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Sample records for acam2000 smallpox vaccine

  1. ACAM2000™: The new smallpox vaccine for United States Strategic National Stockpile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Nalca

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aysegul Nalca, Elizabeth E ZumbrunCenter for Aerobiological Sciences, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID, Fort Detrick, MD, USAAbstract: Smallpox was eradicated more than 30 years ago, but heightened concerns over bioterrorism have brought smallpox and smallpox vaccination back to the forefront. The previously licensed smallpox vaccine in the United States, Dryvax® (Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., was highly effective, but the supply was insufficient to vaccinate the entire current US population. Additionally, Dryvax® had a questionable safety profile since it consisted of a pool of vaccinia virus strains with varying degrees of virulence, and was grown on the skin of calves, an outdated technique that poses an unnecessary risk of contamination. The US government has therefore recently supported development of an improved live vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine. This initiative has resulted in the development of ACAM2000™ (Acambis, Inc.™, a single plaque-purified vaccinia virus derivative of Dryvax®, aseptically propagated in cell culture. Preclinical and clinical trials reported in 2008 demonstrated that ACAM2000™ has comparable immunogenicity to that of Dryvax®, and causes a similar frequency of adverse events. Furthermore, like Dryvax®, ACAM2000vaccination has been shown by careful cardiac screening to result in an unexpectedly high rate of myocarditis and pericarditis. ACAM2000™ received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval in August 2007, and replaced Dryvax® for all smallpox vaccinations in February 2008. Currently, over 200 million doses of ACAM2000™ have been produced for the US Strategic National Stockpile. This review of ACAM2000™ addresses the production, characterization, clinical trials, and adverse events associated with this new smallpox vaccine.Keywords: smallpox, vaccinia, variola, vaccine, efficacy, safety

  2. Treatment with the smallpox antiviral tecovirimat (ST-246) alone or in combination with ACAM2000 vaccination is effective as a postsymptomatic therapy for monkeypox virus infection.

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    Berhanu, Aklile; Prigge, Jonathan T; Silvera, Peter M; Honeychurch, Kady M; Hruby, Dennis E; Grosenbach, Douglas W

    2015-07-01

    The therapeutic efficacies of smallpox vaccine ACAM2000 and antiviral tecovirimat given alone or in combination starting on day 3 postinfection were compared in a cynomolgus macaque model of lethal monkeypox virus infection. Postexposure administration of ACAM2000 alone did not provide any protection against severe monkeypox disease or mortality. In contrast, postexposure treatment with tecovirimat alone or in combination with ACAM2000 provided full protection. Additionally, tecovirimat treatment delayed until day 4, 5, or 6 postinfection was 83% (days 4 and 5) or 50% (day 6) effective.

  3. Human antibody responses to the polyclonal Dryvax vaccine for smallpox prevention can be distinguished from responses to the monoclonal replacement vaccine ACAM2000.

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    Pugh, Christine; Keasey, Sarah; Korman, Lawrence; Pittman, Phillip R; Ulrich, Robert G

    2014-06-01

    Dryvax (Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Marietta, PA) is representative of the vaccinia virus preparations that were previously used for preventing smallpox. While Dryvax was highly effective, the national supply stocks were depleted, and there were manufacturing concerns regarding sterility and the clonal heterogeneity of the vaccine. ACAM2000 (Acambis, Inc./Sanofi-Pasteur Biologics Co., Cambridge, MA), a single-plaque-purified vaccinia virus derivative of Dryvax, recently replaced the polyclonal smallpox vaccine for use in the United States. A substantial amount of sequence heterogeneity exists within the polyclonal proteome of Dryvax, including proteins that are missing from ACAM2000. Reasoning that a detailed comparison of antibody responses to the polyclonal and monoclonal vaccines may be useful for identifying unique properties of each antibody response, we utilized a protein microarray comprised of approximately 94% of the vaccinia poxvirus proteome (245 proteins) to measure protein-specific antibody responses of 71 individuals receiving a single vaccination with ACAM2000 or Dryvax. We observed robust antibody responses to 21 poxvirus proteins in vaccinated individuals, including 11 proteins that distinguished Dryvax responses from ACAM2000. Analysis of protein sequences from Dryvax clones revealed amino acid level differences in these 11 antigenic proteins and suggested that sequence variation and clonal heterogeneity may contribute to the observed differences between Dryvax and ACAM2000 antibody responses.

  4. Smallpox vaccine, ACAM2000: Sites and duration of viral shedding and effect of povidone iodine on scarification site shedding and immune response.

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    Pittman, Phillip R; Garman, Patrick M; Kim, Sung-Han; Schmader, Trevor J; Nieding, William J; Pike, Jason G; Knight, Ryan; Johnston, Sara C; Huggins, John W; Kortepeter, Mark G; Korman, Lawrence; Ranadive, Manmohan; Quinn, Xiaofei; Meyers, Mitchell S

    2015-06-12

    The U.S. Department of Defense vaccinates personnel deployed to high-risk areas with the vaccinia virus (VACV)-based smallpox vaccine. Autoinoculations and secondary and tertiary transmissions due to VACV shedding from the vaccination site continue to occur despite education of vaccinees on the risks of such infections. The objectives of this study were to investigate, in naïve smallpox vaccinees, (a) whether the vaccination site can remain contagious after the scab separates and (b) whether the application of povidone iodine ointment (PIO) to the vaccination site inactivates VACV without affecting the immune response. These objectives were tested in 60 individuals scheduled to receive smallpox vaccine. Thirty individuals (control) did not receive PIO; 30 subjects (treatment) received PIO starting on post-vaccination day 7. Counter to current dogma, this study showed that VACV continues to shed from the vaccination site after the scab separates. Overall viral shedding levels in the PIO group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p=0.0045), and PIO significantly reduced the duration of viral shedding (median duration 14.5 days and 21 days in the PIO and control groups, respectively; p=0.0444). At least 10% of control subjects continued to shed VACV at day 28, and 3.4% continued to shed the virus at day 42. PIO reduced the proportion of subjects shedding virus from the vaccination site from day 8 until days 21-23 compared with control subjects. Groups did not differ significantly in the proportion of subjects mounting an immune response, as measured by neutralizing antibodies, IgM, IgG, and interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay. When applied to the vaccination site starting on day 7, PIO reduced viral shedding without altering the immune response. The use of PIO in addition to a semipermeable dressing may reduce the rates of autoinoculation and contact transmission originating from the vaccination site in smallpox-vaccinated individuals.

  5. New smallpox vaccines for an ancient scourge.

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    Frey, Sharon E

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of variola virus, a Class A agent of bioterrorism, remains a concern. In an effort to prepare for a possible smallpox outbreak due to an intentional release of variola, the U.S. government and industry have been evaluating vaccines stored in the National Strategic Stockpile including cell culture grown ACAM2000 and modified vaccinia Ankara, IMVAMUNE, in clinical studies. This paper discusses smallpox vaccines studies conducted at the Saint Louis University Center for Vaccine Development.

  6. Smallpox Vaccination

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    ... Newsletters Events Also Known As Smallpox = Vaccinia Smallpox Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The smallpox ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...

  7. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

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    ... A - Z Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live ... it cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine ...

  8. Clinical guidance for smallpox vaccine use in a postevent vaccination program.

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    Petersen, Brett W; Damon, Inger K; Pertowski, Carol A; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Guarnizo, Julie T; Beigi, Richard H; Edwards, Kathryn M; Fisher, Margaret C; Frey, Sharon E; Lynfield, Ruth; Willoughby, Rodney E

    2015-02-20

    This report outlines recommendations for the clinical use of the three smallpox vaccines stored in the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile for persons who are exposed to smallpox virus or at high risk for smallpox infection during a postevent vaccination program following an intentional or accidental release of the virus. No absolute contraindications exist for smallpox vaccination in a postevent setting. However, several relative contraindications exist among persons with certain medical conditions. CDC recommendations for smallpox vaccine use were developed in consideration of the risk for smallpox infection, risk for an adverse event following vaccination, and benefit from vaccination. Smallpox vaccines are made from live vaccinia viruses that protect against smallpox disease. They do not contain variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. The three smallpox vaccines stockpiled are ACAM2000, Aventis Pasteur Smallpox Vaccine (APSV), and Imvamune. Surveillance and containment activities including vaccination with replication-competent smallpox vaccine (i.e., vaccine viruses capable of replicating in mammalian cells such as ACAM2000 and APSV) will be the primary response strategy for achieving epidemic control. Persons exposed to smallpox virus are at high risk for developing and transmitting smallpox and should be vaccinated with a replication-competent smallpox vaccine unless severely immunodeficient. Because of a high likelihood of a poor immune response and an increased risk for adverse events, smallpox vaccination should be avoided in persons with severe immunodeficiency who are not expected to benefit from vaccine, including bone marrow transplant recipients within 4 months of transplantation, persons infected with HIV with CD4 cell counts smallpox virus exposure in persons with severe immunodeficiency. Persons without a known smallpox virus exposure might still be at high risk for developing smallpox infection depending on the magnitude of the outbreak and

  9. Use of Vaccinia Virus Smallpox Vaccine in Laboratory and Health Care Personnel at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2015.

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    Petersen, Brett W; Harms, Tiara J; Reynolds, Mary G; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-03-18

    On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e.g., monkeypox, cowpox, and variola) (recommendation category: A, evidence type 2 [Box]). Health care personnel (e.g., physicians and nurses) who currently treat or anticipate treating patients with vaccinia virus infections and whose contact with replication-competent vaccinia viruses is limited to contaminated materials (e.g., dressings) and persons administering ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine who adhere to appropriate infection prevention measures can be offered vaccination with ACAM2000 (recommendation category: B, evidence type 2 [Box]). These revised recommendations update the previous ACIP recommendations for nonemergency use of vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine for laboratory and health care personnel at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses (1). Since 2001, when the previous ACIP recommendations were developed, ACAM2000 has replaced Dryvax as the only smallpox vaccine licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and available for use in the United States (2). These recommendations contain information on ACAM2000 and its use in laboratory and health care personnel at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses.

  10. The strategic use of novel smallpox vaccines in the post-eradication world.

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    Golden, Joseph W; Hooper, Jay W

    2011-07-01

    We still face a threat of orthopoxviruses in the form of biological weapons and emerging zoonoses. Therefore, there is a need to maintain a comprehensive defense strategy to counter the low-probability, high-impact threat of smallpox, as well as the ongoing threat of naturally occurring orthopoxvirus disease. The currently licensed live-virus smallpox vaccine ACAM2000 is effective, but associated with serious and even life-threatening adverse events. The health threat posed by this vaccine, and other previously licensed vaccines, has prevented many first responders, and even many in the military, from receiving a vaccine against smallpox. At the same time, global immunity produced during the smallpox eradication campaign is waning. Here, we review novel subunit/component vaccines and how they might play roles in unconventional strategies to defend against emerging orthopoxvirus diseases throughout the world and against smallpox used as a weapon of mass destruction.

  11. Smallpox vaccine revisited.

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    Capriotti, Teri

    2002-12-01

    Smallpox is a serious contagious disease which is back in the public eye. Yet, most health care providers are unprepared for its return. Nurses will be key health care professionals in a smallpox outbreak or vaccination program.

  12. Smallpox vaccines for biodefense.

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    Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna; Poland, Gregory A

    2009-11-01

    Few diseases can match the enormous impact that smallpox has had on mankind. Its influence can be seen in the earliest recorded histories of ancient civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia. With fatality rates up to 30%, smallpox left its survivors with extensive scarring and other serious sequelae. It is estimated that smallpox killed 500 million people in the 19th and 20th centuries. Given the ongoing concerns regarding the use of variola as a biological weapon, this review will focus on the licensed vaccines as well as current research into next-generation vaccines to protect against smallpox and other poxviruses. PMID:19837292

  13. HLA alleles associated with the adaptive immune response to smallpox vaccine: a replication study.

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    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Pankratz, V Shane; Salk, Hannah M; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2014-09-01

    We previously reported HLA allelic associations with vaccinia virus (VACV)-induced adaptive immune responses in a cohort of healthy individuals (n = 1,071 subjects) after a single dose of the licensed smallpox (Dryvax) vaccine. This study demonstrated that specific HLA alleles were significantly associated with VACV-induced neutralizing antibody (NA) titers (HLA-B*13:02, *38:02, *44:03, *48:01, and HLA-DQB1*03:02, *06:04) and cytokine (HLA-DRB1*01:03, *03:01, *10:01, *13:01, *15:01) immune responses. We undertook an independent study of 1,053 healthy individuals and examined associations between HLA alleles and measures of adaptive immunity after a single dose of Dryvax-derived ACAM2000 vaccine to evaluate previously discovered HLA allelic associations from the Dryvax study and determine if these associations are replicated with ACAM2000. Females had significantly higher NA titers than male subjects in both study cohorts [median ID50 discovery cohort 159 (93, 256) vs. 125 (75, 186), p smallpox vaccine-induced adaptive immune responses are significantly influenced by HLA gene polymorphisms. These data provide information for functional studies and design of novel candidate smallpox vaccines.

  14. Impaired innate, humoral, and cellular immunity despite a take in smallpox vaccine recipients.

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    Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Oberg, Ann L; Asmann, Yan W; Grill, Diane E; Vierkant, Robert A; Jacobson, Robert M

    2016-06-14

    Smallpox vaccine is highly effective, inducing protective immunity to smallpox and diseases caused by related orthopoxviruses. Smallpox vaccine efficacy was historically defined by the appearance of a lesion or "take" at the vaccine site, which leaves behind a characteristic scar. Both the take and scar are readily recognizable and were used during the eradication effort to indicate successful vaccination and to categorize individuals as "protected." However, the development of a typical vaccine take may not equate to the successful development of a robust, protective immune response. In this report, we examined two large (>1000) cohorts of recipients of either Dryvax(®) or ACAM2000 using a testing and replication study design and identified subgroups of individuals who had documented vaccine takes, but who failed to develop robust neutralizing antibody titers. Examination of these individuals revealed that they had suboptimal cellular immune responses as well. Further testing indicated these low responders had a diminished innate antiviral gene expression pattern (IFNA1, CXCL10, CXCL11, OASL) upon in vitro stimulation with vaccinia virus, perhaps indicative of a dysregulated innate response. Our results suggest that poor activation of innate antiviral pathways may result in suboptimal immune responses to the smallpox vaccine. These genes and pathways may serve as suitable targets for adjuvants in new attenuated smallpox vaccines and/or effective antiviral therapy targets against poxvirus infections.

  15. Traditional Smallpox Vaccines and Atopic Dermatitis

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    ... Grant Request DONATE Traditional Smallpox Vaccines and Atopic Dermatitis Frequently Asked Questions Eczema Living with Eczema Get ... News Research Donate Traditional Smallpox Vaccines and Atopic Dermatitis Frequently Asked Questions What is the traditional smallpox ...

  16. Co-administration of the broad-spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (CMX001), with smallpox vaccine does not compromise vaccine protection in mice challenged with ectromelia virus.

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    Parker, Scott; Crump, Ryan; Foster, Scott; Hartzler, Hollyce; Hembrador, Ed; Lanier, E Randall; Painter, George; Schriewer, Jill; Trost, Lawrence C; Buller, R Mark

    2014-11-01

    Natural orthopoxvirus outbreaks such as vaccinia, cowpox, cattlepox and buffalopox continue to cause morbidity in the human population. Monkeypox virus remains a significant agent of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Furthermore, monkeypox virus's broad host-range and expanding environs make it of particular concern as an emerging human pathogen. Monkeypox virus and variola virus (the etiological agent of smallpox) are both potential agents of bioterrorism. The first line response to orthopoxvirus disease is through vaccination with first-generation and second-generation vaccines, such as Dryvax and ACAM2000. Although these vaccines provide excellent protection, their widespread use is impeded by the high level of adverse events associated with vaccination using live, attenuated virus. It is possible that vaccines could be used in combination with antiviral drugs to reduce the incidence and severity of vaccine-associated adverse events, or as a preventive in individuals with uncertain exposure status or contraindication to vaccination. We have used the intranasal mousepox (ectromelia) model to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination with Dryvax or ACAM2000 in conjunction with treatment using the broad spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001). We found that co-treatment with BCV reduced the severity of vaccination-associated lesion development. Although the immune response to vaccination was quantifiably attenuated, vaccination combined with BCV treatment did not alter the development of full protective immunity, even when administered two days following ectromelia challenge. Studies with a non-replicating vaccine, ACAM3000 (MVA), confirmed that BCV's mechanism of attenuating the immune response following vaccination with live virus was, as expected, by limiting viral replication and not through inhibition of the immune system. These studies suggest that, in the setting of post-exposure prophylaxis, co-administration of BCV with vaccination should be considered

  17. Recent advances in the study of live attenuated cell-cultured smallpox vaccine LC16m8.

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    Eto, Akiko; Saito, Tomoya; Yokote, Hiroyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Kanatani, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-01

    LC16m8 is a live, attenuated, cell-cultured smallpox vaccine that was developed and licensed in Japan in the 1970s, but was not used in the campaign to eradicate smallpox. In the early 2000s, the potential threat of bioterrorism led to reconsideration of the need for a smallpox vaccine. Subsequently, LC16m8 production was restarted in Japan in 2002, requiring re-evaluation of its safety and efficacy. Approximately 50,000 children in the 1970s and about 3500 healthy adults in the 2000s were vaccinated with LC16m8 in Japan, and 153 adults have been vaccinated with LC16m8 or Dryvax in phase I/II clinical trials in the USA. These studies confirmed the safety and efficacy of LC16m8, while several studies in animal models have shown that LC16m8 protects the host against viral challenge. The World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization recommended LC16m8, together with ACAM2000, as a stockpile vaccine in 2013. In addition, LC16m8 is expected to be a viable alternative to first-generation smallpox vaccines to prevent human monkeypox.

  18. Defending against smallpox: a focus on vaccines.

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    Voigt, Emily A; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2016-09-01

    Smallpox has shaped human history, from the earliest human civilizations well into the 20th century. With high mortality rates, rapid transmission, and serious long-term effects on survivors, smallpox was a much-feared disease. The eradication of smallpox represents an unprecedented medical victory for the lasting benefit of human health and prosperity. Concerns remain, however, about the development and use of the smallpox virus as a biological weapon, which necessitates the need for continued vaccine development. Smallpox vaccine development is thus a much-reviewed topic of high interest. This review focuses on the current state of smallpox vaccines and their context in biodefense efforts.

  19. Defending against smallpox: a focus on vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Emily A; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2016-09-01

    Smallpox has shaped human history, from the earliest human civilizations well into the 20th century. With high mortality rates, rapid transmission, and serious long-term effects on survivors, smallpox was a much-feared disease. The eradication of smallpox represents an unprecedented medical victory for the lasting benefit of human health and prosperity. Concerns remain, however, about the development and use of the smallpox virus as a biological weapon, which necessitates the need for continued vaccine development. Smallpox vaccine development is thus a much-reviewed topic of high interest. This review focuses on the current state of smallpox vaccines and their context in biodefense efforts. PMID:27049653

  20. Cytokine production associated with smallpox vaccine responses.

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    Simon, Whitney L; Salk, Hannah M; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Smallpox was eradicated 34 years ago due to the success of the smallpox vaccine; yet, the vaccine continues to be studied because of its importance in responding to potential biological warfare and the adverse events associated with current smallpox vaccines. Interindividual variations in vaccine response are observed and are, in part, due to genetic variation. In some cases, these varying responses lead to adverse events, which occur at a relatively high rate for the smallpox vaccine compared with other vaccines. Here, we aim to summarize the cytokine responses associated with smallpox vaccine response to date. Along with a description of each of these cytokines, we describe the genetic and adverse event data associated with cytokine responses to smallpox vaccination.

  1. Smallpox: clinical highlights and considerations for vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox virus has gained considerable attention as a potential bioterrorism agent. Recommendations for smallpox (vaccinia vaccination presume a low risk for use of smallpox as a terrorist biological agent and vaccination is currently recommended for selected groups of individuals such as health care workers, public health authorities, and emergency/rescue workers, among others. Information about adverse reactions to the smallpox vaccine is based upon studies completed during the 1950s and 1960s. The prevalence of various diseases has changed over the last four decades and new disease entities have been described during this period. The smallpox vaccination may be contra-indicated in many of these conditions. This has made pre-screening of potential vaccines necessary. It is believed that at present, the risks of vaccine-associated complications far outweigh the potential benefits of vaccination in the general population.

  2. Smallpox vaccines: targets of protective immunity.

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    Moss, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The eradication of smallpox, one of the great triumphs of medicine, was accomplished through the prophylactic administration of live vaccinia virus, a comparatively benign relative of variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. Nevertheless, recent fears that variola virus may be used as a biological weapon together with the present susceptibility of unimmunized populations have spurred the development of new-generation vaccines that are safer than the original and can be produced by modern methods. Predicting the efficacy of such vaccines in the absence of human smallpox, however, depends on understanding the correlates of protection. This review outlines the biology of poxviruses with particular relevance to vaccine development, describes protein targets of humoral and cellular immunity, compares animal models of orthopoxvirus disease with human smallpox, and considers the status of second- and third-generation smallpox vaccines.

  3. Smallpox

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    ... the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and the anthrax scare that same year, the U.S. government took the precaution of asking several companies to begin making smallpox vaccine again. Today, there's enough vaccine on hand to ...

  4. Poxviruses: smallpox vaccine, its complications and chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Remichkova

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mimi RemichkovaDepartment of Pathogenic Bacteria, The Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, BulgariaAbstract: The threat of bioterrorism in the recent years has once again posed to mankind the unresolved problems of contagious diseases, well forgotten in the past. Smallpox (variola is among the most dangerous and highly contagious viral infections affecting humans. The last natural case in Somalia marked the end of a successful World Health Organization campaign for smallpox eradication by vaccination on worldwide scale. Smallpox virus still exists today in some laboratories, specially designated for that purpose. The contemporary response in the treatment of the post-vaccine complications, which would occur upon enforcing new programs for mass-scale smallpox immunization, includes application of effective chemotherapeutics and their combinations. The goals are to provide the highest possible level of protection and safety of the population in case of eventual terrorist attack. This review describes the characteristic features of the poxviruses, smallpox vaccination, its adverse reactions, and poxvirus chemotherapy.Keywords: poxvirus, smallpox vaccine, post vaccine complications, inhibitors

  5. Smallpox

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    ... who do recover may have severe scars. The U.S. stopped routine smallpox vaccinations in 1972. Military and other high-risk groups continue to get the vaccine. The U.S. has increased its supply of the vaccine in ...

  6. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a smallpox vaccination site.

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, J D; Shesol, B F; Horne, D W

    1980-01-01

    A case of pigmented basal cell carcinoma developing in a smallpox revaccination site is presented. Any progressive change within a smallpox vaccination scar should be thoroughly evaluated and treated appropriately after tissue diagnosis.

  7. Smallpox vaccination and all-cause infectious disease hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Villumsen, Marie; Ravn, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence from observational studies and randomized trials in low-income countries that vaccinations have non-specific effects. Administration of live vaccines reduces overall child morbidity and mortality, presumably due to protection against non-targeted infections. In Denmark......, the live vaccine against smallpox was phased out in the 1970s due to the eradication of smallpox. We used the phasing-out period to investigate the effect of smallpox vaccination on the risk of hospitalization for infections....

  8. Emergence and reemergence of smallpox: the need for development of a new generation smallpox vaccine.

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    Shchelkunov, Sergei N

    2011-12-30

    The review summarizes the archive data on smallpox, history of ancient civilizations, and the most recent data on the genome organization of orthopoxviruses, their evolutionary relationships, and the time points of smallpox emergence. The performed analysis provides the grounds for the hypothesis that smallpox could have emerged several times as a result of evolutionary changes in the zoonotic ancestor virus and disappeared due to insufficient population size of ancient civilizations. Smallpox reemerged in the Indian subcontinent approximately 2500-3000 years before present, which resulted in endemization of this anthroponotic infection, which had been preserved until the smallpox eradication in the 20th century AD. The conclusion suggests a potential possibility of future variola virus reemergence, presenting a great menace for mankind, as well as the need for development of new safe smallpox vaccines, design of anti-smallpox drugs, and activation of the control of zoonotic human orthopoxvirus infections.

  9. Governments, off-patent vaccines, smallpox and universal childhood vaccination.

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    Music, Stanley

    2010-01-22

    WHO is now celebrating more than 30 years of freedom from smallpox. What was originally seen as a victory over an ancient scourge can now be viewed as an epidemiologically driven programme to overcome governmental inertia and under-achievement in delivering an off-patent vaccine. Though efforts are accelerating global vaccine use, a plea is made to push the world's governments to commit to universal childhood vaccination via a proposed new programme. The latter should begin by exploiting a long list of ever more affordable off-patent vaccines, vaccines that can virtually eliminate the bulk of the world's current vaccine-preventable disease burden. PMID:19699330

  10. Smallpox vaccine: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

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    Belongia, Edward A; Naleway, Allison L

    2003-04-01

    Smallpox inarguably shaped the course of human history by killing countless millions in both the Old World and the New World. Dr. Edward Jenner's discovery of vaccination in the late 18th century, and the global eradication of smallpox in the 1970s, rank among the greatest achievements in human history. Amidst recent growing concerns about bioterrorism, smallpox vaccination has resurfaced from the history books to become a topic of major importance. Inoculation with vaccinia virus is highly effective for the prevention of smallpox infection, but it is associated with several known side effects that range from mild and self-limited to severe and life-threatening. As the United States moves forward with plans to vaccinate selected health care workers and the military, and perhaps offer the vaccination to all citizens in the future, it is important to fully understand and appreciate the history, risks, and benefits of smallpox vaccination.

  11. Genomic sequence and analysis of a vaccinia virus isolate from a patient with a smallpox vaccine-related complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Inger

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus (VACV-DUKE was isolated from a lesion on a 54 year old female who presented to a doctor at the Duke University Medical Center. She was diagnosed with progressive vaccinia and treated with vaccinia immune globulin. The availability of the VACV-DUKE genome sequence permits a first time genomic comparison of a VACV isolate associated with a smallpox vaccine complication with the sequence of culture-derived clonal isolates of the Dryvax vaccine. Results This study showed that VACV-DUKE is most similar to VACV-ACAM2000 and CLONE3, two VACV clones isolated from the Dryvax® vaccine stock confirming VACV-DUKE as an isolate from Dryvax®. However, VACV-DUKE is unique because it is, to date, the only Dryvax® clone isolated from a patient experiencing a vaccine-associated complication. The 199,960 bp VACV-DUKE genome encodes 225 open reading frames, including 178 intact genes and 47 gene fragments. Between VACV-DUKE and the other Dryvax® isolates, the major genomic differences are in fragmentation of the ankyrin-like, and kelch-like genes, presence of a full-length Interferon-α/β receptor gene, and the absence of a duplication of 12 ORFs in the inverted terminal repeat. Excluding this region, the DNA sequence of VACV-DUKE differs from the other two Dryvax® isolates by less than 0.4%. DNA sequencing also indicated that there was little heterogeneity in the sample, supporting the hypothesis that virus from an individual lesion is clonal in origin despite the fact that the vaccine is a mixed population. Conclusion Virus in lesions that result from progressive vaccinia following vaccination with Dryvax are likely clonal in origin. The genomic sequence of VACV-DUKE is overall very similar to that of Dryvax® cell culture-derived clonal isolates. Furthermore, with the sequences of multiple clones from Dryvax® we can begin to appreciate the diversity of the viral population in the smallpox vaccine.

  12. Side-by-side comparison of gene-based smallpox vaccine with MVA in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Golden

    Full Text Available Orthopoxviruses remain a threat as biological weapons and zoonoses. The licensed live-virus vaccine is associated with serious health risks, making its general usage unacceptable. Attenuated vaccines are being developed as alternatives, the most advanced of which is modified-vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA. We previously developed a gene-based vaccine, termed 4pox, which targets four orthopoxvirus antigens, A33, B5, A27 and L1. This vaccine protects mice and non-human primates from lethal orthopoxvirus disease. Here, we investigated the capacity of the molecular adjuvants GM-CSF and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT to enhance the efficacy of the 4pox gene-based vaccine. Both adjuvants significantly increased protective antibody responses in mice. We directly compared the 4pox plus LT vaccine against MVA in a monkeypox virus (MPXV nonhuman primate (NHP challenge model. NHPs were vaccinated twice with MVA by intramuscular injection or the 4pox/LT vaccine delivered using a disposable gene gun device. As a positive control, one NHP was vaccinated with ACAM2000. NHPs vaccinated with each vaccine developed anti-orthopoxvirus antibody responses, including those against the 4pox antigens. After MPXV intravenous challenge, all control NHPs developed severe disease, while the ACAM2000 vaccinated animal was well protected. All NHPs vaccinated with MVA were protected from lethality, but three of five developed severe disease and all animals shed virus. All five NHPs vaccinated with 4pox/LT survived and only one developed severe disease. None of the 4pox/LT-vaccinated animals shed virus. Our findings show, for the first time, that a subunit orthopoxvirus vaccine delivered by the same schedule can provide a degree of protection at least as high as that of MVA.

  13. Epidemiologic Assessment of the Protective Effects of Smallpox Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite smallpox eradication, the widely discussed possibility of a bioterrorist attack using a variola virus makes it necessary to review the epidemiology of smallpox and the effects of various vaccination schemes. This paper provides a literature review concerning the epidemiologic assessment of the protective effects of smallpox vaccination, with particular emphasis on the statistical and theoretical points of view. Although smallpox vaccination has the longest history of all vaccinations, we lack precise epidemiologic estimates of its effectiveness. Vaccination practice continually evolved and many places experienced vaccinations with various strains over time. Despite the weak statistical evidence, it can be stated with certainty that smallpox vaccines prevented infection for a few decades after primary vaccination and that vaccinated individuals had the benefit of a longer lasting partial protection when they contracted the disease. Confronted with the huge uncertainties and with the necessity to rely on laboratory evidence, appropriate preparedness plans for countermeasures using vaccination must be based on the best available evidence.

  14. What to Do After You've Gotten the Smallpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET What to Do After You’ve Gotten the Smallpox Vaccine The smallpox vaccine ... cared for carefully until the scab that forms after vaccination falls off on its own (in 2 to 3 weeks). Follow these instructions: What You Should Do: Cover the vaccination site loosely with ...

  15. 76 FR 49776 - The Development and Evaluation of Next-Generation Smallpox Vaccines; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... workshop entitled ``The Development and Evaluation of Next-Generation Smallpox Vaccines.'' The purpose of... evaluation of next-generation smallpox vaccines. The public workshop will include presentations on the human response to smallpox vaccines and development of animal models for demonstration of effectiveness of...

  16. Smallpox virus destruction and the implications of a new vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D A

    2011-06-01

    The World Health Assembly is scheduled to decide in May 2011 whether the 2 known remaining stockpiles of smallpox virus are to be destroyed or retained. In preparation for this, a WHO-appointed committee undertook a comprehensive review of the status of smallpox virus research from 1999 to 2010. It concluded that, considering the nature of the studies already completed with respect to vaccine, drugs, and diagnostics, there was no reason to retain live smallpox virus except to satisfy restrictive regulatory requirements. The committee advised that researchers and regulators define alternative models for testing the vaccines and drugs. Apart from other considerations, the costs of new products are significant and important. These include prospective expenditures required for the development, manufacture, testing, and storage of new products. This commentary provides approximations of these costs and the incremental contribution that a newly developed vaccine might make in terms of public health security.

  17. [Immunological characteristics of the 2-stage method of smallpox vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marennikova, S S; Matsevich, G R; Sokolova, A F; Shul'ga, L G; Manenkova, G M

    1977-05-01

    As a result of observations carried out on children the authors present immunological characteristics of two-stage smallpox vaccination at different intervals (1 to 60 days) between the injection of inactivated and live vaccine. There proved to be acceleration and intensification of antibody formation after two-stage immunization in comparison with the rutine vaccination. A seven-day interval between the injection of the inactivated and live preparations was recommended on the basis of the data obtained.

  18. Should smallpox vaccine be made available to the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas; Silverman, Ross D

    2003-06-01

    In June 2002, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved draft recommendations concerning preparation for potential biological terror attacks that utilize the smallpox virus. ACIP recommends against both mandatory and voluntary vaccination of the general public. The present paper examines the moral and political considerations both for and against each of the general public vaccination options considered by the ACIP in the context of the state's authority over vaccination for the purposes of protecting public health. Although it is clear that compulsory mass vaccination is not justified at this time, the issues surrounding voluntary vaccination are more complex. Should smallpox vaccination prior to an outbreak be made available to the general public? The paper concludes that the vaccine should not be made available at this time. This conclusion, however, is based upon contingent features of current circumstances, which would change once an outbreak occurred. In the even of a terror-related outbreak of smallpox, the general public's access to voluntary vaccination would become justified, even in areas beyond where the outbreak has occurred.

  19. Antiviral treatment is more effective than smallpox vaccination upon lethal monkeypox virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stittelaar, Koert J; Neyts, Johan; Naesens, Lieve; van Amerongen, Geert; van Lavieren, Rob F; Holý, Antonin; De Clercq, Erik; Niesters, Hubert G M; Fries, Edwin; Maas, Chantal; Mulder, Paul G H; van der Zeijst, Ben A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2006-01-01

    There is concern that variola virus, the aetiological agent of smallpox, may be used as a biological weapon. For this reason several countries are now stockpiling (vaccinia virus-based) smallpox vaccine. Although the preventive use of smallpox vaccination has been well documented, little is known ab

  20. Group interest versus self-interest in smallpox vaccination policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Chris T; Galvani, Alison P; Earn, David J D

    2003-09-01

    The recent threat of bioterrorism has fueled debate on smallpox vaccination policy for the United States. Certain policy proposals call for voluntary mass vaccination; however, if individuals decide whether to vaccinate according to self-interest, the level of herd immunity achieved may differ from what is best for the population as a whole. We present a synthesis of game theory and epidemic modeling that formalizes this conflict between self-interest and group interest and shows that voluntary vaccination is unlikely to reach the group-optimal level. This shortfall results in a substantial increase in expected mortality after an attack.

  1. Outbreaks of human monkeypox after cessation of smallpox vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K

    2012-02-01

    The recent observation of a surge in human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) prompts the question of whether cessation of smallpox vaccination is driving the phenomenon, and if so, why is re-emergence not universal throughout the historic geographic range of the virus? Research addressing the virus's mechanisms for immune evasion and induction, as well as that directed at elucidating the genes involved in pathogenesis in different viral lineages (West African vs Congo Basin), provide insights to help explain why emergence appears to be geographically limited. Novel vaccines offer one solution to curtail the spread of this disease.

  2. 42 CFR 102.51 - Documentation a smallpox vaccine recipient must submit to be deemed eligible by the Secretary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation a smallpox vaccine recipient must..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Required Documentation To Be Deemed Eligible § 102.51 Documentation a smallpox vaccine recipient must submit to be deemed eligible...

  3. 42 CFR 102.54 - Documentation the representative of the estate of a deceased smallpox vaccine recipient or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... deceased smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact must submit to be deemed eligible by the Secretary... VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Required Documentation To Be Deemed Eligible § 102.54 Documentation the representative of the estate of a deceased smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact...

  4. A brief history of vaccines: smallpox to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Modern vaccine history began in the late 18th century with the discovery of smallpox immunization by Edward Jenner. This pivotal step led to substantial progress in prevention of infectious diseases with inactivated vaccines for multiple infectious diseases, including typhoid, plague and cholera. Each advance produced significant decreases in infection-associated morbidity and mortality, thus shaping our modem cultures. As knowledge of microbiology and immunology grew through the 20th century, techniques were developed for cell culture of viruses. This allowed for rapid advances in prevention of polio, varicella, influenza and others. Finally, recent research has led to development of alternative vaccine strategies through use of vectored antigens, pathogen subunits (purified proteins or polysaccharides) or genetically engineered antigens. As the science of vaccinology continues to rapidly evolve, knowledge of the past creates added emphasis on the importance of developing safe and effective strategies for infectious disease prevention in the 21st century.

  5. Logistics of community smallpox control through contact tracing and ring vaccination: a stochastic network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portnoy Diane L

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous smallpox ring vaccination models based on contact tracing over a network suggest that ring vaccination would be effective, but have not explicitly included response logistics and limited numbers of vaccinators. Methods We developed a continuous-time stochastic simulation of smallpox transmission, including network structure, post-exposure vaccination, vaccination of contacts of contacts, limited response capacity, heterogeneity in symptoms and infectiousness, vaccination prior to the discontinuation of routine vaccination, more rapid diagnosis due to public awareness, surveillance of asymptomatic contacts, and isolation of cases. Results We found that even in cases of very rapidly spreading smallpox, ring vaccination (when coupled with surveillance is sufficient in most cases to eliminate smallpox quickly, assuming that 95% of household contacts are traced, 80% of workplace or social contacts are traced, and no casual contacts are traced, and that in most cases the ability to trace 1–5 individuals per day per index case is sufficient. If smallpox is assumed to be transmitted very quickly to contacts, it may at times escape containment by ring vaccination, but could be controlled in these circumstances by mass vaccination. Conclusions Small introductions of smallpox are likely to be easily contained by ring vaccination, provided contact tracing is feasible. Uncertainties in the nature of bioterrorist smallpox (infectiousness, vaccine efficacy support continued planning for ring vaccination as well as mass vaccination. If initiated, ring vaccination should be conducted without delays in vaccination, should include contacts of contacts (whenever there is sufficient capacity and should be accompanied by increased public awareness and surveillance.

  6. TLR3 and TLR9 agonists improve postexposure vaccination efficacy of live smallpox vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israely, Tomer; Melamed, Sharon; Achdout, Hagit; Erez, Noam; Politi, Boaz; Waner, Trevor; Lustig, Shlomo; Paran, Nir

    2014-01-01

    Eradication of smallpox and discontinuation of the vaccination campaign resulted in an increase in the percentage of unvaccinated individuals, highlighting the need for postexposure efficient countermeasures in case of accidental or deliberate viral release. Intranasal infection of mice with ectromelia virus (ECTV), a model for human smallpox, is curable by vaccination with a high vaccine dose given up to 3 days postexposure. To further extend this protective window and to reduce morbidity, mice were vaccinated postexposure with Vaccinia-Lister, the conventional smallpox vaccine or Modified Vaccinia Ankara, a highly attenuated vaccine in conjunction with TLR3 or TLR9 agonists. We show that co-administration of the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) even 5 days postexposure conferred protection, avoiding the need to increase the vaccination dose. Efficacious treatments prevented death, ameliorated disease symptoms, reduced viral load and maintained tissue integrity of target organs. Protection was associated with significant elevation of serum IFNα and anti-vaccinia IgM antibodies, modulation of IFNγ response, and balanced activation of NK and T cells. TLR9 agonists (CpG ODNs) were less protective than the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C). We show that activation of type 1 IFN by poly(I:C) and protection is achievable even without co-vaccination, requiring sufficient amount of the viral antigens of the infective agent or the vaccine. This study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of postexposure immune modulation by TLR activation, allowing to alleviate the disease symptoms and to further extend the protective window of postexposure vaccination.

  7. TLR3 and TLR9 agonists improve postexposure vaccination efficacy of live smallpox vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Israely

    Full Text Available Eradication of smallpox and discontinuation of the vaccination campaign resulted in an increase in the percentage of unvaccinated individuals, highlighting the need for postexposure efficient countermeasures in case of accidental or deliberate viral release. Intranasal infection of mice with ectromelia virus (ECTV, a model for human smallpox, is curable by vaccination with a high vaccine dose given up to 3 days postexposure. To further extend this protective window and to reduce morbidity, mice were vaccinated postexposure with Vaccinia-Lister, the conventional smallpox vaccine or Modified Vaccinia Ankara, a highly attenuated vaccine in conjunction with TLR3 or TLR9 agonists. We show that co-administration of the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C even 5 days postexposure conferred protection, avoiding the need to increase the vaccination dose. Efficacious treatments prevented death, ameliorated disease symptoms, reduced viral load and maintained tissue integrity of target organs. Protection was associated with significant elevation of serum IFNα and anti-vaccinia IgM antibodies, modulation of IFNγ response, and balanced activation of NK and T cells. TLR9 agonists (CpG ODNs were less protective than the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C. We show that activation of type 1 IFN by poly(I:C and protection is achievable even without co-vaccination, requiring sufficient amount of the viral antigens of the infective agent or the vaccine. This study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of postexposure immune modulation by TLR activation, allowing to alleviate the disease symptoms and to further extend the protective window of postexposure vaccination.

  8. A vaccinia virus renaissance: new vaccine and immunotherapeutic uses after smallpox eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardi, Paulo H; Titong, Allison; Hagen, Caitlin J

    2012-07-01

    In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the concept of vaccination with cowpox virus, an Orthopoxvirus within the family Poxviridae that elicits cross protective immunity against related orthopoxviruses, including smallpox virus (variola virus). Over time, vaccinia virus (VACV) replaced cowpox virus as the smallpox vaccine, and vaccination efforts eventually led to the successful global eradication of smallpox in 1979. VACV has many characteristics that make it an excellent vaccine and that were crucial for the successful eradication of smallpox, including (1) its exceptional thermal stability (a very important but uncommon characteristic in live vaccines), (2) its ability to elicit strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, (3) the fact that it is easy to propagate, and (4) that it is not oncogenic, given that VACV replication occurs exclusively within the host cell cytoplasm and there is no evidence that the viral genome integrates into the host genome. Since the eradication of smallpox, VACV has experienced a renaissance of interest as a viral vector for the development of recombinant vaccines, immunotherapies, and oncolytic therapies, as well as the development of next-generation smallpox vaccines. This revival is mainly due to the successful use and extensive characterization of VACV as a vaccine during the smallpox eradication campaign, along with the ability to genetically manipulate its large dsDNA genome while retaining infectivity and immunogenicity, its wide mammalian host range, and its natural tropism for tumor cells that allows its use as an oncolytic vector. This review provides an overview of new uses of VACV that are currently being explored for the development of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and oncolytic virotherapies.

  9. SIMULTANEOUS BCG AND SMALLPOX VACCINATION ON NEWBORN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rivai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dikemukakan anggapan-anggapan yang terdapat dewasa ini tentang vaksinasi BCG dan cacar secara simultan. Telah dilakukan vaksinasi BCG dan cacar secara simultan pada 729 neonati dengan freeze dried Smallpox vaccine buatan dari Bio Farma dan freeze dried BCG vaccine Tokyo. Pencacaran dilakukan secara multiple puncture dan bifurcated needle dengan suntikan BCG dengan jarum dan spuit khusus intracutan dengan dosis 0,1 ml. Tuberkulin test dilakukan dengan PPD dari Kopenhagen dengan kekuatan 2 TU 9 minggu setelah vaksinasi. Dari 741 bayi yang diikut sertakan dalam survey, 12 menolak, 3 bayi tidak dapat dilakukan pemeriksaan pertama, 35 bayi belum diperiksa, pemeriksaan pertama telah dilakukan pada 691 bayi. Dari 406 bayi yang seharusnya sudah diperiksa untuk pemeriksaan kedua, 23 dapat dilakukan karena tidak dapat dijumpai atau meninggal. Telah dikemukakan bahwa pencatatan alamat yang jelas dan lengkap serta kesungguhan dalam melakukan home visits sangat penting untuk berhasilnya penyelidikan semacam ini. Dari hasil-hasil yang didapatkan sampai sekarang telah dapat diambil kesimpulan sementara, bahwa vaksinasi BCG dan cacar secara simultan memberikan hasil yang memuaskan, juga bila dibandingkan dengan hasil-hasil penyelidikan diluar negeri take pada pencacaran 99.4 percent, test tuberkulin dengan PPD 2 TU 9 minggu setelah vaksinasi memberikan indurasi lebih dari 5 mm pada 99.75 percent dan tidak menimbulkan komplikasi-komplikasi. Pelaksanaan vaksinasi BCG dan cacar dapat dilakukan oleh tenaga paramedis yang telah mendapat latihan khusus dan diawasi oleh dokter yang kompeten. Dianjurkan untuk melakukan follow up pada bayi-bayi yang diikut sertakan dalam survey ini.

  10. Attitudes of healthcare workers in U.S. hospitals regarding smallpox vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Megan A

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States is implementing plans to immunize 500,000 hospital-based healthcare workers against smallpox. Vaccination is voluntary, and it is unknown what factors drive vaccine acceptance. This study's aims were to estimate the proportion of workers willing to accept vaccination and to identify factors likely to influence their decisions. Methods The survey was conducted among physicians, nurses, and others working primarily in emergency departments or intensive care units at 21 acute-care hospitals in 10 states during the two weeks before the U.S. national immunization program for healthcare workers was announced in December 2002. Of the questionnaires distributed, 1,165 were returned, for a response rate of 81%. The data were analyzed by logistic regression and were adjusted for clustering within hospital and for different number of responses per hospital, using generalized linear mixed models and SAS's NLMIXED procedure. Results Sixty-one percent of respondents said they would definitely or probably be vaccinated, while 39% were undecided or inclined against it. Fifty-three percent rated the risk of a bioterrorist attack using smallpox in the United States in the next two years as either intermediate or high. Forty-seven percent did not feel well-informed about the risks and benefits of vaccination. Principal concerns were adverse reactions and the risk of transmitting vaccinia. In multivariate analysis, four variables were associated with willingness to be vaccinated: perceived risk of an attack, self-assessed knowledge about smallpox vaccination, self-assessed previous smallpox vaccination status, and gender. Conclusions The success of smallpox vaccination efforts will ultimately depend on the relative weight in people's minds of the risk of vaccine adverse events compared with the risk of being exposed to the disease. Although more than half of the respondents thought the likelihood of a bioterrorist smallpox

  11. Safety of attenuated smallpox vaccine LC16m8 in immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokote, Hiroyuki; Shinmura, Yasuhiko; Kanehara, Tomomi; Maruno, Shinichi; Kuranaga, Masahiko; Matsui, Hajime; Hashizume, So

    2014-09-01

    Freeze-dried live attenuated smallpox vaccine LC16m8 prepared in cell culture has been the sole smallpox vaccine licensed in Japan since 1975 and was recently recommended as a WHO stockpile vaccine. We evaluated the safety of recently remanufactured lots of LC16m8 using a series of immunodeficient mouse models. These models included suckling mice, severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) mice, and wild-type mice treated with cyclosporine. LC16m8 showed extremely low virulence in each of the three mouse models compared with that of its parental strains, Lister and LC16mO. These results provide further evidence that LC16m8 is one of the safest replication-competent smallpox vaccines in the world and may be considered for use in immunodeficient patients.

