WorldWideScience

Sample records for academically at-risk children

  1. Precursors of Language Ability and Academic Performance: An Intergenerational, Longitudinal Study of At-Risk Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Lisa; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    The current investigation examined whether inter-generational transfer of risk could be revealed through mothers' and preschool-aged children's expressive language, and whether continuity of risk persisted in these children's academic abilities, 3 years later. Participating families were drawn from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project, a…

  2. Joint Contributions of Peer Acceptance and Peer Academic Reputation to Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Mediating Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.; Liew, Jeffrey; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2010-01-01

    The longitudinal relationships between two dimensions of peer relationships and subsequent academic adjustment were investigated in a sample of 543 relatively low achieving children (M = 6.57 years at Year 1, 1st grade). Latent variable SEM was used to test a four stage model positing indirect effects of peer acceptance and peer academic…

  3. Philippines: street children, children at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantoco, F G

    1993-01-01

    Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro

  4. Early identification of children at-risk for academic difficulties, using standardized assessment: stability and predictive validity of preschool math and language scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans, Niek; Post, Wendy J.; Huisman, Mark; Oenema-Mostert, Ineke C.E.; Keegstra, Anne L.; Minnaert, Alexander E.M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the claim by several researchers that variability in performance may complicate the identification of “at-risk” children, variability in the academic performance of young children remains an undervalued area of research. The goal of this study is to examine the predictive validity for future

  5. The Professor at Risk: Alcohol Abuse in Academe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoreson, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    The academic environment, trends in higher education, and issues in adult development create an ideal environment for alcohol misuse. A typology for the professors at risk, the impact of alcohol misuse upon their performance, and means of dealing with the problem are proposed. (Author/MLW)

  6. Parent-delivered compensatory education for children at risk of educational failure: Improving the academic and self-regulatory skills of a Sure Start preschool sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Ruth M; McDougall, Sine J P; Evans, Daphne

    2009-11-01

    Thirty preschoolers from low-income families participated in a 12-month intervention programme, funded by Sure Start, which engaged them in scaffolded educational activities delivered at home by their mothers. Immediately following the programme, the intervention group outperformed matched controls in tests of academic knowledge, receptive vocabulary, and inhibitory control, but not short-term memory or theory of mind. Teachers' ratings of children's capabilities upon school entry favoured the intervention group, especially in terms of listening, responding, writing, mathematics, and personal/social skills. Superior inhibitory control, short-term memory, and numerical skills were associated with higher ratings whereas theory of mind made a unique, negative contribution to responding. We discuss the implications of these findings for efforts to nurture the development of cognitive self-regulation and school readiness during early childhood.

  7. Teachers' Beliefs about the Impact of Games on the Academic and Social Experiences of Diverse and At-Risk Children in Schools: A Deleuzian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Leonie

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores teachers' beliefs about the ways in which the use of digital games in schooling contexts impacted upon students who they believed to be in some way at risk of educational or social alienation or failure. Drawing upon the theoretical resources provided by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, the paper explores opportunities…

  8. A Portrait of At-Risk Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Tipper

    1991-01-01

    Social and economic problems facing U.S. children are reviewed, including poverty, hunger and homelessness, gaps in health and mental health services, infant mortality/morbidity, child abuse, drug use, and violence depicted in the mass media. Risk-taking behaviors that are children's responses and suggestions to remedy these problems are…

  9. Associations among Name Writing and Alphabetic Skills in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Children At Risk of School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.; Baroody, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Associations among children's writing and alphabetic skills were examined in a sample of 502 prekindergarten children who were at risk of academic failure because they came from poor families, spoke a language other than English at home, or had an identified disability. In this sample of children at risk of school failure, 16% had an identified…

  10. [Identifying children at risk for cardiorespiratory arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Alvarez, A; Martínez Gutiérrez, A; Salvat Germán, F

    2004-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory arrest in children with severe disease does not usually present suddenly or unexpectedly but is often the result of a progressive deterioration of respiratory and/or circulatory function. Before failure of these functions occurs, there is a series of clinical signs that serve as a warning. Health professionals should not only evaluate clinical signs of respiratory and/or circulatory insufficiency but should also be able to identify these warning signs as early as possible, preferably in the compensation phase, given that the possibility that this process can be reversed by therapeutic measures decreases as the process progresses.

  11. Immunization and children at risk for autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Wendy; Harford, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Possible connections between immunization and developmental disorders, most notably autistic disorders, have been the subject of a great deal of debate and have caused much concern for parents who want to make the safest choices for their children. Anxiety has risen steadily since the mid-1990s, when a medical investigative team led by A Wakefield postulated that the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine may be a causative factor in the development of autism spectrum disorder. Since this initial publication, immunization remains controversial for some parents and the uptake of the MMR vaccine has fallen in some countries, despite much discussion regarding the safety of MMR, a lack of evidence for an association between MMR and autism, and the risks of insufficient protection against wild measles virus infection. The Canadian uptake of MMR in 1998 was 95%, but data do not exist to document any change in Canada since that time. Many clinicians are concerned that the uptake in younger siblings of children with autism is considerably lower. Further anxiety for parents has been caused by the suggested association between developmental disorders and mercury toxicity due to thimerosal, which is used as a preservative in some vaccines. Many Canadian parents, while continuing to seek chelation therapy in response to this suggestion, are not aware that, in Canada, thimerosal has never been added to MMR, and has not been present in diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-poliomyelitis or pentavalent vaccines since 1992. It is found in only Hepatitis B vaccine in some provinces. The present article is intended to be a guide for physicians as they counsel parents. PMID:20046442

  12. Strengthening At-Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Debra; Vaulton, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Initiative, funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, aims to improve the housing, health, and development of homeless and at-risk young families. This article describes the services provided in four program sites (Pomona, CA; Antelope Valley, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and Chicago, IL)…

  13. Academic Responding during Instruction and Reading Outcomes for Kindergarten Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic responding of students at-risk for reading difficulties in beginning reading instruction. Opportunities for kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties to respond academically during teacher-facilitated reading instruction in the general education classroom were examined in…

  14. African American Children at Risk of Increasingly Conflicted Teacher-Student Relationships in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found that different trajectories of conflicted relationships with teachers predicted academic underachievement. However, little is known about what places children at risk of atypical conflict trajectories. This follow-up study examines whether African American ethnicity, IQ, and socioeconomic status (SES) are unique…

  15. Freshman Engineering Students At-Risk of Non-Matriculation: Self-Efficacy for Academic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Bowen, Bradley D.; Williams, Thomas O.

    2016-01-01

    Students identified as at-risk of non-academic continuation have a propensity toward lower academic self-efficacy than their peers (Lent, 2005). Within engineering, self-efficacy and confidence are major markers of university continuation and success (Lourens, 2014 Raelin, et al., 2014). This study explored academic learning self-efficacy specific…

  16. Modeling Success: Using Preenrollment Data to Identify Academically At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.; Compton, Jonathan; Wohlgemuth, Darin; Forbes, Greg; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Improving student success and degree completion is one of the core principles of strategic enrollment management. To address this principle, institutional data were used to develop a statistical model to identify academically at-risk students. The model employs multiple linear regression techniques to predict students at risk of earning below a…

  17. Is severity of motor coordination difficulties related to co-morbidity in children at risk for developmental coordination disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Marina M.; Lingam, Raghu; Jongmans, Marian J.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Emond, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether 7-9 year old children with severe motor difficulties are more at risk of additional difficulties in activities in daily living, academic skills, attention and social skills than children with moderate motor difficulties. Children (N = 6959) from a

  18. Academic Responding During Instruction and Reading Outcomes for Kindergarten Students At-risk for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic responding of students at-risk for reading difficulties in beginning reading instruction. Opportunities for kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties to respond academically during teacher-facilitated reading instruction in the general education classroom were examined in relation to student reading achievement as well as social behaviors. Student academic responding during teacher-facilitated instruction significantly predicted end of year reading achievement. Teacher perceptions of students’ social skills (positive correlation) and problem behaviors (negative correlation) were significantly correlated with academic responding. When academic responding and teacher perceptions of social behaviors were examined together, only teacher perceptions of academic competence and problem behaviors predicted spring outcomes. PMID:24665162

  19. African American Children At-Risk of Increasingly Conflicted Teacher-Student Relationships in Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    Spilt, Jantine; Hughes, Jan N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies found different trajectories of conflicted relationships with teachers predictive of academic underachievement. However, little is known about what places children at risk for atypical conflict trajectories. This follow-up study examines whether African American ethnicity, IQ, and SES are unique predictors of teacher-student conflict trajectories taking into account sociobehavioral predictors, including aggression and prosocial behavior. The study included the same ethnically...

  20. Academic Support Programs Utilized for Nursing Students at Risk of Academic Failure: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Julie C; All, Anita

    The purpose of the literature review is to evaluate and discuss the various types of academic support programs used for at-risk nursing students to identify those that are most effective. Nurse educators are concerned about students admitted to nursing programs who are unable to successfully complete the program. To determine the format and efficacy of academic support programs, the literature review addressed the identification of at-risk students and academic support programs applicable to all student groups. Nurse educators need to develop and implement plans to support and retain students in order to address the impending nursing shortage. Replacing a student lost to academic failure is difficult. Although utilized in different manners, academic support programs are an effective retention strategy.

  1. Growth in Working Memory and Mathematical Problem Solving in Children at Risk and Not at Risk for Serious Math Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee; Jerman, Olga; Zheng, Xinhua

    2008-01-01

    The influence of cognitive growth in working memory (WM) on mathematical problem solution accuracy was examined in elementary school children (N = 353) at risk and not at risk for serious math problem solving difficulties. A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, and cognitive processing (WM, inhibition,…

  2. Engaging children at-risk through World Vision Australia’s Kids Hope Aus. Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Larmar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a pilot study examining teacher perceptions of the efficacy of the Kids Hope Aus. program. Kids Hope Aus. is an early intervention and prevention program for children at risk of social and academic disengagement. The program emphasises the significance of developing a child’s social skills to build resilience and enhance the child’s social engagement and general academic achievement within the school setting. The intervention incorporates an adult/child-mentoring framework that serves to ameliorate the effects of specific risk factors that place children at greater risk of vulnerability. The evaluation involved 188 teachers drawn from rural and metropolitan districts in the State of Victoria, Australia, of children who participated in the Kids Hope Aus. program. The findings of the study provide preliminary data that identifies the Kids Hope Aus. program as a cogent intervention framework for fostering greater social inclusion and academic enhancement for young children that can be easily disseminated in regular school communities.  Keywords:  mentoring, at-risk children, Kids Hope Aus., early intervention and prevention.

  3. The Short-Term Effect of Grade Retention on Peer Relations and Academic Performance of At-Risk First Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Katie A.; Kwok, Oi-man; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    Using latent variable structural equation modeling, we tested a theoretical model positing that grade retention has a positive effect on children’s teacher- and peer-rated academic competencies and on sociometric measures of peer acceptance. We also expected that the positive effect of grade retention on peer acceptance would be mediated by children’s ability to meet academic challenges in their classrooms. Participants were 350 (52.6% male) ethnically diverse and academically at-risk first graders attending 1 of 3 school districts in Texas. An individually administered test of academic achievement, teacher-report and peer-report measures of academic competence, and peer-report measures of peer acceptance were collected on children in first grade and 1 year later, at which time 63 children were repeating first grade and 287 were in second grade. The hypothesized model provided a good fit to the data. Children’s academic competencies, as perceived by peers and teachers, fully mediated the effect of retention on subsequent peer acceptance. PMID:20431696

  4. Intrinsic Motivating Factors for Academic Success of Young At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Tanyia Perry

    2012-01-01

    Motivation as a factor in academic success is well documented in the literature and an important construct in educational planning. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore motivating factors for at-risk students who successfully graduated from high school. The framework for this study was based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs…

  5. [Pneumococcal vaccination coverage in at-risk children in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roser; Armadans, Lluís; Martínez, Xavier; Moraga, Fernando; Campins, Magda

    2015-11-01

    The public health system in Catalonia only funds pneumococcal vaccination in paediatrics for children at-risk. The aim of this study was to determine pneumococcal vaccination coverage and its association with age, sociodemographic factors and other variables. Descriptive cross-sectional study of children aged between 2 months and 15 years old assigned to primary care centres in Catalonia and with diseases that are included for pneumococcal vaccine in the official vaccination program. The information on vaccination status and study variables were obtained from data registered in the electronic medical records in the primary care centres. An analysis was made of the association between pneumococcal vaccination and demographic and medical variables using bivariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR), with a confidence interval of 95%, was used to measure the relationships. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage was 47.7%. Variables which predicted pneumococcal vaccination were: age (aOR: 9.2 [7.9-10.7] in children 2 months-2 years old; aOR 8.1 [7.0-9.3] in children 3-5 years; aOR: 4.6 [4.0-5.2] in children 6-10 years), Spanish nationality (aOR: 3.9 [3.5-4.3]), correct immunisation according to systematic immunisation schedule (aOR: 2.5 [2.1-3.0]), and number of risk conditions (aOR: 3.2 [2.5-4.1] in children with 2 or more conditions). Pneumococcal vaccination coverage in children with risk conditions is low in Catalonia. Strategies need to be implemented to increase coverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Mentoring At-risk Youth: Improving Academic Achievement in Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie C. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research supports the implementation of mentoring programs as potentially successful approaches to meeting the needs of at-risk students. This study examined a mentoring program entitled: LISTEN (Linking Individual Students To Educational Needs. The LISTEN mentoring program was a district-sponsored, school-based program in which at-risk, middle school students were identified by the school system and mentors were recruited specifically to assist these students with school performance or related issues. Mentors, in this study, were classroom teachers, school counselors, administrators, custodians, librarians, teaching assistants, retired teachers, and cafeteria employees. Archival data from the 2003–04 and 2004–05 academic years were analyzed. A statistically significant difference was found for all three of the study’s criterion variables (GPAs, discipline referrals, and attendance records between those measured in the 2003–04 academic year (pre-intervention and those measured in the 2004–05 academic year (post-intervention. Forty-nine of the fifty-four LISTEN participants experienced academic achievement gains in all three areas of the study.

  7. Intervention strategies in the academic and career development of at-risk undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccocioppo, Anna-Lisa

    This study had two primary purposes: (a) to learn more about the experiences and perceptions of students in science-related fields that have been placed on academic probation or academic warning, and (b) to learn about the impact of a course-based combined cognitive and career intervention on students' grade point averages, learning and study skills, and career decision-making self-efficacy. Participants (N=21) were second- to fourth-year students in a science-related faculty who were currently on academic probation (i.e., successfully appealed their 'required to withdraw' status due to unsatisfactory standing) or academic warning (those with marginal academic standing) and completed an intervention course. A matched-peer group of students from the previous academic year when the course was not available comprised the control group. Quantitative data collection included pre-, post-, and follow-up measures of participants' grade point averages (GPAs), scores on the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI), and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE). Qualitative data collection included semi-structured interviews with a subset of the participants (N=13) as well as a pre-course questionnaire and the qualitative course evaluation. A repeated-measures ANCOVA showed no difference between the at-risk students who took the intervention course and the matched control group. Friedman results demonstrated significant increases in many subscales of the LASSI, the CDMSE, as well as the overall measure of career decision-making self-efficacy. In the qualitative findings, participants described various academic and non-academic factors that contributed to their at-risk academic standing and the majority described their experience in the course-based intervention as positive and helpful in improving their situation. The findings from this unique combined intervention approach provided a greater understanding of the experience of this often overlooked group

  8. Generic learning skills in academically-at-risk medical students: a development programme bridges the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Vanessa C; Sikakana, Cynthia N T; Gunston, Geney D; Shamley, Delva R; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    Widening access to medical students from diverse educational backgrounds is a global educational mandate. The impact, on students' generic learning skills profiles, of development programmes designed for students at risk of attrition is unknown. This study investigated the impact of a 12-month Intervention Programme (IP) on the generic learning skills profile of academically-at-risk students who, after failing at the end of the first semester, completed the IP before entering the second semester of a conventional medical training programme. This prospective study surveyed medical students admitted in 2009 and 2010, on entry and on completion of first year, on their reported practice and confidence in information handling, managing own learning, technical and numeracy, computer, organisational and presentation skills. Of 414 first year students, 80 (19%) entered the IP. Levels of practice and confidence for five of the six skills categories were significantly poorer at entry for IP students compared to conventional stream students. In four categories these differences were no longer statistically significant after students had completed the IP; 62 IP students (77.5%) progressed to second year. A 12-month development programme, the IP, effectively addressed generic learning skills deficiencies present in academically-at-risk students entering medical school.

  9. Enhancing Academic Instruction for Adolescent English Language Learners with or at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haager, Diane; Osipova, Anna V.

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of children worldwide attend schools where the language of instruction does not match their native language, presenting significant challenges with learning the content and vocabulary of academic content areas (e.g., social studies, science). In the U.S., these students are designated as English language learners…

  10. Word Stress Production in Three-Year-Old Children at Risk of Dyslexia

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    de Bree, Elise; Wijnen, Frank; Zonneveld, Wim

    2006-01-01

    We investigated Dutch word stress acquisition in 3-year-old children at risk of dyslexia (children with at least one parent or older sibling with reading difficulties) and normally developing children, in order to shed light on language acquisition delays in children at risk of dyslexia, as well as to investigate further phonological deficits in…

  11. The differences of movement between children at risk of developmental coordination disorder and those not at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Agricola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD is a syndrome unexplained by medical condition, which is marked by defects in the development of motor coordination. Children with this impairment are more dependent on visual information to perform movements than their typically developing (TD peers. Objective: The main aim of the research was to create a checklist for the evaluation of the head and limb movement while walking. After that, based on this tool, to find differences in the movement of various body segments in children at risk of DCD (DCDr compared to typically developing children under different visual conditions. Methods: A total of 32 children aged 8.7 ± 1.1 years participated in this study. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2nd edition (MABC-2 was used to make a classification of motor competence level of the participants. PLATO goggles were used to make four different visual conditions. All trials were recorded. Based on the video analysis we completed a qualitative checklist. Results: The analysis between the children from the DCDr group and TD children showed significant differences in the head (p = .023 and the arm (p = .005 movements, in body position (p = .002 and total summary score (p = .001. The main effects of visual conditions showed significant differences in all cases; in the head (p = .015, with the arm (p = .006, trunk (p =  .009, leg (p = .001 movements, in body position (p = .001 and also in the total summary score (p = .001. The interaction between groups and visual conditions was significant in leg movements (p = .007 and body position (p = .002. Conclusions: This study has shown which movements of body segments are most affected by different visual conditions and how children at risk of DCD are dependent on visual perception.

  12. School Mental Health Early Interventions and Academic Outcomes for At-Risk High School Students: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Aidyn L.; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Ball, Annahita; Gibson, Jennifer E.; Lize, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The current educational policy context in the United States necessitates that school-based programs prioritize students' academic outcomes. This review examined the quantitative research on school mental health (SMH) early interventions and academic outcomes for at-risk high school students. Seven articles met the inclusion criteria for this…

  13. Improving the Oral Health of At-Risk Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilouto, Eli

    1991-01-01

    It is apparent that some children in the United States have not benefited from the improved oral health care available. These children tend to be poor and members of racial and ethnic minority groups. Policy recommendations are made to increase both self-care and access to dental care. (SLD)

  14. A Literature Review of Afterschool Mentoring Programs for Children at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara; Yarbrough, Anna-Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Afterschool programs such as tutoring and school-based or community-based programs have effectively functioned as prevention and intervention programs for children at risk. This literature review focuses on afterschool mentoring programs for children at risk. The purpose of reviewing the literature was to (a) determine the breadth and scope of the…

  15. Identifying Learning Patterns of Children at Risk for Specific Reading Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Baptiste; Krivulskaya, Suzanna; Hein, Sascha; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    Differences in learning patterns of vocabulary acquisition in children at risk (+SRD) and not at risk (-SRD) for Specific Reading Disability (SRD) were examined using a microdevelopmental paradigm applied to the multi-trial Foreign Language Learning Task (FLLT; Baddeley et al., 1995). The FLLT was administered to 905 children from rural…

  16. Kids at risk: children's employment in hazardous occupations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah S. DeGraff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the literature on child labor in Brazil is large, it is not comprehensive: in particular, there are few studies on children's work in risky occupations, and those that exist tend to be qualitative and based on limited samples. In this paper, we aim to paint a broader picture of children's engagement in risky labor force work, based on quantitative evidence from PNAD data. We document associations between parental characteristics and children's work, using both descriptive statistics and multivariate modeling to understand the determinants of child participation in risky labor force work. Brazilian children engaged in risky occupations are less likely than other employed children to be enrolled in school, and more likely to work long hours and experience a variety of working conditions that may be unsafe. Parental education, indicators of household wealth and owning a family farm are particularly strongly associated with the incidence of risky work among children, and girls are over-represented in risky jobs due to their work in domestic service.

  17. Pedestrian injuries in children: who is most at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xun Yi Jasmine; Nah, Shireen Anne; Lee, York Tien; Lin, Yea-Chyi; Chiang, Li Wei

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the demographics of paediatric pedestrian injuries with the aim of identifying the group of children who is most vulnerable and the risk factors for major trauma (MT). Data was extracted from the integrated trauma system of a regional paediatric referral hospital. All paediatric cases involving road traffic accidents from January 2011 to December 2013 were studied. Demographics, injury mechanism, treatment and outcome were evaluated. Patients were categorised as MT or non-MT (NMT) based on their Injury Severity Score, admission to the intensive care unit, type of surgery (e.g. life/limb-saving) and death. Data analysis was done using nonparametric tests and Fisher's exact test. A total of 261 children were admitted for pedestrian injuries during the study period. The median age was ten years (range 14 months-16 years) and the median weight was 42.4 (range 8.6-93.7) kg. Half (i.e. 50.2%) of the children were primary-schoolers. The majority of the accidents occurred on roads (i.e. 83.1%), between 12 pm and 6 pm (i.e. 52.8%). Among the 261 children, 177 (67.8%) were unaccompanied by an adult at the time of the accident; 17 (6.5%) children sustained MT, while 244 (93.5%) suffered NMT. MT patients were more likely to have lost consciousness (p injuries involved primary-schoolers walking home from school unaccompanied by adults. This information should inform future road safety campaigns. Being flung and loss of consciousness predicted MT in children who sustained pedestrian injuries.

  18. At risk and abandoned: street children, AIDS and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, S

    1995-01-01

    When Covenant House was established in the late 1960s, its mission was to end the harassment and murder of homeless street children by authorities in Latin America. At present, Covenant House Latin America is broadening its focus to encompass another form of societal violence against vulnerable youth--acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Street educators include information on AIDS as part of their outreach efforts, and Covenant House Crisis Centers provide AIDS counseling. Most of these young people are on the streets as a result of abandonment, child abuse, and poverty. A study of 143 street children in Guatemala ages 7-17 years found that 100% had been sexually abused, 53% by a family member. 71% currently had 1-2 sexual partners per day, 4% had 3-4 partners, and 25% reported more than 4 partners per day; none was using contraception. Covenant House seeks to publicize this latest form of violence against children and is urging adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which stipulates, among other things, that special care will be given to children who have been rendered vulnerable by separation from their families.

  19. Risk and Protective Factors and Achievement of Children At Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner, Diane

    A study was done to identify social, economic, and childhood characteristics of high and low achieving children living in adverse environmental conditions, and to test the association between achievement and specific risk and protective factors. In addition, the study identified the most powerful model for predicting achievement by comparing…

  20. Identifying Children at Risk for Language Impairment or Dyslexia with Group-Administered Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Scoggins, Joanna; Brazendale, Allison; Babb, Spencer; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to determine whether brief, group-administered screening measures can reliably identify second-grade children at risk for language impairment (LI) or dyslexia and to examine the degree to which parents of affected children were aware of their children's difficulties. Method: Participants (N = 381) completed screening tasks…

  1. Parental Attachment for At-Risk Children's Antisocial Behaviour: A Case of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Siti Hajar; Wahab, Haris Abd.; Rezaul Islam, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: to explore the influential factors of parents' attachment for at-risk children's antisocial behaviour, and to know the types of children's antisocial behaviour caused by being a single-parent family. The sample comprised 1,434 secondary school children from the state of Johore, Malaysia. Results from the…

  2. Environmental exposure at day care centres: are our children at risk?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available CARE CENTRES: ARE OUR CHILDREN AT RISK? [Program and Abstracts: The Seventeenth Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE): Abstracts] John, J*; IJsselmuiden, C?; Oosthuizen, R*; Voyi, K?; Webb, E??* *CSIR...

  3. The Impact of Perceived Relationships on At-Risk Students' Academic Achievement and Attendance in Algebra I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if a relationship existed between an at risk high school student's perceived relationship with the Algebra I teacher and the student's academic performance and attendance in Algebra I. A correlational study design was used to investigate this study. One hundred thirty eight students who were…

  4. Child Self-Regulation, Parental Secure Base Scripts, and At-Risk Kindergartners' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLear, Caitlin; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Smith-Darden, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Early reading and mathematics skills predict later academic success, and child self-regulation and secure parent-child relationships are both predictors of early academic skills. Self-regulatory and family relationship factors have rarely been studied together as predictors of early academic success in populations of young…

  5. Successful applications of montessori methods with children at risk for learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, J S

    1992-12-01

    The critical elements in the Montessori philosophy are respect for the child, individualization of the program to that child, and the fostering of independence. With her research background, Maria Montessori devised a multisensory developmental method and designed materials which isolate each concept the teacher presents to the child.In presenting these materials the teacher observes the concept and skill development level of the child, ascertaining areas of strength and weakness and matching the next presentation to the child's level of development. Using small sequential steps, the teacher works to ameliorate weakness and guide the student to maximize his strengths. These presentations, usually initiated by the child, enhance cognitive growth using a process which integrates his physical, social, and emotional development.The curriculum contains four major content areas: Practical Life; Sensorial; Oral and Written Language; and Mathematics. Geography, History, Science, Art, Music, Literature, and Motor Skills are also included. In all of these the Montessori presentations build from the simple to the complex, from the concrete to the abstract, and from percept to concept. Vocabulary and language usage are integral to each presentation.The procedures introduced through these presentations are designed to enhance attention, increase self-discipline and self-direction, and to promote order, organization, and the development of a work cycle. At-risk children benefit from the structure, the procedures, and the curriculum. Applications of this method require more teacher selection of materials and direct teaching, particularly of language and math symbols and their manipulations.This early childhood intervention provides an individualized program which allows the at-risk child a successful experience at the preschool level. The program includes a strong conceptual preparation for later academic learning and it promotes the development of a healthy self-concept.

  6. Performance of children at risk for reading difficulties submitted to an intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nathane Sanches Marques; Crenitte, Patrícia Abreu Pinheiro

    To assess the applicability of an intervention program to children at risk for reading disabilities. This experimental study compared 10 children at risk for reading difficulty submitted to a phonological decoding intervention program (study group) with 10 other children at risk for reading difficulty not submitted to the program (control group). The intervention program was based on two international studies. It comprised 24 sessions: the first 12 sessions were conducted with groups of two to three children, whereas the others were performed individually. The sessions lasted 50 minutes and were held twice a week. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Student's t-test and the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. Children at risk for reading difficulties submitted to the phonological decoding intervention program showed statistically significant improvement at post-assessment in the performance of the following skills: letter naming; phoneme-grapheme relationship; phonological awareness; phonological working memory for non-words; phonological working memory for digits in direct order; alphabet recognition in sequence; writing under dictation of words and pseudowords; reading of words and pseudowords. The phonological decoding intervention program showed applicability to improve the prerequisite skills of reading and writing of children at risk for reading disabilities.

  7. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  8. Philanthropic networks for children at risk in nineteenth-century Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

    In the first half of nineteenth-century Europe, the founding fathers of the philanthropic network developed a specific network for the care of children at risk. This network eventually resulted in institutionalized solutions for the care of these children. In this article, three topics are looked

  9. Alpha importance of mentoring programme 5P in care at risk children and youth

    OpenAIRE

    Koubová, Šárka; Břízová, Bohdana

    2012-01-01

    Alpha The programme 5P is mentoring program that is implemented in the Czech Republic since 1996. The following range of programs for children at risk for an individual relationship with an adult mentor. The greatest benefit was for children enrolled in the programme 5P registered in confidence, social adaptation and their ability to express their feelings.

  10. Resilience and Coping: Implications for Gifted Children and Youth at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.; Lewis, Rena B.

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes findings from resilience literature relevant to the development of children and youth and derives specific strategies for enhancing outcomes for gifted children and youth most at risk for encountering adversity. Following a description of types of factors critical to understanding resilience literature, the authors focus on…

  11. Mentoring At-risk Youth: Improving Academic Achievement in Middle School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kellie C. Johnson; James H. Lampley

    2010-01-01

    Research supports the implementation of mentoring programs as potentially successful approaches to meeting the needs of at-risk students. This study examined a mentoring program entitled: LISTEN (Linking Individual Students To Educational Needs). The LISTEN mentoring program was a district-sponsored, school-based program in which at-risk, middle school students were identified by the school system and mentors were recruited specifically to assist these students with school performance or rela...

  12. Word Decoding Development during Phonics Instruction in Children at Risk for Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaars, Moniek M H; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, we examined the early word decoding development of 73 children at genetic risk of dyslexia and 73 matched controls. We conducted monthly curriculum-embedded word decoding measures during the first 5 months of phonics-based reading instruction followed by standardized word decoding measures halfway and by the end of first grade. In kindergarten, vocabulary, phonological awareness, lexical retrieval, and verbal and visual short-term memory were assessed. The results showed that the children at risk were less skilled in phonemic awareness in kindergarten. During the first 5 months of reading instruction, children at risk were less efficient in word decoding and the discrepancy increased over the months. In subsequent months, the discrepancy prevailed for simple words but increased for more complex words. Phonemic awareness and lexical retrieval predicted the reading development in children at risk and controls to the same extent. It is concluded that children at risk are behind their typical peers in word decoding development starting from the very beginning. Furthermore, it is concluded that the disadvantage increased during phonics instruction and that the same predictors underlie the development of word decoding in the two groups of children. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Harnessing Inner Strengths of At-Risk University Students: Relationships between Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Academic Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click, Kevin A.; Huang, Leesa V.; Kline, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Concern for the academic performance and persistence to graduation among university students is well-warranted. Numerous studies have tied performance to overall positive affect in professional settings and to individual internal concepts, indicating an expectation for similar ties in demanding academic settings. For students at increased risk for…

  14. Lipid profiles of vegetarian and non-vegetarian children at risk of overweight or obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Purwana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The type, amount, and composition of a diet may affect the levels of cholesterol in blood. Itis believed that children adhering to a vegetarian diet have lower total cholesterol levels and lower body mass indexes compared to children with non-vegetarian (omnivorous diets. We wish to compare cholesterol levels of vegetarian and non-vegetarian Indonesian children who are at risk of overweight or obesity. Objective To compare lipid profiles of vegetarian and no-vegetarian children who are at risk for overweight or obesity. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in January and February 2010. Subjects for this study came from Denpasar, Bali. Subjects filled questionnaires as well as underwent history-taking, anthropometric measurements, and blood testing. We performed lipid profile analyses on their blood samples. We used the independent t test and Mann-Whitney test for statistical analysis of the data. The level of significance was set at P <0.05. Results Our study included forty-four children at risk for overweight or obesity with a vegetarian or non-vegetarian diet. We found that vegetarian children had lower mean total cholesterol (144 mg/dL than that of non-vegetarian children (171 mg/dL, a statistically significant difference of P=0.014. In addition, vegetarian children had lower mean triglyceride levels (150 mg/dL than those of nonvegetarian children (264 mg/dL, a statistically significant difference of P =0 .025. Conclusion Among Balinese children at risk of overweight or obesity, vegetarians have significantly lower mean total cholesterol and triglyceride levels than non-vegetarians.

  15. Early Detection of At-Risk Undergraduate Students through Academic Performance Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowtho, Vikash

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate student dropout is gradually becoming a global problem and the 39 Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) are no exception to this trend. The purpose of this research was to develop a method that can be used for early detection of students who are at-risk of performing poorly in their undergraduate studies. A sample of 279 students…

  16. Gateway to College: Lessons from Implementing a Rigorous Academic Program for At-Risk Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Jacklyn Altuna; Bayes, Brian; Martinez, John

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the implementation of Gateway to College, a program whose mission is to serve students who have dropped out of high school, or who are at risk of dropping out of high school, by allowing them to earn a high school diploma and credits toward a postsecondary degree. Gateway to College is uniquely ambitious in providing…

  17. Visual and auditory perception in preschool children at risk for dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rosario; Estévez, Adelina; Muñetón, Mercedes; Domínguez, Carolina

    2014-11-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in perceptive problems of dyslexics. A polemic research issue in this area has been the nature of the perception deficit. Another issue is the causal role of this deficit in dyslexia. Most studies have been carried out in adult and child literates; consequently, the observed deficits may be the result rather than the cause of dyslexia. This study addresses these issues by examining visual and auditory perception in children at risk for dyslexia. We compared children from preschool with and without risk for dyslexia in auditory and visual temporal order judgment tasks and same-different discrimination tasks. Identical visual and auditory, linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli were presented in both tasks. The results revealed that the visual as well as the auditory perception of children at risk for dyslexia is impaired. The comparison between groups in auditory and visual perception shows that the achievement of children at risk was lower than children without risk for dyslexia in the temporal tasks. There were no differences between groups in auditory discrimination tasks. The difficulties of children at risk in visual and auditory perceptive processing affected both linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. Our conclusions are that children at risk for dyslexia show auditory and visual perceptive deficits for linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. The auditory impairment may be explained by temporal processing problems and these problems are more serious for processing language than for processing other auditory stimuli. These visual and auditory perceptive deficits are not the consequence of failing to learn to read, thus, these findings support the theory of temporal processing deficit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictors of Academic Achievement for School-Age Children with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelsey E.; Patterson, Chavis A.; Szabo, Margo M.; Tarazi, Reem A.; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2013-01-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for neurocognitive impairment and poor academic achievement, although there is limited research on factors predicting academic achievement in this population. This study explores the relative contribution to academic achievement of a comprehensive set of factors, such as environmental…

  19. Growth differences between North American and European children at risk for type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nucci, Anita M; Becker, Dorothy J; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationships between early growth and regional variations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence in an international cohort of children with familial and genetic risk for T1D. METHODS: Anthropometric indices between birth to 5 yr of age were compared among regions and T1D proband...... will allow evaluation of relationships between growth and the emerging development of autoimmunity and progression to T1D by region in this at-risk population of children....... in 2160 children participating in the Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk study. RESULTS: Children in Northern Europe had the highest weight z-score between birth to 12 months of age, while those in Southern Europe and U.S.A. had the lowest weight and length...

  20. Use of a sustained visual attention task to determine children at risk for learning problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J E

    1986-01-01

    Use of a sustained visual attention task to determine children "at risk" for learning problems. The purpose in the study was to compare the sustained visual attention performance of 42 first grade children on a 9.5 minute continuous performance test, as measured by error rate and off-task visual behaviors, e.g., off-task looking time and number of fixations off the task, with a measure of impulsivity and a teacher rating scale of classroom behavior designed to identify children with potential learning disabilities. The present findings suggest that the measurement of "off-task looking time" and "off-task fixations" during a sustained visual attention test are significantly related to the classroom teacher's observation of personal-social behavior and the child's decision making style. This approach for measuring sustained attention has potential use as a clinical tool in identifying and monitoring treatment methodologies for children considered "at risk" for attention and learning problems.

  1. A Promise Unfulfilled: Social Skills Training with At-Risk and Antisocial Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Walker, Hill M.; Sprague, Jeffrey R.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the social skills training knowledge base and describes social skills training considerations for children who are at-risk and/or display antisocial behavior at three grade levels: preschool and elementary, middle schools, and high school. Characteristics of students, composition of model social skills interventions, and…

  2. Status of Oregon's Children: 1997 County Databook. Special Focus: Youth-at-Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children First for Oregon, Portland.

    This Kids Count databook examines statewide trends in the well-being of Oregon's children, focusing on youth at risk. The statistical report is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) juvenile arrests; (2) teen sexuality; (3) high school dropout rate; (4) teen suicide; (5) reading proficiency; (6) math proficiency; (7) child abuse and neglect;…

  3. Effects on Reading of an Early Intervention Program for Children at Risk of Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valenzuela, María-José; Martín-Ruiz, Isaías

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the effects on reading of an early oral and written language intervention program for Spanish children at risk of learning difficulties. The goal of this classroom-based program was to prioritize a systematic approach to reading and writing and to foster phonological knowledge and the development of oral language…

  4. Designing a Computerized Neuro-Cognitive Program for Early Diagnosing Children at Risk for Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Delavarian

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: This program has an acceptable validity and reliability. It could be useful as an accurate assessment tool in predicting dyslexia before the occurrence of psychological scars and can be used as a quick screening tool for children at risk for dyslexia.

  5. Evaluating the Components of an Emergent Literacy Intervention for Preschool Children at Risk for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Walker, Patricia M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    Many preschool children are at risk for reading problems because of inadequate emergent literacy skills. Evidence supports the effectiveness of interventions to promote these skills, but questions remain about which intervention components work and whether combining intervention components will result in larger gains. In this study, 324…

  6. Children-at-Risk for Poor Nutrition: Expanding the Approach of Future Professionals in Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how the subject of nutrition is being addressed in the work with children at risk of poor nutrition in educational institutions and what the barriers are which may hinder inclusion of this subject. Methods: A structured questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of this study and was implemented with 111 students in…

  7. Early identification and intervention in children at risk for reading difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtvoort, A.G.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    In pre-readers, a familial background of dyslexia and/or delayed emergent literacy should be considered a not-to-ignore risk signalling problems with learning to read. This thesis aims to study early identification and intervention in at-risk children shortly before or after the start of formal

  8. An Examination of Play Behaviors in Young At-Risk Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Adrienne; Craig-Unkefer, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects that a multi-component intervention had on play behaviors and mean length of utterance (MLU) of eight Head Start children at risk for language delays and social skill development. The intervention consisted of three components: (a) a planning period included reading a story book that illustrated the play theme and…

  9. A Formative Evaluation of the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk Coaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan R.; Smith, Burgess; Hawkey, Kyle R.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Borden, Lynne M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe the results of a formative evaluation of a coaching model designed to support recipients of funding through the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) initiative. Results indicate that CYFAR coaches draw from a variety of types of coaching and that CYFAR principle investigators (PIs) are generally satisfied with…

  10. The Effects of School Membership on Academic and Behavioral Performance of At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sunyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the perceptions of school membership, risk factors, and school outcomes among a sample of alternative school students. The study subjects were 48 7th-9th graders who were at high risk for school failure because of their serious and chronic behavioral and academic problems. All…

  11. Relative Efficacy of Reciprocal and Nonreciprocal Peer Tutoring for Students At-Risk for Academic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesses, Keri F.; Gresham, Frank M.

    2009-01-01

    This study directly compared the academic gains of reciprocal peer tutoring, nonreciprocal peer tutoring, and a waiting-list control group. Participants included 59 elementary students from second-, third-, and fourth-grade classrooms who performed below average on curriculum-based measurement (CBM) math probes. Students involved in peer tutoring…

  12. FeNO and Exercise Testing in Children at Risk of Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Christiansen, Christina Figgé; Stokholm, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise testing is the gold standard for diagnosing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in children, but requires considerable cooperation and medical resources. Therefore, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has been proposed as a tool to predict the need for exercise testing....... OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between FeNO, exercise test results, and a history of respiratory symptoms during exercise in children at risk of asthma. METHODS: FeNO measurement, exercise testing, and interview about respiratory symptoms during exercise were...... completed in 224 seven-year-old children from the at-risk Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort. The associations between FeNO, exercise test results, and reported respiratory symptoms during exercise were analyzed adjusting for gender, respiratory infections, and inhaled...

