de locais onde não se verificou a ocorrência de imposex em neogastrópodes nativos. Os animais nos outros 6 aquários foram alimentados com ostras obtidas em local onde a incidência de imposex entre os gastrópodes nativos revelou-se muito alta. A cada 15 dias, por um período total de 90 dias, os animais de um dos tanques eram retirados e analisados quanto à presença de imposex. Os níveis de imposex foram quantificados através da % de imposex e dos índices: RPLI, RPSI e VDSI. Observou-se a indução de imposex em S. haemastoma floridana através da dieta a partir de Crassostrea rhizophora e um aumento significativo dos índices com o decorrer do tempo de exposição. Os animais do aquário controle foram analisados ao fim do experimento não revelando qualquer indício de imposex.

  4. Developmental toxicity of metaldehyde in the embryos of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) co-exposed to the synergist piperonyl butoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Katrina C; Atfield, Andrew; Comber, Sean; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2016-02-01

    Metaldehyde is a widely used molluscicide in countries where damage to crops from slugs and snails is a major problem associated with warm and wet winters. In the UK it is estimated that over 8% of the area covered by arable crops is treated with formulated granular bait pellets containing metaldehyde as the main active ingredient. Metaldehyde is hydrophilic (log Kow=0.12), water soluble (200 mg·L(-1) at 17 °C) and has been detected in UK surface waters in the concentration range of typically 0.2-0.6 μg·L(-1) (maximum 2.7 μg·L(-1)) during 2008-2011. In the absence of chronic data on potential hazards to non-target freshwater molluscs, a laboratory study was conducted to investigate the impact of metaldehyde on embryo development in the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain) and using zinc as a positive control. L. stagnalis embryos were exposed to metaldehyde under semi-static conditions at 20±1 °C and hatching success and growth (measured as shell height and intraocular distance) examined after 21 d. Exposure concentrations were verified using HPLC and gave 21 d (hatching)NOEC and (hatching)LOEC mean measured values of 36 and 116 mg MET·L(-1), respectively (equal to the 21 d (shell height)NOEC and (shell height)LOEC values). For basic research purposes, a second group of L. stagnalis embryos was co-exposed to metaldehyde and the pesticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Co-exposure to the PBO (measured concentrations between 0.47-0.56 mg·L(-1)) reduced hatching success from 100% to 47% and resulted in a 30% reduction in embryo growth (shell height) in snail embryos co-exposed to metaldehyde at 34-36 mg·L(-1) over 21 d. In conclusion, these data suggest mollusc embryos may have some metabolic detoxication capacity for metaldehyde and further work is warranted to explore this aspect in order to support the recent initiative to include molluscs in the OECD test guideline programme. PMID:26575636

  5. Hoenselaaria, a new genus with the description of a new species (Gastropoda: Eulimidae) from the Indo-Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Moolenbeek, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The type species of the genus Microstilifer, Stilifer auricula Hedley, 1907 is a rather common, but minute, Indo-Pacific micromollusc that needs a new generic and specific name due to misinterpretation of its identity. The genus Hoenselaaria new genus is introduced with its type species Hoenselaaria wareni new species. This species occurs nearly all over the tropical Indo-Pacific but it has been overlooked until now probably due to its extremely small size.

  6. Hoenselaaria, a new genus with the description of a new species (Gastropoda: Eulimidae) from the Indo-Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Moolenbeek

    2009-01-01

    The type species of the genus Microstilifer, Stilifer auricula Hedley, 1907 is a rather common, but minute, Indo-Pacific micromollusc that needs a new generic and specific name due to misinterpretation of its identity. The genus Hoenselaaria new genus is introduced with its type species Hoenselaaria

  7. Effects of parasitism and environment on shell size of the South American intertidal mud snail Heleobia australis (Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Pilar; Bonel, Nicolás; Cazzaniga, Néstor J.; Martorelli, Sergio R.

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of parasitism and certain environmental factors on the shell size of Heleobia australis (Hydrobiidae, Cochliopinae). We report sporocysts and metacercariae of Microphallus simillimus (Microphallidae, Trematoda) parasitizing the gonad and digestive gland of H. australis specimens from two sites of Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher (34.17% in winter and 68.14% in late spring) in snails from the outer estuary at Site 2 than in those from the inner estuary at Site 1 (5.88% and 4.71% respectively). The only known definitive host for this digenean is the white-backed stilt Himantopus melanurus (Recurvirostridae, Aves), most abundant in the estuary during winter. Parasitism by M. simillimus causes variations in the shell dimensions of H. australis, the shells of infected snails being narrower than those of uninfected snails. Snails from Site 2 were found in general to be significantly smaller than those at Site 1, possibly as a result of differences in environmental factors such as the degree of exposure to wave energy, the allocation of energy to reproduction rather than growth (induced by predation and/or parasitic castrators) and anthropogenic stressors.

  8. Actividad molusquicida in vitro de Momordica charantia L. (¨Cundeamor¨ contra Fossaria cubensis (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez Fernández, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENObjetivo: determinar las perspectivas del uso del jugo vegetal extraído de Momordica charantia L. (Cundeamor, en el control de Fossaria cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 principal hospedero de Fasciola hepatica en Cuba.ABSTRACTTo determine the perspectives the use of the juice extracted from the Momordica charantia L.

  9. Philinidae, Laonidae and Philinorbidae (Gastropoda: Cephalaspidea: Philinoidea) from the northeastern Pacific Ocean and the Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Ángel; Cadien, Donald B; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2016-01-01

    Based on morphological data a total of nine native species of Philinidae are recognized from the northeastern Pacific including the Bering Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean (Beaufort Sea). Four of them have been previously described: Philine ornatissima Yokoyama, 1927, Philine bakeri Dall, 1919, Philine polystrigma (Dall, 1908), and Philine hemphilli Dall, 1919. Five of them are new and described herein: Philine mcleani sp. nov., Philine baxteri sp. nov., Philine malaquiasi sp. nov., Philine wareni sp. nov., and Philine harrisae sp. nov. These species display a substantial degree of variation in internal and external morphological traits (i.e., presence/absence of gizzard plates, different radular structure and tooth morphology, various reproductive anatomical features) and it is likely that they belong to different clades (genera). However, in the absence of a comprehensive phylogeny for Philine, they are here provisionally regarded as Philine sensu lato. In addition to the nine native species, two introduced species: Philine orientalis A. Adams, 1854 and Philine auriformis Suter, 1909 are here illustrated and compared to the native species to facilitate identification. Finally, two species previously considered members of Philinidae are examined anatomically and confirmed as members of Laonidae, Laona californica (Willett, 1944) and Philinorbidae, Philinorbis albus (Mattox, 1958), based on morphological data. PMID:27515632

  10. Revision of Partulidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) of Palau, with description of a new genus for an unusual ground-dwelling species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapcinsky, John; Kraus, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new stylommatophoran land snail of the family Partulidae from Palau. The new species has a combination of morphological and ecological characters that do not allow its placement in any existing partulid genus, so we describe a new genus for it. The new genus is characterized by a large (18–23 mm) obese-pupoid shell; smooth protoconch; teleoconch with weak and inconsistent, progressively stronger, striae; last half of body whorl not extending beyond the penultimate whorl; widely expanded and reflexed peristome; relatively long penis, with longitudinal pilasters that fuse apically into a fleshy ridge that divides the main chamber from a small apical chamber; and vas deferens entering and penial-retractor muscle attaching at the apex of the penis. Unlike all other partulids, the new species is strictly associated with rocks in contact with the ground. Comparing the other three Palauan species – currently assigned to Partula – to our new genus and to other partulids makes it clear that they require their own genus because their morphology is quite different from that of true Partula and from that of all other genera. Hence, we resurrect the name Palaopartula Pilsbry for these snails. PMID:27667931

  11. The ibero-balearic region: one of the areas of highest Hydrobiidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Rissooidea diversity in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arconada, Beatriz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The prosobranch mollusc family Hydrobiidae Troschel, 1857 has a cosmopolitan distribution and is made up of small to minute species that inhabit permanent aquatic ecosystems. It is one of the largest families within the superfamily Rissooidea. The evolutionary relationships between members of this family are still unclear due to: 1 insufficient available information regarding the morphological characters of many of the described taxa, 2 uncertainty concerning which morphological characters are of greatest taxonomic and phylogenetic interest, and 3 the rare use of molecular characters to study evolutionary relationships. In this work, we examine the reasons for the confusing systematics of hydrobiids. We include a diagnosis of the 13 genera and a list of the 43 species described and accepted to date for the Ibero-balearic region, along with data regarding their geographic distribution and a compilation of the most relevant bibliographical references. The Iberian Peninsula is one of the areas of greatest hydrobiid diversity in Europe, and has a large number of endemic genera and species in addition to those that have a typically circummediterranean distribution. Numerous hydrobiid species and populations are threatened, and in some cases, in danger of extinction due to the fragile nature of many of the ecosystems they inhabit.

    La familia Hydrobiidae Troschel, 1857 de moluscos prosobranquios, tiene distribución cosmopolita y está constituida por especies de tamaño pequeño (o incluso diminuto que habitan ecosistemas acuáticos permanentes. Se trata de una de las familias con mayor número de especies de la superfamilia Rissooidea. Las relaciones evolutivas entre los miembros de esta familia son aún confusas debido a: (1 la insuficiente información disponible sobre los caracteres morfológicos de muchos de los táxones descritos, (2 la indefinición de los caracteres morfológicos de interés taxonómico y filogenético, y (3 la escasa aplicación de los caracteres moleculares para este fin. En este trabajo se revisa la confusa sistemática de los hidróbidos y sus causas. Además, se incluye una diagnosis de los 13 géneros y un listado de las 43 especies hasta ahora descritas y aceptadas en el ámbito ibero-balear, con datos sobre su distribución geográfica y la bibliografía más relevante. Se constata que la Península Ibérica constituye una de las áreas de mayor diversidad de hidróbidos en Europa, conteniendo un alto número de géneros y especies endémicos a los que se añaden otros de distribución circunmediterránea. La fragilidad de muchos de los ecosistemas en los que viven hace que muchas de sus especies y/o poblaciones se hallen amenazadas e incluso en peligro de extinción.

  12. Developmental toxicity of metaldehyde in the embryos of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) co-exposed to the synergist piperonyl butoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Katrina C; Atfield, Andrew; Comber, Sean; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2016-02-01

    Metaldehyde is a widely used molluscicide in countries where damage to crops from slugs and snails is a major problem associated with warm and wet winters. In the UK it is estimated that over 8% of the area covered by arable crops is treated with formulated granular bait pellets containing metaldehyde as the main active ingredient. Metaldehyde is hydrophilic (log Kow=0.12), water soluble (200 mg·L(-1) at 17 °C) and has been detected in UK surface waters in the concentration range of typically 0.2-0.6 μg·L(-1) (maximum 2.7 μg·L(-1)) during 2008-2011. In the absence of chronic data on potential hazards to non-target freshwater molluscs, a laboratory study was conducted to investigate the impact of metaldehyde on embryo development in the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain) and using zinc as a positive control. L. stagnalis embryos were exposed to metaldehyde under semi-static conditions at 20±1 °C and hatching success and growth (measured as shell height and intraocular distance) examined after 21 d. Exposure concentrations were verified using HPLC and gave 21 d (hatching)NOEC and (hatching)LOEC mean measured values of 36 and 116 mg MET·L(-1), respectively (equal to the 21 d (shell height)NOEC and (shell height)LOEC values). For basic research purposes, a second group of L. stagnalis embryos was co-exposed to metaldehyde and the pesticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Co-exposure to the PBO (measured concentrations between 0.47-0.56 mg·L(-1)) reduced hatching success from 100% to 47% and resulted in a 30% reduction in embryo growth (shell height) in snail embryos co-exposed to metaldehyde at 34-36 mg·L(-1) over 21 d. In conclusion, these data suggest mollusc embryos may have some metabolic detoxication capacity for metaldehyde and further work is warranted to explore this aspect in order to support the recent initiative to include molluscs in the OECD test guideline programme.

  13. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  14. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Askem, Clare; Azam, Didier; Brettschneider, Denise; Brown, Rebecca; Charles, Sandrine; Coke, Maïra; Collinet, Marc; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Forfait-Dubuc, Carole; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas; Jach, Arne; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lacoste, Cédric; Le Page, Gareth; Matthiessen, Peter; Oehlmann, Jörg; Rice, Lynsey; Roberts, Edward; Ruppert, Katharina; Davis, Jessica Elphinstone; Veauvy, Clemence; Weltje, Lennart; Wortham, Ruth; Lagadic, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    The OECD test guideline development program has been extended in 2011 to establish a partial life-cycle protocol for assessing the reproductive toxicity of chemicals to several mollusk species, including the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we summarize the standard draft protocol for a reproduction test with this species, and present inter-comparison results obtained in a 56-day prevalidation ring-test using this protocol. Seven European laboratories performed semi-static tests with cultured snails of the strain Renilys® exposed to nominal concentrations of cadmium chloride (from 53 to 608μgCdL(-1)). Cd concentrations in test solutions were analytically determined to confirm accuracy in the metal exposure concentrations in all laboratories. Physico-chemical and biological validity criteria (namely dissolved oxygen content >60% ASV, water temperature 20±1°C, control snail survival >80% and control snail fecundity >8 egg-masses per snail over the test period) were met in all laboratories which consistently demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of Cd in snails using the proposed draft protocol. Effect concentrations for fecundity after 56days were reproducible between laboratories (68test guidelines for invertebrates. The inter-laboratory reproducibility coefficient of variation (CV) for the Cd LC50-56d values was 8.19%. The inter-laboratory comparison of fecundity within the controls gave a CV of 29.12%, while exposure to Cd gave a CV of 25.49% based on the EC50-56d values. The OECD has acknowledged the success of this prevalidation exercise and a validation ring-test involving 14 laboratories in Europe, North- and South-America is currently being implemented using four chemicals (Cd, prochloraz, trenbolone and tributyltin).

  15. Philinidae, Laonidae and Philinorbidae (Gastropoda: Cephalaspidea: Philinoidea) from the northeastern Pacific Ocean and the Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Ángel; Cadien, Donald B; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2016-08-08

    Based on morphological data a total of nine native species of Philinidae are recognized from the northeastern Pacific including the Bering Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean (Beaufort Sea). Four of them have been previously described: Philine ornatissima Yokoyama, 1927, Philine bakeri Dall, 1919, Philine polystrigma (Dall, 1908), and Philine hemphilli Dall, 1919. Five of them are new and described herein: Philine mcleani sp. nov., Philine baxteri sp. nov., Philine malaquiasi sp. nov., Philine wareni sp. nov., and Philine harrisae sp. nov. These species display a substantial degree of variation in internal and external morphological traits (i.e., presence/absence of gizzard plates, different radular structure and tooth morphology, various reproductive anatomical features) and it is likely that they belong to different clades (genera). However, in the absence of a comprehensive phylogeny for Philine, they are here provisionally regarded as Philine sensu lato. In addition to the nine native species, two introduced species: Philine orientalis A. Adams, 1854 and Philine auriformis Suter, 1909 are here illustrated and compared to the native species to facilitate identification. Finally, two species previously considered members of Philinidae are examined anatomically and confirmed as members of Laonidae, Laona californica (Willett, 1944) and Philinorbidae, Philinorbis albus (Mattox, 1958), based on morphological data.

  16. Hemocyte-specific responses to the peroxidizing herbicide fomesafen in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Jacqueline [UMR 6553 Ecobio CNRS Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes cedex 35042 (France); Lefeuvre-Orfila, Luz [UMR 985 INRA-Agrocampus Ecobiologie et Qualite des Hydrosystemes Continentaux, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc CS 84215, F-35042 Rennes cedex 35042 (France); Lagadic, Laurent [UMR 985 INRA-Agrocampus Ecobiologie et Qualite des Hydrosystemes Continentaux, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc CS 84215, F-35042 Rennes cedex 35042 (France)]. E-mail: laurent.lagadic@rennes.inra.fr

    2007-03-15

    Responses of circulating hemocytes were studied in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to 10, 30, 90, and 270 {mu}g/L fomesafen for 24 and 504 h. Flow cytometry was used to quantify fomesafen-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phagocytic activity on Escherichia coli, and oxidative burst when hemocytes were challenged by E. coli or phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Lysosomal membrane damage was assessed, using the neutral-red retention time (NRRT) assay. Exposure to fomesafen for 24 h resulted in increase in ROS levels and decreases in phagocytosis and the oxidative burst in PMA-stimulated hemocytes. After 504 h, intracellular levels of ROS returned to normal, but phagocytosis of E. coli was still inhibited and the associated oxidative burst significantly reduced. After both durations of exposure, decreases of NRRT indicated that lysosome membrane fragility increased with fomesafen concentration. Potential implications for the health and survival of the snails and consequences on populations are discussed. - Fomesafen inhibited phagocytosis and the associated oxidative burst, and increased lysosome fragility in L. stagnalis hemocytes.

  17. Observations on Neotricula aperta (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae population densities in Thailand and central Laos: implications for the spread of Mekong schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attwood Stephen W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The snail Neotricula aperta transmits Mekong schistosomiasis in southern Laos and Cambodia, with about 1.5 million people at risk of infection. Plans are under consideration for at least 12 hydroelectric power dams on the lower Mekong river and much controversy surrounds predictions of their environmental impacts. Unfortunately, there are almost no ecological data (such as long term population trend studies available for N. aperta which could be used in impact assessment. Predictions currently assume that the impacts will be the same as those observed in Africa (i.e., a worsening of the schistosomiasis problem; however, marked ecological differences between the snails involved suggest that region specific models are required. The present study was performed as an initial step in providing data, which could be useful in the planning of water resource development in the Mekong. Snail population density records were analyzed for populations close to, and far downstream of, the Nam Theun 2 (NT2 project in Laos in order to detect any changes that might be attributable to impoundment. Results The population immediately downstream of NT2 and that sampled 400 km downstream in Thailand both showed a long term trend of slow growth from 1992 to 2005; however, both populations showed a marked decline in density between 2005 and 2011. The decline in Thailand was to a value significantly lower than that predicted by a linear mixed model for the data, whilst the population density close to NT2 fell to undetectable levels in 2011 from densities of over 5000 m-2 in 2005. The NT2 dam began operation in 2010. Conclusions The impact of the NT2 dam on N. aperta population density could be more complex than first thought and may reflect the strict ecological requirements of this snail. There was no indication that responses of N. aperta populations to dam construction are similar to those observed with Bulinus and Schistosoma haematobium in Africa, for example. In view of the present findings, more ecological data (in particular population density monitoring and surveillance for new habitats are urgently required in order to understand properly the likely impacts of water resource development on Mekong schistosomiasis.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Haliotis laevigata (Gastropoda: Haliotidae) using MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nick A; Hall, Nathan E; Ross, Elizabeth M; Cooke, Ira R; Shiel, Brett P; Robinson, Andrew J; Strugnell, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, is reported. MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing of one individual was assembled to yield a single 16,545 bp contig. The sequence shares 92% identity to the H. rubra mitochondrial genome (a closely related species that hybridize with H. laevigata in the wild). The sequence will be useful for determining the maternal contribution to hybrid populations, for investigating population structure and stock-enhancement effectiveness.

  19. Subgeneric division of the genus Orcula Held 1837 with remarks on Romanian orculid data (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orculidae

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    Barna Pall-Gergely

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The genital anatomy of Orcula jetschini (Romania, O. zilchi (Bulgaria and O. wagneri (Albania is described. Based on anatomical features (morphology of the penial caecum, shell characters (sculpture and shape and unpublished molecular data, the genus Orcula is subdivided into three subgenera. O. zilchi was classified within the monotypic subgenus Orcula (Hausdorfia subgen. n.; O. jetschini, O. wagneri and O. schmidtii were classified to Orcula (Illyriobanatica subgen. n. (type species: Pupa Schmidtii, whereas the other Orcula species remain in the nominotypical subgenus. Orcula (Hausdorfia is known from South-Eastern Bulgaria and North-Western Turkey, Orcula (Illyriobanatica inhabits Western Romania, North-Western Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo and Montenegro. The nine species of Orcula (Orcula are known mainly from the Alps and the Western Carpathians (from Eastern France to Eastern Hungary and Slovakia.The occurrence of only one Orcula species, namely O. jetschini is verified from Romania. Available information suggests that data on the Romanian occurrence of Orcula dolium and O. gularis were based on wrongly identified specimens. Sphyradium dobrogicum (=Orcula dobrogica is considered as a synonym of S. doliolum.

  20. No evidence for a culturable bacterial tetrodotoxin producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvitti, Lauren R; Wood, Susanna A; McNabb, Paul; Cary, Stephen Craig

    2015-02-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin found in the tissues of many taxonomically diverse organisms. Its origin has been the topic of much debate, with suggestions including endogenous production, acquisition through diet, and symbiotic bacterial synthesis. Bacterial production of TTX has been reported in isolates from marine biota, but at lower than expected concentrations. In this study, 102 strains were isolated from Pleurobranchaea maculata (Opisthobranchia) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes). Tetrodotoxin production was tested utilizing a recently developed sensitive method to detect the C9 base of TTX via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bacterial strains were characterized by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. To account for the possibility that TTX is produced by a consortium of bacteria, a series of experiments using marine broth spiked with various P. maculata tissues were undertaken. Sixteen unique strains from P. maculata and one from Stylochoplana sp. were isolated, representing eight different genera; Pseudomonadales, Actinomycetales, Oceanospirillales, Thiotrichales, Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, and Vibrionales. Molecular fingerprinting of bacterial communities from broth experiments showed little change over the first four days. No C9 base or TTX was detected in isolates or broth experiments (past day 0), suggesting a culturable microbial source of TTX in P. maculata and Stylochoplana sp. is unlikely. PMID:25635464

  1. Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda) - more than just slimy slugs. Shell reduction and its implications on defence and foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wägele, Heike; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2005-02-16

    BACKGROUND: In general shell-less slugs are considered to be slimy animals with a rather dull appearance and a pest to garden plants. But marine slugs usually are beautifully coloured animals belonging to the less-known Opisthobranchia. They are characterized by a large array of interesting biological phenomena, usually related to foraging and/or defence. In this paper our knowledge of shell reduction, correlated with the evolution of different defensive and foraging strategies is reviewed, and new results on histology of different glandular systems are included. RESULTS: Based on a phylogeny obtained by morphological and histological data, the parallel reduction of the shell within the different groups is outlined. Major food sources are given and glandular structures are described as possible defensive structures in the external epithelia, and as internal glands. CONCLUSION: According to phylogenetic analyses, the reduction of the shell correlates with the evolution of defensive strategies. Many different kinds of defence structures, like cleptocnides, mantle dermal formations (MDFs), and acid glands, are only present in shell-less slugs. In several cases, it is not clear whether the defensive devices were a prerequisite for the reduction of the shell, or reduction occurred before. Reduction of the shell and acquisition of different defensive structures had an implication on exploration of new food sources and therefore likely enhanced adaptive radiation of several groups. PMID:15715915

  2. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-07-01

    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmission electron microscopy. Within the scope of the present study we investigated the myogenesis of premetamorphic, metamorphic, and juvenile developmental stages of the anaspidean opisthobranch Aplysia californica using fluorescence F-actin-labeling in conjunction with modern confocal laser scanning microscopy. We categorized muscles with respect to their differentiation and degeneration and found three true larval muscles that differentiate during the embryonic and veliger phase and degenerate during or slightly after metamorphosis. These are the larval retractor, the accessory larval retractor, and the metapodial retractor muscle. While the pedal retractor muscle, some transversal mantle fibers and major portions of the cephalopedal musculature are continued and elaborated during juvenile and adult life, the buccal musculature and the anterior retractor muscle constitute juvenile/adult muscles which differentiate during or after metamorphosis. The metapodial retractor muscle has never been reported for any other gastropod taxon. Our findings indicate that the late veliger larva of A. californica shares some common traits with veligers of other gastropods, such as a larval retractor muscle. However, the postmetamorphic stages exhibit only few congruencies with other gastropod taxa investigated to date, which is probably due to common larval but different adult life styles within gastropods. Accordingly, this study provides further evidence for morphological plasticity in gastropod myogenesis and stresses the importance of ontogenetic approaches to understand adult conditions and life history patterns. PMID:18157859

  3. Digestive system of the sacoglossan Plakobranchus ocellatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia): light- and electron-microscopic observations with remarks on chloroplast retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Euichi

    2005-08-01

    The sacoglossan Plakobranchus ocellatus feeds by sucking the cytoplasmic contents from algae and retains intact algal chloroplasts within the cells of the digestive gland. Morphology of the entire digestive system of this species was firstly described by means of a combination of histology and electron microscopy (both SEM and TEM). The short alimentary canal is confined to the head, and the anus opens at the anterior right corner of the pericardial swelling, as is the case in many non-shelled sacoglossans. The alimentary canal of the specimens examined rarely contained ingesta, suggesting that the retained chloroplasts provide sufficient nourishment to the sacoglossan hosts and that sea slugs with empty stomachs survive well in the field. The digestive gland, with the retained chloroplasts, branches from the stomach and is sparsely distributed throughout the body, including the head region, but is aggregated mainly in the dorsal lamellae. Chloroplasts were occasionally found in the epithelial cells in the transitional region from the stomach wall to the digestive gland, which may be a site at which chloroplasts are incorporated into the animal cells by endocytosis. Numerous microvilli filling the lumen of the digestive gland suggest that molecules are actively transferred within the gland. The sea slug thus apparently provides a favorable environment to support the long-term retention and function of chloroplasts. PMID:16141704

  4. Initial results on the molecular phylogeny of the Nudibranchia (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) based on 18S rDNA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollscheid, E; Wägele, H

    1999-11-01

    This study investigated nudibranch phylogeny on the basis of 18S rDNA sequence data. 18S rDNA sequence data of 19 taxa representing the major living orders and families of the Nudibranchia were analyzed. Representatives of the Cephalaspidea, Anaspidea, Gymnomorpha, Prosobranchia, and Pulmonata were also sequenced and used as outgroups. An additional 28 gastropod sequences taken from GenBank were also included in our analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of these more than 50 gastropod taxa provide strong evidence for support of the monophyly of the Nudibranchia. The monophyly of the Doridoidea, Cladobranchia, and Aeolidoidea within the Nudibranchia are also strongly supported. Phylogenetic utility and information content of the 18S rDNA sequences for Nudibranchia, and Opisthobranchia in general, are examined using the program SplitsTree as well as phylogenetic reconstructions using distance and parsimony approaches. 0Results based on these molecular data are compared with hypotheses about nudibranch phylogeny inferred from morphological data. PMID:10603252

  5. mtDNA ribosomal gene phylogeny of sea hares in the genus Aplysia (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Anaspidea): Implications for comparative neurobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Timothy M.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2000-08-10

    Sea hares within the genus Aplysia are important neurobiological model organisms, and as studies based on different Aplysia species appear in the literature, a phylogenetic framework has become essential. We present a phylogenetic hypothesis for this genus, based on portions of two mitochondrial genes (12S and 16S). In addition, we reconstruct the evolution of several behavioral characters of interest to neurobiologists in order to illustrate the potential benefits of a phylogeny for the genus Aplysia. These benefits include the determination of ancestral traits, the direction and timing of evolution of characters, prediction of the distribution of traits, and identification of cases of independent acquisition of traits within lineages. This last benefit may prove especially useful in understanding the linkage between behaviors and their underlying neurological basis.