  12. [Study of allergic reactions in the body after experimental smallpox vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, A A; Afanas'ev, S S; Patrikeev, G T; Prigoda, A S; Podkuiĭko, V N

    1977-09-01

    Experiments on guinea pigs demonstrated a mixed cellular-humoral character of allergy in smallpox vaccination. The ratio of cellular and humoral components depended on the site of the vaccina application. Skin manifestations in smallpox vaccination (hyperemia, infiltration, papula) were due to the multiplication of the virus proper, increased sensitivity of the surrounding tissues to the live vibrio, and specific immunological reconstruction. The skin of the sensitized animal after the anaphylactic shock in response to the intracardiac injection of the challenging dose of the vaccine virus acquired areactivity to its subsequent application.

  13. [Study of allergic reactions in the body after experimental smallpox vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, A A; Afanas'ev, S S; Patrikeev, G T; Prigoda, A S; Podkuiĭko, V N

    1977-09-01

    Experiments on guinea pigs demonstrated a mixed cellular-humoral character of allergy in smallpox vaccination. The ratio of cellular and humoral components depended on the site of the vaccina application. Skin manifestations in smallpox vaccination (hyperemia, infiltration, papula) were due to the multiplication of the virus proper, increased sensitivity of the surrounding tissues to the live vibrio, and specific immunological reconstruction. The skin of the sensitized animal after the anaphylactic shock in response to the intracardiac injection of the challenging dose of the vaccine virus acquired areactivity to its subsequent application. PMID:596021

  14. Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease following Bacille Calmette-Guérin and Smallpox Vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Anne Marie; Jess, Tine; Sørup, Signe;

    2013-01-01

    Childhood immunology has been suggested to play a role in development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) based on the studies of childhood vaccinations, infections, and treatment with antibiotics. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and smallpox vaccinations were gradually phased-out in Denmark...

  15. Analysis of variola and vaccinia virus neutralization assays for smallpox vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christine M; Newman, Frances K; Davidson, Whitni B; Olson, Victoria A; Smith, Scott K; Holman, Robert C; Yan, Lihan; Frey, Sharon E; Belshe, Robert B; Karem, Kevin L; Damon, Inger K

    2012-07-01

    Possible smallpox reemergence drives research for third-generation vaccines that effectively neutralize variola virus. A comparison of neutralization assays using different substrates, variola and vaccinia (Dryvax and modified vaccinia Ankara [MVA]), showed significantly different 90% neutralization titers; Dryvax underestimated while MVA overestimated variola neutralization. Third-generation vaccines may rely upon neutralization as a correlate of protection.

  16. Progress in the research of smallpox vaccines%天花疫苗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟昕; 阮力

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, the research on smallpox vaccine has been paid much more attention because of the special position of variola virus in bioterrorism and biological warfare. To date, 4 generations of smallpox vaccines have been developed, and of which 3 generations can be used. Among them, the first generation smallpox vaccines play an important role in the achievement of global smallpox eradication, but their adverse reactions are strong. The second generation smallpox vaccines possess the theoretical advantages conferred by improved manufacturing process and lowered risk of contamination by adventitious agents. The third generation smallpox vaccines have reduced virulence and improved safety, but the immunological efficacy has also descended. The fourth generation smallpox vaccines are developed by techniques for genetic engineering, and the efficacy remains to be evaluated. Owing to global smallpox eradication, the evaluation of the immunological efficacy of new smallpox vaccines becomes the key procedure which can hinder the development of new vaccines.%鉴于天花病毒在生物恐怖和生物战中的特殊地位,近十年来,天花疫苗的研究重新得到重视.到目前为止,天花疫苗研究已进入第四代,已有三代天花疫苗可供使用.其中,第一代天花疫苗在全球消灭天花中起到重要和关键的作用,但不良反应较强.第二代疫苗改进了生产工艺,降低了外源因子污染的可能.第三代疫苗有效地降低了疫苗的毒力,增强了安全性,但免疫效力有所下降.第四代疫苗系使用基因工程技术研制的疫苗,效果尚待评价.由于天花已经消灭,在新疫苗的研究中,如何评价其免疫效果成为妨碍疫苗研究进展的关键环节.

  17. The discontinuation of routine smallpox vaccination in the United States, 1960-1976: an unlikely affirmation of biomedical hegemony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Miriam

    2011-02-01

    This article seeks to understand the discursive context of the cessation of routine smallpox vaccination in the United States in the early 1970s. The United States has a long tradition of opposition to compulsory smallpox vaccination, usually expressed in terms of concerns about personal liberties, the extent of state authority, and challenges to the hegemony of orthodox biomedicine. The practice of routine smallpox vaccination continued in the United States until its termination in the 1970s, following a 1971 recommendation against the practice issued by the United States Public Health Service. This history investigates the ways in which opposition to compulsory smallpox vaccination in the 1960s and 70s was articulated and understood by contemporaries through an analysis of the rhetoric used in leading medical journals and popular newspapers. It finds that this ultimately successful movement to end routine smallpox vaccination drew upon the language of biomedical authority rather than political protest.

  18. Smallpox Vaccination of Laboratory Workers at US Variola Testing Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medcalf, Sharon; Bilek, Laura; Hartman, Teresa; Iwen, Peter C; Leuschen, Patricia; Miller, Hannah; O'Keefe, Anne; Sayles, Harlan; Smith, Philip W

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the need to revaccinate laboratory workers against smallpox, we assessed regular revaccination at the US Laboratory Response Network's variola testing sites by examining barriers to revaccination and the potential for persistence of immunity. Our data do not provide evidence to suggest prolonging the recommended interval for revaccination.

  19. Vaccination policy against smallpox, 1835-1914: a comparison of England with Prussia and Imperial Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennock, E P

    1998-04-01

    There are three identifiable phases in comparing vaccination policy in England, Prussia and Imperial Germany. (1) Prior to the 1870's the tradition of medical police in Prussia resulted in the vaccination of the population being treated as a State responsibility earlier than in England and provided an appropriate administrative framework. The administrative pressure that could be exerted persuaded the Prussian authorities that legislation to make vaccination compulsory was unnecessary. In contrast, England and Wales lacked both the tradition and administrative structures of a medical police. Legislation (1840, 1853) for free and universal infant vaccination was followed by radical ideological and administrative innovation. (2) From 1875 to 1889 both countries provided free and compulsory vaccination for all. In England this was limited to infants; in Germany including Prussia, it included the re-vaccination of children. (3) After 1889 England and Germany began to diverge more sharply. In England vaccination rates fell and after 1898 conscientious objectors were excused from having to have their children vaccinated. Germany retained compulsory vaccination and rates in the two countries increasingly diverged. England came to rely on the local public health administration for the surveillance and containment of smallpox, including selective vaccination of contacts. Despite these differences smallpox mortality dropped sharply in both countries, although in Germany somewhat earlier. The English reliance on surveillance and containment prefigures that of the WHO in the eradication of smallpox in the Third World. It suggests that the emphasis on the importance of high levels of mass vaccination in the German literature should perhaps be revised.

  20. Host range, growth property, and virulence of the smallpox vaccine: vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qing; Yang, Lin; Zhu, Weijun; Liu, Li; Wang, Haibo; Yu, Wenbo; Xiao, Genfu; Tien, Po; Zhang, Linqi; Chen, Zhiwei

    2005-05-10

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was used as a vaccine against smallpox in China for millions of people before 1980, yet the biological characteristics of the virus remain unclear. We have characterized VTT with respect to its host cell range, growth properties in vitro, and virulence in vivo. We found that 11 of the 12 mammalian cell lines studied are permissive to VTT infection whereas one, CHO-K1, is non-permissive. Using electron microscopy and sequence analysis, we found that the restriction of VTT replication in CHO-K1 is at a step before viral maturation probably due to the loss of the V025 gene. Moreover, VTT is significantly less virulent than vaccinia WR but remains neurovirulent in mice and causes significant body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. Our data demonstrate the need for further attenuation of VTT to serve either as a safer smallpox vaccine or as a live vaccine vector for other pathogens.

  1. Pre-event Smallpox Vaccination for Healthcare Workers Revisited – the Need for a Carefully Screened Multidisciplinary Cadre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, JD D.

    2007-03-01

    Abstract As healthcare institutions are a focus of smallpox transmission early in an epidemic, several mathematical models support pre-event smallpox vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs). The deciding factor for HCW voluntary vaccination is the risk of disease exposure versus the risk of vaccine adverse events. In a United States military population, with careful screening to exclude atopic dermatitis/eczema and immunosuppression, over 1 million vaccinia vaccinations were delivered with 1 fatality attributed to vaccination. Among 37,901 U.S. civilian volunteer healthcare workers vaccinated, 100 serious adverse events were reported including 10 ischemic cardiac episodes and six myocardial infarctions – 2 were fatal. This older population had a higher rate of adverse events due to age related coronary artery disease. T-cell mediated inflammatory processes, induced by live vaccinia vaccination, may have a role in the observed acute coronary artery events. With exclusion of individuals at risk for coronary artery disease, atopic dermatitis/eczema, and immunosuppression, HCWs can be smallpox vaccinated with minimal risk. A smallpox pre-vaccinated multidisciplinary cadre (physician, nurse, infection control practitioner, technician) will supply leadership to deal with fear and uncertainty while limiting spread and initial mortality of smallpox. Stochastic – from the Greek meaning “skillful in aiming” – is currently interpreted as arising from chance and involving probability. This issue’s article “Containing a large bioterrorist smallpox attack: a computer simulation approach” by Longini et al. is a discrete time, stochastic computer simulation model that offers additional planning guidance for a smallpox (variola virus) outbreak (1). Although interpretation of the model’s information may differ, Longini’s article concludes “Given that surveillance and containment measures are in place, preemptive vaccination of hospital workers would further

  2. Development of a highly efficacious vaccinia-based dual vaccine against smallpox and anthrax, two important bioterror entities

    OpenAIRE

    Tod J Merkel; Perera, Pin-Yu; Kelly, Vanessa K.; Verma, Anita; Llewellyn, Zara N.; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Mosca, Joseph D.; Perera, Liyanage P.

    2010-01-01

    Bioterrorism poses a daunting challenge to global security and public health in the 21st century. Variola major virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, and Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax, remain at the apex of potential pathogens that could be used in a bioterror attack to inflict mass casualties. Although licensed vaccines are available for both smallpox and anthrax, because of inadequacies associated with each of these vaccines, serious concerns remain ...

  3. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively).

  4. Demographic and clinical factors associated with response to smallpox vaccine in preimmunized volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bossi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In March 2003, the French Ministry of Health implemented a program on preparedness and response to a biological attack using smallpox as weapon. This program included the establishment of a preoutbreak national team that could be revaccinated against smallpox. OBJECTIVE: To identify demographic and clinical factors associated with vaccination success defined as the presence of a pustule at the inoculation site at day 8 (days 7-9, with an undiluted vaccinia virus derived from a Lister strain among preimmunized volunteers. VOLUNTEERS AND METHODS: From March 2003 to November 2006, we have studied prospectively 226 eligible volunteers. Demographic data were recorded for each volunteer (age, sex, number of previously smallpox vaccinations and date of the last vaccination. Smallpox vaccine adverse reactions were diagnosed on the basis of clinical examination performed at days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after revaccination. RESULTS: A total of 226 volunteers (sex ratio H/F = 2.7 were revaccinated. Median age was 45 years (range: 27-63 yrs. All volunteers completed follow-up. Median number of vaccinations before revaccination was 2 (range: 1-8. The median delay between time of the study and the last vaccination was 29 years (range; 18-60 yrs. Sixty-one volunteers (27% experienced one (n = 40 or more (n = 21 minor side effects during the 2-14 days after revaccination. Successful vaccination was noted in 216/226 volunteers (95.6% at day 8 and the median of the pustule diameter was 5 mm (range: 1-20 mm. Size of the pustule at day 8 was correlated with age (p = 0.03 and with the presence of axillary adenopathy after revaccination (p = 0.007. Sex, number of prior vaccinations, delay between the last vaccination and revaccination, and local or systemic side effects with the exception of axillary adenopathy, were not correlated with the size of the pustule at day 8. CONCLUSIONS: Previously vaccinated volunteers can be successfully revaccinated with the

  5. 76 FR 81918 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... designed to study the natural history of myopericarditis following receipt of the ACAM2000 vaccine... studies to evaluate the long term safety of ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine. Among the required post licensure... requirement and ensuring the continued licensing of this vaccine. Affected Public: Individuals or...

  6. Reflections on New York City's 1947 Smallpox Vaccination Program and Its 1976 Swine Influenza Immunization Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2015-06-01

    In 1947, a smallpox outbreak occurred in New York City with a total of twelve cases and two deaths. In order to contain this outbreak, the New York City Department of Health launched a mass immunization campaign that over a period of some 60 days vaccinated 6.35 million people. This article examines in detail the epidemiology of this outbreak and the measures employed to contain it. In 1976, a swine influenza strain was isolated among a few recruits at a US Army training camp at Fort Dix, New Jersey. It was concluded at the time that this virus possibly represented a re-appearance of the 1918 influenza pandemic influenza strain. As a result, a mass national immunization program was launched by the federal government. From its inception, the program encountered a myriad of challenges ranging from doubts that it was even necessary to the development of Guillain-Barré paralysis among some vaccine recipients. This paper examines the planning for and implementation of the swine flu immunization program in New York City. It also compares it to the smallpox vaccination program of 1947. Despite equivalent financial and personnel resources, leadership and organizational skills, the 1976 program only immunized approximately a tenth of the number of New York City residents vaccinated in 1947. The reasons for these marked differences in outcomes are discussed in detail.

  7. Analysis of pregnancy and infant health outcomes among women in the National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry who received Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Ava Marie S; Bukowinski, Anna T; Gumbs, Gia R

    2015-08-26

    The National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry (NSVIPR) actively follows women inadvertently vaccinated with smallpox vaccine during or shortly before pregnancy to evaluate their reproductive health outcomes. Approximately 65% of NSVIPR participants also inadvertently received Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) while pregnant, providing a ready opportunity to evaluate pregnancy and infant health outcomes among these women. AVA-exposed pregnancies were ascertained using NSVIPR and electronic healthcare data. Rates of pregnancy loss and infant health outcomes, including major birth defects, were compared between AVA-exposed and AVA-unexposed pregnancies. Analyses included AVA-exposed and AVA-unexposed pregnant women who also received smallpox vaccine 28 days prior to or during pregnancy. Rates of adverse outcomes among the AVA-exposed group were similar to or lower than expected when compared with published reference rates and the AVA-unexposed population. The findings provide reassurance of the safety of AVA when inadvertently received by a relatively young and healthy population during pregnancy.

  8. Taking advantage of the positive side-effects of smallpox vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A

    2004-06-01

    From the introduction of smallpox vaccination approximately 200 years ago right up to its discontinuation (1980), reports by physicians and scientists about positive side-effects such as healing of chronic skin rashes, reduced susceptibility to various infectious diseases, e.g. measles, scarlet fever and whooping cough, and even the prophylactic use of the vaccination, e.g. against syphilis, were published again and again. Comparison with the period after cessation of vaccination confirms the experiences of the above vaccinators. As early as 1956, targeted research on these observations led to evidence of the 'ring-zone phenomenon', i.e. the production of soluble antiviral substances in infected chicken embryos and cell cultures. With the help of modern immunological and bioengineering methods, it was later possible to demonstrate that these effects are based on the activation of lymphoreticular cells and the regulatory effect of certain cytokines within the context of the non-specific immune system. These findings led to the development of paramunization with paraspecific vaccines from highly attenuated animal pox viruses. During attenuation, deletions in the virus DNA occur. Attenuated animal pox strains are therefore suited for the production of vector vaccines. The fact that these vector vaccines demonstrate an especially high level of paraspecific efficacy and lack harmful effects is likewise the result of the attenuated animal pox viruses. Optimum regulation of the entire immune system leads to increased paramunity already in the first few days after vaccination and to enhanced antigen recognition and thus accelerated commencement of specific immunity.

  9. Mucosal Immunization Induces a Higher Level of Lasting Neutralizing Antibody Response in Mice by a Replication-Competent Smallpox Vaccine: Vaccinia Tiantan Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Lu; Wenbo Yu; Xiaoxing Huang; Haibo Wang; Li Liu; Zhiwei Chen

    2011-01-01

    The possible bioterrorism threat using the variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, has promoted us to further investigate the immunogenicity profiles of existing vaccines. Here, we study for the first time the immunogenicity profile of a replication-competent smallpox vaccine (vaccinia Tiantan, VTT strain) for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) through mucosal vaccination, which is noninvasive and has a critical implication for massive vaccination programs. Four different routes ...

  10. Cardiac safety of Modified Vaccinia Ankara for vaccination against smallpox in a young, healthy study population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Zitzmann-Roth

    Full Text Available Conventional smallpox vaccines based on replicating vaccinia virus (VV strains (e.g. Lister Elstree, NYCBOH are associated with a high incidence of myo-/pericarditis, a severe inflammatory cardiac complication. A new smallpox vaccine candidate based on a non-replicating Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA poxvirus has been assessed for cardiac safety in a large placebo-controlled clinical trial.Cardiac safety of one and two doses of MVA compared to placebo was assessed in 745 healthy subjects. Vaccinia-naïve subjects received either one dose of MVA and one dose of placebo, two doses of MVA, or two doses of placebo by subcutaneous injection four weeks apart; vaccinia-experienced subjects received a single dose of MVA. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AE and cardiac safety parameters (recorded as Adverse Events of Special Interest, AESI were monitored after each injection.A total of 5 possibly related AESI (3 cases of palpitations, 2 of tachycardia were reported during the study. No case of myo- or pericarditis occurred. One possibly related serious AE (SAE was reported during the 6-month follow-up period (sarcoidosis. The most frequently observed AEs were injection site reactions.Vaccination with MVA was safe and well tolerated and did not increase the risk for development of myo-/pericarditis.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316524.

  11. Risk of lymphoma and leukaemia after bacille Calmette-Guérin and smallpox vaccination: a Danish case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Marie; Sørup, Signe; Jess, Tine;

    2009-01-01

    Vaccines may have non-specific effects as suggested mainly in mortality studies from low-income countries. The objective was to examine the effects of BCG and smallpox vaccinations on subsequent risk of lymphoma and leukaemia in a Danish population experiencing rapid out-phasing of these vaccines...... cohort and analysed in a case-cohort design. BCG vaccination reduced the risk of lymphomas (HR=0.49 (95% CI: 0.26-0.93)), whereas smallpox vaccination did not (HR=1.32 (0.56-3.08)). With the small number of leukaemia cases, the analysis of leukaemia had limited power (BCG vaccination HR=0.81 (0.......31-2.16); smallpox vaccination HR=1.32 (0.49-3.53)). The present study with very reliable vaccine history information indicates a beneficial effect of BCG vaccination on the risk of lymphomas....

  12. Genomic sequence and virulence of clonal isolates of vaccinia virus Tiantan, the Chinese smallpox vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qicheng; Tian, Meijuan; Feng, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Jing; Liu, Ying; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Despite the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1979, the potential bioterrorism threat from variola virus and the ongoing use of vaccinia virus (VACV) as a vector for vaccine development argue for continued research on VACV. In China, the VACV Tiantan strain (TT) was used in the smallpox eradication campaign. Its progeny strain is currently being used to develop a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. Here we sequenced the full genomes of five TT clones isolated by plaque purification from the TT (752-1) viral stock. Phylogenetic analysis with other commonly used VACV strains showed that TT (752-1) and its clones clustered and exhibited higher sequence diversity than that found in Dryvax clones. The ∼190 kbp genomes of TT appeared to encode 273 open reading frames (ORFs). ORFs located in the middle of the genome were more conserved than those located at the two termini, where many virulence and immunomodulation associated genes reside. Several patterns of nucleotide changes including point mutations, insertions and deletions were identified. The polymorphisms in seven virulence-associated proteins and six immunomodulation-related proteins were analyzed. We also investigated the neuro- and skin- virulence of TT clones in mice and rabbits, respectively. The TT clones exhibited significantly less virulence than the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) strain, as evidenced by less extensive weight loss and morbidity in mice as well as produced smaller skin lesions and lower incidence of putrescence in rabbits. The complete genome sequences, ORF annotations, and phenotypic diversity yielded from this study aid our understanding of the Chinese historic TT strain and are useful for HIV vaccine projects employing TT as a vector.

  13. Genomic sequence and virulence of clonal isolates of vaccinia virus Tiantan, the Chinese smallpox vaccine strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qicheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Despite the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1979, the potential bioterrorism threat from variola virus and the ongoing use of vaccinia virus (VACV as a vector for vaccine development argue for continued research on VACV. In China, the VACV Tiantan strain (TT was used in the smallpox eradication campaign. Its progeny strain is currently being used to develop a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV vaccine. Here we sequenced the full genomes of five TT clones isolated by plaque purification from the TT (752-1 viral stock. Phylogenetic analysis with other commonly used VACV strains showed that TT (752-1 and its clones clustered and exhibited higher sequence diversity than that found in Dryvax clones. The ∼190 kbp genomes of TT appeared to encode 273 open reading frames (ORFs. ORFs located in the middle of the genome were more conserved than those located at the two termini, where many virulence and immunomodulation associated genes reside. Several patterns of nucleotide changes including point mutations, insertions and deletions were identified. The polymorphisms in seven virulence-associated proteins and six immunomodulation-related proteins were analyzed. We also investigated the neuro- and skin- virulence of TT clones in mice and rabbits, respectively. The TT clones exhibited significantly less virulence than the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH strain, as evidenced by less extensive weight loss and morbidity in mice as well as produced smaller skin lesions and lower incidence of putrescence in rabbits. The complete genome sequences, ORF annotations, and phenotypic diversity yielded from this study aid our understanding of the Chinese historic TT strain and are useful for HIV vaccine projects employing TT as a vector.

  14. Adverse events post smallpox-vaccination: insights from tail scarification infection in mice with Vaccinia virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno E F Mota

    Full Text Available Adverse events upon smallpox vaccination with fully-replicative strains of Vaccinia virus (VACV comprise an array of clinical manifestations that occur primarily in immunocompromised patients leading to significant host morbidity/mortality. The expansion of immune-suppressed populations and the possible release of Variola virus as a bioterrorist act have given rise to concerns over vaccination complications should more widespread vaccination be reinitiated. Our goal was to evaluate the components of the host immune system that are sufficient to prevent morbidity/mortality in a murine model of tail scarification, which mimics immunological and clinical features of smallpox vaccination in humans. Infection of C57BL/6 wild-type mice led to a strictly localized infection, with complete viral clearance by day 28 p.i. On the other hand, infection of T and B-cell deficient mice (Rag1(-/- produced a severe disease, with uncontrolled viral replication at the inoculation site and dissemination to internal organs. Infection of B-cell deficient animals (µMT produced no mortality. However, viral clearance in µMT animals was delayed compared to WT animals, with detectable viral titers in tail and internal organs late in infection. Treatment of Rag1(-/- with rabbit hyperimmune anti-vaccinia serum had a subtle effect on the morbidity/mortality of this strain, but it was effective in reduce viral titers in ovaries. Finally, NUDE athymic mice showed a similar outcome of infection as Rag1(-/-, and passive transfer of WT T cells to Rag1(-/- animals proved fully effective in preventing morbidity/mortality. These results strongly suggest that both T and B cells are important in the immune response to primary VACV infection in mice, and that T-cells are required to control the infection at the inoculation site and providing help for B-cells to produce antibodies, which help to prevent viral dissemination. These insights might prove helpful to better identify

  15. [The journey of the vaccine against smallpox: one expedition, two oceans, three continents, and thousands of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuells, José; Duro-Torrijos, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Spain encouraged, during the Bourbon dynasty, the formation of scientific expeditions, among which was the Royal Philanthropic Vaccine Expedition, an example of biopolitics applied by the state in order to protect health. The expedition went all over the world, using children as a reservoir to transport the vaccine fluid. Francisco Xavier Balmis established a human chain that arm-to-arm materialized the success of the mission. The characteristics and difficulties which children had to pass through and their contribution to the spread of the smallpox vaccine are analyzed.

  16. Neurologic adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination in the United States – response and comment on reporting of headaches as adverse events after smallpox vaccination among military and civilian personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumm Walter R

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate reporting of adverse events occurring after vaccination is an important component of determining risk-benefit ratios for vaccinations. Controversy has developed over alleged underreporting of adverse events within U.S. military samples. This report examines the accuracy of adverse event rates recently published for headaches, and examines the issue of underreporting of headaches as a function of civilian or military sources and as a function of passive versus active surveillance. Methods A report by Sejvar et al was examined closely for accuracy with respect to the reporting of neurologic adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination in the United States. Rates for headaches were reported by several scholarly sources, in addition to Sejvar et al, permitting a comparison of reporting rates as a function of source and type of surveillance. Results Several major errors or omissions were identified in Sejvar et al. The count of civilian subjects vaccinated and the totals of both civilians and military personnel vaccinated were reported incorrectly by Sejvar et al. Counts of headaches reported in VAERS were lower (n = 95 for Sejvar et al than for Casey et al (n = 111 even though the former allegedly used 665,000 subjects while the latter used fewer than 40,000 subjects, with both using approximately the same civilian sources. Consequently, rates of nearly 20 neurologic adverse events reported by Sejvar et al were also incorrectly calculated. Underreporting of headaches after smallpox vaccination appears to increase for military samples and for passive adverse event reporting systems. Conclusion Until revised or corrected, the rates of neurologic adverse events after smallpox vaccinated reported by Sejvar et al must be deemed invalid. The concept of determining overall rates of adverse events by combining small civilian samples with large military samples appears to be invalid. Reports of headaches as adverse events

  17. Analysis of pregnancy and infant health outcomes among women in the National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry who received Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Ava Marie S; Bukowinski, Anna T; Gumbs, Gia R

    2015-08-26

    The National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry (NSVIPR) actively follows women inadvertently vaccinated with smallpox vaccine during or shortly before pregnancy to evaluate their reproductive health outcomes. Approximately 65% of NSVIPR participants also inadvertently received Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) while pregnant, providing a ready opportunity to evaluate pregnancy and infant health outcomes among these women. AVA-exposed pregnancies were ascertained using NSVIPR and electronic healthcare data. Rates of pregnancy loss and infant health outcomes, including major birth defects, were compared between AVA-exposed and AVA-unexposed pregnancies. Analyses included AVA-exposed and AVA-unexposed pregnant women who also received smallpox vaccine 28 days prior to or during pregnancy. Rates of adverse outcomes among the AVA-exposed group were similar to or lower than expected when compared with published reference rates and the AVA-unexposed population. The findings provide reassurance of the safety of AVA when inadvertently received by a relatively young and healthy population during pregnancy. PMID:26049005

  18. [The historical development of immunization in Germany. From compulsory smallpox vaccination to a National Action Plan on Immunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S; Schöneberg, I; Krause, G

    2012-11-01

    In the German Reich, smallpox vaccinations were organized by the state. A mandatory vaccination throughout the empire was introduced in 1874, which was continued in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR) until 1982/1983. From 1935, health departments were responsible for vaccinations. In the GDR, immunization was tightly organized: The state made great efforts to achieve high vaccination rates. Responsibilities were clearly defined at all levels and for all ages. While vaccination was initially mandatory only at the regional level, the legally mandated immunization schedule later contained compulsory vaccinations, e.g., against measles. In the beginning there were mandatory vaccinations in the FRG at the Länder level. Since 1961, the Federal Epidemics Act has impeded obligatory vaccinations. Instead, voluntary vaccinations based on recommendations were stressed. Since the 1980s, vaccinations have been shifted from the public health service sector to office-based physicians. Today, public health authorities offer mainly supplementary vaccinations. In 2007, protective immunizations were introduced as compulsory benefits of the statutory health insurance (SHI). Recently, the German federal states developed a National Vaccination Plan to support immunization strategies.

  19. Recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in a pre-event vaccination program. Supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Melinda; Strikas, Raymond A; Harpaz, Rafael; Rotz, Lisa D; Schwartz, Benjamin; Casey, Christine G; Pearson, Michele L; Anderson, Larry J

    2003-04-01

    This report supplements the 2001 statement by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (CDC. Vaccinia [smallpox] vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP], 2001. MMWR 2001;50[No. RR-10]:1-25). This supplemental report provides recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in the pre-event vaccination program in the United States. To facilitate preparedness and response, smallpox vaccination is recommended for persons designated by public health authorities to conduct investigation and follow-up of initial smallpox cases that might necessitate direct patient contact. ACIP recommends that each state and territory establish and maintain > or = 1 smallpox response team. ACIP and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) recommend that each acute-care hospital identify health-care workers who can be vaccinated and trained to provide direct medical care for the first smallpox patients requiring hospital admission and to evaluate and manage patients who are suspected as having smallpox. When feasible, the first-stage vaccination program should include previously vaccinated health-care personnel to decrease the potential for adverse events. Additionally persons administering smallpox vaccine in this pre-event vaccination program should be vaccinated. Smallpox vaccine is administered by using the multiple-puncture technique with a bifurcated needle, packaged with the vaccine and diluent. According to the product labeling, 2-3 punctures are recommended for primary vaccination and 15 punctures for revaccination. A trace of blood should appear at the vaccination site after 15-20 seconds; if no trace of blood is visible, an additional 3 insertions should be made by using the same bifurcated needle without reinserting the needle into the vaccine vial. If no evidence of vaccine take is apparent after 7 days, the person can be vaccinated again. Optimal infection-control practices and appropriate

  20. [History of Smallpox Vaccination and of the Vaccine Supply in Hungary, up to 1890].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, László

    2015-01-01

    One of the preconditions for the spread of vaccination against pox diseases was making vaccination available. The first vaccinations were carried out using original cowpox lymph sent by Jenner. For further vaccinations the vaccine was extracted from the blisters of those who had been successfully inoculated. In order to provide vaccine continuously six vaccine centres were set up in 1804 in the following cities: Pest, Buda, Kassa, Gyula, Pozsony and Zágráb (Croatia). Detailed information is available only about the centre in Pest which operated in Rókus Hospital under the leadership of the hospital director András Bossányi. Besides regular vaccination they also provided vaccine for the countryside. From 1824 the vaccine was relocated to the medical faculty of the university in Pest and Ferenc Gebhardt, an instructor of surgeons, became its head. The centre operated in the building of the medical faculty and vaccinations were given on Thursdays and Sundays. After the retirement of Gebhardt in 1860, the centre was taken over by the dermatologist Ferenc Poor for a short time, then by Ignác Semmelweis. From 1863 Gergely Patrubány was responsible for managing the centre. In 1874 the central vaccine institution moved to the Hospital for Poor Children in Pest where it was led first by Lázár Wittman, then by Géza Hainiss. In the 1880s private institutions appeared, the best known were Dani Pécsi's centre in Pest and Béla Intze's one in Tirgu Lapus (Romania). Between 1873 an 1889 András Kreichel ran a vaccine centre in Nálepkovo (Slovakia).

  1. Recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in a pre-event vaccination program. Supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Melinda; Strikas, Raymond A; Harpaz, Rafael; Rotz, Lisa D; Schwartz, Benjamin; Casey, Christine G; Pearson, Michele L; Anderson, Larry J

    2003-04-01

    This report supplements the 2001 statement by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (CDC. Vaccinia [smallpox] vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP], 2001. MMWR 2001;50[No. RR-10]:1-25). This supplemental report provides recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in the pre-event vaccination program in the United States. To facilitate preparedness and response, smallpox vaccination is recommended for persons designated by public health authorities to conduct investigation and follow-up of initial smallpox cases that might necessitate direct patient contact. ACIP recommends that each state and territory establish and maintain > or = 1 smallpox response team. ACIP and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) recommend that each acute-care hospital identify health-care workers who can be vaccinated and trained to provide direct medical care for the first smallpox patients requiring hospital admission and to evaluate and manage patients who are suspected as having smallpox. When feasible, the first-stage vaccination program should include previously vaccinated health-care personnel to decrease the potential for adverse events. Additionally persons administering smallpox vaccine in this pre-event vaccination program should be vaccinated. Smallpox vaccine is administered by using the multiple-puncture technique with a bifurcated needle, packaged with the vaccine and diluent. According to the product labeling, 2-3 punctures are recommended for primary vaccination and 15 punctures for revaccination. A trace of blood should appear at the vaccination site after 15-20 seconds; if no trace of blood is visible, an additional 3 insertions should be made by using the same bifurcated needle without reinserting the needle into the vaccine vial. If no evidence of vaccine take is apparent after 7 days, the person can be vaccinated again. Optimal infection-control practices and appropriate

  2. Mucosal immunization induces a higher level of lasting neutralizing antibody response in mice by a replication-competent smallpox vaccine: vaccinia Tiantan strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Yu, Wenbo; Huang, Xiaoxing; Wang, Haibo; Liu, Li; Chen, Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    The possible bioterrorism threat using the variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, has promoted us to further investigate the immunogenicity profiles of existing vaccines. Here, we study for the first time the immunogenicity profile of a replication-competent smallpox vaccine (vaccinia Tiantan, VTT strain) for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) through mucosal vaccination, which is noninvasive and has a critical implication for massive vaccination programs. Four different routes of vaccination were tested in parallel including intramuscular (i.m.), intranasal (i.n.), oral (i.o.), and subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculations in mice. We found that one time vaccination with an optimal dose of VTT was able to induce anti-VTT Nabs via each of the four routes. Higher levels of antiviral Nabs, however, were induced via the i.n. and i.o. inoculations when compared with the i.m. and s.c. routes. Moreover, the i.n. and i.o. vaccinations also induced higher sustained levels of Nabs overtime, which conferred better protections against homologous or alternating mucosal routes of viral challenges six months post vaccination. The VTT-induced immunity via all four routes, however, was partially effective against the intramuscular viral challenge. Our data have implications for understanding the potential application of mucosal smallpox vaccination and for developing VTT-based vaccines to overcome preexisting antivaccinia immunity.

  3. Mucosal Immunization Induces a Higher Level of Lasting Neutralizing Antibody Response in Mice by a Replication-Competent Smallpox Vaccine: Vaccinia Tiantan Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible bioterrorism threat using the variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, has promoted us to further investigate the immunogenicity profiles of existing vaccines. Here, we study for the first time the immunogenicity profile of a replication-competent smallpox vaccine (vaccinia Tiantan, VTT strain for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs through mucosal vaccination, which is noninvasive and has a critical implication for massive vaccination programs. Four different routes of vaccination were tested in parallel including intramuscular (i.m., intranasal (i.n., oral (i.o., and subcutaneous (s.c. inoculations in mice. We found that one time vaccination with an optimal dose of VTT was able to induce anti-VTT Nabs via each of the four routes. Higher levels of antiviral Nabs, however, were induced via the i.n. and i.o. inoculations when compared with the i.m. and s.c. routes. Moreover, the i.n. and i.o. vaccinations also induced higher sustained levels of Nabs overtime, which conferred better protections against homologous or alternating mucosal routes of viral challenges six months post vaccination. The VTT-induced immunity via all four routes, however, was partially effective against the intramuscular viral challenge. Our data have implications for understanding the potential application of mucosal smallpox vaccination and for developing VTT-based vaccines to overcome preexisting antivaccinia immunity.

  4. The effects of post-exposure smallpox vaccination on clinical disease presentation: addressing the data gaps between historical epidemiology and modern surrogate model data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckler, M Shannon; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L

    2013-10-25

    Decades after public health interventions - including pre- and post-exposure vaccination - were used to eradicate smallpox, zoonotic orthopoxvirus outbreaks and the potential threat of a release of variola virus remain public health concerns. Routine prophylactic smallpox vaccination of the public ceased worldwide in 1980, and the adverse event rate associated with the currently licensed live vaccinia virus vaccine makes reinstatement of policies recommending routine pre-exposure vaccination unlikely in the absence of an orthopoxvirus outbreak. Consequently, licensing of safer vaccines and therapeutics that can be used post-orthopoxvirus exposure is necessary to protect the global population from these threats. Variola virus is a solely human pathogen that does not naturally infect any other known animal species. Therefore, the use of surrogate viruses in animal models of orthopoxvirus infection is important for the development of novel vaccines and therapeutics. Major complications involved with the use of surrogate models include both the absence of a model that accurately mimics all aspects of human smallpox disease and a lack of reproducibility across model species. These complications limit our ability to model post-exposure vaccination with newer vaccines for application to human orthopoxvirus outbreaks. This review seeks to (1) summarize conclusions about the efficacy of post-exposure smallpox vaccination from historic epidemiological reports and modern animal studies; (2) identify data gaps in these studies; and (3) summarize the clinical features of orthopoxvirus-associated infections in various animal models to identify those models that are most useful for post-exposure vaccination studies. The ultimate purpose of this review is to provide observations and comments regarding available model systems and data gaps for use in improving post-exposure medical countermeasures against orthopoxviruses.

  5. Genome Sequence of Vaccinia virus Strain Lister-Butantan, a Lister Vaccine Variant Used during a Smallpox Eradication Campaign in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Felipe; Trindade, Giliane; Drumond, Betânia; Frace, Mike; Sammons, Scott; Emerson, Ginny; Li, Yu; Carroll, Darin; Batra, Dhwani; Kroon, Erna

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the 187.8-kb genome sequence of Vaccinia virus Lister-Butantan, which was used in Brazil during the WHO smallpox eradication campaign. Its genome showed an average similarity of 98.18% with the original Lister isolate, highlighting the low divergence among related Vaccinia virus vaccine strains, even after several passages in animals and cell culture. PMID:27340056

  6. A prospective study of the incidence of myocarditis/pericarditis and new onset cardiac symptoms following smallpox and influenza vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata J M Engler

    Full Text Available Although myocarditis/pericarditis (MP has been identified as an adverse event following smallpox vaccine (SPX, the prospective incidence of this reaction and new onset cardiac symptoms, including possible subclinical injury, has not been prospectively defined.The study's primary objective was to determine the prospective incidence of new onset cardiac symptoms, clinical and possible subclinical MP in temporal association with immunization.New onset cardiac symptoms, clinical MP and cardiac specific troponin T (cTnT elevations following SPX (above individual baseline values were measured in a multi-center prospective, active surveillance cohort study of healthy subjects receiving either smallpox vaccine or trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV.New onset chest pain, dyspnea, and/or palpitations occurred in 10.6% of SPX-vaccinees and 2.6% of TIV-vaccinees within 30 days of immunization (relative risk (RR 4.0, 95% CI: 1.7-9.3. Among the 1081 SPX-vaccinees with complete follow-up, 4 Caucasian males were diagnosed with probable myocarditis and 1 female with suspected pericarditis. This indicates a post-SPX incidence rate more than 200-times higher than the pre-SPX background population surveillance rate of myocarditis/pericarditis (RR 214, 95% CI 65-558. Additionally, 31 SPX-vaccinees without specific cardiac symptoms were found to have over 2-fold increases in cTnT (>99th percentile from baseline (pre-SPX during the window of risk for clinical myocarditis/pericarditis and meeting a proposed case definition for possible subclinical myocarditis. This rate is 60-times higher than the incidence rate of overt clinical cases. No clinical or possible subclinical myocarditis cases were identified in the TIV-vaccinated group.Passive surveillance significantly underestimates the true incidence of myocarditis/pericarditis after smallpox immunization. Evidence of subclinical transient cardiac muscle injury post-vaccinia immunization is a finding that requires further

  7. GM-CSF production allows the identification of immunoprevalent antigens recognized by human CD4+ T cells following smallpox vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Judkowski

    Full Text Available The threat of bioterrorism with smallpox and the broad use of vaccinia vectors for other vaccines have led to the resurgence in the study of vaccinia immunological memory. The importance of the role of CD4+ T cells in the control of vaccinia infection is well known. However, more CD8+ than CD4+ T cell epitopes recognized by human subjects immunized with vaccinia virus have been reported. This could be, in part, due to the fact that most of the studies that have identified human CD4+ specific protein-derived fragments or peptides have used IFN-γ production to evaluate vaccinia specific T cell responses. Based on these findings, we reasoned that analyzing a large panel of cytokines would permit us to generate a more complete analysis of the CD4 T cell responses. The results presented provide clear evidence that TNF-α is an excellent readout of vaccinia specificity and that other cytokines such as GM-CSF can be used to evaluate the reactivity of CD4+ T cells in response to vaccinia antigens. Furthermore, using these cytokines as readout of vaccinia specificity, we present the identification of novel peptides from immunoprevalent vaccinia proteins recognized by CD4+ T cells derived from smallpox vaccinated human subjects. In conclusion, we describe a "T cell-driven" methodology that can be implemented to determine the specificity of the T cell response upon vaccination or infection. Together, the single pathogen in vitro stimulation, the selection of CD4+ T cells specific to the pathogen by limiting dilution, the evaluation of pathogen specificity by detecting multiple cytokines, and the screening of the clones with synthetic combinatorial libraries, constitutes a novel and valuable approach for the elucidation of human CD4+ T cell specificity in response to large pathogens.

  8. A randomized, double-blind, dose-finding Phase II study to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of the third generation smallpox vaccine candidate IMVAMUNE®

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Vollmar, Jens; Pokorny, Rolf; Rapp, Petra; Wulff, Niels; Petzold, Barbara; Handley, Amanda; Mateo, Lyn; Siersbol, Henriette; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Chaplin, Paul

    2009-01-01

    IMVAMUNE® is a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based virus that is being developed as a safer 3rd generation smallpox vaccine. In order to determine the optimal dose for further development, a double-blind, randomized Phase II trial was performed testing three different doses of IMVAMUNE® in 164 healthy volunteers. All three IMVAMUNE® doses displayed a favourable safety profile, with local reactions as the most frequent observation. The 1×108 TCID50 IMVAMUNE® dose induced a total antibody response in 94% of the subjects following the first vaccination and the highest peak seroconversion rates by ELISA (100%) and PRNT (71%). This IMVAMUNE® dose was considered to be optimal for the further clinical development of this highly attenuated poxvirus as a safer smallpox vaccine. PMID:19944151

  9. Eradicating smallpox in Indonesia: the archipelagic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Vivek

    2010-01-01

    From 1804 to 1974, the colonial Dutch East Indies government and the postcolonial Indonesian state attempted to tackle the problem of smallpox. The vaccination efforts in the colonial era virtually eliminated smallpox by 1940. Unfortunately, as a consequence of the war smallpox was reintroduced into the archipelago in 1947. Indonesia finally succeeded in eradicating smallpox in 1974 through campaigns of mass vaccination and surveillance. In the last few years of the fight against smallpox, a detection system was set up in order to have every suspected case of smallpox isolated and investigated by the health authorities until verified in the government laboratory at Bandung. This paper looks at the impact of the archipelagic nature of Indonesia on the smallpox eradication campaigns. PMID:20973337

  10. Smallpox - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hmong) PDF Minnesota Department of Health Khmer (Khmer) Smallpox Vaccine English វ៉ាក់សាំង smallpox - Khmer (Khmer) PDF ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Russian (Русский) Smallpox Vaccine English Вакцина против оспы - Русский (Russian) PDF Immunization ...

  11. Smallpox: a disease of the past? Consideration for midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Carolyn M; Martinelli, Angela M; Foster, Stanley O; Bonney, Elizabeth A; Strickland, Ora L

    2003-01-01

    Smallpox infection was often more severe in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women or in men, regardless of vaccination status. Women with smallpox infection during pregnancy have higher rates of abortions, stillbirths, and preterm deliveries than women without the disease. Pregnant women have high incidences of hemorrhagic-type and flat-type smallpox, which are associated with extremely high fatality rates. Although smallpox was eradicated in the late 1970s, current international concern exists regarding the potential use of smallpox virus as an agent for bioterrorism. This manuscript reviews clinical aspects of smallpox, smallpox immunization, and outcomes in pregnant women.

  12. A randomized, double-blind, dose-finding Phase II study to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of the third generation smallpox vaccine candidate IMVAMUNE®

    OpenAIRE

    von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Vollmar, Jens; Pokorny, Rolf; Rapp, Petra; Wulff, Niels; Petzold, Barbara; Handley, Amanda; Mateo, Lyn; Siersbol, Henriette; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Chaplin, Paul

    2009-01-01

    IMVAMUNE® is a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based virus that is being developed as a safer 3rd generation smallpox vaccine. In order to determine the optimal dose for further development, a double-blind, randomized Phase II trial was performed testing three different doses of IMVAMUNE® in 164 healthy volunteers. All three IMVAMUNE® doses displayed a favourable safety profile, with local reactions as the most frequent observation. The 1×108 TCID50 IMVAMUNE® dose induced a total antibody response i...