  13. Morphology and Spelling in French: A Comparison of At-Risk Readers and Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Poh Wee; Shakory, Sharry; Chen, Xi; Deacon, S Hélène

    2017-11-01

    We present two studies that examine the role of morphology in French spelling. In Study 1, we examined the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between inflectional awareness and derivational awareness and spelling within a sample of 77 children in a French immersion programme in Canada. Children completed a non-verbal reasoning measure and French measures of phonological awareness, word reading, vocabulary, morphological awareness, and spelling. Results showed that inflectional morphological awareness in Grade 3 was a predictor of spelling in the same grade. Inflectional awareness in Grade 2 predicted Grade 3 spelling, controlling for reading-related skills and spelling at Grade 2. These analyses support the role of inflectional morphological awareness in the development of spelling of children of a range of reading and spelling abilities. In contrast, derivational awareness in Grades 2 and 3 did not predict spelling concurrently in both grades respectively. Study 2 contrasted the morphological errors in the spellings of six children at risk for reading difficulties with those of six chronological age-matched and six reading level-matched children. Analyses showed that at-risk children exhibited more difficulties with spelling roots and suffixes in words as compared with their age-matched peers, although they performed similarly to children matched on reading level. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Effects of Aesthetic Science Activities on Improving At-Risk Families Children's Anxiety about Learning Science and Positive Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway-R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Chia-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of aesthetic science activities on improving elementary school at-risk families' children's positive thinking, attitudes toward science, and decreasing their anxiety about learning science. Thirty-six 4th-grade children from at-risk families volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention…

  15. The Sports Challenge international programme for identified 'at risk' children and adolescents: a Singapore study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, G J; Watkins, G G; Rouse, I

    1999-01-01

    The current world wide phenomena of youth suicide which became a major issue for countries in the early nineties, is still growing exponentially. The Sports Challenge program was initiated in 1992 in Western Australia to identify 'at risk' children and adolescents who display: a low sense of basic trust, a sense of shame and doubt, a sense of inferiority and a sense of identity confusion with common characteristics of low self esteem. The subsequent program is based on a strong statistical paradigm encompassing current and historical information with reliable and objective evaluation measures. To this end, since 1992, Sports Challenge has been recognised as a 'World Best Practice' in redressing the issue of 'at risk' children and adolescents. The program now operates in over 150 schools and communities throughout Australia and 24 schools and Detention Centres in Singapore. This paper will allow a window into the development of the program and the successful transfer of the project into Singapore. The Singapore study which began in 1996 has revealed the success of the Sports Challenge program cross culturally with improvement in self esteem and self concept of 'at risk' groups in the range of 18% to 44%.

  16. Aberrant N400 responses to phonological overlap during rhyme judgements in children at risk for dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordenbos, Mark W; Segers, Eliane; Wagensveld, Barbara; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-11-06

    It is widely accepted that dyslexia is associated with difficulties in phonological awareness and that rhyme awareness in young children can predict later reading success. However, little is known regarding the underlying phonological mechanisms of rhyme awareness in dyslexia, as rhyme awareness is typically assessed using explicit behavioural measures that represent only the endpoint of processing and often lack phonological distracters. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to auditory word pairs that differed in phonological overlap during a rhyme judgement task given to 6-year-old beginning readers who were at risk for dyslexia (n=30) and typical-reading age-matched controls (n=29). ERPs were recorded in response to word pairs with various types of phonological overlap, including rhyming (e.g., wall-ball), non-rhyming overlapping (e.g., bell-ball) and non-rhyming unrelated (e.g., sock-ball) word pairs. Both groups of participants exhibited N400 responses for basic rhyme judgements vs. unrelated targets. In the typical-reading controls, the neural responses also differed between the rhyming targets and the non-rhyming overlapping targets, whereas neural responses to these targets were similar in the group of children at risk for dyslexia, indicating difficulties in their ability to process similar-sounding, non-rhyming targets. These findings suggest that typical-reading children solve the rhyme judgement task using a more analytical approach, whereas children who are at risk for dyslexia base their judgments on a comparison of overall sound similarity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. What Were You Thinking?: Individuals At Risk for Huntington Disease Talk About Having Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaid, Kimberly A.; Swenson, Melinda M.; Sims, Sharon L.; Harrison, Joan M.; Moskowitz, Carol; Stepanov, Nonna; Suter, Gregory W.; Westphal, Beryl J.

    2013-01-01

    Most of the research on reproduction in those at risk for Huntington Disease (HD) has focused on the impact of genetic testing on reproductive decision-making. The main goal has been to determine whether discovering one is a carrier of the HD mutation changes an individual’s or couple’s decision to start a family or to have more children. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine reproductive decision-making in a sample of individuals at risk for HD who have chosen not to pursue genetic testing. PHAROS (Prospective Huntington At Risk Observational Study) is a multi-site study that aims to establish whether experienced clinicians can reliably determine the earliest clinical symptoms of HD in a sample of individuals at 50% risk who have chosen not to pursue genetic testing. Data for this article were obtained from unstructured open ended qualitative interviews of a subsample of individuals participating in the PHAROS project. Interviews were conducted at six PHAROS research sites across the United States. In this paper, the research team used qualitative descriptive methods to construct and explore reproduction decision-making in three groups of people: 1) those who knew of their risk and decided to have children; 2) those who had children before they knew of their risk, and 3) those who chose not to have children based on their risk. We discuss the delicate balance health care professionals and genetic counselors must maintain between the benefits of providing hope and the dangers of offering unrealistic expectations about the time in which scientific advances actually may occur. PMID:20734119

  18. Using relative handgrip strength to identify children at risk of sarcopenic obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Steffl

    Full Text Available Identifying children at risk of developing childhood sarcopenic obesity often requires specialized equipment and costly testing procedures, so cheaper and quicker methods would be advantageous, especially in field-based settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the muscle-to-fat ratio (MFR and relative handgrip strength, and to determine the ability of handgrip strength relative to body mass index (grip-to-BMI to identify children who are at risk of developing sarcopenic obesity. Grip-to-BMI was measured in 730 Czech children (4 to 14 yrs. Bioelectrical impedance was used to estimate body fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from which the MFR was calculated. The area under the curve (AUC was 0.791 (95% CI 0.692-0.890, p ˂ 0.001 in girls 4-9; 0.789 (95% CI 0.688-0.890, p ˂ 0.001 in girls 10-14 years old; 0.719 (95% CI 0.607-0.831, p = 0.001 in boys 4-9; and 0.896 (95% CI 0.823-0.969, p ˂ 0.001 in boys 10-14 years old. Calculated using the grip-to-BMI ratio, the OR (95% CI for girls to be at risk of sarcopenic obesity identified by MFR was 9.918 (4.243-23.186, p ˂ 0.001 and was 11.515 (4.280-30.982, p ˂ 0.001 for boys. The grip-to-BMI ratio can be used to predict the presence of sarcopenic obesity in children, which can play a role in pediatric health interventions.

  19. A longitudinal study on predictors of early calculation development among young children at risk for learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Namkung, Jessica M; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S; Patton, Samuel; Yen, Loulee; Compton, Donald L; Zhang, Wenjuan; Miller, Amanda; Hamlett, Carol

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore domain-general cognitive skills, domain-specific academic skills, and demographic characteristics that are associated with calculation development from first grade to third grade among young children with learning difficulties. Participants were 176 children identified with reading and mathematics difficulties at the beginning of first grade. Data were collected on working memory, language, nonverbal reasoning, processing speed, decoding, numerical competence, incoming calculations, socioeconomic status, and gender at the beginning of first grade and on calculation performance at four time points: the beginning of first grade, the end of first grade, the end of second grade, and the end of third grade. Latent growth modeling analysis showed that numerical competence, incoming calculation, processing speed, and decoding skills significantly explained the variance in calculation performance at the beginning of first grade. Numerical competence and processing speed significantly explained the variance in calculation performance at the end of third grade. However, numerical competence was the only significant predictor of calculation development from the beginning of first grade to the end of third grade. Implications of these findings for early calculation instructions among young at-risk children are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Children-at-risk for poor nutrition: expanding the approach of future professionals in educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Ron

    2011-08-01

    To examine how the subject of nutrition is being addressed in the work with children at risk of poor nutrition in educational institutions and what the barriers are which may hinder inclusion of this subject. A structured questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of this study and was implemented with 111 students in Israel who are working in their internships in educational institutions with children who are exposed to risk factors of poor nutrition (e.g., parental neglect, lack of knowledge, poverty). Participants attributed a high level of importance to integrating nutrition-related components in their work. However, the findings indicate less emphasis on nutrition-related components than on psycho-social-educational components, as well as a low level of collaboration with specialists in the area of nutrition. In addition, it was found that knowledge-based barriers and institutional-related systemic barriers may hinder future teachers' capabilities to incorporate those components despite their favorable approach towards this subject. The findings illuminate the need to reduce barriers hampering the individual work with children at risk of poor nutrition in educational institutions. In the training of future teachers, there is a need to advance a bio-psycho-social educational approach incorporating a knowledge base about assessing situations of poor nutrition, including how to advance an interdisciplinary collaboration with specialists in the area of nutrition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Academic performance of school children with behavioural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Behavioural disorders can have a negative influence on the academic performance of school children. There are no similiar published is no known studies in Nigeria. Objective: To compare the academic performance of primary school children with behavioural disorders with that of their controls. Methods: A ...

  2. Social Skill Development and Academic Competence in Children with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Social skills and academic competence are key factors influencing children's development and functioning across early childhood and through adolescence. There is a great need to understand the longitudinal patterns of growth in social and academic skills in order to further inform intervention, particularly for at-risk groups such as individuals…

  3. FeNO and Exercise Testing in Children at Risk of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Christiansen, Christina Figgé; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Chawes, Bo Lund

    2017-11-10

    Exercise testing is the gold standard for diagnosing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in children, but requires considerable cooperation and medical resources. Therefore, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has been proposed as a tool to predict the need for exercise testing. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between FeNO, exercise test results, and a history of respiratory symptoms during exercise in children at risk of asthma. FeNO measurement, exercise testing, and interview about respiratory symptoms during exercise were completed in 224 seven-year-old children from the at-risk Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2000 birth cohort. The associations between FeNO, exercise test results, and reported respiratory symptoms during exercise were analyzed adjusting for gender, respiratory infections, and inhaled corticosteroid treatment. The associations were also analyzed stratified by asthma and atopic status. Of the 224 children, 28 (13%) had an established asthma diagnosis and 58 (26%) had a positive exercise test (≥15% drop in forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV 1 ] from baseline). FeNO and bronchial obstruction after exercise were linearly associated with a doubling of FeNO corresponding to a 2.4% drop in FEV 1 (95% confidence interval, 0.8-4.1; P exercise test outcome among children who reported respiratory symptoms during exercise was 17 ppb, which only had 74% negative predictive value. There was no association between FeNO and reported respiratory symptoms during exercise (odds ratio = 1.3 [0.8-1.9]; P = .29) or reported symptoms during exercise and exercise test results (odds ratio = 1.0 [1.0-1.1]; P = .12). A history of respiratory symptoms during exercise was not associated with either elevated FeNO or a positive exercise test in children at risk of asthma. FeNO and exercise test results were linearly associated traits, but FeNO could not reliably be used dichotomized to predict the need

  4. Identifying children at risk for being bullies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    To identify risk factors associated with the greatest and lowest prevalence of bullying perpetration among U.S. children. Using the 2001-2002 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, a nationally representative survey of U.S. children in 6th-10th grades, bivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with any (once or twice or more), moderate (two to three times/month or more), and frequent (weekly or more) bullying. Stepwise multivariable analyses identified risk factors associated with bullying. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) identified risk factors which, in combination, identify students with the highest and lowest bullying prevalence. The prevalence of any bullying in the 13,710 students was 37.3%, moderate bullying was 12.6%, and frequent bullying was 6.6%. Characteristics associated with bullying were similar in the multivariable analyses and RPA clusters. In RPA, the highest prevalence of any bullying (67%) accrued in children with a combination of fighting and weapon-carrying. Students who carry weapons, smoke, and drink alcohol more than 5 to 6 days/week were at greatest risk for moderate bullying (61%). Those who carry weapons, smoke, have more than one alcoholic drink per day, have above-average academic performance, moderate/high family affluence, and feel irritable or bad-tempered daily were at greatest risk for frequent bullying (68%). Risk clusters for any, moderate, and frequent bullying differ. Children who fight and carry weapons are at greatest risk of any bullying. Weapon-carrying, smoking, and alcohol use are included in the greatest risk clusters for moderate and frequent bullying. Risk-group categories may be useful to providers in identifying children at the greatest risk for bullying and in targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between prenatal antibiotic use and asthma in at-risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, Brittany; Piorkowski, Julie; Ownby, Dennis; Freels, Sally; Chavez, Noel; Hernandez, Eva; Wagner-Cassanova, Cynthia; Pelzel, Darlene; Vergara, Carmen; Persky, Victoria

    2015-03-01

    Asthma prevalence has doubled in developed countries during the past 30 years. Pre- and perinatal events are essential in shaping the development of the immune system and systemic antibiotic use during this time could alter the maternal or placental microbiome, leading to an increase in the child's risk of developing asthma. To determine whether prenatal antibiotic use is associated with asthma and wheezing in children at risk for asthma. Using data from a randomized education intervention of families at risk for asthma from 1998 followed through 2009 in urban Chicago, asthma was defined as ever having a physician asthma diagnosis by year 3 and wheezing in the third year. Logistic regression models controlling for confounders investigated the effect of antibiotic use during pregnancy on these outcomes. After adjustment, prenatal antibiotic use was a risk factor for asthma (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4-6.8) but was only weakly associated with wheezing (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 0.9-3.3). Analyses of the effects of timing of prenatal antibiotic use on asthma and wheezing showed the relation remained consistent for antibiotic use later in pregnancy, but the outcomes were not associated with antibiotic use in the first trimester. This study suggests prenatal antibiotic use might be associated with the development of asthma in children at risk for asthma. Although the relation with prenatal antibiotics does not hold for wheezing in this study, there might be a trend that could be delineated further within a larger cohort study. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reading and language intervention for children at risk of dyslexia: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Fiona J; Hulme, Charles; Grainger, Katy; Hardwick, Samantha J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Snowling, Margaret J

    2014-11-01

    Intervention studies for children at risk of dyslexia have typically been delivered preschool, and show short-term effects on letter knowledge and phoneme awareness, with little transfer to literacy. This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a reading and language intervention for 6-year-old children identified by research criteria as being at risk of dyslexia (n = 56), and their school-identified peers (n = 89). An Experimental group received two 9-week blocks of daily intervention delivered by trained teaching assistants; the Control group received 9 weeks of typical classroom instruction, followed by 9 weeks of intervention. Following mixed effects regression models and path analyses, small-to-moderate effects were shown on letter knowledge, phoneme awareness and taught vocabulary. However, these were fragile and short lived, and there was no reliable effect on the primary outcome of word-level reading. This new intervention was theoretically motivated and based on previous successful interventions, yet failed to show reliable effects on language and literacy measures following a rigorous evaluation. We suggest that the intervention may have been too short to yield improvements in oral language; and that literacy instruction in and beyond the classroom may have weakened training effects. We argue that reporting of null results makes an important contribution in terms of raising standards both of trial reporting and educational practice. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Screening Protocol for Early Identification of Brazilian Children at Risk for Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Giseli D; César, Alexandra B P de C; Capellini, Simone A

    2017-01-01

    Early identification of students at risk of dyslexia has been an educational challenge in the past years. This research had two main goals. First, we aimed to develop a screening protocol for early identification of Brazilian children at risk for dyslexia; second, we aimed to identify the predictive variables of this protocol using Principal Component Analysis. The major step involved in developing this protocol was the selection of variables, which were chosen based on the literature review and linguistic criteria. The screening protocol was composed of seven cognitive-linguistic skills: Letter naming; Phonological Awareness (which comprises the following subtests: Rhyme production, Rhyme identification, Syllabic segmentation, Production of words from a given phoneme, Phonemic Synthesis, and Phonemic analysis); Phonological Working memory, Rapid naming Speed; Silent reading; Reading of words and non-words; and Auditory Comprehension of sentences from pictures. A total of 149 children, aged from 6 years to 6 and 11, of both genders who were enrolled in the 1st grade of elementary public schools were submitted to the screening protocol. Principal Component Analysis revealed four factors, accounting for 64.45% of the variance of the Protocol variables: first factor ("pre-reading"), second factor ("decoding"), third factor ("Reading"), and fourth factor "Auditory processing." The factors found corroborate those reported in the National and International literature and have been described as early signs of dyslexia and reading problems.

  8. Screening Protocol for Early Identification of Brazilian Children at Risk for Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseli D. Germano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early identification of students at risk of dyslexia has been an educational challenge in the past years. This research had two main goals. First, we aimed to develop a screening protocol for early identification of Brazilian children at risk for dyslexia; second, we aimed to identify the predictive variables of this protocol using Principal Component Analysis. The major step involved in developing this protocol was the selection of variables, which were chosen based on the literature review and linguistic criteria. The screening protocol was composed of seven cognitive-linguistic skills: Letter naming; Phonological Awareness (which comprises the following subtests: Rhyme production, Rhyme identification, Syllabic segmentation, Production of words from a given phoneme, Phonemic Synthesis, and Phonemic analysis; Phonological Working memory, Rapid naming Speed; Silent reading; Reading of words and non-words; and Auditory Comprehension of sentences from pictures. A total of 149 children, aged from 6 years to 6 and 11, of both genders who were enrolled in the 1st grade of elementary public schools were submitted to the screening protocol. Principal Component Analysis revealed four factors, accounting for 64.45% of the variance of the Protocol variables: first factor (“pre-reading”, second factor (“decoding”, third factor (“Reading”, and fourth factor “Auditory processing.” The factors found corroborate those reported in the National and International literature and have been described as early signs of dyslexia and reading problems.

  9. Identifying learning patterns of children at risk for Specific Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Baptiste; Krivulskaya, Suzanna; Hein, Sascha; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-05-01

    Differences in learning patterns of vocabulary acquisition in children at risk (+SRD) and not at risk (-SRD) for Specific Reading Disability (SRD) were examined using a microdevelopmental paradigm applied to the multi-trial Foreign Language Learning Task (FLLT; Baddeley et al., 1995). The FLLT was administered to 905 children from rural Chitonga-speaking Zambia. A multi-group Latent Growth Curve Model (LGCM) was implemented to study interindividual differences in intraindividual change across trials. Results showed that the +SRD group recalled fewer words correctly in the first trial, learned at a slower rate during the subsequent trials, and demonstrated a more linear learning pattern compared to the -SRD group. This study illustrates the promise of LGCM applied to multi-trial learning tasks, by isolating three components of the learning process (initial recall, rate of learning, and functional pattern of learning). Implications of this microdevelopmental approach to SRD research in low-to-middle income countries are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Decreased lung function after preschool wheezing rhinovirus illnesses in children at risk to develop asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Theresa W; Singh, Anne Marie; Danov, Zoran; Evans, Michael D; Jackson, Daniel J; Burton, Ryan; Roberg, Kathy A; Anderson, Elizabeth L; Pappas, Tressa E; Gangnon, Ronald; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F

    2011-09-01

    Preschool rhinovirus (RV) wheezing illnesses predict an increased risk of childhood asthma; however, it is not clear how specific viral illnesses in early life relate to lung function later on in childhood. To determine the relationship of virus-specific wheezing illnesses and lung function in a longitudinal cohort of children at risk for asthma. Two hundred thirty-eight children were followed prospectively from birth to 8 years of age. Early life viral wheezing respiratory illnesses were assessed by using standard techniques, and lung function was assessed annually by using spirometry and impulse oscillometry. The relationships of these virus-specific wheezing illnesses and lung function were assessed by using mixed-effect linear regression. Children with RV wheezing illness demonstrated significantly decreased spirometry values, FEV(1) (P = .001), FEV(0.5) (P Children who wheezed with respiratory syncytial virus or other viral illnesses did not have any significant differences in spirometric or impulse oscillometry indices when compared with children who did not. Children diagnosed with asthma at ages 6 or 8 years had significantly decreased FEF(25-75) (P = .05) compared with children without asthma. Among outpatient viral wheezing illnesses in early childhood, those caused by RV infections are the most significant predictors of decreased lung function up to age 8 years in a high-risk birth cohort. Whether low lung function is a cause and/or effect of RV wheezing illnesses is yet to be determined. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Development of a screening scale for children at risk of baby bottle tooth decay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadra-Eid, J; Baudet, D; Fourny, M; Sellier, E; Brun, C; François, P

    2012-03-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay is a severe form of early childhood caries. This study aims to elaborate a screening tool for at risk children in order to facilitate primary prevention. A case-control study was conducted among children suffering from baby bottle tooth decay and children with no dental caries. Cases were children aged 5 years or less at diagnosis who experienced at least four caries with one or more affecting maxillary incisors. Controls were children matched for age and sex. Parents were interviewed by phone about their child's exposure to potential risk factors. We included 88 children suffering from baby bottle tooth decay and 88 children with no dental caries. In multivariate analysis, low social class (OR 6.39 [95% CI, 1.45-28.11]), prolonged bottle feeding or bedtime feeding (OR 153.2 [95% CI, 11.77-1994.96]), and snacking (OR 5.94 [95% CI, 1.35-26.2]) were significantly associated with baby bottle tooth decay. Regular dental visits were a significant protecting factor (OR 0.13 [95% CI, 0.02-0.77]). A score was developed using these significant risk factors and tested on the survey population. The mean score was 13/20 for cases and 4/20 for controls. These results are in accordance with the literature, except for brushing teeth, which was not significantly associated with baby bottle tooth decay in our study. A screening scale with a score of 20 points was proposed. Future validation is required. Pediatricians and general practitioners should encourage parents to change their habits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Teacher identification of children at risk for language impairment in the first year of school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniazzi, Diana; Snow, Pamela; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2010-06-01

    While the first 3 years of formal schooling have obvious importance for the transition to literacy, it must be remembered that learning to read is a linguistically-based task that draws heavily on mastery of key oral-language skills such as phonemic and morphological awareness, vocabulary development, and early syntax. In order to support the transition to literacy, and because oral language competence is important in its own right, it is vital that early-years teachers are skilled at identifying children who may be at risk of oral language impairment. In this study, 15 teachers completed the Children's Communication Checklist (second edition) on children in their first year of school (n = 149), and ratings were compared with results of screening using the Clinical Examination of Language Fundamentals Screening Test (fourth edition). Teacher ratings showed poor sensitivity and specificity in identifying children whose oral language skills require further investigation. Results are discussed in the light of recommendations for teacher pre-service education, SLP advocacy for oral language competence as a life-long determinant of health, issues in screening during the early years of school, and implications for further research.

  13. Music enrichment programs improve the neural encoding of speech in at-risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine C; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis

    2014-09-03

    Musicians are often reported to have enhanced neurophysiological functions, especially in the auditory system. Musical training is thought to improve nervous system function by focusing attention on meaningful acoustic cues, and these improvements in auditory processing cascade to language and cognitive skills. Correlational studies have reported musician enhancements in a variety of populations across the life span. In light of these reports, educators are considering the potential for co-curricular music programs to provide auditory-cognitive enrichment to children during critical developmental years. To date, however, no studies have evaluated biological changes following participation in existing, successful music education programs. We used a randomized control design to investigate whether community music participation induces a tangible change in auditory processing. The community music training was a longstanding and successful program that provides free music instruction to children from underserved backgrounds who stand at high risk for learning and social problems. Children who completed 2 years of music training had a stronger neurophysiological distinction of stop consonants, a neural mechanism linked to reading and language skills. One year of training was insufficient to elicit changes in nervous system function; beyond 1 year, however, greater amounts of instrumental music training were associated with larger gains in neural processing. We therefore provide the first direct evidence that community music programs enhance the neural processing of speech in at-risk children, suggesting that active and repeated engagement with sound changes neural function. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411913-06$15.00/0.

  14. Potential utility of MRI in the evaluation of children at risk of renal scarring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Yuleung; Chan Kamwing; Roebuck, D.J.; Chu, W.C.W.; Metreweli, C.; Yeung Chungkwong; Lee Kimhung

    1999-01-01

    Background. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI has recently been employed in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Its potential utility in the diagnosis of renal scars in children is unknown. Objective. To evaluate the potential utility of MRI using fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) and post-gadolinium, short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) sequences in detecting renal scarring by comparison with technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid ( 99 m Tc-DMSA) renal scintigraphy in children at risk of renal scarring. Materials and methods. A group of 24 children with spina bifida and neurogenic bladder or anorectal anomaly was studied. No patient had a history of acute pyelonephritis. Documented urinary tract infection (UTI) was present in 10 children (42 %). The remaining 14 (58 %) children had a history of asymptomatic bacteriuria. None had clinical signs or symptoms of acute UTI at the time of the study. 99 m Tc-DMSA and MRI were performed to detect renal scarring. 99 m Tc-DMSA scans were supplemented with pinhole imaging. MRI of the kidneys employed a fat-saturated T1-W sequence and a post-gadolinium STIR sequence employing a short echo time. Results. Of the kidneys studied, 33 % (n = 16) had evidence of a renal parenchymal defect suggestive of scarring on 99 m Tc-DMSA. The concordance in the detection of a scarred kidney by post-gadolinium STIR sequence and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 94 %; that by fat-saturated T1-W sequence and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 82 %; that by both sequences (positive result on either sequence) and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 100 %. Using 99 m Tc-DMSA as the gold standard, MRI had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 78 % in the diagnosis of a scarred kidney. The concordance in the detection of a scarred zone by post-gadolinium STIR sequence and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 68 %; that by fat-saturated T1-W sequence and DMSA is 44 %; that by both sequences (positive result on either sequence) and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 84 %. MRI had a sensitivity of 84 % and a specificity of 86 % in the diagnosis of a

  15. Early detection of children at risk for antisocial behaviour using data from routine preventive child healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijneveld Sijmen A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth antisocial behaviour is highly prevalent. Young people are usually not willing to disclose such behaviour to professionals and parents. Our aim was to assess whether child health professionals (CHP working in preventive child healthcare could identify pre-adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour through using data that they obtain in routine practice. Methods CHPs examined a national sample of 974 pre-adolescents aged 8-12 years (response 79.1%, and interviewed parents and children during routine well-child assessments. We obtained data on family background and current health of the child from the CHP; on developmental concerns from parents, and on social and emotional well-being, injuries, and substance use from the children. Antisocial behaviour concerned the adolescent-reported 15 item International Self-Reported Delinquency study questionnaire, among which are 5 items on violence against people. Results The prevalence of 2+acts of any antisocial behaviour was 21.8%, and 33.9% for 1+acts of violence (10.5% for 2+. Children who were male, had a young mother, no parent employed, recent injuries, poor performance at school or who were bored by school, and who had parental concerns more often reported 2+antisocial acts and 1+violence against people. Detection algorithms on the basis of these variables were moderately able to classify outcomes, with Areas-Under-the-Curves ranging from 0.66 to 0.71. Conclusions Data from routine well-child assessment can help CHPs to detect pre-adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour, but detection algorithms need to be further improved. This could be done by obtaining additional information on factors that are associated with antisocial behaviour.

  16. Academic Motivation in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodygowska, Ewa; Chec, Magdalena; Samochowiec, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to determine which form of therapeutic aid may influence academic approach and avoidance motivation in children with dyslexia. There were 165 children with dyslexia assessed with the use of "I and my school" questionnaire. The authors considered the children's previous therapeutic experience and on its basis they…

  17. The Attention Skills and Academic Performance of Aggressive/Rejected and Low Aggressive/Popular Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…

  18. Teacher Network of Relationships Inventory: Measurement Invariance of Academically At-risk Students Across Ages 6 to 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiun-Yu; Hughes, Jan N.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the longitudinal measurement invariance of the Teacher Network of Relationships Inventory (TNRI), a teacher-report measure of teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ), on a sample of 784 academically at-risk students across ages 6 to 15 years by comparing the model for each subsequent year with that of the previous year(s). The TNRI was constructed with 22 items to form three correlated factors: Warmth, Conflict, and Intimacy. Cronbach’s alphas (α) ranged from .87 to .96 across 9 years. Both metric and scalar measurement invariance held for 9 years, indicating that scores on the TNRI have similar meaning across these ages. The TNRI also demonstrated measurement invariance across gender and race/ethnicity. Findings support that the TNRI is an appropriate measure for investigating substantive issues related to developmental changes in TSRQ from early childhood through adolescence, including gender and ethnic/racial differences in TSRQ across these ages. Based on RM-ANOVAs, each scale decreased across the 9 years, although the growth patterns for scales differed somewhat: Conflict had a linearly decreasing pattern, Warmth declined most notably as students make the transition to adolescence, whereas Intimacy scores dropped off noticeably at the transition from early to late childhood. Research limitation and implication for practice are discussed. PMID:24884450

  19. School breakfast and cognition among nutritionally at-risk children in the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, E; Jacoby, E; Cueto, S

    1996-04-01

    In 1993, in Peru, the Institute of Nutritional Research conducted two studies in Huaraz in the Andean region to evaluate the educational and nutritional impact of the government's School Breakfast Program. The school breakfast included a small cake and a glass of Amilac (similar in taste and color to milk), which provided 30% of each child's energy requirements, 60% of recommended dietary allowances for minerals and vitamins, and 100% of dietary iron needs. A case control study examined the effects of breakfast on cognition among 54 elementary schoolchildren 9-11 years old. It found that the school breakfast did not have a significant effect on the children's performance in the Number Discrimination, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Raven Progressive Matrices, or Reaction Time tests. Children nutritionally at risk who received the placebo had significantly slower short-term memory scanning than their counterparts who received the breakfast. The no-risk placebo group exhibited more rapid discrimination between visual stimuli than the no-risk breakfast group. A field evaluation of the program in 10 rural schools, which were randomly assigned to a treatment or control condition, was conducted. In terms of energy, protein, and iron intake, the children in the case and control conditions were not significantly different. The children tended to be either very stunted or overweight. School attendance increased 0.58 points in the experimental group, while it decreased by 2.92 points in the control group (p 0.05). When both groups received the breakfast, attendance rates increased significantly in both groups (p 0.05). Vocabulary was sensitive to the effects of the breakfast. Specifically, the greater the child's weight, the higher his/her vocabulary test scores (p 0.05). These findings suggest that the brain is sensitive to decreases in the short-term availability of nutrients, and that an overnight and morning fast produces a physiological state accompanied by changes in

  20. Movements Indicate Threat Response Phases in Children at Risk for Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Ellen W; McGinnis, Ryan S; Muzik, Maria; Hruschak, Jessica; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Perkins, Noel C; Fitzgerald, Kate; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2017-09-01

    Temporal phases of threat response, including potential threat (anxiety), acute threat (startle, fear), and post-threat response modulation, have been identified as the underlying markers of anxiety disorders. Objective measures of response during these phases may help identify children at risk for anxiety; however, the complexity of current assessment techniques prevent their adoption in many research and clinical contexts. We propose an alternative technology, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), that enables noninvasive measurement of the movements associated with threat response, and test its ability to detect threat response phases in young children at a heightened risk for developing anxiety. We quantified the motion of 18 children (3-7 years old) during an anxiety-/fear-provoking behavioral task using an IMU. Specifically, measurements from a single IMU secured to the child's waist were used to extract root-mean-square acceleration and angular velocity in the horizontal and vertical directions, and tilt and yaw range of motion during each threat response phase. IMU measurements detected expected differences in child motion by threat phase. Additionally, potential threat motion was positively correlated to familial anxiety risk, startle range of motion was positively correlated with child internalizing symptoms, and response modulation motion was negatively correlated to familial anxiety risk. Results suggest differential theory-driven threat response phases and support previous literature connecting maternal child risk to anxiety with behavioral measures using more feasible objective methods. This is the first study demonstrating the utility of an IMU for characterizing the motion of young children to mark the phases of threat response modulation. The technique provides a novel and objective measure of threat response for mental health researchers.

  1. Family Chaos and Child Functioning in Relation to Sleep Problems Among Children at Risk for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E; Halbower, Ann C; Daniels, Stephen; Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Whitesell, Nancy; Johnson, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of child and family functioning on child sleep behaviors in low-income minority families who are at risk for obesity. A cross-sectional study was utilized to measure child and family functioning from 2013 to 2014. Participants were recruited from Head Start classrooms while data were collected during home visits. A convenience sample of 72 low-income Hispanic (65%) and African American (32%) families of preschool-aged children were recruited for this study. We assessed the association of child and family functioning with child sleep behaviors using a multivariate multiple linear regression model. Bootstrap mediation analyses examined the effects of family chaos between child functioning and child sleep problems. Poorer child emotional and behavioral functioning related to total sleep behavior problems. Chaos associated with bedtime resistance significantly mediated the relationship between Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) and Bedtime Resistance. Families at high risk for obesity showed children with poorer emotional and behavioral functioning were at higher risk for problematic sleep behaviors, although we found no link between obesity and child sleep. Family chaos appears to play a significant role in understanding part of these relationships. Future longitudinal studies are necessary to establish causal relationships between child and family functioning and sleep problems to further guide obesity interventions aimed at improving child sleep routines and increasing sleep duration.

  2. Self-Management Training for Chinese Obese Children at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome: Effectiveness and Implications for School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; Anderson, Laura M.; Ji, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a school-based self-management intervention for Chinese obese children at risk for metabolic syndrome. Twenty-eight Chinese obese children (M age?=?10 years) and their parents participated in the study. Metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured pre- and post-intervention. The risk factors included Body Mass…

  3. Integration of Nutrition-Related Components by Early Childhood Education Professionals into Their Individual Work with Children at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Ron; Friedman, Adina

    2009-01-01

    Poor nutrition is a major risk factor affecting proper development of children. However, there is limited knowledge about the way in which this subject is being integrated into professionals' work in early childhood education programs dealing with situations of children-at-risk. A study on this subject was conducted with 60 professionals who…

  4. Efficiency of Visual Information Processing in Children at-Risk for Dyslexia: Habituation of Single-Trial ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regtvoort, Anne G. F. M.; van Leeuwen, Theo H.; Stoel, Reinoud D.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2006-01-01

    To investigate underlying learning mechanisms in relation to the development of dyslexia, event-related potentials to visual standards were recorded in five-year-old pre-reading children at-risk for familial dyslexia (n=24) and their controls (n=14). At the end of second grade the children aged 8 years were regrouped into three groups according to…

  5. The Contribution of Parenting Practices and Parent Emotion Factors in Children at Risk for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Holland, Kerry A.; Frankling, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of different parenting characteristics on child disruptive behavior and emotional regulation among a sample of at-risk children. The sample consisted of 373 Australian 5- to 9-year-old children who were screened for serious behavior problems. Seven parenting variables based on self-report were…

  6. At-Risk Children and Otitis Media with Effusion: Management Issues for the Early Childhood Special Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, Lynn P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the implications of otitis media with effusion (OME) for children with disabilities who are already at risk for speech, language, and learning difficulties. The results of a survey of 189 early childhood special educators on management of young children with OME and the role of the early childhood special educator are…

  7. Analysis of Predictors of Behaviour Change among Children at Risk in Juvenile Rehabilitation Centres in Nairobi County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthomi, Rintaugu James; Muthee, Jessina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse predictors of behaviour change among children at risk in juvenile rehabilitation centres within Nairobi County, Kenya. The target population was all the children and managers of Juvenile rehabilitation Centres in Nairobi County. This consisted of 380 boys, 160 girls, 8 managers in Kabete and Getathuru, and 4…

  8. Protocol for Targeted School-Based Interventions for Improving Reading and Mathematics for Students With or At-Risk of Academic Difficulties in Grade K to 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Eiberg, Misja

    2016-01-01

    -assisted instruction, and incentive programs with the objective of assessing their comparative effectiveness. As such, the review will contribute to the knowledge of what type of interventions that can be used to improve the educational achievement of students with or at-risk of academic difficulties....

  9. Protocol for Targeted School-Based Interventions for Improving Reading and Mathematics for Students With or At-Risk of Academic Difficulties in Grade 7 to 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine

    2016-01-01

    -assisted instruction, and incentive programs with the objective of assessing their comparative effectiveness. As such, the review will contribute to the knowledge of what type of interventions that can be used to improve the educational achievement of students with or at-risk of academic difficulties....

  10. A Study of At-Risk Students' Perceptions of an Online Academic Credit Recovery Program in an Urban North Texas Independent School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mychl K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to describe and analyze at-risk high school students' perceptions of their experiences with online academic credit recovery classes offered to them through an urban school district's dropout prevention department. The review of literature concerning curricula for online programs revealed that the variety of…

  11. Potential utility of MRI in the evaluation of children at risk of renal scarring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan Yuleung; Chan Kamwing; Roebuck, D.J.; Chu, W.C.W.; Metreweli, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Yeung Chungkwong; Lee Kimhung [Dept. of Surgery, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong (China)

    1999-11-01

    Background. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI has recently been employed in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Its potential utility in the diagnosis of renal scars in children is unknown. Objective. To evaluate the potential utility of MRI using fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) and post-gadolinium, short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) sequences in detecting renal scarring by comparison with technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid ({sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA) renal scintigraphy in children at risk of renal scarring. Materials and methods. A group of 24 children with spina bifida and neurogenic bladder or anorectal anomaly was studied. No patient had a history of acute pyelonephritis. Documented urinary tract infection (UTI) was present in 10 children (42 %). The remaining 14 (58 %) children had a history of asymptomatic bacteriuria. None had clinical signs or symptoms of acute UTI at the time of the study. {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA and MRI were performed to detect renal scarring. {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA scans were supplemented with pinhole imaging. MRI of the kidneys employed a fat-saturated T1-W sequence and a post-gadolinium STIR sequence employing a short echo time. Results. Of the kidneys studied, 33 % (n = 16) had evidence of a renal parenchymal defect suggestive of scarring on {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA. The concordance in the detection of a scarred kidney by post-gadolinium STIR sequence and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA is 94 %; that by fat-saturated T1-W sequence and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA is 82 %; that by both sequences (positive result on either sequence) and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA is 100 %. Using {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA as the gold standard, MRI had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 78 % in the diagnosis of a scarred kidney. The concordance in the detection of a scarred zone by post-gadolinium STIR sequence and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA is 68 %; that by fat-saturated T1-W sequence and DMSA is 44 %; that by both sequences (positive result on either sequence) and {sup 99

  12. Identification of at-risk students and strategies to improve academic success in first year health programs. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gerard Pearson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition to university is a difficult process for many students, having a negative impact on their academic performance, ultimately resulting in failure or withdrawal from one or more courses in their first semester. This practice report describes a profile analysis and readiness assessment designed to identify students at high academic risk. Students so identified were offered additional workshops to address assumed knowledge and academic skills. Attendance at the workshops correlated with improved academic outcomes.

  13. Children With Disability Are More at Risk of Violence Victimization: Evidence From a Study of School-Aged Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Long-term effectiveness of a parenting intervention for children at risk of developing conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater, Tracey; Hutchings, Judy; Daley, David; Whitaker, Chris; Yeo, Seow Tien; Jones, Karen; Eames, Catrin; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor

    2009-10-01

    The typical pattern for intervention outcome studies for conduct problems has been for effect sizes to dissipate over time with decreasing effects across subsequent follow-ups. To establish whether the short-term positive effects of a parenting programme are sustained longer term. To observe trends, and costs, in health and social service use after intervention. Parents with children aged 36-59 months at risk of developing conduct disorder (n = 104) received intervention between baseline and first follow-up (6 months after baseline n = 86) in 11 Sure Start areas in North Wales. Follow-ups two (n = 82) and three (n = 79) occurred 12 and 18 months after baseline. Child problem behaviour and parenting skills were assessed via parent self-report and direct observation in the home. The significant parent-reported improvements in primary measures of child behaviour, parent behaviour, parental stress and depression gained at follow-up one were maintained to follow-up three, as were improved observed child and parent behaviours. Overall, 63% of children made a minimum significant change (0.3 standard deviations) on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory problem scale between baseline and follow-up (using intention-to-treat data), 54% made a large change (0.8 standard deviations) and 39% made a very large change (1.5 standard deviations). Child contact with health and social services had reduced at follow-up three. Early parent-based intervention reduced child antisocial behaviour and benefits were maintained, with reduced reliance on health and social service provision, over time.