  6. No Evidence for a Culturable Bacterial Tetrodotoxin Producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren R. Salvitti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a potent neurotoxin found in the tissues of many taxonomically diverse organisms. Its origin has been the topic of much debate, with suggestions including endogenous production, acquisition through diet, and symbiotic bacterial synthesis. Bacterial production of TTX has been reported in isolates from marine biota, but at lower than expected concentrations. In this study, 102 strains were isolated from Pleurobranchaea maculata (Opisthobranchia and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes. Tetrodotoxin production was tested utilizing a recently developed sensitive method to detect the C9 base of TTX via liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry. Bacterial strains were characterized by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. To account for the possibility that TTX is produced by a consortium of bacteria, a series of experiments using marine broth spiked with various P. maculata tissues were undertaken. Sixteen unique strains from P. maculata and one from Stylochoplana sp. were isolated, representing eight different genera; Pseudomonadales, Actinomycetales, Oceanospirillales, Thiotrichales, Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, and Vibrionales. Molecular fingerprinting of bacterial communities from broth experiments showed little change over the first four days. No C9 base or TTX was detected in isolates or broth experiments (past day 0, suggesting a culturable microbial source of TTX in P. maculata and Stylochoplana sp. is unlikely.

  7. Analysis of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling during metamorphosis of the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae Bergh (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Cory D; Pires, Anthony; Norby, Shong-Wan; Boudko, Dmitri; Moroz, Leonid L; Hadfield, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    The gas nitric oxide (NO), and in some cases its downstream second messenger, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) function in different taxa to regulate the timing of life-history transitions. Increased taxonomic sampling is required to foster conclusions about the evolution and function of NO/cGMP signaling during life-history transitions. We report on the function and localization of NO and cGMP signaling during metamorphosis of the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae. Pharmacological manipulation of NO or cGMP production in larvae modulated responses to a natural settlement cue from the coral Porites compressa in a manner that suggest inhibitory function for NO/cGMP signaling. However, these treatments were not sufficient to induce metamorphosis in the absence of cue, a result unique to this animal. We show that induction of metamorphosis in response to the settlement cue is associated with a reduction in NO production. We documented the expression of putative NO synthase (NOS) and the production of cGMP during larval development and observed no larval cells in which NOS and cGMP were both detected. The production of cGMP in a bilaterally symmetrical group of cells fated to occupy the distal tip of rhinophores is correlated with competence to respond to the coral settlement cue. These results suggest that endogenous NO and cGMP are involved in modulating responses of P. sibogae to a natural settlement cue. We discuss these results with respect to habitat selection and larval ecology. PMID:18460091

  8. mtDNA ribosomal gene phylogeny of sea hares in the genus Aplysia (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Anaspidea): implications for comparative neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, M; Collins, T M; Walsh, P J

    2001-01-01

    Sea hares within the genus Aplysia are important neurobiological model organisms; as more studies based on different Aplysia species are appearing in the literature, a phylogenetic framework has become essential. We present a phylogenetic hypothesis for this genus, based on portions of two mitochondrial genes (12S and 16S). In addition, we reconstruct the evolution of several behavioral characters of interest to neurobiologists to illustrate the potential benefits of a phylogeny for the genus Aplysia. These benefits include determination of ancestral traits, direction and timing of evolution of characters, prediction of the distribution of traits, and identification of cases of independent acquisition of traits within lineages. This last benefit may prove especially useful in understanding the linkage between behaviors and their underlying neurological bases. PMID:12116938

  9. Surviving the Messinian Salinity Crisis? Divergence patterns in the genus Dendropoma (Gastropoda: Vermetidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Marta; Alda, Fernando; Oliverio, Marco; Templado, José; Machordom, Annie

    2015-10-01

    Four genetically distinct clades were recently described under the name Dendropoma petraeum, a Mediterranean endemic vermetid gastropod. The aim of this work is to date the processes that drove to the diversification within this taxon and to relate them to the corresponding historical events occurred in the Mediterranean Sea. Sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear markers were obtained from specimens collected in 29 localities spanning over 4000km across the entire distribution range of D. petraeum species complex. The phylogenetic and coalescent-based analyses confirmed the four well-supported and largely differentiated lineages of D. petraeum, clearly delimited geographically along a west-east axis within the Mediterranean Sea: Western, Tyrrhenian-Sicilian, Ionian-Aegean and Levantine lineages. Divergence time estimates, obtained using a range of known substitution rates for other marine gastropods, indicated two main stages of diversification. In the first period (between 9.5 and 4.5mya), the ancestral D. petraeum diverged into the current four lineages. The most recent period occurred between 3.72 and 0.66mya in the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, and included the main within-lineage diversification events. Therefore, if the divergence time between the major lineages of Dendropoma in the Mediterranean actually predated or coincided with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, then they should have survived to this dramatic period within the Mediterranean, as supported by Bayes Factors model comparison. Conversely, if the divergence started after the crisis, congruent with the idea that no true marine organism survived the Messinian Salinity Crisis, then our results indicate substitution rates of Dendropoma much higher than usual (5.16% per million years for COI, 3.04% for 16S). More recent climate changes seem to have conditioned the demographic history of each lineage differently. While Western and Tyrrhenian-Sicilian lineages both underwent an increase in their effective population sizes from 1.5 to 0.6mya coinciding with a long interglacial period, the Ionian-Aegean and Levantine lineages showed constant effective population sizes since 2-2.5mya, suggesting that these eastern lineages might represent small and relict populations surviving the subsequent Quaternary glaciations in isolated refugia. PMID:26002830

  10. Cryptic species in tropic sands--interactive 3D anatomy, molecular phylogeny and evolution of meiofaunal Pseudunelidae (Gastropoda, Acochlidia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timea P Neusser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Towards realistic estimations of the diversity of marine animals, tiny meiofaunal species usually are underrepresented. Since the biological species concept is hardly applicable on exotic and elusive animals, it is even more important to apply a morphospecies concept on the best level of information possible, using accurate and efficient methodology such as 3D modelling from histological sections. Molecular approaches such as sequence analyses may reveal further, cryptic species. This is the first case study on meiofaunal gastropods to test diversity estimations from traditional taxonomy against results from modern microanatomical methodology and molecular systematics. RESULTS: The examined meiofaunal Pseudunela specimens from several Indo-Pacific islands cannot be distinguished by external features. Their 3D microanatomy shows differences in the organ systems and allows for taxonomic separation in some cases. Additional molecular analyses based on partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and 16S rRNA markers revealed considerable genetic structure that is largely congruent with anatomical or geographical patterns. Two new species (Pseudunela viatoris and P. marteli spp. nov. are formally described integrating morphological and genetic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis using partial 16S rRNA, COI and the nuclear 18S rRNA markers shows a clade of Pseudunelidae species as the sister group to limnic Acochlidiidae. Within Pseudunela, two subtypes of complex excretory systems occur. A complex kidney already evolved in the ancestor of Hedylopsacea. Several habitat shifts occurred during hedylopsacean evolution. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptic species occur in tropical meiofaunal Pseudunela gastropods, and likely in other meiofaunal groups with poor dispersal abilities, boosting current diversity estimations. Only a combined 3D microanatomical and molecular approach revealed actual species diversity within Pseudunela reliably. Such integrative methods are recommended for all taxonomic approaches and biodiversity surveys on soft-bodied and small-sized invertebrates. With increasing taxon sampling and details studied, the evolution of acochlidian panpulmonates is even more complex than expected.

  11. Thais (Stramonita rustica (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thaididae, a potential bioindicator of contamination by organotin northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antifouling paints containing the biocide compound tributyltin (TBT has been shown as an inductor of imposex in neogastropods mollusks. Imposex is characterized by the development of male features in females, mainly the appearance of a no functional vas deferens and penis. Samples of Thais rustica were collected in eight sites in the metropolitan area of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast Brazil, and examined for occurrence of imposex, which was found in many females. The higher imposex levels were presented by samples from sites near city harbor.A utilização de tintas antiincrustrantes contendo o composto biocida tributilestanho (TBT tem induzido moluscos neogastrópodes ao imposex. O imposex é caracterizado pelo surgimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos, sobretudo, pênis e vaso deferente não funcionais em fêmeas desses moluscos. Foram coletadas amostras de Thais rústica em oito estações ao longo da costa da cidade de Natal no Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais foram analisados quanto a presença e o grau de imposex que apresentavam. Os níveis mais elevados de imposex foram observados na estação mais próxima ao porto.

  12. A new member of troglobitic Carychiidae, Koreozospeum nodongense gen. et sp. n. (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea is described from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Jochum

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of troglobitic Carychiidae Jeffreys, 1830 is designated from Nodong Cave, North Chungcheong Province, Danyang, South Korea. This remarkable find represents a great range extension and thus, a highly distant distribution of troglobitic Carychiidae in Asia. The Zospeum-like, carychiid snails were recently included, without a formal description, in records documenting Korean malacofauna. The present paper describes Koreozospeum Jochum & Prozorova, gen. n. and illustrates the type species, K. nodongense Lee, Prozorova & Jochum, sp. n. using novel Nano-CT images, including a video, internal shell morphology, SEM and SEM-EDX elemental compositional analysis of the shell.

  13. Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae; Gastropoda) populations in the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya show extreme nuclear genetic differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyakaana, Silvester; Stothard, J. Russell; Nalugwa, Allen;

    2013-01-01

    and quantified using FST statistics and Bayesian clustering algorithms. The four loci used in this study contained sufficient statistical power to detect low levels of population genetic differentiation and were highly polymorphic with the number of alleles per locus across populations ranging from 16 to 22...

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Considerations on food safety and source investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Dimartino, Angela; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in wild specimens of Haliotis tuberculata from three sites of the Sothern Ionian Sea. The species Ht is commonly found at these sites and has significant commercial value. Main results revealed mean values of benzo(a)pyrene higher than the threshold set by Regulation No. 835/2011/EU in all sampling sites and the sum of selected PAHs, expressed as ΣPAH4 by EC Regulation, were below the limit set by the same Regulation in ME and VSG. We found generally higher concentrations than literature finding, especially for low molecular weight PAHs, and results of diagnostic ratios highlighted both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. The potential human health risks due consumption of Ht by local inhabitants have been assessed by exposure daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ) and lifetime cancer risk (CR). EDI values were below the intake range reviewed by EFSA for each class of contaminant. BaP daily intake was below the value of 10 ng/Kg/day, suggested by JFCFA, and CRBaP was slightly higher than the acceptable risk level (ARL) of 1×10(-5). Conversely, target hazard quotient (THQ) resulted always below 1, thus the risk to develop chronic systemic effects due naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene was low. PMID:27235950

  15. [Genetic diversity in two populations of the snail Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) from Yucatan, Mexico, using microsatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; García de León, Francisco J; Tello Cetina, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    The pink conch Strombus gigas is an important fisheries resource in the Caribbean region, including the Yucatán Peninsula. We analyzed the genetic diversity and genetic structure of two populations (Alacranes Reef and Chinchorro Bank) with the use of five microsatellite molecular markers. The results indicate that the two populations are in the same rank of genetic diversity (He), from 0.613 to 0.692. Significant deviation from H-WE was observed in the both populations due to deficit to heterozygotes, this was attributed to inbreeding as a consequence of over-fishing; nevertheless, other possible causes considered are mixing of individuals from two or more populations, and the existence of null alleles. Levels of genetic differentiation indicated the existence of a single homogenous population in the Yucatan Peninsula (F(ST) de 0.003, p = 0.49), which fits with highest levels of gene flow is significant (2.3 individuals) between both populations. Results from this study support the hypothesis that S. gigas is part of a single panmictic population in the Yucatan Peninsula; therefore, this fishery resource should be regulated the same way for both areas. PMID:22017119

  16. Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cob, Zaidi Che; Arshad, Aziz; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan

    2011-07-01

    Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals. The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Straits, Malaysia. A total of 32.81% of adult females showed imposex characteristics, with varying degrees of severity though. The relative penis size (RPS) index ranged from 1.74 to 33.29 (mean = 13.40 ± 2.27, n = 21), while the relative penis length (RPL) index ranged from 6.28 to 55.19 (mean = 25.83 ± 3.33, n = 21). The use of vas deferens sequence (VDS) index was however cannot be applied as the presence of egg groove obscured any vas deferens development in affected females. Sequence of imposex (male penis) development in female conch, from merely a small stump to an advance male penis homologous was therefore carefully analyzed and described, and an alternative imposex classification scheme was proposed. S. canarium can be a good indicator for monitoring of organotin pollution within the study area. However, more studies are needed in order to further develop and test its validity and application, such as its correlation with levels of pollutant within the tissues and the environment, as well as its application on other Strombus species. PMID:20824325

  17. The marine Mollusca of the Kendeng Beds (East Java) Gastropoda Part V (Families Muricidae — Volemidae inclusive)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1950-01-01

    Part IV of this monograph was published in volume 12 of this Journal, pp. 89—120, 1942. Since 1941 the author can devote only a small part of his time to these investigations. This fact, and the shortness of paper available for scientific publications, made him decide to alter the way of publication

  18. Impacts of Urbanization on the Biodiversity of the Imperiled Snail Fauna (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia: Pleuroceridae) of the Cahaba River, Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley-Jordan, L.; Huryn, A.

    2005-05-01

    The conservation of the Pleuroceridae is of concern in the Mobile River Basin (MRB) since 31 of 38 extinct gastropod species from this drainage are pleurocerids. The fauna of the Cahaba River, as a global hot-spot for pleurocerid diversity, is of particular concern. Its flow is not regulated by dams, so its fauna has not been affected by habitat alteration due to impoundment like other major MRB tributaries. Ongoing urbanization within its watershed, however, is expected to have consequences for its snail fauna. A 1993 survey documented 23 pleurocerid species among 109 sites in the drainage. Changes in land cover from 1992 to 2004 were quantified for 10 of these. Five sites showed a 13-36% increase in urban land-cover; five showed no change. Elimia cahawbensis, E. carinifera, E. carinocostata, E. clara and Pleurocera vestita occurred among these sites during 1993 (S= 0-4 spp./site). A comparison of species occurrence in 1992 and 2005 showed no change in S at 6 sites, while three lost 1 species, and one lost 3 species. Reductions in S were not correlated with changes in land cover, however. Factors not directly correlated with urbanization may thus be contributing to losses of snail diversity in the MRB.

  19. Bioindicator Thais carinifera (mollusca, gastropoda: imposex response and consequences along the Pakistan coast during the period from 1993 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Afsar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endocrine mediated "imposex" phenomenon was investigated and recorded in the muricoid gastropod species Thais carinifera during the two decades from 1993 to 2012 at three (3 sites out of six (6 localities investigated along the Sindh and Balochistan coast, Pakistan. The VDS stages 1 to 4 were apparent in Thais carinifera. The intensity of imposex has remained comparatively low in the populations of harbours in close proximity to port Mohammad Bin-Qasim, namely; Old Korangi Fish Harbour (OKFH and New Korangi Fish Harbour (NKFH where shipping activities are sporadic as compared to those in Manora Channel and the adjoining Karachi Port area where intensive shipping activity is rather frequent. Target species found to be good bioindicators have shown a marked decrease over the prolonged study period. Investigations show that this decrease is solely due to globally imposed effective bans on tributyltin (TBT based antifouling paints over the past decade.

  20. Sibynomorphus neuwiedi (Ihering, 1911 (Serpentes; Dipsadidae and Potamojanuarius lamellatus (Semper, 1885 (Gastropoda; Veronicellidae: a trophic relationship revealed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Maia-Carneiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dispsadidae serpents from the genus Sibynomorphus are restricted to South America and include twelve species currently known, which occur in Brazil, Argentina, Peru, and Ecuador. Sibynomorphus neuwiedi is a species endemic to forested areas of the Atlantic Rainforest biome, and it is specialized in eating gastropods. Eight adult individuals of S. neuwiedi were collected between April 1998 and June 2003 at the surroundings of the Vila dos Dois Rios village (23°11’S, 44°12’W, in the Parque Estadual da Ilha Grande, in the municipality of Angra dos Reis, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In the laboratory, we dissected their stomachs for analysis of its contents. We found prey in four of them (50%, all represented by the slug Potamojanuarius lamellatus (Veronicellidae, and four individuals had empty stomach. The consumption of slugs from the Family Veronicellidae by serpents from the tribe Dipsadini has been reported, nevertheless, we report the occurrence of P. lamellatus in the diet of S. neuwiedi for the first time.

  1. Host and ecology both play a role in shaping distribution of digenean parasites of New Zealand whelks (Gastropoda: Buccinidae: Cominella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten M; Spencer, Hamish G

    2016-08-01

    Digenean parasites infecting four Cominella whelk species (C. glandiformis, C. adspersa, C. maculosa and C. virgata), which inhabit New Zealand's intertidal zone, were analysed using molecular techniques. Mitochondrial 16S and cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) and nuclear rDNA ITS1 sequences were used to infer phylogenetic relationships amongst digenea. Host species were parasitized by a diverse range of digenea (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda), representing seven families: Echinostomatidae, Opecoelidae, Microphallidae, Strigeidae and three, as yet, undetermined families A, B and C. Each parasite family infected between one and three host whelk species, and infection levels were typically low (average infection rates ranged from 1·4 to 3·6%). Host specificity ranged from highly species-specific amongst the echinostomes, which were only ever observed infecting C. glandiformis, to the more generalist opecoelids and strigeids, which were capable of infecting three out of four of the Cominella species analysed. Digeneans displayed a highly variable geographic range; for example, echinostomes had a large geographic range stretching the length of New Zealand, from Northland to Otago, whereas Family B parasites were restricted to fairly small areas of the North Island. Our results add to a growing body of research identifying wide ranges in both host specificity and geographic range amongst intertidal, multi-host parasite systems. PMID:27278710

  2. Identification of two carbonic anhydrases in the mantle of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Gastropoda, Haliotidae): phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE Roy, Nathalie; Marie, Benjamin; Gaume, Béatrice; Guichard, Nathalie; Delgado, Sidney; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Sire, Jean-Yves; Marin, Frédéric

    2012-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) represent a diversified family of metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide. They are involved in a wide range of functions, among which is the formation of CaCO(3) skeletons in metazoans. In the shell-forming mantle tissues of mollusks, the location of the CA catalytic activity is elusive and gives birth to contradicting views. In the present paper, using the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a key model gastropod in biomineralization studies, we identified and characterized two CAs (htCA1 and htCA2) that are specific of the shell-forming mantle tissue. We analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. Combining various approaches, including proteomics, activity tests, and in silico analyses, we showed that htCA1 is secreted but is not incorporated in the organic matrix of the abalone shell and that htCA2 is transmembrane. Together with previous studies dealing with molluskan CAs, our findings suggest two possible modes of action for shell mineralization: the first mode applies to, for example, the bivalves Unio pictorum and Pinctada fucata, and involves a true CA activity in their shell matrix; the second mode corresponds to, for example, the European abalone, and does not include CA activity in the shell matrix. Our work provides new insight on the diversity of the extracellular macromolecular tools used for shell biomineralization study in mollusks.

  3. A new species of Haplosporidium Caullery & Mesnil, 1899 in the marine false limpet Siphonaria lessonii (Gastropoda: Siphonariidae) from Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, Cristián; Bagnato, Estefanía; Siddall, Mark; Cremonte, Florencia

    2014-05-01

    A new species of Haplosporidium Caullery & Mesnil, 1899 parasitising the pulmonate gastropod Siphonaria lessonii Blainville in Patagonia, Argentina, is described based on morphological (scanning and transmission electron microscopy) and sequence (small subunit ribosomal RNA gene) data. Different stages of sporulation were observed as infections disseminated in the digestive gland. Haplosporidium patagon n. sp. is characterised by oval or slightly subquadrate spores with an operculum that is ornamented with numerous short digitiform projections of regular height, perpendicular to and covering its outer surface. The operculum diameter is slightly larger than the apical diameter of the spore. Neither the immature nor mature spores showed any kind of projections of the exosporoplasm or of the spore wall. Regarding phylogenetic affinities, the new species was recovered as sister to an undescribed species of Haplosporidium Caullery & Mesnil, 1899 from the polychaete family Syllidae Grube from Japanese waters. The morphological characters (ornamentation of the operculum, spore wall structure, shape and size of spores, and the lack of spore wall projections) corroborate it as an as yet undescribed species of Haplosporidium and the first for the phylum in marine gastropods of South America. Siphonaria lessonii is the only known host to date.

  4. Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda – more than just slimy slugs. Shell reduction and its implications on defence and foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wägele Heike

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general shell-less slugs are considered to be slimy animals with a rather dull appearance and a pest to garden plants. But marine slugs usually are beautifully coloured animals belonging to the less-known Opisthobranchia. They are characterized by a large array of interesting biological phenomena, usually related to foraging and/or defence. In this paper our knowledge of shell reduction, correlated with the evolution of different defensive and foraging strategies is reviewed, and new results on histology of different glandular systems are included. Results Based on a phylogeny obtained by morphological and histological data, the parallel reduction of the shell within the different groups is outlined. Major food sources are given and glandular structures are described as possible defensive structures in the external epithelia, and as internal glands. Conclusion According to phylogenetic analyses, the reduction of the shell correlates with the evolution of defensive strategies. Many different kinds of defence structures, like cleptocnides, mantle dermal formations (MDFs, and acid glands, are only present in shell-less slugs. In several cases, it is not clear whether the defensive devices were a prerequisite for the reduction of the shell, or reduction occurred before. Reduction of the shell and acquisition of different defensive structures had an implication on exploration of new food sources and therefore likely enhanced adaptive radiation of several groups.

  5. Aberrant Forms of the Genus Clio Linnaeus, 1767, with a Review of the Genus Proclio Hubendick, 1951 (Gastropoda, Pteropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, S.v.d.

    1962-01-01

    The examination of two aberrant Pteropods collected during a trip with the whale factory-ship ”m.s. Willem Barendsz” led to the conclusion that they were animals in a resting stage. The histology and the anatomy of the totally aberrant soft parts was discussed. The shells of the specimens indicate t

  6. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. PMID:24099753

  7. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25259848

  8. Standardization of a Patella spp. (Mollusca, Gastropoda) embryo-larval bioassay and advantages of its use in marine ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sara; Fernández, Nuria; Ribeiro, Pedro A

    2016-05-01

    The use of three limpet species, Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, Patella depressa Pennant, 1777 and Patella ulyssiponensis Gmelin, 1791 as model organisms in marine ecotoxicology has been evaluated. Initial laboratory experiments were aimed to standardize a biological test with embryos and larvae of Patella spp, establishing the percentage of normal trochophore larvae as endpoint. Before conducting in vitro fertilization, oocytes must be maturated artificially by incubation in an alkaline solution; therefore, alkalinizing agent, pH and time of eggs alkalinization were evaluated. Moreover, time of sperm activation, optimum sperm and oocytes concentration during fertilization, gamete contact time, use of stirring during the fertilization, egg concentration and incubation temperature were examined. Minimum sample size per treatment was also estimated. Exposure of oocytes for 10min to FSW alkalinized with NH4OH at pH 9.0, the use of undiluted sperm pre-activated during 45min and a concentration of 200 oocytesmL(-1), a gamete-contact time of 180min and egg incubation at 18°C during 24h at a concentration of 80 eggsmL(-1) were the conditions allowing maximal embryo-larval development success. With an error of 0.05, a sampling size ≥320 allows a 95% confidence in the estimate. This Patella spp. acute bioassay fulfills a number of important a priori requirements to be used in ecotoxicological studies. Nevertheless, in vitro fertilization requires considerable handling, which may lead to failure in fecundation. Such difficulties are also addressed, in order to facilitate the routine use of this protocol by other laboratories.

  9. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-01-01

    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmissi...... the importance of ontogenetic approaches to understand adult conditions and life history patterns....

  10. The sudden appearance of Aeolidiella glauca (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) in lake Greveliningen (S.W. Netherlands) in 1983 and 1984

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.

    1985-01-01

    In 1983 and 1984 a population of the nudibranch Aeolidiella glauca (Alder & Hancock, 1845) was found in the saline Lake Grevelingen (S.W. Netherlands). The number of specimens observed exceeds by far the total number previously recorded from the Dutch coast. Field observations on food intake suggest

  11. Antimicrobial activities of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca:Gastropoda) from Thazhanguda, southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Periyasamy N; Srinivasan M; Balakrishnan S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata (B. spirata) against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogens. Methods: Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Czapex Dox agar. The antimicrobial activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular size of muscle protein was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). And fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectro photometry analysis was also studied. Results:The maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the crude ethanol extract of B. spirata and the minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed againstStaphylococcus aureus in the crude methanol extract of B. spirata. Water extract of B. spirata showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candidaalbicans. Ethanol, acetone, methanol, chloroform and water extracts showed antimicrobial activity against almost all the bacteria and fungus. Compared with water extracts, ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity against all pathogens. The molecular weight of protein of the gastropod sample ranged from 2-110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds signals at different ranges. Conclusions: The research shows that the great medicinal value of the gastropod muscle of B. spirata may be due to high quality of antimicrobial compounds.

  12. Seasonal bioconcentration of heavy metals in Onchidium struma (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) from Chongming Island, the YangtzeEstuary, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaobo; JIA Linzhi; ZHAO Yunlong; WANG Qun; CHENG Yongxu

    2009-01-01

    The seasonal concentration changes of selected heavy metal Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in five tissues of marine gastropod Onchidium struma were studied in the Chongming Island, the Yangtze Estuary on July 2006, September 2006, and November 2006, April 2007, respectively. The results demonstrated that the bioconcentration factor of Cu (biomass/water) in all selected tissues was about 104 magnitudes, Fe and Cd were 103, Zn was 102, and Mn, Pb, and Cr were 101. Hepatopancreas was proven to be the dominant storage tissue of Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn, whereas Fe and Pb were mainly stored in muscle and digenetic gland, and Cd was stored in vitelline gland and albumen gland. Additionally, it was found that Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn were concentrated significantly by O. struma (whole-body) in summer or autumn, and Cd, Cr, and Pb increased slightly in spring and winter. Furthermore, the bioconcentration of Cr was nearly 2-fold higher and Zn was 1.6-fold higher in the water compared with the Water Quality Standard for Fisheries. With view of excessive amount of Pb, Cd, and Cu according to seafood standard, the consumption of O. struma might have the risk of health hazard.

  13. Biosynthesis and composition of sterols and sterol esters in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) (gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Voogt, P.A.

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. The biosynthesis and composition of sterols and sterol esters were studied in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis after injection of Na-1-14C-acetate. 2. 2. Free and esterified sterols appeared to be synthesized by the animals, whilst the specific radioactivity of the sterols from the esters was

  14. Gulella adami, a new species of land snail from the Ivory Coast, West Africa (Gastropoda Pulmonata: Streptaxidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1994-01-01

    Gulella adami spec. nov. is described from a classical West African locality, Assini in the Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire). It is most unusual in showing two superficial parietal processes, which may also be interpreted as a double angular lamella, in the aperture of the shell. The shell closely resemb

  15. Observations on Neotricula aperta (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae) population densities in Thailand and central Laos: implications for the spread of Mekong schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Attwood Stephen W; Upatham E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The snail Neotricula aperta transmits Mekong schistosomiasis in southern Laos and Cambodia, with about 1.5 million people at risk of infection. Plans are under consideration for at least 12 hydroelectric power dams on the lower Mekong river and much controversy surrounds predictions of their environmental impacts. Unfortunately, there are almost no ecological data (such as long term population trend studies) available for N. aperta which could be used in impact assessment....