  13. Hospital recruitment for the Smallpox Pre-Event Vaccination Program: experiences from Florida, Nebraska, New Jersey, and Tennessee, December 2002-June 2003.

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Pamela; Tynan, William P.; Raymond, Dick; Bresnitz, Eddy; Craig, Allen S.

    2004-01-01

    The Smallpox Pre-Event Vaccination Program (SPVP) for public health and hospital-based health care workers began on January 24, 2003. This report summarizes efforts made by health officials in Florida, Nebraska, New Jersey, and Tennessee to facilitate the voluntary participation of acute care hospitals in the SPVP. Seven common characteristics contributed to the success of programs in these four states: (1) early planning, building on existing competencies, and state government support, (2) c...

  14. Hospital recruitment for the Smallpox Pre-Event Vaccination Program: experiences from Florida, Nebraska, New Jersey, and Tennessee, December 2002-June 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Pamela; Tynan, William P; Raymond, Dick; Bresnitz, Eddy; Craig, Allen S

    2004-01-01

    The Smallpox Pre-Event Vaccination Program (SPVP) for public health and hospital-based health care workers began on January 24, 2003. This report summarizes efforts made by health officials in Florida, Nebraska, New Jersey, and Tennessee to facilitate the voluntary participation of acute care hospitals in the SPVP. Seven common characteristics contributed to the success of programs in these four states: (1) early planning, building on existing competencies, and state government support, (2) carrying the program forward on a planned timeline with experienced vaccination staff, (3) use of multifaceted training activities, (4) use of mock scenarios and field exercises to avoid early problems, (5) establishment and fostering of good relationships and lines of communication with stakeholders and the mass media, (6) addressing liability and workers' compensation concerns prior to initiation of the SPVP, and (7) attention to vaccination clinic logistics. PMID:15504446

  15. Proteomic basis of the antibody response to monkeypox virus infection examined in cynomolgus macaques and a comparison to human smallpox vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Keasey

    Full Text Available Monkeypox is a zoonotic viral disease that occurs primarily in Central and West Africa. A recent outbreak in the United States heightened public health concerns for susceptible human populations. Vaccinating with vaccinia virus to prevent smallpox is also effective for monkeypox due to a high degree of sequence conservation. Yet, the identity of antigens within the monkeypox virus proteome contributing to immune responses has not been described in detail. We compared antibody responses to monkeypox virus infection and human smallpox vaccination by using a protein microarray covering 92-95% (166-192 proteins of representative proteomes from monkeypox viral clades of Central and West Africa, including 92% coverage (250 proteins of the vaccinia virus proteome as a reference orthopox vaccine. All viral gene clones were verified by sequencing and purified recombinant proteins were used to construct the microarray. Serum IgG of cynomolgus macaques that recovered from monkeypox recognized at least 23 separate proteins within the orthopox proteome, while only 14 of these proteins were recognized by IgG from vaccinated humans. There were 12 of 14 antigens detected by sera of human vaccinees that were also recognized by IgG from convalescent macaques. The greatest level of IgG binding for macaques occurred with the structural proteins F13L and A33R, and the membrane scaffold protein D13L. Significant IgM responses directed towards A44R, F13L and A33R of monkeypox virus were detected before onset of clinical symptoms in macaques. Thus, antibodies from vaccination recognized a small number of proteins shared with pathogenic virus strains, while recovery from infection also involved humoral responses to antigens uniquely recognized within the monkeypox virus proteome.

  16. The Integration of Epistasis Network and Functional Interactions in a GWAS Implicates RXR Pathway Genes in the Immune Response to Smallpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Brett A.; Lareau, Caleb; Oberg, Ann L.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Although many diseases and traits show large heritability, few genetic variants have been found to strongly separate phenotype groups by genotype. Complex regulatory networks of variants and expression of multiple genes lead to small individual-variant effects and difficulty replicating the effect of any single variant in an affected pathway. Interaction network modeling of GWAS identifies effects ignored by univariate models, but population differences may still cause specific genes to not replicate. Integrative network models may help detect indirect effects of variants in the underlying biological pathway. In this study, we used gene-level functional interaction information from the Integrative Multi-species Prediction (IMP) tool to reveal important genes associated with a complex phenotype through evidence from epistasis networks and pathway enrichment. We test this method for augmenting variant-based network analyses with functional interactions by applying it to a smallpox vaccine immune response GWAS. The integrative analysis spotlights the role of genes related to retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA), which has been implicated in a previous epistasis network analysis of smallpox vaccine. PMID:27513748

  17. Critical role of perforin-dependent CD8+ T cell immunity for rapid protective vaccination in a murine model for human smallpox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kremer

    Full Text Available Vaccination is highly effective in preventing various infectious diseases, whereas the constant threat of new emerging pathogens necessitates the development of innovative vaccination principles that also confer rapid protection in a case of emergency. Although increasing evidence points to T cell immunity playing a critical role in vaccination against viral diseases, vaccine efficacy is mostly associated with the induction of antibody responses. Here we analyze the immunological mechanism(s of rapidly protective vaccinia virus immunization using mousepox as surrogate model for human smallpox. We found that fast protection against lethal systemic poxvirus disease solely depended on CD4 and CD8 T cell responses induced by vaccination with highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA or conventional vaccinia virus. Of note, CD4 T cells were critically required to allow for MVA induced CD8 T cell expansion and perforin-mediated cytotoxicity was a key mechanism of MVA induced protection. In contrast, selected components of the innate immune system and B cell-mediated responses were fully dispensable for prevention of fatal disease by immunization given two days before challenge. In conclusion, our data clearly demonstrate that perforin-dependent CD8 T cell immunity plays a key role in MVA conferred short term protection against lethal mousepox. Rapid induction of T cell immunity might serve as a new paradigm for treatments that need to fit into a scenario of protective emergency vaccination.

  18. Extent of Systemic Spread Determines CD8+ T Cell Immunodominance for Laboratory Strains, Smallpox Vaccines, and Zoonotic Isolates of Vaccinia Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Inge E A; Hollett, Natasha A; Wong, Yik Chun; Quinan, Bárbara Resende; Howard, Debbie; da Fonseca, Flávio G; Tscharke, David C

    2015-09-01

    CD8(+) T cells that recognize virus-derived peptides presented on MHC class I are vital antiviral effectors. Such peptides presented by any given virus vary greatly in immunogenicity, allowing them to be ranked in an immunodominance hierarchy. However, the full range of parameters that determine immunodominance and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we show across a range of vaccinia virus strains, including the current clonal smallpox vaccine, that the ability of a strain to spread systemically correlated with reduced immunodominance. Reduction in immunodominance was observed both in the lymphoid system and at the primary site of infection. Mechanistically, reduced immunodominance was associated with more robust priming and especially priming in the spleen. Finally, we show this is not just a property of vaccine and laboratory strains of virus, because an association between virulence and immunodominance was also observed in isolates from an outbreak of zoonotic vaccinia virus that occurred in Brazil.

  19. Smallpox Vaccine Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

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  20. Royal College of Radiologists Annual Undergraduate Essay Prize. Melanoma: the new smallpox? Can vaccines be used to treat melanoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Gareth

    2002-02-01

    This essay assesses the effectiveness of vaccine therapy for melanoma. Risks and benefits of various vaccine strategies are explored, as are the processes by which such therapies are assessed. An overview of cancer immunobiology underlying vaccine therapy is given. PMID:11898780

  1. Neurologic adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination in the United States – response and comment on reporting of headaches as adverse events after smallpox vaccination among military and civilian personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Schumm Walter R

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate reporting of adverse events occurring after vaccination is an important component of determining risk-benefit ratios for vaccinations. Controversy has developed over alleged underreporting of adverse events within U.S. military samples. This report examines the accuracy of adverse event rates recently published for headaches, and examines the issue of underreporting of headaches as a function of civilian or military sources and as a function of passive versus acti...

  2. Vacinação, varíola e uma cultura da imunização no Brasil Vaccination, smallpox, and a culture of immunization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Hochman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir a emergência e o estabelecimento de uma "cultura da imunização" no Brasil contemporâneo a partir da erradicação da varíola. Essa cultura está associada a um longo processo de introdução de vacinas, de campanhas de vacinação e de vacinação em massa empreendidas pelo Estado brasileiro desde o final do século XIX. Particular importância é atribuída à campanha de erradicação da varíola no Brasil (1966-1973. A experiência da vacinação em massa da população contra a varíola é contrastada com episódios de resistência como a "Revolta da Vacina", e considerada como crucial na configuração de novas políticas e novas compreensões sobre o papel da imunização na saúde pública e seu lugar na sociedade brasileira.The aim of this paper is to discuss the emergence and establishment of a "culture of immunization" in the contemporary Brazil from the eradication of smallpox. This culture is associated with a long process of introduction of vaccines, vaccination campaigns and mass vaccination undertaken by the Brazilian government since the late nineteenth century. Particular importance is attributed to the campaign to eradicate smallpox in Brazil (1966-1973. The experience of mass vaccination of the population against smallpox is contrasted with episodes of resistance as the "revolt against the vaccine", and regarded as crucial in shaping new policies and new understandings about the role of immunization in public health and its place in society Brazil.

  3. On the falsifications in history: Juan José Heydeck (n. 1755 and his «amazing» discovery of a vaccine against the smallpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olagüe de Ros, Guillermo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Juan Jose Heydeck (b. 1755 is a turbid figure that in the last years he is acquiring certain historical relief. His false find of a vaccine has been overvalued, in excess, against the smallpox in goats of Madrid. In this note, which is a response to an article appeared in Asclepio in 2006, this personage is checked from an historical point of view and there is demonstrated the falsehood of his find, fruit of his excessive ambition.

    Juan José Heydeck (n. 1755 es una turbia figura que en los últimos años está adquiriendo cierto relieve historiográfico. Se ha sobrevalorado, en exceso, su falso hallazgo de una vacuna contra la
    viruela en cabras de Madrid. En esta nota, que es respuesta a un artículo aparecido en esta revista en 2006, se revisa historiográficamente a este personaje y se demuestra la falsedad de su hallazgo, fruto de su ambiciosa y desmedida ambición.

  4. Logistics in smallpox: the legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickett, John; Carrasco, Peter

    2011-12-30

    Logistics, defined as "the time-related positioning of resources" was critical to the implementation of the smallpox eradication strategy of surveillance and containment. Logistical challenges in the smallpox programme included vaccine delivery, supplies, staffing, vehicle maintenance, and financing. Ensuring mobility was essential as health workers had to travel to outbreaks to contain them. Three examples illustrate a range of logistic challenges which required imagination and innovation. Standard price lists were developed to expedite vehicle maintenance and repair in Bihar, India. Innovative staffing ensured an adequate infrastructure for vehicle maintenance in Bangladesh. The use of disaster relief mechanisms in Somalia provided airlifts, vehicles and funding within 27 days of their initiation. In contrast the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) faces more complex logistical challenges.

  5. Marcados en la piel: vacunación y viruela en Argentina (1870-1910 Marked on the skin: vaccination and smallpox in Argentina (1870-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia Di Liscia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la vacunación antivariólica en Argentina desde 1870, cuando se inician los debates al respecto, hasta la década de 1910, cuando se amplía al resto del país. Se analizan las prácticas de inmunización puestas en marcha con anterioridad a la Ley de vacunación obligatoria, aprobada en 1886 para la Capital y en 1904 para el resto del país. Tal medida fue resistida desde diferentes sectores. Su aprobación dependió de las consecuencias del proceso de modernización y urbanización acelerada, del peso de los higienistas en el escenario político y su extensión dependió de una concepción administrativa diferente, que incorporaba nuevas áreas y sectores al escenario nacional.This paper studies the smallpox vaccination in Argentina since 1870, when these discussions were inittiaded until the 1910s, when they were extended to the rest of the country. We analyze immunization practices implemented prior to the compulsory vaccination law, passed in 1886 for the Capital and in 1904 for the rest of the country. Such a move found resistance from different sectors. Its approval depended on the consequences of modernization and urbanization, the weight of hygienists in the political arena, and its extension depended on a different administrative conception, incorporating new areas and sectors to the national scenario.

  6. Standardized emergency management system and response to a smallpox emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Farley, Robert J; Celentano, John T; Gunter, Carol; Jones, Jessica W; Stone, Rogelio A; Aller, Raymond D; Mascola, Laurene; Grigsby, Sharon F; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    The smallpox virus is a high-priority, Category-A agent that poses a global, terrorism security risk because it: (1) easily can be disseminated and transmitted from person to person; (2) results in high mortality rates and has the potential for a major public health impact; (3) might cause public panic and social disruption; and (4) requires special action for public health preparedness. In recognition of this risk, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LAC-DHS) developed the Smallpox Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Plan for LAC to prepare for the possibility of an outbreak of smallpox. A unique feature of the LAC-DHS plan is its explicit use of the Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) framework for detailing the functions needed to respond to a smallpox emergency. The SEMS includes the Incident Command System (ICS) structure (management, operations, planning/intelligence, logistics, and finance/administration), the mutual-aid system, and the multi/interagency coordination required during a smallpox emergency. Management for incident command includes setting objectives and priorities, information (risk communications), safety, and liaison. Operations includes control and containment of a smallpox outbreak including ring vaccination, mass vaccination, adverse events monitoring and assessment, management of confirmed and suspected smallpox cases, contact tracing, active surveillance teams and enhanced hospital-based surveillance, and decontamination. Planning/intelligence functions include developing the incident action plan, epidemiological investigation and analysis of smallpox cases, and epidemiological assessment of the vaccination coverage status of populations at risk. Logistics functions include receiving, handling, inventorying, and distributing smallpox vaccine and vaccination clinic supplies; personnel; transportation; communications; and health care of personnel. Finally, finance/administration functions include monitoring

  7. Mozart and smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Richard H C

    2007-01-01

    In 1767 at 11 years of age, composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart contracted smallpox, allegedly causing him temporary blindness. Although now eradicated, smallpox in those days had a high mortality rate, and the history of classical music would have been very different if Mozart had become permanently blind, or died, as a result of the disease.

  8. A Multicenter, Open-Label, Controlled Phase II Study to Evaluate Safety and Immunogenicity of MVA Smallpox Vaccine (IMVAMUNE in 18-40 Year Old Subjects with Diagnosed Atopic Dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard N Greenberg

    Full Text Available Replicating smallpox vaccines can cause severe complications in individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD. Prior studies evaluating Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA, a non-replicating vaccine in humans, showed a favorable safety and immunogenicity profile in healthy volunteers.This Phase II study compared the safety and immunogenicity of MVA enrolling groups of 350 subjects with AD (SCORAD ≤ 30 and 282 healthy subjects.Subjects were vaccinated twice with MVA, each dose given subcutaneously 4 weeks apart. Adverse events, cardiac parameters, and the development of vaccinia virus humoral immune responses were monitored.The overall safety of the vaccine was similar in both groups. Adverse events affecting skin were experienced significantly more often in subjects with AD, but the majority of these events were mild to moderate in intensity. Seroconversion rates and geometric mean titers for total and neutralizing vaccinia-specific antibodies in the AD group were non-inferior compared to the healthy subjects.The size of the study population limited the detection of serious adverse events occurring at a frequency less than 1%.MVA has a favorable safety profile and the ability to elicit vaccinia-specific immune responses in subjects with AD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316602.

  9. Assay of neutralizing antibody against variola virus by the degree of focus reduction on HeLa cell cultures and its application to revaccination with smallpox vaccines of various potencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T; Shinjo, N

    1972-01-01

    A method for assaying neutralizing antibody against variola virus was established by focus counting on HeLa cell cultures. The ND(50) titre, i.e., the serum dilution endpoint to give a 50% reduction in the number of foci, was determined with excellent reproducibility.Groups of students 19-20 years of age were revaccinated by the multiple pressure method with serial 10-fold dilutions of a smallpox vaccine and their neutralizing antibody response was assayed by the focus counting assay system and was related to the local skin reactions on the seventh day after inoculation and to the potency of the vaccine administered. There was a significant rise in the antibody level even after inoculation with a vaccine whose potency was as low as 1.3 x 10(5) pock-forming units/ml. In general, the rise in the log antibody level was proportional to the diameter of the reddening, but a significant rise was found among individuals who had no detectable skin reaction. The skin reaction was greater among individuals with a lower initial antibody level when the vaccine administered had a potency lower than 1.3 x 10(6) pock-forming units/ml.

  10. Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

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  11. Frequency of Adverse Events after Vaccination with Different Vaccinia Strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wallinga, Jacco; Teunis, Peter F M; Xing, Shuqin; Mikolajczyk, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Large quantities of smallpox vaccine have been stockpiled to protect entire nations against a possible reintroduction of smallpox. Planning for an appropriate use of these stockpiled vaccines in response to a smallpox outbreak requires a rational assessment of the risks of vaccination-re

  12. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial Investigating the Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara Smallpox Vaccine (MVA-BN® in 56-80-Year-Old Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard N Greenberg

    Full Text Available Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® is a live, highly attenuated, viral vaccine under advanced development as a non-replicating smallpox vaccine. In this Phase II trial, the safety and immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® (MVA was assessed in a 56-80 years old population.MVA with a virus titer of 1 x 108 TCID50/dose was administered via subcutaneous injection to 56-80 year old vaccinia-experienced subjects (N = 120. Subjects received either two injections of MVA (MM group or one injection of Placebo and one injection of MVA (PM group four weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events (AE, focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings and safety laboratories. Solicited AEs consisted of a set of pre-defined expected local reactions (erythema, swelling, pain, pruritus, and induration and systemic symptoms (body temperature, headache, myalgia, nausea and fatigue and were recorded on a memory aid for an 8-day period following each injection. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated in terms of humoral immune responses measured with a vaccinia-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT before and at different time points after vaccination.Vaccinations were well tolerated by all subjects. No serious adverse event related to MVA and no case of myopericarditis was reported. The overall incidence of unsolicited AEs was similar in both groups. For both groups immunogenicity responses two weeks after the final vaccination (i.e. Visit 4 were as follows: Seroconversion (SC rates (doubling of titers from baseline in vaccine specific antibody titers measured by ELISA were 83.3% in Group MM and 82.8% in Group PM (difference 0.6% with 95% exact CI [-13.8%, 15.0%], and 90.0% for Group MM and 77.6% for Group PM measured by PRNT (difference 12.4% with 95% CI of [-1.1%, 27.0%]. Geometric mean titers (GMT measured by ELISA two weeks after the final vaccination for

  13. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial Investigating the Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara Smallpox Vaccine (MVA-BN®) in 56-80-Year-Old Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Richard N.; Hay, Christine M.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Marbury, Thomas C.; Wagner, Eva; Kreitmeir, Eva; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Young, Philip; Nichols, Richard; Meyer, Thomas P.; Weigl, Josef; Virgin, Garth; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® is a live, highly attenuated, viral vaccine under advanced development as a non-replicating smallpox vaccine. In this Phase II trial, the safety and immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® (MVA) was assessed in a 56–80 years old population. Methods MVA with a virus titer of 1 x 108 TCID50/dose was administered via subcutaneous injection to 56–80 year old vaccinia-experienced subjects (N = 120). Subjects received either two injections of MVA (MM group) or one injection of Placebo and one injection of MVA (PM group) four weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events (AE), focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings and safety laboratories. Solicited AEs consisted of a set of pre-defined expected local reactions (erythema, swelling, pain, pruritus, and induration) and systemic symptoms (body temperature, headache, myalgia, nausea and fatigue) and were recorded on a memory aid for an 8-day period following each injection. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated in terms of humoral immune responses measured with a vaccinia-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) before and at different time points after vaccination. Results Vaccinations were well tolerated by all subjects. No serious adverse event related to MVA and no case of myopericarditis was reported. The overall incidence of unsolicited AEs was similar in both groups. For both groups immunogenicity responses two weeks after the final vaccination (i.e. Visit 4) were as follows: Seroconversion (SC) rates (doubling of titers from baseline) in vaccine specific antibody titers measured by ELISA were 83.3% in Group MM and 82.8% in Group PM (difference 0.6% with 95% exact CI [-13.8%, 15.0%]), and 90.0% for Group MM and 77.6% for Group PM measured by PRNT (difference 12.4% with 95% CI of [-1.1%, 27.0%]). Geometric mean titers (GMT) measured by ELISA two weeks after

  14. Immunomodulator-based enhancement of anti smallpox immune responses.

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    Osmarie Martínez

    Full Text Available The current live vaccinia virus vaccine used in the prevention of smallpox is contraindicated for millions of immune-compromised individuals. Although vaccination with the current smallpox vaccine produces protective immunity, it might result in mild to serious health complications for some vaccinees. Thus, there is a critical need for the production of a safe virus-free vaccine against smallpox that is available to everyone. For that reason, we investigated the impact of imiquimod and resiquimod (Toll-like receptors agonists, and the codon-usage optimization of the vaccinia virus A27L gene in the enhancement of the immune response, with intent of producing a safe, virus-free DNA vaccine coding for the A27 vaccinia virus protein.We analyzed the cellular-immune response by measuring the IFN-γ production of splenocytes by ELISPOT, the humoral-immune responses measuring total IgG and IgG2a/IgG1 ratios by ELISA, and the TH1 and TH2 cytokine profiles by ELISA, in mice immunized with our vaccine formulation.The proposed vaccine formulation enhanced the A27L vaccine-mediated production of IFN-γ on mouse spleens, and increased the humoral immunity with a TH1-biased response. Also, our vaccine induced a TH1 cytokine milieu, which is important against viral infections.These results support the efforts to find a new mechanism to enhance an immune response against smallpox, through the implementation of a safe, virus-free DNA vaccination platform.

  15. The discontinuation of routine smallpox vaccination in the United States, 1960-1976: an unlikely affirmation of biomedical hegemony A descontinuação da vacinação de rotina contra a varíola nos Estados Unidos, 1960-1976: uma afirmação improvável da hegemonia biomédica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to understand the discursive context of the cessation of routine smallpox vaccination in the United States in the early 1970s. The United States has a long tradition of opposition to compulsory smallpox vaccination, usually expressed in terms of concerns about personal liberties, the extent of state authority, and challenges to the hegemony of orthodox biomedicine. The practice of routine smallpox vaccination continued in the United States until its termination in the 1970s, following a 1971 recommendation against the practice issued by the United States Public Health Service. This history investigates the ways in which opposition to compulsory smallpox vaccination in the 1960s and 70s was articulated and understood by contemporaries through an analysis of the rhetoric used in leading medical journals and popular newspapers. It finds that this ultimately successful movement to end routine smallpox vaccination drew upon the language of biomedical authority rather than political protest.Este artigo procura entender o contexto discursivo da cessação da vacinação de rotina contra varíola nos Estados Unidos no início dos anos 70. Os Estados Unidos têm uma longa tradição na oposição à vacinação compulsória contra a varíola, geralmente expressa em relação ao que se refere à liberdade pessoal, à extensão da autoridade estadual e desafios à hegemonia da biomedicina ortodoxa. A rotina de vacinação contra varíola continuou nos Estados Unidos até a extinção da doença nos anos 70, seguida de uma recomendação em 1971 contra a prática emitida pelo Serviço de Saúde Pública dos Estados Unidos. Essa história investiga as maneiras pelas quais a oposição à vacinação compulsória contra a varíola nos anos 60 e 70 foi articulada e entendida por contemporâneos através da análise da retórica utilizada pelos principais periódicos médicos e jornais populares. Descobriu-se que esse movimento bem

  16. Smallpox and its eradication in the Democratic Republic of Congo: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Mulembakani, Prime; Lekie, René Botee; Szczeniowski, Mark; Ježek, Zdeněk; Doshi, Reena; Hoff, Nicole; Rimoin, Anne W

    2011-12-30

    Smallpox eradication is considered to be one of the most remarkable accomplishments of the 20th century. Lessons learned from the campaign during the 1960s and 1970s in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) can provide important information for the development of other eradication programs including polio. The DRC is the third largest country in Africa; the population suffers from extreme poverty, deteriorating infrastructure and health systems, and long periods of civil strife. Despite these challenges, DRC's smallpox eradication campaign was successful, eradicating smallpox only 41 months after initiation. DRC had been polio free since 2001; however, in 2006, imported cases were identified in the country. Polio transmission has since been re-established and DRC now has the second greatest number of reported polio cases in the world. Challenges which existed during the smallpox campaign in DRC are still present today; additionally, the polio vaccine itself poses unique challenges which include requiring multiple doses to confer immunity. In the fight against polio in DRC, it will be important to draw from the smallpox eradication experience. A number of important themes emerged during the campaign that could be beneficial to eradicating polio and future eradication programs that may follow. During the smallpox campaign, a standard vaccination program was implemented, surveillance was intensified, and there were strong collaborative programs with community involvement. These successful elements of the smallpox campaign should be adapted and applied in DRC in polio eradication programs. PMID:22188930

  17. [Comparison of protective properties of the smallpox DNA-vaccine based on the variola virus A30L gene and its variant with modified codon usage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksiutov, R A; Shchelkunov, S N

    2011-01-01

    Efficacy of candidate DNA-vaccines based on the variola virus natural gene A30L and artificial gene A30Lopt with modified codon usage, optimized for expression in mammalian cells, was tested. The groups of mice were intracutaneously immunized three times with three-week intervals with candidate DNA-vaccines: pcDNA_A30L or pcDNA_A30Lopt, and in three weeks after the last immunization all mice in the groups were intraperitoneally infected by the ectromelia virus K1 strain in 10 LD50 dose for the estimation of protection. It was shown that the DNA-vaccines based on natural gene A30L and codon-optimized gene A30Lopt elicited virus, thereby neutralizing the antibody response and protected mice from lethal intraperitoneal challenge with the ectromelia virus with lack of statistically significant difference.

  18. Tecovirimat for smallpox infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolken, T C; Hruby, D E

    2010-02-01

    SIGA Technologies, Inc. is a small biotech company committed to developing novel products for the prevention and treatment of serious viral diseases, with an emphasis on products to combat outbreaks that could result from bioterrorism. With government support, SIGA has developed the necessary infrastructure to successfully advance new antiviral drugs from the discovery stage through to licensing. Currently, there is a need to develop safe and effective inhibitors for poxvirus-induced diseases such as smallpox caused by variola, which is a potential biological warfare agent. Likewise emerging zoonotic infections due to cowpox virus and monkeypox virus require the development of effective countermeasures. Tecovirimat, also known as ST-246, has shown efficacy in all small animal and nonhuman primate prophylaxis and therapeutic efficacy models of poxvirus-induced disease tested to date. Phase I clinical trials and new drug application-enabling toxicology studies have been completed with tecovirimat. A phase II clinical study is being run and SIGA has initiated commercial scale-up manufacturing and preparation for the pivotal safety and efficacy studies. SIGA is committed to getting approval for tecovirimat and supplying it to the Strategic National Stockpile, the Department of Defense and global health authorities. PMID:20393639

  19. Repeated high-dose (5 × 10(8) TCID50) toxicity study of a third generation smallpox vaccine (IMVAMUNE) in New Zealand white rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree, Julia A; Hall, Graham; Rees, Peter; Vipond, Julia; Funnell, Simon G P; Roberts, Allen D

    2016-07-01

    Concern over the release of variola virus as an agent of bioterrorism remains high and a rapid vaccination regimen is desirable for use in the event of a confirmed release of virus. A single, high-dose (5×10(8) TCID50) of Bavarian Nordic's IMVAMUNE was tested in a Phase-II clinical trial, in humans, as a substitute for the standard (1×10(8) TCID50), using a 2-dose, 28-days apart regimen. Prior to this clinical trial taking place a Good Laboratory Practice, repeated high-dose, toxicology study was performed using IMVAMUNE, in New Zealand white rabbits and the results are reported here. Male and female rabbits were dosed twice, subcutaneously, with 5×10(8) TCID50 of IMVAMUNE (test) or saline (control), 7-days apart. The clinical condition, body-weight, food consumption, haematology, blood chemistry, immunogenicity, organ-weight, and macroscopic and microscopic pathology were investigated. Haematological investigations indicated changes within the white blood cell profile that were attributed to treatment with IMVAMUNE; these comprised slight increases in neutrophil and monocyte numbers, on study days 1-3 and a marginal increase in lymphocyte numbers on day 10. Macroscopic pathology revealed reddening at the sites of administration and thickened skin in IMVAMUNE, treated animals. After the second dose of IMVAMUNE 9/10 rabbits seroconverted, as detected by antibody ELISA on day 10, by day 21, 10/10 rabbits seroconverted. Treatment-related changes were not detected in other parameters. In conclusion, the subcutaneous injection of 2 high-doses of IMVAMUNE, to rabbits, was well tolerated producing only minor changes at the site of administration. Vaccinia-specific antibodies were raised in IMVAMUNE-vaccinated rabbits only.

  20. Las vacunaciones antivariólicas en Navarra (España entre septiembre y noviembre de 1801 Smallpox vaccinations in Navarre (Spain between September and November 1801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Viñes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se da noticia de la localización en el Archivo de D. Gaspar Castellano de Gastón, del documento que atestigua las primeras inoculaciones con linfa vacunal en Errazu, localidad del Valle de Baztán (Navarra, realizadas el 2 de Noviembre de 1801, por el médico de San Juan de Pie de Puerto (Francia Dr. Iribarren Ayzin, desde el brazo de una muchacha francesa de 18 años, conducida personalmente por él, a instancia de D. Josef Juaquín Gastón Alcalde del Valle del Baztán. El nuevo hallazgo sirve de homenaje 200 años después a la primera expedición de Salud Pública entre 1803 y 1806, dirigida por el médico alicantino D. Francisco Xavier Balmis, dando la vuelta al mundo, con el fin de difundir la vacuna entre todas las razas y zonas del mundo conocidas.We communicate the discovery in the Archive of D. Gaspar Castellano de Gastón of a document providing evidence of the first inoculations with lymph vaccine in Errazu, a village in the Baztán Valley (Navarre. These were carried out on November 2nd 1801, by a doctor from San Juan Pie de Puerto (France, Dr. Iribarren Ayzin, from the arm of a French girl aged 18, personally brought by him at the request of D. Josef Juaquín Gastón, Mayor of the Baztán Valley. The new finding serves as homage, 200 hundred years later, to the first Public Health expedition, carried out between 1803 and 1806, which travelled around the world in order to spread the vaccine amongst all the races and areas of the known world. The expedition was led by D. Francisco Xavier Balmis, a doctor from Alicante.

  1. 牛痘疫苗接种家兔炎症皮肤提取物治疗神经病理性痛疗效的系统评价%EFFICACY OF EXTRACT OF INFLAMMATORY RABBIT SKIN WITH VACCINATED SMALLPOX VACCINATION FOR NEUROPATHIC PAIN: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩琳; 席鹏; 李亦梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the treatment effects of extract of inflammatory rabbit skin vaccinated with smallpox vaccination on neuropathic pain according to current clinical research evidence,and provide the theoretical basis for clinical prognostic evaluation.Methods:Electronic database including PubMed,Medalink,Springerlink,CNKI,Tongfang Data,and Wanfang Data were searched,meanwhile related articles were searched by auxiliary manual retrieval,and the reference lists of enrolled reports and reviews were looked up.The search collected the randomized controlled clinical trials on the treatment of extract of inflammatory rabbit skin vaccinated with smallpox vaccination for neuropathic pain from 1987 to 2011.The quality of included trials was evaluated by the Cochrane Handbook.Valid data were extracted and statistically analyzed with the software RevMan 5.0.Results:Totally 1009 patients in fifteen trials were included.Meta-analysis indicated that,compared to placebo,carbamazepine,methycobal,or pancreatic kininogenase,the treatment effects of extract of inflammatory rabbit skin vaccinated with smallpox vaccination for neuropathic pain were better [OR=2.69,95% CI (1.99,3.65)].There were statistically significant differences in the visual analogue scale at the end of the treatment [OR=-1.94,95% CI (-2.05,-1.84)].There was no statistically significant difference in safety between the control group and the treatment group [OR=0.53,95% CI (0.30,0.96)].Conclusion:Extract of inflammatory rabbit skin vaccinated with smallpox vaccination can effectively relieve the neuropathic pain.%目的:根据目前的临床研究证据评价牛痘疫苗接种家兔炎症皮肤提取物用于治疗神经病理性痛的疗效,为临床预后评估提供理论依据.方法:计算机检索PubMed、Medalink、Springerlink、CNKI、同方、万方等数据库,同时辅助手工检索相关文献,查阅纳入文献的参考文献.检索时间为1987至2011年的文献,收集牛痘疫苗接种

  2. Modeling the Effect of Herd Immunity and Contagiousness in Mitigating a Smallpox Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeden, Ellie; Fielding, Russel; Steinhouse, Kyle E; Rubin, Ilan N

    2015-07-01

    The smallpox antiviral tecovirimat has recently been purchased by the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile. Given significant uncertainty regarding both the contagiousness of smallpox in a contemporary outbreak and the efficiency of a mass vaccination campaign, vaccine prophylaxis alone may be unable to control a smallpox outbreak following a bioterror attack. Here, we present the results of a compartmental epidemiological model that identifies conditions under which tecovirimat is required to curtail the epidemic by exploring how the interaction between contagiousness and prophylaxis coverage of the affected population affects the ability of the public health response to control a large-scale smallpox outbreak. Each parameter value in the model is based on published empirical data. We describe contagiousness parametrically using a novel method of distributing an assumed R-value over the disease course based on the relative rates of daily viral shedding from human and animal studies of cognate orthopoxvirus infections. Our results suggest that vaccination prophylaxis is sufficient to control the outbreak when caused either by a minimally contagious virus or when a very high percentage of the population receives prophylaxis. As vaccination coverage of the affected population decreases below 70%, vaccine prophylaxis alone is progressively less capable of controlling outbreaks, even those caused by a less contagious virus (R0 less than 4). In these scenarios, tecovirimat treatment is required to control the outbreak (total number of cases under an order of magnitude more than the number of initial infections). The first study to determine the relative importance of smallpox prophylaxis and treatment under a range of highly uncertain epidemiological parameters, this work provides public health decision-makers with an evidence-based guide for responding to a large-scale smallpox outbreak.

  3. Smallpox inoculation (variolation) in East Africa with special reference to the practice among the Boran and Gabra of Northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H

    2014-12-01

    Smallpox inoculation (variolation) was widely reported in sub-Sahara Africa before, during, and after the colonial era. The infective smallpox materials and techniques used, as well as the anatomical sites for inoculation, varied widely among different ethnic groups. The practice among the Boran and Gabra pastoralists of northern Kenya resembled that which was prevalent in a number of areas of Ethiopia. This is not surprising as the Boran also live in southern Ethiopia, and Gabra herdsmen frequently cross the border into this region. The Boran and Gabra technique for smallpox inoculation consisted of taking infective material from the vesicles or pustules of those with active smallpox, and scraping it into the skin on the dorsum of the lower forearm. Although the intent was to cause a local reaction and at most a mild form of smallpox, severe cases of the disease not infrequently resulted. Also, variolated individuals were capable of infecting others with smallpox, thereby augmenting outbreaks and sustaining them. The limited known reports of smallpox inoculation among the Boran and Gabra are presented in this communication. The expansion of vaccination with effective heat stable vaccines, the development of medical and public health infrastructures, and educational programs all contributed to the eventual disappearance of the practice among the Boran and Gabra. PMID:25100176

  4. Vaccines in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali M Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a specific disease. More than two centuries have passed since the first successful vaccine for smallpox was developed. We′ve come a long way since. Today′s vaccines are among the 21 st century′s most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing diseases.

  5. Varíola e vacina no Brasil no século XX: institucionalização da educação sanitária Smallpox and vaccine in Brazil at 20th century: institutionalization of health education

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    Tania Maria Dias Fernandes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é discutir algumas ações que possibilitaram a erradicação da varíola no Brasil, considerando os principais contextos e as políticas adotadas para as doenças entre 1920 e 1970, assumindo como destaque as medidas educativas no campo da saúde e estabelecendo uma discussão acerca do conteúdo educacional dos programas adotados. Observam-se, ao longo deste período, a configuração de políticas de saúde e a criação de organismos estatais direcionados a doenças e ações específicas, o que no caso da varíola somente ocorreu na década de 1960, quando foram criadas a Campanha Nacional contra a Varíola e a Campanha Nacional de Erradicação da Varíola. A educação sanitária e as relações com estas instituições foram de fundamental importância para a divulgação e implementação de ações estatais que possibilitaram ampliação da cobertura vacinal com a aceitação de seu uso pela população, o alcance do controle e a erradicação da doença.The aim of this paper is to discuss some actions that made possible the eradication of smallpox in Brazil, considering the main contexts and policies adopted for the disease between 1920 and 1970, assuming as contrast educational measures in the field of health and establishing a discussion on the educational content of the programs adopted. It can be observed that, during this period, the setting of the health policies and the creation of state agencies that target specific diseases and actions, which in the case of the smallpox, only occurred in the 1960s, when the National Campaign against the Smallpox and the National Campaign for Eradication of Smallpox were created. Health education and the relations with these institutions were of fundamental importance to the dissemination and implementation of state actions that allowed the expansion of the vaccinal coverage with acceptance of its use by the population and the range of control and eradication of the

  6. Following in the footsteps of smallpox: can we achieve the global eradication of measles?

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    Morgan Oliver WC

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an effective measles vaccine has been available for almost 40 years, in 2000 there were about 30 million measles infections worldwide and 777,000 measles-related deaths. The history of smallpox suggests that achieving measles eradication depends on several factors; the biological characteristics of the organism; vaccine technology; surveillance and laboratory identification; effective delivery of vaccination programmes and international commitment to eradication. Discussion Like smallpox, measles virus has several biological characteristics that favour eradication. Humans are the only reservoir for the virus, which causes a visible illness and infection leading to life-long immunity. As the measles virus has only one genetic serotype which is relatively stable over time, the same basic vaccine can be used world-wide. Vaccination provides protection against measles infection for at least 15 years, although efficacy may be reduced due to host factors such as nutritional status. Measles vaccination may also confer other non-specific health benefits leading to reduced mortality. Accurate laboratory identification of measles cases enables enhanced surveillance to support elimination programmes. The "catch-up, keep-up, follow-up" vaccination programme implemented in the Americas has shown that measles elimination is possible using existing technologies. On 17th October 2003 the "Cape Town Measles Declaration" by the World Health Organisation and the United Nations Childrens Fund called on governments to intensify efforts to reduce measles mortality by supporting universal vaccination coverage and the development of more effective vaccination. Summary Although more difficult than for smallpox, recent experience in the Americas suggests that measles eradication is technically feasible. Growing international support to deliver these programmes means that measles, like smallpox, may very well become a curiosity of history.

  7. Traditional Smallpox Vaccines and Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Categories Cleansers Clothing & Fabrics Disposable Wipes Moisturizers Hair Products Household Products OTC Drugs Sunscreens About NEA Seal of ... Categories Cleansers Clothing & Fabrics Disposable Wipes Moisturizers Hair Products Household Products OTC Drugs Sunscreens About NEA Seal of ...

  8. Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus Vaccination Provides Long-Term Protection against Nasal Rabbitpox Virus Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dorothy I; McGee, Charles E; Sample, Christopher J; Sempowski, Gregory D; Pickup, David J; Staats, Herman F

    2016-07-01

    Modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) is a smallpox vaccine candidate. This study was performed to determine if MVA vaccination provides long-term protection against rabbitpox virus (RPXV) challenge, an animal model of smallpox. Two doses of MVA provided 100% protection against a lethal intranasal RPXV challenge administered 9 months after vaccination. PMID:27146001

  9. Sobre a varíola e as práticas da vacinação em Minas Gerais (Brasil no século XIX About smallpox and vaccination practices in Minas Gerais (Brazil in the 19th century

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    Anny Jackeline Torres Silveira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o impacto da varíola e da prática da vacinação antivariólica em Minas Gerais durante o período imperial brasileiro (1822-1889. Apesar da presença de órgãos que visavam à organização e à propagação da vacina no país desde o início do século XIX, identifica-se, pela documentação relativa à saúde pública produzida pelas autoridades provinciais, uma série de fatores de natureza administrativa e cultural que influenciaram negativamente na plena implementação quer da vacina quer da estrutura organizada no período visando à sua difusão. Seguindo as proposições da historiografia dedicada ao tema, discute-se que, apesar da tendência à centralização observada em diferentes esferas da administração no processo de estruturação do Estado Imperial, no âmbito da saúde e, particularmente, no âmbito do serviço de vacinação antivariólica, prevaleceu uma desarticulação entre os diferentes agentes responsáveis pela implementação e o controle desse serviço. Outro aspecto que contribuiu para as dificuldades relativas à implementação desse serviço foi a grande resistência da população em submeter-se à vacina e que pode ser entendida pela análise das percepções sociais construídas sobre a doença e o método da vacinação.This article discusses the impact of smallpox and vaccination practices used against the disease used in the province of Minas Gerais, in Brazil, during the Imperial Period (1822-1889. Despite the existence of services responsible for the organization and dissemination of the vaccine in the country since the early 19th century, some administrative and cultural factors, as identified in documents produced by the province's public health authorities at the time, had a negative impact upon the full implementation of both practice and organization of services aimed at the dissemination of smallpox vaccination. Based upon historiographic sources, it is argued that despite

  10. Potential virulence determinants in terminal regions of variola smallpox virus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massung, R F; Esposito, J J; Liu, L I; Qi, J; Utterback, T R; Knight, J C; Aubin, L; Yuran, T E; Parsons, J M; Loparev, V N

    Smallpox eradication culminated the most successful antimicrobial campaign in medical history. To characterize further the linear double-stranded DNA genome of the aetiological agent of smallpox, we have determined the entire nucleotide sequence of the highly virulent variola major virus, strain Bangladesh-1975 (VAR-BSH; 186,102 base pairs, 33.7% G + C; Genbank accession number, L22579). Here we highlight features of the molecule and focus on a few of the 187 putative proteins that probably contribute to pathogenicity and virus host-range properties. One hundred and fifty proteins were markedly similar to those of vaccinia virus (smallpox vaccine), for which a complete sequence has been reported for strain Copenhagen (VAC-CPN; 191,636 base pairs, 33.3% G + C). The remaining 37 proteins reflected variola-specific sequences or open reading frame divergences for variant proteins, which are often truncated or elongated compared with their vaccinia counterparts.

  11. SWOT analysis: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the Israeli Smallpox Revaccination Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Michael; Balicer, Ran D; Leventhal, Alex

    2003-01-01

    During September 2002, Israel began its current revaccination program against smallpox, targeting previously vaccinated "first responders" among medical and emergency workers. In order to identify the potential strengths and weaknesses of this program and the conditions under which critical decisions were reached, we conducted a SWOT analysis of the current Israeli revaccination program, designed to identify its intrinsic strengths and weaknesses, as well as opportunities for its success and threats against it. SWOT analysis--a practical tool for the study of public health policy decisions and the social and political contexts in which they are reached--revealed clear and substantial strengths and weaknesses of the current smallpox revaccination program, intrinsic to the vaccine itself. A number of threats were identified that may jeopardize the success of the current program, chief among them the appearance of severe complications of vaccination. Our finding of a lack of a generation of knowledge on smallpox vaccination highlights the need for improved physician education and dissipation of misconceptions that are prevalent in the public today.

  12. Smallpox eradication, laboratory visits, and a touch of tourism: travel notes of a Canadian scientist in Brazil Erradicando a varíola, visitando laboratórios e um pouco de turismo: notas de viagem de um cientista canadense ao Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Palmer; Gilberto Hochman; Danieli Arbex

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses the travel notes diary of Canadian scientist Robert J. Wilson when he visited Brazil in April 1967 during the Smallpox Eradication Programme run by the World Health Organisation. Wilson's report makes it possible to reflect on the smallpox eradication campaign in Brazil; on the Canada-Brazil cooperation to improve the quality of the smallpox vaccine; on his assessment by of scientists and Brazilian laboratories; on the effects of intersections between scientif...

  13. Vaccinia virus induces rapid necrosis in keratinocytes by a STAT3-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available Humans with a dominant negative mutation in STAT3 are susceptible to severe skin infections, suggesting an essential role for STAT3 signaling in defense against cutaneous pathogens.To focus on innate antiviral defenses in keratinocytes, we used a standard model of cutaneous infection of severe combined immunodeficient mice with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000. In parallel, early events post-infection with the smallpox vaccine ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes of human and mouse origin.Mice treated topically with a STAT3 inhibitor (Stattic developed larger vaccinia lesions with higher virus titers and died more rapidly than untreated controls. Cultured human and murine keratinocytes infected with ACAM-2000 underwent rapid necrosis, but when treated with Stattic or with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase or caspase-1, they survived longer, produced higher titers of virus, and showed reduced activation of type I interferon responses and inflammatory cytokines release. Treatment with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase and STAT3, but not caspase-1, also reduced the inflammatory response of keratinocytes to TLR ligands. Vaccinia growth properties in Vero cells, which are known to be defective in some antiviral responses, were unaffected by inhibition of RIP1K, caspase-1, or STAT3.Our findings indicate that keratinocytes suppress the replication and spread of vaccinia virus by undergoing rapid programmed cell death, in a process requiring STAT3. These data offer a new framework for understanding susceptibility to skin infection in patients with STAT3 mutations. Interventions which promote prompt necroptosis/pyroptosis of infected keratinocytes may reduce risks associated with vaccination with live vaccinia virus.