  15. Overweight and obesity among children at risk of intellectual disability in 20 low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, A; Emerson, E

    2016-11-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) in high income countries are at significantly greater risk of obesity than their non-disabled peers. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 3 to 4-year-old children who are/are not at risk of ID in low and middle income countries. Secondary analysis of Round 4 and 5 UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) from 20 low and middle income countries that included a total of 83 597 3 to 4-year-old children. Few differences in risk of overweight or obesity were apparent between 3 and 4-year-old children identified as being at risk/not at risk of ID in 20 low and middle income countries. In the two countries where statistically significant differences were observed, prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower among children at risk of ID. These results stand in stark contrast to evidence from high income countries which suggest that children with ID are at significantly increased risk of obesity when compared to their non-intellectually disabled peers. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Kuan-Lin Chen,2,3 Willy Chou,4,5 Shu-Han Yang,4 Sheng-Chun Kung,4 Ya-Chen Lee,2 Li-Chen Tung4,6,7 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 5Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, 6School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 7School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Purpose: This study aimed to establish 1 whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] and 2 whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence.Methods: Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD], VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD, and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD.Results: The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05 and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05. Motor competence was significantly

  17. Does School Mobility Place Elementary School Children at Risk for Lower Math Achievement? The Mediating Role of Cognitive Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Raver, C. Cybele

    2015-01-01

    Children growing up in poverty have a higher likelihood of exposure to multiple forms of adversity that jeopardize their chances of academic success. The current paper identifies school mobility, or changing schools, as 1 such poverty-related risk. Using a sample of low-income, predominantly ethnic-minority children (n = 381) in Chicago, this…

  18. Strengthening School Readiness for Children at Risk: Evaluating Self-Regulation Measures and an Intervention Using Classroom Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, self-regulation has emerged as a foundational skill for academic success and well-being. Unfortunately, many children enter kindergarten without the self-regulation skills necessary to succeed. Children from high-risk backgrounds (e.g., low-income) are particularly vulnerable for difficulties in self-regulation development. Given…

  19. Evaluation and Utility of a Family Information Table to Identify and Test Children at Risk for HIV in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Meyer, BA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective strategies to identify and screen children at risk for HIV are needed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the utilization of a family information table (FIT to identify and test at-risk children in Kenya and identify factors associated with child testing. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-infected adults with children at five Kenyan clinics. HIV testing status for children aged ≤18 years was gathered from the patients’ FITs and compared to reports from in-person clinic visits as the gold standard. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess predictors for HIV testing of children adjusted for confounders and within parent correlation. Results: Our sample included 384 HIV-infected adults enrolled in care with 933 reported children. Overall, 323 FITs (84% correctly listed all children in the family and 340 (89% documented an HIV testing status (including untested for all children. Seventy-five percent of parents verbally reported all children tested, compared to only 46% of FITs (OR=13.5, 95% CI 6.5-27.8. Verbal reports identified 739 (79% children tested, with 55 (7.4% HIV-positive and 17 (2.3% HIV-exposed infants (HEI. Of 63 adults with HIV-positive children or HEI, 60 (95% reported enrolling children into care. Likelihood that children had been tested was higher for younger children (≤4y vs. > 4y, aOR=2.0; 95% CI 1.4-2.9 and lower if the partner’s serostatus was unknown vs. seropositive (aOR=0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.8. Conclusions: Although the FIT may be a useful tool to identify children at risk for HIV, this study found underutilization by providers. To maximize impact of this tool, documentation of follow-up for untested and positive children is essential. Global Health Implications: Through early documentation of at-risk children and follow up of untested and infected children, the FIT may serve as an effective resource for improving HIV testing and linkage to care.

  20. The Effects of Aesthetic Science Activities on Improving At-Risk Families Children's Anxiety About Learning Science and Positive Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway-R.; Lin, Huann-shyang; Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Chia-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of aesthetic science activities on improving elementary school at-risk families' children's positive thinking, attitudes toward science, and decreasing their anxiety about learning science. Thirty-six 4th-grade children from at-risk families volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group; another 97 typical 4th graders were randomly selected to participant in the assessment and were used as the comparison group. The treatment for experimental group children emphasized scaffolding aesthetic science activities and inquiry strategies. The Elementary School Student Questionnaire was administered to assess all children's positive thinking, attitudes toward science, and anxiety about learning science. In addition, nine target children from the experimental group with the lowest scores on either positive thinking, or attitudes toward science, or with the highest scores on anxiety about learning science in the pre-test were recruited to be interviewed at the end of the intervention and observed weekly. Confirmatory factor analyses, analyses of covariance, and content theme analysis assessed the similarities and differences between groups. It was found that the at-risk families' children were motivated by the treatment and made significant progress on positive thinking and attitudes toward science, and also decreased their anxiety about learning science. The findings from interviews and classroom observations also revealed that the intervention made differences in children's affective perceptions of learning science. Implication and research recommendation are discussed.

  1. Identifying youth at risk for psychosis using the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily; Reeves, Gloria; Pitts, Steven C; Schiffman, Jason

    2013-12-01

    Identification of youth at risk for or with early psychosis has become the focus of many research and clinical initiatives, as early intervention may be linked to better long-term outcomes. Efforts to facilitate identification have led to the development of several self-report instruments that intend to quickly assess "attenuated" psychosis, potentially screening people for further evaluation. The widely used Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) includes the atypicality scale, a scale that may be useful for risk screening as it is designed to recognize emerging symptoms of psychosis. The current study aimed to evaluate the utility of the BASC-2 for identifying youth at high clinical risk or with early psychosis within a sample of 70 help-seeking participants aged 12-22. Atypicality scores were compared to risk status (low-risk, high-risk or early psychosis) as determined by the clinician-administered Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS). The relative accuracy of the atypicality scale was evaluated against three self-report screeners specifically designed to identify this population. Results indicate that the BASC-2 atypicality scale may be a useful tool for identifying youth in early stages of psychosis. Moreover, the atypicality scale is comparable if not superior to other specialized risk screening instruments in terms of predictive ability. Given the widespread use of the BASC-2 across educational and mental health settings, evidence for convergent validity between the BASC-2 atypicality scale and SIPS diagnoses has the potential to make screening available to a greater population and facilitate earlier detection and intervention. © 2013.

  2. Qigong Sensory Training Pilot Study: A Tactile Home Program for Children with or At-Risk for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal-Atzili, Orit; Salls, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the efficacy of Qigong Sensory Training, a parent-implemented tactile intervention, in improving sensory processing and self-regulation in children with or at-risk for autism who were enrolled in early intervention. A pretest-posttest, single-subject design was implemented with three families. After 5 months, atypical…

  3. Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Parents and Children At-Risk for Physical Abuse: An Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Melissa K.; Deblinger, Esther; Steer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    To compare the relative efficacy of two types of group cognitive-behavioral therapy for treating the traumatized child and at-risk or offending parent in cases of child physical abuse (CPA), 24 parents and their children were treated with Combined Parent-Child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CPC-CBT) and 20 parents were treated with Parent-Only CBT.…

  4. Relations among Neighborhood Social Networks, Home Literacy Environments, and Children's Expressive Vocabulary in Suburban At-Risk Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Powell, Douglas R.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    In response to increasing research and policy interest in the neighborhood context of early school success, this study examined relations among neighborhood social networks, home literacy practices/resources, and children's expressive vocabulary in a suburban at-risk sample in the USA at the beginning of the school year. In a Structural Equation…

  5. Clinical Use of the Pediatric Attention Disorders Diagnostic Screener for Children at Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Case Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Ashley; Reddy, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The Pediatric Attention Disorders Diagnostic Screener is a multidimensional, computerized screening tool designed to assess attention and global aspects of executive functioning in children at risk for attention disorders. The screener consists of a semi-structured diagnostic interview, brief parent and teacher rating scales, 3 computer-based…

  6. Development of nutritionally at-risk young children is predicted by malaria, anemia, and stunting in Pemba, Zanzibar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritionally at-risk children suffer delays in physical growth and motor and language development. Infectious diseases such as malaria pose an additional risk. We examined the cross-sectional relationships among malaria infection, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), motor ...

  7. A Review of Non-Medication Interventions to Improve the Academic Performance of Children and Youth with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for academic failure. Although studies have evaluated the effects of medication on academic outcomes, the literature on non-medication interventions has not received equal attention. This review examined 41 studies that evaluated the impact of non-medication interventions on…

  8. Uptake of Predictive Genetic Testing and Cardiac Evaluation for Children at Risk for an Inherited Arrhythmia or Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Susan; Atallah, Joseph; Clegg, Robin; Giuffre, Michael; Huculak, Cathleen; Dzwiniel, Tara; Parboosingh, Jillian; Taylor, Sherryl; Somerville, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Predictive genetic testing in minors should be considered when clinical intervention is available. Children who carry a pathogenic variant for an inherited arrhythmia or cardiomyopathy require regular cardiac screening and may be prescribed medication and/or be told to modify their physical activity. Medical genetics and pediatric cardiology charts were reviewed to identify factors associated with uptake of genetic testing and cardiac evaluation for children at risk for long QT syndrome, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. The data collected included genetic diagnosis, clinical symptoms in the carrier parent, number of children under 18 years of age, age of children, family history of sudden cardiac arrest/death, uptake of cardiac evaluation and if evaluated, phenotype for each child. We identified 97 at risk children from 58 families found to carry a pathogenic variant for one of these conditions. Sixty six percent of the families pursued genetic testing and 73% underwent cardiac screening when it was recommended. Declining predictive genetic testing was significantly associated with genetic specialist recommendation (p testing (p = 0.007). This study provides a greater understanding of factors associated with uptake of genetic testing and cardiac evaluation in children at risk of an inherited arrhythmia or cardiomyopathy. It also identifies a need to educate families about the importance of cardiac evaluation even in the absence of genetic testing.

  9. Year-Round Schooling for Academically At-Risk Students: Outcomes and Perceptions of Participants in an Elementary Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wallace D.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes a study examining whether year-round schooling, compared to a traditional school-year schedule, would affect the achievement and attendance of a group of at-risk Texas elementary students. There was little consistency between various groups' perceptions and actual student outcomes. There was no significant difference favoring year-round…

  10. 21st century community learning centers--improving the academic performance of at-risk students: a Bronx tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Arleen T; Bowen, Lizette M

    2011-01-01

    The authors of this article report on an intervention designed to improve the academic component of an extended after-school program. The agency involved in this intervention was a non-profit community action group (CAG) agency whose mission is to improve the socio-economic well-being of the residents of Upper Manhattan, the Bronx, and New York City. The agency has a staff of 200 that serve high school students. The intervention program was designed to (1) improve the working relationship between teachers, families, and students in the after-school program, (2) develop new and innovative ways to improve the academic curricula of the after-school program, and (3) provide continuous education to stakeholders to the after-school program. Improvements in student performance relating to attendance, academic work, discipline and social behaviors were reported. The intervention reported in this article has the potential of supporting learning and developmental outcomes over time.

  11. Does School Mobility Place Elementary School Children at Risk for Lower Math Achievement? The Mediating Role of Cognitive Dysregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Raver, C. Cybele

    2015-01-01

    Children growing up in poverty have a higher likelihood of exposure to multiple forms of adversity that jeopardize their chances of academic success. The current paper identifies school mobility, or changing schools, as 1 such poverty-related risk. Using a sample of low-income, predominantly ethnic-minority children (n = 381) in Chicago, this study tests the hypothesis that repeatedly changing schools during the 5-year period between Head Start (preschool) and third grade is a potent predicto...

  12. A Comparison of Three Different Measures of Intelligence with Preschool Children Identified At-Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsick, Koressa; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Administered Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), and Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT) to 70 preschoolers identified at-risk. PPVT-R and EOWPVT were found to be significantly correlated with Verbal and Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores of…

  13. Examining an Executive Function Rating Scale as a Predictor of Achievement in Children at Risk for Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Shanna S.; Burns, Matthew K.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that executive function (EF) may be a potent and malleable predictor of academic achievement in children. Schools may be able to use this predictive power if researchers develop EF measures that not only have ecological and construct validity, but also are also efficient and affordable. To this end, Garcia-Barrera and colleagues…

  14. Profile of Australian preschool children with speech sound disorders at risk for literacy difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, S.; Crowe, K.; Masso, S.; Baker, E.; McCormack, J.; Wren, Y.; Roulstone, S.; Howland, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Speech sound disorders are a common communication difficulty in preschool children. Teachers indicate difficulty identifying and supporting these children.\\ud \\ud Aim: To describe speech and language characteristics of children identified by their parents and/or teachers as having possible communication concerns.\\ud \\ud Method: 275 Australian 4- to 5-year-old children from 45 preschools whose parents and teachers were concerned about their talking participated in speech-language p...

  15. Children at Risk: A Study of the Psychosocial Impact of HIV on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the effect of parental HIV on the life of children in Benin. A total of 2,043 children aged from 10 to 16 were surveyed on health, diet, violence, school attendance and psychosocial state. The results indicate that, while Beninese children who have had a parent living with HIV are not necessarily subjected ...

  16. What Factors Place Children with Speech Sound Disorders at Risk for Reading Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Jason L.; Aghara, Rachel Greenblatt; Dunkelberger, Martha J.; Anthony, Teresa I.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Zhang, Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To identify weaknesses in print awareness and phonological processing that place children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) at increased risk for reading difficulties. Method: Language, literacy, and phonological skills of 3 groups of preschool-age children were compared: a group of 68 children with SSDs, a group of 68 peers with normal…

  17. Profile of Australian Preschool Children with Speech Sound Disorders at Risk for Literacy Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Crowe, Kathryn; Masso, Sarah; Baker, Elise; McCormack, Jane; Wren, Yvonne; Roulstone, Susan; Howland, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Speech sound disorders are a common communication difficulty in preschool children. Teachers indicate difficulty identifying and supporting these children. The aim of this research was to describe speech and language characteristics of children identified by their parents and/or teachers as having possible communication concerns. 275 Australian 4-…

  18. DNA Repair Alterations in Children With Pediatric Malignancies: Novel Opportunities to Identify Patients at Risk for High-Grade Toxicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebe, Claudia E.; Fricke, Andreas; Schneider, Ruth; Simon, Karin; Kuehne, Martin; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Graeber, Stefan; Graf, Norbert; Ruebe, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate, in a pilot study, the phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) foci approach for identifying patients with double-strand break (DSB) repair deficiencies, who may overreact to DNA-damaging cancer therapy. Methods and Materials: The DSB repair capacity of children with solid cancers was analyzed compared with that of age-matched control children and correlated with treatment-related normal-tissue responses (n = 47). Double-strand break repair was investigated by counting γH2AX foci in blood lymphocytes at defined time points after irradiation of blood samples. Results: Whereas all healthy control children exhibited proficient DSB repair, 3 children with tumors revealed clearly impaired DSB repair capacities, and 2 of these repair-deficient children developed life-threatening or even lethal normal-tissue toxicities. The underlying mutations affecting regulatory factors involved in DNA repair pathways were identified. Moreover, significant differences in mean DSB repair capacity were observed between children with tumors and control children, suggesting that childhood cancer is based on genetic alterations affecting DSB repair function. Conclusions: Double-strand break repair alteration in children may predispose to cancer formation and may affect children's susceptibility to normal-tissue toxicities. Phosphorylated H2AX analysis of blood samples allows one to detect DSB repair deficiencies and thus enables identification of children at risk for high-grade toxicities.

  19. Cognitive Processes that Account for Mental Addition Fluency Differences between Children Typically Achieving in Arithmetic and Children At-Risk for Failure in Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Derek H.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether processing speed, short-term memory, and working memory accounted for the differential mental addition fluency between children typically achieving in arithmetic (TA) and children at-risk for failure in arithmetic (AR). Further, we drew attention to fluency differences in simple (e.g., 5 + 3) and complex (e.g., 16 +…

  20. Diet, breakfast, and academic performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, R E; Hall, S; Green, H; Korzec-Ramirez, D; Patton, K; Pagano, M E; Murphy, J M

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether nutrient intake and academic and psychosocial functioning improve after the start of a universal-free school breakfast program (USBP). Information was gathered from 97 inner city students prior to the start of a USBP and again after the program had been in place for 6 months. Students who had total energy intakes of breakfast at school than children who were not at nutritional risk. Six months after the start of the free school breakfast programs, students who decreased their nutritional risk showed significantly greater: improvements in attendance and school breakfast participation, decreases in hunger, and improvements in math grades and behavior than children who did not decrease their nutritional risk. Participation in a school breakfast program enhanced daily nutrient intake and improvements in nutrient intake were associated with significant improvements in student academic performance and psychosocial functioning and decreases in hunger. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Barriers and Facilitators to Melanoma Prevention and Control Behaviors Among At-Risk Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Parsons, Bridget G; Mooney, Ryan; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Cloyes, Kristin; Hay, Jennifer L; Kohlmann, Wendy; Grossman, Douglas; Leachman, Sancy A

    2018-04-06

    Melanoma prevention is essential for children who are at elevated risk for the disease due to family history. However, children who carry a familial risk for the disease do not optimally adhere to recommended melanoma preventive behaviors. The current study sought to identify perceived barriers to and facilitators of children's engagement in melanoma preventive behaviors among children at elevated risk for melanoma due to family history of the disease (i.e., having a parent with a history of melanoma) from both parents' and childrens' perspectives. Qualitative methods were employed and consisted of separate focus group discussions with children (ages 8-17 years, n = 37) and their parents (n = 39). Focus group transcripts were coded using content analysis. Parents and children reported a number of barriers and facilitators, including on the individual (e.g., knowledge and awareness, preferences), social (e.g., peer influences, family modeling and communication), and contextual (e.g., healthcare provider communication) levels. The identified categories of barriers and facilitators both confirm and extend the literature documenting the reasons children who are at elevated risk for melanoma do not engage in melanoma prevention and control behaviors. Programs aiming to decrease melanoma risk among children of melanoma survivors could help families address their barriers to preventive behavior implementation and build on facilitators. Melanoma survivors and their children could benefit from support on their interactions with healthcare providers, schools, peers, and other caregivers about melanoma prevention.

  2. An emergency department intervention to protect an overlooked group of children at risk of significant harm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kaye, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Parental psychiatric disorder, especially depression, personality disorder and deliberate self-harm, is known to put children at greater risk of mental illness, neglect or physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Without a reliable procedure to identify children of parents presenting with these mental health problems, children at high risk of significant harm can be easily overlooked. Although deliberate self-harm constitutes a significant proportion of emergency presentations, there are no guidelines which address the emergency physician\\'s role in identifying and assessing risk to children of these patients. METHODS: A robust system was jointly developed with the local social services child protection team to identify and risk-stratify children of parents with mental illness. This allows us to intervene when we identify children at immediate risk of harm and to ensure that social services are aware of potential risk to all children in this group. The referral process was audited repeatedly to refine the agreed protocol. RESULTS: The proportion of patients asked by the emergency department personnel about dependent children increased and the quality of information received by the social services child protection team improved. CONCLUSIONS: All emergency departments should acknowledge the inadequacy of information available to them regarding patients\\' children and consider a policy of referral to social services for all children of parents with mental health presentations. This process can only be developed through close liaison within the multidisciplinary child protection team.

  3. Extending Opportunity to Learn for Students Placed At Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesselrodt, Pamela S.; Alger, Christianna L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a viable alternative to hiring full-time certified teachers or to using lay volunteers to provide children at risk of failing in school with academic coaches (tutors). The Academic Coaching Program described herein recruited and trained students enrolled in a university's school of education programs to serve as academic…

  4. Statewide prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis and rate of adrenaline autoinjector activation in Victorian government schools, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Paxton; Koplin, Jennifer; Beck, Cara; Field, Michael; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of school students at risk of anaphylaxis in Victoria is unknown and has not been previously studied. Similarly, rates of adrenaline autoinjector usage in the school environment have yet to be determined given increasing prescription rates. We sought to determine time trends in prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis across all year levels and the annual usage rate of adrenaline autoinjectors in the school setting relative to the number of students at risk of anaphylaxis. Statewide surveys from more than 1,500 government schools including more than 550,000 students were used and prevalence rates (%) with 95% CIs were calculated. The overall prevalence of students at risk of anaphylaxis has increased 41% from 0.98% (95% CI, 0.95-1.01) in 2009 to 1.38% (95% CI, 1.35-1.41) in 2014. There was a significant drop in reporting of anaphylaxis risk with transition from the final year of primary school to the first year of secondary school, suggesting a change in parental reporting of anaphylaxis risk among secondary school students. The number of adrenaline autoinjectors activated per 1000 students at risk of anaphylaxis ranged from 6 to 8 per year, with consistently higher activation use in secondary school students than in primary school students. Statewide prevalence of anaphylaxis risk has increased in children attending Victorian government schools. However, adrenaline autoinjector activation has remained fairly stable despite known increase in the rates of prescription. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The English proficiency and academic language skills of Australian bilingual children during the primary school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennaoui, Kamelia; Nicholls, Ruth Jane; O'Connor, Meredith; Tarasuik, Joanne; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Goldfeld, Sharon

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that early proficiency in the language of school instruction is an important predictor of academic success for bilingual children. This study investigated whether English-proficiency at 4-5 years of age predicts academic language and literacy skills among Australian bilingual children at 10-11 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children ( LSAC, 2012 ). The LSAC comprises a nationally representative clustered cross-sequential sample of Australian children. Data were analysed from a sub-sample of 129 bilingual children from the LSAC Kindergarten cohort (n = 4983), for whom teachers completed the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) checklist (a population measure of early childhood development) and the Academic Rating Scale (ARS) language and literacy subscale. Linear regression analyses revealed that bilingual children who commenced school with stronger English proficiency had higher academic language and literacy scores at the end of primary school (β = 0.45). English proficiency remained a significant predictor, even when accounting for gender and socio-economic disadvantage (β = 0.38). The findings indicate that bilingual children who begin school without English proficiency are at risk of difficulties with academic language and literacy, even after 6 years of schooling. Risk factors need to be identified so early support can be targeted towards the most vulnerable children.

  6. Telling With, Not Telling To: Interactive Storytelling and At-Risk Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallant, Carole

    Although the value of reading to children has been well established, the merit of storytelling has only recently been recognized as a powerful means of developing language skills, self-concept, and self-esteem in children. Interactive, or participative storytelling, enables participants to tap into their creativity, enhance their powers of memory,…

  7. Sustained Attention and Response Inhibition in Young Children at Risk for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwid, Olga G.; Curko Kera, Elizabeth A.; Marks, David J.; Santra, Amita; Bender, Heidi A.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies of school-aged children, adolescents, and adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have variably shown ADHD-related impairment in both inhibitory control and sustained attention. However, few studies have examined ADHD-associated patterns of performance on these tasks among younger children (below age 7…

  8. Is Privacy at Risk when Commercial Websites Target Primary School Children? A Case Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sora; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses privacy risk factors when commercial web sites target primary school children in Korea. Specifically, the authors examined types of personal information required for membership subscriptions and whether privacy policies at commercial sites for children abide by privacy guidelines. A total of 159 commercial sites targeting…

  9. Exposure to Aflatoxin and Fumonisin in Children at Risk for Growth Impairment in Rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Stunted growth is a major public health issue for children in Tanzania. We examined dietary exposures to aflatoxin and fumonisin and their potential roles in growth impairment in children under 36 months of age in Haydom, Tanzania. Methods. Plasma samples collected at 24 months of age ...

  10. Interventions for Young Children with and at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withey, Kristin L.

    2018-01-01

    Social-emotional and behavioral skills are essential to school and life success. Some young children, though, demonstrate significant delays in these areas. While there is a current hierarchical model of behavioral interventions for young children, it is lacking explicit interventions to be implemented in the early childhood classroom. This column…

  11. Treadmill interventions in children under six years of age at risk of neuromotor delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentin-Gudiol, Marta; Mattern-Baxter, Katrin; Girabent-Farres, Montserrat; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Maria Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Delayed motor development may occur in children with Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, general developmental delay or children born preterm. It limits the child's exploration of the environment and can hinder cognitive and social-emotional development. Literature suggests that task-specific

  12. Adolescent Children of Vietnam Combat Veteran Fathers: A Population at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansby, Virginia S.; Marinelli, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of adolescent children of Vietnam combat veterans with non-combat veterans found the majority of outcomes were not significantly different. However, children of combat veterans showed poorer attitudes towards school; more negative attitudes towards their father; experienced more depression, tension, apprehension, and anxiety; and…

  13. Academic outcomes of multilingual children in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Meredith; O'Connor, Elodie; Tarasuik, Joanne; Gray, Sarah; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Goldfeld, Sharon

    2017-02-24

    The Australian educational system is increasingly challenged to meet the needs of multilingual students, who comprise a fifth of the student population. Within the context of a monolingual English curriculum, multilingual children who enter school not yet English proficient may be at risk of experiencing inequitable educational outcomes. We examined the relationship between the timing of multilingual children's acquisition of receptive English vocabulary skills and subsequent reading and numeracy outcomes, as well as factors associated with earlier versus later timing of acquisition. Data were drawn from the Kindergarten-cohort (n = 4983) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children - a nationally representative, community sample of Australian children. Linear regression analyses revealed that multilingual children who begin school with proficient receptive English vocabulary skills, or who acquire proficiency early in schooling, are indistinguishable from their monolingual peers in literacy and numeracy outcomes by 10-11 years. However, later acquisition of receptive English vocabulary skills (i.e. after 6-7 years) was associated with poorer literacy outcomes. In turn, socioeconomic disadvantage and broader language or learning problems predicted this later acquisition of receptive English vocabulary skills. All children need to be supported during the early years of school to reach their full educational potential.

  14. Cause or consequence? Investigating attention bias and self-regulation skills in children at risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Nora; Bergmann, Sarah; Klein, Annette M; Daum, Moritz; von Klitzing, Kai; Horstmann, Annette

    2017-03-01

    Impaired self-regulation, especially in food-specific situations, has been linked to childhood obesity. These deficits may be acquired during the development of obesity rather than being a prerequisite thereof. The current study, hence, focused on an at-risk population versus controls. Normal-weight children of obese and normal-weight parents were tested regarding attentional flexibility, emotion regulation, and inhibitory control. A sample of 50 preschoolers of obese parents (n=25) or normal-weight parents (n=25) participated in this study. Through eye-tracking, attentional bias for food cues was measured during a visual probe task using food and toy images. Emotion regulation was assessed during a distress-evoking task, and inhibitory control was examined through a delay-of-gratification task. Both tasks are standardized and were conducted in non-food contexts. Results showed no significant group differences in overall attentional bias to food images over toy images. However, children of normal-weight parents showed a preference for toy images. Regarding emotion regulation, children in the risk group expressed significantly less overall emotional distress. In addition, less gaze aversion and bodily sadness could be observed in this group. No differences were found for inhibitory control. Findings suggest that general deficits in self-regulation are not yet present in normal-weight children at risk for obesity. Instead, they might develop as a by-product of unhealthy weight gain. Results indicate, however, that children of obese parents are less emotionally expressive compared with children of normal-weight parents. Furthermore, children of normal-weight parents appeared to be more interested in toy images than in food images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diet, Breakfast, and Academic Performance in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, R.E.; Hall, S.; Green, H.; Korzec-Ramirez, D.; Patton, K.; Pagano, M.E.; Murphy, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether nutrient intake and academic and psychosocial functioning improve after the start of a universal-free school breakfast program (USBP). Methods Information was gathered from 97 inner city students prior to the start of a USBP and again after the program had been in place for 6 months. Students who had total energy intakes of <50% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) and/or 2 or more micronutrients of <50% of RDA were considered to be at nutritional risk. Results Prior to the USBP, 33% of all study children were classified as being at nutritional risk. Children who were at nutritional risk had significantly poorer attendance, punctuality, and grades at school, more behavior problems, and were less likely to eat breakfast at school than children who were not at nutritional risk. Six months after the start of the free school breakfast programs, students who decreased their nutritional risk showed significantly greater: improvements in attendance and school breakfast participation, decreases in hunger, and improvements in math grades and behavior than children who did not decrease their nutritional risk. Conclusion Participation in a school breakfast program enhanced daily nutrient intake and improvements in nutrient intake were associated with significant improvements in student academic performance and psychosocial functioning and decreases in hunger. PMID:12428078

  16. Adopted children from the former Soviet Union: are they at risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon

    2013-10-01

    One of the families in my practice is considering adoption of a 2-year-old child from the former Soviet Union. The family has been reassured by the agency that a doctor will examine the child to rule out developmental delays. However, my understanding from your previous articles is that one cannot rule out fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) at that age. Are these children at increased risk of developing FASD? You are correct: FASD cannot be ruled out at 2 years of age. The risk of FASD, neglect, and abuse among children in orphanages in the former Soviet Union is high. While adoption of children with known developmental delays should be encouraged and supported, most families seek to adopt with the assumption that these children will be healthy.

  17. Travelers' Diarrhea in Children at Risk: An Observational Study From a Spanish Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; García-Carrasco, Emely; Serre-Delcor, Nuria; Treviño-Maruri, Begoña; Sulleiro, Elena; Ruiz-Giardín, José Manuel; Sanmartín, Juan Víctor; Torrús, Diego; Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros, Juan; Martín-Echevarría, Esteban; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Molina, Israel; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are a common cause of consultation about children traveling to or coming from developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with gastrointestinal syndrome in children who travel. A prospective observational analytical and multicenter study was performed within +Redivi, a Spanish Tropical Medicine network on imported infections, from January 2009 to December 2013. All participants aged 16 years and younger were included in the analysis. Ethical approval was obtained from all the participating centers. A total of 606 children ≤16 years of age were registered in the +Redivi database during the study period. Median age was 8.7 years (interquartile range, 4.4-12.4 years), 65.8% (399/606) were immigrants, 90% were >2 years old and 54% were male. Median travel duration, excluding immigrants, was 50 days (interquartile range, 30-150 days). Children with gastrointestinal symptoms represented 13.5% (82/606) of total consultations. A significant association was found in bivariate analysis between gastrointestinal disorder and age travel duration (P = 0.046). Immigrants had less gastrointestinal disorders than tourists (P traveler child visiting friends and relatives (P = 0.03), travel duration Traveling children who developed a gastrointestinal syndrome represented 13.5% of the total pediatric consultations in +Redivi. Independent risk factors were tourist or traveler visiting friends and relatives, travel duration agent causing a gastrointestinal disorder in the traveler children.

  18. Global research, practice, and policy issues on the care of infants and young children at risk: the articles in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Robert B; Groark, Christina J; Rygaard, Niels P

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue includes articles that contribute to (a) the global research base pertaining to the development of infants and toddlers at risk, primarily those who are institutionalized in lower resource countries; (b) interventions in institutions and to promote family alternatives to institutionalization; and (c) attempts to create modern child welfare systems emphasizing family care in entire states and countries. This introduction places these articles into the broader contexts of the literature in these three domains of interest. Across the world, urbanization, migration, armed conflict, epidemics, and famine disrupt families. Add poverty, abuse, neglect, and parental incapacity due to substance abuse and mental health problems, and the result is millions of children without parental care who come under governmental responsibility, often to be reared in institutions, and at risk for long-term developmental deficiencies and problems. Over the last 2 decades and especially recently, national and international governments and nongovernment organizations have increased efforts to help such children, especially those in low-resource countries. Two types of efforts have been made: one to improve the quality of care provided by institutions and the other to minimize the use of institutions and promote family residential care alternatives. The latter effort includes preventing family separations in the first place, reunification of children with birth families, and developing systems of kinship care, foster care, and adoption. This Special Issue of IMHJ is devoted to reports pertaining to issues in the research knowledge base, program practices, and countrywide policies for infants and young children at risk. We attempt in this introduction to place these reports in the broader context of this field, identify their unique contributions, and highlight lessons learned that can contribute to improved care practices and better child welfare systems. © 2014 Michigan

  19. Examining the Relationship between Comparative and Self-Focused Academic Data Visualizations in At-Risk College Students' Academic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Stephen J.

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative study focuses on capturing students' understanding two visualizations often utilized by learning analytics-based educational technologies: bar graphs, and line graphs. It is framed by Achievement Goal Theory--a prominent theory of students' academic motivation--and utilizes interviews (n = 60) to investigate how students at risk…

  20. Are former late-preterm children at risk for child vulnerability and overprotection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Haifa A; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Wey, Howard

    2010-09-01

    Parent perception of child vulnerability (PPCV) and parent overprotection (POP) are believed to have serious implications for age appropriate cognitive and psychosocial development in very low birth weight preterm children. With recent concerns about suboptimal developmental outcomes in late-preterm children, this study was aimed at examining the relationship between history of late-preterm birth (34-36 6/7 weeks gestation), and PPCV, POP, and healthcare utilization (HCU). This was a cross-sectional observational design. Study participants were mothers of 54 healthy singleton children recruited from community centers including Women and Children Clinics (WIC), primary care clinics and daycare centers in the upper Midwest region. Outcome measures included Forsyth Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS), Thomasgard Parent Protection Scale (PPS) scores, and healthcare utilization (HCU). Potential covariates included history of life-threatening illness, child and maternal demographics, and maternal stress and depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). HCU (p=0.02) and the PPS subscales of supervision (p=0.003) and separation (p=0.03) were significant predictors of PPCV in mothers of 3-8 years old children with late-preterm history. Age of the child (p=0.008) and CVS scores (p=0.005) were significant predictors of POP. Maternal age (p=0.04), stress (p=0.04), and CVS scores (p=0.003) were significant predictors of HCU. Dependence, a subscale of the PPS, correlated with the child's age and gender even after controlling for age. History of late-preterm did not predict MPCV, MOP, or HCU in healthy children. Future research is needed in larger more diverse samples to better understand causal relationships and develop strategies to lessen risks of MPCV and MOP. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Academic Attainment Findings in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Amanda S.; Myrvik, Matthew P.; Newby, Robert F.; Panepinto, Julie A.; Brandow, Amanda M.; Scott, J. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) demonstrate deficits in cognitive and academic functioning. This study compared the academic attainment of children with SCD relative to national, state, and local school district rates for African American students. Methods: A retrospective chart review of children with SCD was completed and…

  2. How Distorted Thinking Influence Arab Children Academic Achievement in Israel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gith, Emad

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between the parents Cognitive Distortion and Arab children academic achievements in Israel. 52 fifth grade Arab Children and their parents from Israel were participated. The results indicated that parent's cognitive distortion related negatively to children academic achievements; there…

  3. Effects of Kindergarten Retention for At-Risk Children's Psychosocial Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecandelaere, Machteld; Schmitt, Eric; Vanlaar, Gudrun; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Kindergarten retention is a popular practice for children who are considered unready for primary school. However, past research has not yet succeeded to find consistent, strong empirical evidence supporting the practice. In the current study, kindergarten repeaters' development in nine psychosocial domains is compared with that of equally at risk…

  4. Homeless and in Need of Special Education. Exceptional Children at Risk: CEC Mini-Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, L. Juane; Rudy, Kathryn

    This booklet examines the plight of homeless families who have children who need special educational services. It explores the magnitude of homelessness among families, provides empirical descriptions of homeless populations, and identifies factors contributing to the rising incidence of homelessness in the United States. Specific effects of…

  5. IA-2 autoantibody affinity in children at risk for type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Stephanie; Chmiel, Ruth; Bonifacio, Ezio; Scholz, Marlon; Powell, Michael; Furmaniak, Jadwiga; Rees Smith, Bernard; Ziegler, Anette-G; Achenbach, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Autoantibodies to insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2A) are associated with increased risk for type 1 diabetes. Here we examined IA-2A affinity and epitope specificity to assess heterogeneity in response intensity in relation to pathogenesis and diabetes risk in 50 children who were prospectively followed from birth. At first IA-2A appearance, affinity ranged from 10(7) to 10(11)L/mol and was high (>1.0×10(9)L/mol) in 41 (82%) children. IA-2A affinity was not associated with epitope specificity or HLA class II haplotype. On follow-up, affinity increased or remained high, and IA-2A were commonly against epitopes within the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like IA-2 domain and the homologue protein IA-2β. IA-2A were preceded or accompanied by other islet autoantibodies in 49 (98%) children, of which 34 progressed to diabetes. IA-2A affinity did not stratify diabetes risk. In conclusion, the IA-2A response in children is intense with rapid maturation against immunogenic epitopes and a strong association with diabetes development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain Responses to Lexical-Semantic Priming in Children At-Risk for Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Syversen, Gro; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Moen, Inger; Lindgren, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    Deviances in early event-related potential (ERP) components reflecting auditory and phonological processing are well-documented in children at familial risk for dyslexia. However, little is known about brain responses which index processing in other linguistic domains such as lexicon, semantics and syntax in this group. The present study…

  7. Family Interactions, Exposure to Violence, and Emotion Regulation: Perceptions of Children and Early Adolescents at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the protective nature of youth reports of family interactions in relation to perceived exposure to violence and anger regulation in 84 children and early adolescents (mean age of 10.5; 7-15 years old) primarily from ethnic minority groups and living in high-risk communities in a large southwestern city. Path analysis and…

  8. Motor Development in Children at Risk of Autism: A Follow-Up Study of Infant Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Hayley C.; Bedford, Rachael; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H.; Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, evidence of poor or atypical motor skills in autism spectrum disorder has led some to argue that motor impairment is a core feature of the condition. The current study uses a longitudinal prospective design to assess the development of motor skills of 20 children at increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder, who were…

  9. Tourette Syndrome: A Case for Establishing the Individual Needs of Children at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeni; Shrimpton, Bradley

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by multiple, involuntary, and repetitive motor and vocal tics. This paper addresses the educational needs of students with TS noting that, without proper intervention and appropriate learning experiences, these children often experience personal distress, reduced self-esteem, social…

  10. Reviewing the Literature on "At-Risk" and Resilient Children and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewald, Ria

    2011-01-01

    This review paper provides pre-service and in-service teachers, principals and other educational professionals with the information needed to understand the concept of resilience to affect positive development in children and young people in their care. It reviews and critiques the most influential literature on resiliency over the last four…

  11. Does school mobility place elementary school children at risk for lower math achievement? The mediating role of cognitive dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele

    2015-12-01

    Children growing up in poverty have a higher likelihood of exposure to multiple forms of adversity that jeopardize their chances of academic success. The current paper identifies school mobility, or changing schools, as 1 such poverty-related risk. Using a sample of low-income, predominantly ethnic-minority children (n = 381) in Chicago, this study tests the hypothesis that repeatedly changing schools during the 5-year period between Head Start (preschool) and third grade is a potent predictor of children's math achievement in fourth grade and that children's cognitive dysregulation serves as a mechanism through which school mobility may negatively affect children's math achievement. Hierarchical linear models controlling for baseline child and family characteristics (including children's early math and dysregulation measured during Head Start) revealed an inverse relation between the number of times low-income children changed schools between preschool and third grade and children's math achievement on state standardized tests in fourth grade. Furthermore, frequently changing schools (3 or 4 school changes over the same time period) was positively associated with teacher-reported cognitive dysregulation in third grade and negatively associated with children's math achievement in fourth grade. Evidence for the role of children's cognitive dysregulation as a partial statistical mediator was found for the relation between frequently changing schools and math achievement, even after accounting for baseline risk. Results are discussed in terms of school policies, practices, and intervention strategies to prevent the disruptive and potentially stressful experiences of school mobility for young, low-income children. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. When children affect parents: Children's academic performance and parental investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurk Quadlin, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Sociologists have extensively documented the ways that parent resources predict children's achievement. However, less is known about whether and how children's academic performance shapes parental investment behaviors. I use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and longitudinal fixed effects models to examine how changes in teacher assessments are related to changes in the conferral of various parent resources. Overall, I find that the relationship between achievement and investment varies based on the directionality in children's achievement and the type of resource at hand. Children whose performance improves receive a broad range of enrichment resources, while declines in performance are met with corrective educational resources. Results are largely consistent whether language or math assessments are used to predict investment, and also among children whose achievement does not change over time. I discuss these patterns, along with implications for the use of parent resources in education and family research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Precursors of Reading Difficulties in Czech and Slovak Children At-Risk of Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Thompson, Paul A; Mikulajova, Marina; Jagercikova, Zuzana; Kucharska, Anna; Franke, Helena; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-05-01

    Children with preschool language difficulties are at high risk of literacy problems; however, the nature of the relationship between delayed language development and dyslexia is not understood. Three hundred eight Slovak and Czech children were recruited into three groups: family risk of dyslexia, speech/language difficulties and controls, and were assessed three times from kindergarten until Grade 1. There was a twofold increase in probability of reading problems in each risk group. Precursors of 'dyslexia' included difficulties in oral language and code-related skills (phoneme awareness, letter-knowledge and rapid automatized naming); poor performance in phonological memory and vocabulary was observed in both affected and unaffected high-risk peers. A two-group latent variable path model shows that early language skills predict code-related skills, which in turn predict literacy skills. Findings suggest that dyslexia in Slavic languages has its origins in early language deficits, and children who succumb to reading problems show impaired code-related skills before the onset of formal reading instruction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Atypical Sulcal Pattern in Children with Developmental Dyslexia and At-Risk Kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kiho; Raschle, Nora Maria; Smith, Sara Ashley; Ellen Grant, P; Gaab, Nadine

    2016-03-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is highly heritable and previous studies observed reduced cortical volume, white matter integrity, and functional alterations in left posterior brain regions in individuals with DD. The primary sulcal pattern has been hypothesized to relate to optimal organization and connections of cortical functional areas. It is determined during prenatal development and may reflect early, genetically influenced, brain development. We characterize the sulcal pattern using graph-based pattern analysis and investigate whether sulcal patterns in parieto-temporal and occipito-temporal regions are atypical in elementary school-age children with DD and pre-readers/beginning readers (preschoolers/kindergarteners) with a familial risk (elementary school-age children: n [males/females], age range = 17/11, 84-155 months; preschoolers/kindergarteners: 16/15, 59-84 months). The pattern of sulcal basin area in left parieto-temporal and occipito-temporal regions was significantly atypical (more sulcal basins of smaller size) in children with DD and further correlated with reduced reading performance on single- and nonword reading measures. A significantly atypical sulcal area pattern was also confirmed in younger preschoolers/kindergarteners with a familial risk of DD. Our results provide further support for atypical early brain development in DD and suggest that DD may originate from altered organization or connections of cortical areas in the left posterior regions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Relationship of Helicobacter pylori infection with diarrhea and nutritional status among nutritionally-at-risk children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, M.A.; Husaini, Y.K.; Suwardi, S.; Salimar; Widodo, Y.; Kurpad, A.; Miranda-Da-Cruz, B.