  16. Actividad molusquicida in vitro de Momordica charantia L. (¨Cundeamor¨) contra Fossaria cubensis (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Diéguez Fernández, L; Piña Pérez, M; Abreu Guirado, O; Vásquez Capote, R; Rodríguez de la Vega, R

    2012-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo: determinar las perspectivas del uso del jugo vegetal extraído de Momordica charantia L. (Cundeamor), en el control de Fossaria cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1839) principal hospedero de Fasciola hepatica en Cuba.ABSTRACTTo determine the perspectives the use of the juice extracted from the Momordica charantia L.

  17. Influence of joint application of heavy metals on level of each metal accumulated in the periwinkle Tympanotonus fuscatus (Gastropoda: Potamididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most laboratory assessments on toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have been concentrated on the accumulation of these metal ions when exposed singly to the test organisms. However, under the natural environmental settings, the metals are never present in isolation and may interact with each other, therefore justifying the need to study the influence of joint application of metals on accumulated levels in exposed animals. In this study, exposure of the periwinkle Tympanotonus fuscatus to sublethal concentrations (equivalent to 0.1 and 0.01 of 96 h LC50) of heavy metals revealed that they were bioaccumulative varying amounts, depending on the type of metal, exposure period and concentration in the test media. while Zn and Pb ions accumulation increased steadily with exposure time, the amounts of Cu accumulated fluctuated regularly over the 30-day experimental period. The levels of Zn, Cu and Cd bioaccumulated over the 30-day experimental period were reduced by over 2-6 folds (with bioaccumulation radio values ranging from 0.15 to 0.81) when compared to concentrations of the respective metals accumulated during single bioaccumulation studies. However, Pb concentrations accumulated during the joint action studies increased nearly 2-fold (bioaccumulation ratio range 1.36 to 2.0-fold). (author)

  18. Histologia da glândula de albúmen de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a histological analysis of the albumen gland of mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. In the immaturity, tthe gland doesn't show any secretory activity, although in the maturity this activity is indicated by the presence of a homogeneous and eosinophilic material in its lumen. We could notice in the capsule gland of matures females a calcareous element is present as a granular and basophilic deposit. The albumen gland is envolved by a thin conjunctive layer that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  19. Exploring species level taxonomy and species delimitation methods in the facultatively self-fertilizing land snail genus Rumina (gastropoda: pulmonata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Prévot

    Full Text Available Delimiting species in facultatively selfing taxa is a challenging problem of which the terrestrial pulmonate snail genus Rumina is a good example. These snails have a mixed breeding system and show a high degree of shell and color variation. Three nominal species (R. decollata, R. saharica and R. paivae and two color morphs within R. decollata (dark and light are currently recognized. The present study aims at evaluating to what extent these entities reflect evolutionary diverging taxonomic units, rather than fixed polymorphisms due to sustained selfing. Therefore, a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear (ITS1, ITS2 and mitochondrial DNA (COI, CytB, 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA sequences was performed. Putative species in Rumina, inferred from the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny, were compared with those proposed on the basis of the COI gene by (1 DNA barcoding gap analysis, (2 Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, (3 the species delimitation plug-in of the Geneious software, (4 the Genealogical Sorting Index, and (5 the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model. It is shown that these methods produce a variety of different species hypotheses and as such one may wonder to what extent species delimitation methods are really useful. With respect to Rumina, the data suggest at least seven species, one corresponding to R. saharica and six that are currently grouped under the name R. decollata. The species-level status of R. paivae is rejected.

  20. Annotated type catalogue of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in Australian museums, with a compilation of types in other museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S H; Whisson, Corey S

    2012-01-01

    Type material of 41 Australian Bothriembryon taxa present in Australian museums is critically listed, indicating systematic issues that need to be resolved in further studies. Information on additional type material of 22 taxa in non-Australian museums is compiled. The seven fossil taxa known so far are included in this catalogue. Based on the current systematic position, 38 species are treated in this paper. Bothriembryon jacksoni Iredale, 1939, Bothriembryon notatus Iredale, 1939, Bothriembryon praecelsus Iredale, 1939 and Bothriembryon serpentinus Iredale, 1939 are elevated to species level. Bothriembryon gratwicki (Cox, 1899) is listed as status to be determined.

  1. On Trichia alpicola (Eder, 1921) from Switzerland (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Hygromiidae) and the spiral sculpture on its shell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Neuteboom, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The nominal taxon Fruticicola villosa var. alpicola Eder, 1921, is provisionally considered a separate Trichia species next to T. villosa. The hairs and the spiral sculpture on the shells of both species are illustrated.

  2. On the distribution of the genus Xerocerastus Kobelt & Von Möllendorff, 1902 (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata, Subulinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1964-01-01

    Opgedragen aan Prof. Dr. H. Boschma ter gelegenheid van zijn 70ste verjaardag. The subfamily Rumininae of the pulmonate gastropod family Subulinidae is represented in Southern Africa by the endemic genus Xerocerastus Kobelt & von Möllendorff, 1902. Xerocerastus has been divided into three subgenera,

  3. Taxonomic study on the family Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda) from the China's seas. Subfamilies: Imbricariinae and Cylindromitrinae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Ninteen species of subfamilies Imbricariinae and Cylindromitrinae, family Mitridae, are recorded from the China's seas. Of which, one genus and six species are recorded for the first time from China' s seas, i.e., genus Ziba Adams H and Adams A, Cancilla (Cancilla)carnicolor, Ziba duplilirata, Z. insculpta, Neocancilla circula, Scabricola (Scabricola) desetangsii, Scabricola (Swainsonia) ocellata ocellata.

  4. Differences in osmotolerance in freshwater and brackish water populations of Theodoxus fluviatilis (Gastropoda: Neritidae) are associated with differential protein expression

    OpenAIRE

    Symanowski, Frauke; Hildebrandt, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    The euryhaline gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis is found in northern Germany in freshwater or in brackish water habitats in the Baltic Sea. Previous studies have revealed that individuals from both habitats are not distinguishable by morphological characters or by sequence comparison of DNA encoding 16S RNA or cytochrome C. As reported in this study, animals collected in the two habitats differ substantially in their physiological ability to adapt to different salinities. Comparison of accumul...

  5. Distribution Of The Freshwater Snail Species Fagotia (Gastropoda, Melanopsidae In Ukraine According To Climatic Factors. I. Fagotia Esperi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tytar V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy niche modeling was employed as a tool to assess potential habitat suitability for the freshwater snail F. esperi (Férussac, 1823 in Ukraine for both contemporary climatic conditions and conditions projected for 2050. Of the 19 bioclimatic predictor variables used in the modeling, the “mean temperature seosonality” “mean temperature of driest quarter” and “precipitation of warmest quarter” were the three most important in predicting habitat suitability and distribution of this mollusk species.

  6. Observations on the breeding habits, shell development, decollation, and reproductive anatomy of Pontophaedusa funiculum (Mousson 1856 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Clausiliidae, Phaedusinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The internal and external egg morphology, shell development, decollation process, mating behaviour and reproductive anatomy (genital structure, inner structure of the penis, fine structure of the retractor muscle and the spermatophore of the clausiliid Pontophaedusa funiculum (Mousson 1856 are described, and illustrated by photographs of the laid eggs, their inner structure, juvenile, young adult and old individuals, as well as a schematic drawing of the mating. P. funiculum is the only known clausiliid species with hard shelled eggs and the only known example of the family Clausiliidae which mates face to face. The taxonomic position within the Phaedusinae subfamily is mentioned.

  7. The Japanese oyster drill Ocinebrellus inornatus (Récluz, 1851) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae), introduced to the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Faasse, Marco; Gittenberger, Adriaan;

    2012-01-01

    The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report on the...

  8. Genetic structure of Onchidium "struma" (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Eupulmonata) from the coastal area of China based on mtCO I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Na; Shen, Heding; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Bianna; Zheng, Pei; Wang, Chengnuan

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Onchidium "struma" were investigated using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO I) gene sequences. A total of 240 individuals representing 10 collection sites from across a large portion of its known range were included in the analysis. Overall, 42 haplotypes were defined and 97 polymorphic sites were observed. The O. "struma" populations had high haplotype diversity (0.9280) and nucleotide diversity (0.0404). We inferred that the early maturity and extensive survival habitat led to high genetic diversity of O. "struma" populations in China. Bayesian analysis and SAMOVA analysis showed significant genetic differentiation among populations and all populations were divided into two groups, (HK and HN) versus (GY, DF, CX, CN, ND and XM). The Mantel test revealed no significant correlation between geographic distance and genetic distance (r = 0.251; p = 0.058). Restricted gene flow caused by a shorter term pelagic veliger stage and limited dispersal potential were inferred to result in genetic differentiation among populations based on nested analysis. HK population might be an invasive species by artificial transplantation. PMID:25103423

  9. Aspectos histológicos das gônadas hermafroditas de Biomphalaria glabrata e Bradybaena similaris (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Florêncio da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 é um gastrópode pulmonado de água doce que desperta grande interesse médico e veterinário. Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 é um gastrópode pulmonado terrestre considerado uma praga agrícola de plantações de hortaliças. Ambas as espécies são hospedeiras intermediárias de helmintos. Esses moluscos possuem uma gônada hermafrodita produtora de óvulos e espermatozóides de forma simultânea. Neste estudo foram avaliados aspectos histomorfológicos das gônadas hermafroditas de B. glabrata e B. similaris. A gônada de B. similaris encontra-se subdividida em lobos com glândulas em seu interior, o que não foi observado em B. glabrata. Além disso, em B. similaris as células germinativas estão acumuladas em determinados pontos e com a presença de um ovócito em cada folículo da gônada; não obstante, em B. glabrata as células germinativas encontraram-se justapostas e com mais de um ovócito em cada folículo.Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 is a freshwater pulmonate gastropod that represents great medical importance. Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 is a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod and an important plague to the different plant cultures with economic interest. Both species are intermediate hosts of helminths. These molluscs have hermaphrodites gonads producing eggs and sperm. Here, we examined histoformological aspects of hermaphrodites gonads of both B. glabrata and B. similaris. The gonad of B. similaris is subdivided into lobes and presence of glands in its interior, which was not observed in B. glabrata. Moreover, in B. similaris the germ cells are accumulated in some areas, and has one oocyte in each follicle in the gonad; however, in B. glabrata the germ cells are juxtaposed and more than one oocyte in each follicle.

  10. Effects of Thai medicinal plants on pathogenic bacterial, growth performance, health condition and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klowkliang, T.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa extracts using TLC/densitometry, showed an extract contain 21.57%w/w of three important curcuminoids: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. GC and MS were used to analyze volatile oils. Aromatic turmerone, α-turmerone and zingiberene were also obtained. Qualitative and quantitative analyses alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata using TLC, revealed that the extracts contain three important compounds in total lactone of 30.49% w/w. There are andrographolide,14-deoxy-11-12-didehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide. TLC-chromatogram of Clinacanthus nutans extract after reacted with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid showed a 9 key compounds, while preliminary neutralization test of the compounds revealed that there were active compounds against HSV-1 virus. In vitro efficacy test revealed that Curcuma longa and Andrographis paniculata extracts at 250 and 1,500 mg/L could eradicate 15 isolates of Vibrio spp. which were isolated from infected shrimps. Effects of medicinal plant extracts incorporated into the diet on shrimp immune responses were investigated. Shrimp fed diet containing Clinacanthus nutans extract at 20 mg/kg of diet had good growth, FCR and immune responses. The shrimp that were fed diet containing Curcuma longa extracts at 25 mg/kg of diet for 7-14 days showed high resistance to Vibrio harveyi. Likewise, the shrimp fed Andrographis paniculata extract at 25 mg/ kg of diet for 14 days had a higher resistance to WSSV. Incorporating the medicinal extracts at higher levels resulted in reduction in diet palatability which consequently had an effect on a decrease in growth, immune responses and resistance to bacterial and WSSV infection.

  11. Effects of Thai medicinal plants on pathogenic bacterial, growth performance, health condition and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius)

    OpenAIRE

    Klowkliang, T.; Tattanon, T.; Ruangsri, J.; Supamattaya, K.; Suntornchareonnon, N.; Boonyaratpalin, M.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extracts using TLC/densitometry, showed an extract contain 21.57%w/w of three important curcuminoids: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. GC and MS were used to analyze volatile oils. Aromatic turmerone, α-turmerone and zingiberene were also obtained. Qualitative and quantitative analyses alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata using TLC, revealed that the extracts contain three important compounds in total lactone of 30.4...

  12. Trace metals in the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon and mangrove sediments of the Tanzania coast: Is there a risk to marine fauna and public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Mdegela, Robinson H; Kochzius, Marc; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Mangroves ecosystems support livelihood and economic activities of coastal communities in the tropics and subtropics. Previous reports have documented the inefficiency of waste treatment facilities in Tanzania to contain trace metals. Therefore, the rapidly expanding coastal population and industrial sector is likely to threaten mangrove ecosystems with metal pollution. This study analysed trace metals in 60 sediment samples and 160 giant tiger prawns from the Tanzanian coast in order to document the distribution of trace metals and to establish if measured levels present a threat to mangrove fauna and are of public health importance. High levels of Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and V was observed in mangroves of river Pangani, Wami, and Rufiji. Multivariate analysis showed that they originate mainly from weathering and erosion in the river catchments. Extreme enrichment of Cd was observed in a mangrove affected by municipal sewage. The distribution of Hg, Pb, and Zn was related with urbanisation and industrial activities along the coast. The metal pollution index was high at Pangani, Saadani, and Rufiji, suggesting that these estuarine mangroves are also affected by human activities in the catchment. Moderate to considerable ecological risks were observed in all sampled mangroves, except for Kilwa Masoko. It was revealed that As, Cd, and Hg present moderate risks to fauna. High levels of Cu, Fe and Zn were observed in prawns but the level of the non-essential Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed the maximum allowed levels for human consumption. However, based on the trends of fish consumption in the country, weekly intake of Hg is likely to exceed provisional tolerable weekly intake level, especially in fishing communities. This calls for measures to control Hg emissions and to strengthen sewage and waste treatment in coastal cities and urban centres in the basin of major rivers. PMID:27281719

  13. Activity of Na +/K + -ATPase from the gill of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon )%斑节对虾鳃Na+/K+-ATPase的活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房文红; 王慧; 来琦芳; 李国保

    2001-01-01

    研究了培养介质的Na+、K+和Mg2+浓度、Na+:K+比、pH值、培养温度以及培养时间和底物ATP-Na2量对斑节对虾鳃Na+/K+-ATPase活性的影响.培养介质中Na+浓度为50~100mM、K+浓度为25~30mM、Mg2+浓度为8~20mM、Na+:K+比在10:1~2:1、pH 7.0~7.5时,Na+/K+-ATPase活性较高,Na+/K+-ATPase活性随着培养温度升高而增大.Na+/K+-ATPase反应时释放出的无机磷(Pi)累积量与培养时间呈直线性增加.底物ATP-Na2浓度达到1.04mM时,Na+/K+-ATPase活性达到最高,随着ATP-Na2量的增多,Na+/K+-ATPase活性并未增大.

  14. Trace metals in the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon and mangrove sediments of the Tanzania coast: Is there a risk to marine fauna and public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Mdegela, Robinson H; Kochzius, Marc; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Mangroves ecosystems support livelihood and economic activities of coastal communities in the tropics and subtropics. Previous reports have documented the inefficiency of waste treatment facilities in Tanzania to contain trace metals. Therefore, the rapidly expanding coastal population and industrial sector is likely to threaten mangrove ecosystems with metal pollution. This study analysed trace metals in 60 sediment samples and 160 giant tiger prawns from the Tanzanian coast in order to document the distribution of trace metals and to establish if measured levels present a threat to mangrove fauna and are of public health importance. High levels of Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and V was observed in mangroves of river Pangani, Wami, and Rufiji. Multivariate analysis showed that they originate mainly from weathering and erosion in the river catchments. Extreme enrichment of Cd was observed in a mangrove affected by municipal sewage. The distribution of Hg, Pb, and Zn was related with urbanisation and industrial activities along the coast. The metal pollution index was high at Pangani, Saadani, and Rufiji, suggesting that these estuarine mangroves are also affected by human activities in the catchment. Moderate to considerable ecological risks were observed in all sampled mangroves, except for Kilwa Masoko. It was revealed that As, Cd, and Hg present moderate risks to fauna. High levels of Cu, Fe and Zn were observed in prawns but the level of the non-essential Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed the maximum allowed levels for human consumption. However, based on the trends of fish consumption in the country, weekly intake of Hg is likely to exceed provisional tolerable weekly intake level, especially in fishing communities. This calls for measures to control Hg emissions and to strengthen sewage and waste treatment in coastal cities and urban centres in the basin of major rivers.

  15. WSSV risk factors related to water physico-chemical properties and microflora in semi-intensive P .monodon culture ponds in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Whitespot syndrome virus, WSSV, is the most important among the shrimp diseases. One of the suggested WSSV risk factors is the occurrence of stress since stressors could compromise the shrimp defence system thus increasing the risk of WSSV infection. Stressors are usually related to the physico-chem

  16. Effect of three innovative culture systems on water quality and whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral load in WSSV-fed Penaeus monodon cultured in indoor tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alapide-Tendencia, E.V.; Bosma, R.H.; Rose Sorio, L.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus is the most important among the shrimp diseases. It has been devastating the shrimp industry for more than 3 decades. Previous studies reported that greater percentage of yellow colonies on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (yellow vibrios) in the rearing water, ab

  17. Effects of buffer additives and thermal processing methods on the solubility of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) proteins and the immunoreactivity of its major allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Adeseye O; Nayak, Balunkeswar

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the potential of two buffer additives (Tween 20 and DTT) to improve the solubility of proteins from shrimp subjected to different heat treatments and the allergenicity of tropomyosin in the extracts. The concentration of soluble proteins extracted by all the buffers from processed shrimp was significantly reduced compared with untreated samples. The concentration of total soluble proteins from heat treated shrimp increased significantly when phosphate buffer containing both surfactant and reducing agent was used as the extraction buffer. However, the concentrations of heat-stable proteins in the buffers were mostly similar. The electrophoretic profile of extracted proteins showed that tropomyosin is very stable under the different heat treatment methods used in this study except for high pressure steaming where the intensity of tropomyosin band was reduced. Competitive inhibition ELISA showed that high pressure steaming reduced the allergenicity of tropomyosin compared with other heat treatments methods. PMID:26830572

  18. Evaluation of an immunodot test to manage white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) during cultivation of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, R.; Palaksha, K.J.; Anil, T.M.; Guruchannabasavanna; Patil, P.; Shankar, K.M.; Mohan, C.V.; Sreepada, R.A.

    .4). The homogenate was stored at room temperature for 30 min to allow larger tissue parti- cles to settle. The clear supernatant (2 µl) from the tissue homogenate was dotted onto a 0.2 µm nitrocellulose membrane (BioRad) and air-dried for 5 min. The mem- brane... was blocked with 6% (w/v) defatted casein in PBS (pH 7.4) for 30 min and washed thoroughly with wash buffer (PBS supplemented with 0.05% Tween-20). The membrane was incubated for 1 h with 1-wk-old cell cul- ture supernatant from a mouse monoclonal hybridoma...

  19. 78 FR 50391 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis... From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination, 78 FR 33346 (June...

  20. 78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern...

  1. 78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern...

  2. 78 FR 50379 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis... Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination, 78 FR 33350 (June 4,...

  3. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Kumar; Vinay Kumar Singh; D K Singh

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone), Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol) and Carum carvi (limonene) on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and...

  4. On a collection of Peruvian Neniinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Clausiliidae), with a check-list and a provisional key to all the Peruvian species known

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.E.; Loosjes-van Bemmel, A.C.W.

    1984-01-01

    An annotated list is given of all Neniinae collected in 1975 by Dr. A. S. H. Breure in Peru. The localities that have been visited are also listed, together with the Neniinae collected there. Pseudogracilinenia gen. nov. is described for P. huallagana (Pilsbry, 1949) (type-species) and P.jolyi (O. B

  5. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  6. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Kerchove

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05, suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM. Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 ± 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 ± 0.9 g, which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 µM with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 µM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively.

  7. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and food preferences of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Merambong shoal, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husna, Wan Nurul Wan Hassan; Mazlan, Abd Ghaffar; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2016-10-01

    Laevistrombus canarium is one of the marine gastropod mollusks that have high commercial value, particularly in the aquaculture sector in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the feeding and food items of L. canarium at different ontogenetic stages (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) from Merambong shoals, Malaysia. Field observations on feeding activity were conducted, followed by detailed laboratory analysis on the stomach content. Five-minutes observations on randomly selected individuals were conducted at the field sampling site and their feeding activities were recorded with reference to age stage. Various shell sizes from each ontogenetic stage were randomly collected and quickly anaesthetized with ice and preserved in 10% formalin before being transported to the laboratory for stomach content analyses. Field observations showed that L. canarium mainly grazed on epiphytes occurring on seagrass (46.67%), followed by sediment surface (40%) and epiphytes occurring on macroalgae (13.33%). Stomach content analyses showed a significant difference (P 0.05) was detected between the three main food items (diatoms, sand particles and detritus) among the ontogenetic stages. Therefore, feeding activity revealed the role of the dog conch in the marine food network. While, classification of the types of food consumed by L. canarium through stomach content analysis determines the particular position of the gastropod in the food chain. Further studies are needed to provide a better insight between trophic relationships of L. canarium with marine ecosystem.

  8. Larval trematodes (Digenea of the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L., (Gastropoda, Pulmonata in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faltýnková A.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of cercariae and metacercariae (Trematoda, Digenea from the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis in Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, South-East Germany, Poland and Slovak Republic is presented, based on a study of 3,628 snails examined from 1998 to 2005. A total of 953 (26.3% L. stagnalis were infected with 24 trematode species comprising 19 species of cercariae and 11 species of metacercariae (six species occurred both as cercarie and metacercarie of eight families. The dominant cercariae were those of Opisthioglyphe ranae (159 hosts infected, Plagiorchis elegans (141 (both family Plagiorchiidae and Echinoparyphium aconiatum (153 (Echinostomatidae; 14 double infections were found. The most frequent metacercariae were those of Neoglyphe locellus (71 (Omphalometridae, E. aconiatum (66, Echinostoma sp. (59 and Moliniella anceps (48 (Echinostomatidae. In the previous studies carried out in Central Europe, a very similar spectrum of nine trematode families of 22 cercariae determined to species level and 43 types of cercariae reported under generic or provisional names, which can be in many cases conspecific with the previous taxa, were found. A simple key to identification of cercariae and metacercariae, together with their illustrations, is provided.

  9. Arresting mantle formation and redirecting embryonic shell gland tissue by platinum2+ leads to body plan modifications in Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, Leonie; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the threat that anthropogenic substances pose to animals when they are emitted into the environment, tests like the invertebrate embryo toxicity test with the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis have been developed. These tests are used to investigate substances like the heavy metal platinum (Pt) that is used in catalytic converters and is gradually released in car exhausts. In 2010, our group reported that high Pt concentrations cause body plan alterations in snails and prevent the formation of an external shell during M. cornuarietis embryogenesis. Now, this study presents scanning-electron micrographs and histological sections of platinum(2+) (Pt(2+))-treated and untreated M. cornuarietis embryos and compares "normally" developing and "shell-less" embryos during embryogenesis, to reveal the exact course of events that lead to this body plan shift. Both groups showed similar development until the onset of torsion 70- to 82-h postfertilization. In the Pt(2+)-exposed embryos, the rudimentary shell gland (=anlage of both shell gland and mantle, which usually evaginates, grows, and eventually covers the visceral sac) does not spread across the visceral sac but remains on its ventral side. Without the excessive growth of the shell gland, a horizontal rotation of the visceral sac relative to head and foot does not occur, as being normal during the process of torsion.

  10. GENETIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF POPULATIONS BELONGING TO THE BULINUS TRUNCATUS/TROPICUS COMPLEX (GASTROPODA; PLANORBIDAE) IN SOUTH WESTERN ZIMBABWE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukaratirwa, S.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef;

    1998-01-01

    , in respect of allozyme variation (5 polymorphic loci), shell morphology (9 variables), copulatory organ and chromosome number. Comparative data were obtained from snails from north western Zimbabwe identified definitely as B. tropicus. Analysis of the genetic structure revealed a high degree of polymorphism...

  11. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol and Carum carvi (limonene on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50 doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene. These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  12. Accumulation of free and covalently bound microcystins in tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda) following toxic cyanobacteria or dissolved microcystin-LR exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of free microcystins (MCs) in freshwater gastropods has been demonstrated but accumulation of MCs covalently bound to tissues has never been considered so far. Here, we follow the accumulation of total (free and bound) MCs in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to i) dissolved MC-LR (33 and 100 μg L-1) and ii) Planktothrix agardhii suspensions producing 5 and 33 μg MC-LR equivalents L-1 over a 5-week period, and after a 3-week depuration period. Snails exposed to dissolved MC-LR accumulated up to 0.26 μg total MCs g-1 dry weight (DW), with no detection of bound MCs. Snails exposed to MCs producing P. agardhii accumulated up to 69.9 μg total MCs g-1 DW, of which from 17.7 to 66.7% were bound. After depuration, up to 15.3 μg g-1 DW of bound MCs were detected in snails previously exposed to toxic cyanobacteria, representing a potential source of MCs transfer through the food web. - The study concerns accumulation and elimination of both free and bound microcystins (MCs) in tissues of a gastropod exposed to MCs producing cyanobacteria or dissolved MC-LR.