  14. [From dreaded epidemic to rare disease - smallpox in Sweden 1750-1900].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld, P

    1994-01-01

    Smallpox contributed to the death of 300,000 people in Sweden between 1750 and 1800. It was one of the most feared diseases of the time. Most victims were children under the age of 10 years. It is estimated that one out of every ten children died from smallpox. The mortality rate was between 10% and 20% but those who survived faced severe complications. Most common were the disfiguring pockmarks among those previously infected. It turned out that women who had contracted smallpox married much later in life than the healthy. Also, both female and male fertility was lowered by smallpox infection. By the mid 1750s inoculation was introduced in Sweden. This was a preventive method where a mild infection was given by putting smallpox matter into an incision in the skin. Success was restricted to the wealthy, even if the doctors tried to reach the common people. The main reasons were lack of confidence for doctors, medical and epidemiological risks, costs and an ineffective organization. In 1801 Eberhard Zacharias Munch of Rosenschöld performed the first vaccination with cowpox matter in Sweden. In a few years an extensive practise was stabilized, which made the Swedish population one of the best vaccinated in the world. Moreover, a unique registration was compiled which, together with the parish records, makes the country one of the best documented. The main reasons behind the success was previous experiences of inoculation, international influences, abolition of the physicians monopoly, an effective organization, better opportunities for financing and rewards, and the compulsory law of 1816.

  15. Le vaccin antivariolique historique Lister : séquence génomique, diversité phénotypique et neuropathogénicité : perspectives vaccinales

    OpenAIRE

    Garcel, Aude

    2007-01-01

    The smallpox constituted a real scourge for humanity until 1980, the year of the declaration of its eradication due to vaccination. The risk of variola virus reemerging as a biological weapon, considering manufacturing conditions, the low population immunity and historical vaccine post-vaccinal complications, make new smallpox vaccines development a necessity.In this paper, the historical Lister strain vaccine study is described as part of the elaboration strategy of a new vaccine coming from...

  16. What We Learn about Smallpox from Movies - Fact or Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters What's New A - Z Index What We Learn About Smallpox from Movies - Fact or Fiction ... Disease Fiction: In the F/X movie Smallpox , we see a police composite sketch of a supposed ...

  17. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2014-01-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace ...

  18. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI (1978 and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP (1985 were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  19. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  20. Estrategias, actores, promesas y temores en las campañas de vacunación antivariolosa en México: del Porfiriato a la Posrevolución (1880-1940 Strategies, actors, promises and fears in the smallpox vaccinations campaigns in Mexico: from the Porfiriato to the Post-revolution (1880-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Agostoni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia algunas de las estrategias a las que recurrieron las autoridades de salud durante la puesta en marcha de programas vacunación antivariolosa durante los años de 1880 a 1940, periodo que corresponde al gobierno encabezado por Porfirio Díaz (1877-1911, a la fase armada de la Revolución Mexicana (1910-1920, y a las dos primeras décadas del estado posrevolucionario (1920-1940. Por una parte se prestará atención a la preeminencia que tuvo la vacunación en los centros urbanos, notablemente en la ciudad de México; y por la otra, se destacará la gradual, pero decisiva, organización y reglamentación de la vacunación antivariolosa en los programas destinados para el heterogéneo y desigual ámbito rural. Asimismo, se analizará la importancia que adquirió la educación higiénica, y se prestará atención a las divergentes respuestas que la aplicación masiva y cotidiana de la vacuna suscitó en las ciudades principales y en pequeños pueblos y municipios rurales, respuestas que incluyeron la resistencia, el temor, la incredulidad y la franca aceptación.The article examines some of the strategies employed by the Mexican health authorities that led to the organization of massive and obligatory smallpox vaccination campaigns from the late 1880s to the 1940s, a period of Mexican history that corresponds to the Porfirio Díaz regime (1877-1911, to the armed phase of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920, and to the first two decades of the Post-revolutionary governments (1920-1940. Attention will be placed of the vaccination programs in the main urban settings, notably in Mexico City, as well as the gradual but decisive organization and regulation of vaccination campaigns in the heterogeneous rural milieu. Furthermore, the importance that hygienic education acquired will be explored, as well as the divergent and contested responses that emerged due to the obligatory vaccination campaigns, responses that included resistance, fear

  1. Vaccine safety--vaccine benefits: science and the public's perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C B; Marcuse, E K

    2001-11-01

    The development of cowpox vaccination by Jenner led to the development of immunology as a scientific discipline. The subsequent eradication of smallpox and the remarkable effects of other vaccines are among the most important contributions of biomedical science to human health. Today, the need for new vaccines has never been greater. However, in developed countries, the public's fear of vaccine-preventable diseases has waned, and awareness of potential adverse effects has increased, which is threatening vaccine acceptance. To further the control of disease by vaccination, we must develop safe and effective new vaccines to combat infectious diseases, and address the public's concerns.

  2. Therapeutic Vaccines and Antibodies for Treatment of Orthopoxvirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart N. Isaacs

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the eradication of smallpox several decades ago, variola and monkeypox viruses still have the potential to become significant threats to public health. The current licensed live vaccinia virus-based smallpox vaccine is extremely effective as a prophylactic vaccine to prevent orthopoxvirus infections, but because of safety issues, it is no longer given as a routine vaccine to the general population. In the event of serious human orthopoxvirus infections, it is important to have treatments available for individual patients as well as their close contacts. The smallpox vaccine and vaccinia immune globulin (VIG were used in the past as therapeutics for patients exposed to smallpox. VIG was also used in patients who were at high risk of developing complications from smallpox vaccination. Thus post-exposure vaccination and VIG treatments may again become important therapeutic modalities. This paper summarizes some of the historic use of the smallpox vaccine and immunoglobulins in the post-exposure setting in humans and reviews in detail the newer animal studies that address the use of therapeutic vaccines and immunoglobulins in orthopoxvirus infections as well as the development of new therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

  3. Frequency of adverse events after vaccination with different vaccinia strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Kretzschmar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large quantities of smallpox vaccine have been stockpiled to protect entire nations against a possible reintroduction of smallpox. Planning for an appropriate use of these stockpiled vaccines in response to a smallpox outbreak requires a rational assessment of the risks of vaccination-related adverse events, compared to the risk of contracting an infection. Although considerable effort has been made to understand the dynamics of smallpox transmission in modern societies, little attention has been paid to estimating the frequency of adverse events due to smallpox vaccination. Studies exploring the consequences of smallpox vaccination strategies have commonly used a frequency of approximately one death per million vaccinations, which is based on a study of vaccination with the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH strain of vaccinia virus. However, a multitude of historical studies of smallpox vaccination with other vaccinia strains suggest that there are strain-related differences in the frequency of adverse events after vaccination. Because many countries have stockpiled vaccine based on the Lister strain of vaccinia virus, a quantitative evaluation of the adverse effects of such vaccines is essential for emergency response planning. We conducted a systematic review and statistical analysis of historical data concerning vaccination against smallpox with different strains of vaccinia virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed historical vaccination data extracted from the literature. We extracted data on the frequency of postvaccinal encephalitis and death with respect to vaccinia strain and age of vaccinees. Using a hierarchical Bayesian approach for meta-analysis, we estimated the expected frequencies of postvaccinal encephalitis and death with respect to age at vaccination for smallpox vaccines based on the NYCBH and Lister vaccinia strains. We found large heterogeneity between findings from different studies and a time-period effect

  4. Parallel simulation of smallpox spreading in large populations based on social contact networks%基于社会接触网络的大规模人群天花传播并行仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晴; 祖正虎; 张文斗; 徐致靖; 黄培堂; 郑涛

    2012-01-01

    天花生物恐怖是世界各国面临的重大潜在威胁.本文利用并行仿真的技术手段,研究天花在大规模城市人群中的传播规律并对环形接种和大规模疫苗接种这两种主要的天花疫苗接种策略进行有效性分析,结果表明环形接种措施能够有效控制天花疫情的扩散,在天花疫苗储备不足的情况下可以优先考虑采用该措施.%Smallpox bioterrorism is a potentially significant threat to the world. This paper used the parallel simulation method to study the spread of smallpox in large urban populations and analyzed the effectiveness of two main smallpox vaccination strategies,which are ring vaccination and mass vaccination. The result showed that ring vaccination strategy can effectively control smallpox epidemic and should be given priority in case of shortage of smallpox vaccine reserves.

  5. Missed Opportunities: The Vaccine Act of 1813

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Rohit K.

    1998-01-01

    This Paper simply exposes discontinuities between the theories and the history of the Vaccine Act, suggesting lines of further study. The focus throughout this Paper is on "getting the facts right," i.e., thoroughly recounting the history of the Vaccine Act. Part II of the paper provides some necessary historical background regarding the horrors of smallpox, the breakthrough of vaccination, and the difficulties encountered in implementing vaccination in early 19th century America. In particul...

  6. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available. PMID:12757257

  7. 天花病名流变考%A Study on the Chinese Name of Smallpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘思媛

    2015-01-01

    现知最早记载天花的中医古籍《肘后备急方》中称天花为“虏疮”,后来又出现了“圣疮”“天疮”“豌豆疮”“麸豆疮”“痘疹”等多种称谓。历史上天花病名的繁杂更替,是中医关于天花的理论认识逐渐演变的显著标志。天花病名与中医相关诊断治疗、民间相关社会习俗均有联系。民国时期,“天花”最终替代“痘疹”成为这种病毒性传染病的专有名称,是牛痘接种术传入之后,中医在天花防治中的重要地位被预防接种所取代的结果。%The Zhou hou fang ( Handbook of Formulae) is the earliest known ancient medical book carrying the title of smallpox, called“lu chuan” ( captive sore) .Since then, various names had been ap-plied to this disorder, including “sheng chuang” (holy sore),“tian chuang” (celestial sore), “wan dou chuang” (pea sore),“fu dou chuang” (bran sore), and“dou zhen” (pox-rash).This frequent changes of disease titles in its history is a significant mark of the evolution of TCM recognition on smallpox related to its treatment and prevention, and folk-social customs.It was not until the Republican period that the title of“pox-rash” was substituted by smallpox, a specific title for this viral infection.This is also the outcome showing the important position of TCM treatment and prevention for smallpox replaced by the preventive method of modern smallpox vaccination.

  8. Vaccine herd effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  9. From smallpox eradication to the future of global health: innovations, application and lessons for future eradication and control initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Oyewale

    2011-12-30

    Technological advancements, including landmark innovations in vaccinology through molecular virology, and significant transformation and changes in the society have taken place since the eradication of smallpox thirty years ago. The success with eradicating smallpox gave confidence for initiating the eradication of other diseases, such as malaria and polio. However, these efforts have not been as effective, as recorded for small pox, for a variety of reasons. There is now a debate within the global health community as to whether eradication campaigns should be abandoned in favor of less costly and perhaps more effective primary health and containment or control programmes. Significant changes that have taken place in the last thirty years, since the eradication of smallpox include, among others, (i) post-colonial political changes, with varying commitment to disease eradication initiatives, especially in the parts of the world most burdened by infectious and vaccine preventable diseases, (ii) innovations leading to the development of new and highly effective vaccines, targeted to specific diseases, (iii) the transformation brought about by improvement in education and the new global access to information (cell phones, internet, etc.), leading to an unlimited access to different types of information, subject to either positive or negative use. At the onset of eradication of smallpox, global health was confined in its operation. Today, global health is at the intersection of medical and social science disciplines-including demography, economics, epidemiology, political economy and sociology. Therefore, in considering the issue of disease eradication, medical and social perspectives must be brought into play, if future eradication programmes must succeed. The paper discusses the roles of these disciplines in disease control and eradication, especially as it affects sub Saharan Africa, the melting pot and verdant pasture of infectious diseases. PMID:22185830

  10. 42 CFR 102.21 - Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Injury Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or C: 1-21 days. 8. Fetal Vaccinia Maternal R or C: any time in gestation until 7 days after birth. 9..., disorientation, delirium, drowsiness, seizures, language difficulties (aphasia), coma, muscular incoordination..., a Table injury for FV requires one of the following: (A) A maternal history of vaccinial...

  11. SIMULTANEOUS SMALLPOX AND B.C.G. VACCINATION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Kumara Rai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaksinasi cacar dan BCG mulai diberikan secara simultan di Jawa dan Bali pada bulan April 1972 vaksinasi cacar diberikan pada lengan kiri dan BCG pada lengan kanan. Secara berangsur-angsur prograi ini kemudian diperluas kedaerah luar Jawa-Bali, sehingga pada akhir tahun 1973 sudah mencakup seluruh Indonesia. Tenaga yang digunakan adalah para juru cacar yang sudah ada dalam rangka proyek pembasmian penyakit cacar yang dimulai tahun 1968, dan terdapat hampir disemua kecamatan diseluru Indonesia. Ide untuk menggabungkan kedua jenis vaksinasi ini yang kebetulan mempunyai target sam (anak2 0 - 14 thn  timbul setelah penderita cacar tidak dilaporkan lagi dibulan September 1971 (ternyata kemudian letusan cacar terakhir adalah dibulan Desember 1971. Sampai saat itu vaksina BCG dilakukan oleh petugas Puskesmas dan tenaga part timer. Ternyata target tidak pernah tercapa hal ini mungkin disebabkan oleh terbatasnya waktu yang tersedia untuk melakukan vaksinasi BCC sehingga para tenaga part timer tsb. hanya mampu mencakup daerah disekitar Puskesmas dan sekolah dasar. Sebelumnya telah diadakan dua trial; yang pertama diadakan di Bandung untuk melihat at tidaknya saling pengaruh mempengaruhi antara kedua jenis vaksin cacar dan BCG bila diberikan pat saat yang bersamaan, sedangkain trial kedua dilakukan untuk menilai kemampuan juru cacar dala melaksanakan vaksinasi BCG serta kesukaran! yang dijumpai dilapangan (masing2 didua kabupaten (Jawa Tengah, Timur dan Yogyakarta. Disamping keuntungan yang diperoleh dari penggabungan kedua jenis vaksinasi ini yakni penghematan tenaga, biaya dan waktu, dijumpai juga beberapa kesukaran antara lain pengumpulan anak2, supply vaksin BCG yang tidak teratur dll. Walaupun demikian, di Jawa dan Bali hasil vaksinasi BCG antara April 1972 sampai dengan April 1973 menunjukkan kenaikan out-put leb dari 4 kali lipat bila dibandingkan dengan out-put sebelum penggabungan, meskipun out-put prin vaksinasi cacar mempunyai tendensi menurun. Disini hanya akan dibahas pelaksanaan vaksinasi cacar dan BCG secara simultan di Jawa dan Bali, mengingat pelaksanaannya yang sudah memasuki tahun kedua.

  12. Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Updates Subscribe Listen Page last reviewed February ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Download page Subscribe to RSS Get email ...

  13. The Development of Vaccination and the Discoveries of Louis Pasteur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of vaccination and provides a brief biographical sketch of the life and work of Pasteur. Describes historical practices related to vaccination before Pasteur did his work, including variolation as practiced by the ancient Chinese and Jenner's use of smallpox. (PR)

  14. Evaluating public health responses to reintroduced smallpox via dynamic, socially structured, and spatially distributed metapopulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, John W; Foster, Stanley O; Millar, J Donald; Lane, J Michael

    2008-03-15

    The risk of smallpox reintroduction has motivated preparations in potential target countries. After reproducing the spatiotemporal pattern after the 1972 importation into Yugoslavia via coupled, biologically realistic systems of ordinary differential equations, we developed dynamic population models with current US age distributions and typical spatially distributed social structures. Surveillance and containment (S&C) coupled with vaccination of 95% of hospital-based health care workers (HCWs) within 2 days after the first diagnosis (estimated to be 18 days after aerosol release) were modeled after simulated exposure of 10, 50, or 10,000 people in various settings. If 90% of patients were isolated within days after symptom onset and 75% of contacts were vaccinated and monitored, S&C would reduce cases by 82%-99%. Preemptive immunization of HCWs, closing of schools, and even vaccination of as many as 80% within 1 week would have small marginal benefits. Preparations should emphasize stockpiling vaccine, training HCWs, improving laboratory capacity, and fostering an understanding of S&C. PMID:18284358

  15. Contingency planning for a deliberate release of smallpox in Great Britain - the role of geographical scale and contact structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danon Leon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the event of a release of a pathogen such as smallpox, which is human-to-human transmissible and has high associated mortality, a key question is how best to deploy containment and control strategies. Given the general uncertainty surrounding this issue, mathematical modelling has played an important role in informing the likely optimal response, in particular defining the conditions under which mass-vaccination would be appropriate. In this paper, we consider two key questions currently unanswered in the literature: firstly, what is the optimal spatial scale for intervention; and secondly, how sensitive are results to the modelling assumptions made about the pattern of human contacts? Methods Here we develop a novel mathematical model for smallpox that incorporates both information on individual contact structure (which is important if the effects of contact tracing are to be captured accurately and large-scale patterns of movement across a range of spatial scales in Great Britain. Results Analysis of this model confirms previous work suggesting that a locally targeted 'ring' vaccination strategy is optimal, and that this conclusion is actually quite robust for different socio-demographic and epidemiological assumptions. Conclusions Our method allows for intuitive understanding of the reasons why national mass vaccination is typically predicted to be suboptimal. As such, we present a general framework for fast calculation of expected outcomes during the attempted control of diverse emerging infections; this is particularly important given that parameters would need to be interactively estimated and modelled in any release scenario.

  16. Vaccines Through Centuries: Major Cornerstones of Global Health

    OpenAIRE

    Inaya eHajj Hussein; Nour eChams; Sana eChams; Skye eEl Sayegh; Reina eBadran; Mohamad eRaad; Alice eGerges-Geagea; Angelo eLeone; Abdo eJurjus

    2015-01-01

    Multiple cornerstones have shaped the history of vaccines, which may contain live attenuated viruses, inactivated organisms/viruses, inactivated toxins, or merely segments of the pathogen that could elicit an immune response.The story began with Hippocrates 400 B.C. with his description of mumps and diphtheria. No further discoveries were recorded until 1100 A.D. when the smallpox vaccine was described. During the 18th century, vaccines for cholera and yellow fever were reported and Edward Je...

  17. Vaccines Through Centuries: Major Cornerstones of Global Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hajj Hussein, Inaya; Chams, Nour; Chams, Sana; El Sayegh, Skye; Badran, Reina; Raad, Mohamad; Gerges-Geagea, Alice; Leone, Angelo; Jurjus, Abdo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple cornerstones have shaped the history of vaccines, which may contain live-attenuated viruses, inactivated organisms/viruses, inactivated toxins, or merely segments of the pathogen that could elicit an immune response. The story began with Hippocrates 400 B.C. with his description of mumps and diphtheria. No further discoveries were recorded until 1100 A.D. when the smallpox vaccine was described. During the eighteenth century, vaccines for cholera and yellow fever were reported and Ed...

  18. From foe to friend: geographical and environmental factors and the control and eradication of smallpox in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sanjoy

    2003-01-01

    Due to the highly visible nature of the disease, smallpox received a lot of attention from the colonial and independent Indian governments. An assessment of the changing official views about the impact of geographical and environmental factors on modes of variola causation and control presents insights into themes that are generally ignored in the existing historiography. Rather than being synchronised efforts, imposed top-down, provincial level officials in charge of running vaccination programmes were able to retain a great degree of autonomy and shape the nature of local immunisation drive. As a result, vaccination work in the country was often disjointed, marked by official disagreements about the usefulness of certain strategies and technological inputs, with these trends being most noticeable in rural areas. Thus, this study seeks to highlight the importance of recognising--and studying--the fractured nature of medical and public health administration in the South Asian sub-continent.

  19. Bioterrorism and Smallpox: Policies, Practices, and Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Romel W.; Mackelprang, Romel D.; Thirkill, Ashley D.

    2005-01-01

    Terrorist acts and the fear of terrorism have become a part of everyday life in the early 21st century. Among the threats most feared is bioterrorism, including the intentional release of smallpox. With the invasion of Iraq and toppling of the Saddam Hussein regime, acute bioterrorism fears have abated; however, an ongoing threat remains. This…

  20. The epidemic of smallpox in Guangdong Province and its prevention and treatment in the Republican period%民国时期广东的天花流行与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽楠; 刘玲娣

    2014-01-01

    民国时期,广东几乎每年都有天花疫情发生.为了应对传染病,广东省建立了卫生行政及传染病防治机构,并自制牛痘疫苗;相关机构按周、月、年对疫情进行统计,并定期上报,以了解疫情进展.同时,还成立了传染病医院收容天花患者.港口检疫则将天花列为重点检查对象.为了推广牛痘接种,政府与社会合作,组织大规模的“种痘运动”,以儿童、学生和年轻人作为主要接种对象,并借助媒体积极宣传天花防治知识.%During the Republican period,the smallpox broke out in high frequency almost annually in Guangdong.In response to infectious diseases,the Guangdong government established the Health Administration and institutions for infectious disease's prevention and treatment,and prepared smallpox vaccine by themselves.In order to grasp the situation of the epidenmic,related institutions collected epidemic data weekly,monthly,and annually with the statistics reported regularly.Meanwhile,infectious diseasc hospital was established for smallpox patients.Harbor quarantine put smallpox as a key target of inspection.With the joint effort of the government and social organizations,massive "vaccination campaigns" was organized to promote vaccination,in which children,students and young people were the main subjects for inoculations.Prevention knowledge and anti-epidemic concept towards smallpox have been actively publicized and improved by media.

  1. The Emergency campaign for smallpox eradication from Somalia (1977-1979)--revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deria, Abdullahi

    2011-12-30

    The historical significance of smallpox eradication from Somalia lies in the fact that the country was the last to record the last endemic smallpox case in the world. Before 1977 the programme was mismanaged. In the mid-1970s, the programme was plagued with concealment. Confirmation of smallpox outbreak in Mogadishu in September 1976 delayed global smallpox eradication. The Government maintained that there was no ongoing smallpox transmission in the country after the Mogadishu outbreak and frustrated independent attempts to verify its claim. In February 1977 the Government allowed World Health Organization (WHO) epidemiologists to search, unhindered, for smallpox outside Mogadishu. Soon widespread smallpox transmission was detected. The Government appealed for international support. The strategy to stop the smallpox transmission was based on surveillance and containment. The WHO took the leading role of the campaign which, in spite of the Somalia/Ethiopia war of 1977/78, culminated in the eradication of smallpox from the country. Somalia was certified smallpox-free on 19 October 1979.

  2. A varíola, uma antiga inimiga Smallpox, an old foe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann G. Schatzmayr

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A varíola acompanhou o homem por muitos séculos, causando mortes e lesões graves e irreversíveis. Usada como arma biológica em situações de guerra, volta a ser tema de discussão no mundo exatamente por essa possibilidade, apesar de ter sido erradicada das Américas em 1971, e do mundo em 1977. Os dados acumulados durante as Campanhas de Erradicação, mostram que a infecção se disseminava com relativa lentidão, através de contato muito próximo do receptor com o paciente. Infecções sub-clínicas em não-vacinados eram raras e vacinações de bloqueio em torno de novos casos, desde que estes fossem identificados e confirmados com rapidez, eram capazes de impedir a disseminação da infecção. As transmissões indiretas através de aerossóis eram menos comuns. Vacinados mesmo uma única vez, raramente apresentavam doença grave, no caso de reinfecção. A possibilidade de uso do vírus da varíola como arma biológica deve ser considerada como real, apesar de, com base nos conhecimentos atuais, serem necessárias suspensões virais de alta potência, lançadas muito próximo das pessoas a serem atingidas em grande número.Smallpox has accompanied mankind for centuries, causing deaths and permanent lesions. Used in the past as a biological weapon during wars, it has come into focus again precisely because of this renewed possibility, although the disease has been eradicated in the Americas since 1971 and worldwide since 1977. Data gathered during the eradication campaigns show that the disease spread relatively slowly through close contacts between patients and susceptibles. Sub-clinical infection in non-vaccinated individuals was a rare event, and blockade vaccination surrounding new cases (as long as these cases were confirmed early was able to prevent the disease from spreading in the community. Even with only one dose, vaccinated individuals rarely developed a serious case of the disease upon reinfection. The use of smallpox as

  3. 天花生物恐怖风险下最优疫苗接种比例%Optimal proportion of immunized populations under different smallpox bioterrorist attack risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晴; 祖正虎; 张文斗; 徐致靖; 黄培堂; 郑涛

    2012-01-01

    天花是最危险的生物剂之一,目前全世界已经消除天花疾病,但发生天花生物恐怖袭击的可能性仍然存在.大规模接种天花疫苗是最有效的天花生物恐怖预防措施,但有可能会导致大量接种者产生严重的不良反应甚至死亡.因此,在存在天花恐怖事件可能性但尚未发生的当前,保有一定比例的天花免疫人群会减少真正发生时的整体损失.本文从最小化质量调整生命年损失的角度,探讨国家在不同天花生物恐怖袭击风险下应保有的最佳免疫人群比例.%Smallpox is one of the most dangerous biological agents. Although smallbox has been eliminated globally, the possibility of smallpox being used during a bioterrorist attack still exists. Large-scale smallpox vaccination is the most effective measure against smallpox bioterrorism, but may lead to serious side effects and even death. Therefore, retaining a certain proportion of immunized populations will reduce the overall losses in case of smallpox bioterrorist incidents. Based on minimized quality-adjusted life years losses, this article explored the optimal proportion of immunized populations that a country shoulol retain under the different smallpox bioterrorist attack risks.

  4. The eradication of smallpox--an overview of the past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Donald A

    2011-12-30

    The 30th anniversary of the declaration of smallpox eradication is a propitious time to look back on the evolutionary history of the program, its execution, and its legacy for the future. The eradication of history's most feared disease culminated a decade-long World Health Organization campaign which began despite skepticism and doubt and succeeded despite a never ending array of obstacles occasioned by floods, civil war, famine, and bureaucratic inertia. New concepts in public health management, surveillance, and the application of large-scale programs for vaccination were fostered and matured. A new generation of young health workers emerged who applied new approaches and experienced the gratification of public health achievement. A definitive legacy for the future was the extension of the program into an "Expanded Program on Immunization", now functioning world-wide and resulting in dramatic improvements in health through control of vaccine-preventable diseases. No less important are the growing number of multi-national programs whose foundations rest on the development of active case surveillance to measure achievement and to guide progress - poliomyelitis, measles, guinea worm, and rubella. PMID:22188929

  5. [EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN SENSITIVITY TO SMALLPOX VIRUS BY THE PRIMARY CULTURES OF THE MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamedyanskaya, A S; Titova, K A; Sergeev, Al A; Kabanov, A S; Bulychev, L E; Sergeev, Ar A; Galakhova, D O; Nesterov, A E; Nosareva, O V; Shishkina, L N; Taranov, O S; Omigov, V V; Agafonov, A P; Sergeev, A N

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the primary cultures of granulocytes, mononuclear, and monocyte-macrophage cells derived from human blood were performed using variola virus (VARV) in the doses of 0.001-0.021 PFU/cell (plaques-forming units per cell). Positive dynamics of the virus accumulation was observed only in the monocyte-macrophages with maximum values of virus concentration (5.0-5.5 Ig PFU/ml) mainly within six days after the infection. The fact of VARV replication in the monocyte-macrophages was confirmed by the data of electron microscopy. At the same time, virus vaccines when tested in doses 3.3 and 4.2 Ig PFU/ml did not show the ability to reproduce in these human cells. The people sensitivity to VARV as assessed from the data obtained on human monocyte-macrophages corresponded to -1 PFU (taking into account the smooth interaction of the virus in the body to the cells of this type), which is consistent to previously found theoretical data on the virus sensitivity. The human susceptibility to VARV assessed experimentally can be used to predict the adequacy of developed smallpox models (in vivo) based on susceptible animals. This is necessary for reliable assessment of the efficiency of development of drugs for treatment and prophylaxis of the smallpox.

  6. Rationalizing the development of live attenuated virus vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Lauring, Adam S.; Jones, Jeremy O.; Andino, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Since the first demonstration of the protective effects of vaccinia inoculation, vaccination has been one of the medicine’s greatest successes. The design of vaccines against viral disease has evolved considerably over the last 50 years. Classically attenuated viruses, those created by passaging a virus in cultured cells, have proven to be an effective means for preventing many viral diseases, including smallpox, polio, measles, mumps, and yellow fever. However, empiric attenuation is not a r...

  7. Demographic impact of vaccination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, P

    1999-10-29

    Vaccination is one of the most powerful means to save lives and to increase the level of health of mankind. However, the impact of immunization against the most threatening infectious agents on life expectancy has been the object of a still open debate. The main issues are: the relative influence of nutrition and infectious diseases on demographic patterns of populations; the possibility that lives saved thanks to vaccination are subsequently lost due to other competing causes of death; the positive indirect effect of immunization on other causes of death. With regard to past evidence, several data from the United Kingdom and Scandinavian countries show that the widespread use of smallpox vaccination starting at the beginning of the nineteenth century resulted in a marked and sustained decline not only of smallpox-related deaths, but also of the overall crude death rate, and contributed greatly to an unprecedented growth of European population. As to the present, it is estimated that 3 million children are saved annually by vaccination, but 2 million still die because they are not immunized. Tetanus, measles and pertussis are the main vaccine-preventable killers in the first years of life. Data from Bangladesh show that full implementation of EPI vaccines has the potential of reducing mortality by almost one half in children aged 1-4 years. Recent progress in the development of vaccines against agents responsible for much mortality in the developing countries make it possible to forecast a further substantial reduction of deaths for infectious diseases in the next century.

  8. The contribution of vaccination to global health: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has made an enormous contribution to global health. Two major infections, smallpox and rinderpest, have been eradicated. Global coverage of vaccination against many important infectious diseases of childhood has been enhanced dramatically since the creation of WHO's Expanded Programme of Immunization in 1974 and of the Global Alliance for Vaccination and Immunization in 2000. Polio has almost been eradicated and success in controlling measles makes this infection another potential...

  9. Anti-Infectious Human Vaccination in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, Enrico; Salemi, Simonetta; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    A brief history of vaccination is presented since the Jenner's observation, through the first golden age of vaccinology (from Pasteur's era to 1938), the second golden age (from 1940 to 1970), until the current period. In the first golden age, live, such as Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and yellow fever, inactivated, such as typhoid, cholera, plague, and influenza, and subunit vaccines, such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, have been developed. In the second golden age, the cell culture technology enabled polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines be developed. In the era of modern vaccines, in addition to the conjugate polysaccharide, hepatitis A, oral typhoid, and varicella vaccines, the advent of molecular biology enabled to develop hepatitis B, acellular pertussis, papillomavirus, and rotavirus recombinant vaccines. Great successes have been achieved in the fight against infectious diseases, including the smallpox global eradication, the nearly disappearance of polio, the control of tetanus, diphtheria, measles, rubella, yellow fever, and rabies. However, much work should still be done for improving old vaccines, such as BCG, anthrax, smallpox, plague, or for developing effective vaccines against old or emerging infectious threats, such as human-immunodeficiency-virus, malaria, hepatitis C, dengue, respiratory-syncytial-virus, cytomegalovirus, multiresistant bacteria, Clostridium difficile, Ebola virus. In addition to search for innovative and effective vaccines and global infant coverage, even risk categories should adequately be protected. Despite patients under immunosuppressive therapy are globally increasing, their vaccine coverage is lower than recommended, even in developed and affluent countries. PMID:26606466

  10. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement A Meseda

    Full Text Available The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification. The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1 elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that

  11. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseda, Clement A; Atukorale, Vajini; Kuhn, Jordan; Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P

    2016-01-01

    The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification). The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that MVA and MVA

  12. Social contact networks and disease eradicability under voluntary vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Ana; Bauch, Chris T

    2009-02-01

    Certain theories suggest that it should be difficult or impossible to eradicate a vaccine-preventable disease under voluntary vaccination: Herd immunity implies that the individual incentive to vaccinate disappears at high coverage levels. Historically, there have been examples of declining coverage for vaccines, such as MMR vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, that are consistent with this theory. On the other hand, smallpox was globally eradicated by 1980 despite voluntary vaccination policies in many jurisdictions. Previous modeling studies of the interplay between disease dynamics and individual vaccinating behavior have assumed that infection is transmitted in a homogeneously mixing population. By comparison, here we simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable SEIR infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether to vaccinate based on infection risks from neighbors, and based on vaccine risks. When neighborhood size is small, rational vaccinating behavior results in rapid containment of the infection through voluntary ring vaccination. As neighborhood size increases (while the average force of infection is held constant), a threshold is reached beyond which the infection can break through partially vaccinated rings, percolating through the whole population and resulting in considerable epidemic final sizes and a large number vaccinated. The former outcome represents convergence between individually and socially optimal outcomes, whereas the latter represents their divergence, as observed in most models of individual vaccinating behavior that assume homogeneous mixing. Similar effects are observed in an extended model using smallpox-specific natural history and transmissibility assumptions. This work illustrates the significant qualitative differences between behavior-infection dynamics in discrete contact-structured populations versus continuous unstructured populations. This work also shows how disease eradicability in

  13. Social contact networks and disease eradicability under voluntary vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Perisic

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain theories suggest that it should be difficult or impossible to eradicate a vaccine-preventable disease under voluntary vaccination: Herd immunity implies that the individual incentive to vaccinate disappears at high coverage levels. Historically, there have been examples of declining coverage for vaccines, such as MMR vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, that are consistent with this theory. On the other hand, smallpox was globally eradicated by 1980 despite voluntary vaccination policies in many jurisdictions. Previous modeling studies of the interplay between disease dynamics and individual vaccinating behavior have assumed that infection is transmitted in a homogeneously mixing population. By comparison, here we simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable SEIR infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether to vaccinate based on infection risks from neighbors, and based on vaccine risks. When neighborhood size is small, rational vaccinating behavior results in rapid containment of the infection through voluntary ring vaccination. As neighborhood size increases (while the average force of infection is held constant, a threshold is reached beyond which the infection can break through partially vaccinated rings, percolating through the whole population and resulting in considerable epidemic final sizes and a large number vaccinated. The former outcome represents convergence between individually and socially optimal outcomes, whereas the latter represents their divergence, as observed in most models of individual vaccinating behavior that assume homogeneous mixing. Similar effects are observed in an extended model using smallpox-specific natural history and transmissibility assumptions. This work illustrates the significant qualitative differences between behavior-infection dynamics in discrete contact-structured populations versus continuous unstructured populations. This work also shows how disease

  14. Analysis of the complete genome of smallpox variola major virus strain Bangladesh-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massung, R F; Liu, L I; Qi, J; Knight, J C; Yuran, T E; Kerlavage, A R; Parsons, J M; Venter, J C; Esposito, J J

    1994-06-01

    We analyzed the 186,102 base pairs (bp) that constitute the entire DNA genome of a highly virulent variola virus isolated from Bangladesh in 1975. The linear, double-stranded molecule has relatively small (725 bp) inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequences containing three 69-bp direct repeat elements, a 54-bp partial repeat element, and a 105-base telomeric end-loop that can be maximally base-paired to contain 17 mismatches. Proximal to the right-end ITR sequences are another seven 69-bp elements and a 53- and a 27-bp partial element. Sequence analysis showed 187 closely spaced open reading frames specifying putative major proteins containing > or = 65 amino acids. Most of the virus proteins correspond to proteins in current databases, including 150 proteins that have > 90% identity to major gene products encoded by vaccinia virus, the smallpox vaccine. Variola virus has a group of proteins that are truncated compared with vaccinia virus counterparts and a smaller group of proteins that are elongated. The terminal regions encode several novel proteins and variants of other poxvirus proteins that potentially augment variola virus transmissibility and virulence for its only natural host, humans.

  15. Enfrentando el bioterrorismo: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y preventivos de la viruela Confronting bioterrorism: epidemiologic, clinical, and preventive aspects of smallpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Franco-Paredes

    2003-08-01

    Organization has dramatically switched to the preservation of the remaining virus after the September 2001 terrorist events in the U.S. along with the intentional release of Bacillus anthracis in the U.S. The risk of intentional release of Variola virus constitutes a minimal, yet possible risk. A smallpox epidemic could have a devastating impact due to its elevated morbidity and mortality that would inflict in non-immune human population, in addition to the ensuing panic and social unrest. Therefore, the development of national preparedness and response plans along with the availability of smallpox vaccine to be used in the post-exposure phase represent a fundamental part of the preventive efforts to cope with bioterrorism. Reestablishing a preventive vaccination program was recently recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP. However, the vaccine currently available has historically been associated with serious adverse reactions, even death. Thus, this recommendation has not been universally accepted. To counter an epidemic of smallpox, medical personnel in the frontline need to be prepared with updated smallpox infor mation to identify, diagnose, isolate, and treat cases if a bioterrorist attack should occur. Herein we present an in-depth review for health care personnel with relevant epidemiologic, clinical, and preventive information on smallpox.

  16. The evolution of poxvirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sampedro, Lucas; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Mejías-Pérez, Ernesto; García-Arriaza, Juan; Di Pilato, Mauro; Esteban, Mariano

    2015-04-01

    After Edward Jenner established human vaccination over 200 years ago, attenuated poxviruses became key players to contain the deadliest virus of its own family: Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox. Cowpox virus (CPXV) and horsepox virus (HSPV) were extensively used to this end, passaged in cattle and humans until the appearance of vaccinia virus (VACV), which was used in the final campaigns aimed to eradicate the disease, an endeavor that was accomplished by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980. Ever since, naturally evolved strains used for vaccination were introduced into research laboratories where VACV and other poxviruses with improved safety profiles were generated. Recombinant DNA technology along with the DNA genome features of this virus family allowed the generation of vaccines against heterologous diseases, and the specific insertion and deletion of poxvirus genes generated an even broader spectrum of modified viruses with new properties that increase their immunogenicity and safety profile as vaccine vectors. In this review, we highlight the evolution of poxvirus vaccines, from first generation to the current status, pointing out how different vaccines have emerged and approaches that are being followed up in the development of more rational vaccines against a wide range of diseases.

  17. The Evolution of Poxvirus Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Sánchez-Sampedro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available After Edward Jenner established human vaccination over 200 years ago, attenuated poxviruses became key players to contain the deadliest virus of its own family: Variola virus (VARV, the causative agent of smallpox. Cowpox virus (CPXV and horsepox virus (HSPV were extensively used to this end, passaged in cattle and humans until the appearance of vaccinia virus (VACV, which was used in the final campaigns aimed to eradicate the disease, an endeavor that was accomplished by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1980. Ever since, naturally evolved strains used for vaccination were introduced into research laboratories where VACV and other poxviruses with improved safety profiles were generated. Recombinant DNA technology along with the DNA genome features of this virus family allowed the generation of vaccines against heterologous diseases, and the specific insertion and deletion of poxvirus genes generated an even broader spectrum of modified viruses with new properties that increase their immunogenicity and safety profile as vaccine vectors. In this review, we highlight the evolution of poxvirus vaccines, from first generation to the current status, pointing out how different vaccines have emerged and approaches that are being followed up in the development of more rational vaccines against a wide range of diseases.

  18. Vaccines and immunotherapies for the prevention of infectious diseases having cutaneous manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jashin J; Huang, David B; Pang, Katie R; Tyring, Stephen K

    2004-04-01

    Although the development of antimicrobial drugs has advanced rapidly in the past several years, such agents act against only certain groups of microbes and are associated with increasing rates of resistance. These limitations of treatment force physicians to continue to rely on prevention, which is more effective and cost-effective than therapy. From the use of the smallpox vaccine by Jenner in the 1700s to the current concerns about biologic warfare, the technology for vaccine development has seen numerous advances. The currently available vaccines for viral illnesses include Dryvax for smallpox; the combination measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine; inactivated vaccine for hepatitis A; plasma-derived vaccine for hepatitis B; and the live attenuated Oka strain vaccine for varicella zoster. Vaccines available against bacterial illnesses include those for anthrax, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Currently in development for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes are vaccines for HIV, herpes simplex virus, and human papillomavirus. Other vaccines being investigated for prevention are those for cytomegalovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, hepatitis C, and dengue fever, among many others. Fungal and protozoan diseases are also subjects of vaccine research. Among immunoglobulins approved for prophylactic and therapeutic use are those against cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A and B, measles, rabies, and tetanus. With this progress, it is hoped that effective vaccines soon will be developed for many more infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations. PMID:15034501

  19. Delivery systems for intradermal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y C; Jarrahian, C; Zehrung, D; Mitragotri, S; Prausnitz, M R

    2012-01-01

    Intradermal (ID) vaccination can offer improved immunity and simpler logistics of delivery, but its use in medicine is limited by the need for simple, reliable methods of ID delivery. ID injection by the Mantoux technique requires special training and may not reliably target skin, but is nonetheless used currently for BCG and rabies vaccination. Scarification using a bifurcated needle was extensively used for smallpox eradication, but provides variable and inefficient delivery into the skin. Recently, ID vaccination has been simplified by introduction of a simple-to-use hollow microneedle that has been approved for ID injection of influenza vaccine in Europe. Various designs of hollow microneedles have been studied preclinically and in humans. Vaccines can also be injected into skin using needle-free devices, such as jet injection, which is receiving renewed clinical attention for ID vaccination. Projectile delivery using powder and gold particles (i.e., gene gun) have also been used clinically for ID vaccination. Building off the scarification approach, a number of preclinical studies have examined solid microneedle patches for use with vaccine coated onto metal microneedles, encapsulated within dissolving microneedles or added topically to skin after microneedle pretreatment, as well as adapting tattoo guns for ID vaccination. Finally, technologies designed to increase skin permeability in combination with a vaccine patch have been studied through the use of skin abrasion, ultrasound, electroporation, chemical enhancers, and thermal ablation. The prospects for bringing ID vaccination into more widespread clinical practice are encouraging, given the large number of technologies for ID delivery under development. PMID:21472533

  20. Vaccination and Clinical Severity: Is the Effectiveness of Contact Tracing and Case Isolation Hampered by Past Vaccination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available While contact tracing and case isolation are considered as the first choice of interventions against a smallpox bioterrorist event, their effectiveness under vaccination is questioned, because not only susceptibility of host and infectiousness of case but also the risk of severe clinical manifestations among cases is known to be reduced by vaccine-induced immunity, thereby potentially delaying the diagnosis and increasing mobility among vaccinated cases. We employed a multi-type stochastic epidemic model, aiming to assess the feasibility of contact tracing and case isolation in a partially vaccinated population and identify data gaps. We computed four epidemiological outcome measures, i.e., (i the threshold of a major epidemic under the interventions; (ii the expected total number of cases; (iii the probability of extinction, and (iv the expected duration of an outbreak, demonstrating that all of these outcomes critically depend on the clinical impact of past vaccination on the diagnosis and movement of vaccinated cases. We discuss that, even in the absence of smallpox in the present day, one should consider the way to empirically quantify the delay in case detection and an increase in the frequency of contacts among previously vaccinated cases compared to unvaccinated during the early stage of an epidemic so that the feasibility of contact tracing and case isolation in a vaccinated population can be explicitly assessed.

  1. [Impact of vaccination on the infectious diseases epidemiology: example of pertussis

    OpenAIRE

    Guiso, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Several vaccines are now routinely used since fifty years in different developed countries. Their principal impact has been to decrease morbidity and mortality of the infectious diseases they are targeting. One disease, smallpox, is eradicated, poliomyelitis will be soon, diphteria is controlled in several countries but pertussis is still endemic although an efficacious vaccine was used. Why? Pertussis is an example of an infection for which the immunity of the population has changed after th...

  2. Challenges Confronted in Smallpox Vaccination and DNA Smallpox Vaccine%天花预防接种面临的挑战与DNA痘苗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高一彤; 曲京华; 赵玫

    2006-01-01

    介绍美国重新启动种痘的动因,LIR、A27L、A33R、B5R基因痘苗建立、修饰的Ankara痘苗和Lister基因缺失痘苗动物保护力、安全试验、临床研究现状及预防天花、人类猴痘的前景.

  3. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  4. Genetically engineered poxviruses for recombinant gene expression, vaccination, and safety.

    OpenAIRE

    B. Moss

    1996-01-01

    Vaccinia virus, no longer required for immunization against smallpox, now serves as a unique vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize and analyze the structure-function relationships of proteins, determine the targets of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the types of immune response needed for protection against specific infectious diseases and cancer. The vaccine potential of...

  5. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy. PMID:27338346

  6. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio de Martino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy.

  7. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy. PMID:27338346

  8. Vaccines as a trigger for myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, H; Tanay, A

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines are considered to be among the greatest medical discoveries, credited with the virtual eradication of some diseases and the consequent improved survival and quality of life of the at-risk population. With that, vaccines are among the environmental factors implicated as triggers for the development of inflammatory myopathies. The sporadic reports on vaccine-induced inflammatory myopathies include cases of hepatitis B virus, bacillus Calmette-Guérin, tetanus, influenza, smallpox, polio, diphtheria, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, combination of diphtheria with scarlet fever and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus with polio vaccines. However, a significant increase in the incidence of dermatomyositis or polymyositis after any massive vaccination campaign has not been reported in the literature. In study patients with inflammatory myopathies, no recent immunization was recorded in any of the patients. Moreover, after the 1976 mass flu vaccination, no increase in the incidence of inflammatory myopathies was observed. Although rare, macrophagic myofasciitis has been reported following vaccination and is attributed to the aluminium hydroxide used as an adjuvant in some vaccines. Prospective multicenter studies are needed to identify potential environmental factors, including vaccines, as potential triggers for inflammatory myopathies.