    2005-01-01

    A crossectional study of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was carried out in 275 children (Age range = 6-36 months) belonging to the low socio-economic strata (SES) in the rural and suburban areas of Bogor (West Java Indonesia). H. Pylori infection was diagnosed by using C-13 urea breath test and nutritional status was analyzed by z- 2 scores. The study revealed a strong (χ 2 = 30.9; df=4; p 2 =7.2; df=3; p<0.05) association was observed between the educational status of mothers and prevalence of H. pylori infection. Although there was a trend, the results did not yield any significant association between diarrhoea and H. pylori infection. A similar trend was also seen between anemia status and H. pylori infection. Of particular interest was the higher rate of H.pylori infection in children who were on breast-feeding as compared to those who had already been weaned (p<0.05). Stunting, a deficit of length-for-age was the only parameter among the three indicators of malnutrition (underweight, wasting, stunting), which was observed to be significantly (P<0.05) associated with H. pylori infection in our study. Although the other two parameters, underweight and wasting, were also manifested, the associations were not statistically significant. The results of this study have demonstrated that H. Pylori infection has an effect on malabsorption leading to a negative impact on the ability of children to thrive. (author)

  16. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine C; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements of the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for 1 year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to the instrumental training. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally-trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. Despite intrinsic constraints on our study imposed by a community setting, these findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making) to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity and may inform the

  17. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: Biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina eKraus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements in the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1,000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for one year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to an instrumental training class. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. These findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity during trand may inform the development of strategies for auditory

  18. Implementation and Evaluation of an Intervention for Children in Afghanistan at Risk for Substance Use or Actively Using Psychoactive Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Subor Momand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of a novel intervention for children at risk for substance use or actively using substances that was provided to 783 children between 4 and 18 years of age in Afghanistan. They received the Child Intervention for Living Drug-free (CHILD protocol while in outpatient or residential treatment. CHILD included age-appropriate literacy and numeracy, drug education, basic living safety, and communication and trauma coping skills. A battery of measures examined multiple child health domains at treatment’s start and end and 12 weeks later. For younger children, there were no significant Gender or Gender X Time effects (all p’s > .16 and .35, resp.. The time main effect was significant for all outcomes (all p’s < .00192, the prespecified per-comparison error rate. Post hoc testing showed significant improvements from residential treatment entry to completion for all scales. For older children, a time main effect was significant for (all p’s < .00192, the prespecified per-comparison error rate all but one outcome. Community follow-up means were significantly lower than residential treatment entry means. CHILD had a positive impact on children, and treatment impact endured from posttreatment to follow-up assessment.

  19. Vaccine induced Hepatitis A and B protection in children at risk for cystic fibrosis associated liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam J; Esther, Charles R; Leigh, Margaret W; Dellon, Elisabeth P

    2013-01-30

    Hepatitis A (HAV) and Hepatitis B (HBV) infections can cause serious morbidity in patients with liver disease, including cystic fibrosis associated liver disease (CFALD). HAV and HBV vaccinations are recommended in CFALD, and maintenance of detectable antibody levels is also recommended with chronic liver disease. A better understanding of factors predicting low HAV and HBV antibodies may help physicians improve protection from these viruses in CFALD patients. We examined HAV and HBV vaccine protection in children at risk for CFALD. Clinical and vaccine histories were reviewed, and HAV and HBV antibody titers measured. Those with no vaccination history or low HAV or HBV titers received primary or booster vaccinations, and responses were measured. Thirty-four of 308 children were at risk for CFALD per project criteria. Ten had previous HAV vaccination, of which 90% had positive anti-HAV antibodies. Thirty-three of 34 had previously received primary HBV vaccination (most in infancy), but only 12 (35%) had adequate anti-HBs levels (≥10mIU/mL). Children with adequate anti-HBs levels were older at first HBV vaccine (median 2.3 vs. 0.1 years, p<0.01), and at final HBV vaccine (median 4.0 vs. 0.8 years, p=0.01). Fourteen of 19 (74%) responded to HBV boosters. Z-scores for BMI at HBV booster were significantly lower in booster non-responders (p=0.04). Children at increased risk of CFALD have inadequate HAV and HBV antibody levels, and HBV antibody protection can be enhanced through vaccine boosters. HBV antibody titers should be assessed in CFALD patients with a history of vaccination, particularly in those who received HBV vaccines in infancy or who are malnourished. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Executive functioning and motivation in preschool children at risk for learning difficulties in mathematics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentación-Herrero, M Jesús; Mercader-Ruiz, Jessica; Siegenthaler-Hierro, Rebeca; Fernández-Andrés, Inmaculada; Miranda-Casas, Ana

    2015-02-25

    Early identification of the factors involved in the development of learning difficulties in mathematics is essential to be able to understand their origin and implement successful interventions. This study analyses the capacity of executive functioning and of variables from the motivational belief system to differentiate and classify preschool children with and without risk of having difficulties in mathematics. A total of 146 subjects from the third year of preschool education took part in the study, divided into risk/no risk according to the score obtained on the operations subtest of the TEDI-MATH test. Working memory (verbal and visuospatial) and inhibition (with auditory and visual stimuli) neuropsychological tasks were applied. Teachers filled in a questionnaire on the children's motivation with regard to learning. Significant differences were found between the two groups on the working memory and inhibition-auditory factors, as well as on all the motivation variables. The results also show a similar power of classification, with percentages above 80%, for both groups of variables. The implications of these findings for educational practice are discussed.

  1. A longitudinal study of the development of oral reading fluency in young children at risk for reading failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speece, Deborah L; Ritchey, Kristen D

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the development of oral reading fluency in a sample of first-grade children. Using growth curve analysis, models of growth were identified for a combined sample of at-risk (AR) and not-at-risk (NAR) children, and predictors of growth were identified for the longitudinal AR sample in first and second grade. Large and serious differences in reading fluency growth between the AR and NAR samples were apparent early, replicating other reports. Theories of sight-word learning and reading fluency were supported, in that letter-sound fluency was a uniquely significant predictor of first-grade reading fluency. The effects of phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming were mediated by the other variables in the model. Growth in first-grade oral reading fluency accounted for the most unique variance in second-grade growth and end-of-year performance. The results suggest that word reading fluency should be regarded as developing concomitantly with early word recognition rather than as a later-developing skill.

  2. Oocyte cryopreservation for fertility preservation in postpubertal female children at risk for premature ovarian failure due to accelerated follicle loss in Turner syndrome or cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, K; Bedoschi, G

    2014-12-01

    To preliminarily study the feasibility of oocyte cryopreservation in postpubertal girls aged between 13 and 15 years who were at risk for premature ovarian failure due to the accelerated follicle loss associated with Turner syndrome or cancer treatments. Retrospective cohort and review of literature. Academic fertility preservation unit. Three girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome, 1 girl diagnosed with germ-cell tumor. and 1 girl diagnosed with lymphoblastic leukemia. Assessment of ovarian reserve, ovarian stimulation, oocyte retrieval, in vitro maturation, and mature oocyte cryopreservation. Response to ovarian stimulation, number of mature oocytes cryopreserved and complications, if any. Mean anti-müllerian hormone, baseline follical stimulating hormone, estradiol, and antral follicle counts were 1.30 ± 0.39, 6.08 ± 2.63, 41.39 ± 24.68, 8.0 ± 3.2; respectively. In Turner girls the ovarian reserve assessment indicated already diminished ovarian reserve. Ovarian stimulation and oocyte cryopreservation was successfully performed in all female children referred for fertility preservation. A range of 4-11 mature oocytes (mean 8.1 ± 3.4) was cryopreserved without any complications. All girls tolerated the procedure well. Oocyte cryopreservation is a feasible technique in selected female children at risk for premature ovarian failure. Further studies would be beneficial to test the success of oocyte cryopreservation in young girls. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Teaching Word Recognition to Young Children Who Are at Risk Using Microsoft[R] Powerpoint[TM] Coupled with Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Boeckmann, Nichole M.; Watts, Emily H.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on use of Microsoft[R] PowerPoint[TM] paired with direct instruction (DI) to teach word recognition to young children at risk. DI has been a widely used teaching method for over 40 years, and is often used to teach emergent literacy skills. Recent DI research with preschoolers at risk has suggested the potential for using…

  4. Development of Motor-Life-Skills: Variations in Children at Risk for Motor Difficulties from the Toddler Age to Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas; Reikerås, Elin; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2018-01-01

    This article explores variations in development of everyday motor-life-skills in 661 children (329 girls and 332 boys) in Norwegian kindergartens of ages 2:9 (T1) and 4:9 (T2) years:months. The particular focus is on children at risk for problems in motor development (the 10% weakest children in the sample). The methodological approach chosen is…

  5. Determinants of academic performance in children with sickle cell anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Ezenwosu, Osita U; Emodi, Ifeoma J; Ikefuna, Anthony N; Chukwu, Barth F; Osuorah, Chidiebere D

    2013-01-01

    Background Some factors are known to influence the academic performance of children with Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA). Information on their effects in these children is limited in Nigeria. The factors which influence academic performance of children with SCA in Enugu, Nigeria are determined in this study. Methods Consecutive children with SCA aged 5?11?years were recruited at the weekly sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria. Their age- and sex- m...

  6. The Influence of Neighborhood Characteristics and Parenting Practices on Academic Problems and Aggression Outcomes among Moderately to Highly Aggressive Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tammy D.; Lochman, John E.; Fite, Paula J.; Wells, Karen C.; Colder, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    The current study utilized a longitudinal design to examine the effects of neighborhood and parenting on 120 at-risk children's academic and aggressive outcomes, concurrently and at two later timepoints during the transition to middle school. Random effects regression models were estimated to examine whether neighborhood characteristics and harsh…

  7. Children with spina bifida are at risk for low bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Elizabeth A; Cheema, Asad

    2011-05-01

    Patients with spina bifida frequently sustain lower extremity fractures which may be difficult to diagnose because they feel little or no pain, although the relative contributions of low bone density to pain insensitivity are unclear. Routine dual-energy xray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning is unreliable because these patients lack bony elements in the spine, and many have joint contractures and/or implanted hardware. We asked (1) if the lateral distal femoral scan is useful in spina bifida; (2) whether nonambulatory children with spina bifida exhibit differences in bone mineral density (BMD) compared with an age-and-sex-matched population; and (3) whether Z-scores were related to extremity fracture incidence. We retrospectively reviewed 37 patients with spina bifida who had DXA scans and sufficient data. Z-scores were correlated with functional level, ambulatory status, body mass index, and fracture history. The distal femoral scan could be performed in subjects for whom total body and/or lumbar scans could not be performed accurately. Twenty-four of 37 had Z-scores below -2 SD, defined as "low bone density for age." Ten of 35 patients (29%) with fracture information had experienced one or more fractures. Our sample size was too small to correlate Z-score with fracture. We believe BMD should be monitored in patients with spina bifida; nonambulatory patients with spina bifida and those with other risk factors are more likely to have low bone density for age than unaffected individuals. The LDF scan was useful in this population in whom lumbar and total body scans are often invalidated by contracture or artifact. Although lower extremity fractures occur regardless of ambulation or bone density, knowing an individual's bone health status may lead to interventions to improve bone health.

  8. Socialization of Perceived Academic Competence among Highly Competent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Deborah A.

    1987-01-01

    Academically competent third-graders and their parents were studied to (1) determine whether the illusion of incompetence documented in fifth graders appears in younger children; and (2) examine the influence that parents exert on their children's development of self-perceptions of academic competence. (PCB)

  9. Academic Performance of School Children With Epilepsy | Ibekwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease encountered among school children in Nigeria. Studies in developed countries show conflicting reports on it\\'s effect on academic performance. There is also a dearth of information on the academic performance of Nigerian children with epilepsy.

  10. [Prevention of dyslexia – short-term and intermediate effects of promoting phonological awareness and letter-sound correspondence with at-risk preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höse, Anna; Wyschkon, Anne; Moraske, Svenja; Eggeling, Marie; Quandte, Sabine; Kohn, Juliane; Poltz, Nadine; von Aster, Michael; Esser, Günter

    2016-09-01

    This study assesses the short-term and intermediate effects of preschool training stimulating phonological awareness and letter-sound correspondence for children at risk of developing dyslexia. Moreover, we examined whether training reduced the frequency of subsequent dyslexic problems. 25 children at risk of developing dyslexia were trained with Hören, Lauschen, Lernen 1 und 2 (Küspert & Schneider, 2008; Plume & Schneider, 2004) by their kindergarten teachers and were compared with 60 untrained at-risk children. The training revealed a significant short-term effect: The phonological awareness of trained at-risk children increased significantly over that of untrained at-risk children. However, there were no differences in phonological awareness, spelling, and reading ability between the first-graders in the training and control group. Furthermore, reading problems were reduced in the training group. In the future, phonological awareness as well as additional predictors should be included when identifying children vulnerable to developing dyslexia. Moreover, in order to prevent dyslexia, additional prerequisite deficits need to be identified, alleviated, and their effects evaluated.

  11. Parent Training for Children With or at Risk for Developmental Delay: The Role of Parental Homework Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosmary; Hernandez, Jennifer; Graziano, Paulo A; Bagner, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which parental homework completion during behavioral parent training (BPT) for children with or at risk for developmental delay contributed to parenting and child outcomes. Parents of 48 children (Mage=44.17 months, SD=14.29; 73% male; 72% White) with developmental delay (IQhomework completion was measured using parental report of home practice of treatment skills collected weekly by therapists. Parents also reported on child externalizing behavior problems and levels of parenting stress, while parenting skills were observed during a 5-min child directed play and child compliance was observed during a 5-min cleanup situation. Results indicated that higher rates of parental homework completion predicted parenting outcomes (i.e., increased positive parenting skills and decreased levels of parenting stress) and child outcomes (i.e., lower levels of externalizing behavior problems). Additionally, although limited by temporal precedence, there was an indirect effect of reductions in parenting stress on the negative association between parental homework completion and child externalizing behavior problems. These findings highlight the importance of parents practicing skills learned during BPT for optimizing treatment outcome. Parenting stress was also identified as a potential mechanism by which high levels of parental homework completion contributed to reductions in child externalizing behavior problems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The validation of Implicit Association Test measures for smartphone and Internet addiction in at-risk children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Daeyoung; Bhang, Soo-Young; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kweon, Yong Sil; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-01-31

    Background Potential concerns are increasing that smartphone and Internet addictions may have deleterious effects on the mental health. Despite the recognition of the important role that implicit associations may have over explicit processes in addiction, such implicit associations have not been comprehensively investigated with respect to Internet addiction. Therefore, we modified the Implicit Association Test (IAT) for smartphone and Internet addictions and investigated its validity in children and adolescents. Methods In this experimental study, 78 at-risk children and adolescents ranging in age from 7 to 17 years completed an IAT modified with pictures captured from the most popular Internet games among youth. Furthermore, measures of Internet and smartphone addictions, mental health and problem behaviors, impulsive tendencies, self-esteem, daily stress, and quality of life were assessed simultaneously. Results Significant correlations were found between IAT D2SD scores and standardized scales for Internet (r = .28, p smartphone (r = .33, p smartphone addiction (p = .03) after controlling for other clinical correlates. Conclusions This study demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity of this IAT as a novel measurement relating to Internet and smartphone addictions. Further longitudinal and prospective studies are needed to evaluate its potential utility in clinical and community settings.

  13. Effect of Body Composition, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness on the Physical Activity and Fitness Knowledge of At-Risk Inner-City Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Timothy A.; Burns, Ryan D.; Hannon, James C.

    2016-01-01

    SHAPE America has highlighted the importance of developing physically literate children as part of quality physical education programming. Unfortunately, most children know little about physical activity and health-related fitness. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity and fitness content knowledge of at-risk inner-city…

  14. [Diagnostic evaluation of the developmental level in children identified at risk of delay through the Child Development Evaluation Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Campos-Maldonado, Martha Carmen; Vélez-Andrade, Víctor Hugo; Delgado-Ginebra, Ismael; Baqueiro-Hernández, César Iván; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Ojeda-Lara, Lucía; Davis-Martínez, Erika Berenice; O'Shea-Cuevas, Gabriel; Aceves-Villagrán, Daniel; Carrasco-Mendoza, Joaquín; Villagrán-Muñoz, Víctor Manuel; Halley-Castillo, Elizabeth; Sidonio-Aguayo, Beatriz; Palma-Tavera, Josuha Alexander; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre

    The Child Development Evaluation (or CDE Test) was developed in Mexico as a screening tool for child developmental problems. It yields three possible results: normal, slow development or risk of delay. The modified version was elaborated using the information obtained during the validation study but its properties according to the base population are not known. The objective of this work was to establish diagnostic confirmation of developmental delay in children 16- to 59-months of age previously identified as having risk of delay through the CDE Test in primary care facilities. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in one Mexican state. CDE test was administered to 11,455 children 16- to 59-months of age from December/2013 to March/2014. The eligible population represented the 6.2% of the children (n=714) who were identified at risk of delay through the CDE Test. For inclusion in the study, a block randomization stratified by sex and age group was performed. Each participant included in the study had a diagnostic evaluation using the Battelle Development Inventory, 2 nd edition. From the 355 participants included with risk of delay, 65.9% were male and 80.2% were from rural areas; 6.5% were false positives (Total Development Quotient ˃90) and 6.8% did not have any domain with delay (Domain Developmental Quotient motor 55.5%; and adaptive 41.7%. There were significant differences in the percentages of delay both by age and by domain/subdomain evaluated. In 93.2% of the participants, developmental delay was corroborated in at least one domain evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Informed consent for enrolling minors in genetic susceptibility research: a qualitative study of at-risk children's and parents' views about children's role in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Gail; Tambor, Ellen S; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Fraser, Gertrude; Wissow, Lawrence S

    2003-04-01

    To better understand the process by which families at increased risk of disease would decide to enroll their children in genetic susceptibility research in order to develop recommendations regarding the informed consent process by which at-risk children are enrolled in such research in the future [corrected]. Parents and children (ages 10-17 years) from families at increased risk for heart disease (n = 21 dyads) or breast cancer (n = 16 dyads) participated in two face-to-face, audio-taped, semi-structured interviews: Initial interviews were conducted with parents and children separately, and follow-up family interviews were conducted 1 year later. Interview transcripts were coded based on common themes. Families vary in the stage at which, and degree to which, children would be involved in decision-making about research participation. In general, the older/more mature the child, the less risky the research and the more open the communication style, the greater the likelihood that decisions would be made jointly. Most children wanted some parental input, but still thought the final decision should be theirs. Most parents would want to make the initial decision about whether it would be reasonable to consider enrolling their child in the research being proposed, but none opposed the child having some time alone with the researcher. All parents and children in our study placed extreme importance on not forcing children to participate in nontherapeutic research if they do not want to. Decision-making about enrolling children in genetic susceptibility research should be based on an informed consent process that (a) gives parents and children sufficient opportunity to ask questions of the researcher(s) and to communicate with one another, and (b) gives children the opportunity to exercise their right to refuse participation without parental influence. This process should be tailored to the child's maturity level and style of communication in the family.

  16. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years: prevalence and groups at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Meinou H C; Vogels, Anton G C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits provided to the entire population. A total of 1630 children participated (response rate, 84%). Before the visit, parents completed a questionnaire with questions about their approach to discipline (punishment and rewards). Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between discipline practices and child, parent, and family factors. Parental punishment prevalence was 21.9% for spanking and 80.3% for other punishment practices, such as time-outs. The prevalence of rewards as a discipline strategy was 32.2% for granting privileges and 86.3% for cuddling/complimenting. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that spanking was more likely in families in which the mothers have low and medium levels of education and in families of non-Dutch ethnicity. Other punishment practices (eg, time-outs, verbal reprimands, and holding) were more likely in families of Dutch ethnicity. Granting privileges was more likely in families of non-Dutch ethnicity, who lived in large cities, whose income was below the poverty level, in unemployed families, and in small families. Cuddling and complimenting were more likely in families with a high maternal educational level, in families of Dutch ethnicity, and in small families. These findings show the importance of considering social and economic factors when identifying and supporting parents with parenting/rearing challenges. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Language and Academic Abilities in Children with Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Evans, Mary Ann; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined receptive language and academic abilities in children with selective mutism (SM; n = 30; M age = 8.8 years), anxiety disorders (n = 46; M age = 9.3 years), and community controls (n = 27; M age = 7.8 years). Receptive language and academic abilities were assessed using standardized tests completed in the laboratory. We found a…

  18. Are children with chronic illnesses requiring dietary therapy at risk for disordered eating or eating disorders? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conviser, Jenny H; Fisher, Sheehan D; McColley, Susanna A

    2018-03-01

    Pediatric chronic illnesses (CI) can affect a child's mental health. Chronic illnesses with treatment regimens that specify a therapeutic diet may place the child at increased risk for disordered eating and specific eating disorders (ED). The aim of this review is to examine the relation between diet-treated CI and disordered eating and to determine the order of onset to infer directionality. Diet-treated CI is hypothesized to precede and to be associated with disordered eating. A comprehensive search of empirical articles that examine the relation between diet-treated CI (diabetes, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, gastrointestinal disorders, and inflammatory bowel diseases) and disordered eating was conducted in Medline and PsycINFO using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A table of the sample's characteristics, ED measures, major pertinent findings, and the onset of CI in relation to ED were provided. Diet-treated CI was associated with disordered eating and ED. Diet-treated CI had onset prior to disordered eating in most studies, except for inflammatory bowel diseases. Disordered eating and unhealthy weight management practices put children at risk for poor medical outcomes. Interventions for diet-treated CI require a focus on diet and weight, but may increase the risk for disordered eating. Future research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms that transform standard treatment practices into pathological eating, including characteristics and behaviors of the child, parents/care providers, family, and treatment providers. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Academic attainment findings in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Amanda S; Myrvik, Matthew P; Newby, Robert F; Panepinto, Julie A; Brandow, Amanda M; Scott, J Paul

    2013-08-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) demonstrate deficits in cognitive and academic functioning. This study compared the academic attainment of children with SCD relative to national, state, and local school district rates for African American students. A retrospective chart review of children with SCD was completed and academic information was collected from caregiver report and school records. One-sample tests of proportions were calculated to compare academic attainment rates in children with SCD relative to national, state, and local school district normative data of African American students. Overall, 197 patient records were reviewed. A higher proportion of children with SCD were retained a grade relative to national, state, and local school district rates for African American students. In addition, a higher proportion of children with SCD received special education services relative to the national, state, and local school district rates for African American students. Children with SCD demonstrate higher rates of special education services and grade retention relative to African American peers. Overall, children with SCD demonstrate poorer academic attainment relative to healthy, African American peers highlighting the need for increased focus on special education services to address school performance issues within this population. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  20. Academic achievement of children and adolescents with oral clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Collet, Brent; Barron, Sheila; Romitti, Paul A; Ansley, Timothy N; Speltz, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies of academic achievement of children with oral clefts have mostly relied on small, clinic-based samples prone to ascertainment bias. In the first study in the United States to use a population-based sample with direct assessment, we evaluated the academic achievement of children with oral clefts relative to their classmates. Children born with isolated oral clefts in Iowa from 1983 to 2003 were identified from the Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders and matched to unaffected classmates by gender, school/school district, and month and year of birth. Academic achievement was assessed by using standardized tests of academic progress developed by the Iowa Testing Programs. Iowa Testing Programs data were linked to birth certificates for all children. Regression models controlled for household demographic and socioeconomic factors. The analytical sample included 588 children with clefts contributing 3735 child-grade observations and 1874 classmates contributing 13 159 child-grade observations. Children with oral clefts had lower scores than their classmates across all domains and school levels, with a 5-percentile difference in the overall composite score. Children with clefts were approximately one-half grade level behind their classmates and had higher rates of academic underachievement and use of special education services by 8 percentage points. Group differences were slightly lower but remained large and significant after adjusting for many background characteristics. Children with oral clefts underperformed across all academic areas and grade levels compared with their classmates. The results support a model of early testing and intervention among affected children to identify and reduce academic deficits. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Prediction and treatment of asthma in preschool children at risk: study design and baseline data of a prospective cohort study in general practice (ARCADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Aalderen Wim MC

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a difficult diagnosis to establish in preschool children. A few years ago, our group presented a prediction rule for young children at risk for asthma in general practice. Before this prediction rule can safely be used in practice, cross-validation is required. In addition, general practitioners face many therapeutic management decisions in children at risk for asthma. The objectives of the study are: (1 identification of predictors for asthma in preschool children at risk for asthma with the aim of cross-validating an earlier derived prediction rule; (2 compare the effects of different treatment strategies in preschool children. Design In this prospective cohort study one to five year old children at risk of developing asthma were selected from general practices. At risk was defined as 'visited the general practitioner with recurrent coughing (≥ 2 visits, wheezing (≥ 1 or shortness of breath (≥ 1 in the previous 12 months'. All children in this prospective cohort study will be followed until the age of six. For our prediction rule, demographic data, data with respect to clinical history and additional tests (specific immunoglobulin E (IgE, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, peak expiratory flow (PEF are collected. History of airway specific medication use, symptom severity and health-related quality of life (QoL are collected to estimate the effect of different treatment intensities (as expressed in GINA levels using recently developed statistical techniques. In total, 1,938 children at risk of asthma were selected from general practice and 771 children (40% were enrolled. At the time of writing, follow-up for all 5-year olds and the majority of the 4-year olds is complete. The total and specific IgE measurements at baseline were carried out by 87% of the children. Response rates to the repeated questionnaires varied from 93% at baseline to 73% after 18 months follow-up; 89% and 87% performed PEF and FENO

  2. Acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea and fever in young children at-risk of intellectual disability in 24 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Savage, Amber

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to (1) estimate the prevalence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms, diarrhoea and fever in the previous two weeks among 3-4 year old children who are/are not at-risk of intellectual disability in 24 low- and middle-income countries and (2) to investigate possible inequities in access to treatment among affected children. Cross-sectional survey. Secondary analysis of Rounds 4 and 5 UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) from 24 low- and middle-income countries (n = 99,934 children). Pooled estimates indicated that young children at-risk of intellectual disability in low-income countries were significantly more likely than their peers to have reported symptoms of ARI and diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks, and significantly less likely to have received appropriate treatment. Pooled estimates indicated that in middle-income countries children at-risk of intellectual disability were significantly more likely than their peers to have reported symptoms of ARI, diarrhoea and fever during the previous 2 weeks. Symptomatic children at-risk of intellectual disability were significantly less likely than their peers to have received antibiotics/antimotility medication for diarrhoea or antibiotics for ARI symptoms, but significantly more likely to be prescribed anti-malarials for fever. These results indicate the existence of significant inequalities and possible inequities in the exposure to and the treatment of three major infectious diseases among children who are/are not considered at-risk of intellectual disabilities in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Play-Based Intervention on Vocabulary Acquisition by Preschoolers at Risk for Reading and Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Ragan H.; Hardy, Jessica K.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2017-01-01

    Closing the vocabulary gap for young children at risk for reading and language delays due to low socioeconomic status may have far reaching effects, as the relationship between early vocabulary knowledge and later academic achievement has been well-established. Vocabulary instruction for young children at risk for reading and language delays…

  4. Interlimb coordination and academic performance in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Pacheco, Sheila Cristina; Gabbard, Carl; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Bobbio, Tatiana Godoy

    2016-10-01

    The specific mechanisms linking motor ability and cognitive performance, especially academic achievement, are still unclear. Whereas the literature provides an abundance of information on fine and visual-motor skill and cognitive attributes, much less has been reported on gross motor ability. This study examined interlimb coordination and its relationship to academic performance in children aged 8-11 years. Motor and academic skills were examined in 100 Brazilian children using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and the Academic Performance Test. Participants were grouped into low (75%) academic achievers. There was a significant difference between groups for Total Motor Composite (P academic performance and Body Coordination. Of the subtests of Body Coordination (Bilateral Coordination and Balance), Bilateral Coordination accounted for the highest impact on academic performance. Of interest here, that subtest consists primarily of gross motor tasks involving interlimb coordination. Overall, there was a positive relationship between motor behavior, in particular activities involving interlimb coordination, and academic performance. Application of these findings in the area of early assessment may be useful in the identification of later academic problems. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Teacher ratings of academic achievement of children between 6 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated teacher ratings of the impact of parental divorce on academic achievement of children between 6 and 12 years old up to 12 months after their parents divorced. A purposive sample of 120 children attending four different primary schools in a small South African town took part in the study. One third (n = 40) of ...

  6. Academic achievement in children with oral clefts versus unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Brent R; Wehby, George L; Barron, Sheila; Romitti, Paul A; Ansley, Timothy N; Speltz, Matthew L

    2014-08-01

    To compare academic achievement in children with oral-facial clefts (OFC) with their unaffected siblings. 256 children with OFC were identified from the Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders, and 387 unaffected siblings were identified from birth certificates. These data were linked to Iowa Testing Programs achievement data. We compared academic achievement in children with OFC with their unaffected siblings using linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. In post hoc analyses, we explored modifiers of siblings' academic performance. Achievement scores were similar between children with OFC and their siblings. Children with cleft palate only were significantly more likely to use special education than their unaffected siblings. Siblings' academic achievement was inversely related to distance in birth order and age from the affected child. Children with OFC and their siblings received similar achievement scores. Younger siblings, in particular, may share a vulnerability to poor academic outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Determinants of academic performance in children with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwosu, Osita U; Emodi, Ifeoma J; Ikefuna, Anthony N; Chukwu, Barth F; Osuorah, Chidiebere D

    2013-11-19

    Some factors are known to influence the academic performance of children with Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA). Information on their effects in these children is limited in Nigeria. The factors which influence academic performance of children with SCA in Enugu, Nigeria are determined in this study. Consecutive children with SCA aged 5-11 years were recruited at the weekly sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria. Their age- and sex- matched normal classmates were recruited as controls. The total number of days of school absence for 2009/2010 academic session was obtained for each pair of pupils from the class attendance register. Academic performance was assessed using the average of the overall scores in the three term examinations of same session. Intelligence ability was determined with Draw-A-Person Quotient (DAPQ) using the Draw-A-Person Test while socio-economic status was determined using the occupational status and educational attainment of each parent. Academic performance of children with SCA showed statistically significant association with their socio-economic status (χ2 = 9.626, p = 0.047), and significant correlation with DAPQ (r = 0.394, p = 0.000) and age (r = -0.412, p = 0.000). However, no significant relationship existed between academic performance and school absence in children with SCA (r = -0.080, p = 0.453). Academic performance of children with SCA is influenced by their intelligence ability, age and socio-economic status but not negatively affected by their increased school absenteeism.

  8. E-Books Effectiveness in Promoting Phonological Awareness and Concept about Print: A Comparison between Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities and Typically Developing Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Adina; Shlafer, Inessa

    2011-01-01

    Despite the young child's increasing access to electronic books and the evidence indicating it's effectiveness for promoting emergent literacy, research among young children at risk for learning disabilities is only just beginning. Motivated by this challenge, the study reported here compared the effect of an educational e-book on improvements in…

  9. Optimizing and Validating a Brief Assessment for Identifying Children of Service Members at Risk for Psychological Health Problems Following Parent Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Psychological Health Problems Following Parent Deployment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Julie Wargo Aikins, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Wayne State...Children of Service Members at Risk for Psychological Health Problems Following Parent Deployment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-2...interviews regarding their psychological health, marital and family functioning, and parent functioning. Spouses complete questionnaires regarding

  10. The effects of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geeraert, L; Van den Noortgate, W; Grietens, H; Onghena, P

    In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on 40 evaluation studies of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect with mostly nonrandomized designs. The main aim of all programs was to prevent physical child abuse and neglect by

  11. The Development of an After-School Music Program for At-Risk Children: Student Musical Preferences and Pre-Service Teacher Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura

    2006-01-01

    An urban university music education department and an outreach organization partnered to provide after-school music classes for at-risk children. Fourteen music education majors were recruited to teach 125 first through fifth graders (6-12 years of age), whose ethnicity was 55 percent Hispanic and 45 percent African-American. Classes included…

  12. Academic achievement one year after resective epilepsy surgery in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puka, Klajdi; Khattab, Maryam; Kerr, Elizabeth N; Smith, Mary Lou

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have examined the academic functioning of children following pediatric epilepsy surgery. Although intellectual functioning has been more thoroughly investigated, children with epilepsy may experience additional difficulties with academic skills. This study examined the academic outcomes of a cohort of children who underwent pediatric epilepsy surgery on an average 1.2 (standard deviation [SD]: 0.3) years prior. Participants were 136 children (mean age: 14.3 years, [SD]: 3.7 years) who had undergone resective epilepsy surgery. Academic functioning was assessed presurgery and postsurgery using standardized tests of reading, reading comprehension, arithmetic, and spelling. At baseline, 65% of the children displayed low achievement (1 SD below test mean), and 28% had underachievement (1 SD below baseline IQ) in at least one academic domain. Examining change over time revealed that reading, numeral operations, and spelling significantly declined among all patients; seizure freedom at follow-up (attained in 64% of the patients) did not influence this relationship. Reading comprehension and IQ remained unchanged. Similar findings were found when examining patients with a baseline IQ of ≥ 70 and when controlling for IQ. Regression analyses revealed that after controlling for IQ, demographic and seizure-related variables were not significantly associated with academic achievement at follow-up. Results show baseline academic difficulties and deteriorations following surgery that go beyond IQ. Further investigations are required to determine whether the observed deteriorations result from the development of the child, the course of the disorder, or the epilepsy surgery itself. Long-term studies are warranted to identify the progression of academic achievement and whether the observed deteriorations represent a temporal disruption in function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Clinician Suspicion Versus a Clinical Prediction Rule in Identifying Children at Risk for Intra-abdominal Injuries After Blunt Torso Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Prashant; Kuppermann, Nathan; Tunik, Michael; Yen, Kenneth; Atabaki, Shireen M; Lee, Lois K; Ellison, Angela M; Bonsu, Bema K; Olsen, Cody S; Cook, Larry; Kwok, Maria Y; Lillis, Kathleen; Holmes, James F

    2015-09-01

    Emergency department (ED) identification and radiographic evaluation of children with intra-abdominal injuries who need acute intervention can be challenging. To date, it is unclear if a clinical prediction rule is superior to unstructured clinician judgment in identifying these children. The objective of this study was to compare the test characteristics of clinician suspicion with a derived clinical prediction rule to identify children at risk of intra-abdominal injuries undergoing acute intervention following blunt torso trauma. This was a planned subanalysis of a prospective, multicenter observational study of children (trauma conducted in 20 EDs in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). Clinicians documented their suspicion for the presence of intra-abdominal injuries needing acute intervention as 50% prior to knowledge of abdominal computed tomography (CT) scanning (if performed). Intra-abdominal injuries undergoing acute intervention were defined by a therapeutic laparotomy, angiographic embolization, blood transfusion for abdominal hemorrhage, or intravenous fluid administration for 2 or more days in those with pancreatic or gastrointestinal injuries. Patients were considered to be positive for clinician suspicion if suspicion was documented as ≥1%. Suspicion ≥ 1% was compared to the presence of any variable in the prediction rule for identifying children with intra-abdominal injuries undergoing acute intervention. Clinicians recorded their suspicion in 11,919 (99%) of 12,044 patients enrolled in the parent study. Intra-abdominal injuries undergoing acute intervention were diagnosed in 203 (2%) patients. Abdominal CT scans were obtained in the ED in 2,302 of the 2,667 (86%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 85% to 88%) enrolled patients with clinician suspicion ≥1% and in 3,016 of the 9,252 (33%, 95% CI = 32% to 34%) patients with clinician suspicion undergoing acute intervention (197 of 203; 97.0%, 95% CI = 93.7% to 98.9%) was

  14. Frequency of isolation of polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses from patients with acute flaccid paralysis, enterovirus infection and children from groups at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Romanenkova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the frequency of isolation of polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses from different categories of the investigated children. The percentage of detection of polioviruses from the patients with acute flaccid paralysis was lower than that from the children from groups at risk. Among the patients with the enterovirus infection the polioviruses were rarely revealed. The frequency of isolation of non polio enteroviruses from these patients was significantly higher than that from the other categories of investigated persons. The improvement of poliomyelitis surveillance and the reinforcement of virological surveillance of children from groups at risk and those with enterovirus infection will provide the important data for Global Polio Eradication Initiative and the maintenance of polio free status of the Russian Federation.

  15. Cognitive and Academic Functioning of Homeless Children Compared with Housed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied the effect of homelessness on cognitive and academic functioning of children 6 to 11 years old in comparison to a control group of housed children in the same classroom. Found no differences in cognitive functioning between homeless and housed children, but did find that homeless children performed significantly more poorly than housed…

  16. Relationship between Learning Strategy and Academic Performance in Children

    OpenAIRE

    豊田, 弘司; 森本, 里香

    2001-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the relationship between the learning strategy and the academic performance in elementary school children. Ninety-three sixth graders were required to respond the 40 statements representing the four learning strategies, namely "Motivation" , "Thinking" , "Calculation" , and "Memory" strategies. Multiple regression indicated that the "Thinking" strategy scale predicted 22 % of academic test performance. Factor analysis yielded three factors which co...

  17. Association between intestinal permeability and faecal microbiota composition in Italian children with beta cell autoimmunity at risk for type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, Claudio; Martina, Alessia; Corradi, Massimiliano; Quarella, Sara; Nori, Nicole; Torriani, Sandra; Plebani, Mario; Contreas, Giovanna; Felis, Giovanna E

    2016-10-01

    Pancreatic organ-specific autoimmunity in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with increased intestinal permeability and an aberrant gut microbiota, but these factors have not yet been simultaneously investigated in the same subjects. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess both intestinal permeability and gut microbiota composition in an Italian sample of children at risk for T1D. Ten Italian children with beta cell autoimmunity at risk for T1D and 10 healthy children were involved in a case-control study. The lactulose/mannitol test was used to assess intestinal permeability. Analysis of microbiota composition was performed using polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, based on the 16S rRNA gene. Intestinal permeability was significantly higher in children at risk for T1D than in healthy controls. Moreover, the gut microbiota of the former differed from that of the latter group: Three microorganisms were detected - Dialister invisus, Gemella sanguinis and Bifidobacterium longum - in association with the pre-pathologic state. The results of this study validated the hypothesis that increased intestinal permeability together with differences in microbiota composition are contemporaneously associated with the pre-pathological condition of T1D in a sample of Italian children. Further studies are necessary to confirm the microbial markers identified in this sample of children as well as to clarify the involvement of microbiota modifications in the mechanisms leading to increased permeability and the autoimmune mechanisms that promote diabetes onset. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Can teachers' global ratings identify children with academic problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, F P

    2001-06-01

    Physicians often elicit ratings from teachers when making diagnostic, treatment, or referral decisions. The purpose of this study was to view the relationship between teachers' ratings and children's academic skills, assess the utility of teacher ratings in detecting academic problems, and thus determine whether physicians can depend on teacher ratings when making decisions about patients' needs. Subjects were a national sample of 80 teachers and 934 children between 6 and 13 years of age participating in a test standardization study. Families were representative of United States demographics in terms of parental level of education, income, and ethnicity, and sites were geographically diverse elementary schools. Children were administered the Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills--Revised (CIBS-R), a diagnostic academic achievement test. Teachers rated children's academic performance on a five-point scale ranging from far above average to far below average and were blinded to the results of the CIBS-R. Teacher ratings varied significantly with children's performance for all academic domains. Logistic regression revealed that teacher ratings were best predicted by children's performance in basic reading skills, followed by math skills, and were not influenced by race, parents' level of education, history of retention, or gender. Participation in Title I services, testing in winter or spring, and parents who spoke a language other than English produced significantly lower ratings. Nevertheless, teachers rated as average many students with mild to moderate academic difficulties. School system personnel and health care providers should avoid sole dependence on global teacher ratings when deciding which students need special education referrals or other services. Supplementing teacher ratings with standardized screening test results is needed to ensure accurate decision-making.