  13. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchove, C M; Markus, R P; Freitas, J C; Costa-Lotufo, L V

    2002-04-01

    Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 +/- 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 +/- 0.32 g) was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax) to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05), suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM). Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 +/- 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 +/- 0.9 g), which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 microM) with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [3H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 microM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively. PMID:11960200

  14. A NEW SPECIES OF DIAPHANA FROM BATHYAL DEPTHS IN THE WEDDELL SEA, ANTARCTICA AND FIRST RECORD OF DIAPHANA INFLATA (STREBEL, 1908) IN THE HIGH ANTARCTIC (GASTROPODA: OPISTHOBRANCHIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, KATRIN; SchiØtte, TOM

    2002-05-01

    Diaphana haini n.sp. is described from Antarctica. With a depth range from about 400 to 2100 m, D. haini is the second Antarctic species of this genus to extend into the deep sea, the other being D. inflata (Strebel, 1908). Phylogenetic analysis has allowed D. haini to be incorporated within Schiøtte's (1998) cladogram for this genus and, thereby clarify its historical zoogeography. A record of D. inflata from the Weddell Sea extends its known distribution range. The recorded geographic distribution now ranges from South Georgia to the Antarctic continent, and the depth range is extended considerably, from 252-310 m to 1645 m. PMID:12011240

  15. The functional anatomy of the mantle complex and columellar muscle of tectibranch molluscs (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), and its bearing on the evolution of opisthobranch organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, R C

    1977-02-15

    An account is given of the anatomy of a series of opisthobranch molluscs principally to assess the change in importance and functioning of the mantle cavity and columellar muscle throughout the transition from prosobranch to opisthobranch organization. Intermediate steps are represented by living tectibranchs, of which Philine and Scaphander are investigated in detail, Acteon, Bulla, Haminoea, Akera, Aglaja and Gastropteron more briefly. Though an opisthobranch, Acteon has an organization typical of a monotocardian prosobranch; the remainder show trends affecting the shell and visceral mass, mantle cavity and head-foot, which resulted finally in the production of nudibranch types. It is confirmed that the adaptations exhibited by primitive tectibranchs relate to the assumption of a burrowing mode of life. Initial changes were the reduction of the nuchal area and sealing of the mantle cavity anteriorly so that it opened on the right, where it became restricted, the first perhaps prompting the sealing. A broadening and an anterior elongation of the head-foot produced a wedge to facilitate burrowing. Change in disposition of the mantle edge, incurred by differential growth, produced an involute shell with a large body whorl, alignment changing from erect to horizontal. The resultant streamlining eased infaunal progression; no vertical insinking of the viscera was involved. Subsequently the shell became reduced and finally lost. A section of the mantle edge enlarged to produce a posterior mantle lobe upon which sit both the shell and viscera, and which later became redundant as posterior elongation of the head-foot produced a slug-like form, the viscera being incorporated within the head-foot. As the nuchal area became reduced, mechanical needs prompted alteration to both the form and attachment of the columellar muscle. In Acteon the muscle is like that of a prosobranch, but the proximal region has broadened, a change of proportion required by primitive tectibranchs in order to support the floor of the mantle cavity formed from the section of mantle skirt which in prosobranchs lies on the right. This was followed by reduction and re-alignment of the entire muscle along an anteroposterior axis as emphasis changed from the muscle effecting retraction into a shell to producing contorsions of the head-foot. The shell, similarly reduced, instead of providing anchorage, became itself anchored by additional anterior and posterior attachment zones with, in more advanced forms, dorsoventral muscles of the body wall rather than longitudinal muscles fastening to the former. Importance was placed on the mutual stabilization of constituent parts of the posterior body region. Re-alignments of the muscle induced breaking up of the longitudinal muscle sheet of the head-foot to produce muscle tracts, best exhibited in those tectibranchs which swim; they are derived from both the columellar muscle and intrinsic body wall muscles... PMID:15290

  16. A new species of Tambja (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) from the Mediterranean Sea: description of the first species of the genus from the Balearic Islands and Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, M.; Pola, M.; Ramón, M.

    2015-06-01

    A new species of polycerid nudibranchs of the genus Tambja is described from Mallorca Island (Spain) and Malta. So far, only two species of Tambja had been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea with a distribution limited to southern Spain. With Tambja mediterranea sp. nov., the distribution of the genus in the Mediterranean Sea is extended, and the new species represents the first occurrence of Tambja at the Balearic Islands and Malta. Externally, the new species is mainly characterized by having ground orange-red colour, dorsum covered with rounded whitish tubercles, rhinophores red with whitish tips and three gill branches with orange-reddish rachis and whitish branches. In the present paper, external and internal features of T. mediterranea are described and compared with other species of the genus, especially with its most similar species, T. limaciformis. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and maximum likelihood) based on mitochondrial sequences (COI) show that T. mediterranea sp. nov. is sister to T. divae and that both species cluster together with T. limaciformis and T. amakusana with the maximum support.

  17. New records of Omalonyx matheroni (Pontiez & Michaud, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae for the São Paulo and Paraná States.

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    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx matheroni is a succineid gastropod that lives on aquatic macrophytes and on emergent vegetation in the wetlands of inner deltas, lakes and dikes. Occurrences of this species were recorded in the municipalities of Ibitinga (SP and Paranaguá (PR, broadening its distribution southwards in South America. Until now this species had been recorded in Demerara (Guiana, Zanderij and Belwaarde (Suriname, Guiana Francesa, Peru, Limoncocha (Equador, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais (Brazil, as well as on the islands of Guadalupe and Trinidade.

  18. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase

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    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.

  19. Glowing seashells: diversity of fossilized coloration patterns on coral reef-associated cone snail (Gastropoda: Conidae shells from the Neogene of the Dominican Republic.

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    Jonathan R Hendricks

    Full Text Available The biology of modern Conidae (cone snails--which includes the hyperdiverse genus Conus--has been intensively studied, but the fossil record of the clade remains poorly understood, particularly within an evolutionary framework. Here, ultraviolet light is used to reveal and characterize the original shell coloration patterns of 28 species of cone snails from three Neogene coral reef-associated deposits from the Cibao Valley, northern Dominican Republic. These fossils come from the upper Miocene Cercado Fm. and lower Pliocene Gurabo Fm., and range in age from about 6.6-4.8 Ma. Comparison of the revealed coloration patterns with those of extant species allow the taxa to be assigned to three genera of cone snails (Profundiconus, Conasprella, and Conus and at least nine subgenera. Thirteen members of these phylogenetically diverse reef faunas are described as new species. These include: Profundiconus? hennigi, Conasprella (Ximeniconus ageri, Conus anningae, Conus lyelli, Conus (Atlanticonus? franklinae, Conus (Stephanoconus gouldi, Conus (Stephanoconus bellacoensis, Conus (Ductoconus cashi, Conus (Dauciconus garrisoni, Conus (Dauciconus? zambaensis, Conus (Spuriconus? kaesleri, Conus (Spuriconus? lombardii, and Conus (Lautoconus? carlottae. Each of the three reef deposits contain a minimum of 14-16 cone snail species, levels of diversity that are similar to modern Indo-Pacific reef systems. Finally, most of the 28 species can be assigned to modern clades and thus have important implications for understanding the biogeographic and temporal histories of these clades in tropical America.

  20. Evaluation of the mitochondrial system in the gonad-digestive gland complex of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) after infection by Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Santos, Anderson Teixeira; Garcia, Juberlan da Silva; Maldonado, Arnaldo; da-Silva, Wagner Seixas; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de Azevedo; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2016-05-01

    The effect of infection by Echinostoma paraensei on the mitochondrial physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata was investigated after exposure to 50 miracidia. The snails were dissected one, two, three and four weeks after infection for collection and mechanical permeabilization of the gonad-digestive gland (DGG) complex. The results obtained indicate that prepatent infection by this echinostomatid fluke significantly suppresses the phosphorylation state (respiratory state 3) and basal oxygen consumption of B. glabrata, demonstrating that the infection reduces the ability of the intermediate host to carry out aerobic oxidative reactions. Additionally, relevant variations related to the uncoupled mitochondrial (state 3u) of B. glabrata infected by E. paraensei were observed. Four weeks after exposure, a significant reduction in mitochondrial oxygen consumption after addition of ADP (3.68±0.26pmol O2/mg proteins) was observed in the infected snails in comparison with the respective control group (5.14±0.25). In the uncoupled state, the infected snails consumed about 62% less oxygen than the infected snails (7.87±0.84pmol O2/mg proteins) in the same period. These results demonstrate a reduction in oxidative decarboxylation rate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and faster anaerobic degradation of carbohydrates in the infected snails. The possible mechanisms that explain this new metabolic condition in the infected organisms are discussed. PMID:27079167

  1. DNA sequence characterisation and phylogeography of Lymnaea cousini and related species, vectors of fascioliasis in northern Andean countries, with description of L. meridensis n. sp. (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae

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    Bargues M Dolores

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Livestock fascioliasis is a problem throughout Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela, mainly in Andean areas where the disease also appears to affect humans. Transmission patterns and epidemiological scenarios of liver fluke infection have shown to differ according to the lymnaeid vector snail species involved. These Andean countries present the vectors Lymnaea cousini, L. bogotensis and L. ubaquensis, unknown in the rest of Latin America. An exhaustive combined haplotype study of these species is performed by means of DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal 18S RNA gene, ITS-2 and ITS-1, and mitochondrial DNA cox1 gene. Results The conserved 5.8S rDNA sequence corroborated that no pseudogenes are involved in the numerous non-microsatellite/minisatellite-related indels appearing between the ITS-2 and ITS-1 sequences when comparing different L. cousini - L. bogotensis populations. Sequence analyses and phylogenetic reconstruction methods including other lymnaeid vector species show that (i L. bogotensis is a synonym of L. cousini, (ii L. ubaquensis is a synonym of Pseudosuccinea columella, and (iii populations of L. cousini hitherto known from Venezuelan highlands indeed belong to a new species for which the name L. meridensis n. sp. is proposed. This new species is described and a complete phenotypic differentiation provided. Conclusions ITS-2, ITS-1 and cox1 prove to be good markers for specimen classification and haplotype characterisation of these morphologically similar lymnaeids in endemic areas. Analysis of the 18S gene and phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that L. cousini and L. meridensis n. sp. cluster in an evolutionary line different from the one of P. columella, despite their external resemblance. This suggests an evolutionary phenotypic convergence related to similar environments and which has given rise to frequent specimen misclassification. Body size and phylogenetic relationships of L. meridensis n. sp. with well-known vectors as Lymnaea cousini and P. columella, as well as with Galba/Fossaria species, suggest that the new species may participate in disease transmission to both animals and humans in altitude areas during the yearly window in which temperatures are higher than the F. hepatica minimum development threshold. The involvement of L. cousini and P. columella in the transmission and geographical/altitudinal distribution of fascioliasis in these Andean countries is analysed.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships elucidate colonization patterns in the intertidal grazers Osilinus Philippi, 1847 and Phorcus Risso, 1826 (Gastropoda: Trochidae) in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten M; Preston, Joanne; Williams, Suzanne T; Reid, David G; Winter, David; Alvarez, Raquel; Buge, Barbara; Hawkins, Stephen J; Templado, Jose; Spencer, Hamish G

    2012-01-01

    Snails in the closely related trochid genera Phorcus Risso, 1826 and Osilinus Philippi, 1847 are ecologically important algal grazers in the intertidal zone of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Here we present the first complete molecular phylogeny for these genera, based on the nuclear 28S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and COI genes, and show that the current classification is erroneous. We recognize nine species in a single genus, Phorcus: estimated by BEAST analysis, this arose 30 (± 10) Ma; it consists of two subgenera, Phorcus and Osilinus, which we estimate diverged 14 (± 4.5) Ma. Osilinus kotschyi, from the Arabian and Red Seas, is not closely related and is tentatively referred to Priotrochus Fischer, 1879. Our phylogeny allows us to address biogeographical questions concerning the origins of the Mediterranean and Macaronesian species of this group. The former appear to have evolved from Atlantic ancestors that invaded the Mediterranean on several occasions after the Zanclean Flood, which ended the Messinian Salinity Crisis 5.3 Ma; whereas the latter arose from several colonizations of mainland Atlantic ancestors within the last 3 (± 1.5) Ma. PMID:21945534

  3. Effect of pollution on some freshwater species. I. histochemical and biochemical features of lead pollution on some organs of Viviparus viviparus L. (Mollusca Gastropoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, I.; Benedetti, L.; Bolognani, L.; Bolognani Fantin, A.M.; Marini, M.; Ottaviani, E.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental lead pollution was studied in some organs (foot, mantle and digestive gland) of Viviparus viviparus L. The amount of lead contained after 48h, 96 h and one week of pollution were established using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. On the basis of physicochemical determination, it turns out that lead is mainly concentrated in the mantle. The biochemical tests (cholesterol, sulpholipids and phospholipids) were aimed at evaluating the lipids involved in the membranes. The histochemical research was carried out chiefly to evaluate the modifications of polysaccharides and proteins. Some hydrolytic enzymes (Na+ and K+ dependent ATPase) and some ooreductive enzymes (NADH+ and NADPH+ dependent diaphorases, D-lactate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase) were also tested. The digestive gland is the most severely damaged organ as proved by histomorphological and biochemical analyses.

  4. Environmental Epidemiology of Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Uganda: Population Dynamics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Lake Albert and Lake Victoria with Observations on Natural Infections with Digenetic Trematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candia Rowel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. Over a two-and-a-half-year study period with monthly sampling, physicochemical factors were measured at 12 survey sites and all freshwater snails were collected. Retained Biomphalaria were subsequently monitored in laboratory aquaria for shedding trematode cercariae, which were classified as either human infective (Schistosoma mansoni or nonhuman infective. The population dynamics of Biomphalaria differed by location and by lake and had positive relationship with pH (P<0.001 in both lakes and negative relationship with conductivity (P=0.04 in Lake Albert. Of the Biomphalaria collected in Lake Albert N=6,183, 8.9% were infected with digenetic trematodes of which 15.8% were shedding S. mansoni cercariae and 84.2% with nonhuman infective cercariae. In Lake Victoria, 2.1% of collected Biomphalaria  N=13,172 were infected with digenetic trematodes with 13.9% shedding S. mansoni cercariae, 85.7% shedding nonhuman infective cercariae, and 0.4% of infected snails shedding both types of cercariae. Upon morphological identification, species of Biomphalaria infected included B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. stanleyi in Lake Albert and B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. choanomphala in Lake Victoria. The study found the physicochemical factors that influenced Biomphalaria population and infections. The number and extent of snails shedding S. mansoni cercariae illustrate the high risk of transmission within these lake settings. For better control of this disease, greater effort should be placed on reducing environmental contamination by improvement of local water sanitation and hygiene.

  5. Sclerochronology - a highly versatile tool for mariculture and reconstruction of life history traits of the queen conch, textit{Strombus gigas} (Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, Pascal; Schöne, Bernd R.; Gischler, Eberhard; Oschmann, Wolfgang; Thébault, Julien; Fiebig, Jens

    2010-05-01

    The shell of the queen conch Strombus gigas provides a rapidly growing palaeoenvironmental proxy archive, allowing the detailed reconstruction of important life-history traits such as ontogeny, growth rate and growth seasonality. In this study, modern sclerochronological methods are used to cross-date the palaeotemperatures derived from the shell with local sea surface temperature (SST) records. The growth history of the shell suggests a bimodal seasonality in growth, with the growing season confined to the interval between April and November. In Glovers Reef, offshore Belize, the queen conch accreted shell carbonate at rates of up to 6 mm day-1 during the spring (April-June) and autumn (September-November). However a reduced period of growth occurred during the mid-summer months (July-August). The shell growth patterns indicate a positive response to annual seasonality with regards to precipitation. It seems likely that when precipitation levels are high, food availability is increased as the result of nutrient input to the ecosystem in correspondence with an increase in coastal runoff. Slow growth rates occur when precipitation, and as a consequence riverine runoff, is low. The SST however appears to influence growth only on a secondary level. Despite the bimodal growing season and the winter cessation in growth, the growth rates reconstructed here from two S. gigas shells are among the fastest yet reported for this species. The S. gigas specimens from Belize reached their final shell height (of 22.7 and 23.5 cm in distance between the apex and the siphonal notch) at the transition to adulthood in just 2 years. The extremely rapid growth as observed in this species permits detailed, high-resolution reconstructions of life-history traits where sub-daily resolutions can be achieved with ease. The potential for future studies has yet to be further explored. Queen conch sclerochronology provides an opportunity to recover extremely high-resolution palaeotemperature records, which could be used to improve numeric climate models, where the shells essentially function as mineralized buoys. The shell recorder may also help to reveal changes in biogeochemical dynamics in benthic ecosystems on intra-seasonal timescales in the fossil record. Furthermore, sclerochronology provides a rapid, effective and highly versatile investigative strategy when compared to time- and cost-consuming fieldwork for improving fisheries management and maricultural pursuits.

  6. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the ear abalone Haliotis asinina (Gastropoda: Haliotidae)%耳鲍精子的超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勃; 邓中日; 王小兵; 刘均玲; 周智

    2007-01-01

    本文利用透射电子显微镜对耳鲍(Haliotis asinina Linnaeus)精子的形态及超微结构进行了研究.研究结果表明:耳鲍的精子由头部、中段和尾部三部分组成,全长 41.6 μm.精子头部长 1.8 μm,头部由顶体、顶体下腔和细胞核组成,顶体电子密度比较均匀,呈圆锥形,长 0.6 μm,基部宽度为 0.65 μm,占头部长的 1/3;顶体下腔长 0.03 μm,宽为 0.65 μm,腔中含有中等电子密度物质;细胞核圆棒状,长 1.17 μm,核中部的宽度为 1.0 μm.精子中段较短,长 0.51 μm,宽 1.2 μm,主要由 5 个线粒体包围一对中心粒构成.尾部是一根鞭毛,从前到后逐渐变细,鞭毛是由细胞质膜包被的轴丝组成,轴丝为典型的"9+2"微管结构,即轴丝是由两个中心微管及均匀分布在中心微管周围的 9 对双联体微管组成.因此,耳鲍与其它鲍类精子的基本结构相似,形态结构的主要差异表现在三个方面:一是耳鲍精子的头部似圆锥形,长 1.8 μm,是目前已研究的鲍类中头部最短的种类;二是耳鲍精子顶体长比其基部宽要小,顶体电子密度比较均匀,顶体与核的电子密度差异不明显;三是耳鲍精子中段线粒体的数量为 5 个,没有发现 6 个线粒体现象的存在[动物学报 53(3):552-556,2007].

  7. Genus Profundiconus Kuroda, 1956 (Gastropoda, Conoidea: Morphological and molecular studies, with the description of five new species from the Solomon Islands and New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J. Tenorio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Profundiconus Kuroda, 1956 is reviewed. The morphological characters of the shell, radular tooth and internal anatomy of species in Profundiconus are discussed. In particular, we studied Profundiconus material collected by dredging in deep water during different scientific campaigns carried out in the Solomon Islands, Madagascar, Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia. We reconstructed a phylogeny of 55 individuals based on partial mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences. The phylogeny shows several clades containing individuals that do not match any of the known species of Profundiconus based on their shell and radular morphologies, and are introduced here as five new species: Profundiconus maribelae sp. nov. from the Solomon Islands; P. virginiae sp. nov. from Chesterfield Plateau (New Caledonia; P. barazeri sp. nov. from Chesterfield Plateau and the Grand Passage area (New Caledonia; P. puillandrei sp. nov. from Norfolk Ridge (New Caledonia, Kermadec Ridge (New Zealand and possibly Balut Island (Philippines; and P. neocaledonicus sp. nov. from New Caledonia. Furthermore, Profundiconus teramachii forma neotorquatus (da Motta, 1984 is raised to specific status as P. neotorquatus (da Motta, 1984.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of euthyneuran gastropods from sea to land mainly based on comparative mitogenomic of four species of Onchidiidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bian Na; Wei, Luan Luan; Shen, He Ding; Wu, Hong Xi; Wang, Dong Feng

    2016-09-01

    We generated complete mitochondrial genome sequences data for 4 genera (Onchidium, Platevindex, Paraoncidium and Peronia) in Onchidiidae to construct a phylogenetic tree in conjunction with other 9 existing data among gastropods. The topology showed that the taxa clustered into two main groups of four species, one of which included Onchidium struma and the Platevindex mortoni, the other Paraoncidium reevesii and Peronia verruculata. The process in Pulmonata from sea to land in accordance with the evolution of respiratory organs from branchial gills to pulmonary cavity has been shown. This will also constitute a framework for phylogeny evolution analysis, systematic classfication of Onchidiidae and other euthyneurans (pulmonates and opisthobranchs). PMID:25648917

  9. Hábitos de Vida dos Gastropoda e Bellerophontida da Formação Maecuru,Devoniano Médio, Bacia do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira Ponciano

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Maecuru Formation comprises the Devonian-Carboniferous sedimentary sequence of Amazonas Basin and consists of fluvialdeltaics and pelites layers. Its fossiliferous sediments (the uppermost part of the Lontra Member consists of hummocky cross-stratified fine-grained to very coarse sandstones beds.With the purpose of adding more information about the palaeoecology of The Maecuru Formation fossils, the life habits of gastropods and bellerophontids were inferred based on functional analysis and similarities with the living forms. The more significant features used were: (1 total frontal cross-sectional area, (2height and relative positions of pressure point and center of gravity, (3 apertural margin morphology, (4 kind of symmetry and (5surface smoothness. The species Platyceras (Orthonychia steinmanni; Platyceras (Tumbophalus hartti; Platyceras (Platyostomadarwini; Platyceras (Platyostoma (? agassizi; Platyceras (Orthonychia meerwarthi; Platyceras (Orthonychia gracilis; Platyceras (Tumbophalus coutoanus; “Platyceras” tschernischewi; “Platyceras” subconicum; “Platyceras” (Ortonychia hussaki; “Platyceras” (Ortonychia whitii; “Platyceras” (Ortonychia whitii var. curua and “Platyceras” symmetricum var. maecuruensis represent the epifaunal gastropods with low mobility (coprophagous/suspension feeders of the Maecuru Formation, living symbiotically directly over the anus of a crinoid or nearby. This coprophagous mode of life was probably a non-obligate relationship, because only the closest organisms will get all the advantages of using the crinoid host as a nutrient source. The others adult platyceratids would have a broader feeding repertoire, like as suspension feeders. The bellerophonts Plectonotus (Plectonotus derbyi, Plectonotus (? (Plectonotus salteri e Bucanella reissi would have an epifaunal medium to high mobility, showing a predator habit preferably. On the other hand Bucania freitasi, Ptomatis forbesi and Bellerophon steltzneri showed morphologies compable to a grazer habit with medium mobility. This relative high diversity of gastropods and bellerophonts corroborates the environment of medium and inner shelf inferred for the Maecuru Formation among the others macrofossils, since the majority of Paleozoic fauna of gastropods were typically from shallow seas.

  10. Mother-offspring data in a study of the mating system in a natural population of Bulinus globosus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukaratira, S.; Chandiwana, S.K.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef;

    1996-01-01

    The mating system of a natural population of Bulinus globosus from the Chiweshe area, Zimbabwe, was studied with mother-offspring data using isozyme genetic markers. The study was done in response to work on the genetic structure of this population which suggested a limited extent of cross...

  11. Estado del conocimiento de la durofagia en el registro fósil: interacción depredador-presa en moluscos marinos (Clases Gastropoda y Bivalvia)

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Gómez-Espinosa; Raúl Gío-Argáez; Miriam Carreño de la Vega

    2015-01-01

    La depredación como un mecanismo evolutivo, de diversificación y biomineralización es un tópico de gran interés. Un tipo específico de depredación es la durofagia que se define como el hábito alimenticio de los animales que consumen organismos con un esqueleto duro mineralizado, ya sea concha o exoesqueleto. Los moluscos representan una fuente muy importante para examinar la depredación durófaga en el registro fósil debido a su distribución mundial, abundancia, buena preservación y a que ...

  12. First molecular identification of Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) from an intermediate host Radix labiata (Rossmaessler) (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Kondakov, Alexander V; Sokolova, Svetlana E

    2016-01-01

    The strigeid digenean species Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) was originally described from North America, but recorded in the Neotropical region (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016) and in Central Europe (Faltýnková et al. 2007). In Europe, this species is rare, and there is not much information about its range (Faltýnková et al. 2007; Soldánová et al. 2012). Australapatemon burti has a complex life cycle with three larval stages, two of which (sporocyst and cercaria) use several species of freshwater snails, and the third stage (metacercaria) use non-specific host hirudineans (Dubois 1968; Davies & Ostrowski de Núñez 2012; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016). Adult flukes are parasitic in the intenstines of various waterfowl species, such as ducks and swans (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Currently, the molecular data on this parasite species includes only nucleotide sequences of four adult specimens from Mexico (Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Their hosts were Mexican duck, Anas diazi Ridgway, American Wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin, Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, and Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin) (Anserformes: Anatidae). PMID:27395696

  13. Phylogeography of the Land Snail Eobania vermiculata (O.F. Müller, 1774 (Gastropoda: Pulmonata along the Croatian Coast and Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Puizina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Eobania vermiculata (O.F. Müller, 1774, is a typical Mediterranean species of large land snails. Nonindigenous populations of this species, however, are already established in the USA, Australia and elsewhere in the world, where this species is considered to represent a potentially serious threat as a pest and invasive species. The aims of this study were: 1 to determine the pattern of genetic variation within the Croatian E. vermiculata populations based on analyses of sequence diversity of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI, and 2 to shed more light upon the phylogeography of E. vermiculata in this area. Seventy-seven specimens of land snail Eobania vermiculata were sampled at 19 sampling sites along Croatian coastal region and islands. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (379 bp grouped into 14 haplotypes, whereas the partial COI gene sequences (523 bp grouped into 13 haplotypes. The overall population is characterized by relatively high haplotype (gene diversity (0.719±0.042 for 16S rDNA and 0.869±0.020 for COI. Demographic Fu F’s tests and Tajima's D value indicated no significant change in the population size, thus suggesting long historical presence of E. vermiculata in this region. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis, Bayesian inference and median joining haplotype network showed a genetic splitting of Croatian 16S rRNA and COI sequences, with a clear distinction between south-Adriatic and north-Adriatic haplotypes. A possible explanation for the observed phylogeography of E. vermiculata, could be related to the climate change, glaciations and the Adriatic Sea level oscillations during the Quaternary

  14. Succinea peruviana (Gastropoda en la dieta de la lagartija de las Lomas Microlophus tigris (Sauria en la Reserva Nacional de Lachay, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pérez Z.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa de la presencia del caracol Succinea peruviana en la dieta de la lagartija de las Lomas Microlophus tigris, la misma que habita el mesohábitat de Lomas con árboles en la Reserva Nacional de Lachay. Este es el primer informe del consumo de caracoles por lagartijas del Desierto Costero Peruano

  15. Conservation status and updated census of Patella ferruginea (Gastropoda, Patellidae in Ceuta: distribution patterns and new evidence of the effects of environmental parameters on population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera–Ingraham, G. A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Strait of Gibraltar has important populations of the highly endangered patellid limpet Patella ferruginea. Between 2006 and 2010, an exhaustive census was carried out in Ceuta. The total coastline was divided into 17 sectors. The coast of each sector was examined by using 10 m transects. For the case of those sectors composed of breakwaters, jetties or islets, no transects were used, and instead, the total number of individuals was recorded. Each individual was measured to the nearest millimetre using a calliper. Moreover, the complete rocky shore length where the species could potentially be present was calculated, and an estimation of the total number of individuals that each sector could host was made. Results indicate that Ceuta could be home to around 44,000 individuals. The species found in Point Benzú, its westernmost limit of distribution on the North African coasts. The largest populations were recorded on the South Bay, with higher Mediterranean influence. Our results indicate that substrate roughness (topographic heterogeneity and the area’s accessibility highly influence the abundance and population structure. Those populations located on high topographic heterogeneity substrates show higher recruitment rates and lower percentages of larger individuals, while medium to low rugosity surfaces presented the opposite pattern. Additionally, easily accessible areas (and frequented by humans presented smaller average shell sizes. Implications of the results for conservation purposes are discussed.