  9. Transmission patterns of smallpox: Systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bhatnagar (Vibha); M.A. Stoto (Michael); S.C. Morton (Sally); R. Boer (Rob); S.A. Bozzette (Samuel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Because smallpox (variola major) may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods: A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library o

  10. Historical aspects of immunization and vaccine safety communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfert, Stephanie M

    2015-01-01

    It has been a long journey starting from the beginnings of variolation [3] leading up to the greatest success in the history of immunization: the eradication of smallpox [39]. Today, vaccines are an acknowledged important medical advance [40]. Nevertheless, immunization has been the subject of public controversy on several occasions [15, 24, 31]. This article shall provide a short overview of some aspects of the early stages of immunization in Western countries, including some examples of vaccine safety controversies in the past. PMID:25859668

  11. The Development of an AIDS Mucosal Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Tang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mucosal tissues contain the largest surface area of the human body and are the front line of natural host defense against various pathogens. In fact, more than 80% of infectious disease pathogens probably gain entry into the susceptible human hosts through open mucosal surfaces. Human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1, a mainly sexually transmitted virus, also primarily targets the vaginal and gastrointestinal mucosa as entry sites for viral transmission, seeding, replication and amplification. Since HIV-1 establishes its early replication in vaginal or rectal mucosal tissues, the induction of sufficient mucosal immunity at the initial site of HIV-1 transmission becomes essential for a protective vaccine. However, despite the fact that current conventional vaccine strategies have remained unsuccessful in preventing HIV-1 infection, sufficient financial support and resources have yet to be given to develop a vaccine able to elicit protective mucosal immunity against sexual transmissions. Interestingly, Chinese ancestors invented variolation through intranasal administration about one thousand years ago, which led to the discovery of a successful smallpox vaccine and the final eradication of the disease. It is the hope for all mankind that the development of a mucosal AIDS vaccine will ultimately help control the AIDS pandemic. In order to discover an effective mucosal AIDS vaccine, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of mucosal immunology and to test various mucosal vaccination strategies.

  12. Spinocellulært karcinom opstået ved cikatrice efter Calmette-vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Maria; Andersen, F.; Salskov-Iversen, Maria Luise

    2014-01-01

    Marjolin's ulcer is an aggressive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) found in chronically inflamed skin. SCC has been reported in smallpox vaccination sites, whereas basal cell carcinomas are more common in scar after bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. A 72-year-old man presented with a chronic...... ulcer at the site of his childhood BCG vaccination. At the time of examination, a 3 x 1.5 cm fleshy and secreting ulcer was found on the shoulder. Biopsy revealed SCC, and the tumour was surgically removed. In conclusion, chronic ulcers, especially those originating in chronically inflamed skin, should...

  13. Sewers and scapegoats: spatial metaphors of smallpox in nineteenth century San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, S

    1995-10-01

    Medical geography is slowly including more social and cultural theory in its analysis of health issues. Yet there is still room for theoretical growth in the discipline, in areas such as historical inquiry, metaphoric landscapes of disease, and the role of disease and its interpretations in the production of place. With the example of four smallpox epidemics in nineteenth century San Francisco, application of these concepts is illustrated. Each successive epidemic in San Francisco brought stronger association of the disease with Chinatown, until an almost complete metonymy of place and disease had occurred by the last decades of the century. The articulation of biased medical theory onto a landscape of xenophobia engendered this metaphorical transformation of Chinatown into a pustule of contagion threatening to infect the rest of the urban body. A less metaphoric mapping of smallpox focused on the sewer. According to 19th-century miasmatic theories of epidemiology, sewers were the most dangerous urban topographical feature. In an increasingly class-stratified city, they undercut attempts of the upper classes to escape disease by carrying smallpox-causing miasmas across class and ethnic boundaries. A reinvigorated sanitation movement was the result. Both reactions to smallpox epidemics had significant influence in shaping San Francisco's landscape, real and symbolic. PMID:8545670

  14. Les hasards de la variole The hazards of smallpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Rohrbasser

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La nécessité d’un calcul ayant pour fin d’estimer un risque peut être révoquée en doute lorsqu’il s’agit de prendre une décision en situation d’incertitude, a fortiori lorsqu’il s’agit d’une question de vie ou de mort. Dans la controverse engagée sur l’opportunité d’inoculer la variole, la position de D’Alembert constitue un cas exemplaire de scepticisme portant sur l’application des mathématiques, et en l’occurrence du calcul des probabilités, à des décisions relatives à la vie humaine. D’Alembert, en effet, conteste aux mathématiques sociales le pouvoir de rendre compte de phénomènes humains en y cherchant des régularités et des formalisations sans dissocier les dimensions mathématiques et probabilistes des dimensions philosophiques et éthiques. En suivant le débat qui, au milieu du xviiie siècle, se déroule entre le mathématicien français et son homologue suisse Daniel Bernoulli, on assiste à l’un des épisodes de la lente gestation des notions de prise de risque, de décision et de rationalité.The necessity of a calculation aiming to evaluate a risk can be revoked in doubt when the question is to make a decision in a situation of uncertainty, all the more when the question is about life or death. In the controversy opened on the opportunity to inoculate the smallpox, D'Alembert’s position constitutes an exemplary case of scepticism concerning the application of the mathematics, and in this particular case the probability theory, to decisions relative to the human life. D’Alembert, indeed, disputes in the social mathematics the power to describe human phenomena by looking for regularities and for formalizations without separating the mathematical and probability dimensions of the philosophic and ethical ones. By following the debate which, in the middle of the 18th century, takes place between the French mathematician and his Swiss counterpart Daniel Bernoulli, we attend one of the

  15. Smallpox Vaccinations and the Portuguese in Macao%种牛痘与澳门葡人

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊莎贝尔·莫赖斯

    2007-01-01

    牛痘接种法发明以后,葡、西、英等殖民国家进行了积极的推广.本文对澳门接受牛痘的过程进行研究,探讨澳门作为一个由殖民政府管理的港口是如何积极支持传播欧洲医学的最新成果的.并对牛痘与贸易、殖民的关系也进行了分析.

  16. Someone You Are Close to May Get the Smallpox Vaccine: What You Should Know and Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Updates Subscribe Listen Page last reviewed March ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Download page Subscribe to RSS View page ...

  17. Vaccinations against smallpox and tuberculosis are associated with better long-term survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckmann, Andreas; Villumsen, Marie; Sørup, Signe;

    2016-01-01

    -up), and 401 deaths due to natural causes (841 deaths in total) occurred in the full cohort. Compared with individuals who had not received vaccinia or BCG, those who had received both vaccinia and BCG had an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.81] for mortality due...

  18. Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Live attenuated vaccines against human viral diseases have been amongst the most successful cost effective interventions in medical history. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980; poliomyelitis is nearing global eradication and measles has been controlled in most parts of the world. Vaccines function well for acute diseases such as these but chronic infections such as HIV are more challenging for reasons of both likely safety and probable efficacy. The derivation of the vaccines used has in general not been purely rational except in the sense that it has involved careful clinical trials of candidates and subsequent careful follow up in clinical use; the identification of the candidates is reviewed. - Highlights: • Live vaccines against human diseases caused by viruses have been very successful. • They have been developed by empirical clinical studies and problems identified in later use. • It can be difficult to balance ability to cause disease and ability to immunise for a strain. • There is currently no reliable basis for predicting success from pure virological studies. • Vaccinia, which eradicated smallpox, is the paradigm for all successes and issues

  19. Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minor, Philip D., E-mail: Philip.Minor@nibsc.org

    2015-05-15

    Live attenuated vaccines against human viral diseases have been amongst the most successful cost effective interventions in medical history. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980; poliomyelitis is nearing global eradication and measles has been controlled in most parts of the world. Vaccines function well for acute diseases such as these but chronic infections such as HIV are more challenging for reasons of both likely safety and probable efficacy. The derivation of the vaccines used has in general not been purely rational except in the sense that it has involved careful clinical trials of candidates and subsequent careful follow up in clinical use; the identification of the candidates is reviewed. - Highlights: • Live vaccines against human diseases caused by viruses have been very successful. • They have been developed by empirical clinical studies and problems identified in later use. • It can be difficult to balance ability to cause disease and ability to immunise for a strain. • There is currently no reliable basis for predicting success from pure virological studies. • Vaccinia, which eradicated smallpox, is the paradigm for all successes and issues.

  20. The trend of dog rabies with vaccination using seir model case study: Bolgatanga district, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis Donkoh; Kamila Kabo-bah; Seth Asiedu

    2014-01-01

    Many models to study the trend of infectious diseases like smallpox, rubella, measles, chicken pox etc in populations have been analyzed mathematically. Our study uses standard  model with vaccination to predict the spread of dog rabies in the Bolgatanga District of Ghana. Data from Ghana Veterinary Medical Association Report [9] was collected and analyzed. We estimated the non-endemic basic reproductive ratio of  and determine that 24.6...

  1. Vaccines Through Centuries: Major Cornerstones of Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj Hussein, Inaya; Chams, Nour; Chams, Sana; El Sayegh, Skye; Badran, Reina; Raad, Mohamad; Gerges-Geagea, Alice; Leone, Angelo; Jurjus, Abdo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple cornerstones have shaped the history of vaccines, which may contain live-attenuated viruses, inactivated organisms/viruses, inactivated toxins, or merely segments of the pathogen that could elicit an immune response. The story began with Hippocrates 400 B.C. with his description of mumps and diphtheria. No further discoveries were recorded until 1100 A.D. when the smallpox vaccine was described. During the eighteenth century, vaccines for cholera and yellow fever were reported and Edward Jenner, the father of vaccination and immunology, published his work on smallpox. The nineteenth century was a major landmark, with the "Germ Theory of disease" of Louis Pasteur, the discovery of the germ tubercle bacillus for tuberculosis by Robert Koch, and the isolation of pneumococcus organism by George Miller Sternberg. Another landmark was the discovery of diphtheria toxin by Emile Roux and its serological treatment by Emil Von Behring and Paul Ehrlih. In addition, Pasteur was able to generate the first live-attenuated viral vaccine against rabies. Typhoid vaccines were then developed, followed by the plague vaccine of Yersin. At the beginning of World War I, the tetanus toxoid was introduced, followed in 1915 by the pertussis vaccine. In 1974, The Expanded Program of Immunization was established within the WHO for bacille Calmette-Guerin, Polio, DTP, measles, yellow fever, and hepatitis B. The year 1996 witnessed the launching of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. In 1988, the WHO passed a resolution to eradicate polio by the year 2000 and in 2006; the first vaccine to prevent cervical cancer was developed. In 2010, "The Decade of vaccines" was launched, and on April 1st 2012, the United Nations launched the "shot@Life" campaign. In brief, the armamentarium of vaccines continues to grow with more emphasis on safety, availability, and accessibility. This mini review highlights the major historical events and pioneers in the course of development of vaccines

  2. Adsorption of recombinant poxvirus L1-protein to aluminum hydroxide/CpG vaccine adjuvants enhances immune responses and protection of mice from vaccinia virus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuhong; Zeng, Yuhong; Alexander, Edward; Mehta, Shyam; Joshi, Sangeeta B.; Buchman, George W.; Volkin, David B.; Middaugh, C. Russell; Isaacs, Stuart N.

    2012-01-01

    The stockpiling of live vaccinia virus vaccines has enhanced biopreparedness against the intentional or accidental release of smallpox. Ongoing research on future generation smallpox vaccines is providing key insights into protective immune responses as well as important information about subunit vaccine design strategies. For protein-based recombinant subunit vaccines, the formulation and stability of candidate antigens with different adjuvants are important factors to consider for vaccine design. In this work, a non-tagged secreted L1-protein, a target antigen on mature virus, was expressed using recombinant baculovirus technology and purified. To identify optimal formulation conditions for L1, a series of biophysical studies was performed over a range of pH and temperature conditions. The overall physical stability profile was summarized in an empirical phase diagram. Another critical question to address for development of an adjuvanted-vaccine was if immunogenicity and protection could be affected by the interactions and binding of L1 to aluminum salts (Alhydrogel) with and without a second adjuvant, CpG. We thus designed a series of vaccine formulations with different binding interactions between the L1 and the two adjuvants, and then performed a series of vaccination-challenge experiments in mice including measurement of antibody responses and post-challenge weight-loss and survival. We found that better humoral responses and protection were conferred with vaccine formulations when the L1-protein was adsorbed to Alhydrogel. These data demonstrate that designing vaccine formulation conditions to maximize antigen-adjuvant interactions is a key factor in smallpox subunit vaccine immunogenicity and protection. PMID:23153450

  3. The Immune Response: Romanticism and the Radical Literary History of Smallpox Inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fuson

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation untangles the oxymoron of Romantic medicine. The literary history of inoculation, I contend, reveals that smallpox eradication was as much a triumph of the literary imagination as it was an achievement of Enlightenment science. Underlying this argument is the larger disciplinary question: Who counts as a producer of scientific knowledge? My project uncovers a surprisingly literary history of medicine that includes poetry and imaginative fiction in the discovery, propagation, a...

  4. What was the primary mode of smallpox transmission? Implications for biodefense

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, Donald K

    2012-01-01

    The mode of infection transmission has profound implications for effective containment by public health interventions. The mode of smallpox transmission was never conclusively established. Although, “respiratory droplet” transmission was generally regarded as the primary mode of transmission, the relative importance of large ballistic droplets and fine particle aerosols that remain suspended in air for more than a few seconds was never resolved. This review examines evidence from the history ...

  5. Leptospirosis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool.

  6. Pneumococcal vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent cause of pneumonia and meningitis. This article looks at the pneumococcal vaccine, its uses, efficacy, and adverse effects and how vaccination may be improved. We also look at the role of the new conjugate vaccines.

  7. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.

  8. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249

  9. Resister's logic: the anti-vaccination arguments of Alfred Russel Wallace and their role in the debates over compulsory vaccination in England, 1870-1907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichman, Martin; Keelan, Jennifer E

    2007-09-01

    In the 1880s, Alfred Russel Wallace, the celebrated co-discoverer of natural selection, launched himself into the centre of a politicised and polarised debate over the unpopular compulsory vaccination laws in England. Wallace never wavered in his belief that smallpox vaccination was useless and likely dangerous. Six years before his death, the anti-vaccinationists successfully secured a conscience clause that effectively dismantled the compulsory vaccination laws. Several other important Victorian scientists joined Wallace in the fight to repeal compulsory vaccination arguing that widely held views on the effectiveness of vaccination and evidence for immunity were inconclusive in the light of (then) contemporary standards of evidence. This article situates Wallace's anti-vaccination logic within the broader matrix of sociopolitical and cultural reform movements of the late Victorian era. Additionally it provides the first detailed analysis of his critique of vaccination science, in particular the role statistics played in his arguments. In this period, both pro-vaccinationists and anti-vaccinationists invested great efforts in collating and analysing statistical data sets that either supported or refuted the claims of vaccination's effectiveness. While each side presented 'controlled' case studies to support their assertions, without an unambiguous test to measure or demonstrate vaccination's effectiveness, the anti-vaccinationists continued to mount credible statistical critiques of vaccination science.

  10. Viral vaccines and their manufacturing cell substrates: New trends and designs in modern vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana F; Soares, Hugo R; Guerreiro, Miguel R; Alves, Paula M; Coroadinha, Ana S

    2015-09-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective interventions in global health. The worldwide vaccination programs significantly reduced the number of deaths caused by infectious agents. A successful example was the eradication of smallpox in 1979 after two centuries of vaccination campaigns. Since the first variolation administrations until today, the knowledge on immunology has increased substantially. This knowledge combined with the introduction of cell culture and DNA recombinant technologies revolutionized vaccine design. This review will focus on vaccines against human viral pathogens, recent developments on vaccine design and cell substrates used for their manufacture. While the production of attenuated and inactivated vaccines requires the use of the respective permissible cell substrates, the production of recombinant antigens, virus-like particles, vectored vaccines and chimeric vaccines requires the use - and often the development - of specific cell lines. Indeed, the development of novel modern viral vaccine designs combined with, the stringent safety requirements for manufacture, and the better understanding on animal cell metabolism and physiology are increasing the awareness on the importance of cell line development and engineering areas. A new era of modern vaccinology is arriving, offering an extensive toolbox to materialize novel and creative ideas in vaccine design and its manufacture.

  11. Viral vaccines and their manufacturing cell substrates: New trends and designs in modern vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana F; Soares, Hugo R; Guerreiro, Miguel R; Alves, Paula M; Coroadinha, Ana S

    2015-09-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective interventions in global health. The worldwide vaccination programs significantly reduced the number of deaths caused by infectious agents. A successful example was the eradication of smallpox in 1979 after two centuries of vaccination campaigns. Since the first variolation administrations until today, the knowledge on immunology has increased substantially. This knowledge combined with the introduction of cell culture and DNA recombinant technologies revolutionized vaccine design. This review will focus on vaccines against human viral pathogens, recent developments on vaccine design and cell substrates used for their manufacture. While the production of attenuated and inactivated vaccines requires the use of the respective permissible cell substrates, the production of recombinant antigens, virus-like particles, vectored vaccines and chimeric vaccines requires the use - and often the development - of specific cell lines. Indeed, the development of novel modern viral vaccine designs combined with, the stringent safety requirements for manufacture, and the better understanding on animal cell metabolism and physiology are increasing the awareness on the importance of cell line development and engineering areas. A new era of modern vaccinology is arriving, offering an extensive toolbox to materialize novel and creative ideas in vaccine design and its manufacture. PMID:26212697

  12. Biopower, Normalization, and HPV: A Foucauldian Analysis of the HPV Vaccine Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Kimberly S

    2016-09-01

    This article utilizes the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization to give an analysis of the debate surrounding the controversial administration of the HPV vaccine to adolescents. My intention is not to solve the problem, rather to utilize a Foucauldian framework to bring various facets of the issue to light, specifically the way the vaccine contributes to strategies of power in reference to how young adults develop within relationships of power. To begin, the article provides an overview of the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization, including how these two strategies of power were present in the administration of the smallpox vaccine in the 19th century. Next, information about HPV and the history of the current controversy in the United States is presented. Lastly, the article presents an analysis of the strategies of biopower and normalization present in the debate on HPV, including an emphasis on how the vaccination is similar to, and different from, 19th century smallpox vaccination. It also explores the way that mechanisms of disease control affect and are affected by individual subjects, in this case, adolescents. PMID:26438668

  13. Potent T cell Responses Induced by Single DNA Vaccine Boosted with Recombinant Vaccinia Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianxing Liu; Chao Qiu; Yang Huang; Jianqing Xu; Yiming Shao

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid DNA,an effective vaccine vector,can induce both cellular and humoral immune responses.However,plasmid DNA raises issues concerning potential genomic integration after injection.This issue should be considered in preclinical studies.Tiantan vaccinia virus (TV) has been most widely utilized in eradicating smallpox in China.This virus has also been considered as a successful vaccine vector against a few infectious diseases.Potent T cell responses through T-cell receptor (TCR) could be induced by three injections of the DNA prime vaccine followed by a single injection of recombinant vaccinia vaccine.To develop a safer immunization strategy,a single DNA prime followed by a single recombinant Tiantan vaccinia (rTV) AIDS vaccine was used to immunize mice.Our data demonstrated that one DNA prime/rTV boost regimen induced mature TCR activation with high functional avidity,preferential T cell Vβ receptor usage and high sensitivity to anti-CD3 antibody stimulation.No differences in T cell responses were observed among one,two or three DNA prime/rTV boost regimens.This study shows that one DNA prime/rTV boost regimen is sufficient to induce potent T cell responses against HIV.

  14. MHC-I-restricted epitopes conserved among variola and other related orthopoxviruses are recognized by T cells 30 years after vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Wang, M.; Lamberth, K.;

    2008-01-01

    It is many years since the general population has been vaccinated against smallpox virus. Here, we report that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted T cell epitopes can be recognized more than 30 years after vaccination. Using bioinformatic methods, we predicted 177 potential cytotoxic T...... lymphocyte epitopes. Eight epitopes were confirmed to stimulate IFN-gamma release by T cells in smallpox-vaccinated subjects. The epitopes were restricted by five supertypes (HLA-A1, -A2, -A24 -A26 and -B44). Significant T cell responses were detected against 8 of 45 peptides with an HLA class I affinity...... of K(D) less than or equal to 5 nM, whereas no T cell responses were detected against 60 peptides with an HLA affinity of K(D) more than 5 nM. All epitopes were fully conserved in seven variola, vaccinia and cowpox strains. Knowledge of the long-term response to smallpox vaccination may lead...

  15. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  16. Transmission patterns of smallpox: systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boer Rob

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because smallpox (variola major may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library of Medicine, Embase, Biosis, Cochrane Library, Defense Technical Information Center, WorldCat, and reference lists of included publications. Two authors reviewed selected papers for smallpox outbreaks. Results 51 relevant outbreaks were identified from 1,389 publications. The median for the effective first generation reproduction rate (initial R was 2 (range 0–38. The majority outbreaks were small (less than 5 cases and contained within one generation. Outbreaks with few hospitalized patients had low initial R values (median of 1 and were prolonged if not initially recognized (median of 3 generations; outbreaks with mostly hospitalized patients had higher initial R values (median 12 and were shorter (median of 3 generations. Index cases with an atypical presentation of smallpox were less likely to have been diagnosed with smallpox; outbreaks in which the index case was not correctly diagnosed were larger (median of 27.5 cases and longer (median of 3 generations compared to outbreaks in which the index case was correctly diagnosed (median of 3 cases and 1 generation. Conclusion Patterns of spread during Smallpox outbreaks varied with circumstances, but early detection and implementation of control measures is a most important influence on the magnitude of outbreaks. The majority of outbreaks studied in Europe and North America were controlled within a few generations if detected early.

  17. Human CD4+ T cell epitopes from vaccinia virus induced by vaccination or infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mauricio Calvo-Calle

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of vaccinia virus in basic and applied immunology, our knowledge of the human immune response directed against this virus is very limited. CD4(+ T cell responses are an important component of immunity induced by current vaccinia-based vaccines, and likely will be required for new subunit vaccine approaches, but to date vaccinia-specific CD4(+ T cell responses have been poorly characterized, and CD4(+ T cell epitopes have been reported only recently. Classical approaches used to identify T cell epitopes are not practical for large genomes like vaccinia. We developed and validated a highly efficient computational approach that combines prediction of class II MHC-peptide binding activity with prediction of antigen processing and presentation. Using this approach and screening only 36 peptides, we identified 25 epitopes recognized by T cells from vaccinia-immune individuals. Although the predictions were made for HLA-DR1, eight of the peptides were recognized by donors of multiple haplotypes. T cell responses were observed in samples of peripheral blood obtained many years after primary vaccination, and were amplified after booster immunization. Peptides recognized by multiple donors are highly conserved across the poxvirus family, including variola, the causative agent of smallpox, and may be useful in development of a new generation of smallpox vaccines and in the analysis of the immune response elicited to vaccinia virus. Moreover, the epitope identification approach developed here should find application to other large-genome pathogens.

  18. Another vaccine, another story: BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in India, 1948 to 1960 Outra vacina, outra história: a vacinação de BCG contra tuberculose na Índia, 1948 a 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Brimnes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Through an examination of mass BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in India between 1948 and 1960 this article draws attention to the diversity of the history of vaccination. The features of vaccination campaigns often differed from those of the celebrated campaign to eradicate smallpox. Due to differences between smallpox and tuberculosis as well as between the vaccines developed against them, an analysis of BCG mass vaccination against tuberculosis seems particularly well suited for this purpose. Three points of difference are identified. First, in non-Western contexts BCG vaccination procedures were modified to a greater extent than vaccination against smallpox. Second, tuberculosis lacked the drama and urgency of smallpox and BCG vaccination campaigns suffered more from recruitment problems than did the more "heroic" smallpox eradication campaign. Third, the BCG vaccine was contested in medical circles and was much better suited than the vaccine against smallpox as a vehicle for the articulation of concerns about post-colonial modernization.Através da observação da vacinação em massa de BCG contra a tuberculose na Índia durante os anos de 1948 a 1960, este artigo chama a atenção para a diversidade da história da vacinação. As características das campanhas de vacinação geralmente diferem daquelas celebradas nas campanhas para erradicação da varíola. Devido às diferenças entre a varíola e a turberculose, assim como entre as vacinas desenvolvidas para combater essas doenças, uma análise da vacinação em massa de BCG contra a turberculose parece especialmente bem situada para essa proposta. Três pontos de diferença foram identificados. O primeiro é que em contextos não ocidentais os procedimentos da vacinação de BCG foram modificados em uma extensão maior do que a vacinação contra a varíola. Em segundo lugar, a tuberculose não tinha o drama e a urgência da varíola, e as campanhas de vacinação de BCG

  19. Diphtheria Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination Pronounced (dif-THEER-ee-a) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Diphtheria causes a thick covering in the back of ...

  20. Susceptibility of Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus to Monkeypox Virus: A Low Dose Prospective Model for Monkeypox and Smallpox Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Mucker

    Full Text Available Although current nonhuman primate models of monkeypox and smallpox diseases provide some insight into disease pathogenesis, they require a high titer inoculum, use an unnatural route of infection, and/or do not accurately represent the entire disease course. This is a concern when developing smallpox and/or monkeypox countermeasures or trying to understand host pathogen relationships. In our studies, we altered half of the test system by using a New World nonhuman primate host, the common marmoset. Based on dose finding studies, we found that marmosets are susceptible to monkeypox virus infection, produce a high viremia, and have pathological features consistent with smallpox and monkeypox in humans. The low dose (48 plaque forming units required to elicit a uniformly lethal disease and the extended incubation (preclinical signs are unique features among nonhuman primate models utilizing monkeypox virus. The uniform lethality, hemorrhagic rash, high viremia, decrease in platelets, pathology, and abbreviated acute phase are reflective of early-type hemorrhagic smallpox.

  1. Pneumococcal Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Fang Ho; Tzou-Yien Lin

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial pathogen of infectious diseases inchildren and adolescents. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine could preventinvasive pneumococcal infection with broader serotype coverage but still has some limitations.On the other hand, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been shown todecrease cases of nasopharyngeal acquired S. pneumoniae vaccine serotypes and provedherd immunity. The safety and efficacy against vaccine serotype pneumo...

  2. ROTAVIRUS VACCINES

    OpenAIRE

    Kang G

    2006-01-01

    Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intuss...

  3. Chasing Jenner's vaccine: revisiting cowpox virus classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin S Carroll

    Full Text Available Cowpox virus (CPXV is described as the source of the first vaccine used to prevent the onset and spread of an infectious disease. It is one of the earliest described members of the genus Orthopoxvirus, which includes the viruses that cause smallpox and monkeypox in humans. Both the historic and current literature describe "cowpox" as a disease with a single etiologic agent. Genotypic data presented herein indicate that CPXV is not a single species, but a composite of several (up to 5 species that can infect cows, humans, and other animals. The practice of naming agents after the host in which the resultant disease manifests obfuscates the true taxonomic relationships of "cowpox" isolates. These data support the elevation of as many as four new species within the traditional "cowpox" group and suggest that both wild and modern vaccine strains of Vaccinia virus are most closely related to CPXV of continental Europe rather than the United Kingdom, the homeland of the vaccine.

  4. The dichotomy of pathogens and allergens in vaccination approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J. Baird

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional prophylactic vaccination to prevent illness is the primary objective of many research activities worldwide. The golden age of vaccination began with an approach called variolation in ancient China and the evolution of vaccines still continues today with modern developments such as the production of Gardasil™ against HPV and cervical cancer. The historical aspect of how different forms of vaccination have changed the face of medicine and communities is important as it dictates our future approaches on both a local and global scale. From the eradication of smallpox to the use of an experimental vaccine to save a species, this review will explore these successes in infectious disease vaccination and also discuss a few significant failures which have hampered our efforts to eradicate certain diseases. The second part of the review will explore designing a prophylactic vaccine for the growing global health concern that is allergy. Allergies are an emerging global health burden. Of particular concern is the rise of food allergies in developed countries where 1 in 10 children is currently affected. The formation of an allergic response results from the recognition of a foreign component by our immune system that is usually encountered on a regular basis. This may be a dust-mite or a prawn but this inappropriate immune response can result in a life-time of food avoidance and lifestyle restrictions. These foreign components are very similar to antigens derived from infectious pathogens. The question arises: should the allergy community be focussing on protective measures rather than ongoing therapeutic interventions to deal with these chronic inflammatory conditions? We will explore the difficulties and benefits of prophylactic vaccination against various allergens by means of genetic technology that will dictate how vaccination against allergens could be utilised in the near future.

  5. DNA vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  6. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  7. Periodontal vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Malhotra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine is the name applied generally to a substance of the nature of dead or attenuated living infectious material introduced into the body with the object of increasing its power to resist or get rid of a disease. Vaccines are generally prophylactic, i.e. they ameliorate the effects of future infection. One such vaccine considered here is the "Periodontal vaccine". Till date, no preventive modality exists for periodontal disease and treatment rendered is palliative. Thus, availability of periodontal vaccine would not only prevent and modulate periodontal disease, but also enhance the quality of life of people for whom periodontal treatment cannot be easily obtained. The aim of the research should be development of a multispecies vaccine targeting the four prime periodontal pathogens, viz. Porphyromonas gingivalis, T. forsythus, T. denticola and A. comitans. Success is still elusive in case of periodontal vaccine due to the complex etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  8. What the world's religions teach, applied to vaccines and immune globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenstein, John D

    2013-04-12

    For millennia, humans have sought and found purpose, solace, values, understanding, and fellowship in religious practices. Buddhist nuns performed variolation against smallpox over 1000 years ago. Since Jenner developed vaccination against smallpox in 1796, some people have objected to and declined vaccination, citing various religious reasons. This paper reviews the scriptural, canonical basis for such interpretations, as well as passages that support immunization. Populous faith traditions are considered, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Subjects of concern such as blood components, pharmaceutical excipients of porcine or bovine origin, rubella strain RA 27/3, and cell-culture media with remote fetal origins are evaluated against the religious concerns identified. The review identified more than 60 reports or evaluations of vaccine-preventable infectious-disease outbreaks that occurred within religious communities or that spread from them to broader communities. In multiple cases, ostensibly religious reasons to decline immunization actually reflected concerns about vaccine safety or personal beliefs among a social network of people organized around a faith community, rather than theologically based objections per se. Themes favoring vaccine acceptance included transformation of vaccine excipients from their starting material, extensive dilution of components of concern, the medicinal purpose of immunization (in contrast to diet), and lack of alternatives. Other important features included imperatives to preserve health and duty to community (e.g., parent to child, among neighbors). Concern that 'the body is a temple not to be defiled' is contrasted with other teaching and quality-control requirements in manufacturing vaccines and immune globulins. Health professionals who counsel hesitant patients or parents can ask about the basis for concern and how the individual applies religious understanding to decision-making about

  9. What the world's religions teach, applied to vaccines and immune globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenstein, John D

    2013-04-12

    For millennia, humans have sought and found purpose, solace, values, understanding, and fellowship in religious practices. Buddhist nuns performed variolation against smallpox over 1000 years ago. Since Jenner developed vaccination against smallpox in 1796, some people have objected to and declined vaccination, citing various religious reasons. This paper reviews the scriptural, canonical basis for such interpretations, as well as passages that support immunization. Populous faith traditions are considered, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Subjects of concern such as blood components, pharmaceutical excipients of porcine or bovine origin, rubella strain RA 27/3, and cell-culture media with remote fetal origins are evaluated against the religious concerns identified. The review identified more than 60 reports or evaluations of vaccine-preventable infectious-disease outbreaks that occurred within religious communities or that spread from them to broader communities. In multiple cases, ostensibly religious reasons to decline immunization actually reflected concerns about vaccine safety or personal beliefs among a social network of people organized around a faith community, rather than theologically based objections per se. Themes favoring vaccine acceptance included transformation of vaccine excipients from their starting material, extensive dilution of components of concern, the medicinal purpose of immunization (in contrast to diet), and lack of alternatives. Other important features included imperatives to preserve health and duty to community (e.g., parent to child, among neighbors). Concern that 'the body is a temple not to be defiled' is contrasted with other teaching and quality-control requirements in manufacturing vaccines and immune globulins. Health professionals who counsel hesitant patients or parents can ask about the basis for concern and how the individual applies religious understanding to decision-making about

  10. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  11. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  12. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  13. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  14. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  15. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  16. Vaccines Through Centuries: Major Cornerstones of Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaya eHajj Hussein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cornerstones have shaped the history of vaccines, which may contain live attenuated viruses, inactivated organisms/viruses, inactivated toxins, or merely segments of the pathogen that could elicit an immune response.The story began with Hippocrates 400 B.C. with his description of mumps and diphtheria. No further discoveries were recorded until 1100 A.D. when the smallpox vaccine was described. During the 18th century, vaccines for cholera and yellow fever were reported and Edward Jenner, the father of vaccination and immunology, published his work on small pox.The 19th century was a major landmark, with the Germ Theory of disease of Louis Pasteur, the discovery of the germ tubercle bacillus for tuberculosis by Robert Koch, and the isolation of pneumococcus organism by George Miller Sternberg. Another landmark was the discovery of diphtheria toxin by Emile Roux and its serological treatment by Emil Von Behring and Paul Ehrlih. In addition, Pasteur was able to generate the first live attenuated viral vaccine against rabies. Typhoid vaccines were then developed, followed by the plague vaccine of Yersin. At the beginning of World War I, the tetanus toxoid was introduced, followed in 1915 by the pertussis vaccine. In 1974, The Expanded Program of Immunization was established within the WHO for BCG, Polio, DTP, measles, yellow fever and hepatitis B. The year 1996 witnessed the launching of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. In 1988, the WHO passed a resolution to eradicate polio by the year 2000 and in 2006; the first vaccine to prevent cervical cancer was developed. In 2010 The Decade of vaccines was launched, and on April 1st 2012, the United Nations launched the shot@Life campaign. In brief, the armamentarium of vaccines continues to grow with more emphasis on safety, availability and accessibility. This mini review highlights the major historical events and pioneers in the course of development of vaccines, which have eradicated

  17. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Hepatitis B vaccine: Why get vaccinated?Hepatitis B vaccine can prevent hepatitis B, and the serious consequences of hepatitis ...

  18. [HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronski Huwiler, Susanne; Spaar, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Viruses are associated with genital carcinoma (of the cervix, anus, vulva, vagina and the penis) as well as with non-genital carcinoma (oropharyngeal carcinoma) and genital warts. In Switzerland two highly efficient and safe vaccines are available. The safety of these vaccines has been repeatedly subject of controversial discussions, however so far post marketing surveillance has always been able to confirm the safety. In Switzerland girls and young women have been offered the HPV vaccination within cantonal programmes since 2008. 2015 the recommendation for the HPV-vaccination for boys and young men was issued, and starting July 1, 2016 they as well will be offered vaccination free of charge within the cantonal programmes. This article discusses the burden of disease, efficacy and safety of the vaccines and presents facts which are important for vaccinating these young people. Specifically, aspects of the decisional capacity of adolescents to consent to the vaccination are presented. Finally, the future perspective with a focus on a new vaccine with an enlarged spectrum of HPV-types is discussed. PMID:27268446

  19. Strugging to a monumental re-assessing the final phases of the smallpox eradication program in India, 1960-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sanjoy

    2007-01-01

    The global smallpox program is generally presented as the brainchild of a handful of actors from the WHO headquarters in Geneva and at the agency's regional offices. This article attempts to present a more complex description of the drive to eradicate smallpox. Based on the example of India, a major focus of the campaign, it is argued that historians and public health officials should recognize the varying roles played by a much wider range of participants. Highlighting the significance of both Indian and international field officials, the author shows how bureaucrats and politicians at different levels of administration and society managed to strengthen--yet sometimes weaken--important program components. Centrally dictated strategies developed at WHO offices in Geneva and New Delhi, often in association with Indian federal authorities, were reinterpreted by many actors and sometimes changed beyond recognition. PMID:18450301

  20. 天花疫苗的研究现状和进展%Research Progress in Smallpox Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 汪巨峰; 李波

    2013-01-01

    目的 对现行天花疫苗和天花疫苗的研究进展进行综述,为天花疫苗的研究和应用提供参考.方法 通过查阅近年来与天花疫苗有效性和安全性研究相关的国内外文献,进行归纳总结.结果 扩大天花疫苗储备已成为全球性的需要,传统天花疫苗的有效性已得到充分验证,但会引起很多副作用,需要开发更为安全有效的天花疫苗.人们先后研发了几种不同类型的天花疫苗,包括细胞培养的活病毒疫苗、复制型和复制缺陷型的减毒活疫苗、蛋白亚单位疫苗、DNA亚单位疫苗、载体亚单位疫苗等.结论 减毒活疫苗与传统疫苗相比具有更好的安全性,但其免疫原性相对较低,目前,亚单位天花疫苗的研究仍处于起步阶段,需要进行更多和更深入的研究来验证其临床应用的可行性.新型天花疫苗的研发对增加使用者依从性、提高疫苗免疫效果和安全性具有重要意义.

  1. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...

  2. The malaria vaccine: seventy years of the great immune hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desowitz, R S

    2000-06-01

    The cluster of seminal microbiological discoveries at the end of the 19th century through to the first quarter of the 20th century gave rise to the expectation that the control of malaria would be by scientific technology (as opposed to the 'brute force' of bonification/massive engeneering works) and that technology would be immunization by a malaria vaccine. Immunology's foundation was in microbiology and the two related disciplines matured concurrently. Immunization with dead or inactivated microorganisms became immunology's strongest arm, affording protection against many major diseases such as smallpox, anthrax, rabies, yellow fever and tetanus. So why not malaria? In the pre-World War II era there were no chemotherapeutic/prophylactic drugs practical for the control of malaria and a vaccine seemed the easy, rational path to that objective. From 1910 to about 1950 there were numerous attempts in humans and primate and avian models to devise a malaria vaccine. However, it soon became apparent that the malaria parasites, because of their complex, stage-specific antigenic identity as well as their relatively poor immunogenicity, would be much more difficult to use as a vaccine than the bacteria or viruses. There were some experimental successes, but none in humans. PMID:11234327

  3. Tumor vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regiments. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tumor vaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which immune tolerance exists. That is why the population of tumor-specific lymphocytes is represented by a small number of low-affinity T-lymphocytes that induce weak antitumor immune response. Simultaneously, tumors evolve many mechanisms to actively evade immune system, what makes them poorly immunogenic or even tolerogenic. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies are directed toward breaking immune tolerance to tumor antigens, enhancing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines and overcoming mechanisms of tumor escape. There are several approaches, unfortunately, all of them still far away from an ideal tumor vaccine that would reject a tumor. Difficulties in the activation of antitumor immune response by tumor vaccines have led to the development of alternative immunotherapeutic strategies that directly focus on effector mechanisms of immune system (adoptive tumor- specific T-lymphocyte transfer and tumor specific monoclonal antibodies). (author)

  4. Meningococcal Vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy; Sullivan, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, a gram-negative diplococcal bacterium, is a common asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonizer that may infrequently lead to invasive disease in the form of meningitis or bacteremia. Six serogroups (A, B, C, W, X and Y) are responsible for the majority of invasive infections. Increased risk of disease occurs in specific population groups including infants, adolescents, those with asplenia or complement deficiencies, and those residing in crowded living conditions such as in college dormitories. The incidence of invasive meningococcal disease varies geographically with some countries (e.g., in the African meningitis belt) having both high endemic disease rates and ongoing epidemics, with annual rates reaching 1000 cases per 100,000 persons. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with meningococcal disease, it remains a major global health threat best prevented by vaccination. Several countries have implemented vaccination programs with the selection of specific vaccine(s) based on locally prevalent serogroup(s) of N. meningitidis and targeting population groups at highest risk. Polysaccharide meningococcal vaccines became available over 40 years ago, but are limited by their inability to produce immunologic memory responses, poor immunogenicity in infants/children, hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses, and lack of efficacy against nasopharyngeal carriage. In 1999, the first meningococcal conjugate vaccines were introduced and have been successful in overcoming many of the shortcomings of polysaccharide vaccines. The implementation of meningococcal conjugate vaccination programs in many areas of the world (including the massive campaign in sub-Saharan Africa using a serogroup A conjugate vaccine) has led to dramatic reductions in the incidence of meningococcal disease by both individual and population protection. Progressive advances in vaccinology have led to the recent licensure of two effective vaccines against serogroup B

  5. Lyon Playfair (1818-1898) and compulsory vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A

    2006-08-01

    Lyon Playfair was born in India but brought up by his uncle in St Andrews. He studied medicine in Glasgow and Edinburgh but never practised as a doctor. Instead he worked for the chemist Thomas Graham in London and then studied for a PhD with Liebig in Germany. While serving on a government commission he became very interested in public health, particularly the control of infectious diseases. In 1883, while a member of parliament, he made a passionate speech in support of a government bill in favour of compulsory vaccination against smallpox. He was violently attacked for his speech in a pamphlet by William White, an adherent of the teachings of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg. Playfair died in 1898 and is buried in St Andrews.

  6. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EFFECTS The most common side effects are fainting, dizziness, nausea, headache, and skin reactions at the site where the shot was given. WHAT ELSE TO THINK ABOUT The HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV ...

  7. Arthropod vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R; Opdebeeck, J P

    1999-03-01

    Antigens located in the midgut of the tick are hidden from the host's immune system. Egg production of ticks can be reduced when ticks are fed on animals vaccinated with midgut antigens of the tick, and a subunit vaccine formulated with the recombinant antigen Bm86 is now available that can reduce the number of ticks infesting cattle grazing on pasture. Midgut antigens used in vaccines against insects that transmit pathogenic organisms to humans have not been as effective in reducing insect fecundity and an alternative approach may be necessary. Transmission-blocking vaccines directed at interfering with the vector-pathogen interaction could result in loss of vector competence and block the spread of disease-causing organisms. PMID:10198800

  8. Antipneumococcal vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  9. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  10. Vaccines and Thimerosal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO Thimerosal in Vaccines Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Thimerosal is ... harm. Thimerosal prevents the growth of bacteria in vaccines. Thimerosal is added to vials of vaccine that ...

  11. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis following Vaccination against Hepatitis B in a Child: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun-liang; Wang, Shuang-kun; Guo, Xiao-juan

    2016-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine. Here, we presented a case of 12-year-old child who suffered from ADEM three weeks after hepatitis B vaccination. He was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of weakness of limbs, high fever, and alteration of consciousness. Some abnormalities were also found in CSF. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin had significant effect, with marked improvement of the clinical symptoms and the results of CSF. The findings of MRI also detected some abnormal lesions located in both brain and spinal cord. The clinical features, the findings of CSF and MRI, and therapeutic effect may contribute to such diagnosis of ADEM. PMID:27478662

  12. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis following Vaccination against Hepatitis B in a Child: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-liang Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine. Here, we presented a case of 12-year-old child who suffered from ADEM three weeks after hepatitis B vaccination. He was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of weakness of limbs, high fever, and alteration of consciousness. Some abnormalities were also found in CSF. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin had significant effect, with marked improvement of the clinical symptoms and the results of CSF. The findings of MRI also detected some abnormal lesions located in both brain and spinal cord. The clinical features, the findings of CSF and MRI, and therapeutic effect may contribute to such diagnosis of ADEM.

  13. [Seeds against smallpox: Joaquim Vás and the scientific translation of bananeira brava seeds in Goa, India (1894-1930)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    In 1914, in the former Portuguese colony of Goa, India, the physician António Joaquim Vás announced the discovery of a wonderful treatment for smallpox, entailing clinical application of seeds from the bananeira brava (Heliconia biabi Sw.m.), a plant remedy allegedly derived from Indian medical practices. The present article explores the circumstances surrounding the successes and failures of this discovery. The concept of scientific translation is used to interpret the transformation of bananeira brava seeds into an early twentieth-century remedy for smallpox. This transfer from indigenous use to scientific therapeutic constitutes the creation of a quasi-medicine, that is, a case of 'medium translation'. Although these seeds occupy a problematic place within the program of scientific translation, they enjoyed active circulation within science and remained a part of medical practices for combating smallpox.