  19. Peer Victimization and Academic Performance in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Kosola, Silja; Degenhardt, Louisa; Allen, Nicholas B; Patton, George C

    Peer victimization is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. In this study we aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimization and academic performance in a large population sample of children. Eight- to 9-year-old children were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (1 year of learning equals 40 points). Physical and verbal victimization were measured according to child self-report. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses were conducted. For female children, verbal victimization was associated with poorer academic performance on writing (β = 17.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -28.2 to -6.2) and grammar/punctuation (β = -20.8; 95% CI, -40.1 to -1.6). Physical victimization was associated with poorer performance on numeracy (male children: β = -29.0; 95% CI, -53.8 to -4.1; female children: β = -30.1; 95% CI, -56.6 to -3.5), and writing (female children: β = -21.5; 95% CI, -40.4 to -2.7). Verbal and physical victimization were associated with poorer performance on reading (male children: β = -31.5; 95% CI, -59.9 to -3.1; female children: β = -30.2; 95% CI, -58.6 to -1.8), writing (female children: β = -25.5; 95% CI, -42.8 to -8.2), spelling (female children: β = -32.3; 95% CI, -59.6 to -4.9), and grammar/punctuation (female children: β = -32.2; 95% CI, -62.4 to -2.0). Children who were physically victimized were 6 to 9 months behind their non-victimized peers on measures of academic performance. There are growing reasons for education systems to invest in the prevention of bullying and promotion of positive peer relationships from the earliest years of school. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Children's Productive Use of Academic Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shufeng; Zhang, Jie; Anderson, Richard C.; Morris, Joshua; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim Thi; Miller, Brian; Jadallah, May; Sun, Jingjing; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Scott, Theresa; Hsu, Yu-Li; Zhang, Xin; Latawiec, Beata; Grabow, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Instructional influences on productive use of academic vocabulary were investigated among 460 mostly African American and Latina/o fifth graders from 36 classrooms in eight public schools serving low-income families. Students received a 6-week unit on wolf management involving collaborative group work (CG) or direct instruction (DI). The big…

  1. Using Activity Schedules to Increase On-Task Behavior in Children at Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Christe A.; Sidener, Tina M.; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Reeve, Sharon A.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of activity schedules on on-task and on-schedule behavior were assessed with two boys at risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and referred by their public school teachers as having difficulty during independent work time. On-task behavior increased for both participants after two training sessions. Teachers, peers,…

  2. Infant ERPs Separate Children at Risk of Dyslexia Who Become Good Readers from Those Who Become Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuijen, Titia L.; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben A. M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2013-01-01

    Dyslexia is heritable and associated with phonological processing deficits that can be reflected in the event-related potentials (ERPs). Here, we recorded ERPs from 2-month-old infants at risk of dyslexia and from a control group to investigate whether their auditory system processes /bAk/ and /dAk/ changes differently. The speech sounds were…

  3. Infant ERPs separate children at risk of dyslexia who become good readers from those who become poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuijen, Titia L.; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben A. M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; van der Leij, Aryan

    Dyslexia is heritable and associated with phonological processing deficits that can be reflected in the event-related potentials (ERPs). Here, we recorded ERPs from 2-month-old infants at risk of dyslexia and from a control group to investigate whether their auditory system processes /bAk/ and /dAk/

  4. Children's Thinking Styles, Play, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Liden, Sharon; Shin, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Based on the study of seventy-four middle school children of mostly Filipino and part Hawaiian heritages, this article explores the relationships of children's thinking styles, play preferences, and school performance. Using the Group Embedded Figures Test, the Articulation of the Body Scale, and written responses to three questions, the authors…

  5. Academic Performance in Children with Rolandic Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, P.; Borgatti, R.; Aldini, A.; Bindelli, D.; Ferri, M.; Perna, S.; Pitillo, G.; Termine, C.; Zambonin, F.; Balottin, U.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of reading, writing, and calculation disabilities in children with typical rolandic epilepsy (RE) and healthy control children. We also aimed to define the possible electroclinical markers of specific cognitive dysfunctions in RE. School abilities were evaluated and compared in 20 children…

  6. Simulated astigmatism impairs academic-related performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Astigmatism is an important refractive condition in children. However, the functional impact of uncorrected astigmatism in this population is not well established, particularly with regard to academic performance. This study investigated the impact of simulated bilateral astigmatism on academic-related tasks before and after sustained near work in children. Twenty visually normal children (mean age: 10.8 ± 0.7 years; six males and 14 females) completed a range of standardised academic-related tests with and without 1.50 D of simulated bilateral astigmatism (with both academic-related tests and the visual condition administered in a randomised order). The simulated astigmatism was induced using a positive cylindrical lens while maintaining a plano spherical equivalent. Performance was assessed before and after 20 min of sustained near work, during two separate testing sessions. Academic-related measures included a standardised reading test (the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability), visual information processing tests (Coding and Symbol Search subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and a reading-related eye movement test (the Developmental Eye Movement test). Each participant was systematically assigned either with-the-rule (WTR, axis 180°) or against-the-rule (ATR, axis 90°) simulated astigmatism to evaluate the influence of axis orientation on any decrements in performance. Reading, visual information processing and reading-related eye movement performance were all significantly impaired by both simulated bilateral astigmatism (p  0.05). Simulated astigmatism led to a reduction of between 5% and 12% in performance across the academic-related outcome measures, but there was no significant effect of the axis (WTR or ATR) of astigmatism (p > 0.05). Simulated bilateral astigmatism impaired children's performance on a range of academic-related outcome measures irrespective of the orientation of the astigmatism. These findings have

  7. Optimizing and Validating a Brief Assessment for Identifying Children of Service Members at Risk for Psychological Health Problems Following Parent Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Journal of Family Therapy, 21, 313-323. Behar, L.B. (1997). The Preschool Behavior Questionnaire. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology , 5, 265-275... Psychological Health Problems Following Parent Deployment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Julie Wargo Aikins, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Wayne State...Validating a Brief Assessment for Identifying Children of Service Members at Risk for Psychological Health Problems Following Parent Deployment 5b. GRANT

  8. Coexisting Disorders and Academic Achievement among Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Sulak, Tracey N.; Fearon, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children with reported high rates of coexisting or comorbid disorders. As ADHD has been associated with academic underachievement, the current study examines this association in view of the presence of coexisting disorders. The purpose of the current study is to…

  9. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and academic performance in Finnish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syväoja, Heidi J; Kantomaa, Marko T; Ahonen, Timo; Hakonen, Harto; Kankaanpää, Anna; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationships between objectively measured and self-reported physical activity, sedentary behavior, and academic performance in Finnish children. Two hundred and seventy-seven children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (58% of the 475 eligible students, mean age = 12.2 yr, 56% girls) participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Self-reported physical activity and screen time were evaluated with questions used in the WHO Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study. Children's physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively by using an ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer for seven consecutive days. A cutoff value of 2296 counts per minute was used for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and 100 counts per minute for sedentary time. Grade point averages were provided by the education services of the city of Jyväskylä. ANOVA and linear regression analysis were used to analyze the relationships among physical activity, sedentary behavior, and academic performance. Objectively measured MVPA (P = 0.955) and sedentary time (P = 0.285) were not associated with grade point average. However, self-reported MVPA had an inverse U-shaped curvilinear association with grade point average (P = 0.001), and screen time had a linear negative association with grade point average (P = 0.002), after adjusting for sex, children's learning difficulties, highest level of parental education, and amount of sleep. In this study, self-reported physical activity was directly, and screen time inversely, associated with academic achievement. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time were not associated with academic achievement. Objective and subjective measures may reflect different constructs and contexts of physical activity and sedentary behavior in association with academic outcomes.

  10. Maternal BMI as a predictor of methylation of obesity-related genes in saliva samples from preschool-age Hispanic children at-risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelsner, Kathryn Tully; Guo, Yan; To, Sophie Bao-Chieu; Non, Amy L; Barkin, Shari L

    2017-01-09

    The study of epigenetic processes and mechanisms present a dynamic approach to assess complex individual variation in obesity susceptibility. However, few studies have examined epigenetic patterns in preschool-age children at-risk for obesity despite the relevance of this developmental stage to trajectories of weight gain. We hypothesized that salivary DNA methylation patterns of key obesogenic genes in Hispanic children would 1) correlate with maternal BMI and 2) allow for identification of pathways associated with children at-risk for obesity. Genome-wide DNA methylation was conducted on 92 saliva samples collected from Hispanic preschool children using the Infinium Illumina HumanMethylation 450 K BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA), which interrogates >484,000 CpG sites associated with ~24,000 genes. The analysis was limited to 936 genes that have been associated with obesity in a prior GWAS Study. Child DNA methylation at 17 CpG sites was found to be significantly associated with maternal BMI, with increased methylation at 12 CpG sites and decreased methylation at 5 CpG sites. Pathway analysis revealed methylation at these sites related to homocysteine and methionine degradation as well as cysteine biosynthesis and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, eight of the 17 CpG sites reside in genes (FSTL1, SORCS2, NRF1, DLC1, PPARGC1B, CHN2, NXPH1) that have prior known associations with obesity, diabetes, and the insulin pathway. Our study confirms that saliva is a practical human tissue to obtain in community settings and in pediatric populations. These salivary findings indicate potential epigenetic differences in Hispanic preschool children at risk for pediatric obesity. Identifying early biomarkers and understanding pathways that are epigenetically regulated during this critical stage of child development may present an opportunity for prevention or early intervention for addressing childhood obesity. The clinical trial protocol is available at Clinical

  11. Popular Culture and Moral Panics about "Children at Risk": Revisiting the Sexualisation-of-Young-Girls Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaliki, Liza

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to resist moral panics over children's media consumption, and especially girls' consumption of hyper-sexualised popular media, this paper aims to offer a more positive account of popular culture and young children's, especially girls', engagement with it. By adopting a historical approach to modern childhood and the moral panics…

  12. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years: prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  13. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  14. Teachers' language practices and academic outcomes of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David K

    2011-08-19

    Early childhood programs have long been known to be beneficial to children from low-income backgrounds, but recent studies have cast doubt on their ability to substantially increase the rate of children's academic achievement. This Review examines research on the role of language in later reading, describes home and classroom factors that foster early language growth, and reviews research on preschool interventions. It argues that one reason interventions are not having as great an impact as desired is because they fail to substantially change the capacity of teachers to support children's language and associated conceptual knowledge.

  15. Personalized Outreach to University Students with a History of Reading Difficulties: Early Screening and Outreach to Support Academically At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S. Hélène; Tucker, Rebecca; Bergey, Bradley W.; Laroche, Annie; Parrila, Rauno

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether identification of and personalized outreach to a group of students with a history of reading difficulties would impact their use of support services and academic outcomes. Using a brief self-report questionnaire, we identified students with a history of reading difficulties (n = 175) and a comparison group of university…

  16. At-Risk Screened Children with Celiac Disease are Comparable in Disease Severity and Dietary Adherence to Those Found because of Clinical Suspicion: A Large Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Laura; Kaukinen, Katri; Huhtala, Heini; Lähdeaho, Marja-Leena; Mäki, Markku; Kurppa, Kalle

    2017-04-01

    To assess whether children at risk for celiac disease should be screened systematically by comparing their baseline and follow-up characteristics to patients detected because of clinical suspicion. Five hundred four children with celiac disease were divided into screen-detected (n = 145) and clinically detected cohorts (n = 359). The groups were compared for clinical, serologic, and histologic characteristics and laboratory values. Follow-up data regarding adherence and response to gluten-free diet were compared. Subgroup analyses were made between asymptomatic and symptomatic screen-detected patients. Of screen-detected patients, 51.8% had symptoms at diagnosis, although these were milder than in clinically detected children (P celiac disease had symptoms unrecognized at diagnosis. The severity of histologic damage, antibody levels, dietary adherence, and response to treatment in screen-detected cases is comparable with those detected on a clinical basis. The results support active screening for celiac disease among at-risk children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fasting During Pregnancy and Children's Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Almond; Bhashkar Mazumder; Reyn van Ewijk

    2012-01-01

    We consider the effects of daytime fasting by pregnant women during the lunar month of Ramadan on their children's test scores at age seven. Using English register data, we find that scores are .05 to .08 standard deviations lower for Pakistani and Bangladeshi students exposed to Ramadan in early pregnancy. These estimates are downward biased to the extent that Ramadan is not universally observed. We conclude that the effects of prenatal investments on test scores are comparable to many conve...

  18. Academic Underachievement in Children with Active Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A Zelko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Lingfield, Surrey, UK; University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK, and other centers, conducted psychological assessment including measures of IQ, working memory and processing speed in 85 (74% of 115 school aged children with active epilepsy (a seizure in the past year and/or on AEDs from a population-based sample, without exclusion for intellectual deficiency.

  19. The family drawings of at-risk children: concurrent relations with contact with incarcerated parents, caregiver behavior, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H; Ciccone, Anne; Wilson, Laura C

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined children's attachment representations as assessed with their family drawings in relation to contact with an incarcerated or estranged parent, caregiver behavior, and family stress in a high-risk sample of children (N = 44, M (age) = 8.14), 55% of whom had incarcerated parents. Greater phone, mail, and physical contact with an incarcerated parent was associated with more role reversal in children's family drawings. Additional results show that child-reports of more hostile caregiver behavior were associated with greater overall insecurity in their family drawings; child and caregiver reports of stress were associated with increased global pathology and bizarreness/dissociation in children's family drawings. Given the lack of research on concurrent familial-based correlates of ratings made of children's family drawings, these results provide additional insights into children's representations of attachment relationships in early middle childhood. Further, the results regarding contact with incarcerated parents have implications for researchers and clinicians working with families impacted by parental incarceration.

  20. Calcium Intake and Body Composition in African-American Children and Adolescents at Risk for Overweight and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Tylavsky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of calcium intake on body composition in 186 African-American adolescents at risk for overweight and obesity. The average weight of 89.8 kg ± 23.6 (SD had a mean BMI z score of 2.2. Females with a calcium intake of < 314 mg/day had higher percent fat mass compared to those with the highest calcium intakes that were ≥ 634 mg/day. Compared to those with a low calcium intake (< 365 mg/day, those with the highest calcium intake of > 701 mg/day had higher intake of thiamin, folate, cobalamin, vitamin D, phosphorus, iron, zinc.

  1. Non-Uptake of HIV Testing in Children at Risk in Two Urban and Rural Settings in Zambia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Merten

    Full Text Available This article investigates reasons why children who were considered at risk of HIV were not taken for HIV testing by their caregivers. Qualitative and quantitative data collected in Zambia from 2010-11 revealed that twelve percent of caregivers who stated that they had been suspecting an HIV infection in a child in their custody had not had the child tested. Fears of negative reactions from the family were the most often stated reason for not testing a child. Experience of pre-existing conflicts between the couple or within the family (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.00-1.82 and observed stigmatisation of seropositive children in one's own neighbourhood (aOR 1.69, 95% CI1.20-2.39 showed significant associations for not testing a child perceived at risk of HIV. Although services for HIV testing and treatment of children have been made available through national policies and programmes, some women and children were denied access leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment-not on the side of the health system, but on the household level. Social norms, such as assigning the male household head the power to decide over the use of healthcare services by his wife and children, jeopardize women's bargaining power to claim their rights to healthcare, especially in a conflict-affected relationship. Social norms and customary and statutory regulations that disadvantage women and their children must be addressed at every level-including the community and household-in order to effectively decrease barriers to HIV related care.

  2. Short- and long-term effects of parent training for preschool children with or at risk of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimestad, Marie Louise; Lambek, Rikke; Zacher Christiansen, Helene

    2016-01-01

    analyzed. Parent-rated outcomes revealed moderate effect sizes (ESs; Hedges' g) of 0.51 for ADHD symptoms, 0.40 for conduct problems, and 0.64 for negative parenting. Based on independent assessment, results were only significant for negative parenting. Parent-rated outcomes were sustained at follow......-ups of 3 to 12 months. Program type, intervention modality, and child diagnostic status did not moderate the effect. CONCLUSION: PT was partially supported as an efficacious intervention for preschool children with ADHD or ADHD symptoms with moderate ESs on parent-rated outcomes, but no significant results......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to synthesize the evidence of parent training (PT) as an early intervention for preschool children aged 2.5 to 6 years with ADHD or ADHD symptoms. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Sixteen studies including 1,003 children were...

  3. Children at risk: A comparison of child pedestrian traffic collisions in Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Carola; Lee, Jae Seung; Zegras, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examine and compare pedestrian-vehicle collisions and injury outcomes involving school-age children between 5 and 18 years of age in the capital cities of Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea. We conduct descriptive analysis of the child pedestrian-vehicle collision (P-VC) data (904 collisions for Santiago and 3,505 for Seoul) reported by the police between 2010 and 2011. We also statistically analyze factors associated with child P-VCs, by both incident severity and age group, using 3 regression models: negative binomial, probit, and spatial lag models. Descriptive statistics suggest that child pedestrians in Seoul have a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes than their counterparts in Santiago. However, in Seoul a greater proportion of children are unharmed as a result of these incidents, whereas more child pedestrians are killed in Santiago. Younger children in Seoul suffer more injuries from P-VCs than in Santiago. The majority of P-VCs in both cities tend to occur in the afternoon and evening, at intersections in Santiago and at midblock locations in Seoul. Our model results suggest that the resident population of children is positively associated with P-VCs in both cities, and school concentrations apparently increase P-VC risk among older children in Santiago. Bus stops are associated with higher P-VCs in Seoul, and subway stations relate to higher P-VCs among older children in Santiago. Zone-level land use mix was negatively related to child P-VCs in Seoul but not in Santiago. Arterial roads are associated with fewer P-VCs, especially for younger children in both cities. A share of collector roads is associated with increased P-VCs in Seoul but fewer P-VCs in Santiago. Hilliness is related to fewer P-VCs in both cities. Differences in these model results for Santiago and Seoul warrant additional analysis, as do the differences in results across model type (negative binomial versus spatial lag models). To reduce child P-VCs, this study

  4. Promoting the development of resilient academic functioning in maltreated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R; Yoon, Susan; Berg, Kristen A; Cage, Jamie L; Perzynski, Adam T

    2018-01-01

    This study examined (a) the extent of heterogeneity in the patterns of developmental trajectories of language development and academic functioning in children who have experienced maltreatment, (b) how maltreatment type (i.e., neglect or physical abuse) and timing of abuse explained variation in developmental trajectories, and (c) the extent to which individual protective factors (i.e., preschool attendance, prosocial skills), relationship protective factors (i.e., parental warmth, absence of past-year depressive episode, cognitive/verbal responsiveness) and community protective factors (i.e., neighborhood safety) promoted the development of resilient language/academic functioning trajectories. Longitudinal data analyses were conducted using cohort sequential Growth Mixture Model (CS-GMM) with a United States national representative sample of children reported to Child Protective Services (n=1,776). Five distinct developmental trajectories from birth to age 10 were identified including two resilient groups. Children who were neglected during infancy/toddlerhood or physically abused during preschool age were more likely to be in the poorer language/academic functioning groups (decreasing/recovery/decreasing and high decreasing) than the resilient high stable group. Child prosocial skills, caregiver warmth, and caregiver cognitive stimulation significantly predicted membership in the two resilient academic functioning groups (low increasing and high stable), after controlling for demographics and child physical abuse and neglect. Results suggest that it is possible for a maltreated child to successfully achieve competent academic functioning, despite the early adversity, and identifies three possible avenues of intervention points. This study also makes a significant contribution to the field of child development research through the novel use of CS-GMM, which has implications for future longitudinal data collection methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. Handwriting development in grade 2 and grade 3 primary school children with normal, at risk, or dysgraphic characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvelde, J.A.A.M.; Hulstijn, W.

    2011-01-01

    The wide variation in prevalence of dysgraphic handwriting (5–33%) is of clinical importance, because poor handwriting has been identified as one of the most common reasons for referring school-age children to occupational therapy or physiotherapy, and is included as an criterion for the diagnosis

  6. Dyslexia and Phonology: A study of the phonological abilities of Dutch children at-risk of dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, E.H. de

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores the phonological deficit of children with a familial risk of dyslexia. This approach contributes to the identification of possible linguistic precursors of dyslexia. The thesis is set within the framework of the phonological deficit hypothesis of dyslexia. Through assessment of

  7. Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Parent- and Teacher-Rated Screen for Children at Risk of Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Holland, Kerry A.; Frankling, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Conduct Problems Risk Screen (CPRS), a seven-item screen derived from DSM-IV-TR criteria that can be completed by parents or teachers. The sample consisted of 4,752 Australian five- to nine-year-old primary school children. The results showed the parent and teacher screens had very good…

  8. Development of Tract-Specific White Matter Pathways During Early Reading Development in At-Risk Children and Typical Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Mauer, Meaghan V; Raney, Talia; Peysakhovich, Barbara; Becker, Bryce L C; Sliva, Danielle D; Gaab, Nadine

    2017-04-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic basis. Previous studies observed white matter alterations in the left posterior brain regions in adults and school-age children with dyslexia. However, no study yet has examined the development of tract-specific white matter pathways from the pre-reading to the fluent reading stage in children at familial risk for dyslexia (FHD+) versus controls (FHD-). This study examined white matter integrity at pre-reading, beginning, and fluent reading stages cross-sectionally ( n = 78) and longitudinally (n = 45) using an automated fiber-tract quantification method. Our findings depict white matter alterations and atypical lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus at the pre-reading stage in FHD+ versus FHD- children. Moreover, we demonstrate faster white matter development in subsequent good versus poor readers and a positive association between white matter maturation and reading development using a longitudinal design. Additionally, the combination of white matter maturation, familial risk, and psychometric measures best predicted later reading abilities. Furthermore, within FHD+ children, subsequent good readers exhibited faster white matter development in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus compared with subsequent poor readers, suggesting a compensatory mechanism. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of white matter pathway maturation in the development of typical and atypical reading skills. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Newborn Event-Related Potentials Predict Poorer Pre-Reading Skills in Children at Risk for Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttorm, Tomi K.; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Hamalainen, Jarmo A.; Eklund, Kenneth M.; Lyytinen, Heikki J.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier results from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia showed that newborn event-related potentials (ERPs) of children with and without familial risk for dyslexia were associated with receptive language and verbal memory skills between 2.5 and 5 years of age. We further examined whether these ERPs (responses to synthetic consonant-vowel…

  10. Children at Risk from Domestic Violence and Their Educational Attainment: Perspectives of Education Welfare Officers, Social Workers and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Dorothy; Taylor, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Children who witness domestic violence may have impaired educational attainment as well as facing other challenges such as struggles with self-esteem and forming relationships. This qualitative study set in Northern Ireland explored the perceptions of Education Welfare Officers, child protection social workers and teachers in post-primary schools…

  11. Measuring Educational Outcomes for At-Risk Children and Youth: Issues with the Validity of Self-Reported Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye, Amanda Cleveland; Peaslee, Liliokanaio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Youth programs often rely on self-reported data without clear evidence as to the accuracy of these reports. Although the validity of self-reporting has been confirmed among some high school and college age students, one area that is absent from extant literature is a serious investigation among younger children. Moreover, there is…

  12. Risk Factors for Self-Injury, Aggression, and Stereotyped Behavior Among Young Children At Risk for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Stephen R.; Marquis, Janet G.; Reese, R. Matthew; Richman, David M.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosa; LeBlanc, Judith; Brady, Nancy; Butler, Merlin G.; Johnson, Tiffany; Lawrence, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Before the 1990s, research on the early identification and prevention of severe behavior disorders (SBDs), such as aggression, self-injury, and stereotyped behavior, among young children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), was mostly done with children 3 years or older. More recent work suggests that signs of SBDs may occur as early as 6 months in some infants. The present study combined a cross-sectional and longitudinal approach to examine SBDs in 180 young children aged 4–48 months recruited through mass screening, then receiving an interdisciplinary evaluation and six-month follow-ups for one year. Twelve potential risk factors related to SBDs were examined. Eight of these risk factors, including age, gender, diagnosis, intellectual and communication levels, visual impairment, parent education, family income, were differentially related to scores for Aggression, SIB, and Stereotyped Behavior subscales on the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01) at initial interdisciplinary evaluation. BPI-01 scores decreased over the year for 57% of the children and increased for 43%. The amount of decrease on each BPI-01 subscale varied with age, gender, and diagnosis. PMID:25007299

  13. SKATE: Recognition, experience, willingness and intake of fruit and vegetable snacks in rural school aged children at risk for obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Kids Access to Treats to Eat (SKATE) was a fruit and vegetable snack feeding study that assessed food recognition, food experience, and willingness to try specific fruits and vegetables of 186 elementary school children in grades 4-6 at high risk for obesity. This rural school had a 100% free...

  14. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations Supports Canadian Children's Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin L; Montemurro, Genevieve; Storey, Kate E; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to determine if adherence to established Canadian, American, and WHO-developed nutrition recommendations supported children's academic achievement. Data from a health survey of 1595 grade 5 students in Alberta, Canada, was used. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to recommendations for food group servings, saturated fat intake, and free sugars intake was assessed. Survey data were linked to grade 6 standardized exam results. Multivariable mixed effects linear regression models were employed to assess the association between adherence to recommendations and academic achievement. Boys who met current recommendations for free sugars scored on average 5.67% better on exams (β: 5.67; 95% CI: 3.14, 8.29). Boys who met recommendations for milk and alternatives scored 3.45% better on exams (β: 3.45; 95% CI: 0.67, 6.23). Though results indicated that adhering to dietary recommendations was beneficial for girls' academic achievement, no result was statistically significant. Adherence to current dietary recommendations has benefits for children's academic achievement. This evidence may be used to inform continued development and promotion of dietary recommendations and to support school-based nutrition initiatives.

  15. Executive functioning in a racially diverse sample of children who are overweight and at risk for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; O'Brien, Setareh; Lavender, Jason M; Pearson, Carolyn M; Le Grange, Daniel; Hunter, Scott J

    2018-05-01

    Difficulties with executive functioning may underlie both overweight and loss of control (LOC) eating behavior across the age spectrum, but there is a relative paucity of research in children with both conditions. This study aimed to characterize general executive functioning among children with overweight and LOC eating as compared to their overweight and normal-weight peers. Participants were 75 racially diverse children (58.7% female; 81.3% African-American), aged 9-12y (M age = 10.5 ± 1.1), of whom 26 were overweight/obese and endorsed LOC eating (OW-LOC), 34 were overweight controls (OW-CON), and 15 were normal-weight controls (NW-CON). All children completed interview-based measures of eating pathology, and behavioral measures of executive functioning. Parents reported on behavioral facets of children's executive functioning. Groups were compared across parent-report measures and behavioral tasks using analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) and multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVAs) which adjusted for general intellectual functioning. Significant group differences were revealed on a behavioral measure of planning, the Tower of London task [F (5,65) = 3.52; p = 0.007], and a behavioral measure of working memory, the List Sorting task [F (2,71) = 6.45; p = 0.003]. Post-hoc tests revealed that OW-LOC and OW-CON performed worse than NW-CON on the Tower of London, with relative decrements in accuracy rather than performance time. Further, OW-LOC performed worse than both OW-CON and NW-CON on the List Sorting task. Overweight with or without concomitant LOC eating in children may characterize a unique pattern of executive dysfunction. Interventions for eating- and weight-related problems in youth should address underlying deficits in planning and working memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Poverty Dynamics and Academic Trajectories of Children of Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Han, Wen-Jui

    2017-09-16

    Using Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we investigated the relationship between poverty and academic trajectories for children in immigrant families in the United States. We used family socioeconomic status (SES) which considers parental education, parental occupation, and family income to define poverty in correspondence with the U.S. federal poverty threshold. Three dimensions of poverty were examined including depth (i.e., not-poor, near-poor, poor or extreme poor), stability (i.e., continuously or intermittently), and duration (i.e., for how many times in poverty). Our results indicated that living in poverty, particularly when it was extreme, volatile, and for long spell could compromise children's reading and math achievements during the first nine schooling years. Children of immigrants were doing as well as, if not better than, children of native-borns in certain areas (i.e., math) or in facing of certain pattern of poverty (i.e., long-spell). However, deep poverty and volatile changes in family SES could compromise academic achievements for children of immigrants throughout their first nine years of schooling, a period holds important key to their future success. Implications to practice and policy as well as future directions were discussed.

  17. Promoting Expressive Language in Young Children with or At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Preschool Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin D; Shepley, Collin; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often demonstrate delays in expressive communication, impacting their ability to independently function in typical environments. Individuals with ASD who develop expressive language during early childhood experience better outcomes later in life; therefore, examination of naturalistic language interventions (NLIs) remain an important area of investigation. The current study used a multiple probe design across participants to examine the effects of a classroom-based NLI on various expressive language targets in three preschool-aged children demonstrating characteristics of ASD. Findings suggest the intervention had positive and maintained effects on trial-based use of language targets, as well as concomitant changes in commenting, requesting, and phrase complexity. Implications regarding implementation of NLIs within typical classroom play activities are discussed.

  18. Caregivers' Attitudes towards HIV Testing and Disclosure of HIV Status to At-Risk Children in Rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Rick; Grant, Eisha; Muyindike, Winnie; Maling, Samuel; Card, Claire; Henry, Carol; Nazarali, Adil J

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers of HIV-positive children were interviewed in the Mbarara and Isingiro districts of Uganda to identify current trends in practices related to HIV testing and the disclosure of HIV status to the child. A total of 28 caregivers of at least one HIV-positive child participated in semi-structured interviews exploring when and why they tested the child for HIV, when the child was informed of their positive status, and what the caregiver did to prepare themselves and the child for status disclosure. For a majority (96%) of respondents, the decision to test the child for HIV was due to existing illness in either the child or a relative. Other common themes identified included the existence of stigma in the caregivers' communities and doubt that the children truly understood what was being explained to them when their status was disclosed. Most (65%) children were informed of their HIV status between the ages of 5 and 9, with the mean age of disclosure occurring at the age of 7. General provision of HIV information typically began at the same age as disclosure, and as many as two thirds (64%) of the caregivers sought advice from an HIV counsellor prior to disclosure. How a caregiver chose to prepare themselves and the child did not affect the caregiver's perception of whether the disclosure experience was beneficial or not. These findings suggest that the HIV disclosure experience in Mbarara and Isingiro districts differs from current guidelines, especially with respect to age of disclosure, how caregivers prepare themselves and the child, and approaching disclosure as an ongoing process. The doubts expressed by caregivers regarding the child's level of HIV understanding following the disclosure experience suggest the children may be insufficiently prepared at the time of the initial disclosure event. The findings also suggest that examining the content of pre-disclosure counselling and HIV education, and how health care professionals are trained to facilitate the

  19. Correlates of self-injurious, aggressive and destructive behaviour in children under five who are at risk of developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, J L; Bacarese-Hamilton, M; Davies, L E; Oliver, C

    2014-01-01

    Several behavioural correlates of self-injury, aggression and destructive behaviour have been identified in children and young adults with intellectual disabilities. This cross-sectional study aimed to further explore these correlates in very young children with developmental delay. Parents of 56 children (40 male) under the age of five years (mean age 2 years 10 months) completed a questionnaire about their child's behaviour and the presence of behavioural correlates, including repetitive, over-active or impulsive behaviour and more severe developmental delay. Parents reported very high prevalence of self-injurious, aggressive and destructive behaviour: 51%, 64% and 51%, respectively. A binary logistic regression revealed that a higher score on a measure of overactive and impulsive behaviour significantly predicted the presence of destructive behaviour. A multiple linear regression revealed that both repetitive behaviour and number of health problems approached significance as independent predictors of severe self-injurious behaviour. Despite the very small sample, several factors emerged as potential predictors of self-injurious, aggressive and destructive behaviour. These findings support the need for further investigation in a larger sample. Confirmation in this age group could help guide the development of targeted early intervention for these behaviours by identifying behavioural risk markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dual language intervention for bilinguals at risk for language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2015-05-01

    Selecting the initial language of intervention for bilingual children at risk for language impairment is challenging for clinicians, as both the home and academic languages are important for children's successful communication. In this project, six Spanish-English bilingual first graders at risk for language impairment participated in an 8-week intervention program targeting vocabulary, morphosyntax, narrative, and literacy skills in both Spanish and English. Children completed 24 small-group sessions (three times a week). One group received Spanish intervention first, then English, and another group received English first, then Spanish. The systematic use of both languages in intervention resulted in overall gains in vocabulary and narrative skills in this short-term intervention. Language condition groups differed in performance on oral narratives and semantics. Clinical recommendations for selecting the initial language of intervention are discussed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Dynamics of teacher-student relationships: stability and change across elementary school and the influence on children's academic success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine L; Hughes, Jan N; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2012-01-01

    This study modeled teacher-student relationship trajectories throughout elementary school to predict gains in achievement in an ethnic-diverse sample of 657 academically at-risk students (mean age = 6.57 years, SD = .39). Teacher reports of warmth and conflict were collected in Grades 1-5. Achievement was tested in Grades 1 and 6. For conflict, low-stable (normative), low-increasing, high-declining, and high-stable trajectories were found. For warmth, high-declining (normative) and low-increasing patterns were found. Children with early behavioral, academic, or social risks were underrepresented in the normative trajectory groups. Chronic conflict was most strongly associated with underachievement. Rising conflict but not declining Conflict coincided with underachievement. The probability of school failure increased as a function of the timing and length of time children were exposed to relational adversity. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Eight-Year Latent Class Trajectories of Academic and Social Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J; Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Maczuga, Steve

    2017-09-15

    We examined trajectories of academic and social functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to identify those who might be at risk for especially severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. We estimated a series of growth mixture models using data from two subsamples of children participating in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) including those with at least baseline and 96-month data for reading and mathematics achievement (n = 392; 77.3% male; M age = 7.7; SD = 0.8) or social skills ratings from teachers (n = 259; 74.9% male; M age = 7.6; SD = 0.8). We compared latent trajectories for children with ADHD to mean observed trajectories obtained from a local normative (i.e., non-ADHD) comparison group (n = 289; 80.6% male; M age = 9.9; SD = 1.1). Results indicated six latent trajectory classes for reading and mathematics and four classes for teacher social skills ratings. There was not only a relationship between trajectories of inattention symptoms and academic impairment, but also a similarly strong association between trajectory classes of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and achievement. Trajectory class membership correlated with socio-demographic and diagnostic characteristics, inattention and hyperactive-impulsive symptom trajectories, externalizing behavior in school, and treatment receipt and dosage. Although children with ADHD display substantial heterogeneity in their reading, math, and social skills growth trajectories, those with behavioral and socio-demographic disadvantages are especially likely to display severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. Evidence-based early screening and intervention that directly address academic and social impairments in elementary school-aged children with ADHD are warranted. The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT00000388.

  3. "My Baby & Me": effects of an early, comprehensive parenting intervention on at-risk mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttentag, Cathy L; Landry, Susan H; Williams, Jeffrey M; Baggett, Kathleen M; Noria, Christine W; Borkowski, John G; Swank, Paul R; Farris, Jaelyn R; Crawford, April; Lanzi, Robin G; Carta, Judith J; Warren, Steven F; Ramey, Sharon L

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a multimodule parenting intervention, "My Baby & Me," that began prenatally and continued until children reached 2.5 years of age. The intervention targeted specific parenting skills designed to alter trajectories of maternal and child development. Of 361 high-risk mothers (193 adolescents, 168 adults) enrolled across 4 states, half were randomly assigned to the high-intensity (HI) home visitation coaching program (55 sessions), and half to a low-intensity (LI) condition that included monthly phone calls from a coach, printed informational materials, and community resource referrals. Videotaped observations of mother-child play were coded at 5 time points for multiple maternal and child behaviors and skills. Compared to mothers in the LI group, mothers in the HI group showed higher levels of contingent responsiveness, higher quality verbal stimulation, and more verbal scaffolding by 30 months, with higher levels of warmth and greater decreases in physical intrusiveness and negativity when their children were 24 months. By 30 months, children in the HI group showed more rapid increases and higher levels of engagement with the environment, expressive language skills, and social engagement, as well as more complex toy play and fewer problem behaviors than those in the LI group. Gains in maternal responsive behaviors mediated the effects of the intervention on child outcomes. Results were comparable for adolescent and adult mothers. A strong theoretical framework, consistent focus on maternal responsiveness, high dosage, and trusting relationships with coaches are thought to explain the positive outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Caregivers' Attitudes towards HIV Testing and Disclosure of HIV Status to At-Risk Children in Rural Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Lorenz

    Full Text Available Caregivers of HIV-positive children were interviewed in the Mbarara and Isingiro districts of Uganda to identify current trends in practices related to HIV testing and the disclosure of HIV status to the child. A total of 28 caregivers of at least one HIV-positive child participated in semi-structured interviews exploring when and why they tested the child for HIV, when the child was informed of their positive status, and what the caregiver did to prepare themselves and the child for status disclosure. For a majority (96% of respondents, the decision to test the child for HIV was due to existing illness in either the child or a relative. Other common themes identified included the existence of stigma in the caregivers' communities and doubt that the children truly understood what was being explained to them when their status was disclosed. Most (65% children were informed of their HIV status between the ages of 5 and 9, with the mean age of disclosure occurring at the age of 7. General provision of HIV information typically began at the same age as disclosure, and as many as two thirds (64% of the caregivers sought advice from an HIV counsellor prior to disclosure. How a caregiver chose to prepare themselves and the child did not affect the caregiver's perception of whether the disclosure experience was beneficial or not. These findings suggest that the HIV disclosure experience in Mbarara and Isingiro districts differs from current guidelines, especially with respect to age of disclosure, how caregivers prepare themselves and the child, and approaching disclosure as an ongoing process. The doubts expressed by caregivers regarding the child's level of HIV understanding following the disclosure experience suggest the children may be insufficiently prepared at the time of the initial disclosure event. The findings also suggest that examining the content of pre-disclosure counselling and HIV education, and how health care professionals are trained

  5. An active video game intervention does not improve physical activity and sedentary time of children at-risk for developmental coordination disorder: a crossover randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, E K; Campbell, A C; Straker, L M

    2016-03-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are highly inactive and sedentary. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a home-based active video game intervention on objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children at risk for DCD. In a crossover randomized clinical trial, 21 children (mean age 11.0, SD 1.0; n = 11 girls) in Perth, Western Australia participated in two 16-week periods: no active video games (AVGs) control period and AVGs intervention period. Two active input consoles were provided to participants along with a selection of non-violent AVGs for participants to play at home. Participants wore accelerometers at baseline and following each period to determine minutes of sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous times in addition to self-reported types of activities in a diary. Linear mixed models, adjusted for the order of periods, compared physical activity and sedentary time during the last week of each period. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control periods in time spent in sedentary (decrease of -1.0 min/day during the intervention period, 95%CI -12.1, 10.1), light (increase of 2.2 min/day, 95%CI -8.8, 13.2), moderate (decrease of 0.7 min/day, 95%CI -4.6, 3.3) or vigorous (decrease of -0.6 min/day, 95%CI -1.6, 0.4). Among children at risk for DCD, participating in this AVG intervention did not improve objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Oxytocin and Parent-Child Interaction in the Development of Empathy among Children at Risk for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nicole M.; Baker, Jason K.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and early parent-child interactions predicted later empathic behavior in 84 toddlers at high or low familial risk for ASD. Two well-studied OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs53576 and rs2254298, were examined. Parent-child interaction was measured at 15 and 18 months of age during free play sessions. Empathy was measured at 24 and 30 months using a response to parental distress paradigm. While there was no direct association between parent-child interaction quality or OXTR and empathy, rs53576 moderated the relation between interaction quality and empathy. Results suggest that the interplay between OXTR and early parent-child interactions predicts individual differences in empathy in children at varying risk for atypical social development. Findings are consonant with a differential susceptibility model in which an OXTR variant may increase the social salience of interaction processes for specific allele carriers. These results increase our understanding of predictors of empathy development in young children with a wide range of social outcomes. PMID:26998571

  7. The Effectiveness of a Mobile Clinic in Improving Follow-up Eye Care for At-Risk Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wei; Patel, Jinali; Snitzer, Melanie; Pond, Michael; Rabinowitz, Michael P; Ceron, Guadalupe; Bagley, Krystal; Dennis, Korinne; Weiner, Rachel; Martinez-Helfman, Sarah; Maria, Kathleen Santa; Burke, Brian; Aultman, William B; Levin, Alex V

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the potential of a mobile ophthalmic unit in the schoolyard to improve the follow-up rate for children who have failed an optometric in-school screening program. Previously, the optometric program made referrals to the center and only 53% of students attended the desired ophthalmology consultation. This was a cohort study of students conducted in elementary school lots in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. The mobile ophthalmic unit visited schools where students with parental consent who needed examination had been identified by an in-school optometric vision care program. A total of 132 students were referred by the optometric program, of whom 95 (72%) had complete signed consent forms. Eighty-two patients (62%, confidence interval: 54% to 70%) were successfully seen by the mobile unit. Compared to the historical rate of successful completion of ophthalmology consultation (53%), a statistically significant improvement in follow-up was noted (P = .036). On a Likert scale of 1 to 5, the mean school nurse satisfaction rating was 4.8. The findings demonstrate the potential impact of mobile eye clinics at schools in connecting children with ophthalmic care. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53(6):344-348.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Poverty Dynamics and Academic Trajectories of Children of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei

    2017-01-01

    Using Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (ECLS-K), we investigated the relationship between poverty and academic trajectories for children in immigrant families in the United States. We used family socioeconomic status (SES) which considers parental education, parental occupation, and family income to define poverty in correspondence with the U.S. federal poverty threshold. Three dimensions of poverty were examined including depth (i.e., not-poor, near-poor, poor or extreme poor), stability (i.e., continuously or intermittently), and duration (i.e., for how many times in poverty). Our results indicated that living in poverty, particularly when it was extreme, volatile, and for long spell could compromise children’s reading and math achievements during the first nine schooling years. Children of immigrants were doing as well as, if not better than, children of native-borns in certain areas (i.e., math) or in facing of certain pattern of poverty (i.e., long-spell). However, deep poverty and volatile changes in family SES could compromise academic achievements for children of immigrants throughout their first nine years of schooling, a period holds important key to their future success. Implications to practice and policy as well as future directions were discussed. PMID:28926964

  9. Navy Bean and Rice Bran Intake Alters the Plasma Metabolome of Children at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal cholesterol in childhood predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in adulthood. Navy beans and rice bran have demonstrated efficacy in regulating blood lipids in adults and children; however, their effects on modulating the child plasma metabolome has not been investigated and warrants investigation. A pilot, randomized-controlled, clinical trial was conducted in 38 children (10 ± 0.8 years old with abnormal cholesterol. Participants consumed a snack for 4 weeks containing either: no navy bean or rice bran (control; 17.5 g/day cooked navy bean powder; 15 g/day heat-stabilized rice bran; or 9 g/day navy beans and 8 g/day rice bran. Plasma metabolites were extracted using 80% methanol for global, non-targeted metabolic profiling via ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Differences in plasma metabolite levels after 4 weeks of dietary intervention compared to control and baseline were analyzed using analysis of variance and Welch’s t-tests (p ≤ 0.05. Navy bean and/or rice bran consumption influenced 71 plasma compounds compared to control (p ≤ 0.05, with lipids representing 46% of the total plasma metabolome. Significant changes were determined for 18 plasma lipids in the navy bean group and 10 plasma lipids for the rice bran group compared to control, and 48 lipids in the navy bean group and 40 in the rice bran group compared to baseline. These results support the hypothesis that consumption of these foods impact blood lipid metabolism with implications for reducing CVD risk in children. Complementary and distinct lipid pathways were affected by the diet groups, including acylcarnitines and lysolipids (navy bean, sphingolipids (rice bran, and phospholipids (navy bean + rice bran. Navy bean consumption decreased free fatty acids associated with metabolic diseases (palmitate and arachidonate and increased the relative abundance of endogenous anti-inflammatory lipids

  10. Factors Associated with Having a Medical Home for Children At-Risk of Experiencing Negative Events: Results from a National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Lee, Jacqueline; Bonner, Brandy; Knapp, Caprice; Bright, Melissa; Hinojosa, Melanie

    2015-10-01

    Although the Patient Centered Medical Home is a considered an optimal model for care, some children still do not receive care in this model. Beyond the clinical and practitioner factors known to affect having a medical home, family and environmental risks [referred to as adverse childhood experiences (ACE)] may also be associated with having a medical home. This study's purpose was to examine whether family and environment risks are associated with children having a medical home. Data from the nationally representative, cross-sectional 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health telephone survey were used (N = 95,677). Analyses were conducted to describe the sample characteristics and determine the association between family and environmental risks and whether a child has a medical home. A subset of risks were modeled from the seminal study of ACEs. Nearly one-quarter of parents reported that their children experienced at-least one ACE. Compared to children who experienced no ACEs, children who experienced at least one ACE, or other family and environmental risks, had lower odds of having a medical home than those whom did not. Logistic regressions showed that cumulative ACEs (odds ratio (OR) 0.76; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.90) as well as other family and environmental risks (OR 0.36, 95 % CI 0.26-0.51) were related to lower odds of having a medical home. This study suggests that family and environmental risks, including ACEs, impact parental report of a child having a medical home and that a dosage effect may exist. ACEs and other risk factors must be considered when providers care for children at-risk of experiencing negative events, particularly multiple negative events.