  16. A new land snail from the Quaternary of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean: Darderia bellverica n. gen., n. sp. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaba, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of land snail is described from pre-human paleosoils at Bellver hill in the island of Mallorca. It is a medium-sized helicodontid with 6 tight coils, dome-shaped spire, obtuse peripheral keel, eccentric umbilicus, narrow aperture inclined forward, sinuous reflected peristome, a low angular tooth, 5 infrapalatal denticles, teleoconch with many regular riblets and widely scattered hair pits, and protoconch with simple wrinkles and very thin spiral lines. This very rare species had been reported as a member of the Iberian-Maghribian Oestophora. Similar Plio-Pleistocene fossils from the Balearics and Sardinia are placed in the new genus. This may constitute a biogeographic link within the Lindholmiolinae, now surviving at both ends of the Mediterranean basin. It remains unknown when, why or whether it became extinct.

  17. Population Genetics and Genetic Variability ofBulinus globosus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) From the Two Main River Systems in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukaratirwa, S.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Kristensen, Thomas K.;

    1996-01-01

    Bullnus globosus is the only known vector of Schistosoma haematoblum in Zimbabwe. The population genetic structure of this vector snail from the two main river drainage systems, represented by 27 localities, was determined from starch gel lsoenzyme electrophoretic data. Out of 11 enzyme systems s...... of ecological factors (drought/desiccation and floods), genetic drift, and seasonal gene flow as the main factors influencing the genetic structure of these populations.......Bullnus globosus is the only known vector of Schistosoma haematoblum in Zimbabwe. The population genetic structure of this vector snail from the two main river drainage systems, represented by 27 localities, was determined from starch gel lsoenzyme electrophoretic data. Out of 11 enzyme systems...

  18. Biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of a GnRH-like peptide in the neural ganglia of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Masafumi; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Okubo, Kataaki; Amiya, Noriko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2010-08-01

    We examined whether gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptides are present in the neural ganglia of the gastropod Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (rpHPLC) combined with time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) analysis and by immunohistochemistry. Cerebral ganglion extracts showed a similar retention time to lamprey GnRH-II (lGnRH-II) in rpHPLC combined with TR-FIA analysis. GnRH-like-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies (which reacted with a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against the common amino acid sequence of vertebrate GnRH) were detected in the peripheral region of the cerebral ganglion, and they were observed to send fibers into the neuropil. GnRH-like-ir fibers were also detected in the neuropil of the pedal ganglion, the visceral nerve, and the nerve originating from the pedal ganglion. Chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II)-like-ir fibers (which reacted with a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against cGnRH-II) were also observed in the neuropil of the cerebral ganglion. GnRH-like-ir fibers and cGnRH-II-like-ir fibers were distinguishable in the neuropil of the cerebral ganglion by double-staining immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that multiple GnRH-like peptides exist in the neural ganglia of the Pacific abalone. PMID:20695781

  19. Rapana thomasiana grosse (gastropoda) haemocyanin: spectroscopic studies of the structure in solution and the conformational stability of the native protein and its structural subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolashka, P; Genov, N; Parvanova, K; Voelter, W; Geiger, M; Stoeva, S

    1996-04-01

    1. The stability towards pH changes, thermal and chemical (guanidine hydrochloride) denaturation of the oxy- and apo-forms of the native Rapana thomasiana haemocyanin and its structural subunits, RHSS1 and RHSS2, has been investigated using fluorescence and CD spectroscopy. The association of the subunits into haemocyanin aggregates increases considerably the melting temperature and the free energy of stabilization in water. The guanidine hydrochloride denaturation of the aggregated oxygen-transporting protein depends slightly on the protein concentration. The denaturation of the individual subunits is concentration-independent. Rapana haemocyanin is 5.9-7.5 kJ/mol more stable than the constituent polypeptide chains. 2. Upon excitation of the native haemocyanin and the subunits at 295 or 280 nm the fluorescence emission is determined by tryptophyl residues 'buried' deeply in the hydrophobic interior of the protein globules. This is confirmed by quenching experiments with acrylamide, caesium and iodide ions. The efficiency of the radiationless energy transfer between the phenol (donor) and indole (acceptor) fluorophores in the three species, native haemocyanin, RHSS1 and RHSS2, has been determined. An efficient 'interchain' energy transfer between tyrosyl and tryptophyl residues from different polypeptide chains occurs in the non-dissociated form of the haemocyanin. 3. The tryptophan emission of the oxyhaemocyanin, oxy-RHSS1 and oxy-RHSS 2 is strongly quenched by the copper-dioxygen complex at the active site and the respective quantum yields of fluorescence of the oxygenated species are 4-7 times lower than those of the apo-forms. Protonated imidazole groups quench the fluorescence of neighbouring exited indole rings, probably by charge-transfer complex formation. PMID:8670098

  20. Population genetic structure of the freshwater snail, Bulinus globosus, (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) from selected habitats of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkize, Lwamkelekile Sitshilelo; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Zishiri, Oliver Tendayi

    2016-09-01

    The freshwater snail Bulinus globosus is an important intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis. This disease is of major health concern, especially in Africa where the majority of cases have been reported. In this study the inter- and intra-genetic diversity and population genetic structure of B. globosus from nine locations in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa was studied using four polymorphic microsatellite loci (BgZ1-BgZ4). Moderate genetic diversity was detected within populations with a mean diversity (HE) of 0.49±0.09. The majority of populations significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05), due to a deficit of heterozygotes. Such deviations may be due to founder events that were caused by bottlenecks that occurred as a result of frequent droughts and flooding that these snails' habitats are exposed to. Overall, the populations studied seem to be partially inbreeders/selfers with mean estimates of 0.24/0.38. A discernable genetic structure was elucidated among populations as evident by the mean pairwise FST of 0.58±0.13. There was no significant association between genetic and geographical distance among populations, an indication of limited gene flow. This increases the chances of populations losing alleles due to genetic drift. Populations in close proximity demonstrated high genetic differentiation (58.77% total variation) due to allelic differences between them. The sample populations fell into 12 clusters, however, the populations from uMkhanyakude and uThungulu exhibited no discernable genetic structure. Genetically, the Bhobhoyi site found within the uGu district was equidistant to the two main sampling regions. PMID:27267152

  1. Current knowledge on population studies on five continental molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State (SC, Central Southern Brazil region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ignacio Agudo-Padrón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although still very scarce, available knowledge on population studies on continental (land and freshwatermolluscs in the territory of Santa Catarina State is shortly analyzed and discussed. Based on the IUCN“Restricted Distribution” criterion, a total of 54 nominal species, including 31 terrestrial gastropods, 15freshwater gastropods and 8 limnic bivalves, were considered strong candidates as threatened taxa. Out of allthese endangered species, only 5 limnic forms (2 gastropods and 3 bivalves were previously analysed, in someway, at population level.

  2. Irrigation canals in Melo creek basin (Rio Espera and Capela Nova municipalities, Minas Gerais, Brazil): habitats to Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and potential spread of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, M G P; Pimenta, E C; Fujaco, M A G; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

    2016-04-19

    This study analyzed the presence of Biomphalaria in Melo creek basin, Minas Gerais state, and its relationship to irrigation canals. Seventeen of these canals were used to determine a limnological, morphological and hydrological characterization during an annual seasonal cycle. Biomphalaria samples were sent to René Rachou Research Center/FIOCRUZ for identification and parasitological examination. Six canals were identified as breeding areas for mollusks and in one of them it was registered the coexistence of B. tenagophila (first report to this basin) and B. glabrata species. Results indicated that the low flow rate and speed of water flow were the main characteristics that contributed to this specific growth of the mollusks in the area. These hydraulic characteristics were created due to anthropogenic action through the canalization of lotic areas in Melo creek, which allowed ideal ecological conditions to Biomphalaria outbreak. The results emphasize the need of adequate handling and constant monitoring of the hydrographic basin, subject to inadequate phytosanitary conditions, aiming to prevent the occurrence and propagation of schistosomiasis. PMID:27097093

  3. On the doubtful records of Alvania platycephala, Alvania pagodula and Alvania didyma, with the description of two new rissoid species (Mollusca; Gastropoda: Rissoidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, M.J.; Moolenbeek, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two new species of Alvania are described from Bermuda. Both species have been wrongly identified in the past. The generic classification is discussed but a definitive statement based only on conchological characters seems impossible.

  4. Insights into the relationships of Palearctic and Nearctic lymnaeids (Mollusca : Gastropoda by rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and phylogeny of stagnicoline intermediate host species of Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bargues M.D.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica is the vector-borne disease presenting the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution known. F. hepatica shows a great adaptation power to new environmental conditions which is the consequence of its own capacities together with the adaptation and colonization abilities of its specific vector hosts, freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae. Several lymnaeid species only considered as secondary contributors to the liver fluke transmission have, however, played a very important role in the geographic expansion of this disease. Many of them belong to the so-called "stagnicoline" type group. Stagnicolines have, therefore, a very important applied interest in the Holarctic region, to which they are geographically restricted. The present knowledge on the genetics of stagnicolines and on their parasite-host interrelationships is, however, far from being sufficient. The present paper analyses the relationships between Palaearctic and Nearctic stagnicoline species on the base of the new light furnished by the results obtained in nuclear rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and corresponding phylogenetic studies of the lymnaeid taxa Lymnaea (Stagnicola occulta, L. (S. palustris palustris (topotype specimens and L.(S. p. turricula from Europe. Natural infections with F. hepatica have been reported in all of them. Surprisingly, ITS-2 length and G C content of L. occulta were similar and perfectly fitted within the respective ranges known in North American stagnicolines. Nucleotide differences and genetic distances were higher between L. occulta and the other European stagnicolines than between L. occulta and the North American ones. The ITS-2 sequence of L. p. turricula from Poland differed from the other genotypes known from turricula in Europe. The phylogenetic trees using the maximum-parsimony, distance and maximum-likelihood methods confirmed (i the inclusion of L. occulta in the branch of North American stagnicolines, (iii the link between the North American stagnicolines-L. occulta group with Galba truncatula, and (iii the location of the L. p. turricula genotype from Poland closer to L. p. palustris than to other European L. p. turricula genotypes. The Palaearctic species occulta is included in the genus Catascopia, together with the Nearctic species catascopium, emarginata and elodes. The results suggest a potential of transmission capacity for C. occulta higher than that of other European stagnicolines or Omphiscola glabra. The relatively low genetic distances between C. occulta and G. truncatula and the clustering of both species in the same clade suggest that C.occulta may be potentially considered as the second lymnaeid intermediate host species of F. hepatica in importance in eastern and northern Europe, and probably also western and central Asia, after G. truncatula. L. p. turricula may be considered as a potential secondary vector of F. hepatica, at a level similar tot that of L.p. palustris.

  5. Single cell gel electrophoresis as a tool to assess genetic damage in Heleobia cf. australis (Mollusca: Gastropoda as sentinel for industrial and domestic pollution in Montevideo bay (Uruguay

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    Silvia Villar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in aquatic organisms in polluted areas is an important issue because contamination may alter their health at sublethal levels. Although molluscs have been widely used to monitor water pollution, there are no records of in vivo genotoxicity studies. Heleobia cf. australis, is distributed in almost all Uruguayan coastal ecosystems, including highly polluted sites. The comet assay is a damage genetic biomarker based on the migration of negatively charged DNA fragments produced by mutagenic agents in individual cells. Live individuals were collected in the Montevideo Bay (impacted area and Laguna Garzón (control to analyze the presence of mutagenic agents in the former site through comet assay. Cells from organisms of the impacted area showed significantly higher levels of genetic damage than those obtained in the control population, measured by percentage of DNA in the tail. Although preliminary, this approach supports the idea that H. cf. australis could be used as a sentinel to evaluate the presence of mutagenic agents in estuarine environments, alerting to the impact of contamination in its early stages.

  6. Nueva especie de Planorbidae (Gastropoda: Basommatophora en la Patagonia chilena: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. First record of Planorbidae (Mollusca: Basommatophora in Chilean Patagonia: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fuentealba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile la familia Planorbidae está representada por el género Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, compuesta por siete especies distribuidas desde Isluga hasta el río Puelo. De estas especies, solo B.peregrina, ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico, y Biomphalaria aymara de Isluga, han sido reconocidas sobre la base de la morfología del sistema reproductor y la rádula, caracteres que fueron utilizados en el presente estudio para diferenciar a Biomphalaria cristiani como nueva especie del grupo y primer registro de la familia en la Patagonia chilena, ampliando su actual rango de distribución. Los caracteres que permiten la diagnosis de B. cristiani son el saco vaginal vestigial truncado, ausencia del desarrollo de los músculos suspensores del pene, vaina del pene corta en relación al prepucio, oviducto largo en relación al espermioducto y vaso deferente más delgado y largo que la vaina del pene, de tamano similar al prepucio. La localidad tipo de Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. es Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S, 72°27'40.65"W, región de Aysén.The family Planorbidae in Chile is represented by the genus Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, consisting of seven species distributed from Isluga to Puelo River. Of these species, only Biomphalaria peregrina widely distributed in the neotropical and Biomphalaria aymara from Isluga are recognized based on the morphology of the reproductive system and radula, characters that were used in the following study to differentiate Biomphalaria cristiani as a new species of this group and first record of the family in Chilean Patagonia, extending its current distribution range. The characters for the diagnosis of B. cristiani are: truncated vestigial vaginal pouch, lack of development of the penis retractor muscles, penis sheath shorter than the prepuce, oviduct longer than the spermiduct and vas deferens thinner and longer than the penis sheath, similar size to the prepuce. The type locality of B. cristiani nov. sp. is Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S; 72°27'40.65"W, Aysén region.

  7. The Japanese oyster drill Ocinebrellus inornatus (Récluz, 1851) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae), introduced to the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Faasse, Marco; Gittenberger, Adriaan;

    2012-01-01

    The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report on the...

  8. Effect of pollution on some freshwater species. II. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of experimental lead pollution on the ganglia in Viviparus ater (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognani Fantin, A.M.; Franchini, A.; Ottaviani, E.; Benedetti, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of lead on ganglia of Viviparus ater were studied by histochemical and histomorphological procedures. The pollution experiment should be considered a short-time static bioassay because of its experimental characteristics. There was considerable accumulation of lead in the ganglia as determined by atomic absorbance (A.A.S.). The cytological damage principally affected the neuronal cell bodies which undergo degenerative processes. The most serious cytopathological changes occurred in the following sequence: nuclear damage leading to pyknosis; nucleolar damage until disappearance; changes in Nissl bodies, at times forming a uniform mass. These cytological disorders led to markedly altered protein synthesis. Nerve fibers and neuroglia did not appear affected by lead exposure, even at higher doses. Membrane enzymes, phosphorylase, NADHDH, NADPHDH and SDH activities were decreased, whereas D-LDH, G-6-PDH, G-6-Pase and MAO activities increased. GDH was unchanged. Changes in polar lipid composition were also observed with an increase of phospholipids and a decrease of sulpholipids and cerebrosides.

  9. 斑节对虾1种lectin基因的电子克隆及分析%Silico cloning and analysis of C-lectin gene in Penaeus monodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玥; 杨军厚

    2012-01-01

    @@%以中国明对虾的c-lectin(DQ167572)基因为探针,搜索EST数据库,获得了日本对虾的1个lectin序列,通过电子克隆扩增到了该基因,并对基因进行了生物信息学分析.

  10. 斑节对虾细胞周期蛋白T基因的克隆和表达分析%Molecular cloning and expression of cyclin T gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭松; 傅明骏; 赵超; 李伟杰; 江世贵; 杨其彬; 周发林; 邱丽华

    2016-01-01

    真核生物的转录调控多发生在转录的延伸阶段,细胞周期蛋白T(cyclin T)是细胞转录的重要调控因子.文章利用RACE技术获得斑节对虾(Penaeusmonodon)cyclinT(Pmcyclin T)cDNA全长,其全长为3421 bp,其中开放阅读框(ORF)3135 bp,编码1044个氨基酸;生物信息学分析显示,该氨基酸序列含有一个周期蛋白家族特有的CYCLIN保守区,并含有N-糖基化位点和磷酸化位点;经BLAST同源性分析显示,细胞周期蛋白T编码的蛋白与柑橘木虱(Diaphorina citri)、切叶蚁(Acromyrmex echinatior)等多种节肢动物有很高的同源性;利用qRTPCR技术对Pmcyclin T在不同组织及卵巢发育各时期的mRNA水平的表达谱进行了研究.结果表明,细胞周期蛋白T在斑节对虾的心、卵巢等7个组织中均有表达,其中卵巢中表达量显著高于其他组织(P<0.05);在卵巢发育各时期中,细胞周期蛋白T在Ⅲ期表达量最高.

  11. 对感染白斑综合症病毒的亲虾子代的跟踪检测%The Detection of WSSV in the Filial Generation of the Effected Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Brooder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江世贵; 翁少萍; 吕玲; 苏天风; 何建国

    2003-01-01

    感染白斑综合症病毒(white spot syndrome virus,WSSV)的斑节对虾Penaeus monodon亲虾能产出携带WSSV的卵子,这些卵子可完成胚胎发育过程、孵化出无节幼体,并可以培育出蟤状幼体、糠虾幼体和仔虾.在确认只有亲虾作为WSSV传染源的情况下,培育出的部分幼体和部分仔虾携带WSSV;在相同的条件下,不带WSSV的亲虾产出的卵及幼体、仔虾未检测到WSSV.

  12. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infecting Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Amazon region Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda na região amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanny Maria de Andrade-Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon region. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença.

  13. Ocorrência no Brasil de Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata (O.F. Muller, 1774 (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, primeiro hospedeiro intermediário de Clonorchis sinensis (Cobbold, 1875 (Trematoda, Plathyhelmintes Occurrence of Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata (O.F. Mullher, 1774 (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia in Brazil, first intermediate host of Clonorchis sinensis (Cobbold, 1875 (Trematoda, Plathyhelmintes

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    Jorge Faria Vaz

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a introdução em nosso meio de Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata possivelmente anterior a 1967, quando pela primeira vez foi coletada em Santos. Essa espécie pode comportar-se como primeiro hospedeiro intermediário de Paragonimus westermani e de Clonorchis sinensis. Somente o último trematódeo tem alguma possibilidade de vir a parasitar o homem, em nosso meio.Introduction of Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata in Brazil, is reported. This introduction may go back prior to 1967 when some specimens were collected at Santos, S.Paulo (Brazil. T. (M. tuberculata is an intermediate host of Paragonimus westermani and Clonorchis sinensis, both pathogenic for man. Only this last trematode has some potential for human infection in Brazil.

  14. Arion intermedius (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: first record of this introduced slug in Chile, with notes on its anatomy and natural history Arion intermedius (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: primer registro de esta babosa introducida en Chile, con notas sobre su anatomía e historia natural

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    FRANCISCO J CÁDIZ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Results and conclusions are presented on morphological and field observations made on a collection of land slugs from the Arboretum and Botanical Garden administered by the Universidad Austral de Chile at Valdivia, as well as various records from other collection sites in southern Chile. Based on some anatomical features, the individuals studied were identified as Arion intermedius Normand, 1852, endemic to eastern Europe, and known from various locations around the world for its invasive capacity, apparently facilitated by its feeding habits and particularly by its reproductive strategy of strict self fertilization which is unusual in pulmonates. This is the first report of this species, introduced to Chile by human activities, added to previous literature citing the presence of Limacidae, Agriolimacidae, and Helicidae. This slug is a potential threat to agriculture and to native flora and fauna of ChileSe entregan los resultados y conclusiones de las observaciones anatómicas y de campo realizadas sobre un grupo de babosas terrestres capturadas principalmente en el parque Arboretum y Jardín Botánico de la Universidad Austral de Chile, en la ciudad de Valdivia, además de sus hallazgos puntuales en otros puntos del sur de Chile. Los ejemplares analizados corresponden a Arion intermedius Normand, 1852, especie endémica del este de Europa conocida en diversos lugares del mundo por su alta capacidad de colonización e invasión, ello aparentemente facilitado por su hábito de alimentación y particularmente su inusual estrategia reproductiva dentro de los pulmonados (autofecundación estricta. De esta manera, registramos una nueva especie introducida antrópicamente en Chile, sumándose de esta forma la familia Arionidae a las ya conocidas Limacidae, Agriolimacidae y Helicidae como una potencial amenaza a la agricultura y a la flora y fauna nativas chilenas

  15. Variabilidad geográfica en la tolerancia térmica y economía hídrica del gastrópodo intermareal Nodilittorina peruviana (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822 Geographic variability in thermal tolerance and water economy of the intertidal gastropod Nodilittorina peruviana. (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822

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    JOSE MIGUEL ROJAS

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available El gastrópodo Nodilittorina peruviana es un habitante común de la zona intermareal rocosa de la costa norte y centro de Chile. Las poblaciones de esta especie se caracterizan por presentar distribuciones agregadas. Por medio de mediciones de terreno y ensayos de laboratorio se evaluó la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades de termorregulación y conservación de agua, en individuos pertenecientes a dos localidades de la costa de Chile que presentan distintos regímenes termales (Taltal 25º 25' S; 70º 29' W y Las Cruces 33º 35' S; 71º 38' W. Los resultados indican que la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades termorregulatorias es dependiente de las condiciones locales. A pesar de que los individuos de ambas localidades presentaron puntos de tolerancia térmica similares, los caracoles de Taltal mostraron tasas de pérdidas de agua menores. El tamaño de las agregaciones se relacionó en forma negativa con la tasa de pérdida de agua de los individuos de ambas localidades. En el caso de Taltal se observó un límite de tolerancia menor que en Las Cruces y una relación positiva entre tamaño de la agregación y temperatura grupal. Los resultados demuestran que las condiciones ambientales locales puede ser determinante para la efectividad de los mecanismos de termorregulación.The gastropod Nodilittorina peruviana inhabit rocky intertidal of the north and center Chile. Populations of this species exhibits aggregated distributions. Through field and lab records we studied the effect of spatial distribution of snails on their thermoregulatory and water conservation efficiencies. We studied individuals from two localities of the Chilean coast with different climatic conditions (Taltal 25° 25 ` S; 70° 29 ` W and Las Cruces 33° 35 ` S; 71° 38 ` W. Results indicate that the influence of spatial distribution thermoregulatory efficiency is dependent of the local conditions. Although individuals from both localities presented similar thermal tolerances, snails from Taltal showed lower rates of water loss. Aggregations size were negatively related with the rate of water loss in individuals from both localities. Only, individuals from Taltal decreased their limit of thermal tolerance, and exhibited a positive relationship between aggregation size and the temperature of the group. Results demonstrated that the local environmental conditions are determinate thermoregulatory strategies.

  16. Ocorrência e controle de lesmas do gênero Omalonyx (Gastropoda, Succineidae, pragas de capim-elefante Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae em Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas Occurrence and control of Omalonyx slugs (Gastropoda, Succineidae, pests of the elephant-grass Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae in Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas

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    Marcos Vinicius Bastos Garcia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesmas do gênero Omalonyx d'Orbigny, 1837 são hermafroditas, herbívoras, de distribuição neotropical e vivem em plantas aquáticas, nas demais vegetações adjacentes e em solo úmido próximo a ambientes de água doce. No presente trabalho reporta-se a ocorrência atípica de O. pattersonae Tillier, 1981 e de Omalonyx sp. em área de terra firme, distante de ambiente aquático. Estas espécies aqui reportadas são simpátricas e devido à alta densidade populacional e prejuízos causados às folhas do capim-elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, são caracterizadas como pragas agrícolas. No período da noite as lesmas se alimentavam das folhas do capim elefante e durante o dia permaneciam escondidas na base do caule, próximo a superfície úmida do solo. A aplicação de cal hidratada sobre agregados de indivíduos de Omalonyx spp foi um método efetivo para o controle das populações. As alterações ambientais dos ecossistemas amazônicos para uso agrícola e/ou urbanização tem promovido o aumento populacional de espécies que se adaptam a novos habitats e geralmente se tornam pragas de difícil controle.Slugs of the genus Omalonyx d'Orbigny, 1837 are hermaphrodites, herbivorous, distributed on Neotropical regions, living on aquatic plants, moist soil and terrestrial vegetation close to freshwater systems. The present paper reports the atypical occurrence of O. pattersonae Tillier, 1981 and Omalonyx sp. in an upland area far from any aquatic environment. Both species reported here are sympatric and due to the high populations density and damages caused on leaves of elephant-grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, they are recognized as agricultural pests. During the night, the slugs feed on the grass leaves and at the daylight they stayed hidden in the base of stems, near the moist soil surface. The use of hydrated lime distributed over the aggregations of Omalonyx spp. showed to be an effective method to control the populations. The environmental changes in the Amazonian ecosystems for agricultural or urban purposes have promoted the increase of populations of native species that adapt in the new habitat and usually become pests that are difficult to control.

  17. Aspectos ultraestruturais de hemócitos de Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) analisados sob microscopia eletrônica de transmissão Ultrastructural aspects of hemocytes from Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) analysed with transmission eletronic microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos; José Antonio Picanço Diniz

    2009-01-01

    Os hemócitos do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata, um importante transmissor do trematódeo Schistosoma mansoni no Brasil, foram coletados de especimens na região Bragantina, localizada a oeste do estado do Pará. Os hemócitos foram examinados por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. As células foram fixadas pelo método de rotina com o uso do tampão PHEM (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA e Magnésio). Foram descritos os aspectos ultra-estruturais celulares como inclusões citoplasmáticas limitadas por m...

  18. Aspectos ultraestruturais de hemócitos de Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae analisados sob microscopia eletrônica de transmissão Ultrastructural aspects of hemocytes from Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae analysed with transmission eletronic microscopy

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    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os hemócitos do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata, um importante transmissor do trematódeo Schistosoma mansoni no Brasil, foram coletados de especimens na região Bragantina, localizada a oeste do estado do Pará. Os hemócitos foram examinados por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. As células foram fixadas pelo método de rotina com o uso do tampão PHEM (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA e Magnésio. Foram descritos os aspectos ultra-estruturais celulares como inclusões citoplasmáticas limitadas por membranas, mitocôndrias, retículos endoplasmáticos e outros. As observações mostram que esse tampão possui a propriedade de preservação do citoesqueleto celular, apresentando bons resultados na preservação das estruturas dos hemócitos e suas organelas.The blood cells of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata from the region of Bragantina in the state of Pará, an important vector of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, were collected and fixed by routine method with PHEM buffer and examined with transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural cellular aspects like cytoplasmic inclusions, mitochondrion, vesicles and others organelles are described. The buffer used resulted in good preservations of the hemocytes and their organelles.