  14. [Seeds against smallpox: Joaquim Vás and the scientific translation of bananeira brava seeds in Goa, India (1894-1930)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    In 1914, in the former Portuguese colony of Goa, India, the physician António Joaquim Vás announced the discovery of a wonderful treatment for smallpox, entailing clinical application of seeds from the bananeira brava (Heliconia biabi Sw.m.), a plant remedy allegedly derived from Indian medical practices. The present article explores the circumstances surrounding the successes and failures of this discovery. The concept of scientific translation is used to interpret the transformation of bananeira brava seeds into an early twentieth-century remedy for smallpox. This transfer from indigenous use to scientific therapeutic constitutes the creation of a quasi-medicine, that is, a case of 'medium translation'. Although these seeds occupy a problematic place within the program of scientific translation, they enjoyed active circulation within science and remained a part of medical practices for combating smallpox. PMID:15446280

  15. A novel replication-competent vaccinia vector MVTT is superior to MVA for inducing high levels of neutralizing antibody via mucosal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxing; Lu, Bin; Yu, Wenbo; Fang, Qing; Liu, Li; Zhuang, Ke; Shen, Tingting; Wang, Haibo; Tian, Po; Zhang, Linqi; Chen, Zhiwei

    2009-01-01

    Mucosal vaccination offers great advantage for inducing protective immune response to prevent viral transmission and dissemination. Here, we report our findings of a head-to-head comparison of two viral vectors modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and a novel replication-competent modified vaccinia Tian Tan (MVTT) for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) via intramuscular and mucosal vaccinations in mice. MVTT is an attenuated variant of the wild-type VTT, which was historically used as a smallpox vaccine for millions of Chinese people. The spike glycoprotein (S) of SARS-CoV was used as the test antigen after the S gene was constructed in the identical genomic location of two vectors to generate vaccine candidates MVTT-S and MVA-S. Using identical doses, MVTT-S induced lower levels ( approximately 2-3-fold) of anti- SARS-CoV neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) than MVA-S through intramuscular inoculation. MVTT-S, however, was capable of inducing consistently 20-to-100-fold higher levels of Nabs than MVA-S when inoculated via either intranasal or intraoral routes. These levels of MVTT-S-induced Nab responses were substantially (approximately 10-fold) higher than that induced via the intramuscular route in the same experiments. Moreover, pre-exposure to the wild-type VTT via intranasal or intraoral route impaired the Nab response via the same routes of MVTT-S vaccination probably due to the pre-existing anti-VTT Nab response. The efficacy of intranasal or intraoral vaccination, however, was still 20-to-50-fold better than intramuscular inoculation despite the subcutaneous pre-exposure to wild-type VTT. Our data have implications for people who maintain low levels of anti-VTT Nabs after historical smallpox vaccination. MVTT is therefore an attractive live viral vector for mucosal vaccination.

  16. A novel replication-competent vaccinia vector MVTT is superior to MVA for inducing high levels of neutralizing antibody via mucosal vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Huang

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccination offers great advantage for inducing protective immune response to prevent viral transmission and dissemination. Here, we report our findings of a head-to-head comparison of two viral vectors modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA and a novel replication-competent modified vaccinia Tian Tan (MVTT for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs via intramuscular and mucosal vaccinations in mice. MVTT is an attenuated variant of the wild-type VTT, which was historically used as a smallpox vaccine for millions of Chinese people. The spike glycoprotein (S of SARS-CoV was used as the test antigen after the S gene was constructed in the identical genomic location of two vectors to generate vaccine candidates MVTT-S and MVA-S. Using identical doses, MVTT-S induced lower levels ( approximately 2-3-fold of anti- SARS-CoV neutralizing antibodies (Nabs than MVA-S through intramuscular inoculation. MVTT-S, however, was capable of inducing consistently 20-to-100-fold higher levels of Nabs than MVA-S when inoculated via either intranasal or intraoral routes. These levels of MVTT-S-induced Nab responses were substantially (approximately 10-fold higher than that induced via the intramuscular route in the same experiments. Moreover, pre-exposure to the wild-type VTT via intranasal or intraoral route impaired the Nab response via the same routes of MVTT-S vaccination probably due to the pre-existing anti-VTT Nab response. The efficacy of intranasal or intraoral vaccination, however, was still 20-to-50-fold better than intramuscular inoculation despite the subcutaneous pre-exposure to wild-type VTT. Our data have implications for people who maintain low levels of anti-VTT Nabs after historical smallpox vaccination. MVTT is therefore an attractive live viral vector for mucosal vaccination.

  17. The trend of dog rabies with vaccination using seir model case study: Bolgatanga district, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Donkoh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many models to study the trend of infectious diseases like smallpox, rubella, measles, chicken pox etc in populations have been analyzed mathematically. Our study uses standard  model with vaccination to predict the spread of dog rabies in the Bolgatanga District of Ghana. Data from Ghana Veterinary Medical Association Report [9] was collected and analyzed. We estimated the non-endemic basic reproductive ratio of  and determine that 24.63% of the population are to be vaccinated using the Herd immunity threshold. The stability analysis of the disease-free equilibrium point was  and the stability analysis of endemic equilibrium point is asymptotically stable. We perform sensitivity analysis and realize that a transmission coefficient of  will lead to  which is endemic. Keywords: Endemic, Exposed, Infectious, Rabies, Recovered, Susceptible.

  18. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally,......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted.......The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally...

  19. Vaccination priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Robert; Baños, Ana; deBernardis, Chiara

    2003-02-01

    Selection of immunizations should be based on requirements and on risk of infection. According to the International Health Regulations, many countries require yellow fever vaccination and proof thereof as the International Certificate of vaccination. Additionally selected countries require proof of vaccination against cholera and meningococcal disease. A consultation for travel health advice is always an opportunity to ascertain that routine immunizations have been performed. Recommended immunizations often are more important for traveller's health than the required or routine ones. The most frequent vaccine preventable infection in non-immune travellers to developing countries is hepatitis A with an average incidence rate of 0.3% per month; in high risk backpackers or foreign-aid-volunteers this rate is 2.0%. Many immunizations are recommended for special risk groups only: there is a growing tendency in many countries to immunize all young travellers to developing countries against hepatitis B, as it is uncertain who will voluntarily or involuntarily get exposed. The attack rate of influenza in intercontinental travel is estimated to be 1%. Immunity against poliomyelitis remains essential for travel to Africa and parts of Asia. Many of the 0.2-0.4% who experience an animal bite are at risk of rabies. Typhoid fever is diagnosed with an incidence rate of 0.03% per month among travellers to the Indian subcontinent, North and West Africa (except Tunisia), and Peru, elsewhere this rate is 10-fold lower. Meningococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, cholera and tuberculosis have been reported in travellers, but these infections are rare in this population. Although no travel health vaccine is cost beneficial, most professionals will offer protection against the frequent risks, while most would find it ridiculous to use all available vaccines in every traveller. It is essentially an arbitrary decision made on the risk level one wishes to recommend protection--but the

  20. Vaccine Vexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    IT’S always nice when expectations are exceeded by half a billion dollars.This was the case for the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization(GAVI) at its fundraising conference in June.A public-private initiative,GAVI,which works to ensure children in developing countries receive crucial vaccinations,had gone into the meeting hoping to net $3.7 billion.They came away with $4.3 billion,"despite the fact that donors everywhere are coping with budget crises," as Bill Gates

  1. Replicating vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  2. Malaria vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor. PMID:12287671

  3. Vexing Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  4. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  5. One time intranasal vaccination with a modified vaccinia Tiantan strain MVTT(ZCI) protects animals against pathogenic viral challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenbo; Fang, Qing; Zhu, Weijun; Wang, Haibo; Tien, Po; Zhang, Linqi; Chen, Zhiwei

    2010-02-25

    To combat variola virus in bioterrorist attacks, it is desirable to develop a noninvasive vaccine. Based on the vaccinia Tiantan (VTT) strain, which was historically used to eradicate the smallpox in China, we generated a modified VTT (MVTT(ZCI)) by removing the hemagglutinin gene and an 11,944bp genomic region from HindIII fragment C2L to F3L. MVTT(ZCI) was characterized for its host cell range in vitro and preclinical safety and efficacy profiles in mice. Despite replication-competency in some cell lines, unlike VTT, MVTT(ZCI) did not cause death after intracranial injection or body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. MVTT(ZCI) did not replicate in mouse brain and was safe in immunodeficient mice. MVTT(ZCI) induced neutralizing antibodies via the intranasal route of immunization. One time intranasal immunization protected animals from the challenge of the pathogenic vaccinia WR strain. This study established proof-of-concept that the attenuated replicating MVTT(ZCI) may serve as a safe noninvasive smallpox vaccine candidate.

  6. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  7. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will be infected and ...

  8. Vaccinations and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 207 Vaccinations and HIV WHAT ARE VACCINATIONS? WHAT’S DIFFERENT FOR ... your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied more than any ...

  9. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you do need any vaccinations, wait 1 month after you get them before you try to get pregnant. ... vaccine during pregnancy, you can get it right after you give birth. Getting the Tdap vaccine soon after ...

  10. Influenza Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ellebedy, A. H.; Webby, R J

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A viruses pose a substantial threat to the human population whether by purposeful manipulation and release or by the natural process of interspecies transmissions from animal reservoirs. The challenge with preparing for these events with vaccination strategies is that the best forms of protective immunity target the most variably of the viral proteins, hemagglutinin. Add to this even just the natural extent of variation in this protein and the challenges to vaccinologists become gre...

  11. Gel-eletroforese no diagnóstico da varíola Gel-electrophoresis in the smallpox diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Mesquita

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de gel-eletroforese no diagnóstico da varíola, demonstrou ser ao menos trinta vezes (30X mais sensível que o teste de agar-gel, nas condições descritas (tabela I. Doze (12 espécimes, cujos testes convencionais de inoculação em ovos embrionados e de agar-gel resultaram positivos, foram testados em suas diluições originais congeladas por mais de um ano, sendo seis deles revelados por gel-eletroforese enquanto nenhum o foi por agar-gel (tabela II. Trinta e três (33 amostras isoladas no laboratório, foram testadas com material colhido de membrana cório-alantóica da primeira inoculação para o diagnóstico, conservado em glicerina 50%, resultando 15 positivas em gel-eletroforese e apenas 3 em agar-gel (tabela II. Os últimos 60 espécimes recebidos para diagnóstico, através a Campanha de Erradicação da Varíola, também resultaram negativos em gel-eletroforese, que não mostrou falsos-positivos nas condições descritas.The test of gel-electrophoresis applied to the pox virus group showed to be at least thirth times (30X more sensitive than agar-gel test on the described conditions (Table I. Twelve specimens, which were positives form Smallpox in the conventional tests of egg inoculation and agar-gel difusion test, have been screened in their original dilutions frozen for more than 1 year and six of them were still detectable by gel-eletrophoresis, while by agar-gel test any of them was positive (Table II. Thirty three Smallpox isolates have been tested with material from first egg inoculation (chorioallantoic membranes which have been stored in glycerin 50%, at - 15ºC. Fifteen of them were still positive by gel-electrophoresis and only 3 by agar-gel (Table II. The last 60 specimens received for diagnosis from Smallpox Erradication Campaign (CEV, were negatives by both tests. The gel-electrophoresis, did not show false-positives on described conditions.

  12. LGBT health and vaccinations: Findings from a community health survey of Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Poole, Asheley; Lasley-Bibbs, Vivian; Johnson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Data on adult immunization coverage at the state level and for LGBT Americans in particular are sparse. This study reports the results of a 2012 Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, community health assessment's results asking about eight adult vaccinations among 218 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) respondents. Researchers collected data using an online survey distributed through LGBT social media, posters, and LGBT print media. The LGBT sample largely matches the demographics of the county as a whole except this group reports higher level of education and fewer uninsured individuals. Among LGBT respondents, immunization prevalence reaches 68.0% (annual Influenza), 65.7% (Hepatitis B), 58.8% (Chickenpox/Varicella), 55.9% (Hepatitis A), 41.2% (Smallpox), and 25.8% (Pneumonia). Among respondents who are currently within the recommended 19-26 years age range for the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the LGBT females are less likely to report receiving the vaccine (15.4%) compared to the national coverage percentage of 34.5%. Males, however, are more likely to have received the vaccine (10.3%) than the national percentage of 2.3%. The small number of LGBT seniors in the study report a much higher prevalence of the Shingles (Herpes Zoster) vaccines than for U.S. seniors 60 and older (71.4% compared to 20.1% nationally). LGBT respondents report higher percentages of adult vaccination. PMID:26930365

  13. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ...

  14. Mucosal vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Kiron, V.

    2014-01-01

    Among the novel vaccination methods, mucosal vaccination seems to possess all the desired criteria. The chapter reviews the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding this type of vaccination with a focus on their uptake, immune stimulation, and where possible, discusses their potential as future vaccines

  15. History of vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  16. Vaccine adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  17. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  18. Development of eczema vaccinatum in atopic mouse models and efficacy of MVA vaccination against lethal poxviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Knitlova

    Full Text Available Smallpox vaccine based on live, replicating vaccinia virus (VACV is associated with several potentially serious and deadly complications. Consequently, a new generation of vaccine based on non-replicating Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA has been under clinical development. MVA seems to induce good immune responses in blood tests, but it is impossible to test its efficacy in vivo in human. One of the serious complications of the replicating vaccine is eczema vaccinatum (EV occurring in individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD, thus excluding them from all preventive vaccination schemes. In this study, we first characterized and compared development of eczema vaccinatum in different mouse strains. Nc/Nga, Balb/c and C57Bl/6J mice were epicutaneously sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA or saline control to induce signs of atopic dermatitis and subsequently trans-dermally (t.d. immunized with VACV strain Western Reserve (WR. Large primary lesions occurred in both mock- and OVA-sensitized Nc/Nga mice, while they remained small in Balb/c and C57Bl/6J mice. Satellite lesions developed in both mock- and OVA-sensitized Nc/Nga and in OVA-sensitized Balb/c mice with the rate 40-50%. Presence of mastocytes and eosinophils was the highest in Nc/Nga mice. Consequently, we have chosen Nc/Nga mice as a model of AD/EV and tested efficacy of MVA and Dryvax vaccinations against a lethal intra-nasal (i.n. challenge with WR, the surrogate of smallpox. Inoculation of MVA intra-muscularly (i.m. or t.d. resulted in no lesions, while inoculation of Dryvax t.d. yielded large primary and many satellite lesions similar to WR. Eighty three and 92% of mice vaccinated with a single dose of MVA i.m. or t.d., respectively, survived a lethal i.n. challenge with WR without any serious illness, while all Dryvax-vaccinated animals survived. This is the first formal prove of protective immunity against a lethal poxvirus challenge induced by vaccination with MVA in an atopic organism.

  19. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  20. Towards universal influenza vaccines?

    OpenAIRE

    Osterhaus, Ab; Fouchier, Ron; Rimmelzwaan, Guus

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the development and production of pandemic influenza vaccines are response time and production capacity as well as vaccine efficacy and safety. Several improvements can be envisaged. Vaccine production technologi...

  1. Vaccines against poverty

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vacc...

  2. "A wild and wondrous ride": CDC field epidemiologists in the east Pakistan smallpox and cholera epidemics of 1958 "Uma louca e maravilhosa jornada": epidemiologistas de campo do CDC nas epidemias de varíola e cólera do Paquistão Oriental em 1958

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Greenough

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In mid-April of 1958 the Government of Pakistan summoned the press to announce a grave need for international aid to cope with smallpox and cholera epidemics in East Pakistan. In response, and with the backing of the US State Department, Dr. Alexander D. Langmuir, chief epidemiologist of the CDC, led a team of epidemiologists to assist authorities in Dacca strengthen their immunization programs. Langmuir's superiors hoped for a Cold War advantage, but he saw an opportunity for trainees in the Epidemic Intelligence Service to learn about public health in a developing country. Langmuir later described the episode as a "wild and wondrous ride," but it had been more like a nightmare: the East Pakistan health department had collapsed; a popular movement had taken over vaccination and squandered vaccine supplies; hostile journalists had questioned the Americans' deeper motives; and a professional rivalry opened between the Americans and a British epidemiologist named Aidan Cockburn. By the time the epidemic subsided in July 1958, 30 million Bengalis had been vaccinated for smallpox but another 20,000 had succumbed to the disease. This episode was CDC's first sustained foreign intervention, a precursor to its extensive role in the 1970s helping WHO eradicate smallpox from Bangladesh.Em meados de abril de 1958, o Governo do Paquistão convocou a imprensa para anunciar a urgente necessidade de auxílio internacional para lidar com epidemias de varíola e cólera no Paquistão Oriental. Em resposta, e com o apoio do Departamento de Estado dos Estados Unidos, Dr. Alexander D. Langmuir, chefe de epidemiologia do CDC em Atlanta, liderou um time de epidemiologistas para auxiliar as autoridades em Dacca a reforçar seus programas de imunização. Os superiores de Langmuir ansiavam por demonstrações de capacidade dos EUA na Guerra Fria, mas ele vislumbrou uma chance para o Serviço de Inteligência Epidemiológica aprender sobre saúde pública em países em

  3. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control.

  4. Who Should Not Get Vaccinated with These Vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be updated.) Top of Page HPV-Cervarix (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Some people should not get HPV vaccine or ... updated.) Top of Page HPV-Gardasil-9 (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Some people should not get HPV vaccine. Anyone ...

  5. Research progress in response strategies to smallpox bioterrorism%生物恐怖视角下的天花应对策略研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖正虎; 许晴; 张文斗; 徐致靖; 黄培堂; 郑涛

    2013-01-01

    Emergency prevention and control of smallpox transmission in the context of bioterrorism require effective response strategies. This paper began by describing the general process of computational experiments on smallpox response strategies. Then,the current achievement of this method was summarized in terms of the experimental environment, the computational model and intervention strategies. Finally, problems with smallpox response strategy simulation and directions of further research were discussed.%生物恐怖视角下天花传播的应急防控需要科学的应对策略.本文首先介绍天花应对策略计算实验的一般过程,然后从实验环境、计算模型及干预策略3个方面总结当前的研究及取得的进展,并就天花应对策略模拟存在的问题及进一步研究方向进行讨论.

  6. Rotavirus vaccine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Goel Manish; Arun, Kumar; Bilas, Jain Ram; Ruchi, Jain; Pardeep, Khanna; Pradeep, Siwach

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, large proportion i.e., 37% of deaths due to diarrhea in young children is attributed to rotavirus. A monovalent P1A[8] G1 vaccine and a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine human rotavirus vaccine had shown good clinical efficacy without any increase in intussusception among vaccine recipients. WHO recommends that the first dose of rotavirus vaccine should be administered to infants up to age of 6-15 weeks irrespective of the prior history of rotavirus infection and the maximum age for administering the last dose of the vaccine should be 32 weeks. Booster doses are not recommended. The current update reviews the issues related to rotavirus vaccines and their usages like milestones in the development of rotavirus vaccines, concerns regarding their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, immunity after natural infection, potential for changes in virus strains, current recommendations, post marketing surveillance, and future challenges and scope for further research regarding rotavirus vaccines. PMID:25145068

  7. Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) See also: Healthcare Personnel Vaccination Recommendations [1 page] July 2008 Top of Page ...

  8. 75 FR 48712 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ..., rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and trivalent influenza vaccines.... People who got the 2009 H1N1 vaccine still need to get vaccinated with the 2010-2011 influenza vaccine... always changing. Because of this, influenza vaccines are updated every year, and an annual vaccination...

  9. Prospective surveillance for cardiac adverse events in healthy adults receiving modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L Elizaga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccinia-associated myo/pericarditis was observed during the US smallpox vaccination (DryVax campaign initiated in 2002. A highly-attenuated vaccinia strain, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA has been evaluated in clinical trials as a safer alternative to DryVax and as a vector for recombinant vaccines. Due to the lack of prospectively collected cardiac safety data, the US Food and Drug Administration required cardiac screening and surveillance in all clinical trials of MVA since 2004. Here, we report cardiac safety surveillance from 6 phase I trials of MVA vaccines. METHODS: Four clinical research organizations contributed cardiac safety data using common surveillance methods in trials administering MVA or recombinant MVA vaccines to healthy participants. 'Routine cardiac investigations' (ECGs and cardiac enzymes obtained 2 weeks after injections of MVA or MVA-HIV recombinants, or placebo-controls, and 'Symptom-driven cardiac investigations' are reported. The outcome measure is the number of participants who met the CDC-case definition for vaccinia-related myo/pericarditis or who experienced cardiac adverse events from an MVA vaccine. RESULTS: Four hundred twenty-five study participants had post-vaccination safety data analyzed, 382 received at least one MVA-containing vaccine and 43 received placebo; 717 routine ECGs and 930 cardiac troponin assays were performed. Forty-five MVA recipients (12% had additional cardiac testing performed; 22 for cardiac symptoms, 19 for ECG/laboratory changes, and 4 for cardiac symptoms with an ECG/laboratory change. No participant had evidence of symptomatic or asymptomatic myo/pericarditis meeting the CDC-case definition and judged to be related to an MVA vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective surveillance of MVA recipients for myo/pericarditis did not detect cardiac adverse reactions in 382 study participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00082446 NCT003766090 NCT00252148 NCT00083603

  10. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the flu? ... Vaccine Benefits What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ...

  11. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tdap= Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination Pronounced (per-TUS-iss) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Whooping cough — known medically as pertussis — is a ...

  12. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  13. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  14. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  15. Ectromelia Virus Disease Characterization in the BALB/c Mouse: A Surrogate Model for Assessment of Smallpox Medical Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Garver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the United States– Food and Drug Administration (FDA issued guidance concerning animal models for testing the efficacy of medical countermeasures against variola virus (VARV, the etiologic agent for smallpox. Ectromelia virus (ECTV is naturally-occurring and responsible for severe mortality and morbidity as a result of mousepox disease in the murine model, displaying similarities to variola infection in humans. Due to the increased need of acceptable surrogate animal models for poxvirus disease, we have characterized ECTV infection in the BALB/c mouse. Mice were inoculated intranasally with a high lethal dose (125 PFU of ECTV, resulting in complete mortality 10 days after infection. Decreases in weight and temperature from baseline were observed eight to nine days following infection. Viral titers via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and plaque assay were first observed in the blood at 4.5 days post-infection and in tissue (spleen and liver at 3.5 days post-infection. Adverse clinical signs of disease were first observed four and five days post-infection, with severe signs occurring on day 7. Pathological changes consistent with ECTV infection were first observed five days after infection. Examination of data obtained from these parameters suggests the ECTV BALB/c model is suitable for potential use in medical countermeasures (MCMs development and efficacy testing.

  16. Ectromelia Virus Disease Characterization in the BALB/c Mouse: A Surrogate Model for Assessment of Smallpox Medical Countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Jennifer; Weber, Lauren; Vela, Eric M; Anderson, Mike; Warren, Richard; Merchlinsky, Michael; Houchens, Christopher; Rogers, James V

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, the United States- Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued guidance concerning animal models for testing the efficacy of medical countermeasures against variola virus (VARV), the etiologic agent for smallpox. Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is naturally-occurring and responsible for severe mortality and morbidity as a result of mousepox disease in the murine model, displaying similarities to variola infection in humans. Due to the increased need of acceptable surrogate animal models for poxvirus disease, we have characterized ECTV infection in the BALB/c mouse. Mice were inoculated intranasally with a high lethal dose (125 PFU) of ECTV, resulting in complete mortality 10 days after infection. Decreases in weight and temperature from baseline were observed eight to nine days following infection. Viral titers via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and plaque assay were first observed in the blood at 4.5 days post-infection and in tissue (spleen and liver) at 3.5 days post-infection. Adverse clinical signs of disease were first observed four and five days post-infection, with severe signs occurring on day 7. Pathological changes consistent with ECTV infection were first observed five days after infection. Examination of data obtained from these parameters suggests the ECTV BALB/c model is suitable for potential use in medical countermeasures (MCMs) development and efficacy testing. PMID:27455306

  17. RECOMBINANT INFLUENZA VACCINES

    OpenAIRE

    Sedova, E.; Shcherbinin, D.; Migunov, A.; Smirnov, Iu; Logunov, D.; Shmarov, M.; Tsybalova, L.; Naroditskiĭ, B.; O. Kiselev; Gintsburg, A.

    2012-01-01

    This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery pla...

  18. Clinical vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seunghoon

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is regarded as one of the biggest triumphs in the history of medicine. We are living in the most successful period of vaccine development. The accumulation of multidisciplinary knowledge and the investment of massive funding have enabled the development of vaccines against many infectious diseases as well as other diseases including malignant tumors. The paradigm of clinical vaccine evaluation and licensure has also been modernized based on scientific improvements and historical e...

  19. Mathematical modeling provides kinetic details of the human immune response to vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin eLe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With major advances in experimental techniques to track antigen-specific immune responses many basic questions on the kinetics of virus-specific immunity in humans remain unanswered. To gain insights into kinetics of T and B cell responses in human volunteers we combine mathematical models and experimental data from recent studies employing vaccines against yellow fever and smallpox. Yellow fever virus-specific CD8 T cell population expanded slowly with the average doubling time of 2 days peaking 2.5 weeks post immunization. Interestingly, we found that the peak of the yellow fever-specific CD8 T cell response is determined by the rate of T cell proliferation and not by the precursor frequency of antigen-specific cells as has been suggested in several studies in mice. We also found that while the frequency of virus-specific T cells increases slowly, the slow increase can still accurately explain clearance of yellow fever virus in the blood. Our additional mathematical model describes well the kinetics of virus-specific antibody-secreting cell and antibody response to vaccinia virus in vaccinated individuals suggesting that most of antibodies in 3 months post immunization are derived from the population of circulating antibody-secreting cells. Taken together, our analysis provides novel insights into mechanisms by which live vaccines induce immunity to viral infections and highlight challenges of applying methods of mathematical modeling to the current, state-of-the-art yet limited immunological data.

  20. Vaccination: problems and perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Kharit

    2014-01-01

    Massive vaccination had proved its effective morbidity reduction. Today it is necessary to extend vaccination schedule, creation of selective, regional schedules based on epidemiological, clinical, economical substantiation. Development of vaccination needs the profound scientific research, modernization of adverse reaction observing system, betterment training system and awareness of population.

  1. A Dengue Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna P

    2016-06-30

    Denvaxia is the first licensed vaccine for the prevention of dengue. It is a live vaccine developed using recombinant DNA technology. The vaccine is given as three doses over the course of a year and has the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations each year. PMID:27368091

  2. In the Event of Bioterrorism: Protecting Families from Deadly Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that smallpox had been eliminated worldwide. In the United States, doctors stopped giving routine smallpox vaccines to children in 1971. After the terrorist attacks of September 2001, however, concern about smallpox reemerged ...

  3. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... significant losses in aquacultural enterprises but vaccination methods implemented since the 1990s have demonstrated their role as one of the most efficient disease control strategies. These have been particularly successful with regard to bacterial diseases in Norwegian salmon farming where multivalent...

  4. Vaccination for Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  5. Advances in FIV vaccine technology

    OpenAIRE

    Uhl, Elizabeth W.; Martin, Marcus; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2008-01-01

    Advances in vaccine technology are occurring in the molecular techniques used to develop vaccines and in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, allowing more complete characterization of vaccine-induced immunity correlating to protection. FIV vaccine development has closely mirrored and occasionally surpassed the development of HIV-1 vaccine, leading to first licensed technology. This review will discuss technological advances in vaccine designs, challenge infection assessment, and characterizat...

  6. Emerging Vaccine Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqun He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning.

  7. Vaccines for allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic.

  8. Vaccine epidemiology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  9. New tuberculosis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Montañés, Carlos; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2011-03-01

    The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is a live vaccine used worldwide, as it protects against severe forms of the disease, saving thousands of lives every year, but its efficacy against pulmonary forms of TB, responsible for transmission of the diseases, is variable. For more than 80 years now no new TB vaccines have been successfully developed. Over the last decade the effort of the scientific community has resulted in the design and construction of promising vaccine candidates. The goal is to develop a new generation of vaccines effective against respiratory forms of the disease. We will focus this review on new prophylactic vaccine candidates that aim to prevent TB diseases. Two are the main strategies used to improve the immunity conferred by the current BCG vaccine, by boosting it with new subunit vaccines, and a second strategy is focused on the construction of new more effective live vaccines, capable to replace the current BCG and to be used as prime vaccines. After rigorous preclinical studies in different animal models new TB vaccine candidates enter in clinical trials in humans. First, a small Phase I for safety followed by immunological evaluation in Phase II trials and finally evaluated in large population Phase III efficacy trials in endemic countries. At present BCG prime and boost with different subunit vaccine candidates are the more advanced assessed in Phase II. Two prime vaccines (based on recombinant BCG) have been successfully evaluated for safety in Phase I trials. A short number of live attenuated vaccines are in advance preclinical studies and the candidates ready to enter Phase I safety trials are produced under current good manufacturing practices. PMID:21420568

  10. 应用微量滴定法测定天花疫苗效力%Detection of the potency of smallpox vaccine by microtitration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董小曼; 董翊; 陈秀珍

    2007-01-01

    微量滴定法代替血球吸附法测定天花疫苗效力.通过对Vero细胞接种浓度和细胞病变判定时间的优化,确定了微量滴定法测定天花疫苗效力的方法,用Vero细胞微量滴定法和血球吸附法测定14批天花疫苗.两种滴定方法的检测结果差异有显著意义(P<0.05),二者存在正相关(r=0.76, 0.001<P<0.05)和直线回归(b=0.45, 0.001<P<0.05)关系,直线回归方程为=4.61+0.45x.微量滴定法变异系数CV为1.25%~2.89%.因此,微量滴定法敏感、可靠、操作简单、重复性好,可以代替血球吸附法.

  11. 75 FR 48706 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ..., rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and trivalent influenza vaccines... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and...

  12. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu viruses. What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ... of age and older). How are benefits of vaccination measured? Public health researchers measure how well flu ...

  13. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  14. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  15. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  16. Anthrax vaccination strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Cybulski, Robert J.; Sanz, Patrick; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2009-01-01

    The biological attack conducted through the U.S. postal system in 2001 broadened the threat posed by anthrax from one pertinent mainly to soldiers on the battlefield to one understood to exist throughout our society. The expansion of the threatened population placed greater emphasis on the reexamination of how we vaccinate against Bacillus anthracis. The currently-licensed Anthrax Vaccine, Adsorbed (AVA) and Anthrax Vaccine, Precipitated (AVP) are capable of generating a protective immune res...

  17. Immunobiology of Influenza Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Lorenzo, Margarita M.; Fenton, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination is the primary strategy for prevention and control of influenza. The surface hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the influenza virus contains two structural elements (head and stalk) that differ in their potential utility as vaccine targets. The head of the HA protein is the primary target of antibodies that confer protective immunity to influenza viruses. The underlying health status, age, and gene polymorphisms of vaccine recipients and, just as importantly, the extent of the antigeni...

  18. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Ran D.; Koren, Gideon

    2002-01-01

    QUESTION: A 27-year-old patient of mine recently learned she is pregnant. She took the influenza vaccine offered at work when she was 7 weeks pregnant. Is her fetus at risk of malformations? ANSWER: No evidence indicates that killed influenza vaccine is teratogenic, even if given during the first trimester. Since 1996, Health Canada's Centre for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that pregnant women in their second and third trimesters be vaccinated. This should not be interpreted...

  19. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  20. Vaccination against RSV

    OpenAIRE

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem; Rots, Nynke Y.

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants worldwide. Also persons with heart/lung disease or an immunodeficiency disorder, and the elderly are at increased risk for severe LRI upon RSV infection. Although there is at present no licensed RSV vaccine available, it is a priority target for several vaccine developers. For the implementation of a future RSV vaccination within national immunization schemes, various strategies can be...

  1. Un momento de reflexión acerca de las vacunas Just a moment for thinking about vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Cáceres Bermejo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante muchos siglos, los primeros atisbos de vacunación estuvieron ligados a la práctica de la variolización. En 1796 Edward Jenner desarrolló la primera vacuna contra la viruela: gracias a la vacunación se ha conseguido la erradicación de esta mortal enfermedad sobre el planeta. En otras enfermedades como el tétanos neonatal, la poliomielitis o el sarampión las campañas de vacunación han conseguido una drástica disminución de la morbi-mortalidad. Actualmente, estos logros conseguidos por las vacunas han producido una falsa percepción de ausencia de riesgo, en algunos casos han descendido las coberturas de vacunación, y se ha producido un aumento del número de casos y brotes de algunas enfermedades como el sarampión. A esta situación han contribuido los mensajes de algunos grupos contrarios a la vacunación que han atribuido a las vacunas una serie de efectos adversos que en ningún caso han sido probados por la comunidad científica.Throughout the last centuries, the first signs of vaccination were linked to variolation procedures. In 1796, Edward Jenner developed the first vaccine for smallpox: the world eradication of this mortal disease was achieved due to the vaccination. In other diseases, such as neonatal tetanus, poliomyelitis or measles, immunization programmes have drastically decreased morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, these achievements of vaccination have caused a false perception of lack of risk, causing a decrease in immunization coverage in some cases. There has been a considerable increase on reported cases and outbreaks of some diseases such as measles. The messages of anti-vaccination movements have contributed to generate this situation by associating some adverse effects with vaccines, but there is no scientific evidence to support it.

  2. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  3. NAPPA-Based Vaccines for a New Proteogenomics Approach for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinology was developed for the first time in 1796 when Jenner empirically implemented a vaccine against smallpox using animal-to-human cowpox inoculation. Since then, it has become a very complex science due to the merging of disciplines ranging from structural and functional, cellular and molecular biology and immunology to bioinformatics and nanobiotechnology, as well as systems biology and synthetic biology and engineering. In the frame of evidence-based medicine (EBM, evidence-based vaccinology emerged as an important sub-field: vaccinology has nowadays become more and more predictive and personalized. With the discovery that many patients with cancer develop antibodies against p53 (the so-called oncoantibodies, it was evident that oncoprotein are immunogenic and can be used for immunotherapeutics purposes. In this manuscript, we report Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA-based Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM measurement of p53 immunogenicity and kinetics, in the perspective of developing an effective p53 therapy. NAPPA-based QCM_D can be a useful platform for proving the immunogenicity of oncoprotein-based vaccines. Recently, the field of vaccinology has extended from vaccines for infectious diseases to vaccines not only preventive but also therapeutic for chronic-degenerative diseases such as cancer. Peptide-based immunotherapeutics has been proven to be quite effective for cancer treatment and NAPPA-based QCM_D has the promise of providing clinicians with quick, rapid and cheap measurement of oncoprotein kinetics and bindings with immune cells. Moreover, it can be a precious tool for implementing personalized and predictive vaccinology.

  4. DNA vaccines used for biodefense%生物防御用DNA疫苗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文宇; 朱晓斐; 戚中田

    2011-01-01

    Most of the recent biodefense work has been focused on developing DNA vaccines,which are safe to both human and environment and cost-effective,and delivery of the combined DNA vaccines can offer the potential for multiple protection.Consequently,the DNA vaccines have good prospects for research,development and applications,but their immunogenicity and delivery methods remain to be improved.This review summarizes the research status of the DNA vaccines against several biodefense pathogens listed on both the NIH priority pathogen and CDC bioterrorism registries:Bacillus anthracis,Ebola and Marburg viruses,monkeypox virus,smallpox virus,and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.%近年的生物防御疫苗研究集中于DNA疫苗.DNA疫苗对人以及环境相对安全、经济,并且多价联合DNA疫苗还可以提供多重保护,因此有良好的研发前景和潜在的实用价值,但也存在免疫原性不强和接种方式有待改进等问题.此文就炭疽杆菌、埃博拉病毒、马尔堡病毒、猴痘病毒、天花病毒和委内瑞拉马脑炎病毒等几种被美国NIH和CDC列为重要生物战剂的DNA疫苗研发现状作一综述.

  5. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines.

  6. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751

  7. Mucosal Vaccination Overcomes the Barrier to Recombinant Vaccinia Immunization Caused by Preexisting Poxvirus Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyakov, Igor M.; Moss, Bernard; Strober, Warren; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    1999-04-01

    Overcoming preexisting immunity to vaccinia virus in the adult population is a key requirement for development of otherwise potent recombinant vaccinia vaccines. Based on our observation that s.c. immunization with vaccinia induces cellular and antibody immunity to vaccinia only in systemic lymphoid tissue and not in mucosal sites, we hypothesized that the mucosal immune system remains naive to vaccinia and therefore amenable to immunization with recombinant vaccinia vectors despite earlier vaccinia exposure. We show that mucosal immunization of vaccinia-immune BALB/c mice with recombinant vaccinia expressing HIV gp160 induced specific serum antibody and strong HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. These responses occurred not only in mucosal but also in systemic lymphoid tissue, whereas systemic immunization was ineffective under these circumstances. In this context, intrarectal immunization was more effective than intranasal immunization. Boosting with a second dose of recombinant vaccinia was also more effective via the mucosal route. The systemic HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response was enhanced by coadministration of IL-12 at the mucosal site. These results also demonstrate the independent compartmentalization of the mucosal versus systemic immune systems and the asymmetric trafficking of lymphocytes between them. This approach to circumvent previous vaccinia immunity may be useful for induction of protective immunity against infectious diseases and cancer in the sizable populations with preexisting immunity to vaccinia from smallpox vaccination.

  8. Cochlear-Meningitis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevnar 13®) 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPSV) (Pneumovax®) Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate (Hib) Tetravalent (A, C, Y, W-135) ... CDC immunization guidelines for routine meningococcal vaccination. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is not routinely recommended for those ...

  9. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Paz, Ziv; Israeli, Eitan; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines have been used for over 200 years and are the most effective way of preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with infections. Like other drugs, vaccines can cause adverse events, but unlike conventional medicines, which are prescribed to people who are ill, vaccines are administered to healthy individuals, thus increasing the concern over adverse reactions. Most side effects attributed to vaccines are mild, acute and transient; however, rare reactions such as hypersensitivity, induction of infection, and autoimmunity do occur and can be severe and even fatal. The rarity and subacute presentation of post-vaccination autoimmune phenomena means that ascertaining causality between these events can be difficult. Moreover, the latency period between vaccination and autoimmunity ranges from days to years. In this article, on the basis of published evidence and our own experience, we discuss the various aspects of the causal and temporal interactions between vaccines and autoimmune phenomena, as well as the possible mechanisms by which different components of vaccines might induce autoimmunity.

  10. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, M; Chiappini, E; Galli, L

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines have eradicated or controlled many infectious diseases, saving each year millions of lives and quality of life of many other millions of people. In spite of the success of vaccines over the last two centuries, parents (and also some health care workers) gloss over the devastating consequences of diseases, which are now avoided thanks to vaccines, and direct their attention to possible negative effects of immunization. Three immunological objections are raised: vaccines cause antigenic overload, natural immunity is safer and better than vaccine-induced immunity, and vaccines induce autoimmunity. The last point is examined in this review. Theoretically, vaccines could trigger autoimmunity by means of cytokine production, anti-idiotypic network, expression of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens, modification of surface antigens and induction of novel antigens, molecular mimicry, bystander activation, epitope spreading, and polyclonal activation of B cells. There is strong evidence that none of these mechanisms is really effective in causing autoimmune diseases. Vaccines are not a source of autoimmune diseases. By contrast, absolute evidence exists that infectious agents can trigger autoimmune mechanisms and that they do cause autoimmune diseases.

  11. Chimeric Pestivirus Experimental Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Ilona; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric pestiviruses have shown great potential as marker vaccine candidates against pestiviral infections. Exemplarily, we describe here the construction and testing of the most promising classical swine fever vaccine candidate "CP7_E2alf" in detail. The description is focused on classical cloning technologies in combination with reverse genetics. PMID:26458840

  12. Next generation vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2011-07-01

    In February this year, about 100 delegates gathered for three days in Vienna (Austria) for the Next Generation Vaccines conference. The meeting held in the Vienna Hilton Hotel from 23rd-25th February 2011 had a strong focus on biotech and industry. The conference organizer Jacob Fleming managed to put together a versatile program ranging from the future generation of vaccines to manufacturing, vaccine distribution and delivery, to regulatory and public health issues. Carefully selected top industry experts presented first-hand experience and shared solutions for overcoming the latest challenges in the field of vaccinology. The program also included several case study presentations on novel vaccine candidates in different stages of development. An interactive pre-conference workshop as well as interactive panel discussions during the meeting allowed all delegates to gain new knowledge and become involved in lively discussions on timely, interesting and sometimes controversial topics related to vaccines. PMID:22002157

  13. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity......Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... and hence adjuvants are included to enhance and direct the immune response. Although the vaccine has been tested in ART naïve individuals, we recommend future testing of the vaccine during (early started) ART that improves immune function and to select individuals likely to benefit. Peptides representing...

  14. Neisseria meningitidis B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Invasive infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis are a serious public health problem worldwide and have a heavy economic impact. The incidence of invasive disease due to Neisseria meningitidis is highly variable according to geographical area and serogroup distribution. Since the introduction of vaccination programs with conjugated vaccine C in children and adolescents, most cases of invasive meningococcal disease in developed countries have been caused by meningococcus B. It is important to underline that invasive meningococcal disease will not be controlled until safe and effective vaccines for meningococcal B are available and widely used. The aims of this article are to describe the most recent developments in meningococcal B vaccines and to discuss how these vaccines can contribute to containing meningococcal disease.

  15. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup;

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  16. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  17. Lassa fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2004-04-01

    Lassa fever remains a serious challenge to public health in West Africa threatening both local residents in rural areas and those who serve them, particularly medical care providers. Given the ecology of the rodent host and conditions in the endemic area, a vaccine is mandatory for control. The challenge is to overcome the scientific, political and economic obstacles to producing a human use vaccine candidate. There are some scientific issues to resolve. It is known that the G-protein confers protection but we do not know its duration. If the N-protein is also included there may be a better duration of protection but it is unclear whether the N-protein as a vaccine may possibly enhance the infection. The original vaccinia vector must be replaced by new vectors, chimeras or by delivering DNA in some format. A live vaccine is attractive because it can confer protection in a single shot. A killed vaccine is more stable, particularly for distribution in the tropics but usually requires repeated shots. For practical reasons a live vaccine format should probably be pursued, which could then be combined with a yellow fever vaccine, using the same cold chains, since this disease occupies the same endemic areas in West Africa. Lassa vaccine initiatives have suffered from a lack of funding in the past but bioterrorism has brought new resources to Lassa virus science. Adequate funding and applications of new vaccine technologies give hope that we may soon see a vaccine in clinical trials. However, the difficulty of conducting trials in endemic areas and lack of political stability remain serious problems. PMID:15056044

  18. The Vaccine Safety Datalink: successes and challenges monitoring vaccine safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michael M; Gee, Julianne; Weintraub, Eric S; Belongia, Edward A; Lee, Grace M; Glanz, Jason M; Nordin, James D; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger; Naleway, Allison L; Jackson, Lisa A; Omer, Saad B; Jacobsen, Steven J; DeStefano, Frank

    2014-09-22

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) is a collaborative project between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 9 health care organizations. Established in 1990, VSD is a vital resource informing policy makers and the public about the safety of vaccines used in the United States. Large linked databases are used to identify and evaluate adverse events in over 9 million individuals annually. VSD generates rapid, important safety assessments for both routine vaccinations and emergency vaccination campaigns. VSD monitors safety of seasonal influenza vaccines in near-real time, and provided essential information on the safety of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine during the recent pandemic. VSD investigators have published important studies demonstrating that childhood vaccines are not associated with autism or other developmental disabilities. VSD prioritizes evaluation of new vaccines; searches for possible unusual health events after vaccination; monitors vaccine safety in pregnant women; and has pioneered development of biostatistical research methods.

  19. [Current events in vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M-A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J-L; Strady, C

    2011-11-01

    The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve - but for how long ? - the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55 %, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine

  20. [Present status of vaccines in 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussey, M; Dabadie, A

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe 2 new vaccines now available in France: one is the GenHevac, an hepatitis B vaccine, the first virus recombinant vaccine; the other one is the Typhim Vi, a polysaccharide typhoid vaccine. Three other vaccines are currently used in foreign countries and will be soon available: the Hemophilus influenzae vaccine, the acellular pertussis vaccine and the varicella vaccine. Rotavirus and Cytomegalovirus vaccines are studied for their clinical efficacy.

  1. DNA vaccine: the miniature miracle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Kaliaperumal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA, the essential part of the life is making way in to new vaccine technology. Plasmid vectors from the bacteria have revolutionized the world of vaccine design by its new technology – DNA vaccines. Small portion of the nucleotides from the pathogen held under the control of promoter in a plasmid vector can be used as a vaccine. DNA vaccines alleviate the odds of the other vaccines by having good hold on both the faces of the immunity. The key to the success of DNA vaccine lies in the route of administration of the vaccine which can be done in many ways. Prime boost strategy is an approach used to boost the action of DNA vaccine. To date there are only four DNA vaccine available in the market. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 228-232

  2. [Vaccinations in respiratory medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lode, H M; Stahlmann, R

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinations are the most successful and cost-effective measures for prevention of infections. Important pathogens of respiratory tract infections (e.g. influenza viruses and pneumococci) can be effectively treated by vaccinations. The seasonal trivalent and recently now quadrivalent influenza vaccines include antigens from influenza A and B type viruses, which have to be modified annually oriented to the circulating strains. The effective protection by influenza vaccination varies considerably (too short protection time, mismatch); therefore, administration late in the year is the best approach (November/December). Two pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for adults: the over 30-year-old 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 4-year-old 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The immunological and clinical efficacy of PPV23 is controversially discussed; however, a moderate reduction of invasive pneumococcal infections is widely accepted. The PCV13 stimulates a T-cell response and has currently demonstrated its clinical efficacy in an impressive study (CAPiTA). The problem of PCV13 is the relatively limited coverage of only 47% of the currently circulating invasive pneumococcal serotypes. PMID:26330051

  3. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1, pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in Pubmed data base mainly of the 2000 until 2009 and the words were used is pregnancy, flu vaccination, complications of the flu vaccination at the period of pregnancy. Results: Morbidity during periods of seasonal influenza in pregnant women is increased, while in times of pandemic are recorded fatalities. Based on this, specific recommendations have been made for a flu vaccination in pregnant women, both from the CDC, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in the U.S. and other official bodies like the World Health Organization, according to that the constitution of influenza vaccine in the pregnancy is necessary, given that the probability of morbidity in this period is increased at 10%. Conclusions: The studies so far to influenza vaccination in pregnancy, do not record serious complications for pregnant women and infants. However more research needs to be done on the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy.