  11. Lipid profiles and inflammatory markers after periodontal treatment in children with congenital heart disease and at risk for atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresolin, Adriana Chassot; Pronsatti, Mariana Menegassi; Pasqualotto, Larissa Nicole; Nassar, Patricia Oehlmeyer; Jorge, Alex Sandro; da Silva, Edson Antonio Alves; Nassar, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Due to the biological associations between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases, as well as the fact that atherosclerosis begins in childhood, behavior based on oral health care and metabolic control from an early age is essential for patients with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of full-mouth scaling and root planing on the reduction of periodontal disease in children with congenital heart disease. In this study, treatments were related to clinical periodontal parameters and also to blood ones, such as lipid profile and inflammatory markers. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=17), scaling and root planing; and group 2 (n=16), full-mouth scaling and root planing. The results showed a significant improvement in clinical periodontal parameters (Pheart disease, though neither demonstrated superiority.

  12. "Children at risk": development, implementation, and effectiveness of a school-based violence intervention and prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sharon L; Smith, Donald J

    2009-01-01

    Violence impacts the lives of children on a daily basis. In their communities, they witness drive-by shootings, drug deals, and violence in their schools while many endure abuse, neglect, and violent behavior in their homes. Because the traumatizing impact of such exposure disrupts a child's ability to concentrate and learn, the Dallas Independent School District (ISD) sought content expertise to develop a training vehicle for school district professionals. The program aimed to raise the awareness of educators to problems related to domestic violence and the myriad of circumstances at home and in the community that lead to exposure to violence. Approximately 15,000 faculty and staff of Dallas ISD were educated in the identification, intervention, and prevention of exposure to violence. Referrals and inquiries related to abuse have increased (approximately 70%) while the city of Dallas has witnessed a drop in the number of domestic violence and child abuse offenses.

  13. Prediction of Children's Academic Competence from Their Effortful Control, Relationships, and Classroom Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Swanson, Jodi; Reiser, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among children's effortful control, school relationships, classroom participation, and academic competence with a sample of 7- to 12-year-old children (N = 264). Parents and children reported on children's effortful control, and teachers and children reported on children's school relationships and classroom…

  14. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a brief school-based group programme for parents of children at risk of ADHD: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayal, K; Taylor, J A; Valentine, A; Guo, B; Sampson, C J; Sellman, E; James, M; Hollis, C; Daley, D

    2016-07-01

    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommend a stepped care approach for the identification and management of children with, or at risk of, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of a group parenting intervention programme (+/- a teacher session) for children at risk of ADHD. In a three-arm cluster randomised controlled trial, 12 primary schools were randomly assigned to control, parent-only and combined (parent + teacher) intervention arms. Eligible children had high levels of parent-rated hyperactivity/inattention (n = 199). At 6 month follow-up, the primary outcome measure was the parent-completed Conners' Rating Scale - Revised (ADHD index). Secondary outcomes included the Conners' sub-scales (hyperactivity, cognitive problems/inattention and oppositional behaviour), the teacher-completed Conners' Rating Scale - Revised, child health-related quality of life, parental burden and parental mental health. The cost-effectiveness analyses reflected a health and personal social services perspective. ISRCTN87634685. Follow-up data were obtained from 76 parents and 169 teachers. There was no effect of the parent-only (mean difference = -1.1, 95% CI -5.1,2.9; p = 0.57) or combined interventions (mean difference = -2.1, 95% CI -6.4,2.1; p = 0.31) on the ADHD index. The combined intervention was associated with reduced parent-reported hyperactivity symptoms (mean difference = -5.3; 95% CI -10.5,-0.01; p = 0.05) and the parent-only intervention with improved parental mental health (mean difference = -1.9; 95% CI -3.2,-0.5; p = 0.009). The incremental costs of the parent-only and the combined interventions were £73 and £123, respectively. Above a willingness-to-pay of £31 per one-point improvement in the ADHD index, the parent-only programme had the highest probability of cost-effectiveness. Participants found the

  15. Associations of health disparities and physical activity with children's health and academic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangrong Shi

    2014-06-01

    Children's health status determined by both healthy lifestyles and sociodemographic factors is the most significant contributory factor associated with academic problems. Physical activity should be considered as an intervention to reduce health disparities and academic problems among schoolchildren.

  16. The social paediatrics initiative: a RICHER model of primary health care for at risk children and their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Sabrina T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Responsive Interdisciplinary Child-Community Health Education and Research (RICHER initiative is an intersectoral and interdisciplinary community outreach primary health care (PHC model. It is being undertaken in partnership with community based organizations in order to address identified gaps in the continuum of health services delivery for ‘at risk’ children and their families. As part of a larger study, this paper reports on whether the RICHER initiative is associated with increased: 1 access to health care for children and families with multiple forms of disadvantage and 2 patient-reported empowerment. This study provides the first examination of a model of delivering PHC, using a Social Paediatrics approach. Methods This was a mixed-methods study, using quantitative and qualitative approaches; it was undertaken in partnership with the community, both organizations and individual providers. Descriptive statistics, including logistic regression of patient survey data (n=86 and thematic analyses of patient interview data (n=7 were analyzed to examine the association between patient experiences with the RICHER initiative and parent-reported empowerment. Results Respondents found communication with the provider clear, that the provider explained any test results in a way they could understand, and that the provider was compassionate and respectful. Analysis of the survey and in-depth interview data provide evidence that interpersonal communication, particularly the provider’s interpersonal style (e.g., being treated as an equal, was very important. Even after controlling for parents’ education and ethnicity, the provider’s interpersonal style remained positively associated with parent-reported empowerment (p Conclusions This model of PHC delivery is unique in its purposeful and required partnerships between health care providers and community members. This study provides beginning evidence that RICHER can

  17. A Retrospective Study of the Incidence of Missed Opportunities in Identifying, Managing and Referring At-Risk of Overweight and Overweight Children and Adolescents in an Outpatient Primary Care Setting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quirke, Amy

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive study of the incidence of missed opportunities in identifying, managing and referring children and adolescents at-risk of overweight and overweight were conducted using a retrospective...

  18. Parents' Observations of the Academic and Nonacademic Performance of Children with Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Maureen; Kraft, Stephen; Buncic, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    In this study, children with strabismus, as a group, had significantly more academic and nonacademic difficulties than did children without strabismus. However, since not all the children with strabismus had academic difficulties, other factors that are associated with strabismus, such as headache, eyestrain, perceptual difficulties, and…

  19. Physical Fitness and Academic Performance in Primary School Children with and without a Social Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…

  20. Behavioural, Academic and Neuropsychological Profile of Normally Gifted Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descheemaeker, M.-J.; Ghesquiere, P.; Symons, H.; Fryns, J. P.; Legius, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study the neuropsychological, academic and social-emotional profiles were examined in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) children. Subjects: 17 NF1 children (ages 7-11) with NF1 without serious medical problems and with a full scale IQ (FSIQ) above 70. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), academic tests and an…

  1. Neonatal MRI is associated with future cognition and academic achievement in preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Henrik; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Thompson, Deanne K; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Anderson, Peter J; Klingberg, Torkel

    2015-11-01

    School-age children born preterm are particularly at risk for low mathematical achievement, associated with reduced working memory and number skills. Early identification of preterm children at risk for future impairments using brain markers might assist in referral for early intervention. This study aimed to examine the use of neonatal magnetic resonance imaging measures derived from automated methods (Jacobian maps from deformation-based morphometry; fractional anisotropy maps from diffusion tensor images) to predict skills important for mathematical achievement (working memory, early mathematical skills) at 5 and 7 years in a cohort of preterm children using both univariable (general linear model) and multivariable models (support vector regression). Participants were preterm children born children born ≥37 weeks' gestational age at the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia between July 2001 and December 2003 and recruited into a prospective longitudinal cohort study. At term-equivalent age ( ±2 weeks) 224 preterm and 46 control infants were recruited for magnetic resonance imaging. Working memory and early mathematics skills were assessed at 5 years (n = 195 preterm; n = 40 controls) and 7 years (n = 197 preterm; n = 43 controls). In the preterm group, results identified localized regions around the insula and putamen in the neonatal Jacobian map that were positively associated with early mathematics at 5 and 7 years (both P memory at 7 years (models ranging from P = 0.07 to P = 0.05). Neonatal fractional anisotropy was positively associated with working memory and early mathematics at 5 years (both P < 0.001) even after covarying for clinical factors using support vector regression but not general linear model. These significant relationships were not observed in the control group. In summary, we identified, in the preterm brain, regions around the insula and putamen using neonatal deformation-based morphometry, and brain microstructural

  2. BREAKFAST HABIT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SUBURBAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ayu Widyanti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Academic performance is affected by a numbers of factors. Age, gender, nutritional status, and breakfast habits are some factors that have relation with academic performance. Nutritional statues among school children still to be concerned. Breakfast habit is important thing to do before school to maintain enough calories to study and work well. The aim of this study was to determine the association of breakfast habits and academic performance especially in suburban elementary school children. An analytic cross sectional study conducted in children aged 6-12 years who studied at SD 1 Taro, Gianyar regency, Bali. There were 178 students participated in this study. We found 3 factors associated with academic performance i.e. breakfast, gender, and age with OR=2.56 (95% CI 1.16 to 5.66, P=0.02; OR=0.32 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.70, P=0.04; OR=6.52 (95% CI 2.73 to 15.53, P<0.0001, respectively. We conclude there was an association between breakfast habits and academic performance. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. Academic proficiency in children after early congenital heart disease surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, Sarah B; Swearingen, Christopher J; Melguizo, Maria S; Reeves, Rachel N; Rowell, Jacob A; Gibson, Neal; Holland, Greg; Bhutta, Adnan T; Kaiser, Jeffrey R

    2014-02-01

    Children with early surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) are known to have impaired neurodevelopment; their performance on school-age achievement tests and their need for special education remains largely unexplored. The study aimed to determine predictors of academic achievement at school age and placement in special education services among early CHD surgery survivors. Children with CHD surgery at achieving proficiency in literacy and mathematics and the receipt of special education were determined. Two hundred fifty-six children who attended Arkansas public schools and who had surgery as infants were included; 77.7 % had either school-age achievement-test scores or special-education codes of mental retardation or multiple disabilities. Scores on achievement tests for these children were 7-13 % lower than those of Arkansas students (p increase in receipt of special education due to multiple disabilities [odds ratio (OR) 10.66, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.23-22.35] or mental retardation (OR 4.96, 95 % CI 2.6-8.64). Surgery after the neonatal period was associated with decreased literacy proficiency, and cardiopulmonary bypass during the first surgery was associated with decreased mathematics proficiency. Children who had early CHD surgery were less proficient on standardized school assessments, and many received special education. This is concerning because achievement-test scores at school age are "real-world" predictors of long-term outcomes.

  4. [Nutritional rehabilitation of undernourished and nutritionally at-risk children admitted to a supplementary food program in Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Rita Maria Monteiro; França Junior, Ivan; Souza, Maria de Fátima Marinho

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional rehabilitation of undernourished children admitted to a program entitled Incentives to Fight Nutritional Deficiencies (ICCN) in Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo, Brazil. The study included 724 children (6 to 24 months old) from July 1999 to July 2001. The indices used to evaluate baseline nutritional status were weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and length-for-age, defining normal as z score > or = -1, at-risk as > or = -2 and -3, and severe malnutrition as age index, and the results were analyzed considering the average z score variation at the end of the 12-month program. After 12 months, nutritional status had improved in all categories, while the best results were in children with more intense baseline nutritional deficiency. Gains in length were 1.12, 0.82, 0.57, and 0.45 z scores for the severe and moderate malnutrition, nutritional risk, and normal categories, respectively. The ICCN in Mogi das Cruzes thus demonstrated effective nutritional improvement for program beneficiaries.

  5. Impact of a clinical decision model for febrile children at risk for serious bacterial infections at the emergency department: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien de Vos-Kerkhof

    Full Text Available To assess the impact of a clinical decision model for febrile children at risk for serious bacterial infections (SBI attending the emergency department (ED.Randomized controlled trial with 439 febrile children, aged 1 month-16 years, attending the pediatric ED of a Dutch university hospital during 2010-2012. Febrile children were randomly assigned to the intervention (clinical decision model; n = 219 or the control group (usual care; n = 220. The clinical decision model included clinical symptoms, vital signs, and C-reactive protein and provided high/low-risks for "pneumonia" and "other SBI". Nurses were guided by the intervention to initiate additional tests for high-risk children. The clinical decision model was evaluated by 1 area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curve (AUC to indicate discriminative ability and 2 feasibility, to measure nurses' compliance to model recommendations. Primary patient outcome was defined as correct SBI diagnoses. Secondary process outcomes were defined as length of stay; diagnostic tests; antibiotic treatment; hospital admission; revisits and medical costs.The decision model had good discriminative ability for both pneumonia (n = 33; AUC 0.83 (95% CI 0.75-0.90 and other SBI (n = 22; AUC 0.81 (95% CI 0.72-0.90. Compliance to model recommendations was high (86%. No differences in correct SBI determination were observed. Application of the clinical decision model resulted in less full-blood-counts (14% vs. 22%, p-value < 0.05 and more urine-dipstick testing (71% vs. 61%, p-value < 0.05.In contrast to our expectations no substantial impact on patient outcome was perceived. The clinical decision model preserved, however, good discriminatory ability to detect SBI, achieved good compliance among nurses and resulted in a more standardized diagnostic approach towards febrile children, with less full blood-counts and more rightfully urine-dipstick testing.Nederlands Trial Register NTR2381.

  6. Absenteeism in Head Start and Children's Academic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M

    2017-05-15

    Using nationally representative data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort (n = 2,842), this study examined the implications of 3- and 4-year-old's absences from Head Start for their early academic learning. The findings from this study revealed that children who missed more days of school, and especially those who were chronically absent, demonstrated fewer gains in areas of math and literacy during the preschool year. Moreover, excessive absenteeism was found to detract from the potential benefits of quality preschool education and was especially problematic for the early learning of children who entered the Head Start program with a less developed skill set. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Assessment of children's nutritional attitudes before oral food challenges to identify patients at risk of food reintroduction failure: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloni, L; Ferruzza, E; Ronconi, L; Toniolo, A; Lazzarotto, F; Bonaguro, R; Celegato, N; Muraro, A

    2017-05-01

    Inappropriate dietary eliminations may impair quality of life, affect children's growth and unnecessarily impact on healthcare costs. Previous retrospective studies reported that around 25% of children continue a food-avoidance diet despite a negative oral food challenge (OFC). A definite pattern has not been found yet for patients not reintroducing the food. This study aimed to examine the role of child's nutritional attitudes and maternal anxiety in reintroducing food after a negative OFC. A prospective study was conducted involving 81 mothers of children with IgE-mediated food allergy. They completed a survey on nutritional behaviour and attitudes and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory on the day of OFC and 6 months later. In total, 11.1% of children never or rarely ate the food after a negative OFC. Consumption of the reintroduced food is positively correlated to child's interest in tasting new foods before and after OFC and to changes in child's nutritional habits after OFC. It is negatively correlated to monotony of the diet after OFC. No correlations were found with other participants' characteristics or maternal anxiety. State anxiety significantly decreased after the OFC. A correlation was found between trait and state anxiety and the degree of change in nutritional habits after OFC. Evaluating child's approach towards food before the OFC is a promising approach to identify patients at risk of food reintroduction failure. Furthermore, it underlined the importance of reassessing food consumption in all patients after a negative OFC and supporting patients in the reintroduction of food. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

  9. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  10. Children's Attendance Rates and Quality of Teacher-Child Interactions in At-Risk Preschool Classrooms: Contribution to Children's Expressive Language Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica A. R.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Petrill, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The present research examines whether children's daily attendance rates would be predictive of gains in expressive language within the context of high-quality preschool classrooms. The quality of preschool classrooms was assessed by measuring the quality of the teacher's interactions with the children in his or her classroom. Hierarchical linear…

  11. Academic self-concept in children with epilepsy and its relation to their quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabcova, Dana; Krsek, Pavel; Kohout, Jiri; Jost, Jiri; Zarubova, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Academic achievement in children with epilepsy is a highly studied topic with many important implications. However, only little attention has been devoted to academic self-concept of such children and the relation of academic self-concept to their quality of life. We aimed to examine academic self-concept in children with epilepsy, to assess its relationship to academic achievement and to determine possible correlations between academic self-concept and quality of life. The study group consisted of 182 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years who completed the student's perception of ability scale (SPAS) questionnaire to determine their academic self-concept and the modified Czech version of the CHEQOL-25 questionnaire to determine their health-related quality of life. We found that academic self-concept in children with epilepsy was on average significantly lower than in their peers without seizures, especially with regard to general school-related abilities, reading, and spelling. On the other hand, the variance in the data obtained from the group of children with epilepsy was significantly higher than in the whole population and the proportion of individuals with very high academic self-concept seems comparable among children with and without epilepsy. Moreover, it was found that correlations between academic self-concept and academic achievement are significantly lower in children with epilepsy than in the whole population. The presented results suggest that considerable attention should be paid to the role of academic self-concept in education of children with epilepsy and to the factors influencing this self-concept in this group.

  12. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  13. Multiple Contexts, Multiple Methods: A Study of Academic and Cultural Identity among Children of Immigrant Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdan, Tim; Munoz, Chantico

    2012-01-01

    Multiple methods were used to examine the academic motivation and cultural identity of a sample of college undergraduates. The children of immigrant parents (CIPs, n = 52) and the children of non-immigrant parents (non-CIPs, n = 42) completed surveys assessing core cultural identity, valuing of cultural accomplishments, academic self-concept,…

  14. Verbal and Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Basic verbal and academic skills can be adversely affected by early-onset diabetes, although these skills have been studied less than other cognitive functions. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of learning deficits in children with diabetes by assessing basic verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset diabetes and in…

  15. Physical Activity, Self-Regulation, and Early Academic Achievement in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Derek R.; McClelland, Megan M.; Loprinzi, Paul; Trost, Stewart G.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated whether active play during recess was associated with self-regulation and academic achievement in a prekindergarten sample. A total of 51 children in classes containing approximately half Head Start children were assessed on self-regulation, active play, and early academic achievement. Path…

  16. Children's Sleep and Academic Achievement: The Moderating Role of Effortful Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Tao, Chun; Spinrad, Tracy; Doane, Leah D.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Southworth, Jody

    2017-01-01

    Poor sleep is thought to interfere with children's learning and academic achievement (AA). However, existing research and theory indicate there are factors that may mitigate the academic risk associated with poor sleep. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of children's effortful control (EC) on the relation between sleep…

  17. Associations among Academic Achievement, Attention, and Adrenocortical Reactivity in Caribbean Village Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Durbrow, Eric H.; Adam, Emma; Gunnar, Megan; Bozoky, Ingrid K.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined associations among academic achievement problems, attention problems, and cortisol levels in 86 children (ages 5 to 12) in St. Vincent, the West Indies. Findings revealed that morning cortisol levels were more elevated at school than at home. Attention problems contributed negatively to academic scores. Children with the most…

  18. Effects of maternal sensitivity on low birth weight children's academic achievement: a test of differential susceptibility versus diathesis stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Julia; Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    Differential Susceptibility Theory (DST) postulates that some children are more affected - for better and for worse - by developmental experiences, including parenting, than others. Low birth weight (LBW, 1,500-2,499 g) may not only be a predictor for neurodevelopmental impairment but also a marker for prenatally programmed susceptibility. The aim was to test if effects of sensitive parenting on LBW and very LBW (VLBW, academic achievement are best explained by a differential susceptibility versus diathesis-stress model of person-X-environment interaction. Nine hundred and twenty-two children ranging from 600 g to 5,140 g birth weight were studied as part of a prospective, geographically defined, longitudinal investigation of neonatal at-risk children in South Germany (Bavarian Longitudinal Study). Sensitive parenting during a structured mother-child interaction task was observed and rated at age 6 years. Academic achievement was assessed with standardized mathematic, reading, and spelling/writing tests at age 8 years. Maternal sensitivity positively predicted the academic achievement of both LBW (n = 283) and VLBW (n = 202) children. Confirmatory-comparative and model-fitting analysis (testing LBW vs. NBW and VLBW vs. NBW) indicated that LBW and VLBW children were more susceptible than NBW to the adverse effects of low-sensitive, but not beneficial effects of high-sensitive parenting. Findings proved more consistent with the diathesis stress than differential-susceptibility model of person-X-environment interaction: LBW and VLBW children's exposure to positive parenting predicted catch-up to their NBW peers, whereas exposure to negative parenting predicted much poorer functioning. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Change in Computer Access and the Academic Achievement of Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ui Jeong; Hofferth, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Increased interest in the correlates of media devices available to children has led to research indicating that access to and use of technology are positively associated with children's academic achievement. However, the digital divide remains; not all children have access to digital technologies, and not all children can…

  20. The link between infant regulatory problems, temperament traits, maternal depressive symptoms and children's psychopathological symptoms at age three: a longitudinal study in a German at-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidor, Anna; Fischer, Cristina; Cierpka, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Difficult conditions during childhood can limit an individual's development in many ways. Factors such as being raised in an at-risk family, child temperamental traits or maternal traits can potentially influence a child's later behaviour. The present study investigated the extent of regulatory problems in 6-month-old infants and their link to temperamental traits and impact on externalizing and internalizing problems at 36 months. Moderating effects of maternal distress and maternal depressive symptoms were tested as well. In a quasi-experimental, longitudinal study, a sample of 185 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk was investigated at 6 months with SFS (infants' regulatory problems) and at 3 years with CBCL (children's behavioural problems), EAS (children's temperament), ADS (maternal depressive symptoms) and PSI-SF (maternal stress). A hierarchical regression analysis yielded a significant association between infants' regulatory problems and both externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems at age 3 (accounting for 16% and 14% variance), with both externalizing and internalizing problems being linked to current maternal depressive symptoms (12 and 9% of the variance). Externalizing and internalizing problems were found to be related also to children's temperamental difficulty (18 and 13% of variance) and their negative emotionality. With temperamental traits having been taken into account, only feeding problems at 6 months contributed near-significant to internalizing problems at 3 years. Our results underscore the crucial role of temperament in the path between early regulatory problems and subsequent behavioural difficulties. Children's unfavourable temperamental predispositions such as negative emotionality and generally "difficult temperament" contributed substantially to both externalizing and internalizing behavioural problems in the high-risk sample. The decreased predictive power of regulatory problems following the inclusion of

  1. Predicting dietary intake among children classified as overweight or at risk for overweight: Independent and interactive effects of parenting practices and styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Seburg, Elisabeth; JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Levy, Rona L

    2017-03-01

    Using baseline data from a randomized controlled pediatric obesity prevention trial, this study sought to examine general parenting style as a potential moderator of the association between feeding-specific parenting practices and child dietary intake. Four hundred and twenty-one parent-child dyads served as participants (49% girls and 93% mothers). Children were, on average, 6.6 years old and either overweight or at-risk for overweight (mean BMI percentile = 84.9). Data were collected in participants' homes. Study staff measured children's height and weight. Parents completed questionnaires designed to assess general parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) and child feeding practices (restriction and monitoring). Child dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h recall system. Outcomes were daily servings of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and unhealthy snacks. Results were as follows: Permissive parenting was inversely associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, and parental monitoring was inversely associated with SSB consumption. There were no other main effects of parenting style or feeding practice on child dietary consumption. Authoritarian parenting moderated the association between restriction and SSB intake (a marginally significant effect after correcting for multiple comparisons). Restriction was inversely associated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was high but unassociated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was low. Findings indicate that the parenting practice of monitoring child dietary intake was associated with more healthful consumption regardless of parenting style; interventions may thus benefit from encouraging parental monitoring. The parenting strategy of restricting child dietary intake, in contrast, was associated with lower SSB intake in the context of higher parental authoritarianism but inconsequential in the context of lower parental authoritarianism. This exploratory

  2. Academic language in early childhood interactions : a longitudinal study of 3- to 6-year-old Dutch monolingual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines academic language in early childhood. It covers children’s exposure to academic language in early childhood, children’s early production of academic language, the development of academic language proficiency and the co-construction of academic language by children and adults.The

  3. At-Risk Youth: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn, Leslie

    This select bibliography lists books, articles, and reports, almost all of which were published since 1980, on at-risk youth. The following areas are included: (1) general; (2) dropouts; (3) drug and alcohol abusers; (4) youth offenders; (5) teen parents; (6) young children at risk; and (7) unemployed youth. For each item the following information…

  4. Screening for iron deficiency anemia in at risk children in the pediatric emergency department: a survey of Canadian pediatric emergency department physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Roberta; Matsui, Doreen; Lynch, Tim

    2007-05-01

    To determine the attitudes and reported practices of physicians regarding screening for iron deficiency anemia in at-risk children in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) across Canada. A standardized survey was mailed to 183 PED physicians at 10 tertiary care PED across Canada. The practices and attitudes regarding screening for iron deficiency anemia were collected via a questionnaire consisting of single select closed-ended items and items which required ranking in order of importance. Sixty-one percent (111/183) of physicians responded to the survey. Ninety-six percent of respondents do not routinely screen for iron deficiency anemia. One third of respondents believed that screening for iron deficiency anemia in the PED is possible. The remaining stated lack of time, difficulty with follow-up, it not being an emergent issue and cost as prohibitive factors. One third of participants stated that 21% to 40% of the pediatric patients seen in their PED did not have a primary care physician. The main considerations in deciding on whom to perform venipuncture were based on dietary history and physical examination with a history of consumption of milk greater than 24 ounces per day (94%) and conjunctival or skin pallor (97%, 94%, respectively) selected as the most important items. The results of this study indicate that Canadian PED physicians are not routinely screening for iron deficiency anemia, although they demonstrate knowledge of the risk factors for iron deficiency anemia and recognize the importance of diagnosis and treatment to prevent long-term morbidity.

  5. Socioeconomic status, physical fitness, self-concept, attitude toward physical education, and academic achievement of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktop, Abdurrahman

    2010-04-01

    The goal was to analyze the physical fitness, self-concept, attitudes toward physical education, and academic achievement of Turkish elementary school children by socioeconomic status. 198 (101 boys, 97 girls) students from Grades 7 and 8 completed the Children's Attitude Inventory towards Physical Education, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-concept Scale, and Eurofit Physical Fitness Test Battery. Significant differences were found between the groups of Low and High socioeconomic status (SES) in terms of physical fitness and academic achievement. While the Low SES group had higher mean scores on physical fitness, mean academic achievements of the High SES group were higher. Mean differences in height, self-concept, and children's attitudes toward physical education by socioeconomic status were not statistically significant. Particular attention should be paid to physical fitness in children of high socioeconomic status and the academic achievement of children with low socioeconomic status.

  6. [Developmental conditions and subjective experiences of children with a schizophrenic parent--qualitative and quantitative studies from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könnecke, Regina; Wening, Ursula; Ropeter, Daniel; Heiden, Wolfram an der; Maurer, Kurt; Häfner, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    35 children 12-42 years of age of patients with schizophrenia (ABC-Cohort-12-year-follow-up) were interviewed for studying objective and subjective effects of growing up with a schizophrenic parent. Social development and childhood experiences were assessed and quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated. The majority of probands had to take on early responsibilities in their family. Experienced deficits in parental care and problems with poor communication within the family were also mentioned. Compared with controls they showed only light disadvantages in the level of education and vocational training. Even if early independence could be a positive resource for children with a schizophrenic parent the restrictions in the child's life and development should not be overlooked. Information on the illness and support in dealing with stressful situations are frequently needed.

  7. Pharmacotherapy and academic achievement among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Brak, Victor

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the association of pharmacological treatments and academic achievement among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results examining the association of pharmacological treatments and academic achievement among children with ADHD are mixed. Our objective was to examine this association using structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques, which may be considered more sophisticated and advanced over traditional regression techniques. To achieve the purpose, we employed a sample of children with ADHD derived from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data. The ECLS-K provides a large, community-based, nationally representative sample of children to examine across time with respect to academic achievement outcomes. The present study reveals a statistically nonsignificant association between pharmacological treatment and academic achievement among children with ADHD. These results derived from a large, community-based, nationally representative sample, using SEM techniques, may be considered highly generalizable.

  8. Longitudinal follow-up of academic achievement in children with autism from age 2 to 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Bal, Vanessa H; Lord, Catherine

    2018-03-01

    This study examined early predictors of and changes in school-age academic achievement and class placement in children referred for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at age 2. Of 111 ASD referrals, 74 were diagnosed with ASD at age 18. Regression analyses were performed to identify age 3 predictors of achievement in arithmetic, passage comprehension, word reading, and spelling at ages 9 and 18. Linear Mixed Models were used to examine predictors of academic growth between ages 9 and 18. Academic skills varied widely at 9 and 18, but were mostly commensurate with or higher than expected given cognitive levels. However, 22% (age 9) and 32% (age 18) of children with average/above average IQ showed below/low average achievement in at least one academic domain. Children who remained in general education/inclusion classrooms had higher achievement than those who moved to special education classrooms. Stronger cognitive skills at age 3 and 9 predicted better academic achievement and faster academic growth from age 9 to 18. Parent participation in intervention by age 3 predicted better achievement at age 9 and 18. Many children with ASD achieve basic academic skills commensurate with or higher than their cognitive ability. However, more rigorous screening for learning difficulties may be important for those with average cognitive skills because a significant minority show relative academic delays. Interventions targeting cognitive skills and parent participation in early treatment may have cascading effects on long-term academic development. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Executive Function Mediates the Relations between Parental Behaviors and Children's Early Academic Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Rory T.; Bignardi, Giacomo; Hughes, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a growth of interest in parental influences on individual differences in children's executive function (EF) on the one hand and in the academic consequences of variation in children's EF on the other hand. The primary aim of this longitudinal study was to examine whether children's EF mediated the relation between three distinct aspects of parental behavior (i.e., parental scaffolding, negative parent-child interactions, and the provision of informal learning opportunities) and children's academic ability (as measured by standard tests of literacy and numeracy skills). Data were collected from 117 parent-child dyads (60 boys) at two time points ~1 year apart (M Age at Time 1 = 3.94 years, SD = 0.53; M Age at Time 2 = 5.11 years, SD = 0.54). At both time points children completed a battery of tasks designed to measure general cognitive ability (e.g., non-verbal reasoning) and EF (e.g., inhibition, cognitive flexibility, working memory). Our models revealed that children's EF (but not general cognitive ability) mediated the relations between parental scaffolding and negative parent-child interactions and children's early academic ability. In contrast, parental provision of opportunities for learning in the home environment was directly related to children's academic abilities. These results suggest that parental scaffolding and negative parent-child interactions influence children's academic ability by shaping children's emerging EF. PMID:28018253

  10. Academic performance of children born preterm: a meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilhaar, E Sabrina; de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke Sh; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-08-28

    Advances in neonatal healthcare have resulted in decreased mortality after preterm birth but have not led to parallel decreases in morbidity. Academic performance provides insight in the outcomes and specific difficulties and needs of preterm children. To study academic performance in preterm children born in the antenatal steroids and surfactant era and possible moderating effects of perinatal and demographic factors. PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO were searched for peer-reviewed articles. Cohort studies with a full-term control group reporting standardised academic performance scores of preterm children (Academic test scores and special educational needs of preterm and full-term children were analysed using random effects meta-analysis. Random effects meta-regressions were performed to explore the predictive role of perinatal and demographic factors for between-study variance in effect sizes. The 17 eligible studies included 2390 preterm children and 1549 controls. Preterm children scored 0.71 SD below full-term peers on arithmetic (pacademic performance (p=0.006). Preterm children born in the antenatal steroids and surfactant era show considerable academic difficulties. Preterm children with bronchopulmonarydysplasia are at particular risk for poor academic outcome. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. The association between cognition and academic performance in Ugandan children surviving malaria with neurological involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangirana, Paul; Menk, Jeremiah; John, Chandy C; Boivin, Michael J; Hodges, James S

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of different cognitive abilities to academic performance in children surviving cerebral insult can guide the choice of interventions to improve cognitive and academic outcomes. This study's objective was to identify which cognitive abilities are associated with academic performance in children after malaria with neurological involvement. 62 Ugandan children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were assessed for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills, attention) and academic performance (reading, spelling, arithmetic) three months after the illness. Linear regressions were fit for each academic score with the five cognitive outcomes entered as predictors. Adjusters in the analysis were age, sex, education, nutrition, and home environment. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and structural equation models (SEM) were used to determine the nature of the association between cognition and academic performance. Predictive residual sum of squares was used to determine which combination of cognitive scores was needed to predict academic performance. In regressions of a single academic score on all five cognitive outcomes and adjusters, only Working Memory was associated with Reading (coefficient estimate = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.10 to 0.63, pacademic performance measure (Pacademic performance. Academic performance is strongly associated with the latent variable labelled "cognitive ability" which captures most of the variation in the individual specific cognitive outcome measures. Working memory, visual spatial skills, and learning together stood out as the best combination to predict academic performance.

  12. Disentangling the relationship between children's motor ability, executive function and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mirko; Egger, Fabienne; Benzing, Valentin; Jäger, Katja; Conzelmann, Achim; Roebers, Claudia M; Pesce, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Even though positive relations between children's motor ability and their academic achievement are frequently reported, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Executive function has indeed been proposed, but hardly tested as a potential mediator. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the mediating role of executive function in the relationship between motor ability and academic achievement, also investigating the individual contribution of specific motor abilities to the hypothesized mediated linkage to academic achievement. At intervals of ten weeks, 236 children aged between 10 and 12 years were tested in terms of their motor ability (t1: cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, motor coordination), core executive functions (t2: updating, inhibition, shifting), and academic achievement (t3: mathematics, reading, spelling). Structural equation modelling revealed executive function to be a mediator in the relation between motor ability and academic achievement, represented by a significant indirect effect. In separate analyses, each of the three motor abilities were positively related to children's academic achievement. However, only in the case of children's motor coordination, the mediation by executive function accounted for a significance percentage of variance of academic achievement data. The results provide evidence in support of models that conceive executive function as a mechanism explaining the relationship that links children's physical activity-related outcomes to academic achievement and strengthen the advocacy for quality physical activity not merely focused on health-related physical fitness outcomes, but also on motor skill development and learning.

  13. Predicting Dietary Intake among Children Classified as Overweight or at Risk for Overweight: Independent and Interactive Effects of Parenting Practices and Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L.; Seburg, Elisabeth; JaKa, Meghan M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Levy, Rona L.

    2017-01-01

    Using baseline data from a randomized controlled pediatric obesity prevention trial, this study sought to examine general parenting style as a potential moderator of the association between feeding-specific parenting practices and child dietary intake. Four hundred and twenty-one parent-child dyads served as participants (49% girls and 93% mothers). Children were, on average, 6.6 years old and either overweight or at-risk for overweight (mean BMI percentile = 84.9). Data were collected in participants’ homes. Study staff measured children’s height and weight. Parents completed questionnaires designed to assess general parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) and child feeding practices (restriction and monitoring). Child dietary intake was assessed using a 24-hour recall system. Outcomes were daily servings of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and unhealthy snacks. Results were as follows: Permissive parenting was inversely associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, and parental monitoring was inversely associated with SSB consumption. There were no other main effects of parenting style or feeding practice on child dietary consumption. Authoritarian parenting moderated the association between restriction and SSB intake (a marginally significant effect after correcting for multiple comparisons). Restriction was inversely associated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was high but unassociated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was low. Findings indicate that the parenting practice of monitoring child dietary intake was associated with more healthful consumption regardless of parenting style; interventions may thus benefit from encouraging parental monitoring. The parenting strategy of restricting child dietary intake, in contrast, was associated with lower SSB intake in the context of higher parental authoritarianism but inconsequential in the context of lower parental authoritarianism. This

  14. Task Persistence Mediates the Effect of Children's Literacy Skills on Mothers' Academic Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Silinskas, Gintautas

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study aimed at examining the relationship between children's task persistence, mothers' academic help, and the development of children's literacy skills (reading and spelling) at the beginning of primary school. The participants were 870 children, 682 mothers, and 53 class teachers. Data were collected three times--at the…

  15. Physical fitness and academic performance in primary school children with and without a social disadvantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, Roel J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and

  16. Effects of Remarriage Following Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    1999-01-01

    Used data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey to study the effects of remarriage following divorce on children's academic achievement. Results indicate that children from reconstituted families score no higher, and often lower than children of divorce from single-parent families. (SLD)

  17. Somatic Complaints in Children with Anxiety Disorders and Their Unique Prediction of Poorer Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alicia A.; Lourea-Waddell, Brittany; Kendall, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine somatic complaints in children with anxiety disorders compared to non-anxious control children and whether somatic complaints predict poorer academic performance. The sample consisted of 108 children and adolescents (aged 8-14 years) assessed by a structured diagnostic interview: 69 with a principal (i.e., most…

  18. Academic Achievement, Self-Concept and Depression in Taiwanese Children: Moderated Mediation Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Shin-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to utilize a multidimensional perspective to examine whether children's self-concept served as a mediator between academic achievement and depression, and to further investigate whether this mediation effect was moderated by the ages of children. The participants consisted of 632 Taiwanese children in the…

  19. Young Children's Interest-Oriented Activity and Later Academic Self-Regulation Strategies in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Carin; Alexander, Joyce M.; Johnson, Kathy E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated children's interest-based activities in the home during the preschool years and their subsequent academic self-regulation behaviors in school. Children's home activities were tracked for 1 year prior to kindergarten entry. Based on their profiles of activities, children (109) were assigned to one of four interest groups:…

  20. Low Working Memory rather than ADHD Symptoms Predicts Poor Academic Achievement in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Ashley N; Marks, David J; Bédard, Anne-Claude; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2018-02-01

    This study examined whether working memory (WM), inattentive symptoms, and/or hyperactive/impulsive symptoms significantly contributed to academic, behavioral, and global functioning in 8-year-old children. One-hundred-sixty 8-year-old children (75.6% male), who were originally recruited as preschoolers, completed subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Integrated and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition to assess WM and academic achievement, respectively. Teachers rated children's academic and behavioral functioning using the Vanderbilt Rating Scale. Global functioning, as rated by clinicians, was assessed by the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Multiple linear regressions were completed to determine the extent to which WM (auditory-verbal and visual-spatial) and/or inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptom severity significantly contributed to academic, behavioral, and/or global functioning. Both auditory-verbal and visual-spatial WM but not ADHD symptom severity, significantly and independently contributed to measures of academic achievement (all p  0.05) significantly contributed to teacher-ratings of academic functioning. Further, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity (p  0.10) were significantly associated with teacher-ratings of behavioral functioning and clinician-ratings of global functioning. Taken together, it appears that WM in children may be uniquely related to academic skills, but not necessarily to overall behavioral functioning.