  19. Morfologia do sistema muscular e do sistema reprodutor de Anisancylus obliquus (Broderip & Sowerby do Chile, como contribuição à sistemática de Ancylidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Basommatophora Morphology of the muscular and reproductive systems of Anisancylus obliquus (Broderip & Sowerby from Chile as a contribution to the systematics of Ancylidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Basommatophora

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    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the morphology of the muscular and reproductive systems of Anisancylus obliquus (Broderip & Sowerby, 1832 based on specimens from Chile is presented. Differences are observed in the number of folicules of the ovotestis and prostata when comparing them with specimens from Brazil (chilean specimens: ovotestis = 28 to 32; prostata = 3 to 5; brazilian specimens: ovotestis = 20 to 21; prostata = 6 to 8. In the muscular system, the right aductor muscle scar is often longer than in brazilian specimens. The general morphology of muscular and reproductive systems is similar to that observed to Uncancylus concentricus (d'Orbigny, 1835 and Gundlachia dutrae Santos, 1994 (V-shaped adhesive area; single right anterior muscle with elongated moon-shaped scar; ejaculatory complex with projected ejaculatory duct and differs from G. ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962, G. radiata (Guilding, 1828 and Hebetancylus moricandi (d'Orbigny, 1837 (elongated adhesive area; double right anterior muscle with rounded or oval-shaped muscle scar and ejaculatoiy complex without projected ejaculatory duct. Differences are also observed when comparing them with Ancylus fluviatilis Müller, 1774 where the right muscle scar is continuous with the posterior one, whereas A. obliquus shows three well defined muscle scars. The ejaculatory system of A. fluviatilis presents flagellum duct and ejaculatory duct opening apart into the sheath; there are penis, prepuce with muscular pillars and a muscular flagellum, whereas A. obliquus shows the flagellum duct and ejaculatory duct reaching the sheath together; there are not penis and muscular pillars on prepuce; the flagellum is glandular. These differences shows A. obliquus and others neotropical pateliforms basommatophorans are not closely related to european Ancylus.

  20. Avaliação da atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies de Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae Assessment of moluscicidal activity of the latex of three Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae species on Leptinaria unilamellata d'Obigny 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S Afonso-Neto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrópodes pulmonados terrestres podem atuar como hospedeiros intermediários de helmintos. Os primeiros registros do controle químico desses invertebrados datam do início do século XX e as substâncias utilizadas eram toxinas inespecíficas já empregadas no controle de outras pragas. Moluscicidas sintéticos apresentam limitações técnicas que estimularam a busca de substitutos naturais. Dentre as várias espécies vegetais com atividade moluscicida, Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbia milii des Moul. var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook Ursch & Leandri e Euphorbia tirucalli L. despertam atenção pelos excelentes resultados obtidos sobre moluscos aquáticos. Contudo, estudos sobre a atividade de plantas moluscicidas em moluscos terrestres são pouco comuns, apesar de sua grande importância parasitológica e agrícola. As semelhanças anatomo-fisiológicas entre espécies de moluscos aquáticos e terrestres sugerem que estratégias de controle químico possam ter eficiência semelhante para os dois grupos de invertebrados. Com base nessa hipótese, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies do gênero Euphorbia sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835, gastrópode terrestre descrito como hospedeiro intermediário de helmintos trematódeos digenéticos que parasitam animais domésticos. Destas E. milii var. splendens apresentou efeito moluscicida elevado sobre L. unilamellata, 100% até uma diluição de 1:800, já nos primeiros minutos após a aplicação. Embora citadas na literatura como tóxicas para moluscos aquáticos, E. cotinifolia e E. tirucalli não exibiram atividade moluscicida sobre L. unilamellata. Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que o látex de E. milii var. splendens pode se constituir em uma estratégia viável de controle químico de moluscos terrestres.Pulmonate terrestrial gastropods can be intermediate hosts for helminthes. The first records of chemically controlling these invertebrates date back to the beginning of the 20th century. The substances used were unspecific toxins which were already used for controlling other pests. Synthetic molluscicides have technical limitations that stimulated a search for natural substitutes. Among the many vegetal species that have molluscicidal activity, Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbia milii des Moul. var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook Ursch & Leandri and Euphorbia tirucalli L. call attention because of the excellent results that have been obtained when they are used on aquatic mollusks. However, studies on the activity of molluscicidal plants on terrestrial mollusks are rare, in spite of its great importance in controlling parasites and to agriculture. Anatomical and physiological similarities among species of aquatic and terrestrial mollusks suggest that chemical control strategies can be effective on both groups of invertebrates. Based on this hypothesis, we assessed the molluscicidal activity of the latex of three species of the genus Euphorbia on the terrestrial gastropod Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835, described as an intermediate host of digenetic trematode helminths that parasitize domestic animals. E. milii var. splendens had the highest molluscicidal effect on L. unilamellata, being 100% lethal in concentrations up to 1:1800 in the first minutes after application. Although E. cotinifolia and E. tirucalli have been cited in the literature as toxic to aquatic mollusks, they did not have molluscicidal activity on L. unilamellata. The results of our study indicate that the latex of E. milii var. splendens may be a viable strategy for the chemical control of terrestrial mollusks.

  1. Pteropoda (Gastropoda, Thecosomata e Gymnosomata coligidos ao largo dos arquipélagos de São Pedro e São Paulo, costa nordeste, Brasil Pteropoda (Gastropoda, Thecosomata and Gymnosomata collected along the northeast coast of the archipelago of São Pedro and São Paulo, Brazil

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    Valdeni Soares de Oliveira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Pteropoda studies were carried out offshore São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (0º56'2"N e 29º20'6"W to assess biodiversity and spatial distribution. A Bongo net (mesh size 300 micrometer was hauled obliquely from a depth between 0 and 50 m and Oand 100 m by the REVIZEE-SCORE/NE I oceanographic expedition on board of the Brazilian Navy Oceanographic Ship Antares. Samples were collected at 16 stations from September to October 1995. A total of 880 organisms distributed in 20 species, 14 genera and 9 families were identified. At the layer 0-50 m, Creseis virgula (Rang (828 was the most frequent species (71.43%, followed by Limacina inflata (Orbigny, (836 and Cavolinia inflexa (Lesueur, 18(3 (64.28%, each. ln terms of relative abundance outranked L. inflara (varying between 57.5 and 92.24% and C. virgula (varying between 60.0 and 72.73%. At the layer 0-100 m, C. virgula was very frequent (80%, L. inflata (70% and Cuvierina columnella (Rang (827 (40% were frequent, other species had less than 30% of frequency. L. inflata varied from 37.5 to 100% and C. virgula from 42.42 to 100% of relative abundance. Species diversity varied from medium to low ( < 2.0 bits.ind-1 in both layers. At the layer 0-50 m C. virgula was directly correlated to temperature and salinity, while at the layer 0-100 m L. inflata was correlated to these parameters, showing that these species are Tropical Water indicators.

  2. Avaliação de efeitos de espécies de mangue na distribuição de Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae no Ceará, nordeste do Brasil Evaluation of local effects of mangrove species on the distribution of Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae in Ceara, northeastern Brazil

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    Rafaela C. Maia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 é um gastrópode pulmonado, macrodetritívoro, importante na transferência de energia em manguezais neotropicais, mas sua distribuição em diferentes escalas espaciais ainda é pouco conhecida nas regiões brasileiras. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a distribuição de M. coffeus com relação: 1 às espécies Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2 à posição dos rizóforos de R. mangle e 3 à altura das árvores em diferentes manguezais. O seu comportamento ao longo do ciclo de marés também foi descrito. A densidade de M. coffeus foi similar entre R. mangle e L. racemosa, porém os maiores caramujos foram encontrados nas árvores de R. mangle. A distribuição dos caramujos encontrados no sedimento diferiu em relação aos rizóforos, com maior densidade no centro e o maior tamanho na borda da área amostral. Entretanto, não houve relação com a disponibilidade de recursos alimentares formados por folhas. A densidade também foi maior nos manguezais baixo e médio quando comparados ao alto, porém não foram encontradas diferenças de tamanho dos caramujos em mangues de alturas distintas. Observamos também que, durante a maré alta, M. coffeus sobe nas árvores mais próximas. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados principalmente com a disponibilidade de recursos e abrigos fornecidos por R. mangle. Desta forma, novos estudos sobre a distribuição de M. coffeus sob diversas condições são recomendáveis, já que as regiões de manguezais estão cada vez mais sujeitas a perturbações.Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a pulmonate, macrodetritivore gastropod, important in energy flows in neotropical mangroves, but its distribution in different spatial scales is still unknown in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of M. coffeus: 1 among the mangrove trees Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae and Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2 in relation to the position of R. mangle prop roots and 3 among mangroves with different tree heights. Further, its behavior along one tidal cycle was also described. The densities of M. coffeus did not differ between R. mangle and L. racemosa, but the largest snails were found on R. mangle. The distribution of snails found on the sediment differed relative to the position of the prop roots, with the highest density in the center and largest size in the edge of the studied areas. However, this distribution was not related with the availability of food resources provided by decayed leaves. Higher densities were also recorded in intermediate and low-stature mangroves when compared with taller ones, but no differences in snail's sizes among mangroves were found. During the high tide, M. coffeus individuals climb nearby trees. These results are possibly related to the availability of resources and shelter supplied by R. mangle. Thus, studies on the distribution of M. coffeus in diverse conditions are essential, because mangroves are being intensively disturbed.

  3. MACROINVERTEBRATES COMPOSITION IN THE BLIZNEC STREAM, SECOND AND THIRD MAKSIMIR LAKE

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    Marina Piria

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrates in spring period was investigated during two years in the first and second Maksimir Lake and Bliznec stream. The domination of Gastropoda was outstanding at these three investigated sites. From time to time stronger development of Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Diptera and Crustacea was noted at the second Maksimir Lake. Gastropoda was dominant at the third Maksimir Lake (from 1.484 to 2.506 g m–2 while Crustacea, Oligochaeta and Hirudinea made important biomass. Species density in the Bliznec stream was quantitative higher than the one at other stations. The dominant group was Gastropoda (from 0.568 to 3.026 g m–2 and there was higher development of Trichoptera, Crustacea, Diptera, Heteroptera and Bivalvia (Table 3 and 4. Bliznec stream water quality, observed by biological method given by Kerovec, ranged from polluted to highly polluted.

  4. 75 FR 36635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown... Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``Shrimp Order''). We announced...

  5. 75 FR 47771 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis... FR 12206 (Mar. 15, 2010) (``Preliminary Results''). DATES: Effective Date: August 9, 2010. FOR... Republic of China, 74 FR 13178 (March 26, 2009) (``Initiation Notice''). \\3\\ See Memorandum to...

  6. 76 FR 12025 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order). On February 1,...

  7. 78 FR 5416 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted... Petition, dated January 9, 2013 at Exhibit I-SQ-3. \\5\\ See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties, 62 FR... the deadline established by the Department.\\6\\ \\6\\ See...

  8. 75 FR 53947 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis... Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004) (``Brazil Final Determination... Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23, 2004) (``Ecuador Final Determination''); Notice of...

  9. 75 FR 12188 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown..., 74 FR 5638, 5639 (January 30, 2009) (Section 129 Determination); Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

  10. Virus diseases risk-factors associated with shrimp farming practices in rice-shrimp and intensive culture systems in Mekong Delta Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duc, P.M.; Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Nguyen Thanh Phuong,; Bosma, R.H.; Huynh V., Hien; Tran N., Tuan

    2015-01-01

    In Mekong Delta, viral infection, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), heptopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and gill-associated nidovirus (GAV) frequently infect cultured shrimp starting at the postlarvae s

  11. Venomous mollusks: the risks of human accidents by conus snails (gastropoda: conidae in Brazil Moluscos peçonhentos: riscos de acidentes em humanos pelo molusco Conus (Gastrópode: cunidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Mollusks of the genus Conus present a venomous apparatus composed of radulae, a chitin structure linked to glands, which injects potent neurotoxic peptides, causing serious human envenomation and even death, associated with the blockage of certain receptors and muscular paralysis. No reported envenomation has occurred in Brazil, but certain populations are at risk of accidents.Os moluscos do gênero Conus apresentam um aparato venenoso composto de uma rádula quitinosa ligada a glândulas de peçonha, causando envenenamentos humanos graves e mesmo óbitos pela ação neurotóxica indutora do bloqueio de vários receptores e paralisia muscular. Não há casos descritos de envenenamento no país, mas determinadas populações correm risco de acidentes.

  12. Multiple forms of octopine dehydrogenase in Strombus luhuanus (mollusca, gastropoda, strombidae): genetic basis of polymorphism, properties of the enzymes, and relationship between the octopine dehydrogenase phenotype and the accumulation of anaerobic end products during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J; England, W R

    1982-10-01

    Octopine dehydrogenase (ODH) is electrophoretically polymorphic in the gastropod mollusk Strombus luhuanus. The frequencies of the six electrophoretic phenotypes in the Heron Island population, together with the molecular weight values of 38,000 obtained for each of the three forms of the enzyme, demonstrate that the monomeric enzyme is encoded by three codominant alleles at a single locus. The purified allozymes are indistinguishable in terms of Km values for substrates, product inhibition by octopine and NAD, pH optima, and substrate inhibition by pyruvate. No statistically significant correlations were found between the ODH phenotype and the maximum activities of ODH or alanopine dehydrogenase, the capacity for anaerobic muscle work, or the accumulation of octopine or strombine/alanopine during exercise. It would appear that the ODH allozymes may be functionally equivalent both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:7181845

  13. 大连沿海几种腹足类和双壳类的营养成分分析%An Analysis of Nutritive Components of Some Gastropoda and Bivalvia in Dalian Coastline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶平; 许庆陵; 谭淑荣

    2000-01-01

    对大连沿海所产的3种腹足类和8种双壳类的有机和无机成分进行了测定分析.分析结果表明:蛋白质、脂肪含量均有差异;大多可称之为高蛋白、低脂肪食品.无机营养素含量因种类而不同,但总的变化趋势差距不大.为开发和利用这些海洋贝类资源提供了营养评价的参考依据.

  14. 广东海陵岛沿海软体动物的分布%DISTRIBUTION OF CLASS BIVALVIA AND GASTROPODA MOLLUSCA IN THE INSHORE REGIONS OF HAILING ISLAND OF GUANGDONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐以杰; 林炜; 陈明旺; 钟诚; 杜晓捷

    2005-01-01

    对海陵岛沿海软体动物进行了采集调查,共鉴定180种,分属 60科. 其中双壳纲20科86种,占总数47.77%,腹足纲38科92种,占总数51.11%,多板纲1科1种,占总数0.56%,头足纲1科1种,占总数0.56%. 分析表明,其区系特点以南海亚热带-热带种和东海-南海亚热带种为主要成分.

  15. Revision of three camaenid and one bradybaenid species (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) from China based on morphological and molecular data, with description of a new bradybaenid subspecies from Inner Mongolia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Wang; Qiong Xiao; Weichuan Zhou; Chungchi Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We have revised the taxonomy of three camaenid and one bradybaenid species from China and described one new subspecies of the genus Bradybaena (Family Bradybaenidae) from Inner Mongolia, China. The genitalia of three Satsuma (Family Camaenidae) species S. mellea stenozona (Moellendorff, 1884), S. meridionalis (Moellendorff, 1884), comb. n. and S. uncopila (Heude, 1882), comb. n. assigned to the genus Bradybaena previously,lack a dart sac and mucous glands. Moreover, the molecular phy...

  16. Contribuição de Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae na degradação da serapilheira do médio estuário do rio Pacoti, Ceará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva S Tavares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A degradação da serapilheira no médio estuário do rio Pacoti foi estudada na presença e na ausência do gastrópode Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758, visando verificar a possível contribuição desse invertebrado na ciclagem da matéria orgânica dos manguezais. A densidade populacional de M. coffeus e a distribuição das folhas, em termos de biomassa úmida, biomassa seca e abundância, presentes na serapilheira do local, foram estimadas a partir de uma amostragem. Um experimento em campo foi realizado com amostras de coloração e biomassas similares de folhas de Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae sem sinais de herbivoria, distribuídas igualmente entre 64 gaiolas. Em 32 destas foram colocados também exemplares de M. coffeus. Essas gaiolas foram distribuídas entre quatro pontos, sendo oito pares de gaiolas (controle e experimento por ponto. Durante oito semanas, quatro pares de gaiolas foram coletados semanalmente. Após coletadas, os sinais de pastagem nas folhas causados por M. coffeus foram contados e as biomassas úmida e seca das amostras foram determinadas. Comparando controle e experimento, verificou-se que M. coffeus é capaz de contribuir na degradação da serapilheira na área estudada, porém, não foi verificada uma participação significativa desse gastrópode na degradação das folhas quando comparados experimento e controle ao longo do experimento.

  17. Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae em Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae: alterações nos depósitos de cálcio e na função reprodutiva do primeiro hospedeiro intermediário Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae em Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae: alterations in calcium deposits and in the reproductive function of its first intermediate host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange V. Paschoal

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the parasitism by the digenetic trematode Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet, 1892 over the calcium mobilization and the reproductive function of its first intermediate host, the snail Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 was experimentally studied in infected and uninfected snails maintained in laboratory under controlled conditions of nutrition, humidity and temperature. The calcium of the shells of infected and uninfected snails was quantified by using a technique of volumetric complexation. The amount of calcium present in the tissue was evaluated by using the histochemistry techniques of Dahl and von Kossa. The alteration in the reproductive function was evaluated through the egg production, and by histological follow up of the snails gametogenesis, in the infected and uninfected snails. The Student's test "t" showed that there was no significant difference in relation to size, weight and calcium concentration in the shells of infected and uninfected snails. The analysis of nonlinear regression, polynomial of 4th order, showed an highly positive relation to weight and size of shell to infected and uninfected snails, and an weakly significant relation to calcium concentration in the shells and shells size of infected snails. The histochemistry techniques demonstrated a large calcium deposition in the cells of the digestive glands of the infected snails when compared to the uninfected ones. The histological study of the ovotestis of the infected snails demonstrated that the gametogenesis of these snails was abnormal. The ovulogenesis was the most alterated and at 45 days post-infection the histological sections showed no ovocytes present in the ovotestis.

  18. Utilization of shells of the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) by the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802) (Decapoda, Anomura) in the São Vicente Estuary, São Paulo, Brazil Utilización de conchas de caracoles terrestres Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) por el cangrejo ermitaño Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802) (Decapoda, Anomura) en el estuario de São Vicente, São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno S. Sant'Anna; Cilene M. Zangrande; Alvaro L. D. Reigada

    2005-01-01

    Hermit crabs depend on mollusc shells for housing. In this study, an unusual resource is reported for a hermit crab that usually inhabits marine gastropod shells. During a field study conducted from May 2001 to April 2003 in an estuarine area in São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil, 21 individuals of Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802) were found inhabiting the shells of the terrestrial gastropod Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822. A. fulica occurs in nearshore grass patches, where occasional con...

  19. An in vivo effiacy validation and immune-modulatory potential of Streptomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujith Sugathan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the in vivo efficacy and immune-modulatory potential of antagonistic strain, Streptomyces sp. MAPS15 isolated from marine sponge in Penaeus monodon (P. monodon. Methods: In this study, culture of Streptomyces sp. was incorporated into a commercial feed. P. monodon was orally administered with MAPS15 diet for a period of 21 days followed by a challenge experiment and survival rate was calculated. In addition, the effect of MAPS15 diet on immunological parameters of the haemolymph of P. monodon was also assessed. Results: The overall results of the study showed that survival performance was prominent in MAPS15 treated group when compared with un-treated control groups. That could pertain to the ability of MAPS15 to produce antibiotic compounds to suppress the growth of invading pathogens and thereby increase the disease resistance potency and survival rate. From the results of the immunological studies, it can be envisaged that the immune responses were generally more pronounced with MAPS15 diet treated group. Conclusions: Based on the overall findings, it could be inferred that the health of P. monodon is improved when they are fed with MAPS15 diet for a period of 21 days.

  20. 与晚期结直肠癌EGFR单克隆抗体靶向药物选择相关的分子标志物%Molecular markers associated with anti-EGFR monodonal antibody in treatment selection for advanced colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡; 韩琤波; 马洁韬

    2011-01-01

    对于转移性结直肠癌而言,如何在标准化疗的基础上进行个体化靶向治疗是目前关注的热点.KRAS基因突变被认为是转移性结直肠癌对抗表皮生长因子受体(epidermal growth factor receptor,EGFR)单克隆抗体(anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody,anti-EGFR)靶向治疗反应不佳的独立预测因素.35%~45%的转移性结直肠癌患者存在KRAS基因的突变,且对anti-EGFR治疗抵抗;同时只有50%的野生型KRAS患者对anti-EGFR治疗有效,提示EGFR下游信号通路其他分子的激活和变异可能影响了其治疗反应.EGFR依赖的2条主要信号通路RAS-RAF-MAPK和PI3K-PTEN-AKT均与anti-EGFR治疗失败有关.EGFR基因拷贝数(gene copy number,GCN)增加与结肠癌anti-EGFR的疗效相关,但EGFR GCN增加并不意味着EGFR蛋白表达增加,且EGFR表达与anti-EGFR疗效无相关性.在野生型KRAS转移性结直肠癌患者中增加对BRAF和PIK3CA基因突变以及PTEN基因表达缺失的检测可能有助于筛选anti-EGFR抵抗患者.本研究对近年来转移性结直肠癌研究中所涉及的疗效预测和预后分子标志物进行综述,以进一步指导转移性结直肠癌的个体化分子靶向治疗.%Personalized targeted therapy in addition to standard chemotherapy has become a hot topic in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (Mcrc). KRAS gene mutation has been considered as a predictor for poor response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody (anti-EGFR) therapy in patients with Mcrc. The percentage of KRAS mutation is 35%-45% in patients with Mcrc, and these patients have poor response to anti-EGFR; while only 50% of patients with wild-type KRAS respond to anti-EGFR, which suggests that the activation and variation of other molecules in the downstream of EGFR signaling pathway can influence the therapeutic effects. The two major EGFR-dependent signaling pathways-RAS-RAF-MAPK and PI3K-PTEN-AKT may be involved in poor response to anti-EGFR in the treatment of Mcrc. In addition, the increased EGFR gene copy number (GCN) is associated with the efficacy of anti-EGFR therapy, but not associated with the expression level of EGFR protein which has no correlation with the efficacy of anti-EGFR therapy. Additional detection of mutations in BRAF and PIK3CA genes as well as deletion of PTEN gene in wild-type KRAS patients with Mcrc may be helpful in further selection of patients with anti-EGFR resistance. This paper reviews recent progress on molecular markers associated with treatment outcome and prognosis predictions in the treatment of Mcrc, in order to guide individualized molecular targeted therapy for Mcrc.

  1. The effects of Cefalexin on larval development of Penaeus monodon and changes in the number of heterotrophic bacteria and vibrios in larval rearing ponds%头孢氨苄对斑节对虾幼体发育及育苗水体细菌数量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马之明; 周发林; 黄建华; 叶乐; 江世贵

    2005-01-01

    研究了不同浓度头孢氨苄(Cefalexin)对斑节对虾Penaeus monodon幼体发育以及对斑节对虾育苗水体中异养菌总数和弧菌数量的影响.在试验初期,无论是对照组还是施用头孢氨苄的各试验组,育苗水体中的总异养菌数量和弧菌数量都呈现出较为明显的上升趋势;在第二次施用头孢氨苄后,各试验组的异养菌总数和弧菌数量的增幅明显低于对照组(或出现异养菌总数和弧菌数量缓慢下降),而对照组异养菌总数和弧菌数量则呈现显著的上升.施用0.5~1.0 μL·L-1头孢氨苄对育苗水体中的总异养菌有显著的杀灭及抑制作用,但对弧菌数量杀灭及抑制作用并不显著;施用1.5 μL·L-1头孢氨苄对育苗水体中的总异养菌和弧菌数量的杀灭及抑制作用显著.当幼体变态发育至仔虾第8天(P8)时,对照组异养菌总数和弧菌数量分别达6.33×105和3.55×104 CFU·mL-1,均远远高于试验组的异养菌总数和弧菌数量增长的幅度.试验组的幼体变态到P1期的时间,比对照组缩短了10 h以上;试验组的成苗率也比对照组提高了3.2%~13.1%.

  2. 南中国斑节对虾养殖中控制白斑综合症病的理论和策略%Theory and Strategies for Controlling White Spot Syndrome (WSS) of Cultured Penaeus monodon in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the causative agent of white spot syndrome (WSS) of cultured penaeid shrimps. WSS breaks out and prevails in cultured penaeid shrimps in many countries and regions of the world, especially in southeast Asia. WSSV is the virus most severe damaging to the cultured penaeid shrimps in the world. At the present time, the control of the outbreaks of WSSV will recover and develop the penaeid shrimp cultures in China and even in the world.

  3. Presencia de moluscos tropicales de la provincia panameña en la costa central del Perú y su relación con los eventos "El Niño"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el hallazgo de moluscos cuya distribución conocida se encuentra dentro de los límites de la Provincia Panameña, en diversas localidades de la Provincia Peruana entre los años 1972 y 1994, período en el que se presentaron varios eventos "El Niño". Fue posible determinar 15 especies de moluscos que ampliaron su distribución: Pteria stema, Orobitella peruviana, Cryptornya califomica, Cerithium (T stercusmuscarum, Malea ringens, Hexaplex brassica, Thais styllmanberryi, T (M. triangularis, T (T callaoensis, Acanthina brevidentata, Purpura pansa, Neorapana muricata, Anachis (C. nigricans, Cancellaria (C. decussata y C. (B. chrysostorna. Se postula una variabilidad en los límites de las provincias biogeográficas de la costa peruana, controlada por el ENSO.

  4. Some ecological aspects and potential threats to an intertidal gastropod, Umbonium vestiarium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Ingole, B.S.; Sen, A.

    and reproductive cycle of wavy turban snail (Astrea undosa Wood, 1828; Gastropoda: Turbinidae) in Bahai Tortugas, BCS. Anales del Instituto de Ciencias del Mary Limnologia Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 18, 169–87 (1993). Berry, A.J. and Bin O. Zamri...

  5. Radular teeth as models for the improvement of industrial cutting devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, P; Giesen, HJ; Videler, JJ

    2000-01-01

    Limpets (Gastropoda) and chitons (Polyplacophora) feed on epi- and endolithic organisms by means of the radula, a specialized feeding apparatus located in the mouth cavity. The radula owes most of its abrasive capability to the presence of numerous mineralized teeth. Here we report on the shape, int

  6. Identification of Genes Related to Learning and Memory in the Brain Transcriptome of the Mollusc, "Hermissenda Crassicornis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamvacakis, Arianna N.; Senatore, Adriano; Katz, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    The sea slug "Hermissenda crassicornis" (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) has been studied extensively in associative learning paradigms. However, lack of genetic information previously hindered molecular-level investigations. Here, the "Hermissenda" brain transcriptome was sequenced and assembled de novo, producing 165,743…

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Scutopus ventrolineatus (Mollusca: Chaetodermomorpha) supports the Aculifera hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Osca, David; Irisarri, Iker; Todt, Christiane; Grande, Cristina; Zardoya, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Background With more than 100000 living species, mollusks are the second most diverse metazoan phylum. The current taxonomic classification of mollusks recognizes eight classes (Neomeniomorpha, Chaetodermomorpha, Polyplacophora, Monoplacophora, Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, and Scaphopoda) that exhibit very distinct body plans. In the past, phylogenetic relationships among mollusk classes have been contentious due to the lack of indisputable morphological synapomorphies. Fortunately, rec...