  4. Vaccine acceptance: The UK perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2013-01-01

    The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner’s theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vacc...

  5. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Met, O; Svane, I M;

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  6. Research toward Malaria Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louis H.; Howard, Russell J.; Carter, Richard; Good, Michael F.; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.

    1986-12-01

    Malaria exacts a toll of disease to people in the Tropics that seems incomprehensible to those only familiar with medicine and human health in the developed world. The methods of molecular biology, immunology, and cell biology are now being used to develop an antimalarial vaccine. The Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria have many stages in their life cycle. Each stage is antigenically distinct and potentially could be interrupted by different vaccines. However, achieving complete protection by vaccination may require a better understanding of the complexities of B- and T-cell priming in natural infections and the development of an appropriate adjuvant for use in humans.

  7. Anti-addiction vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It also outlines the development challenges, ethical concerns, and likely future intervention for anti-addiction vaccines. PMID:22003367

  8. Meningococcal vaccine evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Bona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis worldwide. Although polysaccharide and glycoconjugate vaccines have been developed for serogroups A, C, Y and W-135, currently there are no broadly effective vaccines available for the prevention of meningococcal B disease. A general overview of the burden of the disease and the strains prevalence in the world with the focus in particular on the Italian situation is provided in this article, together with the vaccinations developed and under evaluation.

  9. Hepatitis B vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, Luisa; Paladini, Sara; Galli, Cristina; Raimondo, Giovanni; Pollicino, Teresa; Zanetti, Alessandro R

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus is a worldwide leading cause of acute and chronic liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Effective vaccines have been available since the early '80s and vaccination has proved highly successful in reducing the disease burden, the development of the carrier state and the HB-related morbidity and mortality in the countries where vaccination has been implemented.   Neutralizing (protective) antibodies (anti-HBs) induced by vaccination are targeted largely towards the amino acid hydrophilic region, referred to as the common a determinant which is present on the outer protein coat or surface antigen (HBsAg), spanning amino acids 124-149. This provides protection against all HBV genotypes (from A to H) and is responsible for the broad immunity afforded by hepatitis B vaccination. Thus, alterations of residues within this region of the surface antigen may determine conformational changes that can allow replication of the mutated HBV in vaccinated people. An important mutation in the surface antigen region was identified in Italy some 25 years ago in infants born to HBsAg carrier mothers who developed breakthrough infections despite having received HBIG and vaccine at birth. This virus had a point mutation from guanosine to adenosine at nucleotide position 587, resulting in aa substitution from glycine (G) to arginine (R) at position 145 in the a determinant. Since the G145R substitution alters the projecting loop (aa 139-147) of the a determinant, the neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination are no longer able to recognize the mutated epitope. Beside G145R, other S-gene mutations potentially able to evade neutralizing anti-HBs and infect vaccinated people have been described worldwide. In addition, the emergence of Pol mutants associated with resistance to treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues can select viruses with crucial changes in the overlapping S-gene, potentially able to alter the S protein immunoreactivity. Thus

  10. DNA vaccines and intradermal vaccination by DNA tattooing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, K; van den Berg, J H; Schumacher, T N; Haanen, J B A G

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, DNA vaccination has been developed as a method for the induction of immune responses. However, in spite of high expectations based on their efficacy in preclinical models, immunogenicity of first generation DNA vaccines in clinical trials was shown to be poor, and no DNA vaccines have yet been licensed for human use. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of second generation DNA vaccines and DNA vaccine delivery methods. Here we review the key characteristics of DNA vaccines as compared to other vaccine platforms, and recent insights into the prerequisites for induction of immune responses by DNA vaccines will be discussed. We illustrate the development of second generation DNA vaccines with the description of DNA tattooing as a novel DNA delivery method. This technique has shown great promise both in a small animal model and in non-human primates and is currently under clinical evaluation.

  11. Smallpox Disease Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Updates Subscribe Listen Content source: National Center ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Subscribe to RSS Get email updates To ...

  12. Smallpox Disease Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Updates Subscribe Listen Page last reviewed: February ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Download page Subscribe to RSS View page ...

  13. EXPERIMENTAL MEASLES VACCINES: A RESEARCH TOOL IN VACCINATION EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Liashenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were effective in animal experiments, but they have not been tested in humans. The second group includes live attenuated mucosal measles vaccins applied in combination with immunomodulator(s, as aerosol and intranasally. Efficiency of these vaccines was tested and confirmed by immunization of children and adults. Mucosal measles vaccine induces local production of IgA measles antibodies, along with induced synthesis of circulating IgM and IgG antibodies against measles. The latter experimental variant could be a live attenuated measles vaccine containing some immunity-modulating agent. Elaboration of these variant was based on the known data about transient immunosuppressive activity of measles vaccine. An appropriate experimental variant represents a mixture of attenuated measles vaccine and synthetic immunomodulating agent (MP-2 peptide which protects T-lymphocytes from inhibitory effect of the measles virus. In present revue, some data are presented concerning the mechanisms of immunogenic activity and adverse effects of measles vaccines.

  14. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  15. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines On This Page What are human papillomaviruses? Which cancers are caused by HPV? Who gets HPV infections? Can HPV infections be ...

  16. Diseases and vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

    between authorities, politicians, media and citizens. On the contrary, no broad commitment about the offer of a new pandemic vaccine to individuals from e.g. at-risk groups was reached. The vaccine was characterized by considerable uncertainty with regard to effects and side effects and many people...... considered the vaccine as risky and a threat more severe than the influenza. The health authorities’ communication was more unclear on this question, confusion increased in the Danish population and more critical voices were raised. This uncertain communication about the vaccines’ effects and side effects...... and the critical voices in the population are widespread in communication about vaccines in general and an increasing number of people are expressing skepticism and deselect this product. The communication processes are seen as a typical example of the difficulties of communicating science and risk and show how...

  17. Vaccines against typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Carlos A; Borsutzky, Stefan; Griot-Wenk, Monika; Metcalfe, Ian C; Pearman, Jon; Collioud, Andre; Favre, Didier; Dietrich, Guido

    2006-05-01

    Because of high infectivity and significant disease burden, typhoid fever constitutes a major global health problem. Implementation of adequate food handling practices and establishment of safe water supplies are the cornerstone for the development of an effective prevention program. However, vaccination against typhoid fever remains an essential tool for the effective management of this disease. Currently, there are two well tolerated and effective licensed vaccines. One is based on defined subunit virulence (Vi) polysaccharide antigen and can be administered either intramuscularly or subcutaneously and the other is based on the use of live attenuated bacteria for oral administration. The advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches taken in the development of a vaccine against typhoid fever are discussed, along with the potential for future vaccine candidates.

  18. Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Why get vaccinated?Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They are rare in the United States today, but people who do become infected often have severe ...

  19. Next Generation Pneumococcal Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin L Moffitt; Malley, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines are based on the generation of antibodies to the pneumococcal polysaccharide, of which there are more than 90 different types. While these vaccines are highly effective against the serotypes included, their high cost and limited serotype coverage limits their usefulness worldwide, particularly in low resources areas. Thus alternative or adjunctive options are being actively pursued. This review will present these various approaches, including variation...

  20. Nieuw vaccin tegen campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te laten treden tegen Campylobacter", zegt Wagenaar die werkt bij het CVI en hoogleraar is aan de Universiteit Utrecht. "Geen van de vaccins die onderzoekers tot nu hebben uitgeprobeerd werken"

  1. Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Catherine J.; Subbarao, Kanta

    2006-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and associated human infections have led to a heightened level of awareness and preparation for a possible influenza pandemic. Vaccination is the best option by which spread of a pandemic virus could be prevented and severity of disease reduced. Production of live attenuated and inactivated vaccine seed viruses against avian influenza viruses, which have the potential to cause pandemics, and their testing in preclinical studies and...

  2. Advances in influenza vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Reperant, Leslie A.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that were developed more than 60 years ago, following the identification of influenza A virus as an etiological agent of seasonal influenza. These vaccines aimed mainly at eliciting neutralizing antibodies targetin...

  3. Meningococcal vaccines Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kurugöl, Zafer

    2007-01-01

    Meningococcal disease presenting primarily as meningococcemia and meningitis continues to be a devastating problem around the world In the past 200 years several meningococcal epidemics have been noted in Europe Africa Asia and the United States Annually 500 000 cases of invasive meningococcal disease occur still worldwide of which 8805;50 000 result in death Therefore vaccine development has been undertaken in earnest for the prevention of this disease Polysaccharide vaccines have been avail...

  4. Anti-addiction vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It ...

  5. Current status of rotavirus vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Min Wang; Shou-Chien Chen; Kow-Tong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Data sources: Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. Results: In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  6. Tuberculosis vaccine types and timings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Ian M

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, the design of new vaccines directed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most successful bacterial pathogen on the planet, has focused on prophylactic candidates that would be given to individuals while they are still young. It is becoming more apparent, however, that there are several types of vaccine candidates now under development that could be used under various conditions. Thus, in addition to prophylactic vaccines, such as recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG or BCG-boosting vaccines, other applications include vaccines that could prevent infection, vaccines that could be given in emergency situations as postexposure vaccines, vaccines that could be used to facilitate chemotherapy, and vaccines that could be used to reduce or prevent relapse and reactivation disease. These approaches are discussed here, including the type of immunity we are trying to specifically target, as well as the limitations of these approaches.

  7. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  8. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits. PMID:27074168

  9. DNA vaccines against influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachyra, Anna; Góra-Sochacka, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Genetic vaccine technology has been considerably developed within the last two decades. This cost effective and promising strategy can be applied for therapy of cancers and for curing allergy, chronic and infectious diseases, such as a seasonal and pandemic influenza. Despite numerous advantages, several limitations of this technology reduce its performance and can retard its commercial exploitation in humans and its veterinary applications. Inefficient delivery of the DNA vaccine into cells of immunized individuals results in low intracellular supply of suitable expression cassettes encoding an antigen, in its low expression level and, in turn, in reduced immune responses against the antigen. Improvement of DNA delivery into the host cells might significantly increase effectiveness of the DNA vaccine. A vast array of innovative methods and various experimental strategies have been applied in order to enhance the effectiveness of DNA vaccines. They include various strategies improving DNA delivery as well as expression and immunogenic potential of the proteins encoded by the DNA vaccines. Researchers focusing on DNA vaccines against influenza have applied many of these strategies. Recent examples of the most successful modern approaches are discussed in this review.

  10. Immunology of BVDV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Julia F

    2013-01-01

    Providing acquired immune protection against infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) is challenging due to the heterogeneity that exists among BVDV strains and the ability of the virus to infect the fetus and establish persistent infections. Both modified live and killed vaccines have been shown to be efficacious under controlled conditions. Both humoral and cellular immune responses are protective. Following natural infection or vaccination with a modified live vaccine, the majority of the B cell response (as measured by serum antibodies) is directed against the viral proteins E2 and NS2/3, with minor responses against the Erns and E1 proteins. Vaccination with killed vaccines results in serum antibodies directed mainly at the E2 protein. It appears that the major neutralizing epitopes are conformational and are located within the N-terminal half of the E2 protein. While it is thought that the E2 and NS2/3 proteins induce protective T cell responses, these epitopes have not been mapped. Prevention of fetal infections requires T and B cell response levels that approach sterilizing immunity. The heterogeneity that exists among circulating BVDV strains, works against establishing such immunity. Vaccination, while not 100% effective in every individual animal, is effective at the herd level. PMID:22883306

  11. Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection This table shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  12. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  13. HIV Vaccination, is Breakthrough Underway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Da-Yong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Ting-Ren; Xu, Bin; Ding, Jian

    2016-01-01

    After long defeats-almost no marked breakthrough in HIV vaccination campaign has been observed during the past two decades, and we still have not lost our faiths for the development of highly effective and low risk HIV vaccines. Many effective vaccines have been discovered and will certainly enter into the markets within the next 5 to 10 years. In order to promote HIV vaccine developments and clinical HIV therapeutic improvements, this perspective addresses the good and bad sides of currently available HIV vaccines, discusses many subjects of medical significance and finally provides up-to-date information in the field of HIV studies, in particular regarding vaccine developments and HIV pathogenesis.

  14. NIAID Biodefense Image Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Image Library These high-resolution (300 dpi) images may be ... for Disease Control and Prevention public health image library . Smallpox Vaccination Study-1 Smallpox vaccination dilution study: ...

  15. 42 CFR 102.50 - Medical records necessary to establish that a covered injury was sustained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to establish that a smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact sustained a covered injury, a... records, including the admission history and physical examination, the discharge summary, all physician... the smallpox vaccine) or vaccinia contracted through accidental vaccinia inoculation. (c) If...

  16. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  17. Cancer Vaccines: A Brief Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sunil; Prendergast, George C

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine approaches for cancer differ from traditional vaccine approaches for infectious disease in tending to focus on clearing active disease rather than preventing disease. In this review, we provide a brief overview of different types of vaccines and adjuvants that have been investigated for the purpose of controlling cancer burdens in patients, some of which are approved for clinical use or in late-stage clinical trials, such as the personalized dendritic cell vaccine sipuleucel-T (Provenge) and the recombinant viral prostate cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM (Prostvac-VF). Vaccines against human viruses implicated in the development and progression of certain cancers, such as human papillomavirus in cervical cancer, are not considered here. Cancers express "altered self" antigens that tend to induce weaker responses than the "foreign" antigens expressed by infectious agents. Thus, immune stimulants and adjuvant approaches have been explored widely. Vaccine types considered include autologous patient-derived immune cell vaccines, tumor antigen-expressing recombinant virus vaccines, peptide vaccines, DNA vaccines, and heterologous whole-cell vaccines derived from established human tumor cell lines. Opportunities to develop effective cancer vaccines may benefit from seminal recent advances in understanding how immunosuppressive barricades are erected by tumors to mediate immune escape. In particular, targeted ablation of these barricades with novel agents, such as the immune checkpoint drug ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) approved recently for clinical use, may offer significant leverage to vaccinologists seeking to control and prevent malignancy.

  18. [Results of Booster Vaccination in Children with Primary Vaccine Failure after Initial Varicella Vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozakiv, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in children who did not show seroconversion after initial vaccination (i.e., primary vaccine failure : PVF) over a 7-year period prior to the introduction of routine varicella vaccination. Between November 2007 and May 2014, 273 healthy children aged between 1.1 and 14.5 years (median : 1.7 years) underwent varicella vaccination. Before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination, the antibody titers were measured using an immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) assay and a glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). In addition, side reactions were examined during the four-week period after vaccination. Children who did not show IAHA seroconversion (PVF) were recommended to receive a booster vaccination, and the measurement of antibody titers and an assessment of side reactions were performed after the booster dose. In May 2015, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the 273 participants to investigate whether they had developed varicella and/or herpes zoster after vaccination. After initial vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 75% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 4.7, while the gpELISA seroconversion rate was 84% and the mean antibody titer (Log10) with seroconversion was 2.4. Among children with PVF, 54 received booster vaccination within 81 to 714 days (median : 139 days) after the initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 98% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 5.8. Both the seroconversion rate and the antibody titer were higher compared with the values after the initial vaccination (p vaccination, the gpELISA seropositive rate was 100% and the mean positive antibody titer (Log 10) was 3.6 ; similar results were obtained for the IAHA assay, with a significantly higher

  19. 75 FR 48707 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... get vaccinated? HPV vaccine is important because it can prevent most cases of cervical cancer in... this HPV vaccine and when? Females: Routine Vaccination HPV vaccine is recommended for girls 11 or 12... is best to be vaccinated before the first sexual contact. HPV vaccine is given as a 3-dose series...

  20. 痘苗病毒天坛株的减毒与其作为疫苗载体研究进展%Attenuation of the smallpox vaccine vaccinia Tiantan strain and its use as a safe vaccine live vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文博; 刘利; 陈志伟

    2011-01-01

    1 痘苗病毒天坛株的历史天花是人类历史上最可怕的传染病之一.天花由天花病毒(variola virus)引起,人是该病毒的惟一宿主.人感染天花病毒后的死亡率达到30%~40%[1].世界上公认的对天花最早的准确记录来自中国,晋代药学家葛洪于公元430年左右,在《肘后备急方》中对天花有清楚的描述[1].

  1. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu...

  2. Answers about HIV Vaccine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trial participation by people of all races/ethnicities, genders and socioeconomic backgrounds. • Support vaccine volunteers and/or ... preventive HIV vaccines. These include leading universities, biotechnology companies, pharmaceutical firms and government agencies such as NIAID. • ...

  3. National Elk Refuge vaccination protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal by the State of Wyoming, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, to vaccinate elk on the National Elk Refuge. The proposal provides a protocol for vaccinating...

  4. Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources News Newsletters Events Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccine Measles ... it is eliminated from the body. Who Needs It? Children Children should get 2 doses of MMR ...

  5. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is influenza (the ...

  6. Economics of vaccines revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Maarten J; Standaert, Baudouin A

    2013-05-01

    Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct and indirect) to be measured in a population when using a cohort model; (1) appropriate rules about discounting the long-term impact of vaccines are absent jeopardizing therefore their value at the initial investment; (2) the presence of opposite contexts when introducing the vaccine in developed vs. the developing world with high benefits, low initial health care investment for the latter vs. marginal benefit and high cost for the former; with a corresponding paradox for the vaccine becoming very cost-effective in low income countries but rather medium in middle low to high middle income countries; (3) and the type of trial assessment for the newer vaccines is now often performed with immunogenicity reaction instead of clinical endpoints which still leaves questions on their real impact and their head-to-head comparison. (4.)

  7. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  8. Rotaviruses: from pathogenesis to vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Harry B.; Estes, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Rotaviruses cause life-threatening gastroenteritis in children worldwide; the enormous disease burden has focused efforts to develop vaccines and led to the discovery of novel mechanisms of gastrointestinal virus pathogenesis and host responses to infection. Two live-attenuated vaccines for gastroenteritis (Rotateq and Rotarix) have been licensed in many countries. This review summarizes the latest data on these vaccines, their effectiveness and challenges to global vaccination. Recent insigh...

  9. Technical Transformation of Biodefense Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2009-01-01

    Biodefense vaccines are developed against a diverse group of pathogens. Vaccines were developed for some of these pathogens a long time ago but they are facing new challenges to move beyond the old manufacturing technologies. New vaccines to be developed against other pathogens have to determine whether to follow traditional vaccination strategies or to seek new approaches. Advances in basic immunology and recombinant DNA technology have fundamentally transformed the process of formulating a ...

  10. Skin scarification with Plasmodium falciparum peptide vaccine using synthetic TLR agonists as adjuvants elicits malaria sporozoite neutralizing immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert A.; Altszuler, Rita; Frevert, Ute; Nardin, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria eradication will require a combination of vector control, chemotherapy and an easily administered vaccine. Sterile immunity can be elicited in humans by immunization with sporozoites, the infective stage injected by bite of the mosquito vector, however, whole parasite vaccines present formidable logistical challenges for production, storage and administration. The “gold standard” for infectious disease eradiation, the Smallpox Eradication Programme, utilized mass immunization using the skin scarification (SS) route. SS may more closely mimic the natural route of malaria infection initiated by sporozoites injected by mosquito bite which elicits both neutralizing antibodies and protective cell mediated immunity. We investigated the potential of SS immunization using a malaria repeat peptide containing a protective B cell epitope of Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal human species, and delivery vehicles containing TLR agonists as adjuvants. In a murine model, SS immunization with peptide in combination with TLR-7/8 and -9 agonists elicited high levels of systemic sporozoite neutralizing antibody, Th1- type CD4+ T cells and resistance to challenge by bites of infected mosquitoes. SS provides the potential to elicit humoral immunity to target Plasmodium at multiple stages of its complex life cycle. PMID:27624667

  11. Skin scarification with Plasmodium falciparum peptide vaccine using synthetic TLR agonists as adjuvants elicits malaria sporozoite neutralizing immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert A; Altszuler, Rita; Frevert, Ute; Nardin, Elizabeth H

    2016-01-01

    Malaria eradication will require a combination of vector control, chemotherapy and an easily administered vaccine. Sterile immunity can be elicited in humans by immunization with sporozoites, the infective stage injected by bite of the mosquito vector, however, whole parasite vaccines present formidable logistical challenges for production, storage and administration. The "gold standard" for infectious disease eradiation, the Smallpox Eradication Programme, utilized mass immunization using the skin scarification (SS) route. SS may more closely mimic the natural route of malaria infection initiated by sporozoites injected by mosquito bite which elicits both neutralizing antibodies and protective cell mediated immunity. We investigated the potential of SS immunization using a malaria repeat peptide containing a protective B cell epitope of Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal human species, and delivery vehicles containing TLR agonists as adjuvants. In a murine model, SS immunization with peptide in combination with TLR-7/8 and -9 agonists elicited high levels of systemic sporozoite neutralizing antibody, Th1- type CD4+ T cells and resistance to challenge by bites of infected mosquitoes. SS provides the potential to elicit humoral immunity to target Plasmodium at multiple stages of its complex life cycle. PMID:27624667

  12. Vaccination: An Act of Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SPOTS! AH’M SICK, MA! AH CAIN’T GIT NO VACCINE T’DAY! 13 OH, SON! HOW’ ... D TELL HIS FOLKS HE WAS GOIN’ T’GIT VACCINATED AN’ HE’D GO SWIMMIN’! "” ” HE DIDN’ ... T’THE HEALTH CLINIC! HEH! HEH! AH GOTTA GIT THET VACCINE! WAIT! WE’LL GO WITH YOU! ...

  13. [About of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Refolo, Pietro; González-Melado, Fermín J

    2012-01-01

    The debate over compulsory or merely recommended vaccination remains open, albeit latent, in those countries that have mandatory vaccine schedules. Despite the advantages of preventive immunization from the point of medical, economic and social features, it's clear, in the current status of medical ethics, that the exercise of patient autonomy calls for personal responsibility in the election of treatments and, in fact, the vaccines. Therefore, it is necessary to change the simple idea of prevention as , characteristic of a in order to pass to a preventative medicine concept that will be able to support the achievement of moral attitudes towards achieving the good for the individual and for the community. This is only possible from a wherever is possible to present an alternative between mandatory vs. recommendation from the concept of that, with the help of a series of measures, could combine the effective protection for the whole community with the responsible exercise of the personal autonomy.

  14. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Document Server

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  15. Controversies in vaccine mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L

    2010-03-01

    Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the

  16. Safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine among HIV-infected adults: Conventional vaccine vs. intradermal vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Bin; Lee, Jacob; Song, Joon Young; Choi, Hee Jung; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported poor immune responses to conventional influenza vaccines in HIV-infected individuals. This study sought to elicit more potent immunogenicity in HIV-infected adults using an intradermal vaccine compared with a conventional intramuscular vaccine. This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted at 3 university hospitals during the 2011/2012 pre-influenza season. Three vaccines were used in HIV-infected adults aged 18 – 60 years: an inactivated intramuscular vaccine (Agrippal), a reduced-content intradermal vaccine (IDflu9μg) and a standard-content intradermal vaccine (IDflu15μg). Serum hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibodies and INF-γ ELISpot assay were measured at the time of vaccination and 1 month after vaccination. Adverse events were recorded for 7 d. A total of 28 Agrippal, 30 IDflu9μg, and 28 IDflu15μg volunteers were included in this analysis. One month after vaccination, the GMTs and differences in INF-γ ELISpot assay results were similar among the 3 groups. Seroprotection rates, seroconversion rates and mean fold increases (MFI) among the 3 groups were also similar, at approximately 80%, 50–60% and 2.5 – 10.0, respectively. All three vaccines satisfied the CHMP criteria for the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains, but not those for the B strain. In univariate analysis, no demographic or clinical factors, including age, CD4+ T-cell counts, HIV viral load, ART status and vaccine type, were related to failure to achieve seroprotection. The three vaccines were all well-tolerated and all reported reactions were mild to moderate. However, there was a tendency toward a higher incidence of local and systemic reactions in the intradermal vaccine groups. The intradermal vaccine did not result in higher immunogenicity compared to the conventional intramuscular vaccine, even with increased antigen dose. PMID:26431466

  17. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  18. Chinese vaccine products go global: vaccine development and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun; Xu, Yinghua; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-05-01

    Through the continuous efforts of several generations, China has become one of the few countries in the world that is capable of independently addressing all the requirements by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Regulatory science is applied to continuously improve the vaccine regulatory system. Passing the prequalification by WHO has allowed Chinese vaccine products to go global. Chinese vaccine products not only secure disease prevention and control domestically but also serve the needs for international public health. This article describes the history of Chinese vaccine development, the current situation of Chinese vaccine industry and its contribution to the prevention and control of infectious diseases. We also share our experience of national quality control and vaccine regulation during the past decades. China's experience in vaccine development and quality control can benefit other countries and regions worldwide, including the developing countries.

  19. Vaccine Failures in Patients Properly Vaccinated with 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Catalonia, a Region with Low Vaccination Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga-Llop, Fernando; Garcia-Garcia, Juan-Jose; Díaz-Conradi, Alvaro; Ciruela, Pilar; Martínez-Osorio, Johanna; González-Peris, Sebastià; Hernández, Sergi; de Sevilla, Mariona Fernández; Uriona, Sonia; Izquierdo, Conchita; Selva, Laura; Campins, Magda; Codina, Gemma; Batalla, Joan; Esteva, Cristina; Domínguez, Àngela; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Vaccine failures occurring with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 3 pediatric hospitals in Barcelona (2012-2013) are described. PCV13 vaccine failure was defined as the occurrence of an invasive pneumococcal infection in children properly vaccinated by PCV13. Among 84 patients with invasive pneumococcal infection, 32 had received at least one dose of PCV13. Seventeen of them had invasive pneumococcal infection produced by a PCV13 serotype. Among those, 9 patients were considered to have a PCV13 vaccine failure. Serotype 3 was isolated in 6 patients, serotype 19A in 2 and serotype 6B in 1. PMID:26658626

  20. [Preventive vaccinations for medical personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Goedecke, Marcel; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2014-05-01

    Vaccinations are among the most efficient and important preventive medical procedures. Modern vaccines are well tolerated. In Germany there are no longer laws for mandatory vaccinations, either for the general public or for medical personnel. Vaccinations are now merely "officially recommended" by the top health authorities on the basis of recommendations from the Standing Committee on Vaccinations (STIKO) of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) according to § 20 para 3 of the Protection against Infection law (IfSG). The management of vaccine damage due to officially recommended vaccinations is guaranteed by the Federal States. Whereas vaccinations in childhood are generally considered to be a matter of course, the willingness to accept them decreases markedly with increasing age. In the medical sector vaccinations against, for example, hepatitis B are well accepted while other vaccinations against, for example, whooping cough or influenza are not considered to be so important. The fact that vaccinations, besides offering protection for the medical personnel, may also serve to protect the patients entrusted to medical care from nosocomial infections is often ignored.

  1. A defense of compulsory vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    Vaccine refusal harms and risks harming innocent bystanders. People are not entitled to harm innocents or to impose deadly risks on others, so in these cases there is nothing to be said for the right to refuse vaccination. Compulsory vaccination is therefore justified because non-vaccination can rightly be prohibited, just as other kinds of harmful and risky conduct are rightly prohibited. I develop an analogy to random gunfire to illustrate this point. Vaccine refusal, I argue, is morally similar to firing a weapon into the air and endangering innocent bystanders. By re-framing vaccine refusal as harmful and reckless conduct my aim is to shift the focus of the vaccine debate from non-vaccinators' religious and refusal rights to everyone else's rights against being infected with contagious illnesses. Religious freedom and rights of informed consent do not entitle non-vaccinators to harm innocent bystanders, and so coercive vaccination requirements are permissible for the sake of the potential victims of the anti-vaccine movement.

  2. Ensuring safety of DNA vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessels Stephen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1990 a new approach for vaccination was invented involving injection of plasmid DNA in vivo, which elicits an immune response to the encoded protein. DNA vaccination can overcome most disadvantages of conventional vaccine strategies and has potential for vaccines of the future. However, today 15 years on, a commercial product still has not reached the market. One possible explanation could be the technique's failure to induce an efficient immune response in humans, but safety may also be a fundamental issue. This review focuses on the safety of the genetic elements of DNA vaccines and on the safety of the microbial host for the production of plasmid DNA. We also propose candidates for the vaccine's genetic elements and for its microbial production host that can heighten the vaccine's safety and facilitate its entry to the market.

  3. Effect of the deletion of genes encoding proteins of the extracellular virion form of vaccinia virus on vaccine immunogenicity and protective effectiveness in the mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement A Meseda

    Full Text Available Antibodies to both infectious forms of vaccinia virus, the mature virion (MV and the enveloped virion (EV, as well as cell-mediated immune response appear to be important for protection against smallpox. EV virus particles, although more labile and less numerous than MV, are important for dissemination and spread of virus in infected hosts and thus important in virus pathogenesis. The importance of the EV A33 and B5 proteins for vaccine induced immunity and protection in a murine intranasal challenge model was evaluated by deletion of both the A33R and B5R genes in a vaccine-derived strain of vaccinia virus. Deletion of either A33R or B5R resulted in viruses with a small plaque phenotype and reduced virus yields, as reported previously, whereas deletion of both EV protein-encoding genes resulted in a virus that formed small infection foci that were detectable and quantifiable only by immunostaining and an even more dramatic decrease in total virus yield in cell culture. Deletion of B5R, either as a single gene knockout or in the double EV gene knockout virus, resulted in a loss of EV neutralizing activity, but all EV gene knockout viruses still induced a robust neutralizing activity against the vaccinia MV form of the virus. The effect of elimination of A33 and/or B5 on the protection afforded by vaccination was evaluated by intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of either vaccinia virus WR or IHD-J, a strain of vaccinia virus that produces relatively higher amounts of EV virus. The results from multiple experiments, using a range of vaccination doses and virus challenge doses, and using mortality, morbidity, and virus dissemination as endpoints, indicate that the absence of A33 and B5 have little effect on the ability of a vaccinia vaccine virus to provide protection against a lethal intranasal challenge in a mouse model.

  4. Nanotechnology and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Gyeong Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are clearly required due to concerns about the weak immunogenicity of these vaccines, intrinsic instability in vivo, toxicity, and the need for multiple administrations. To overcome such problems, nanotechnology platforms have recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanocarrier-based delivery systems offer an opportunity to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses. This advantage is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by phagocytic cells, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation. Modifying the surfaces of nanocarriers with a variety of targeting moieties permits the delivery of antigens to specific cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating specific and selective immune responses. In this review, we introduce recent advances in nanocarrier-based vaccine delivery systems, with a focus on the types of carriers, including liposomes, emulsions, polymer-based particles, and carbon-based nanomaterials. We describe the remaining challenges and possible breakthroughs, including the development of needle-free nanotechnologies and a fundamental understanding of the in vivo behavior and stability of the nanocarriers in nanotechnology-based delivery systems.

  5. Economics of vaccines revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J.; Standaert, Baudouin A.

    2013-01-01

    Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct

  6. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.

  7. Immunology of BVDV vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of vaccination to control bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections presents exceptional challenges due to the nature of the virus, the unique interaction of the virus with the immune system, and its ability to establish persistent infections. The lack of proof reading function during th...

  8. Sex and Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2008-01-01

    This case study is centered upon the recent debate concerning the decision by Texas Governor Rick Perry to mandate the compulsory vaccination of girls in the Texas public school system against the human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to entering the sixth grade. The interrupted case method is particularly appropriate for this subject with the case…

  9. Vaccines Help Protect Us

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the importance of vaccines and how they work.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  10. Dissecting Cancer Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Couzin; 丁东

    2004-01-01

    @@ If there's one thing cancer vaccine developers would like to know, it's why only a handful of patients respond strongly to their inventions. Now at an immunology② meeting here, a team of scientists reported that a set of patients with metastatic melanoma③ may be revealing an answer to that mysterious question.

  11. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida;

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  12. [Vaccination against hepatitis A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, F; Di Biase, A R; Viola, L

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatitis A, a disease endemic in various countries, is in a state of continuous change. Adults are more exposed to infection and considering the frequent absence of immunity, in contrast to children in whom the disease is almost always asymptomatic, the disease is often serious and prolonged with a mortality of up to 2.5%. The mode of transmission of HAV is predominantly the fecal-oral route; the virus is isolated during the prodromic period of the disease from the feces, blood, bile and seminal fluid. The virus can also be found in saliva (OMS '95); in addition it may also be transmitted by the maternal-fetal route. The HAV infects cells in vitro but does not cause a direct cytopathic effect. At the beginning of the acute phase of the disease the production of anti-HAV antibodies is of the IgM type followed later by IgG. Some studies have shown a potential role of cellular immunity in clearance of the virus from the hepatocytes and in the pathogenesis of the infection of HAV. The efficacy of immunoglobulin serum in the prevention of hepatitis A has been demonstrated since 1944. As regards active immunity two types of vaccinations have been prepared. One with live attenuated HAV carried by either bacteria or virus. The other, killed inactivated HAV, HAV capsule, antigenic subunit, synthetic peptides, anti-idiotypes or virosomes. The recent literature describe the vaccine produced by Merck Sharp & Dohme and by Smith Kline Beecham (SKB); both vaccines are made from HAV, grown in vitro, inactivated with formalin and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The protection of the vaccine begins 14 days after administration and lasts from one month to one year. Numerous studies have been conducted which have shown that the vaccine is effective when given in 2 doses and confers protection against HAV for at least one year. The results have shown that the vaccination causes seroconversion in approximately 100% of subjects, and does not cause serious side

  13. Does intention to recommend HPV vaccines impact HPV vaccination rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feemster, Kristen A; Middleton, Maria; Fiks, Alexander G; Winters, Sarah; Kinsman, Sara B; Kahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Despite recommendations for routine vaccination, HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females have remained low. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether clinician intention to recommend HPV vaccines predicts HPV vaccine series initiation among previously unvaccinated 11 to 18 year-old girls (N=18,083) who were seen by a pediatric clinician (N=105) from a large primary care network within 3 years of vaccine introduction. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, Cox Regression and standardized survival curves to measure the association between clinician intention and time to and rate of first HPV vaccine receipt among eligible females. All models adjusted for patient age, race/ethnicity, payor category, visit type, and practice location. Eighty-5 percent of eligible 11 to 12 year-old and 95% of 13 to 18 year-old girls were seen by a provider reporting high intention to recommend HPV vaccines. However, only 30% of the cohort initiated the HPV vaccine series and the mean number of days from first eligible visit to series initiation was 190 (95% C.I. 184.2, 195.4). After adjusting for covariates, high clinician intention was modestly associated with girls' likelihood of HPV vaccine series initiation (OR 1.36; 95 % C.I. 1.07, 1.71) and time to first HPV vaccination (HR 1.22; 95% 1.06, 1.40). Despite high intention to vaccinate among this cohort of pediatric clinicians, overall vaccination rates for adolescent girls remained low. These findings support ongoing efforts to develop effective strategies to translate clinician intention into timely HPV vaccine receipt.

  14. Brucellosis Vaccines: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanjani-Roushan Mohammad Reza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is considered as an important zoonotic and worldwide infection with more than half of million human cases, which it occurs more and more in animals like as wild and live stocks. Sheep, cattle, and goats are animal samples that listed. Symptoms of this disease in human are consisted of: undulant fever, back pains, faint, spondylitis, arthritis and orchitis. This infection causes abortion in livestock, and this point is one of the important economic losses. Reduction in milk production is another problem in this disease too. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted by reviewing of the literatures, which are related to this concern, and also visiting PubMed, ISI and other websites. Results: We must pay heed that most zoonoses are maintained in the animal reservoir. These diseases, such as leptospirosis, Q-fever, brucellosis etc. which among them brucellosis can transfer to human via close contact with infected animals or consumption of unpasteurized dairy. Therefore, eradication of this infection in human population is depended on omission of that in possible methods among animals reservoir. Such methods are like test-slaughter and vaccination of livestock. Hence, vaccination is not alone method for controlling, but it is probably economic one. Conclusion: Nowadays a vaccine which is effective for this disease control in human is not available. Of course presented some different vaccines for this infection in livestock that cleave live attenuated, killed bacteria and sub unit. Therefore, for eradication of this disease some vaccines with more effectiveness protection mid fewer side effects are necessary.

  15. A public-professional web-bridge for vaccines and vaccination: user concerns about vaccine safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Alvarez-Pasquín, María-José; Mena, Guillermo; Llupià, Anna; Aldea, Marta; Sequera, Victor-Guillermo; Sanz, Sergi; Tuells, Jose; Navarro-Alonso, José-Antonio; de Arísteguí, Javier; Bayas, José-María

    2012-05-28

    Vacunas.org (http://www.vacunas.org), a website founded by the Spanish Association of Vaccinology offers a personalized service called Ask the Expert, which answers any questions posed by the public or health professionals about vaccines and vaccination. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with questions on vaccination safety and determine the characteristics of questioners and the type of question asked during the period 2008-2010. A total of 1341 questions were finally included in the analysis. Of those, 30% were related to vaccine safety. Questions about pregnant women had 5.01 higher odds of asking about safety (95% CI 2.82-8.93) than people not belonging to any risk group. Older questioners (>50 years) were less likely to ask about vaccine safety compared to younger questioners (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.76). Questions made after vaccination or related to influenza (including H1N1) or travel vaccines were also associated with a higher likelihood of asking about vaccine safety. These results identify risk groups (pregnant women), population groups (older people) and some vaccines (travel and influenza vaccines, including H1N1) where greater efforts to provide improved, more-tailored vaccine information in general and on the Internet are required.

  16. 疑似预防接种异常反应对免疫规划项目的负面影响及应对策略%Suspected abnormal reaction to vaccination project a negative impact on immunization programs and Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茹建峰; 郑彩虹

    2015-01-01

    疫苗的接种和国家免疫规划有效的对人类进行保护,特别是对于儿童。儿童自身的免疫力底,免疫系统弱,易患天花、脊髓灰质炎、麻疹、百日咳等传染性疾病。在儿童群体中传播会带来严重的后果,甚至使儿童生命面临威胁。但是伴随预防接种过程发生的疑似预防接种异常反应(aefi)引起了公众对疫苗安全性关注。%ABSTRACT:Vaccination and national immunization programs and effective vaccine to protect humans, especially for children. the child’s own immune system at the end, the immune system is weak, susceptible to smallpox, polio, measles, whooping cough and other infectious diseases. Spread in groups of children will have serious consequences, and even the children’s lives at risk. But with preventive vaccination process occurs suspected abnormal reaction to vaccination (aefi) aroused public concern about vaccine safety.

  17. 42 CFR 70.9 - Vaccination clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaccination clinics. 70.9 Section 70.9 Public... INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.9 Vaccination clinics. (a) The Director may establish vaccination clinics, through contract or otherwise, authorized to administer vaccines and/or other prophylaxis. (b) A vaccination...

  18. Swine flu vaccination for patients with cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    In oncology, vaccination is accepted as an important preventive measure. As a tertiary prevention protocol, several vaccines are recommended for the oncology patients. The newest vaccine in medicine is swine flu vaccine which is developed for prevention of novel H1N1 influenza virus infection. In this paper, the author will briefly discuss on swine flu vaccination for oncology patients.

  19. Vaccine against human Papilloma Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Reina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At present two prophylactic human papilloma virus (HPV vaccines are commercially available. The Tetravalent vaccine against infection with four VPH types (6, 11, 16, and 18 distributed in the national program in Colombia and the Bivalent vaccine against the VPH types 16 and 18, respectively.  The efficacy and safety of both vaccines has periodically been assessed and they have been declared efficacious and safe by the health authorities of several countries and the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety ( GACVS of the World’s Health Organization (WHO.In its report of March 2014 the GACVS analyzed the evidence of the relationship between the  Human Papillomavirus Vaccine with  >175 million of doses distributed worldwide and autoimmune diseases, particularly Multiple Sclerosis, Aluminum as adjuvant, Vasculitis caused by vaccine DNA fragments and the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome described in Japan.   The Committee ratified the strict vaccine safety control and based on a thorough examination of existing evidence, reaffirmed that the risk-benefit profile remains favorable. The case of the children of Carmen de Bolivar in Colombia has been described by several authors in other countries as "Massive Psychogenic Event", which has absolute no relationship with the vaccine but its high media dissemination resulted into disastrous consequences for the national vaccination program

  20. Advances in flavivirus vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Beth-Ann G; Clements, David E; Martyak, Timothy; Yelmene, Michele; Thorne, Mike; Parks, D Elliot

    2010-12-01

    Flaviviruses comprise a diverse family of viruses that are cumulatively responsible for hundreds of millions of cases of infection annually. The Flavivirus genus includes both insect-vectored viruses, such as yellow fever and dengue, and non-vectored viruses such as HCV; the viruses have a broad range of disease presentation and geographic distribution. No specific antiviral therapies are currently available for the diseases caused by insect-vectored flaviviruses. Thus, efforts have been focused on the prevention of disease, through either vaccination or vector control, rather than on the treatment of infected individuals. While vector control can occasionally be successful in controlling the spread of flavivirus outbreaks, vaccines appear to be a more cost-effective, sustainable, and environmentally friendly approach. A review of vaccines for the medically important flaviviruses presents the full spectrum of vaccine options and complexity levels, and provides examples of successes and major challenges. The insect-borne flavivirus vaccine field is dynamic, with new and improved vaccines being advanced to replace existing vaccines, and novel vaccine approaches being developed for those targets that currently lack an approved vaccine. Advances in scientific knowledge and in the application of new technologies are helping to overcome some of the key challenges that have stymied the field for decades. New, safe and effective vaccines to protect against yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile and dengue viruses will likely result. PMID:21154147

  1. Parasite vaccines--a reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J P; Mulcahy, G

    2001-07-12

    Over the last decade, the anti-parasitics market has been the fastest growing sector of the overall $18 billion animal health market. While drugs for the treatment of parasites of livestock still dominate this sector and will continue to be developed or re-formulated, because of consumer demands for chemical-free food and of concerns regarding the environment and animal welfare there is a growing interest in the development of safe and effective vaccines. There is also a call for vaccines in the lucrative $3 billion-plus companion animal market. These demands for vaccines will add a greater impetus to an area that has seen tremendous success in the last 15 years. A number of anti-parasite vaccines have been developed, e.g. the recombinant 45w and EG95 oncosphere proteins against Taenia ovis and Echinococcus granulosis, respectively, and the Bm86 vaccine against Boophilus microplus. In addition, the cathepsin L vaccines against the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, and the H11 vaccine against Haemonchus contortus are progressing well. There are also many additional vaccine candidates for H. contortus and for other nematodes such as Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus spp. that may ultimately lead to broad-spectrum gastrointestinal worm vaccines. Live or attenuated-live vaccines are available for the control of avian coccidiosis, toxplasmosis in sheep and anaplasmosis in cattle, although molecular vaccines against protozoans are still proving elusive. The wealth of information in genomics, proteomics and immunology that has been forthcoming together will new methods of vaccine production and delivery should see many new vaccines reach the marketplace in the near future. PMID:11516584

  2. Vaccinia Virus LC16m8∆ as a Vaccine Vector for Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Kidokoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The LC16m8 strain of vaccinia virus, the active ingredient in the Japanese smallpox vaccine, was derived from the Lister/Elstree strain. LC16m8 is replication-competent and has been administered to over 100,000 infants and 3,000 adults with no serious adverse reactions. Despite this outstanding safety profile, the occurrence of spontaneously-generated large plaque-forming virulent LC16m8 revertants following passage in cell culture is a major drawback. We identified the gene responsible for the reversion and deleted the gene (B5R from LC16m8 to derive LC16m8Δ. LC16m8∆ is non-pathogenic in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice, genetically-stable and does not reverse to a large-plaque phenotype upon passage in cell culture, even under conditions in which most LC16m8 populations are replaced by revertants. Moreover, LC16m8∆ is >500-fold more effective than the non-replicating vaccinia virus (VV, Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA, at inducing murine immune responses against pathogenic VV. LC16m8∆, which expresses the SIV gag gene, also induced anti-Gag CD8+ T-cells more efficiently than MVA and another non-replicating VV, Dairen I minute-pock variants (DIs. Moreover, LC16m8∆ expressing HIV-1 Env in combination with a Sendai virus vector induced the production of anti-Env antibodies and CD8+ T-cells. Thus, the safety and efficacy of LC16m8∆ mean that it represents an outstanding platform for the development of human vaccine vectors.

  3. Undesired consequences of vaccination and faults in vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanov Jasna; Došen Radoslav; Lalić Milan; Gagrčin Mladen; Orlić Dušan B.

    2002-01-01

    Different diseases in domestic animals require the application of different methods of immunological protection, depending on the type of vaccine manner of application and type of adjuvant. The objective of the work was to consider general principles and the basic requirements for efficient vaccination. It points out existing faults in practice which lead to the occurrence of mistakes made during vaccination and the appearance of resulting undesired consequences. There are many reasons why va...

  4. Distempter Vaccination of Dogs: Factors Which Could Cause Vaccine Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Povey, R. Charles

    1986-01-01

    Distemper vaccination failures are uncommon. A number of factors which could cause such failure are discussed. The blocking effect of maternal antibody can be expected in 50% of pups at six weeks but is not important after 12 weeks. Among intercurrent infections, the immunosuppressive effect of parvovirus has the potential to precipitate vaccine-induced distemper. Corticosteroids at levels up to 10 mg/kg do not interfere with successful distemper vaccination. Anesthesia or surgery has little ...