  1. Examining the relationship between childhood health conditions and health service utilisation at school entry and subsequent academic performance in a large cohort of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasuuna, Esther; Santoro, Giuseppe; Kremer, Peter; de Silva, Andrea M

    2016-07-01

    Chronic health conditions are associated with poor academic outcomes. This study examines the relationship between health conditions, specialist health service utilisation and academic performance in Australian children. This was a quasi-longitudinal study where School Entrant Health Questionnaire (a survey tool with parent report on children's health) data for 24 678 children entering school in 2008 was matched with the 2011 National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine associations between health conditions, use of a specialist health service and reading and numeracy scores. The study comprised 24 678 children. Children with allergies, very low birth weight, developmental delay, diabetes, spina bifida, cystic fibrosis, birth abnormality, speech problems, intellectual disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder had lower numeracy scores than those without any of these conditions (P performance from those that had not used specialist health services. Some health conditions put children at risk of poorer academic performance, and interventions to prevent this such as appropriate support services in schools should be considered. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. „Careers of young delinquents”, i.e. the phenomenon of excluding pre-school children who are at risk of social maladjustment during the early stages of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on the process of social exclusion from the first stage of the education of children at risk of social maladjustment. The author presents strategies and tactics used by teachers of preschool education to eliminate the exclusion of children who cause educational problems. The author analyzes the data in accordance with the methodology of grounded theory in the context of game theory.

  3. Maternal Self-Efficacy in the Home Food Environment: A Qualitative Study among Low-Income Mothers of Nutritionally At-Risk Children in an Urban Area of Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopaking, Risatianti; Bardosono, Saptawati; Fahmida, Umi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the factors that encompass maternal self-efficacy in providing food for the home. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 mothers of nutritionally at risk children in an urban area of East Jakarta, Indonesia. This study was based on Social Cognitive Theory, Family Stress Models, and Ecological Frameworks. Data…

  4. The Effects of Religious Commitment on the Academic Achievement of Urban and Other Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the 1992 National Education Longitudinal Survey, this study examined the effects of student religious commitment on academic achievement. Results indicate that very religious urban and non-urban children performed better on most academic measures than their less religious counterparts, even when controlling for race, gender, and…

  5. Academic Performance and Lifestyle Behaviors in Australian School Children: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumuid, Dorothea; Olds, Timothy; Martín-Fernández, Josep-Antoni; Lewis, Lucy K.; Cassidy, Leah; Maher, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Poor academic performance has been linked with particular lifestyle behaviors, such as unhealthy diet, short sleep duration, high screen time, and low physical activity. However, little is known about how lifestyle behavior patterns (or combinations of behaviors) contribute to children's academic performance. We aimed to compare academic…

  6. Relations of Perceived Maternal Parenting Style, Practices, and Learning Motivation to Academic Competence in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…

  7. The Effects of Antecedent Physical Activity on the Academic Engagement of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Heather; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Van Heest, Jaci

    2011-01-01

    A multiple baseline design was used to examine the effects of participation in antecedent physical activity on the academic engagement of four elementary-school children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The results indicated large effect sizes for academic engaged time for all four students. It was suggested that physical activity in…

  8. Predicting Children's Academic Achievement after the Transition to First Grade: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaert, Goele; Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Verschueren, Karine

    2011-01-01

    The transition from kindergarten to first grade has been described as a critical period for children's academic development. Furthermore, research indicates that peer status is connected with academic adjustment, yet the underlying processes remain unclear. By means of a two-year longitudinal study during kindergarten and first grade (N = 153), we…

  9. Academic Stressors and Anxiety in Children: The Role of Paternal Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace S. M.; Yeung, K. C.; Wong, Daniel F. K.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the role of paternal support in the relation between academic stress and the mental health of primary school children in Hong Kong. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 1,171 fifth and sixth graders. The results indicated that academic stress was a risk factor that heightened student anxiety levels and that parental…

  10. Screen time impairs the relationship between physical fitness and academic attainment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena M. Aguilar

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Academic attainment is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels; however, it was weakly impaired by screen time. These findings seem to suggest that parents and policymakers should minimize the negative effects of screen time on children's lives to maximize the beneficial effect of healthy habits on academic attainment.

  11. Social Competence, Social Support, and Academic Achievement in Minority, Low-Income, Urban Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Maurice J.; Haynes, Norris M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite living in disadvantaged urban communities experiencing social and economic hardships, many children emerge with positive outcomes. Social-emotional competence and social support were hypothesized to have strong influences on academic trajectories during the critical period of academic skill acquisition. Participants were 282 third-grade…

  12. Relationship between motor coordination, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Higashionna

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings stress that it is essential to accurately identify motor coordination impairments and the interventions that would consider motor coordination problems related to cognitive abilities and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  13. Physically active academic lessons : Effects on physical fitness and executive functions in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Greeff, Johannes Wilhelmus

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that physical activity can improve cognitive functions of primary school children, especially the executive functions (functions that are important for goal directed cognition and behavior). Physically active academic lessons, however, do not improve executive functions

  14. Early childrearing practices and their relationship to academic performance in Mexican American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Amanda; Kolobe, Thubi H A; Arnold, Sandra; DeGrace, Beth

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether parenting behaviors and childrearing practices in the first 3 years of life among Mexican American (MA) families predict children's academic performance at school age. Thirty-six children were assessed using the Parent Behavior Checklist, Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory, and Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Academic performance was measured with the Illinois Standards Achievement Test during third grade. Correlation between parents' developmental expectations, nurturing behaviors, discipline, and academic performance were statistically significant (P strategies predicted 30% of the variance in the Illinois Standards Achievement Test of reading. The results of this study suggest that early developmental expectations that MA parents have for their children, and the nurturing and discipline behaviors they engage in, are related to how well the children perform on academic tests at school age.

  15. Academic Achievement and Psychosocial Profile of Egyptian Primary School Children in South Sinai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab M. Monir

    2016-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Comorbid academic and psychosocial dysfunction in primary school children were observed in South Sinai. A national strategy to minimise the educational gap between Bedouin and urban areas should be implemented.

  16. Preventing academic difficulties in preterm children: a randomised controlled trial of an adaptive working memory training intervention – IMPRINT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Very preterm children exhibit difficulties in working memory, a key cognitive ability vital to learning information and the development of academic skills. Previous research suggests that an adaptive working memory training intervention (Cogmed) may improve working memory and other cognitive and behavioural domains, although further randomised controlled trials employing long-term outcomes are needed, and with populations at risk for working memory deficits, such as children born preterm. In a cohort of extremely preterm (effectiveness of Cogmed in improving academic functioning 2 years’ post-intervention. Secondary objectives are to assess the effectiveness of Cogmed in improving working memory and attention 2 weeks’, 12 months’ and 24 months’ post-intervention, and to investigate training related neuroplasticity in working memory neural networks 2 weeks’ post-intervention. Methods/Design This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 126 extremely preterm/extremely low birthweight 7-year-old children. Children attending mainstream school without major intellectual, sensory or physical impairments will be eligible. Participating children will undergo an extensive baseline cognitive assessment before being randomised to either an adaptive or placebo (non-adaptive) version of Cogmed. Cogmed is a computerised working memory training program consisting of 25 sessions completed over a 5 to 7 week period. Each training session takes approximately 35 minutes and will be completed in the child’s home. Structural, diffusion and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, which is optional for participants, will be completed prior to and 2 weeks following the training period. Follow-up assessments focusing on academic skills (primary outcome), working memory and attention (secondary outcomes) will be conducted at 2 weeks’, 12 months’ and 24 months’ post-intervention. Discussion To our knowledge, this study will be

  17. Adiposity and Physical Activity Are Not Related to Academic Achievement in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Monique M.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Newton, Robert; Sothern, Melinda; Webber, Larry S.; Davis, Allison B.; Williamson, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hypotheses that in elementary school students: 1) adiposity and academic achievement are negatively correlated and 2) physical activity and academic achievement are positively correlated. Method Participants were 1963 children in fourth through sixth grades. Adiposity was assessed by calculating body mass index (BMI) percentile and percent body fat and academic achievement with statewide standardized tests in four content areas. Socioeconomic status and age were control variables. A subset of participants (n = 261) wore an accelerometer for three days to provide objective measurement of physical activity. Additionally, the association between weight status and academic achievement was examined by comparing children who could be classified as “extremely obese” and the rest of the sample, as well as comparing children who could be classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese. Extreme obesity was defined as >= 1.2 times the 95th percentile. Results Results indicated that there were no significant associations between adiposity or physical activity and achievement in students. No academic achievement differences were found between children with BMI percentiles within the extreme obesity range and those who did not fall within the extreme obesity classification. Additionally, no academic achievement differences were found for children with BMI percentiles within the normal weight, overweight, or obese ranges. Conclusion These results do not support the hypotheses that increased adiposity is associated with decreased academic achievement or that greater physical activity is related to improved achievement. However, these results are limited by methodological weaknesses, especially the use of cross-sectional data. PMID:22617499

  18. Adiposity and physical activity are not related to academic achievement in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Monique M; Martin, Corby K; Han, Hongmei; Newton, Robert; Sothern, Melinda; Webber, Larry S; Davis, Allison B; Williamson, Donald A

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the hypotheses that in elementary school students: (1) adiposity and academic achievement are negatively correlated and (2) physical activity and academic achievement are positively correlated. Participants were 1963 children in fourth to sixth grades. Adiposity was assessed by calculating body mass index (BMI) percentile and percent body fat and academic achievement with statewide standardized tests in 4 content areas. Socioeconomic status and age were control variables. A subset of participants (n = 261) wore an accelerometer for 3 days to provide objective measurement of physical activity. In addition, the association between weight status and academic achievement was examined by comparing children who could be classified as "extremely obese" and the rest of the sample, as well as comparing children who could be classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese. Extreme obesity was defined as ≥1.2 times the 95th percentile. The results indicated that there were no significant associations between adiposity or physical activity and achievement in students. No academic achievement differences were found between children with BMI percentiles within the extreme obesity range and those who did not fall within the extreme obesity classification. In addition, no academic achievement differences were found for children with BMI percentiles within the normal weight, overweight, or obese ranges. These results do not support the hypotheses that increased adiposity is associated with decreased academic achievement or that greater physical activity is related to improved achievement. However, these results are limited by methodological weaknesses, especially the use of cross-sectional data.

  19. Parenting and Children's Socioemotional and Academic Development among White, Latino, Asian, and Black families

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hannah Soo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONParenting and Children's Socioemotional and Academic Development among White, Latino, Asian, and Black familiesByHannah S. KangDoctor of Philosophy in Psychology and Social BehaviorUniversity of California, Irvine 2014Professor Chuansheng Chen, ChairA large body of research has demonstrated the crucial role of parenting in children's socioemotional and academic development (Maccoby & Martin, 1983). This literature, however, has major limitations in the following th...

  20. Associations of Parenting Styles and Dimensions with Academic Achievement in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Parents and researchers alike are interested in how to promote children's academic competence. The present meta-analysis integrates the results of 308 empirical studies on associations of general parenting dimensions and styles with academic achievement of children and adolescents assessed via grade point average or academic achievement tests.…

  1. Brief Report: Executive Function as a Predictor of Academic Achievement in School-Aged Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Tanya; Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette

    2018-01-01

    The contributions of Executive Function (EF) to academic achievement in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are not well understood. Academic achievement and its association with EF is described in 32, 9-year-old children with ASD. EF at age 6 and 9, and academic achievement at age 9 were assessed as part of a larger longitudinal study.…

  2. Relationship between physical fitness and academic performance in South African children

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Dorita; Pienaar, Anita Elizabeth; Truter, Leani

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement in an urban South African group of primary school children. A one-way cross-sectional design was used to assess physical fitness of children 9 to12 years (N=212) by means of the Fitnessgram, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency II, percentage body fat and Body Mass Index (BMI). Average end-of-the-year academic marks served as measurement of academic achievement. Relationships...

  3. School Gardens Enhance Academic Performance and Dietary Outcomes in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezowitz, Claire K.; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Methods: Database searches in CABI,…

  4. Development and education of academically supernormal children in Mainland China in the last 35 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Jiannong

    A sophisticated education system for academically gifted students at university, middle school and primary school levels has been developed since 1978. A statistics-based definition of academically supernormal children was suggested by Chinese psychologists. A series of experiments...... classes for academically gifted children at university, middle school and primary school levels have been set up in China since 1978. Hundreds of high ability students are benefited from the gifted education programs in China. Some essential issues about gifted education in China will be discussed...... and investigation has been conducted on psychological development of academically supernormal children. Some principles, procedures, and steps of identification, as well as some principles and typical models of education were developed in Mainland China during the last twenty-four years. Dozens of experimental...

  5. Relationship between Visual Motor Integration and Academic Performance in Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KR Banumathe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between visual motor integration and academic performance in elementary school children. Method: A cross sectional study was undertaken on 208 children who were in second standard from government, government aided and private schools. The screening tools for excluding children with visual and auditory deficit, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Childhood psychiatric symptoms, learning disabilities, below average intelligence were administered. The primary measure of visual motor integration was obtained using Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI. The academic performance was calculated from the mean of all the subject marks scored in two consecutive exams and on teacher’s perception on academic performance using a 100-point rating scale. Results & Conclusion: Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient test was used to analyze the correlation. It has shown that there is weak positive correlation found between visual motor integration and academic performance which would recommend the need for longitudinal study.

  6. The Relationship of Head Start Teachers' Academic Language Use and Children's Receptive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Erica M.; Dickinson, David K.

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examines lexical- and sentence-level dimensions of academic language to describe teachers' natural use of academic language and its association with vocabulary growth in 489 at-risk 4-year-olds enrolled in Head Start preschool classrooms. Using transcripts derived from video recordings of book-reading sessions in 52…

  7. Family Functioning Predictors of Self-Concept and Self-Esteem in Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities in Oman: Exclusion of Parent and Gender Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Abu-Serei, Usama Saad

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated whether family functioning can predict the self-concept and self-esteem of normally achieving (NA) and at risk for learning disabilities (LD) students in Oman regardless of parent education level and gender status. A total of 259 elementary school students were selected from schools in the main districts of Muscat, the…

  8. Relationships among Taiwanese Children's Computer Game Use, Academic Achievement and Parental Governing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Duen-Yian; Cheng, Ching-Hsue

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among children's computer game use, academic achievement and parental governing approach to propose probable answers for the doubts of Taiwanese parents. 355 children (ages 11-14) were randomly sampled from 20 elementary schools in a typically urbanised county in Taiwan. Questionnaire survey (five questions)…

  9. Academic and Language Outcomes in Children after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Jennifer A.; Babikian, Talin; Asarnow, Robert F .

    2011-01-01

    Expanding on Babikian and Asarnow's (2009) meta-analytic study examining neurocognitive domains, this current meta-analysis examined academic and language outcomes at different time points post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents. Although children with mild TBI exhibited no significant deficits, studies indicate that children…

  10. Young African American Children Constructing Academic and Disciplinary Identities in an Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Justine M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I offer a framework for exploring the academic and disciplinary identities young African American children construct in urban science classrooms. Using interviews, fieldnotes, and videotapes of classroom lessons, I juxtapose the ways in which two children tell about their experiences in school and science with their performances of…

  11. Academic Self-Concept and Causal Attributions for Success and Failure Amongst Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Annette; Grube, Dietmar; Moschner, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of research shows that the way in which children attribute causes to their successes and failures in school has implications for the development of their academic self-concept (ASC). The most common attributions are ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck. The present study asked 68 elementary school children aged seven to eight…

  12. Does Home Internet Use Influence the Academic Performance of Low-Income Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank A.; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2006-01-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families http://www.HomeNetToo.org). The study was done between December 2000 and June 2002. Among the consequences considered was children's academic performance. Participants were 140 children, mostly African…

  13. Children's Agentive Orientations in Play-Based and Academically Focused Preschools in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Pui-Wah, Doris; Reunamo, Jyrki; Cooper, Paul; Liu, Karen; Vong, Keang-ieng Peggy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a comparative case study on children's agentive orientations in two Hong Kong preschools, one is play-based and the other is academically focused. Agentive orientations were measured using Reunamo's interview tool, which focuses on children's uses of accommodative and agentive orientations in everyday situations. The findings…

  14. Validation of a Questionnaire on Behaviour Academic Competence among Chinese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.; Leung, Shirley S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on academic competence behaviour for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. The participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents.…

  15. Relations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sektnan, Michaella; McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among early family risk, children's behavioral regulation at 54 months and kindergarten, and academic achievement in first grade using data on 1298 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Family risk was indexed by ethnic…

  16. Parental interest and academic achievement of Xhosa children from broken and intact homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, V I

    1995-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental interest and academic achievement of 955 Xhosa-speaking children whose mean age was 15.3 yr. An interview schedule was used to estimate parental interest. Analysis of variance indicated positive and statistically significant effects of parental interest scores on children's achievement in school.

  17. African American Homeschool Parents' Motivations for Homeschooling and Their Black Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the motivations of African American parents for choosing homeschooling for their children and the academic achievement of their Black homeschool students. Their reasons for homeschooling are similar to those of homeschool parents in general, although some use homeschooling to help their children understand Black culture and…

  18. Visual Attention and Academic Performance in Children with Developmental Disabilities and Behavioural Attention Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Hannah E.; Gray, Kylie; Riby, Deborah M.; Taffe, John; Cornish, Kim M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite well-documented attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), distinctions across types of attention problems and their association with academic attainment has not been fully explored. This study examines visual attention capacities and inattentive/hyperactive behaviours in 77 children aged 4 to…

  19. The Role of Attention in the Academic Attainment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Tamara; Rinehart, Nicole; Wilding, John; Cornish, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Academic attainment in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is under-studied, with associated factors largely undetermined. Parent-reported attention symptoms, attentional-switching and sustained-attention tasks were examined to determine relationships with mathematics and reading attainment in 124 children aged 7-12 years; sixty-four with…

  20. The Effect of Mothers' Education on Children's Academic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asta Breinholt; Holm, Anders

    Parental education and mothers education in particular are believed to play an important role for children’s academic outcomes. This paper analyzes the causal effect of mothers' education on children’s academic performance. Using Danish administrative data on mothers’ education careers, we apply...... a difference-in-differences design to control for the nonrandom selection into maternal education and find that mothers’ education has a positive effect on children’s academic performance. The effect diminishes, the higher the mothers’ initial educational attainment....

  1. A longitudinal study on children's music training experience and academic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Ma, Weiyi; Gong, Diankun; Hu, Jiehui; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-07-28

    This study examined the relation between long-term music training and child development based on 250 Chinese elementary school students' academic development of first language (L1), second language (L2), and mathematics. We found that musician children outperformed non-musician children only on musical achievement and second language development. Additionally, although music training appeared to be correlated with children's final academic development of L1, L2, and mathematics, it did not independently contribute to the development of L1 or mathematical skills. Our findings suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings on the non-musical cognitive benefits of music learning.

  2. A Longitudinal Study on Children's Music Training Experience and Academic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Ma, Weiyi; Gong, Diankun; Hu, Jiehui; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relation between long-term music training and child development based on 250 Chinese elementary school students' academic development of first language (L1), second language (L2), and mathematics. We found that musician children outperformed non-musician children only on musical achievement and second language development. Additionally, although music training appeared to be correlated with children's final academic development of L1, L2, and mathematics, it did not independently contribute to the development of L1 or mathematical skills. Our findings suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings on the non-musical cognitive benefits of music learning. PMID:25068398

  3. Experiences of violence and deficits in academic achievement among urban primary school children in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Meeks-Gardner, Julie; Chang, Susan; Walker, Susan

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children's experiences of three different types of violence and academic achievement among primary school children in Kingston, Jamaica. A cross-sectional study of 1300 children in grade 5 [mean (S.D.) age: 11 (0.5) years] from 29 government primary schools in urban areas of Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica, was conducted. Academic achievement (mathematics, reading, and spelling) was assessed using the Wide Range Achievement Test. Children's experiences of three types of violence - exposure to aggression among peers at school, physical punishment at school, and exposure to community violence - were assessed by self-report using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Fifty-eight percent of the children experienced moderate or high levels of all three types of violence. Boys had poorer academic achievement and experienced higher levels of aggression among peers and physical punishment at school than girls. Children's experiences of the three types of violence were independently associated with all three indices of academic achievement. There was a dose-response relationship between children's experiences of violence and academic achievement with children experiencing higher levels of violence having the poorest academic achievement and children experiencing moderate levels having poorer achievement than those experiencing little or none. Exposure to three different types of violence was independently associated with poor school achievement among children attending government, urban schools in Jamaica. Programs are needed in schools to reduce the levels of aggression among students and the use of physical punishment by teachers and to provide support for children exposed to community violence. Children in Jamaica and the wider Caribbean experience significant amounts of violence in their homes, communities, and schools. In this study, we demonstrate a dose-response relationship between primary school

  4. Discrepancies between academic achievement and intellectual ability in higher-functioning school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Annette; Rivera, Vanessa; Bryan, Matthew; Cali, Philip; Dawson, Geraldine

    2011-08-01

    Academic achievement patterns and their relationships with intellectual ability, social abilities, and problem behavior are described in a sample of 30 higher-functioning, 9-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both social abilities and problem behavior have been found to be predictive of academic achievement in typically developing children but this has not been well studied in children with ASD. Participants were tested for academic achievement and intellectual ability at age 9. Problem behaviors were assessed through parent report and social functioning through teacher report at age 6 and 9. Significant discrepancies between children's actual academic achievement and their expected achievement based on their intellectual ability were found in 27 of 30 (90%) children. Both lower than expected and higher than expected achievement was observed. Children with improved social skills at age 6 demonstrated higher levels of academic achievement, specifically word reading, at age 9. No relationship was found between children's level of problem behavior and level of academic achievement. These results suggest that the large majority of higher-functioning children with ASD show discrepancies between actual achievement levels and levels predicted by their intellectual ability. In some cases, children are achieving higher than expected, whereas in others, they are achieving lower than expected. Improved social abilities may contribute to academic achievement. Future studies should further explore factors that can promote strong academic achievement, including studies that examine whether intervention to improve social functioning can support academic achievement in children with ASD.

  5. Children's attachment to parents and their academic functioning: sleep disruptions as moderators of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peggy S; El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph A

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the amount and quality of children's sleep as a moderator of relations between attachment to parents and child academic functioning. Data were from a sample of 166 third graders in the Southeastern USA. Children reported on the security of their attachments to both mothers and fathers, and standard assessments of academic achievement were obtained from schools. Children completed questionnaire measures of subjective sleep problems and their sleep was assessed objectively via actigraphs worn for seven consecutive nights. Attachment insecurity was associated with lower math achievement for children with objective sleep problems (lower quantity and efficiency). Findings suggest that better sleep ameliorates the risk for academic performance difficulties associated with insecure attachments to parents, and functions as a protective factor in this context.

  6. Parental perceptions of academic performance and attainment of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Wei, Tianlan; Parker, Sonia L; Attai, Shanna L

    2013-07-01

    We examined parental perceptions of academic performance and attainment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to both parent and child gender along with the interaction of parent and child gender. The current study adds to the body of research by examining the perceptions of parents of children with ADHD according to both parent and child gender. The results indicate that fathers, on the whole, seemed less likely to consider ADHD to have negative academic implications for their children as compared with mothers. With regard to child gender, the fathers seemed less likely to consider ADHD to have negative academic implications for their sons over their daughters. The results suggest that interventions for parents of children with ADHD should be targeted to fathers with sons with ADHD.

  7. Academic Difficulties in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Presence, Profile, and Neural Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Moore, Eileen M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2017-05-01

    Academic achievement was evaluated in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure to determine potential strengths and weaknesses, evaluate the utility of different definitions for identifying low academic performance, and explore the neural correlates that may underlie academic performance. Children (8 to 16 years) were assessed using the WIAT-II. Patterns of performance were examined in 2 subject groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 67) and controls (n = 61). A repeated-measures MANCOVA examining group differences on academic domain (reading, spelling, math) scores was conducted. Post hoc comparisons examined within-group profiles. Numbers and percentage of children with low achievement were calculated using several criteria. In a subsample (n = 42), neural correlates were analyzed using FreeSurfer v5.3 to examine relations between cortical structure (thickness and surface area) and performance. The alcohol-exposed group performed worse than controls on all domains and had a unique academic profile, supported by a significant group × academic domain interaction (p reading. Over half of the alcohol-exposed group (58.2%) demonstrated low achievement on 1 or more academic domains. The number and percentage of children meeting criteria for low achievement varied based on the domain and definition used. The imaging analysis identified several surface area clusters that were differentially related to math (L superior parietal and R lateral/middle occipital) and spelling (bilateral inferior and medial temporal) performance by group, with no relations for the other academic domains. Generally, scores improved as surface area decreased in controls, whereas no relation or a positive relation was observed in the alcohol-exposed group. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated deficits in academic performance across domains and definitions, with a relative weakness in math functioning. Atypical brain development may contribute to these

  8. Cognitive Predictors of Academic Achievement in Young Children 1 Year Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John B.; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Walz, Nicolay C.; Wade, Shari L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine cognitive predictors of academic achievement in young children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury (OI) shortly after injury and 1 year post-injury. Methods Participants included 3 to 6 year old children, 63 with TBI (46 with moderate TBI and 17 with severe TBI) and a comparison group of 80 children with OI. Academic achievement was assessed approximately 1 month and 12 months post injury, using three subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Third Edition and the School Readiness Composite from the Bracken Basic Concepts Scale-Revised. General intellectual functioning, memory, and executive functions were measured at the initial assessment using standardized tests. Results Hierarchical linear regression was used to predict academic achievement at the initial and 1-year follow-up assessments. Memory and executive functions were significant predictors of academic achievement at both assessments, after controlling for group membership and demographic variables. Executive function remained a significant predictor of some outcomes after taking general intellectual functioning into account. Predictive relationships did not vary across the TBI and OI groups. Similar results were obtained when regression analyses were completed with only TBI participants using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score as a predictor, although memory and executive functioning were somewhat less robust in predicting academic achievement than before. Conclusions Both memory and executive function predict academic achievement following TBI in preschool children, although some of the associations may be accounted for by general intellectual functioning. PMID:22563873

  9. Academic Performance and Lifestyle Behaviors in Australian School Children: A Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumuid, Dorothea; Olds, Timothy; Martín-Fernández, Josep-Antoni; Lewis, Lucy K; Cassidy, Leah; Maher, Carol

    2017-12-01

    Poor academic performance has been linked with particular lifestyle behaviors, such as unhealthy diet, short sleep duration, high screen time, and low physical activity. However, little is known about how lifestyle behavior patterns (or combinations of behaviors) contribute to children's academic performance. We aimed to compare academic performance across clusters of children with common lifestyle behavior patterns. We clustered participants (Australian children aged 9-11 years, n = 284) into four mutually exclusive groups of distinct lifestyle behavior patterns, using the following lifestyle behaviors as cluster inputs: light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity; sedentary behavior and sleep, derived from 24-hour accelerometry; self-reported screen time and diet. Differences in academic performance (measured by a nationally administered standardized test) were detected across the clusters, with scores being lowest in the Junk Food Screenies cluster (unhealthy diet/high screen time) and highest in the Sitters cluster (high nonscreen sedentary behavior/low physical activity). These findings suggest that reduction in screen time and an improved diet may contribute positively to academic performance. While children with high nonscreen sedentary time performed better academically in this study, they also accumulated low levels of physical activity. This warrants further investigation, given the known physical and mental benefits of physical activity.

  10. Is there a relationship between executive functions and academic success in children with neurofibromatosis type 1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Yafit; Rosenblum, Sara; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Toledano-Alhadef, Hagit; Josman, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the executive function (EF) of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) to those of typically developing children and to investigate whether those abilities could predict the child's academic success in terms of academic skills and enablers. Twenty-nine children with NF1 and 27 age-and-gender-matched controls (aged 8-16 years) were examined with two tests to measure EF in an ecologically valid manner: the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome in Children (BADS-C) and the parent questionnaire for the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). In order to evaluate academic success we used the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales (ACES). The performance of the NF1 group was significantly lower on the Water and Key search subtest of the BADS-C and on four scales of the BRIEF: initiate; working memory; plan/organise and organisation of materials. Significant correlations and predictive models via regression analysis were generated for: BADS-C, BRIEF and ACES scores. Based on these findings, children with NF1 have executive dysfunction that partially accounts for their difficulties in academic achievements.

  11. The developmental dynamics of children's academic performance and mothers' homework-related affect and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their affect, practices, and perceptions while their children were in Grades 2, 3, and 4. The results showed, first, that the more help in homework the mothers reported, the slower was the development of their children's academic performance from Grade 1 to Grade 4. This negative association was true especially if mothers perceived their children not to be able to work autonomously. Second, children's good academic performance in Grade 1 predicted mothers' perception of child's ability to be autonomous and positive affect in homework situations later on, whereas poor performance predicted mothers' negative affect, help, and monitoring. Finally, mothers' negative affect mediated the association between children's poor performance, maternal practices, and perceptions of their children. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. School Climate, Teacher-Child Closeness, and Low-Income Children's Academic Skills in Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Amy E; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M; Pess, Rachel A

    In this study we used data on a sample of children in the Chicago Public Schools in areas of concentrated poverty-related disadvantage to examine associations between school climate and low-income children's language/literacy and math skills during the transition to kindergarten. We also explored whether teacher-child closeness moderated these associations. Multilevel modeling analyses conducted using a sample of 242 children nested in 102 elementary schools revealed that low adult support in the school was significantly associated with children's poorer language/literacy and math skills in kindergarten. Teacher-child closeness predicted children's higher language/literacy and math scores and moderated the association between low adult support and children's academic skills. Among children who were high on closeness with their teacher, those in schools with high levels of adult support showed stronger language/literacy and math skills. There were no significant associations between adult support and the academic skills of children with medium or low levels of teacher-child closeness. Results shed light on the importance of adult support at both school and classroom levels in promoting low-income children's academic skills during the transition to kindergarten.

  13. Self-concept, academic performance and behavioral evaluation of the children of alcoholic parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoti-Jeronymo, Daniela Viganó; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta

    2005-09-01

    It has been shown that being the child of an alcoholic is a risk factor for the development of alcoholism in adulthood. Due to the suffering caused by living with alcoholic parents, other vulnerabilities appear in such children. Among these are low self-esteem, poor academic performance and behavioral problems. This work aims to comparatively evaluate children of alcoholic parents and children of nonalcoholic parents. The study design was quasi-experimental, involving two comparison groups. Two groups of 20 children were selected. The groups consisted of 10- to 12-year-old male and female children. One group comprised children of alcoholic parents, whereas the other comprised children of nonalcoholic parents. The self-concepts of these children were evaluated using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale as well as the Academic Performance Test. Their mothers participated in the study by answering questions related to the behavior of their children on the Rutter A2 scale of Child Behavior. The results showed that the children of alcoholic parents tended to have more negative self-concepts and presented lower academic performance in reading and arithmetic than did children of nonalcoholic parents. Based on the responses given by the mothers, the children of alcoholic parents presented more behavioral problems than did those of nonalcoholic parents. The results of this study confirm those of other studies and call attention to the need to be aware of the potential vulnerabilities of children of alcoholic parents and, especially, to try to minimize such vulnerabilities, thereby altering the course of psychological suffering that can mark their lives.

  14. Academic Pathways between Attention Problems and Depressive Symptoms Among Urban African American Children

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Keith C.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Ostrander, Rick

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the pathways between attention problems and depressive symptoms, particularly the role of academic incompetence, among a community sample of urban African American children. Results supported the hypothesized path models from inattention to depressive symptoms for girls and boys. Academic performance in the spring of first grade mediated the relationship between inattention in fall of first grade and depressive symptoms in spring of 3rd grade. The effects held w...

  15. Immunogenicity of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and impact on carriage in Venezuelan children at risk of invasive pneumococcal diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera-Olivero, I.A.; Nogal, B. del; Fuentes, M.; Cortez, R.; Bogaert, D.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Waard, J.H. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We evaluated the immunogenicity of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), and its impact on pneumococcal carriage in Venezuelan children at high risk for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). METHODS: 82 children (age 2-59 months) with sickle cell anemia (n=22),

  16. Early Identification, Prevention, and Early Intervention with Young Children at Risk for Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: Issues, Trends, and a Call for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Brown, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Educators have frequently expressed concern about young children who are exposed to known environmental risk factors associated with the development of chronic behavior problems (e.g., poverty, domestic violence, child maltreatment). Nevertheless, a societal commitment to address these environmental risk factors by identifying young children who…

  17. Sleep and academic performance in Indigenous Australian children from a remote community: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Patrick; Kohler, Mark; Blunden, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Disruptions to sleep in childhood are associated with poor behaviour and deficits in academic performance and executive function. Although academic performance of indigenous children from remote communities in Australia is documented as well below that of non-indigenous children, the extent of sleep disruption and its contribution to academic performance among this population has not been assessed. This pilot study aimed to objectively assess the sleep of remote indigenous children and the association between sleep disruption and both academic performance and executive function. Twenty-one children from a remote Australian indigenous community aged 6-13 years wore actigraphy for two consecutive nights, reported subjective sleepiness, and were objectively assessed for academic performance (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 2nd Edition) and executive function (NEuroloPSYcological Assessment-II). Results show marked reduction in sleep time, sleep fragmentation, academic performance and auditory attention compared with non-indigenous norms. Sleep duration was not associated with performance, possibly because of reduced sleep and performance observed across the entire group. Sleep fragmentation was associated with reduced reading and numerical skills (P sleep of indigenous children in remote communities is an important area of future inquiry, and our initial findings of poor sleep and an association between sleep disruption and academic performance may have important implications for intervention strategies aimed at 'closing the gap'. Further studies should assess a broader range of demographic, social and economic factors to better understand the associations reported here and guide future intervention. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Impact of simulated hyperopia on academic-related performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the impact of simulated hyperopia and sustained near work on children's ability to perform a range of academic-related tasks. Fifteen visually normal children (mean [±SD] age, 10.9 [±0.8] years; 10 male and 5 female) were recruited. Performance on a range of standardized academic-related outcome measures was assessed with and without 2.50 diopters of simulated bilateral hyperopia (administered in a randomized order), before and after 20 minutes of sustained near work, at two separate testing sessions. Academic-related measures included a standardized reading test (the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability), visual information processing tests (the Coding and Symbol Search subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children), and a reading-related eye movement test (the Developmental Eye Movement test). Simulated bilateral hyperopia and sustained near work each independently impaired reading, visual information processing, and reading-related eye movement performance (p performance observed when simulated hyperopia was combined with sustained near work. This combination resulted in performance reductions of between 5 and 24% across the range of academic-related measures. A significant moderate correlation was also found between the change in horizontal near heterophoria and the change in several of the academic-related outcome measures, after the addition of simulated hyperopia. A relatively low level of simulated bilateral hyperopia impaired children's performance on a range of academic-related outcome measures, with sustained near work further exacerbating this effect. Further investigations are required to determine the impact of correcting low levels of hyperopia on academic performance in children.

  19. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Children's Academic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Palmhøj; Hansen, Anne Toft

    of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employment has a positive effect on children’s academic performance in all specifications, particularly when women work...... part-time. This is in contrast with the larger literature on maternal employment, much of which takes place in other contexts, and which finds no or a small negative effect of maternal employment on children’s cognitive development and academic performance. (JEL J13, J22)...

  20. Coparenting Conflict and Academic Readiness in Children of Teen Mothers: Effortful Control as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Laudan B; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Bayless, Sara Douglass

    2017-04-24

    Children's exposure to coparenting conflict has important implications for their developmental functioning, yet limited work has focused on such processes in families with diverse structures or ethnically and culturally diverse backgrounds. This longitudinal study examined the processes by which Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' coparenting conflict with their 3-year-old children's grandmothers and biological fathers (N = 133 families) were linked to children's academic and social skills at 5 years of age, and whether children's effortful control at 4 years of age mediated the link between coparenting conflict and indices of children's academic readiness. Findings revealed that adolescent mothers' coparenting conflict with their child's biological father was linked to indices of children's academic and social school readiness through children's effortful control among girls, but not boys, whereas conflict with grandmothers was directly linked to boys' and girls' social functioning 2 years later. Findings offer information about different mechanisms by which multiple coparenting units in families of adolescent mothers are related to their children's outcomes, and this work has important implications for practitioners working with families of adolescent mothers. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  1. Processing efficiency theory in children: working memory as a mediator between trait anxiety and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Norgate, Roger; Hadwin, Julie A

    2008-10-01

    Working memory skills are positively associated with academic performance. In contrast, high levels of trait anxiety are linked with educational underachievement. Based on Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory (PET), the present study investigated whether associations between anxiety and educational achievement were mediated via poor working memory performance. Fifty children aged 11-12 years completed verbal (backwards digit span; tapping the phonological store/central executive) and spatial (Corsi blocks; tapping the visuospatial sketchpad/central executive) working memory tasks. Trait anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Academic performance was assessed using school administered tests of reasoning (Cognitive Abilities Test) and attainment (Standard Assessment Tests). The results showed that the association between trait anxiety and academic performance was significantly mediated by verbal working memory for three of the six academic performance measures (math, quantitative and non-verbal reasoning). Spatial working memory did not significantly mediate the relationship between trait anxiety and academic performance. On average verbal working memory accounted for 51% of the association between trait anxiety and academic performance, while spatial working memory only accounted for 9%. The findings indicate that PET is a useful framework to assess the impact of children's anxiety on educational achievement.

  2. Intellectual and academic performance in children undergoing solid organ pretransplant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Knight, Bonney; Lee, Jennifer L; Cousins, Laura A; Mee, Laura L

    2015-03-01

    Although prior research has shown lower intellectual functioning across pediatric solid organ transplant recipients relative to matched siblings or norm comparisons, few studies have assessed intellectual and academic performance prior to transplant across organ groups. The current data examine intellectual and academic functioning in children being evaluated for kidney, liver, or heart transplant. This investigation included intellectual and academic testing data from 195 children and adolescents between the ages of six and 19 yr evaluated for solid organ transplantation. Across organ groups, patients' intellectual functioning as estimated by the WASI/WASI-II at the time of pretransplant evaluation was within the average range, but lower compared to test norms. Patients demonstrated lower estimates of word reading, math computation, and spelling skills compared to the normal population, with the exception of heart patients' word reading and spelling skills and liver patients' spelling scores. Cognitive and academic impairments exist in children prior to transplantation. Findings emphasize the support that patients may require to manage the complicated medical regimen and succeed academically. Routine cognitive and academic assessment can inform healthcare providers regarding transplant patients' capacity to take on increasing medical responsibility and successfully reintegrate into the school environment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A population-based study of stimulant drug treatment of ADHD and academic progress in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoëga, Helga; Rothman, Kenneth J; Huybrechts, Krista F

    2012-01-01

    between their fourth- and seventh-grade tests were more likely to decline in test performance. The crude probability of academic decline was 72.9% in mathematics and 42.9% in language arts for children with a treatment start 25 to 36 months after the fourth-grade test. Compared with those starting......OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the hypothesis that later start of stimulant treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder adversely affects academic progress in mathematics and language arts among 9- to 12-year-old children. METHODS: We linked nationwide data from the Icelandic Medicines Registry...... and the Database of National Scholastic Examinations. The study population comprised 11,872 children born in 1994-1996 who took standardized tests in both fourth and seventh grade. We estimated the probability of academic decline (drop of ≥ 5.0 percentile points) according to drug exposure and timing of treatment...