  8. Holoplanktonic Mollusca: development in the Mediterranean Basin during the last 30 million years and their future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Janssen; K.T.C.A. Peijnenburg

    2014-01-01

    A short introduction is given to the systematics and morphology of pelagic Gastropoda (Mollusca: Heteropoda and Pteropoda), also explaining some details of the animals’ particular way of life. The fossil record of these invertebrates is discussed briefly, followed by an overview of existing literatu

  9. Non-Detriment Finding Regarding the Export of Queen conch (Lobatus gigas) from St Eustatius (Caribbean Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de M.; Meijer zu Schlochteren, M.; Boman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Queen conch (Lobatus gigas (Strombidae; Gastropoda) is a large, long-lived marine gastropod that is widely distributed throughout the coastal zones of the Wider Caribbean region. Because of concern for its future the species was listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endan

  10. Descripción del cromosoma profásico en la meiosis I de Bostryx conspersus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Siles-Vallejos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bostryx es uno de los géneros de mayor diversidad dentro de los Orthalicidae (Gastropoda, siendo B. conspersus una especie endémica del ecosistema de Lomas, del desierto Costero peruano. En el presente trabajo los cromosomas de la profase I de meiosis de los espermatocitos de Bostryx conspersus son descritos.

  11. A new name for the foraminiferal genus Heterospira

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1937-01-01

    A short time ago I described a new foraminiferal genus from the Tertiary of Borneo 1). I gave this genus the name of Heterospira. Mr. P. H. Oehser of Washington drew my attention to the fact that E. Koken as early as 1896²) had used the name Heterospira for a genus of triassic gastropoda from Hallst

  12. 75 FR 3446 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis... Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``VN Shrimp Order''). The Department is... Shipper Review, 74 FR 13416 (March 27, 2009). On April 7, 2009, the Department issued its...

  13. 75 FR 75965 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 103 (January 4, 2010) (``Notice...

  14. 76 FR 41203 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted... FR 12025 (Mar. 4, 2011) (Preliminary Results). On March 21, 2011, in response to a request from the... Initiation of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 18157 (Apr. 1, 2011) (Initiation Notice)....

  15. 77 FR 23222 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis... Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``VN Shrimp Order''). \\2\\ See VN Shrimp Order; see also... Rescission of Antidumping Administrative Review, 73 FR 52273 (September 9, 2008). \\3\\ See Certain...

  16. 76 FR 20318 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon... the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``VN Shrimp Order''). Grobest & I... Changed Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 75 FR 67685 (November...

  17. 76 FR 56158 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon..., of the Fifth Administrative Review, 76 FR 12054 (March 4, 2011) (``Preliminary Results''). DATES... Administrative Review, 76 FR 36519 (June 22, 2011). \\8\\ See Dorbest Limited v. United States, 604 F.3d 1363,...

  18. 75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted... Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 75 FR 44229 (July 28... of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 75 FR 16436 (Apr. 1, 2010). On April 19 and June...

  19. 75 FR 27299 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China and Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted... and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, 70 FR 5143 (February 1, 2005...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (February 1, 2005); Notice of Amended...

  20. The predictable narwhal: satellite tracking shows behavioural similarities between isolated subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Nielsen, N.H.; Hansen, R. G.;

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of behavioural similarities between subpopulations of species that have been isolated for a long time is important for understanding the general ecology of species that are under pressure from large-scale changes in habitats. Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) east and west of Greenland are ...

  1. Role of mangroves in brackish water fish culture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, S.

    for brackishwater fish farming. This is an age old practice in India and is called "filtration" or "trapping" in the intertidal zones of coastal waters. The species cultivated are Liza parsia, L. nade, Mugil cephalus, Chanos chanos, Penaeus monodon and P. indicus...

  2. Deep-ocean predation by a high Arctic cetacean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laidre, K.L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Jørgensen, Ole A;

    2004-01-01

    A bioenergetic model for two narwhal (Monodon monoceros) sub-populations was developed to quantify daily gross energy requirements and estimate the biomass of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) needed to sustain the sub-populations for their 5-month stay on wintering grounds in Baff...

  3. On the vaccination of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.

    2006-01-01

    More than a decade after its discovery inSouth-East Asia, White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still the most important (viral) pathogen in the shrimp culture industry. Despite the shift from culturingPenaeusmonodon

  4. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-02-12

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

  5. Chitin purification from shrimp wastes by microbial deproteination and decalcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Gallert, C; Winter, J

    2008-06-01

    Chitin was purified from Penaeus monodon and Crangon crangon shells using a two-stage fermentation process with anaerobic deproteination followed by decalcification through homofermentative lactic acid fermentation. Deproteinating enrichment cultures from sewage sludge and ground meat (GM) were used with a proteolytic activity of 59 and 61 mg N l(-1) h(-1) with dried and 26 and 35 mg N l(-1) h(-1) with wet P. monodon shells. With 100 g wet cells of proteolytic bacteria per liter, protein removal was obtained in 42 h. An anaerobic spore-forming bacterium HP1 was isolated from enrichment GM. Its proteolytic activity was 76 U ml(-1) compared to 44 U ml(-1) of the consortium. Glucose was fermented with Lactobacillus casei MRS1 to lactic acid. At a pH of 3.6, calcium carbonate of the shells was solubilised. After deproteination and decalcification of P. monodon or C. crangon shells, the protein content was 5.8% or 6.7%, and the calcium content was 0.3% or 0.4%, respectively. The viscosity of the chitin from P. monodon and C. crangon was 45 and 135 mPa s, respectively, whereas purchased crab shell chitin (practical grade) had a viscosity of 21 mPa s, indicating a higher quality of biologically purified chitin. PMID:18418590

  6. Three functionally diverged major White Spot Syndrome Virus structural proteins evolved by gene duplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.; Goldbach, R.W.; Vlak, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus causing considerable mortality in penaeid shrimp. The oval-to-bacilliform shaped virions, isolated from infected Penaeus monodon, contain four major proteins: VP28, VP26, VP24 and VP19 (28, 26, 24 and 19 kDa, respectively). VP26 and VP24 are

  7. Impact of converison of mangrove ecosystem for aquaculture purposes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.

    ,000 hectare are produced. The species cultivated are mugil cephalus, Chanon-Chanos, Penaeus Monodon, P. indicus, Macrobrachium, etc. About 32.13% of this area is along west coast and the yield rate is about 500-600 kg/ha/yr. Some of the impacts of conversion...

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16312-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 |pid:none) Penaeus monodon vitellogenin recep... 52 1e-04 BC052281_1( BC052281 |pid:none) Homo sapiens Fraser...( BC131820 |pid:none) Homo sapiens Fraser syndrome 1, mR... 52 1e-04 CR860771_1( CR860771 |pid:none) Pongo a

  9. Distribución, ecología y origen de las poblaciones de Vitrina pellucida (O. F. Müller, 1774 y Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora en las Cordilleras Béticas Orientales (Andalucía, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrebola, J. R.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chorology and ecology of the andalusian terrestrial malacofauna (South of the Iberian Peninsula, has showed the presence of a group of climatic relicts characteristics from the Eurosiberian region, in the Eastern Betics Mountains Chains. The ecology and distribution of two of these species (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Millier, 1774: and Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeus, 1758 is exposed, being the main limiting factor the typical mediterranean summer drought. The adaptative response of these species against the scarcity of water depends on its different ecophysiologies. Vitrina pellucida (eurithermic lives in low-lands where the availability of water along the year is constant, as well as in dry soils of high mountains because of the cold weather. Cepaea nemoralis (stenothermic lives only in habitats with wet soils and heavy vegetal cover placed below 1500 m. The absence of similar vegetation over this altitude and the extreme climate conditions of the High Mediterranean Mountains prevents its appearance, contrarily to the High Eurosiberian Mountains.

    [fr]
    L'étude de la chorologie et de l'écologie de la malacofaune terrestre d'Andalousie (sud de la Péninsule Ibérique, a permis de déterminer la présence, dans les cordillères Bétiques Orientales, d'un groupe de reliques climatiques propres à la région Euro-sibérienne. L'écologie et la distribution de deux de ces espèces (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Müller, 1774 et Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeux, 1758 sont exposées ici, et on montre que le principal facteur limitant est la sécheresse estivale caractéristique du climat méditerranéen. La réponse adaptative de dex deux espèces face à la rareté de l'eau durant l'été est déterminée par leurs écophysiologies différentes, Vitrina pellucida (eurytherme utilise aussi bien les écosystèmes des terres basses là où la disponibilité en eau est constante tout au long de l'année (zones humides, que les écosystèmes secs de haute montagne, profitant de leur climat froid. En revanche, Cepaea nemoralis (sténotherme occupe seulement les habitats de sols humides, de couverture végétale dense et constante, a une altitude inférieure à 1500 m. L'absence de ce type de végétation et les conditions climatiques dures de la haute montagne méditerranéenne empêchent sa présence à une plus haute altitude, contrairement a ce qui se passe dans la haute montagne euro-sibérienne.
    [es]
    A partir del estudio de la corología y ecología de la malacofauna terrestre de Andalucía (sur de la Península Ibérica se determina la presencia en las cordilleras Bélicas Orientales de dos relictos climáticos propios de la región Eurosiberiana: Vitrina pellucida (O. F. Millier, 1774 y Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758. Se expone su ecología y distribución y se muestra que el principal factor que las limita es la sequía estival característica del clima mediterráneo. Sus respuestas adaptativas ante la escasez de agua del verano están definidas por diferencias ecofisiológicas. Vitrina pellucida (euriterma hace uso tanto de los ecosistemas de tierras bajas en los que la disponibilidad de agua es constante a lo largo del año (zonas húmedas como de los secos de alta montaña, gracias al clima frío. Cepaea nemoralis (estenoterma ocupa sólo hábitats de suelos húmedos y cobertura vegetal densa y constante situados por debajo de los 1500 m. La ausencia de este tipo de vegetación y la dureza del clima de la alta montaña mediterránea impiden su presencia a mayor altitud, al contrario de lo que ocurre en las montarías eurosiberianas.

  10. Histological observations on the distribution of three types of haemo-lymphocytes in Oncomelania hupensis (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae) infected with Schistosoma japonicum%感染日本血吸虫的湖北钉螺三种血淋巴细胞分布的组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theerakamol Pengsakul; Yassir A Suleiman

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of defense mechanism of O. hupensis, particularly their haemo-lymphocytes, which are considered to be the main effectors of invertebrate defense system, should be beneficial to control the disease transmission. In this study, qualitative and quantitative investigations of haemo-lymphocytes in negative and positive O. hupensis after infection with S. japonicum was conducted by histological sectioning of infected snails at post-infection days 3, 5, 7, 12, 16, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, and 90. H & E stained haemo-lymphocytes had an appearance with circular nucleus and densely packed granules inside the cell with entire cytoplasm stained deep blue in color. The haemo-lymphocytes were divided into three types based on their nucleus sizes: large, medium, and small, with diameter ranges of 8.1-8.6 μm (large), 5.5-6.0 μm (medium), and 4.2-4.7 μm (small). Post-infection increase in numbers of haemo-lymphocytes in five organs of infected snails including foot, pericardial, gastrointestinal, alimentary gland, and genital organs regions was observed. The rich area of haemo-lymphocytes was in the pericardial region. Moreover, the fewest number of haemo-lymphocytes presented in foot region. The numbers of haemo-lymphocytes with three nucleus sizes in all snail body parts were clearly increased at beginning, then slightly decreased later, and the haemo-lymphocytes with medium nucleus size was the dominated population. The haemo-lymphocytes with large and small nucleus sizes were found but few in number, Data gathered during the present study should be useful in understanding the defense mechanism of O. hupensis in response to S. japonicum infection, and further the research with the aim of controlling the disease more effectively.%目的 湖北钉螺( O.hupensis)的内在防御机制,特别是它们的血淋巴细胞,被认为是无脊椎动物防御系统的主要效应因子,对于控制寄生虫病的传播很有意义.在本次实验中,我们对于阴性湖北钉螺( O.hupensis)和感染日本血吸虫(Schistosoma japonicum)的阳性湖北钉螺(O.hupensis)的血淋巴细胞进行了定性和定量的比较研究.方法 分别在培养后3、5、7、12、16、20、25、30、35、40、45、50、55、60、65、70、75、80、85和90 d对其进行连续组织切片和H & E染色观察.结果 发现血淋巴细胞具有一个圆形的核,在其被染成深蓝色的细胞质中有一些密集的颗粒状物质.根据细胞核的体积,血淋巴细胞可以分为大、中和小3种类型,其直径分别为8.1~8.6 μm (大),5.5~6.0 μm (中),4.2~4.7 μm (小).通过对湖北钉螺(O.hupensis)的足部、围心腔、胃肠道、消化腺以及生殖腺5个器官部位的血淋巴细胞计数观察发现感染日本血吸虫(S.japonicum)后的湖北钉螺(O.hupensis),这几处的血淋巴细胞数量都有所增加.湖北钉螺的血淋巴细胞在围心腔处最多,而在足部区域最少.这3种类型的血淋巴细胞在钉螺所有部位都有所增加,且中型血淋巴细胞最多,大型和小型血淋巴细胞较少.结论 本次研究中所得到的数据在湖北钉螺(O.hupensis)对于日本血吸虫(S.japonicum)的内在防御机制以及更有效的控制血吸虫病的深入研究中具有相当的意义.日本血吸虫;湖北钉螺;血淋巴细胞;分布

  11. 应用同工酶技术研究我国湖北钉螺(腹足纲:麂眼螺超科:圆口螺科)不稳定螺群体内的遗传变异%ALLOZYME-BASED GENETIC VARIATION WITHIN AN UNSTABLE"POPULATION" OF CHINESE ONCOMELANIA HUPENSIS(GASTROPODA: RISSOACEA: POMATIOPSIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    [Objective] To answer the following questions:① For Oncomelania snails collected two years apart from the same locality,has there been genetic divergence?②How much experimental error has there been in studying subsets of these populations? ③As this is an unstable population,what has the net effect been on Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium(Hwe)?[Methods] Allozymes were studied using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis.Data collected from numbers of experiments were conapiled.Data from each collection were divided into two equal subsets based on chronology of the experiments.Thirty-four loci were studied using 72 to 180 snails per subset.[Results] The mean number of alleles per locus ranged frcra 1.5~1.9.With each consecutive subset,the 96 polymorphic loci dropped from 38.2 to 17.6.The mean heterozygosity was very low:0.033 to 0.049 and not significantly different from Hardy-Weinberg expectations.Ten loci and 11 alleles exclusive to the first group were eliminated from the overall study reducing the number of polymorphic loci from 19 to 10.There were significant departures from Hwe at five loci having a substantial number of individuals for each allele.Nei's and Wright's D were 0.003±0.001 and 0.054±0.006 respectively.[Conclusion] ①There were significant errors seen primarily in the results scored' in the earliest experiments.②These earlier errors involving scoring difficult to resolve loci,and interpretation of rare alleles that were not found in later experiment had no significant effect on overall genetic distance.③The use of Wright's D for closely related populations is explained.Results with Nei's D indicated no significant difference among the four subunits; Wright's D yielded significant difference between the collections made two years apart,attributed to the annual flooding of the Yangtze River mixing snails from different localities.④ Major polymorphic loci were not in Hwe as predicted using the unstable population model.⑤One must study 25 or more individuals to find relatively rate alleles and study population genetics.

  12. Rehabilitation of Ergalatax martensi (Schepman, 1892) (Gastropoda : Muricidae), senior synonym of Ergalatax obscura Houart, 1996, and description of Ergalatax junionae, new name for Morula martensi Dall, 1923

    OpenAIRE

    Houart, R.

    2008-01-01

    Ergalatax junionae nomen novum is proposed as replacement name for Morula martensi Dall, 1923, from the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf. The latter name is a junior secondary homonym of Pentadactylus martensi Schepman,1892, from the Red Sea, of which E. obscura Houart, 1996, is here considered as junior synonym. Ergalatax,junionae nomen novum is compared with Ergalatax martensi (Schepman) and E. margariticola (Broderip, 1833). The geographical distribution of E. junionae and E. martensi is...

  13. Molluscicidal activity of various solvent extracts from Solanum nigrum var. villosum L. aerial parts against Galba truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Hammami H.; Mezghani-Jarraya R.; Damak M.; Ayadi A.

    2011-01-01

    Molluscicidal activity of Solanum nigrum var. villosum (morelle velue) extracts and their fractions were tested against the mollusca gastropoda Galba truncatula intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica. The results indicated that the hydro-methanol (MeOH-H2O) immature fruit extract possess the highest molluscicidal activity (LC50 = 3.96 mg/L) against Galba truncatula compared with other tested compounds. After acido-basic treatment, the methanolic extract fraction isolated from the immature fru...

  14. Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp

    OpenAIRE

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in v...

  15. A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Boyadzhiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%, followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%, as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

  16. Notes on the continental malacofauna of Rhodes, with two new species for the fauna of the island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Data for 15 terrestrial and freshwater snail (Gastropoda species are given from 35 localities on Rhodes Island. An invasive species, Haitia acuta (Draparnaud, 1805, and a species occurring in brackish waters, Ovatella firminii (Payraudeau, 1826 are new species and genus to the fauna of the island. This is the second record of O. firminii from Greece, which is interesting from another point of view; it was found in freshwater (not brackish about 6 km from the sea.

  17. Aspectos gerais sobre a alimentação do cangulo, Balistes vetula Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces - Balistidae) no estado de Pernambuco - Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Técio Luiz Macêdo Costa; Antônio de Lemos Vasconcelos Filho; Elza Maria Braga Galiza-Viana

    1987-01-01

    The Balistidae, especially Balistes vetula are commom fishes in tropical waters from Northeastern Brazil. Studies about these fishes captured at the coastal area of Recife between Pina; Boa Viagem, Piedade and Candeias beaches were carried out in order to determine the diet, and to verify a possible diet diversification between the sexes, and times of the year. Males and females had a food diet consisting mostly of molluscs belonging the classes Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and crustacean...

  18. Freshwater invertebrate fauna of Nuku Hiva island (French Polynesia) : data during a rainy season

    OpenAIRE

    Fossati, Odile; Gibon, François-Marie; Danigo, Anne-Hélène

    1992-01-01

    The streams of Nuku-Hiva Island, Marquesas Archipelago, were sampled during the rainy season in June 1990. The invertebrate fauna was scarce and had a low diversity. Gastropoda and Decapoda accounted for the major part of the biomass. Insects were represented by #Simuliidae$, #Chironomidae$ and a few #Ceratopogonidae$, #Coleoptera$ and #Zygoptera$. #Oligochaeta$ were numerically important. The role of insularity and the effects of hydraulic conditions on this fauna are briefly discussed. (Rés...

  19. The Benthic Macroinvertebrate Fauna of Sarikum Lake and Spring Waters (Sinop)

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Mehmet; Oztürk, Mehmet; Öztürk, Meral

    2002-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the community composition of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna from Sarikum Lake and spring waters were investigated monthly between June 1995 and May 1996. Physico-chemical parameters of the sampling stations were measured. The fauna were represented with 26 species belonging to 6 systematic groups (Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Insecta (larvae), Crustacea, Polychaete and Turbellaria classis). Insecta was found as predominant in respect to species diversity. The species b...

  20. Les Bivalves et Gastéropodes du Bruxellien inférieur de la Belgique (Eocène moyen)

    OpenAIRE

    Glibert, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic revision of the Bivalvia and Gastropoda from the Aalter Sands (at Aalter, province of Oost-Vlaanderen) and the first description of those from the Oedelem Sands (at Oedelem, province of West-Vlaanderen). Both horizons are of Middle Eocene age. Together they form the lower part of the Bruxellian (Bl or Formation of den Hoorn). The Oedelem Sands with Venericardia carinata are the older part of this formation, whereas the Aalter Sands with Megacardita planicosta ...

  1. Packaging and Delivery of Chemical Weapons: A Defensive Trojan Horse Stratagem in Chromodorid Nudibranchs

    OpenAIRE

    Carbone, Marianna; Gavagnin, Margherita; Haber, Markus; Guo, Yue-Wei; Fontana, Angelo; Manzo, Emiliano; Genta-Jouve, Gregory; Tsoukatou, Maria; Rudman, William B.; Cimino, Guido; Ghiselin, Michael T.; Mollo, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Background Storage of secondary metabolites with a putative defensive role occurs in the so-called mantle dermal formations (MDFs) that are located in the more exposed parts of the body of most and very likely all members of an entire family of marine mollusks, the chromodorid nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). Given that these structures usually lack a duct system, the mechanism for exudation of their contents remains unclear, as does their adaptive significance. One possible explana...

  2. The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei is not the cause of white feces syndrome in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Tangprasittipap, Amornrat; Srisala, Jiraporn; Chouwdee, Saisunee; Somboon, Montagan; Chuchird, Niti; Limsuwan, Chalor; Srisuvan, Thinnarat; Flegel, Timothy W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2013-01-01

    Background The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei was first described from Thailand in 2009 in farmed, indigenous giant tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. The natural reservoir for the parasite is still unknown. More recently, a microsporidian closely resembling it in morphology and tissue preference was found in Thai-farmed, exotic, whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome (WFS). Our objective was to compare the newly found pathogen with E. ...

  3. Optimization of the production of shrimp waste protein hydrolysate using microbial proteases adopting response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Satya S.; Dora, Krushna Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates were produced from shrimp waste mainly comprising head and shell of Penaeus monodon by enzymatic hydrolysis for 90 min using four microbial proteases (Alcalase, Neutrase, Protamex, Flavourzyme) where PR(%) and DH (%) of respective enzymes were compared to select best of the lot. Alcalase, which showed the best result, was used to optimize hydrolysis conditions for shrimp waste hydrolysis by response surface methodology using a central composite design. A model equation wa...

  4. Application of primary haemocyte culture of in the assessment of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of heavy metals and pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Jose, Seena; Jayesh, P.; Mohandas, A; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I. S. Bright

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lack of shrimp cell lines has hindered the study of pollutants which adversely affects shrimp health and its export value. In this context a primary haemocyte culture developed from Penaeus monodon was employed for assessing the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of two heavy metal compounds, cadmium chloride and mercuric chloride and two organophosphate insecticides, malathion and monocrotophos. Using MTT assay 12 h IC50 values calculated were 31.09 ? 16.27 ?M and 5.52 ? 1.16 ...

  5. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-01-01

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerl...

  6. エビ類ポリフェノールオキシダーゼの分布および性質

    OpenAIRE

    中川, 孝之; 牧之段, 保夫; 藤田, 眞夫

    1992-01-01

    The distribution and properties of polyphenol oxidase from shrimps Penaeus japonicus and P. monodon were investigated to increase our knowledge of the blackening of crustaceans. Enzyme activity toward catechol was detected in all tissues from both species. The hepatopancreas was found to have the highest activity of catechol oxidation, and the muscle had very low activity. The shrimp enzymes had high oxidative activity towards various diphenols. The enzymes in the hepatopancreas and epidermis...

  7. Decomposing mangrove litter supports a microbial biofilm with potential nutritive value to penaeid shrimp post larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gatune, C.; Vanreusel, A.; Cnudde, C.; Ruwa, R.; Bossier, P; M. De Troch

    2012-01-01

    The use of fish meal in shrimp culture not only contributes to the decline of wild fish stocks, but also undermines its profitability and enhances ecosystem pollution. There is an urgent need for alternative natural food supply in shrimp cultures. The present study investigated the potential of mangrove litter from Rhizophora mucronata and the associated microbial biofilm as food for shrimp post larvae of Penaeus indicus and Penaeus monodon in a community-based ecological shrimp farm in Mtwap...

  8. Benthic Macro-Fauna Composition and Abundance in Sombreiro River, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ezekiel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The benthic macro-fauna composition and abundance in sombreiro was studied for a period of two years (August 2007 - July2009. A total of twenty-eight species belonging to fourteen (14 families, six (6 classes and three (3 phyla were recorded in Sombreiro River. The phylum Annelida dominated with two classes (Oligochaeta and Polychaeta. Oligochaeta was represented by two families (Naididae and Lumbricidae and seven species having 25% by composition. Polychaeta was represented by seven families (Nereidae, Nepthyidae, Capitellidae, Eucinidae, Glyceridae, Arenicolidae and Syllidae and thirteen species having 46.4% by composition. The Phylum arthropoda was represented by two classes (Crustacea and inseita. Two families (Gammaridae and Penaidae having two species consisting of 7.2% were recorded, for the class crustacea. The class insecta was represented by one family (Chironomidae with one species consisting of 3.6%. The phylum Mollusca was represented by two classes (Gastropoda and Bivalvia. Gastropoda had two species with 7.2% composition and Bivalvia has three species with10.7% composition. Oligochaeta was the highest and constituted 62.0%. The others were Polychaeta (23.9%, Insecta (6.7%, Gastropoda (3.9%, Bivalvia (2.2% and Crustacea (1.3%. The mean diversity(S ranged between 11 species. Mean abundance of individuals (N was 985. Mean Margalef index (d value was 1.339. The mean value for Shannon-Wienner (H was 0.956. Mean Pielou’s index of relative density or evenness index (E was 0.986. Mean SimpsIn’s Dominance index (C was 0.623.

  9. FOOD COMPOSITION OF GRAYLING Thymallus thymallus L., FROM THE RIVER KRUŠNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Bećiraj Bakrač

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Total of 118 specimens of grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. is caught with sport fishing techniques in the river Krušnica. The objectives of this research was to obtain data about the diet composition of these species in natural biotopes. Dominant food of grayling from the river Kru{nica were Amphipoda and Ephemeroptera, while the most abundant number belonging to the group of Diptera. Secondary diet consists of Trichoptera with Hydrop%syche sp. as dominant species, then Gastropoda with Valvata sp., Coleoptera and Formicidae. Grayling occasionally consume Isopoda, Hirudinea, Plecoptera, Oligochaeta, Heteroptera, Aranea, Lepidoptera, Hydracarina and Hymenoptera, as well as plant detritus.

  10. 光合细菌对鱼虾贝促长防病作用的初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何筱洁; 于方兆; 郑晓东; 沈江波; 马庆涛; 梁洲; 吴勇胜

    1997-01-01

    应用光合细菌(PSB)对花鲈(Lateolabrax japonicus)、白鲢(Hyop hthalmichthys molitrix)、斑节对虾(Penaeus monodon)、罗氏沼虾(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)、马氏珠母贝(Pinctada martensii)等分别进行试验,旨在对其在促长、运输、防病等方面所起作用进行初探,结果取得良好效果。用PSB10-30ppm,对幼体花鲈饲养20天,

  11. Isolation and characterization of chitosan from different local insects in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Narguess H; El-Samie, Emtithal Abd; Salah, Taher; Saad, Gamal R; Elwahy, Ahmed H M

    2016-01-01

    Chitin was extracted from four different local sources: the shrimp (Penaeus monodon), the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria), the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the beetles (Calosoma rugosa). Chitosan was then obtained by deacetylation of chitin and physicochemically characterized using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction. The moisture content, water binding capacity, fats binding capacity, ash content were determined and chitosans morphology was visualized using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The difference between the obtained chitosans from three insect sources and α-chitosan from shrimp in terms of crystallinity, fibrous structure was discussed. PMID:26459168

  12. Diversity of Bacteria Isolated from Crustacea Larvae and Their Rearing Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haryanti; Ketut Sugama; Toshitaka Nishijima

    2003-01-01

    The bacteria in the genus Vibrio are heterothrophic, which exist in the larval rearing water of Crustacea and often show diverse pathogenicities to marine animals. In order to assess the bacterial diversity associated with Crustacean seed production, 32 strains were isolated from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon ) and mangrove crab (Scylla paramamosain ) larvae and their rearing-water and characterized using biochemical and molecular approaches. Two or more genotypically different species were identified. The vibriosis of black tiger shrimp was caused by V. harveyi, V. alginolyticus and Vibrio spp.predominantly, while that of crab by V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus only.