  5. Vaccination Against Tuberculosis With Whole-Cell Mycobacterial Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Thomas J; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Henri Lambert, Paul; Sanicas, Melvin; Martin, Carlos; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Live attenuated and killed whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) offer promising vaccination strategies against tuberculosis. A number of WCV candidates, based on recombinant bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or related mycobacterial species are in various stages of preclinical or clinical development. In this review, we discuss the vaccine candidates and key factors shaping the development pathway for live and killed WCVs and provide an update on progress. PMID:27247343

  6. Tetravalent DNA vaccine product as a vaccine candidate against dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kevin R; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Raviprakash, Kanakatte

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is the most important arbovirus worldwide and is the virus that causes dengue fever and the more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever. There are four serotypes of dengue with each possessing the ability to cause disease. Developing a preventive vaccine is the most efficient and effective way to prevent these diseases, and because immunity to one serotype does not protect against the other serotypes, a vaccine must provide tetravalent protection. We used DNA immunization as a platform to develop a tetravalent vaccine. In this chapter, we describe the laboratory, regulatory, and clinical methodology for evaluating a candidate tetravalent vaccine in a Phase 1 clinical trial. PMID:24715294

  7. [Protein subunit vaccines: example of vaccination against hepatitis B virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degos, F

    1995-06-15

    Hepatitis B vaccine has been used for over 10 years. It is efficient and safe. Protection of risk groups against hepatitis B virus infection is now achieved and vaccination of newborns and adolescents is a main public health problem. Bad responders are well characterized and immunomodulatory interventions (cytokines) must be tested in these patients. Response to hepatitis B vaccine is genetically determined and the possibility of vaccine induced escape mutants should lead to careful epidemiological studies of the spread of hepatitis B virus infection.

  8. A game dynamic model for vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers: measles as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha; Grefenstette, John J; Albert, Steven M; Cakouros, Brigid E; Burke, Donald S

    2012-02-21

    Widespread avoidance of Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccination (MMR), with a consequent increase in the incidence of major measles outbreaks, demonstrates that the effectiveness of vaccination programs can be thwarted by the public misperceptions of vaccine risk. By coupling game theory and epidemic models, we examine vaccination choice among populations stratified into two behavioral groups: vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers. The two behavioral groups are assumed to be heterogeneous with respect to their perceptions of vaccine and infection risks. We demonstrate that the pursuit of self-interest among vaccine skeptics often leads to vaccination levels that are suboptimal for a population, even if complete coverage is achieved among vaccine believers. The demand for measles vaccine across populations driven by individual self-interest was found to be more sensitive to the proportion of vaccine skeptics than to the extent to which vaccine skeptics misperceive the risk of vaccine. Furthermore, as the number of vaccine skeptics increases, the probability of infection among vaccine skeptics increases initially, but it decreases once the vaccine skeptics begin receiving the vaccination, if both behavioral groups are vaccinated according to individual self-interest. Our results show that the discrepancy between the coverages of measles vaccine that are driven by self-interest and those driven by population interest becomes larger when the cost of vaccination increases. This research illustrates the importance of public education on vaccine safety and infection risk in order to maintain vaccination levels that are sufficient to maintain herd immunity.

  9. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay

    2007-01-01

    ), no intervention, or alternative Japanese encephalitis vaccine. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Authors independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Dichotomous data were compared with relative risks and a 95% confidence interval (CI), and converted into percentage vaccine efficacy. MAIN RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact...... on acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1...

  10. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production......Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested...... in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...

  11. MMR Vaccination and Febrile Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Hviid, Anders; Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard;

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of febrile seizures increases following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination but it is unknown whether the rate varies according to personal or family history of seizures, perinatal factors, or socioeconomic status. Furthermore, little is known about the long-term outcome...... of febrile seizures following vaccination. OBJECTIVES: To estimate incidence rate ratios (RRs) and risk differences of febrile seizures following MMR vaccination within subgroups of children and to evaluate the clinical outcome of febrile seizures following vaccination. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS......: Incidence of first febrile seizure, recurrent febrile seizures, and subsequent epilepsy. RESULTS: A total of 439,251 children (82%) received MMR vaccination and 17,986 children developed febrile seizures at least once; 973 of these febrile seizures occurred within 2 weeks of MMR vaccination. The RR...

  12. Statistical physics of vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhen; Bhattacharyya, Samit; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero; Perc, Matjaz; Perra, Nicola; Salathé, Marcel; Zhao, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Historically, infectious diseases caused considerable damage to human societies, and they continue to do so today. To help reduce their impact, mathematical models of disease transmission have been studied to help understand disease dynamics and inform prevention strategies. Vaccination - one of the most important preventive measures of modern times - is of great interest both theoretically and empirically. And in contrast to traditional approaches, recent research increasingly explores the pivotal implications of individual behavior and heterogeneous contact patterns in populations. Our report reviews the developmental arc of theoretical epidemiology with emphasis on vaccination, as it led from classical models assuming homogeneously mixing (mean-field) populations and ignoring human behavior, to recent models that account for behavioral feedback and/or population spatial/social structure. Many of the methods used originated in statistical physics, such as lattice and network models, and their associated ana...

  13. Meningococcal Vaccines: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines: What You Need to Know (VIS) Page Content ... to help protect against serogroup B . Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines There are two kinds of meningococcal vaccines licensed ...

  14. Vaccines: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines: What You Need to Know Past Issues / ... b), and Varicella (protects against chicken pox). The vaccination charts that follow offer a simple overview of ...

  15. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  16. Vaccine prophylaxis: achievements, problems, perspectives of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavrutenkov V.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents medical and social aspects of immune prophylaxis of infectious diseases; the history of vaccines and vaccination is presented, as well as perspectives of development of vaccine prophylaxis.

  17. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Siettou; Maria Saridi

    2012-01-01

    In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1), pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in ...

  18. Considerations in vaccine patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazell, Lorna

    2010-12-01

    This feature article discusses the basic principles of patentability as related to vaccine research, and outlines recent cases in the US and EU in which vaccine patents have been considered. Issues regarding eligibility for supplementary protection, as currently being considered by the Court of Justice of the EU, are also outlined, as well as the implications of such issues in protecting future vaccine research. PMID:21154148

  19. Effective Vaccine for Lassa Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher-Hoch, S P; Hutwagner, L.; Brown, B.; McCormick, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Lassa fever has been estimated to cause 5,000 deaths annually in West Africa. Recently, war in the zone where Lassa fever is hyperendemic has severely impeded control and treatment. Vaccination is the most viable control measure. There is no correlation between antibody levels and outcome in human patients, and inactivated vaccines produce high titers of antibodies to all viral proteins but do not prevent virus replication and death in nonhuman primates. Accordingly, we vaccinated 44 macaques...

  20. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, u...

  1. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not provide protection against the...

  2. [Herd immunity and effectiveness of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Andrzej; Stefanoff, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of vaccinations is discussed in relation to vaccine efficacy and effectiveness of vaccination programs. The types of epidemiological studies used in the assessment of vaccine effectiveness are presented, and most common sources of bias in such studies are listed. Basic formulas for calculation of vaccine effectiveness are given as applied for cohort and case-control studies. The definitions and ways of estimation of indicators of herd immunity as applied to the analysis of the effectiveness of vaccinations are presented.

  3. Understanding vaccines: a public imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating. PMID:25506276

  4. Current controversies in childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Marquez, Maria; White, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    As pediatric practitioners, one of the contemporary challenges in providing medical care for children is the increasing proportion of vaccination refusal. This occurs in spite of the demonstrated individual and collective benefit and cost effectiveness of vaccination. Controversies regarding vaccine components and side effects have misled parents to believe that vaccines might be harmful based on inaccurate data from the Internet, celebrities, as well as misinterpreted and frankly bad science. This belief of vaccines being harmful has led to fear and decreased immunization rates in spite of sound scientific evidence supporting the safety of vaccines and their lack of association with autism, developmental disabilities or other medical disorders. Some parents also believe in alternative ways to avoid disease, often adhering to practices that have little foundation in the best of empiric science. It is not a coincidence that recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, including measles and pertussis (whooping cough), have occurred in areas where vaccination has declined largely due to exemptors. This article intends to review some of the common vaccine myths and controversies and to serve as a resource to provide accurate information and references for busy practitioners and the families that we serve.

  5. The March Toward Malaria Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen L.; Vekemans, Johan; Richie, Thomas L.; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 there were an estimated 584,000 deaths and 198 million clinical illnesses due to malaria, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccines would be the ideal addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-malaria tools. However, malaria is caused by parasites, and parasites are much more complex in terms of their biology than the viruses and bacteria for which we have vaccines, passing through multiple stages of development in the human host, each stage expressing hundreds of unique antigens. This complexity makes it more difficult to develop a vaccine for parasites than for viruses and bacteria, since an immune response targeting one stage may not offer protection against a later stage, because different antigens are the targets of protective immunity at different stages. Furthermore, depending on the life cycle stage and whether the parasite is extra- or intra-cellular, antibody and/or cellular immune responses provide protection. It is thus not surprising that there is no vaccine on the market for prevention of malaria, or any human parasitic infection. In fact, no vaccine for any disease with this breadth of targets and immune responses exists. In this limited review, we focus on four approaches to malaria vaccines, (1) a recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccine aimed at Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle (RTS,S/AS01), (2) whole sporozoite vaccines aimed at Pf pre-erythrocytic stages (PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac), (3) prime boost vaccines that include recombinant DNA, viruses and bacteria, and protein with adjuvant aimed primarily at Pf pre-erythrocytic, but also asexual erythrocytic stages, and (4) recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccines aimed at Pf and Plasmodium vivax sexual erythrocytic and mosquito stages. We recognize that we are not covering all approaches to malaria vaccine development, or most of the critically important work on development of vaccines against P. vivax, the second most important cause of

  6. [Assessment of BCG vaccine practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechiche, C; Charpille, M; Saissi, G; Sotto, A

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem. In France, the vaccine against tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, BCG) is in decline. This decline is firstly due to changes in BGG administration that were implemented in 2006 and secondly because of new recommandations in 2007 that ended compulsory vaccination. To determine their position on this vaccine, in 2013-2014 we asked general practitioners, pediatricians, and Maternal and Infantile Protection Center physicians in the Gard and Herault departments (in Southern France) why this vaccine was not administered and their suggestions for improvement. Most of these doctors (73.9%) stated that they did not oppose this vaccination for children. They expressed concern about potential side effects, technical problems (intradermic injection, multi-dose bottles) and parents' refusal. One quarter of these physicians would have preferred that this vaccine remains compulsory and one third that this vaccine be administered in the maternity hospital. They also requested simplified criteria for patient eligibility, technical improvements (training for intradermal injection, single-dose vaccine) and more information for the public concerning this vaccination.

  7. The march toward malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen L; Vekemans, Johan; Richie, Thomas L; Duffy, Patrick E

    2015-11-27

    In 2013 there were an estimated 584,000 deaths and 198 million clinical illnesses due to malaria, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccines would be the ideal addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-malaria tools. However, malaria is caused by parasites, and parasites are much more complex in terms of their biology than the viruses and bacteria for which we have vaccines, passing through multiple stages of development in the human host, each stage expressing hundreds of unique antigens. This complexity makes it more difficult to develop a vaccine for parasites than for viruses and bacteria, since an immune response targeting one stage may not offer protection against a later stage, because different antigens are the targets of protective immunity at different stages. Furthermore, depending on the life cycle stage and whether the parasite is extra- or intra-cellular, antibody and/or cellular immune responses provide protection. It is thus not surprising that there is no vaccine on the market for prevention of malaria, or any human parasitic infection. In fact, no vaccine for any disease with this breadth of targets and immune responses exists. In this limited review, we focus on four approaches to malaria vaccines, (1) a recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccine aimed at Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle (RTS,S/AS01), (2) whole sporozoite vaccines aimed at Pf pre-erythrocytic stages (PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac), (3) prime boost vaccines that include recombinant DNA, viruses and bacteria, and protein with adjuvant aimed primarily at Pf pre-erythrocytic, but also asexual erythrocytic stages, and (4) recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccines aimed at Pf and Plasmodium vivax sexual erythrocytic and mosquito stages. We recognize that we are not covering all approaches to malaria vaccine development, or most of the critically important work on development of vaccines against P. vivax, the second most important cause of

  8. Understanding vaccines: a public imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating.

  9. [Results of Booster Vaccination in Children with Primary Vaccine Failure after Initial Varicella Vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozakiv, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in children who did not show seroconversion after initial vaccination (i.e., primary vaccine failure : PVF) over a 7-year period prior to the introduction of routine varicella vaccination. Between November 2007 and May 2014, 273 healthy children aged between 1.1 and 14.5 years (median : 1.7 years) underwent varicella vaccination. Before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination, the antibody titers were measured using an immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) assay and a glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). In addition, side reactions were examined during the four-week period after vaccination. Children who did not show IAHA seroconversion (PVF) were recommended to receive a booster vaccination, and the measurement of antibody titers and an assessment of side reactions were performed after the booster dose. In May 2015, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the 273 participants to investigate whether they had developed varicella and/or herpes zoster after vaccination. After initial vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 75% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 4.7, while the gpELISA seroconversion rate was 84% and the mean antibody titer (Log10) with seroconversion was 2.4. Among children with PVF, 54 received booster vaccination within 81 to 714 days (median : 139 days) after the initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 98% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 5.8. Both the seroconversion rate and the antibody titer were higher compared with the values after the initial vaccination (p < 0.01). After booster vaccination, the gpELISA seropositive rate was 100% and the mean positive antibody titer (Log 10) was 3.6 ; similar results were obtained for the IAHA assay, with

  10. A vacinação no conteúdo de livros escolares Evaluation of school-books content on the subject of vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Menezes Succi

    2005-04-01

    information whatsoever on vaccination. Regarding content, of the 33 books that did have information on vaccines, 19 (57.5% had incorrect information: errors on the definition of vaccines, errors on the vaccination calendar, absence of content updating, omission of the content and inadequate illustration. Among the errors are: mention of inexistent vaccines (dengue or in disuse (smallpox, the fallacy that vaccine is a remedy, vaccine indication only for children and association of vaccines with pain and discomfort. Moreover, regarding content, 26 books (78.7% cited concept/definition of vaccines, 29/33 (87.8% associated vaccine with prevention of disease, 10/33 (30.3% cited a basic calendar of vaccination and only 7/33 (21.2% informed on vaccination in other age brackets other than the pediatric one. CONCLUSION: In spite of the importance of vaccination and notwithstanding the guidelines of MEC (Brazilian Education Ministry, more than half of the books analyzed had some misconception or wrong information on the subject.

  11. Influenza Vaccinations, Fall 2009: Model School-Located Vaccination Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herl Jenlink, Carolyn; Kuehnert, Paul; Mazyck, Donna

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus presented a major challenge to health departments, schools, and other community partners to effectively vaccinate large numbers of Americans, primarily children. The use of school-located vaccination (SLV) programs to address this challenge led health departments and schools to become creative in developing models for…

  12. HPV vaccination series completion and co-vaccination: Pairing vaccines may matter for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; McKim Mitchell, Emma; Camacho, Fabian

    2015-10-26

    Very little is known about the effect of concurrent co-vaccination on HPV series completion. This study utilized a retrospective review of a Clinical Data Repository to assess whether concurrent vaccination had an impact on HPV vaccination series completion, and whether there were differences based on age. 3371 patients who received the HPV vaccine at a single academic medical center between the years 2009-2013 were included in this analysis. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for effect of concurrent vaccination on series completion for the age group 9-18 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.09, 1.60). Although not statistically significant, the aOR for effect of concurrent vaccination on completion changed direction for the 19-25 age group and was 0.44 (95% CI 0.17, 1.12). This study provides preliminary evidence that pairing the HPV vaccine with one or more co-vaccines may yield a higher HPV vaccination completion rate among adolescents age 9-18.

  13. Studies using multiple vaccinated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serological responses in vaccinated and multiple vaccinated cattle against non-structural proteins (NSP) of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus were measured using four commercially available assays. Vaccines were concentrated using polyethylene glycol to contain higher antigenic payloads that those routinely used. Animals received up to five doses of polyvalent oil vaccines over six months, administered by the intra-muscular route on d 0, 90, 130, 160 and 200. Serum samples were taken 30-40 d after each vaccination. At 60 d post vaccination the antibody response to each of the vaccine strains showed high levels of antibodies against structural proteins that correlated with protection against challenge above 81%. The detection of antibodies against NSP was made with two ELISAs using expressed 3ABC as antigen; one ELISA using peptides from 3B and an enzyme-immunotransfer blot assay (EITB). Locally produced ELISA-3ABC reagents and agar gel immunodiffusion using VIAA, were also evaluated. After four doses of vaccine, animals were negative in all the assays. After the fifth immunization, two of seventeen animals were reactive in one ELISA kit, but these samples proved negative by confirmatory tests. Antibodies against NSP were not detected in primo-vaccinated cattle used for potency tests using three batches of standard vaccine. The principle of the NSP ELISA as screening test for large sero surveys in South America is established and this paper emphasises the importance using vaccines that have no demonstrated interference with NSP ELISAs and the advantages of reducing the number of false-positives that would require further confirmation by other assays. (author)

  14. Vaccines for leishmaniasis: from proteome to vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Juliane; Aebischer, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania spp. cause a wide spectrum of tropical diseases which are threatening an estimated 350 million people around the globe. While in most cases non-fatal, the disease is associated with high morbidity, social stigmata and poverty. However, the most severe form visceral leishmaniasis can be fatal if left untreated. Chemotherapeutics are available but show high toxicity, costs and are prone to resistance development due to prolonged treatment periods. Healing is associated with a life-long resistance to re-infection and this argues for the feasibility of vaccination. However, despite much effort, no such vaccine has become available yet. Here, the status of vaccine development in this field is briefly summarized before the focus is set on the promise of reverse vaccinology for anti-Leishmania vaccine development in the post-genomic era. We report on our own experience with this approach using an instructive example of successful candidate vaccine antigen identification.

  15. Improved ERM vaccination efficacy using combined vaccine administration methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt; Desmukh, Sidhartha; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar;

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that immersion vaccination (30 sec) using the Aquavac Relera vaccine (containing formalin killed Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 of both biotypes 1 and 2) provides the best protection (when compared to other commercial ERM vaccines on the Danish market) against infection...... following i. p. challenge using Y. ruckeri O1, biotype 2, which at present is the main bacterial pathogen in fingerling trout production in Denmark. Despite a significant protection conferred by this vaccine (immersion) some mortality could be observed following challenge. We have therefore performed...... a study in order to elucidate if different vaccine administration methods (using Aquavac Relera) can improve protection and reduce mortality of exposed trout following challenge with this particular pathogen. Rainbow trout (mean weight 7.8 g) reared at the Bornholm Salmon Hatchery under pathogen free...

  16. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  17. HPV virus and youth vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifanti Ε.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is considered the major cause of cervical cancer. Its primary prevention is nowadays possible with the vaccination against HPV. Aim: It was to investigate the vaccination level of the children of Greek and Immigrants, aged 12-18 years old, regarding the vaccination against HPV. Results: None of the boys and the children of immigrants had ever been vaccinated against HPV. 5.3% of the Junior High School and High School females were fully vaccinated against the virus. Material and method: The sample of the study consisted of Greek and immigrants High Schools and Junior High Schools’ pupils aged 12-18 years old. Children’s personal Health Cards were used to evaluate the adequacy of vaccine doses. χ2 was used for comparisons. Statistics was processed with SPSS 17.0. Conclusion: The vaccination coverage of adolescents against HPV is at very low levels. There is an emergency of organizing the appropriate vaccination programs, especially in Greek provincial areas.

  18. Adult Vaccination--A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, vaccines have been associated with childhood. Historically, many of the most-feared communicable diseases attacked infants and toddlers, and those who survived were generally protected from those diseases as adults. During the past century tremendous advances in vaccination spared millions the morbidity and mortality associated with…

  19. Vaccine strategies against schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capron

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, the second major parasitic disease in the world after malaria affects at least 200 million people, 500 million being exposed to the risk of infection. It is widely agreed that a vaccine strategy wich could lead to the induction of effector mechanisms reducing the level of reinfection and ideally parasite fecundity would deeply affect the incidence of pathological manifestations as well as the parasite transmission potentialities. Extensive studies performed in the rat model have allowed the identification of novel effector mechanisms involving IgE antibodies and various inflammatory cell populations (eosinophils, macrophages and platelets whereas regulation of immune response by blocking antibodies has been evidencial. Recent epidemiological studies have now entirely confirmed in human populations the the role of IgE antibodies in the acquisition of resistance and the association of IgG4 blocking antibodies with increased susceptibility. On the basis of these concepts, several schistosome glutathion S-transferase (Sm 28 GST appears as a pronising vaccine candidate. Immunization experiments have shown that two complementary goals can be achieved: (a a partial but significant reduction of the worm population (up to 60//in rats; (b a significant reduction of parasite fecundity (up in the mice and 85//in cattle and egg viability (up to 80//. At least two distinct immunological mechanisms account for these two effects. IgE antibodies appear as a major humoral component of acquired resistance whereas IgA antibodies appear as a major humoral factor affecting parasite fecundity. These studies seem to represent a parasite diseases through the identification of potentially protective antigens and of the components of the immune response which vaccination should aim at inducing.

  20. Adolescent Attitudes toward Influenza Vaccination and Vaccine Uptake in a School-Based Influenza Vaccination Intervention: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…

  1. A New Decade of Vaccines

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2011-09-01

    The call for a new decade of vaccines was made in December 2010. The aims are to secure the further discovery, development and delivery of vaccination. The first challenge is the acquisition of funds for the research and development of 20 new vaccines1. The Gates Foundation has pledged $10 billion for this venture. The other major players are WHO, UNICEF and the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The top priorities are TB, AIDS and Malaria. It is hoped that a Malaria vaccine will available in 3 years. The ambitious target of saving the lives of over 7 million children has been set. The programme must also address the need for vaccines in insulin dependent diabetes, cancers and degenerative diseases2.

  2. ERM immersion vaccination and adjuvants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, J.; Chettri, J. K.; Jaafar, R. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Two candidate adjuvants were tested with a commercial ERM dip vaccine (AquaVac™ Relera, MSD Animal Health) for rainbow trout in an experimental design compatible with common vaccination practices at farm level, i.e. immersion of fish in vaccine (±adjuvant) for 30 s. The adjuvants were...... the commercial product Montanide™ IMS 1312 VG PR (SEPPIC), and a soluble and ≥98% pure β-glucan from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (Sigma-Aldrich). Hence, five experimental groups in duplicate were established and exposed to vaccine and adjuvants in the following combinations: AquaVac™ Relera (alone); Aqua......Vac™ Relera + Montanide™; AquaVac™ Relera + β-glucan; Montanide™ (alone); and β-glucan (alone). Approximately 450 degree days post-vaccination, the fish were bath-challenged with live Yersinia ruckeri to produce survival curves. Blood, skin and gills were sampled at selected time points during the course...

  3. HPV Vaccine PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  4. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Bayu Mahendra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer in womer, and it has the highest cancer-related deaths in developing country. The incidences kept increasing every year, associated with  delay on diagnosis, limited human resources, knowledge, education, facilities, and influence of socioeconomicculture. Currently, infection of oncogenic group high risk human papillomavirus (HPV, especially HPV-16 and HPV-18 has been widely accepted as the cause of cervical cancer. The finding of  HPV vaccine brings new hope to all of us. With primary prevention, the incidence can be brought down. Later on, every women can be freed from in cervical cancer

  5. Points for Consideration for dengue vaccine introduction - recommendations by the Dengue Vaccine Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jacqueline Kyungah; Lee, Yong-Seok; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Thiry, Georges; Mahoney, Richard; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Dengue is a public health problem in the tropics and subtropics. There are several vaccine candidates in clinical development. However, there may be gaps in the new vaccine introduction after vaccine licensure before it becomes available in developing countries. In anticipation of the first dengue vaccine candidate to be licensed, Dengue Vaccine Initiative (DVI) and, its predecessor, Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI) have been working on points for consideration to accelerate evidence-based dengue vaccine introduction, once a vaccine becomes available. In this paper, we review the history of PDVI and its successor, the DVI, and elaborate on the points of consideration for dengue vaccine introduction. PMID:26651238

  6. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Ashley J

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent progress in reducing deaths attributable to malaria, it continues to claim approximately 500,000 lives per year and is associated with approximately 200 million infections. New tools, including safe and effective vaccines, are needed to ensure that the gains of the last 15 years are leveraged toward achieving the ultimate goal of malaria parasite eradication. In 2015, the European Medicines Agency announced the adoption of a positive opinion for the malaria vaccine candidate most advanced in development, RTS,S/AS01, which provides modest protection against clinical malaria; in early 2016, WHO recommended large-scale pilot implementations of RTS,S in settings of moderate-to-high malaria transmission. In alignment with these advancements, the community goals and preferred product characteristics for next-generation vaccines have been updated to inform the development of vaccines that are highly efficacious in preventing clinical malaria, and those needed to accelerate parasite elimination. Next-generation vaccines, targeting all stages of the parasite lifecycle, are in early-stage development with the most advanced in Phase 2 trials. Importantly, progress is being made in the definition of feasible regulatory pathways to accelerate timelines, including for vaccines designed to interrupt transmission of parasites from humans to mosquitoes. The continued absence of financially lucrative, high-income markets to drive investment in malaria vaccine development points to continued heavy reliance on public and philanthropic funding. PMID:26993333

  7. Vaccines and vaccination strategies against human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2009-05-01

    One might think that the development of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis would be relatively straightforward because the type of immune response required for protection is known and natural immunity occurs following recovery from primary infection. However, there is as yet no effective vaccine against the disease in humans. Although vaccination in murine studies has yielded promising results, these vaccines have failed miserably when tested in primates or humans. The reasons behind these failures are unknown and remain a major hurdle for vaccine design and development against cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, recovery from natural, deliberate or experimental infections results in development of long-lasting immunity to re-infection. This so called infection-induced resistance is the strongest anti-Leishmania immunity known. Here, we briefly review the different approaches to vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis and argue that vaccines composed of genetically modified (attenuated) parasites, which induce immunity akin to infection-induced resistance, may provide best protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.

  8. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses

    OpenAIRE

    Wobeser, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  9. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found. PMID:25829553

  10. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  11. Meningococcal Education: More than Just a Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzi, Lana

    2004-01-01

    The administration of meningitis vaccinations to the college population has recently been the topic of much discussion. Much of the controversy has surrounded the promotion of widespread vaccinations or educational campaigns about the vaccine for incoming freshman students. Recommendations about the use of meningococcal vaccines for college…

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil-9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is HPV vaccine?Gardasil-9 is one of three FDA-approved HPV vaccines. It is recommended for both males and females. ... Who should not get HPV vaccine or should wait?Anyone who has had a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction to a dose of HPV vaccine should ...

  13. Dental caries vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.

  14. Adjuvants for allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moingeon, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is currently performed via either the subcutaneous or sublingual routes as a treatment for type I (IgE dependent) allergies. Aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate are broadly used as adjuvants for subcutaneous allergy vaccines, whereas commercial sublingual vaccines rely upon high doses of aqueous allergen extracts in the absence of any immunopotentiator. Adjuvants to be included in the future in products for allergen specific immunotherapy should ideally enhance Th1 and CD4+ regulatory T cell responses. Imunomodulators impacting dendritic or T cell functions to induce IL10, IL12 and IFNγ production are being investigated in preclinical allergy models. Such candidate adjuvants encompass synthetic or biological immunopotentiators such as glucocorticoids, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, selected probiotic strains (e.g., Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species) as well as TLR2 (Pam3CSK4), TLR4 (monophosphoryl lipid A, synthetic lipid A analogs) or TLR9 (CpGs) ligands. Furthermore, the use of vector systems such as mucoadhesive particules, virus-like particles or liposomes are being considered to enhance allergen uptake by tolerogenic antigen presenting cells present in mucosal tissues.

  15. Rethinking vaccine policy making in an era of vaccine hesitancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K

    2013-01-01

    Recently in this journal, David Ropeik argued for imposing additional burdens upon individuals who refused vaccines for themselves or for their children. Specifically, Ropeik advocated for policies that would decrease the ease of claiming vaccine exemptions and restricting unvaccinated children participation in social activities. We argue that, in order to derive the optimal societal benefit from modern vaccinology in an era of vaccine hesitancy, we need to consider doing more than conventional remodeling of current policies. We may need to fundamentally redesign and rebuild. PMID:24084386

  16. Advances in vaccine stability monitoring technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Stephen E

    2006-08-14

    Electronic time-temperature indicator (eTTI) monitors can be programmed to exactly follow the stability characteristics of vaccines with a high degree of realism. The monitors have a visual output, enabling vaccine status to be assessed at a glance, and can also output more detailed statistical data. When packaged with vaccine vials in groups of about 10 vials per box, the eTTI can remain with a vaccine throughout most of the vaccine's lifetime. The monitors can detect essentially all cold-chain breaks, and can detect issues, such as inadvertent freezing, that are presently not detected by other vaccine stability monitors such as Vaccine Vial Monitors (VVM). PMID:16759766

  17. Timeliness vaccination of measles containing vaccine and barriers to vaccination among migrant children in East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reported coverage rates of first and second doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV are almost 95% in China, while measles cases are constantly being reported. This study evaluated the vaccine coverage, timeliness, and barriers to immunization of MCV1 and MCV2 in children aged from 8-48 months. METHODS: We assessed 718 children aged 8-48 months, of which 499 children aged 18-48 months in September 2011. Face to face interviews were administered with children's mothers to estimate MCV1 and MCV2 coverage rate, its timeliness and barriers to vaccine uptake. RESULTS: The coverage rates were 76.9% for MCV1 and 44.7% for MCV2 in average. Only 47.5% of surveyed children received the MCV1 timely, which postpone vaccination by up to one month beyond the stipulated age of 8 months. Even if coverage thus improves with time, postponed vaccination adds to the pool of unprotected children in the population. Being unaware of the necessity for vaccination and its schedule, misunderstanding of side-effect of vaccine, and child being sick during the recommended vaccination period were significant preventive factors for both MCV1 and MCV2 vaccination. Having multiple children, mother's education level, household income and children with working mothers were significantly associated with delayed or missing MCV1 immunization. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid future outbreaks, it is crucial to attain high coverage levels by timely vaccination, thus, accurate information should be delivered and a systematic approach should be targeted to high-risk groups.

  18. Self-replicating alphavirus RNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Karl; Liljeström, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Recombinant nucleic acids are considered as promising next-generation vaccines. These vaccines express the native antigen upon delivery into tissue, thus mimicking live attenuated vaccines without having the risk of reversion to pathogenicity. They also stimulate the innate immune system, thus potentiating responses. Nucleic acid vaccines are easy to produce at reasonable cost and are stable. During the past years, focus has been on the use of plasmid DNA for vaccination. Now mRNA and replicon vaccines have come into focus as promising technology platforms for vaccine development. This review discusses self-replicating RNA vaccines developed from alphavirus expression vectors. These replicon vaccines can be delivered as RNA, DNA or as recombinant virus particles. All three platforms have been pre-clinically evaluated as vaccines against a number of infectious diseases and cancer. Results have been very encouraging and propelled the first human clinical trials, the results of which have been promising.

  19. [Vaccination by the pharmacist: practical guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freney, J

    2012-11-01

    It appears to be entirely appropriate for pharmacists to administer vaccinations if restricted to a limited number of vaccines and a well-defined set of recipients. Recommended types of vaccines would be inert vaccines with no contraindications, including flu vaccines, booster shots for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and polio, and HPV vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer. Recipients targeted for these types of vaccinations would only be adults and adolescents. In addition, pharmacist-administered vaccinations would not be recommended for pregnant women, people with immunodeficiencies, chronic diseases, or cystic fibrosis, people under treatment (anticoagulants) or with known allergies, and haemophiliacs. They would not be recommended either when needed in the context of employment and for traveling abroad. Training is essential to manage the successful implementation of a pharmacist-administered vaccination program (maintaining cold storage, monitoring, space allocation, vaccination administration process, preventive measures, quick recognition and management of anaphylactic chock…). PMID:23177558

  20. 从人痘法到牛痘法--中国为全世界消灭天花所做的贡献%From Manpox getting to Smallpox Vaccination giving--China's Contribution to the Elinmination of Smallpox in the world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙关龙

    2002-01-01

    人类对机体免疫功能的认识最早是从抗感染免疫功能开始的.中国古代的传统医家很早就发现养牛者很少感染天花,而后又观察到人患天花病后的免疫现象,于16世纪(明代)发明应用天花浆预防天花的方法,在世界上开创了免疫接种的先例,也是世界上人工免疫法的开端.后来,英国医生E.詹纳在人痘法基础上进而发明牛痘法,从而于1980年在全世界消灭了天花.

  1. Anaesthesia and recently vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, J H; Roberton, D M

    1996-01-01

    Most countries have active vaccination programmes for children aged two months and older. It is likely that many children presenting for medical procedures which require general anaesthesia have been vaccinated recently. Although there is no evidence suggesting increased risks associated with anaesthetizing recently vaccinated children there are many theoretical reasons why this situation needs critical assessment and review. After vaccination there is local swelling and pain at the site of the injection and the most common side effects seen are fever, malaise, headache, rash and myalgia which may last from one day to three weeks. Anaesthesia, stress and trauma are known to suppress the immune system. It is suggested that if possible, children should not be subjected to anaesthesia for elective procedures within two to three weeks after vaccination. Urgent procedures should be managed according to anaesthetic principles which will minimize the effect of anaesthesia on the physiological system affected by the immunization process at the time. Paediatric anaesthesia risk management programmes should include vaccination data to enable the risks of anaesthesia in recently vaccinated children to be analysed.

  2. Peptide Vaccine: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidang Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vaccine strategies have been highly efficacious for several decades in reducing mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases. The bane of conventional vaccines, such as those that include whole organisms or large proteins, appear to be the inclusion of unnecessary antigenic load that, not only contributes little to the protective immune response, but complicates the situation by inducing allergenic and/or reactogenic responses. Peptide vaccines are an attractive alternative strategy that relies on usage of short peptide fragments to engineer the induction of highly targeted immune responses, consequently avoiding allergenic and/or reactogenic sequences. Conversely, peptide vaccines used in isolation are often weakly immunogenic and require particulate carriers for delivery and adjuvanting. In this article, we discuss the specific advantages and considerations in targeted induction of immune responses by peptide vaccines and progresses in the development of such vaccines against various diseases. Additionally, we also discuss the development of particulate carrier strategies and the inherent challenges with regard to safety when combining such technologies with peptide vaccines.

  3. Recent update in HIV vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, So Youn

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous efforts to develop a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine, the quest for a safe and effective HIV vaccine seems to be remarkably long and winding. Disappointing results from previous clinical trials of VaxGen's AIDSVAXgp120 vaccine and MRKAd5 HIV-1 Gag/Pol/Nef vaccine emphasize that understanding the correlates of immune protection in HIV infection is the key to solve the puzzle. The modest vaccine efficacy from RV144 trial and the successive results ob...

  4. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay. PMID:24732060

  5. Rotavirus vaccination: a concise review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, T

    2012-10-01

    Live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines were tested for proof-of-concept in the early 1980s, the first vaccine (RotaShield, Wyeth) was introduced in 1998 but was subsequently withdrawn because of association with intussusception, and the two currently licensed vaccine (Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline, and RotaTeq, Merck) were introduced in 2006. Before licensure both vaccines were extensively tested for safety (for intussusception) and efficacy in trials comprising in over 60,000 infants each. Rotarix is a single-strain human rotavirus vaccine (RV1) and RotaTeq is a combination of five bovine-human reassortant rotaviruses (RV5). Although the composition of the two vaccines is different, their field effectiveness and, largely, mechanism of action are similar. Both prevent effectively severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) but are less efficacious against mild RVGE or rotavirus infection. Field effectiveness of these vaccines in Europe and the USA against severe RVGE has been above 90% and in Latin America around 80%. Trials in Africa have yielded efficacy rates between 50 and 80%. Rotavirus vaccination has been introduced into the national immunization programmes of about 20 countries in Latin America, with Brazil and Mexico as leading countries, as well as in the USA, Australia and South Africa. Introduction into other African countries will start in 2012. In Europe, Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria and Finland and five federal states of Germany have introduced universal rotavirus vaccination. The reasons for the slow progress in Europe include low mortality from RVGE, unfavourable cost-benefit calculations in some countries, and concerns that still exist over intussusception.

  6. Introducing dengue vaccine: Implications for diagnosis in dengue vaccinated subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagarasu, Kalichamy

    2016-05-27

    Diagnosis of dengue virus infections is complicated by preference for different diagnostic tests in different post onset days of illness and the presence of multiple serotypes leading to secondary and tertiary infections. The sensitivity of the most commonly employed diagnostic assays such as anti dengue IgM capture (MAC) ELISA and non structural protein (NS) 1 capture ELISA are lower in secondary and subsequent infections. Introduction of dengue vaccine in endemic regions will affect the way how dengue is diagnosed in vaccinated subjects. This viewpoint article discusses implications of introduction of dengue vaccine on the diagnosis of dengue infections in vaccinated subjects and the strategies that are needed to tackle the issue. PMID:27142330

  7. Interactions of conjugate vaccines and co-administered vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlow, H; Borrow, R

    2016-01-01

    Conjugate vaccines play an important role in the prevention of infectious diseases such as those caused by the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) type b (Hib), Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccines developed against these 3 pathogens utilize 3 main carrier proteins, non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), diphtheria toxoid (DT) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Current pediatric immunisation schedules include the administration of several vaccines simultaneously, therefore increasing the potential for immune interference (both positively and negatively) to the antigens administered. Knowledge of vaccine interactions is principally derived from clinical trials, these are reviewed here to explore immune interference which may result of from carrier-specific T-cell helper interactions, bystander interference and carrier induced epitopic suppression. PMID:26619353

  8. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections.

  9. Novel Vaccine against Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Combines Advantages of DNA Immunization and a Live Attenuated Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Tretyakova, Irina; Lukashevich, Igor S; Glass, Pamela; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott; Pushko, Peter

    2012-01-01

    DNA vaccines combine remarkable genetic and chemical stability with proven safety and efficacy in animal models, while remaining less immunogenic in humans. In contrast, live-attenuated vaccines have the advantage of inducing rapid, robust, long-term immunity after a single-dose vaccination. Here we describe novel iDNA vaccine technology that is based on an infectious DNA platform and combines advantages of DNA and live attenuated vaccines. We applied this technology for vaccination against i...

  10. Is a low dose of hepatitis B vaccine enough for a rapid vaccination scheme?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Xiang Wang; Jan van Hattum; Gijsbert C. de Gast; Greet Boland; Ying Guo; Shao-Ping Lei; Chang-Hong Yang; Juan Chen; Jie Tian; Jin-Ying Wen; Ke-Hong Du

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether or not a low dose of HB vaccine can be effectively used in the rapid vaccination.METHODS: Rapid vaccination (0, 1, 2 months) with low dose (5 μg) or routine dose (10 μg) HB vaccine was studied in 250 subjects (130 school children and 120 university students). Serum from all the participants was tested for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc at 1, 3 and 7 months after the first dose of vaccination and all subjects were serum HBV marks negative before the vaccination. Non-responders to a complete initial vaccination from university students were given an additional vaccination with 10 μg of HB vaccine and their serum anti-HBs was tested again one month later.RESULTS: One month after the third dose of vaccination (third month) sero-conversion rates and geometric mean titer (GMTs) were significantly (P<0.01) higher in the routine dose (resp. 89 % and 106.8) than in the low dose group (resp. 72 % and 59.5). Sero-conversion rates and GMTs were maintained stable for another 4 months in both groups.After an additional vaccination to non-responders with 10 μg HB vaccine, 17/23 subjects (13/15 from those vaccinated with 5 μg vaccine and 4/8 from those vaccinated with 10 μg vaccine) became anti-HBs positive, yielding similar seroconversion rates for both dose groups.CONCLUSION: Higher sero-conversion rates and GMTs were reached in those vaccinated with 10 μg HB vaccine than in those vaccinated with 5 μg HB vaccine after a comp~te vaccination with a 0, 1, 2 month scheme. But the subjects vaccinated with 5 μg vaccine can also reach the similar sero-conversion rate after an additional vaccination.

  11. THE AUSTRIAN VACCINATION PARADOX: TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VACCINATION VERSUS INFLUENZA VACCINATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Ursula; Kunze, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a paradoxical situation in Austria. The vaccination rate against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the general population is 82%, which is the highest worldwide, whereas the vaccination rate against influenza is about 8% and is among the lowest worldwide. A high awareness of TBE among the Austrian population achieved by an annual social marketing programme and the wide use of effective and well-tolerated vaccines have led to a successful containment of that disease. The vaccination coverage increased from 6% in 1980 to 82% in 2013 and exceeds 90% in some high-risk areas. This has led to a steady decline in the number of TBE cases from several hundred cases to 50 to 100 cases per year. The situation in regard to influenza vaccination is the opposite. Although Austria has issued one of the most extensive recommendations for influenza vaccination worldwide, the vaccination rate of the general population is extremely low. The possible reasons for the failure in the implementation of recommendations are ignorance, lack of social marketing and the predominance of a distinct discordance within the health system in general, and the Austrian medical fraternity in particular. PMID:26615654

  12. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Portia M; Beaumier, Coreen M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-01

    A number of leishmaniasis vaccine candidates are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of a sand fly. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala-azar) is a high mortality NTD found mostly in South Asia and East Africa, while cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a disfiguring NTD highly endemic in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and the Americas. Estimates attribute 50,000 annual deaths and 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years to leishmaniasis. There are only a few approved drug treatments, no prophylactic drug and no vaccine. Ideally, an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis will elicit long-lasting immunity and protect broadly against VL and CL. Vaccines such as Leish-F1, F2 and F3, developed at IDRI and designed based on selected Leishmania antigen epitopes, have been in clinical trials. Other groups, including the Sabin Vaccine Institute in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health are investigating recombinant Leishmania antigens in combination with selected sand fly salivary gland antigens in order to augment host immunity. To date, both VL and CL vaccines have been shown to be cost-effective in economic modeling studies. PMID:26973063

  13. Mucin-Based Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan P.; MacMillan, Derek

    Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated cell surface and secreted glycoproteins . In addition to orchestrating cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions in healthy organisms mucins are also the major carriers of altered glycosylation in carcinomas. Tumor-associated antigens displayed by cancer cells comprise oligosaccharide and glycopeptide motifs not encountered in the same locale or at the same frequency in healthy cells, and potentially confer a selective advantage to the tumor. Frequently tumor-associated antigens are under-glycosylated and prematurely sialylated, and it is these relatively simple saccharide and glycopeptide structures that have been targeted to serve as drug candidates in most cases. A major goal is to assemble glycopeptide vaccine candidates based on partial mucin sequences and displaying tumor-associated antigens that can mount a potent immunological tumor-specific response when, in reality, the tumor has already coerced the immune system into a state of co-existence.

  14. Vaccines against Leishmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Silva, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniosis, a parasitic disease of worldwide distribution and endemic in many regions, poses a challenge to epidemiological control due, on the one hand, to the increased toxicity of chemotherapy and resistance to it and, on the other, to the fact that vector control has become extremely difficult because the insect is widespread and has adapted to many different microenvironments. Hence, the high priority given to develop prophylactic measures to prevent this disease, that are cost-effective because the affected population lives mostly in countries with weak economies. The subject of this review was to update what is being done in vaccination strategies against Leishmania. We summarize the information in order to guide health professionals in the adequate control of this important worldwide endemic disease.

  15. Immunogenicity of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: comparison of two different vaccination schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Agladioglu, S.; Beyazova, U.; Camurdan, A. D.; Sahin, F.; Atak, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Neonatal immunization with hepatitis B (HB) vaccine induces protective levels of antibody (anti-HBs ≥10 IU/L) in a majority of vaccines. However, the duration of protection after HB vaccination in infants is unknown. A smaller proportion of children vaccinated beginning at birth with three doses of HB vaccine were found to have protective titers 5–10 years after initial vaccination. Long-term efficacy of HB vaccine depends mainly on peak antibody levels after vaccination, and subje...

  16. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF UPDATING THE INFLUENZA VACCINE ON THE EFFICACY OF REPEATED VACCINATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. SMITH; A. LAPEDES; ET AL

    2000-11-01

    The accumulated wisdom is to update the vaccine strain to the expected epidemic strain only when there is at least a 4-fold difference [measured by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay] between the current vaccine strain and the expected epidemic strain. In this study we investigate the effect, on repeat vaccines, of updating the vaccine when there is a less than 4-fold difference. Methods: Using a computer model of the immune response to repeated vaccination, we simulated updating the vaccine on a 2-fold difference and compared this to not updating the vaccine, in each case predicting the vaccine efficacy in first-time and repeat vaccines for a variety of possible epidemic strains. Results: Updating the vaccine strain on a 2-fold difference resulted in increased vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccines compared to leaving the vaccine unchanged. Conclusions: These results suggest that updating the vaccine strain on a 2-fold difference between the existing vaccine strain and the expected epidemic strain will increase vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccines compared to leaving the vaccine unchanged.

  17. Vaccine Therapy for Unresectable Chordoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase II clinical trial, adult patients with inoperable chordoma who are scheduled to undergo radiation therapy will be randomly assigned to receive a yeast-based vaccine that targets a protein called brachyury or a placebo injection.

  18. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Innes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

  19. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  20. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979