  13. Isolation and characterization of chitosan from different local insects in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Narguess H; El-Samie, Emtithal Abd; Salah, Taher; Saad, Gamal R; Elwahy, Ahmed H M

    2016-01-01

    Chitin was extracted from four different local sources: the shrimp (Penaeus monodon), the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria), the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the beetles (Calosoma rugosa). Chitosan was then obtained by deacetylation of chitin and physicochemically characterized using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction. The moisture content, water binding capacity, fats binding capacity, ash content were determined and chitosans morphology was visualized using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The difference between the obtained chitosans from three insect sources and α-chitosan from shrimp in terms of crystallinity, fibrous structure was discussed.

  14. Trace elements in edible shellfish species from the lower Gangetic delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Abhijit; Banerjee, Kakoli

    2011-09-01

    The accumulation of trace elements in edible shellfish species may lead to serious health problems through the food chain. In this study we measured the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in the shellfish species like Penaeus monodon, Penaeus indicus, Scylla serrata, Saccostrea cucullata and Crassostrea madrasensis using a ICP mass spectrometer. Samples were collected from the lower stretch of the River Ganga which receives wastes of complex character from industries and various anthropogenic activities. The trace element concentrations present an alarming picture from the point of human consumption and at the same time exhibit significant spatial variations. The bioaccumulation pattern of selected trace elements also exhibit species specificity. PMID:21570722

  15. Macroinvertebrate communities associated with macrophyte habitats in a tropical man-made lake (Lake Taabo, Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouamé M. K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study was done on Lake Taabo with the main objective of characterising macroinvertebrate communities associated with the microhabitats created mainly by Eichhornia crassipes and other littoral native macrophytes. We sampled organisms in patches of those aquatic macrophytes. Also, some abiotic variables (temperature, transparency, turbidity, pH, TDS, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, NH$_{4}^{+}$+4, NO$_{3}^{-}$−3, NO$_{2}^{-}$−2, PO$_{4}^{3-}$3−4 and SiO$_{2}^{-}$−2 were measured. Overall, forty-three taxa of macroinvertebrates were identified. Ten of them were exclusively associated with water hyacinth while five were only associated with littoral macrophytes. Macroinvertebrate taxa with some of the highest family richness were Gastropoda, Coleoptera, Heteroptera, Odonata and Diptera. The taxon with highest density in both microhabitats was Chironomidae. Although higher values of taxonomic richness (Rs, the Shannon index (H′ and evenness (J were obtained with the water hyacinth habitat, significant differences between the two microhabitats were not observed. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that samples of E. crassipes collected in the dry season were characterised by Gastropoda and Odonata, as well as higher values of transparency and ammonia-nitrogen. Baetidae, Hydrophilidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Coenagrionidae, Naucoridae and Ostracoda were most abundant in both E. crassipes and littoral macrophyte habitats during the rainy season. This season was characterised by higher levels of nitrates and conductivity.

  16. Are the effects of an invasive crayfish on lake littoral macroinvertebrate communities consistent over time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruokonen T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of invasive species requires assessment of their effects on recipient ecosystems. However, impact assessment of invasive species commonly lacks a long-term perspective which can potentially lead to false conclusions. We examined the effects of the invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana on the stony littoral macroinvertebrate communities of a large boreal lake and assessed the extent to which the patterns observed in previous short-term studies were stable over time. We used temporal macroinvertebrate data collected in five consecutive years from a site with a well-established crayfish population, a site with no crayfish and a site where crayfish had been recently introduced. Our results revealed that signal crayfish had temporally rather consistent negative effects on the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages but that the effects might be limited to certain taxa, in particular Gastropoda and Coleoptera. We also observed increases in Gastropoda density and taxa richness following a decline in crayfish density, indicating that the recovery of invertebrate assemblages might be fast. Hence, negative effects on benthic macroinvertebrates can likely be minimized by effective control of the signal crayfish population.

  17. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@rmit.edu.a [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  18. Estuarine Habitat Assessment for Construction of a Submarine Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Amr Z.; Abdel-Salam, Khaled M.

    2010-07-01

    The present paper describes a submarine survey using the acoustic discrimination system QTC VIEW (Series V) as an exploratory tool to adjust final route alignment of a new pipeline. By using acoustic sound survey as an exploratory tool described in this paper to adjust final route alignment of a new pipeline to minimize the environmental impact caused and ultimately to avoid any mitigation measures. The transmission pipeline extended from the shore line of Abu-Qir Bay, on the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt, out to 70 nautical miles at sea (60 m water depth). Four main surface sediment types were defined in the study area, namely fine sand, silty sand, silt and clay. Results of the acoustic classification revealed four acoustic classes. The first acoustic class corresponded to fine sand, absence of shell debris and very poor habitats characteristics. The second acoustic class is predominant in the study area and corresponds to the region occupied by silt. It is also characterized by intermediate diversity of macrobenthic invertebrate community which is mainly characterized by polychaeta. The third acoustic class is characterized by silt to silty clay. It is characterized by a high diversity of macrobenthic invertebrate community which is mainly polychaeta with an intermediate diversity of gastropoda and bivalvia. The final acoustic class is characterized by clay and high occurrence of shell debris of gastropoda, bivalvia and polychaeta.

  19. A Phase Separation Fluoroimmunoassay of Estradiol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Yong-Cheng(王永成); ZHAO,Jin-Fu(赵金富); LI,Yuan-Zong(李元宗); CHANG,Wen-Bao(常文保); GUO,Zhen-Quan(郭振泉)

    2001-01-01

    A competitive indirect fluoroinmnunoassay of free estradiol(E2) was established based on the thermal sensitivity of hy-drogel-poly-N-isopropylacrylamide.Free estradiol was cova-lently bound to bovine sermn albumin (BSA) to form com-plete antigen (F2-BSA),which was in turn labeled by fluores-cein isothiocyanate (FITC) as the fluorescence probe.The an-ti- F2 monodonal anfibody (Mc Ab) was prepared by anin vivo method,and coupled with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA)to make an immune copolymer,poly-N-isopropylacylamide-monodonal antibody (pNIPA-McAb),for the deterniiration of free F2.The immunoassay method was based on the com-petitive binding of free F2 and fluoresceinated antigen (F2-BSA-FITC) with limited amount of pNIPA-McAb.When theinmunological reaction was over,precipitation and centrifugalprocedures were carried ont to separate pNIPA-McAb-F2-BSA-FITC from other constituents in solution.The precipitatepNIPA-McAb-F2-BSA-FITC was dissolved in solution andthen the fluorescence intensity was measured.The calibrationcurve covered a range of 78-500 ng/mL for free F2.The re-coveries were 91,2-107.2%.``

  20. Immunostimulatory activity of sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri and development of resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongprasert, Kanokpan; Rudtanatip, Tawut; Praiboon, Jantana

    2014-01-01

    Sulfated galactans (SG) were isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri (G. fisheri). Chemical analysis revealed SG contains sulfate (12.7%) and total carbohydrate (42.2%) with an estimated molecular mass of 100 kDa. Structure analysis by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that SG is a complex structure with a linear backbone of alternating 3-linked β-D-galactopyranose and 4-linked 3,6-anhydrogalactose units with partial 6-O-methylate-β-D-galactopyranose and with sulfation occurring on C4 of D-galactopyranose and C6 of L-galactopyranose units. SG treatment enhanced immune parameters including total haemocytes, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anions and superoxide dismutase in shrimp Penaeus monodon. Shrimp fed with Artemia salina enriched with SG (100 and 200 μg ml(-1)) and inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) showed a significantly lower mortality rate and lower viral VP 28 amplification and expression than control. The results suggest that SG from G. fisheri exhibits immune stimulatory and antiviral activities that could protect P. monodon from WSSV infection.

  1. Sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri target the envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus and protect against viral infection in shrimp haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudtanatip, Tawut; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2014-05-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating an underlying mechanism of the antiviral activity of the sulfated galactans (SG) isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in haemocytes of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Primary culture of haemocytes from Penaeus monodon was performed and inoculated with WSSV, after which the cytopathic effect (CPE), cell viability and viral load were determined. Haemocytes treated with WSSV-SG pre-mix showed decreased CPE, viral load and cell mortality from the viral infection. Solid-phase virus-binding assays revealed that SG bound to WSSV in a dose-related manner. Far Western blotting analysis indicated that SG bound to VP 26 and VP 28 proteins of WSSV. In contrast to the native SG, desulfated SG did not reduce CPE and cell mortality, and showed low binding activity with WSSV. The current study suggests that SG from Gracilaria fisheri elicits its anti-WSSV activity by binding to viral proteins that are important for the process of viral attachment to the host cells. It is anticipated that the sulfate groups of SG are important for viral binding.

  2. Priming the immune system of Penaeid shrimp by bacterial HSP70 (DnaK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuoc, L H; Hu, B; Wille, M; Hien, N T; Phuong, V H; Tinh, N T N; Loc, N H; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to test the effect of DnaK on priming immune responses in Penaeid shrimp. Juvenile-specific pathogen-free (SPF) P. vannamei shrimp were injected with 0.05 μg recombinant DnaK. One hour post-DnaK priming, a non-lethal dose of Vibrio campbellii (10(5) CFU shrimp(-1)) was injected. Other treatments include only DnaK or V. campbellii injection or control with blank inocula. The haemolymph of three shrimp from each treatment was collected at 1.5, 6, 9 and 12 h post-DnaK priming (hpp). It was verified that injection with DnaK and V. campbellii challenge affected the transcription of 3 immune genes, transglutaminase-1 (TGase-1), prophenoloxidase-2 (proPO-2) and endogenous HSP70 (lvHSP70). In P. monodon, shrimp were first injected with DnaK at a dose of 10 μg shrimp(-1) and one hour later with 10(6) CFU of V. harveyi (BB120) shrimp(-1). Shrimp injected with DnaK showed a significant increase in proPO expression compared to the control (P < 0.05). Yet a double injection (DnaK and Vibrio) seemed to cause an antagonistic response at the level of expression, which was not equalled at the level of PO activity. Those results suggest that DnaK is able to modulate immune responses in P. vannamei and P. monodon.

  3. [Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

    2008-03-01

    A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of Argentina which covers an area of 2 777 815 km2 is presented. Distributions of Gastropoda and Bivalvia families, endemic, exotic, invasive as well as entities of sanitary importance are also studied and recommendations on their conservation are provided. Molluscs related to the Del Plata Basin have been thoroughly studied in comparison to others areas of the country. This fauna exhibits relatively the biggest specific richness and keeps its affinity with the fauna of other regions of the basin in areas of Paraguay and Brasil. The 4 500 records of molluscs considered in this paper arise from the study of the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires; Museo de La Plata, La Plata and Fundación "Miguel Lillo", Tucumán. These institutions keep very important collections of molluscs in southern South America. Field information has recently been obtained and localities cited by other authors are also included in the data base. Until today, 166 species have been described, 101 belonging to 10 families of Gastropoda and 65 to 7 of Bivalvia. Families with highest specific richness are Lithoglyphidae (22) and Sphaeriidae (25), respectively. The number of endemic species (those present only in Argentina) by family is: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1), Cochliopidae (10), Lithoglyphidae (11), Thiariidae (3), Chilinidae (11), Lymnaeidae (2) and Physidae (2?); Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?); Etheriidae (1?) and Sphaeriidae (10). Families with a distribution that comprise almost the whole country are: the Sphaeriidae and the gastropods Cochliopidae, Chilinidae and Lymnaeidae. Families Erodonidae and Solecurtidae (Bivalvia) were registered in mixohaline environments from Buenos Aires province. Gastropod families Thiaridae and Glacidorbiidae show a very restricted distribution. The rest of the families are present mainly in the center and north of the country

  4. Real time PCR quantification of WSSV infection in specific pathogen free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) exposed to antiviral nucleotide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Badhul Haq; K Kalai Priya; R Rajaram; R Vignesh; M Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the level of WSSV transmission from the infected tiger prawn Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) to specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) in laboratory captivity condition in relation to PCR detection, histopathological observation and viral genome sequence. Methods: Viral DNA was isolated from purified virions by treatment with proteinase K (0.2 mg/mL) and Sarkosyl (1%). The purity and concentration of the DNA were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Moribund and dead shrimp were removed and processed for indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis. Histological observation of infected L. vannamei shrimps were revealed by the degenerated cells which were characterized by intranuclear inclusions in the tissues of WSSV infected mid-gut gland, lymphoid organ, gill lamellae and gut epithelium. Total DNA was extracted, from shrimp hemolymph and tissues, with a High Puree PCR template preparation kit. WSSV-DNA was detected using a commercial 2-step PCR detection kit. Results:The present study compares the real-time PCR results with SYBR Green I concentration ranging from 0.2 to 0.7×. The positive standard was used in the range of 102, 104 106, 108 and 1010 copies/ng of DNA in general. The PCR analysis showed the appearance of a prominent band from the PCR amplified product of WSSV-DNA at internal control band of 848 bp. Moderate and severe levels were observed as 650 bp and 910 bp (200 & 2 000 copies) in various transmission routes. The WSSV content in moribund shrimp of all the experimental species (L. vannamei) approximately ranged in nucleotide application by quantification method from 0.000 001 WSSV copies/μg of total DNA. In whole moribund infection animal, approximately 0.02 WSSV copies/μg of DNA was detected in nucleotide applied animal. Conclusion: These results indicate that wild brood stock and native culture shrimp P. monodon may be infected with WSSV and can get transferred into the SPF L. vannamei farming

  5. Crawling through time: Transition of snails to slugs dating back to the Paleozoic, based on mitochondrial phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Mónica; Lal, Shruti; Vallès, Yvonne; Takaoka, Tori L; Dayrat, Benoît A; Boore, Jeffrey L; Gosliner, Terrence

    2011-03-01

    Sea slugs (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) are characterized by extensive morphological homoplasy. In particular, reduced or absent shells are predominant throughout the group. This trend towards shell loss has resulted in a poor fossil record. DNA-based phylogenies have been helpful in improving our understanding of the evolution of this group and major clades are emerging. We report 13 new complete opisthobranch mitochondrial genomes that provide robust support for some of these emerging nodes. We name three new clades within the Opisthobranchia, the Actopleura (Acteonoidea plus Nudipleura), Placoesophaga (Cephalaspidea plus Anaspidea), and Siphoglossa (Sacoglossa plus the Siphonaria). Finally we use molecular clock dating that suggests an earlier opisthobranch divergence than previously reported. The implications of this evolutionary scenario are discussed. PMID:21429465

  6. Discrete potential waves in the photoreceptors of a gastropod mollusc, Hermissenda crassicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, T

    1982-01-01

    Intracellular recording of dark adapted photoreceptors of Hermissenda crassicornis (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda, Mollusca) revealed the occurrence of depolarizing waves even after blockade of synaptic transmission and postsynaptic potentials by application of low Ca2+ and high Mg2+ solution. Dim illumination increased the frequency of depolarizing waves. These observations show that Hermissenda photoreceptors have discrete waves which have been demonstrated mainly in arthropod photoreceptors. An histogram of intervals between successive discrete waves under continuous dim illumination was exponential, which is characteristic of a Poisson process. Frequency of discrete waves increased linearly depending on numbers of incident photons to the eye. Comparison of probabilities of eliciting a response to brief dim flashes of various intensities to theoretical Poisson sum curves, together with statistical analysis, indicate that the absorption of single photon is sufficient to evoke a discrete wave. PMID:7101766

  7. Life cycle and structure of the fish digenean Brachyphallus crenatus (Hemiuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køie, M

    1992-04-01

    Cystophorous cercariae from Retusa obtusa (Montagu) (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Retusidae) develop into adults of Brachyphallus crenatus (Rudolphi, 1802) Odhner, 1905 (Hemiuridae). The free-swimming cercariae were ingested by laboratory-reared Acartia tonsa Dana, and the cercarial body was injected into the hemocoel of the copepod. Two-week-old metacercariae held at 15 C were infective to stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus. The cercariae of B. crenatus are very similar to the cercariae of Hemiurus luehei Odhner, 1905, and Lecithocladium excisum (Rudolphi, 1819) Lühe, 1901 (Hemiuridae), which develop in closely related opisthobranch snails. Scanning electron microscopy of metacercariae and adults of B. crenatus revealed the annular plications of most of the external surface to be scalelike. The area surrounding the genital pore and the presomatic pit was densely plicated. PMID:1556648

  8. Temporal variation in Sargassum Biomass, Hypnea epiphytism and associated fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Fosca Pedini Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to investigate the temporal variation in Sargassum biomass, Hypnea epiphytism and associated fauna. There was a marked variation in the biomass of Sargassum and Hypnea among various sampling periods. Low values for Sargassum were recorded in August and November, while the lower value for Hypnea biomass was recorded in August. An inverse relationship was found between Sargassum biomass and the intensity of Hypnea epiphytism. The density of the total fauna associated to Sargassum showed a marked reduction in May. This variation was influenced by the variation patterns of the dominant faunistic groups (Gastropoda, Gammaridea, Isopoda and Caridea. Significant positive relationships were found between the biomass of Sargassum and Sargassum+Hypnea with the total density of all faunistic groups (per macroalgae biomass unit. However, the influence of Hypnea epiphytism on the phytal organisms was not evidenced.

  9. Comparative analysis of Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) from different biotopes of the Black Sea based on its morphological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos'yan, A. R.

    2013-02-01

    The Asian whelk Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda: Muricidae), being tolerant to wide variations in the temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentration, successfully settled down in the Black Sea and eventually became one of the dominant species in the benthic ecosystems. The whelk inhabits all types of grounds all over the Black sea demonstrating a wide spectrum of morphological modifications. The objective of this research is to compare 10 samples of R. venosa from different biotopes of the Black Sea coast from the western Crimea to Sochi. The results of the statistical comparison based on 15 morphological characteristics showed that most of the samples differed from each other with high statistical significance ( p Mytilus galloprovincialis, Anadara sp., Chamelea gallina), the prevailing prey size, and its abundance.

  10. Molluscs associated with a Sardinian deep water population of Corallium rubrum (Linnι, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Molluscan species living in association with Corallium rubrumcolonies are poorly known. Specimensfound on the branches of red coral colonies located off Capo Caccia (Alghero – SS, West Sardinia,Mediterranean Sea were studied by analyzing red coral branches collected at a depth of between 100 and120 m; their assemblage was made up of 44 species, all belonging to the classes Gastropoda and Bivalvia.Some data on the geographical distribution, ecology, taxonomy and dominance of these species, bothalive and dead, are given and the most interesting are commented on. Among the recorded species Triviamultilirata, Simnia purpurea, Coralliophila brevis, Ocinebrina paddeui, Pleurotomella demosia, Palliolumstriatum and Pseudamussium sulcatum deserve attention. Moreover, the second finding of livingspecimens of Asperarca secreta, described only on loose valves, is reported, and finally the prey-predatorrelationships among several gastropods and Cnidarians are confirmed.

  11. Aspectos gerais sobre a alimentação do cangulo, Balistes vetula Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces - Balistidae no estado de Pernambuco - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técio Luiz Macêdo Costa

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The Balistidae, especially Balistes vetula are commom fishes in tropical waters from Northeastern Brazil. Studies about these fishes captured at the coastal area of Recife between Pina; Boa Viagem, Piedade and Candeias beaches were carried out in order to determine the diet, and to verify a possible diet diversification between the sexes, and times of the year. Males and females had a food diet consisting mostly of molluscs belonging the classes Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and crustaceans and fishes. Echinoderms, foraminifera, bryozoa, sponges, polychaete worms, coelenterates and brachiopods were also observed in smaller proportions. Both males and females had a carnivorous benthic diet. Growth and changes in the seasons were not reflected by changes in the diet.

  12. MACROZOOBENTHIC COMMUNITIES STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTIC OF CERTAIN TRIBUTARIES OF THE SIRET RIVER FROM HARGHITA, MARAMUREŞ AND VRANCEA MOUNTAINS AND MOLDOVEI PLATEAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Andreea GHIBUŞI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 qualitative macrozoobentonic samples were collected in 2011 from many Siret river tributaries coming from the Harghita Mountains (5 stations, Maramureş Mountains (14 stations, Moldavian Plateau (4 stations and Vrancea Mountains (12 stations. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed the existence of the following 15 groups of benthic invertebrates: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Oligochaeta, Diptera (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Limoniidae, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Coleoptera, Acarina, Odonata, Hirudinea, Isopoda, Heteroptera, Turbellariata and Collembola. Groups that have the highest frequencies were mayflies and dipterans (each with a frequency of 97.1%, followed by caddisflies (80%, amphipods (68.6%, oligochaetes (57.1% and stoneflies (54.3%. Presence of sensitive groups to water quality degradation (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera with high frequency shows good quality water at most stations investigated.

  13. Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P. doliiformis, and L. helicina were investigated for comparative biochemical points of view. β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, and diatoxanthin were found to be major carotenoids in L. helicina. L. helicina accumulated dietary algal carotenoids without modification. On the other hand, keto-carotenoids, such as pectenolone, 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin, and adonixanthin were identified as major carotenoids in the sea angels C. limacina and P. doliiformis. Sea angels oxidatively metabolize dietary carotenoids and accumulate them in their gonads. Carotenoids in the gonads of sea angels might protect against oxidative stress and enhance reproduction.

  14. First record of Planorbis planorbis (Linnaeus) naturally infected with Xiphidiocercariae from Derna, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, E G; Kassem, H H

    1991-04-01

    A review of the literature shows that the fresh water snail Planorbis planorbis (Mollusca: Gastropoda) infected with Xiphidiocercariae has never been recorded in Derna, Libya. In the present paper the first record is made from Wadi Derna (= Darnah), East coast of Libya. The snail harbour Xiphidiocercariae, the percentage of infection during May, 1989, was found to be 7.3%. Morphological description of the snail Planorbis planorbis, Xiphidiocercariae is given in the present investigation. The snail possibly acts as an intermediate host of trematode species in Libya. Further studies are needed to investigate and to observe the exact type of trematode in which the fresh water snail P. planorbis acts as an intermediate host in the life-cycle and to determine the definitive host in Libya.

  15. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

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    Joseph L Sevigny

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra, two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa. In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda

  16. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Joseph L; Kirouac, Lauren E; Thomas, William Kelley; Ramsdell, Jordan S; Lawlor, Kayla E; Sharifi, Osman; Grewal, Simarvir; Baysdorfer, Christopher; Curr, Kenneth; Naimie, Amanda A; Okamoto, Kazufusa; Murray, James A; Newcomb, James M

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra), two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa). In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha

  17. Diversity of macrobenthos in lowland streams: ecological determinants and taxonomic specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł KOPERSKI

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study contains the results of an investigation of the relationships between the environmental variables and the taxonomic diversity of common and important groups of benthic macrofauna: Chironomidae, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hirudinea and Gastropoda, collected from various types of bottom substrate in seven lowland streams of north-eastern Poland. Four metrics were used to express the diversity of the studied taxa in each sample as the examples of its four different aspects: species richness, rarity, Shannon-Weaver's diversity index and Pielou evenness index. The values of total species richness and Shannon-Weaver index were rarified by functional extrapolation with Michaelis-Menten asymptotic function chosen as a richness estimator. There are high differences in taxonomic diversity of benthic animals between the studied streams. The results of estimation of total species richness and total species diversity are mainly affected by the diversity of the taxon richest in species – larval Chironomidae and, to a lesser extent, Hirudinea. The total taxonomic diversity significantly correlates with the status of riparian vegetation and with the isolation of the sampling site, while the relationship with other environmental parameters, i.e. pollution and seasonality, is not significant. The diversity of Gastropoda and Hirudinea is significantly affected by pollution (positively, water depth and seasonality; whereas the diversity of Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae by the state of riparian vegetation, and that of Odonata by stream width and isolation of the site. The study presents and discusses reduced diversity of certain higher taxa as a result of a reduction in pollution loading to a stream with simultaneous unchanged values of the total diversity.

  18. Radiological impact of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on invertebrates in the coastal benthic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive cesium (134Cs and 137Cs) concentrations in invertebrates of benthic food web (10 taxonomic classes with 46 identified families) collected from wide areas off Fukushima Prefecture (3–500 m depth) were inspected from July 2011, four months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, to August 2013 to elucidate time-series trends among taxa and areas. Cesium-137 was detected in seven classes (77% of 592 specimens). Higher 137Cs concentrations within detected data were often found in areas near or south of the FDNPP, which is consistent with the reported spatial distribution of 137Cs concentrations in highly contaminated seawater and sediments after the FDNPP accident. Overall 137Cs concentrations in invertebrates, the maxima of which (290 Bq kg−1-wet in the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis) were lower than in many demersal fishes, had decreased exponentially with time, and exhibited taxon-specific decreasing trends. Concentrations in Bivalvia and Gastropoda decreased clearly with respective ecological half-lives of 188 d and 102 d. In contrast, decreasing trends in Malacostraca and Polychaeta were more gradual, with longer respective ecological half-lives of 208 d and 487 d. Echinoidea showed no consistent trend, presumably because of effects of contaminated sediments taken into their digestive tract. Comparison of 137Cs concentrations in the invertebrates and those in seawater and sediments suggest that contaminated sediments are the major source of continuing contamination in benthic invertebrates, especially in Malacostraca and Polychaeta. - Highlights: • Radioactive cesium was measured in benthic invertebrates collected off Fukushima. • Results show taxon-specific and area-specific decreases in ecological half-lives. • Reasonable depuration of 137Cs concentration was found in Bivalvia and Gastropoda. • Slow depuration was observed in Polychaeta and Malacostraca. • Sediments are expected to be the major continued

  19. Impact of overexploitation of shellfish: northeastern coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Asokkumar; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar

    2003-02-01

    India has a very extensive coastline of about 7515 km, rich in diverse living resources. These resources continue to deteriorate with rampant harvesting or are altered for other uses such as aquaculture and fisheries. The present paper deals with degrading coastal habitats in northeastern India, and projects the intensity of the stress arising from the collection of tiger prawn seeds (Penaeus monodon) for aquacultural farms and molluskan shells for poultry feed and edible lime. Indiscriminate exploitation of these resources leads to a heavy reduction of the species concerned and other associated marine communities. The magnitude of such destruction has been quantified. The impacts of biodiversity loss and their after-effects on the ecobalance of this coastal system have become a matter of great concern to ecologists to maintain security and sustainability. The authors propose a public awareness program on themes relating to the importance of biodiversity for human livelihoods.

  20. Den smältande polarisens effekt på de endemiska valarna i Arktis

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Klimatförändringarna har en stor påverkan på de arktiska valarna grönlandsval (Balaena mysticetus), vitval (Delphinapterus leucas) och narval (Monodon monoceros), mer än vad som tros vid en första tanke. I dagsläget får dessa valar utstå stora utmaningar som troligenkan komma att förvärras i framtiden om inte isens smältande kan bromsas. En del av utmaningarna innebär att valarna måste genomgå stora förändringar för att överleva, vilket innebär att deras förmåga att anpassa sig spelar en stor...