  4. Inter-parental conflict and children's academic attainment: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Gordon T; Aitken, Jessica J; Shelton, Katherine H

    2007-12-01

    Previous research suggests a link between inter-parental conflict and children's psychological development. Most studies, however, have tended to focus on two broad indices of children's psychological adaptation (internalizing symptoms and externalizing problems) in considering the effects of inter-parental conflict on children's development. The present longitudinal study extends this body of research by considering the impact of inter-parental conflict on children's low academic attainment among a sample of 230 schoolchildren (age 11-13 years) living in the United Kingdom. Controlling for teacher reports of children's initial levels of aggression (Time 1), the proposed theoretical model linked parent and child reports of inter-parental conflict at Time 1 (1999) to children's perceptions of negative parent-child relations, appraisals of self-blame for marital conflict and teacher reports of children's aggressive behavior at Time 2 (2000), which in turn were linked to children's performance on standardized academic tests (English, Math, Science) at Time 3 (2001). Structural equation modeling was used to test all hypothesized relations in the proposed theoretical model. Support was found for the role of children's self-blaming attributions for parents' marital arguments, not negative parenting behavior, as a mechanism through which variation in their academic attainment is explained. Contrary to the focus emphasized in most current family and school-based intervention programs, findings suggest that the attributional processes engendered in children who live in households marked by high levels of inter-parental conflict and hostility have important implications for their long-term academic success.

  5. Relating children's attentional capabilities to intelligence, memory, and academic achievement: a test of construct specificity in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Robert D; Bender, Bruce G; Gordon, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between attention, intelligence, memory, achievement, and behavior in a large population (N = 939) of children without neuropsychologic problems was investigated in children with mild and moderate asthma. It was hypothesized that different levels of children's attentional capabilities would be associated with different levels of intellectual, memory, and academic abilities. Children ages 6-12 at the eight clinical centers of the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) were enrolled in this study. Standardized measures of child neuropsychological and behavioral performance were administered to all participants, with analyses examining both the developmental trajectory of child attentional capabilities and the associations between Continuous Performance Test (CPT) scores and intellectual functioning, and measures of memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning. Findings demonstrated that correct responses on the CPT increase significantly with age, while commission errors decrease significantly with age. Performance levels on the CPT were associated with differences in child intellectual function, memory, and academic achievement. Overall these findings reveal how impairments in child attention skills were associated with normal levels of performance on measures of children's intelligence, memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning, suggesting that CPT performance is a salient marker of brain function.

  6. Neighborhood Influences on the Academic Achievement of Extremely Low Birth Weight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borawski, Elaine; Schluchter, Mark; Taylor, H.Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Hack, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine neighborhood effects on academic achievement of children with extremely low birth weight (ELBW <1000 g) and normal birth weight (NBW) controls. Methods The study included 183 8-year-old children with ELBW born during 1992–1995 and 176 sociodemographically similar NBW controls. Academic achievement was measured via The Woodcock–Johnson III Academic Skills Cluster. Results Children with ELBW had significantly lower achievement scores (89 ± 16 vs. 97 ± 13). A multilevel estimation of predictors of academic achievement revealed that neighborhood poverty was significantly associated with lower achievement (β = −.17; 95% CI −.3, −.05; p < .01). Additional correlates included birth weight status, male sex, and parent ratings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Family characteristics included maternal education and parent protection. Conclusions Neighborhood characteristics affect academic achievement of both children with ELBW and NBW controls, over and above individual and family influences. Interventions designed to address family and neighborhood factors may potentially improve these outcomes. PMID:19584171

  7. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Urban Chinese Children: Grade Level Prevalence and Academic Burden Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihe Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (a to report grade level prevalence in physical activity and sedentary behaviors and (b to examine academic burden associations with these behaviors. School-aged children (n = 48,118 reported their physical activity, perception of physical activity sufficiency, factors for activity insufficiency, homework hours, and screen time in a typical week. Data were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression models of Complex Samples. Prevalence results showed that children had lower physical activity and lower screen viewing time, but higher homework time during transition grades (6th, 9th, and 12th and high school years. Academic burden was cited as the primary reason for not having sufficient physical activity (76.6%. Compared to those citing academic burden, students who did not report academic burden were significantly more likely to meet physical activity guidelines (Odds Ratio (OR = 5.38, 95% CI = 4.74–6.11, but less likely to meet screen time guidelines (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.72–0.84, controlling for body mass index, gender, and grade level. Additionally, children who reported academic burdens had significantly longer average daily homework time than those who did not (p<0.01. Policy makers should promote physical activity and help children find a balance between homework and physical activity time particularly among the educational transition grades.

  8. Associations between children's intelligence and academic achievement: the role of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Stephen A; Tu, Kelly M; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-10-01

    Sleep problems (long wake episodes, low sleep efficiency) were examined as moderators of the relation between children's intelligence and academic achievement. The sample was comprised of 280 children (55% boys; 63% European Americans, 37% African Americans; mean age = 10.40 years, SD = 0.65). Sleep was assessed during seven consecutive nights of actigraphy. Children's performance on standardized tests of intelligence (Brief Intellectual Ability index of the Woodcock-Johnson III) and academic achievement (Alabama Reading and Math Test) were obtained. Age, sex, ethnicity, income-to-needs ratio, single parent status, standardized body mass index, chronic illness and pubertal development were controlled in analyses. Higher intelligence was strongly associated with higher academic achievement across a wide range of sleep quality. However, the association between intelligence and academic achievement was slightly attenuated among children with more long wake episodes or lower sleep efficiency compared with children with higher-quality sleep. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. The Early Academic Progress of Children with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Samantha; Platt, Lucinda

    2017-01-01

    Children with special educational needs (SEN) are known to experience lower average educational attainment than other children during their school years. But we have less insight into how far their poorer educational outcomes stem from their original starting points or from failure to progress during school. The extent to which early…

  10. The association between cognition and academic performance in Ugandan children surviving malaria with neurological involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bangirana

    Full Text Available The contribution of different cognitive abilities to academic performance in children surviving cerebral insult can guide the choice of interventions to improve cognitive and academic outcomes. This study's objective was to identify which cognitive abilities are associated with academic performance in children after malaria with neurological involvement.62 Ugandan children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were assessed for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills, attention and academic performance (reading, spelling, arithmetic three months after the illness. Linear regressions were fit for each academic score with the five cognitive outcomes entered as predictors. Adjusters in the analysis were age, sex, education, nutrition, and home environment. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA and structural equation models (SEM were used to determine the nature of the association between cognition and academic performance. Predictive residual sum of squares was used to determine which combination of cognitive scores was needed to predict academic performance.In regressions of a single academic score on all five cognitive outcomes and adjusters, only Working Memory was associated with Reading (coefficient estimate = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.10 to 0.63, p<0.01 and Spelling (0.46, 0.13 to 0.78, p<0.01, Visual Spatial Skills was associated with Arithmetic (0.15, 0.03 to 0.26, p<0.05, and Learning was associated with Reading (0.06, 0.00 to 0.11, p<0.05. One latent cognitive factor was identified using EFA. The SEM found a strong association between this latent cognitive ability and each academic performance measure (P<0.0001. Working memory, visual spatial ability and learning were the best predictors of academic performance.Academic performance is strongly associated with the latent variable labelled "cognitive ability" which captures most of the variation in the individual specific

  11. A Mediation Analysis on the Relationship of Physical Fitness Components, Obesity, and Academic Performance in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner-Mas, Adrià; Pere, Palou; Vidal-Conti, Josep; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene

    2018-04-20

    To examine the relationship between a battery of obesity indicators and physical fitness components with academic performance in children and to explore the combined and mediation role of the physical fitness components in the relationship between obesity and academic performance in children. A cross-sectional study including data from 250 Spanish schoolchildren (Balearic Islands) between 10 and 12 years of age (mean age, 10.98 ± 0.76 years) was conducted. Obesity measures (body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-height ratio), physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, and speed-agility), and academic performance (Spanish language, Catalan language, English language, natural sciences, social sciences, arts, physical education, religion, and grade point average [GPA]) were collected. All obesity measures were negatively related to at least 3 of the 10 academic indicators, including GPA (β range, -0.135 to -0.229; all P academic indicators (β range, 0.182 to 0.350; all P academic indicators (β range, 0.143 to 0.253; all P academic performance than their unfit peers (score +0.75; P = .001). The association between body mass index and GPA was mediated by cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility. This investigation contributes to the current knowledge by adding evidence about the crucial role of physical fitness in terms of academic performance rather than obesity status, suggesting that physical fitness may ameliorate the negative influence of obesity on academic performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Attention Problems and Expressive Language and Emerging Academic Skills in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenbergen, Andrea A.; Ryan, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between attention problems and expressive language and academic readiness skills in preschool-aged children from middle-class families. Forty-three children (44% female) were assessed individually for expressive language skills and knowledge of basic academic concepts (e.g. colours, letters and numbers). The…

  13. Impact of Self-Regulation Skills on Academic Performance of Young Children in Private Schools of Karachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathawala, Abeer; Bhamani, Shelina

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to explore if self-regulation skills had any effect on the academic outcomes of young children in private schools of Karachi, Pakistan. Quantitative research method was used to determine the impact of self-regulation upon the academic outcome of young children by utilizing Early School Self-Regulation Scale-Care Giver Version…

  14. Parental divorce, sibship size, family resources, and children's academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2009-09-01

    Using data from 19,839 adolescents from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study investigates whether the effects of parental divorce on adolescents' academic test performance vary by sibship size. Analyses show that the negative effect of divorce on adolescent performance attenuates as sibship size increases. On the other side of the interaction, the inverse relationship between sibship size and test performance is weaker in disrupted than in two-biological-parent families. Trends of such interactions are evident when sibship size is examined either as a continuous or a categorical measure. Finally, the observed interactions on adolescents' academic performance are completely explained by variations in parental financial, human, cultural, and social resources. In sum, this study underlines the importance of treating the effect of parental divorce as a variable and calls for more research to identify child and family features that may change the magnitude of such an effect.

  15. From Fantasy to Action: Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) Improves Academic Performance in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kirby, Teri; Gollwitzer, Anton; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2013-11-01

    The current intervention tested whether a metacognitive self-regulatory strategy of goal pursuit can help economically disadvantaged children convert positive thoughts and images about their future into effective action. Mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) entails mental contrasting a desired future with relevant obstacles of reality and forming implementation intentions (if-then plans) specifying when and where to overcome those obstacles. Seventy-seven fifth graders from an urban middle school were randomly assigned to learn either MCII or a Positive Thinking control strategy. Compared to children in the control condition, children taught how to apply MCII to their academic wishes and concerns significantly improved their report card grades (η 2 = .07), attendance (η 2 = .05), and conduct (η 2 = .07). These findings suggest that MCII holds considerable promise for helping disadvantaged middle school children improve their academic performance.

  16. Educators and Programs Reaching Out to At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. Linda

    1990-01-01

    Presents examples of how using technology can help raise self-esteem and improve academic performance for students who are identified as being at-risk. Topics discussed include the use of computer labs, filmstrips, and videos to strengthen academic skills, and to deal with such social issues as drop-outs, alcoholism, pregnancy, and suicide. Two…

  17. Plasticity in the developing brain: intellectual, language and academic functions in children with ischaemic perinatal stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Ballantyne, Angela O.; Spilkin, Amy M.; Hesselink, John; Trauner, Doris A.

    2008-01-01

    The developing brain has the capacity for a great deal of plasticity. A number of investigators have demonstrated that intellectual and language skills may be in the normal range in children following unilateral perinatal stroke. Questions have been raised, however, about whether these skills can be maintained at the same level as the brain matures. This study aimed to examine the stability of intellectual, academic and language functioning during development in children with perinatal stroke...

  18. Physically active academic lessons: Effects on physical fitness and executive functions in primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    de Greeff, Johannes Wilhelmus

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that physical activity can improve cognitive functions of primary school children, especially the executive functions (functions that are important for goal directed cognition and behavior). Physically active academic lessons, however, do not improve executive functions in primary school children. This is the conclusion of the thesis of UMCG-researcher Marck de Greeff. A two-year teaching method (called ‘Fit & Vaardig op school’) was developed to improve executive...

  19. Clinical and academic profile of children with specific learning disorder-mixed type: An Indian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Sahu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific learning disorder (SLD in the past decade has gained recognition as a disabling condition among children by parents and teachers in India. However, there are still gaps in knowledge about its clinical presentation and understanding. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate the clinical and academic profile of children with SLD. Methods: The sample comprised 30 children with their age range between 7 and 12 years with a diagnosis of SLD-mixed type. All children were assessed through specifically designed structured pro forma for clinical details (i.e., nature of birth, developmental milestones, and comorbidities and academic history (i.e., history of failure, promoted in next class, repetition in the class, school change, etc. and SLD-comprehensive battery. Results: The mean age of the participants was 9.6 years (standard deviation [SD] = 1.5. 76.7% of participants were male and their mean years of education was 4.7 (SD = 1.5. Thirty percent of children had a history of delayed developmental milestones in terms of speech (16.7%, walking (6.7% and in speech and walking (6.7%, 23% of children had comorbid conditions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder/attention-deficit disorder. Thirty percent of children repeated classes in their academic career. Conclusions: A significant number of children had delayed milestones and other problems. Moreover, it is important to understand the clinical and academic profile in the cultural context so that early identification and intervention can be planned.

  20. Grade level and achievement of immigrants’ children: academic redshirting in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Pong, Suet-ling

    2009-01-01

    Data from Hong Kong PISA 2003 show that 15-year-old Hong Kong students who have immigrant parents from mainland China are grossly overrepresented in grades below the modal grade attended by most native Hong Kong students. Same-age comparison, when grade level is not taken into account, puts immigrants’ children at a disadvantaged position in the mathematics, reading, and science literacy tests. The academic advantage of immigrants’ children in Hong Kong is only revealed after grade is statist...

  1. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Urban Chinese Children: Grade Level Prevalence and Academic Burden Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe; Haegele, Justin A; Tang, Yan; Wu, Xueping

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to report grade level prevalence in physical activity and sedentary behaviors and (b) to examine academic burden associations with these behaviors. School-aged children ( n = 48,118) reported their physical activity, perception of physical activity sufficiency, factors for activity insufficiency, homework hours, and screen time in a typical week. Data were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression models of Complex Samples. Prevalence results showed that children had lower physical activity and lower screen viewing time, but higher homework time during transition grades (6th, 9th, and 12th) and high school years. Academic burden was cited as the primary reason for not having sufficient physical activity (76.6%). Compared to those citing academic burden, students who did not report academic burden were significantly more likely to meet physical activity guidelines (Odds Ratio (OR) = 5.38, 95% CI = 4.74-6.11), but less likely to meet screen time guidelines (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.72-0.84), controlling for body mass index, gender, and grade level. Additionally, children who reported academic burdens had significantly longer average daily homework time than those who did not ( p homework and physical activity time particularly among the educational transition grades.

  2. The role of multidimensional attentional abilities in academic skills of children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Andrew S; Heaton, Shelley C; McCann, Sarah J; Watson, William D; Selke, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    Despite reports of academic difficulties in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about the relationship between performance on tests of academic achievement and measures of attention. The current study assessed intellectual ability, parent-reported inattention, academic achievement, and attention in 45 children (ages 7-15) diagnosed with ADHD. Hierarchical regressions were performed with selective, sustained, and attentional control/switching domains of the Test of Everyday Attention for Children as predictor variables and with performance on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition as dependent variables. It was hypothesized that sustained attention and attentional control/switching would predict performance on achievement tests. Results demonstrate that attentional control/ switching accounted for a significant amount of variance in all academic areas (reading, math, and spelling), even after accounting for verbal IQ and parent-reported inattention. Sustained attention predicted variance only in math, whereas selective attention did not account for variance in any achievement domain. Therefore, attentional control/switching, which involves components of executive functions, plays an important role in academic performance.

  3. Associations of motor and cardiovascular performance with academic skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Eero A; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Tompuri, Tuomo; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Leppänen, Paavo H T; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the associations of cardiovascular and motor performance in grade 1 with academic skills in grades 1-3. The participants were 6- to 8-yr-old children with complete data in grades 1-2 for 174 children and in grade 3 for 167 children. Maximal workload during exercise test was used as a measure of cardiovascular performance. The shuttle run test (SRT) time, the errors in balance test, and the number of cubes moved in box and block test (BBT) were measures of motor performance. Academic skills were assessed using reading fluency, reading comprehension, and arithmetic skill tests. Among boys, longer SRT time was associated with poorer reading fluency in grades 1-3 (β = -0.29 to -0.39, P grades 1-2 (β = -0.25 to -0.29, P grades 1-3 (β = -0.33 to -0.40, P grades 1-2 (β = 0.23-0.28, P grade 3 (β = 0.23, P = 0.037), and arithmetic skills in grades 1-2 (β = 0.21-0.23, P grade 3 (β = -0.27, P = 0.027) and arithmetic skills in grade 2 (β = -0.25, P = 0.040). The smaller number of cubes moved in BBT was associated with worse reading fluency in grade 2 (β = 0.26, P = 0.030). Cardiovascular performance was not related to academic skills. Poorer motor performance was associated with worse academic skills in children, especially among boys. These findings emphasize early identification of children with poor motor performance and actions to improve these children's motor performance and academic skills during the first school years.

  4. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems.

  5. No association between cognitive achievements, academic performance and serum cholesterol concentrations among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lewis A; Stigger, Cagney B; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Zhang, Jian

    2009-08-01

    The uncertainty of the role of serum cholesterol in neurodevelopment of children has largely hampered the implementation of the fat recommendation to children in the general population. We explored whether serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with cognitive achievements, academic performance in school-aged children and adolescents at the population level. In the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey, blood specimens were collected from 4248 6-16-year-old children and adolescents to assess three serum cholesterol measures, e.g. total serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cognitive achievements and academic performance were measured on standard tests of arithmetic skills, reading skills, non-verbal reasoning and short-term memory. No significant difference in measures of cognitive and academic performance was observed between children and adolescents stratified by the levels of serum total, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol. Our results suggest that differences within the normal range of serum lipids at a population level are not associated with intelligence and cognition developmental outcomes of children and adolescents.

  6. The Relationship between Sensory Processing Difficulties and Behaviour in Children Aged 5-9 Who Are at Risk of Developing Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Cara; Snow, Pamela C.; Holland, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural problems in childhood are common, with significant and wide-ranging implications for individuals, families and the community. There is some evidence that sensory processing difficulties are associated with behavioural problems in children with disabilities such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity…

  7. Expanding the Boundaries of Kindergartners' E-Book Reading: Metacognitive Guidance for E-Book Support among Young Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Adina

    2017-01-01

    The increasing range and number of electronic books (e-books) available in the children's book market has motivated educators and researchers to investigate how well these platforms can contribute to advancing emergent literacy. Such research has nonetheless been conducted on a much smaller scale in the area of self-regulated learning (SRL) with…

  8. An Exploratory Study Investigating the Viability of a Communication and Feedback Intervention for School Children at Risk of Exclusion: Analysis of Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechten, Frances; Tweed, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    Every day nearly 900 children will be excluded from UK schools for disruptive behaviour and almost one-third of this population has a diagnosed mental health disorder. Exclusion from school is the endpoint of most schools' sanction-based behaviour management policies. This exploratory study investigated staff opinions for using a communication and…

  9. Revisiting an Old Methodology for Teaching Counting, Computation, and Place Value: The Effectiveness of the Finger Calculation Method for At-Risk Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder Stegemann, Kim; Grünke, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Number sense is critical to the development of higher order mathematic abilities. However, some children have difficulty acquiring these fundamental skills and the knowledge base of effective interventions/remediation is relatively limited. Based on emerging neuro-scientific research which has identified the association between finger…

  10. Impact of unilateral conductive hearing loss due to aural atresia on academic performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesser, Bradley W; Krook, Kaelyn; Gray, Lincoln C

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of unilateral conductive hearing loss secondary to aural atresia on elementary school children's academic performance. Case control survey and review of audiometric data. One hundred thirty-two surveys were mailed to families of children with aural atresia, and 48 surveys were sent to families of children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) to identify rates of grade retention, use of any resource, and behavioral problems. Audiometric data of the cohort were tabulated. Of the 40 atresia patients, none repeated a grade, but 65% needed some resources: 12.5% currently use a hearing aid, 32.5% use(d) a frequency-modulated system in school, 47.5% had an Individualized Education Plan, and 45% utilized speech therapy. Compared to the unilateral SNHL group and a cohort of children with unilateral SNHL in an earlier study, children with unilateral atresia were less likely to repeat a grade. Children in both unilateral atresia and SNHL groups were more likely to utilize some resource in the academic setting compared to the unilateral SNHL children in the prior study. Unilateral conductive hearing loss due to aural atresia has an impact on academic performance in children, although not as profound when compared to children with unilateral SNHL. The majority of these children with unilateral atresia utilize resources in the school setting. Parents, educators, and health care professionals should be aware of the impact of unilateral conductive hearing loss and offer appropriate habilitative services. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Peer tutoring for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects on classroom behavior and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, G J; Ervin, R A; Hook, C L; McGoey, K E

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the classroom behavior and academic performance of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typical instructional activities were contrasted with CWPT for 18 children with ADHD and 10 peer comparison students attending first- through fifth-grade general education classes. CWPT led to increases in active engagement in academic tasks along with reductions in off-task behavior for most participants. Of students with ADHD, 50% exhibited improvements in academic performance in math or spelling during CWPT conditions, as measured by a treatment success index. Participating teachers and students reported a high level of satisfaction with intervention procedures. Our results suggest that peer tutoring appears to be an effective strategy for addressing the academic and behavioral difficulties associated with ADHD in general education settings.

  12. Simply Academic? Why Children with Special Educational Needs Don't Like School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Selina; Banks, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    International studies have raised concerns about the academic and social implications of inclusive policies on school engagement and successful learning and, in particular, on the ways in which friendships are formed between students with SEN and other students. This article stems from research findings which show that Irish children with special…

  13. Does Preschool Education Exposure Predict Children's Academic and Behavioural Outcomes in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanfang; Lv, Ying; Huntsinger, Carol S.

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between exposure to preschool education and children's academic and social outcomes have been documented in Western countries. There is a lack of comparable research in China, where preschool education is relatively formal, but rather flexible in arrangement. We conducted research at six public kindergartens in a large Chinese city…

  14. Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Academic Outcomes of Mexican Immigrant Children: The Importance of School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N = 204, 19 schools, mean age = 9 years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes…

  15. The Relationship between Young Children's Academic Achievement and Measures of Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Kerry S.

    1995-01-01

    To test the validity of brief measures of intelligence and explore how well these instruments relate to academic performance, the WPPSI-R, the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Scale, Draw-A-Person: Quantitative Scoring System, and the K-ABC Achievement Scale were administered to 50 kindergarten and first-grade children. Results indicated all measures…

  16. Modeling relationships between physical fitness, executive functioning, and academic achievement in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Niet, Anneke G.; Hartman, Esther; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    Objectives: The relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement in children has received much attention, however, whether executive functioning plays a mediating role in this relationship is unclear. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the relationships between physical

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Academic Achievement in Chinese Children: Contributions of Early Social-Behavioral Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rui; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Yang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the developmental trajectories of academic achievement and the contributions of early social behaviors and problems to these trajectories in Chinese children. Data were collected each year in 5 consecutive years from a sample of elementary schoolchildren in China (initially N = 1,146, 609 boys, initial M [subscript age] = 8.33…

  18. Predictive Relations between Peer Victimization and Academic Achievement in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore longitudinal associations between peer victimization and academic achievement in Chinese children. Participants were N = 805 3rd-grade students (486 boys, 319 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.5 years, SD = 3 months) attending primary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. At Time 1 and Time 2 (2 years…

  19. Obesity, High-Calorie Food Intake, and Academic Achievement Trends among U.S. School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated children's self-reported high-calorie food intake in Grade 5 and its relationship to trends in obesity status and academic achievement over the first 6 years of school. They used 3-level hierarchical linear models in the large-scale database (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort). Findings indicated…

  20. The Cognitive and Academic Benefits of Music to Children: Facts and Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crncec, Rudi; Wilson, Sarah J.; Prior, Margot

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential non-musical cognitive and academic benefits of music listening and instruction to children. This report describes three lines of research relevant to this issue, namely, the effects of: (1) focused music listening on subsequent task performance (the Mozart effect); (2) music instruction; and (3)…

  1. Authoritative Parenting, Parental Scaffolding of Long-Division Mathematics, and Children's Academic Competence in Fourth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattanah, J.F.; Pratt, M.W.; Cowan, P.A.; Cowan, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among authoritative parenting, parental scaffolding of long-division math problems, and children's academic competence. In a sample of 70 two-parent middle class families participating in a longitudinal study on the transition to school, authoritative parenting was assessed globally at the beginning of…

  2. School-based physical activity does not compromise children's academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Yasmin; Macdonald, Heather; Reed, Katherine; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; McKay, Heather

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention, Action Schools! BC (AS! BC), for maintaining academic performance in a multiethnic group of elementary children, and 2) to determine whether boys and girls' academic performance changed similarly after participation in AS! BC. This was a 16-month cluster randomized controlled trial. Ten schools were randomized to intervention (INT) or usual practice (UP). One INT school administered the wrong final test, and one UP school graded their own test, so both were excluded. Thus, eight schools (six INT, two UP) were included in the final analysis. Children (143 boys, 144 girls) in grades 4 and 5 were recruited for the study. We used the Canadian Achievement Test (CAT-3) to evaluate academic performance (TotScore). Weekly teacher activity logs determined amounts of physical activity delivered by teachers to students. Physical activity was determined with the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C). Independent t-tests compared descriptive variables between groups and between boys and girls. We used a mixed linear model to evaluate differences in TotScore at follow-up between groups and between girls and boys. Physical activity delivered by teachers to children in INT schools was increased by 47 min x wk(-1) (139 +/- 62 vs 92 +/- 45, P academic performance.

  3. The Effects of Traumatic Experiences on Academic Relationships and Expectations in Justice-Involved Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Micah E.

    2018-01-01

    Positive school experiences are an important predictor of long-term health and well-being. Developing positive relationships with school personnel and positive academic expectations set the foundation for success. Positive relationships and expectations can be a powerful protective factor or intervention to redirect troubled children toward a more…

  4. Absenteeism in Head Start and Children's Academic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Using nationally representative data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 Cohort (n = 2,842), this study examined the implications of 3- and 4-year-old's absences from Head Start for their early academic learning. The findings from this study revealed that children who missed more days of school, and especially those who were…

  5. Effectiveness of a Universal, Interdependent Group Contingency Program on Children's Academic Achievement: A Countywide Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Robert; Osborne, Karen J.; Dean, Emily L.

    2015-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal prevention program designed to increase academic engagement and to decrease disruptive behavior in elementary school-age children. Teachers and other school personnel use interdependent group contingencies to improve students' behavior in the classroom. Previous research indicates the GBG is efficacious…

  6. The Link between Musical Achievement and Academic Achievement of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    During the twentieth century it has been theorized that there is a link between musical achievement and academic achievement of young children. In support of this controversial view, many educators and music specialists promote the relationship between, parent, teacher, and child. The theory is: with cooperative learning experiences in the study…

  7. Parental Involvement of Mothers with Chronic Illness and Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Fish, Marian C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how maternal chronic illnesses may affect children's academic achievement through parental involvement. A total of 189 mothers diagnosed with chronic illnesses, such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, cancer, HIV/AIDS, chronic pain, asthma, myelodysplasic syndrome, and fibromyalgia, and with a child in middle school or high…

  8. Behavioral Self-Regulation and Relations to Emergent Academic Skills among Children in Germany and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Ragnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated a direct assessment of behavioral self-regulation (the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders; HTKS) and its contribution to early academic achievement among young children in Germany and Iceland. The authors examined the psychometric properties and construct validity of the HTKS, investigated gender differences in young…

  9. The Correlation Between Ordinal Position - First Born - and Academic Achievement of Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Hicks, Adrienne

    Research shows that firstborn children tend to excel in academic pursuits in comparison to those born later in the family constellation. A disproportionately high number of firstborns are present at the college level, and they are also overrepresented in medical and graduate schools. Firstborns score higher than those born later on a variety of…

  10. Organizing multidisciplinary care for children with neuromuscular diseases at the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam : CASE STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortbeek, Nikky; van der Velde, M.F.; Litvak, Nelli Vladimirovna

    2017-01-01

    The Academic Medical Center (AMC) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, recently opened the ‘Children’s Muscle Center Amsterdam’ (CMCA). The CMCA diagnoses and treats children with neuromuscular diseases. The patients with such diseases require care from a variety of clinicians. Through the establishment

  11. CORRELATION BETWEEN ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND OBESITY IN SCHOOL-CHILDREN FROM ANAND DISTRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika P. Shah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growing childhood obesity epidemic is concerning the health of future generation in any country. Today’s competitive world is increasing the never ending pressure on children to excel in academic performance to ensure bright future. Hence, it is the need of the hour to understand the correlation between obesity and academic performance for implementation of the policies related to obesity prevention and treatment. Methods: 1034 school children were taken randomly according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, and they were divided into two groups: a 5-11 years and b 12-18 years. BMI (BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, the Waist-Height ratio (WHtR and SSFT (Sum of Skinfold thickness were taken to measure obesity, and the class teacher evaluated academic performance. Results: The prevalence of obesity when assessed by WC revealed highest values as compared to Waist-Height ratio, IOTF-BMI and SSFT. Spearman correlation between obesity (WC and academic performance revealed that there was a significant negative moderate correlation in urban boys (r = -0.4, p0.05 correlation between obesity and academic performance in boys and girls of 12-18 years’ age-group. Conclusions: It is also concluded from the present study that obesity and academic performance of school children were negatively correlated in boys and girls of 5 -11 years of age but it was not found in 12-18 years of age. Influence of various confounding factors could not be isolated which could have also impacted the academic performance of the child.

  12. Associations between selected dietary behaviours and academic achievement: A study of Australian school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy; Goldman, Sharni; Olson, Richard K; Byrne, Brian; Coventry, William L

    2017-09-01

    Research investigating the effects of dietary behaviours on children's academic achievement has predominately focused on breakfast consumption. The aim of this study was to conduct secondary analysis to examine associations between a range of dietary behaviours and children's academic achievement. Data on five dietary variables (fruit intake; vegetable intake; consumption of takeaway; sugar sweetened beverages; and breakfast) and scores in the five domains of a standardised academic achievement test known as NAPLAN (reading, writing, grammar/punctuation, spelling and numeracy) were obtained for Australian children aged 8-15 years in school grades three (n = 1185), five (n = 1147), seven (n = 1053) and nine (n = 860). Mixed linear models adjusted for socioeconomic status and gender were used to examine associations between dietary behaviours and academic scores. Greater consumption of vegetables with the evening meal (7 nights/week) was associated with higher test scores in the domains of spelling and writing (p=<0.01), with the greatest effect observed for spelling with a mean score difference of 86 ± 26.5 NAPLAN points between the highest and lowest levels of consumption (95% CI: 34.0-138.1; p=<0.01). Increased consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with significantly lower test scores in reading, writing, grammar/punctuation and numeracy (<0.01). The findings of this study demonstrate dietary behaviours are associated with higher academic achievement. Future research should further explore relationships between a wide range of dietary behaviours and children's academic achievement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Screen time impairs the relationship between physical fitness and academic attainment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena M. Aguilar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was twofold: to analyze the association between physical fitness and academic attainment, and to determine the influence of screen time on the association between physical fitness and academic attainment.METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 395 schoolchildren from seven schools of the Maule Region, Chile (mean age 12.1 years; 50.4% boys participated in the autumn of 2014 (March to June. Self-reported physical activity and screen time were evaluated. The study measured academic achievement (mean of the grades obtained in several core subjects, physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength, weight, height, parental education, and socioeconomic status. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationships between physical fitness and academic attainment after adjusting for potential confounders by gender. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences in academic attainment according to fitness and screen time categories (< 2 hours/day and ≥ 2 hours/day.RESULTS: In both genders good cardiorespiratory fitness levels were associated with high language (ß = 0.272-0.153 and mean academic attainment (ß = 0.192-0.156 grades; however, after adjusting for screen time and other potential confounders, these associations disappear. Similarly, no relationship was observed after analyzing those children who spend more hours of screen time (≥ 2 hours/day.CONCLUSIONS: Academic attainment is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels; however, it was weakly impaired by screen time. These findings seem to suggest that parents and policymakers should minimize the negative effects of screen time on children's lives to maximize the beneficial effect of healthy habits on academic attainment.

  14. Verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo

    2010-07-01

    Basic verbal and academic skills can be adversely affected by early-onset diabetes, although these skills have been studied less than other cognitive functions. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of learning deficits in children with diabetes by assessing basic verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset diabetes and in comparison children. In addition, the incidence of dyslexia (children with early-onset diabetes (25 females, 26 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo; range 9-10y) was compared with that of 92 children without diabetes (40 females, 52 males; mean age 9y 10mo, SD 3mo; range 9-10y) in the tasks of phonological processing, short-term memory, rapid automatized naming, reading, spelling, and mathematics. The performance of children with diabetes was poorer than that of the comparison children in phonological processing (p=0.001), spelling accuracy (pmathematics (p=0.024). They learned to read later (p=0.013), but reading performance and the incidence of dyslexia in the third grade (aged 9-10y) were similar in the two groups. Children with early-onset diabetes are prone to minor learning difficulties in their early school years as a result of deficits in phonological processing.

  15. The association between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children.

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    Faught, Erin L; Williams, Patty L; Willows, Noreen D; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    Education is a crucial social determinant of health. Food insecurity can be detrimental to children's academic achievement, potentially perpetuating a cycle of poverty and food insecurity. We aimed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children. Cross-sectional study of children and parents. Parents completed the short-form Household Food Security Survey Module and questions about income and education level (socio-economic status). Children completed FFQ. Data were prospectively linked to children's performance on standardized exams written one year later. Mixed-effect logistic regression was employed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and likelihood of meeting academic expectations adjusting for socio-economic status, diet quality and potential confounders. Nova Scotia, Canada in 2011-2012. Students (n 4105) in grade 5 (10-11 years; 2167 girls) and their parents. Low food security was reported by 9·8 % of households; very low food security by 7·1 % of households. Students from low-income households and reporting poor diet quality were less likely to do well in school. Children who lived in households reporting very low food security had 0·65 times the odds (OR=0·65; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) of meeting expectations for reading and 0·62 times the odds (OR=0·62; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·86) of meeting expectations for mathematics. Very low household insecurity is associated with poor academic achievement among children in Nova Scotia.

  16. Zinc, vitamin A, and glutamine supplementation in Brazilian shantytown children at risk for diarrhea results in sex-specific improvements in verbal learning

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    Aldo A. M. Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the impact of supplemental zinc, vitamin A, and glutamine, alone or in combination, on long-term cognitive outcomes among Brazilian shantytown children with low median height-for-age z-scores. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in children aged three months to nine years old from the urban shanty compound community of Fortaleza, Brazil. Demographic and anthropometric information was assessed. The random treatment groups available for cognitive testing (total of 167 children were: (1 placebo, n = 25; (2 glutamine, n = 23; (3 zinc, n = 18; (4 vitamin A, n = 19; (5 glutamine+zinc, n = 20; (6 glutamine+vitamin A, n = 21; (7 zinc+vitamin A, n = 23; and (8 glutamine+zinc+vitamin A, n = 18. Neuropsychological tests were administered for the cognitive domains of non-verbal intelligence and abstraction, psychomotor speed, verbal memory and recall ability, and semantic and phonetic verbal fluency. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 16.0. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00133406. RESULTS: Girls receiving a combination of glutamine, zinc, and vitamin A had higher mean age-adjusted verbal learning scores than girls receiving only placebo (9.5 versus 6.4, p = 0.007 and girls receiving zinc+vitamin A (9.5 versus 6.5, p = 0.006. Similar group differences were not found between male study children. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that combination therapy offers a sex-specific advantage on tests of verbal learning, similar to that seen among female patients following traumatic brain injury.

  17. Microarray analysis reveals marked intestinal microbiota aberrancy in infants having eczema compared to healthy children in at-risk for atopic disease

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    Nylund Lotta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deviations in composition and diversity of intestinal microbiota in infancy have been associated with both the development and recurrence of atopic eczema. Thus, we decided to use a deep and global microarray-based method to characterize the diversity and temporal changes of the intestinal microbiota in infancy and to define specific bacterial signatures associated with eczema. Faecal microbiota at 6 and 18 months of age were analysed from 34 infants (15 with eczema and 19 healthy controls selected from a prospective follow-up study based on the availability of faecal samples. The infants were originally randomized to receive either Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or placebo. Results Children with eczema harboured a more diverse total microbiota than control subjects as assessed by the Simpson’s reciprocal diversity index of the microarray profiles. Composition of the microbiota did not differ between study groups at age of 6 months, but was significantly different at age of 18 months as assessed by MCPP (p=0.01. At this age healthy children harboured 3 -fold greater amount of members of the Bacteroidetes (p=0.01. Microbiota of children suffering from eczema had increased abundance of the Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, which are typically abundant in adults. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation in early infancy was observed to have minor long-term effects on the microbiota composition. Conclusion A diverse and adult-type microbiota in early childhood is associated with eczema and it may contribute to the perpetuation of eczema.

  18. Effect of learning disabilities on academic self-concept in children with epilepsy and on their quality of life.

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    Brabcová, Dana; Zárubová, Jana; Kohout, Jiří; Jošt, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Academic self-concept could significantly affect academic achievement and self-confidence in children with epilepsy. However, limited attention has been devoted to determining factors influencing academic self-concept of children with epilepsy. We aimed to analyze potentially significant variables (gender, frequency of seizures, duration of epilepsy, intellectual disability, learning disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) in relation to academic self-concept in children with epilepsy and to additional domains of their quality of life. The study group consisted of 182 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years who completed the SPAS (Student's Perception of Ability Scale) questionnaire determining their academic self-concept and the modified Czech version of the CHEQOL-25 (Health-Related Quality of Life Measure for Children with Epilepsy) questionnaire evaluating their health-related quality of life. Using regression analysis, we identified learning disability as a key predictor for academic-self concept of children with epilepsy. While children with epilepsy and with no learning disability exhibited results comparable to children without epilepsy, participants with epilepsy and some learning disability scored significantly lower in almost all domains of academic self-concept. We moreover found that children with epilepsy and learning disability have significantly lower quality of life in intrapersonal and interpersonal domains. In contrast to children with epilepsy and with no learning disability, these participants have practically no correlation between their quality of life and academic self-concept. Our findings suggest that considerable attention should be paid to children having both epilepsy and learning disability. It should comprise services of specialized counselors and teaching assistants with an appropriate knowledge of epilepsy and ability to empathize with these children as well as educational interventions focused on their teachers

  19. Teachers' education, classroom quality, and young children's academic skills: results from seven studies of preschool programs.

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    Early, Diane M; Maxwell, Kelly L; Burchinal, Margaret; Alva, Soumya; Bender, Randall H; Bryant, Donna; Cai, Karen; Clifford, Richard M; Ebanks, Caroline; Griffin, James A; Henry, Gary T; Howes, Carollee; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Mashburn, Andrew J; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Pianta, Robert C; Vandergrift, Nathan; Zill, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide high-quality preschool education, policymakers are increasingly requiring public preschool teachers to have at least a Bachelor's degree, preferably in early childhood education. Seven major studies of early care and education were used to predict classroom quality and children's academic outcomes from the educational attainment and major of teachers of 4-year-olds. The findings indicate largely null or contradictory associations, indicating that policies focused solely on increasing teachers' education will not suffice for improving classroom quality or maximizing children's academic gains. Instead, raising the effectiveness of early childhood education likely will require a broad range of professional development activities and supports targeted toward teachers' interactions with children.

  20. Discrimination, ethnic identity, and academic outcomes of Mexican immigrant children: the importance of school context.

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    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N=204, 19 schools, mean age=9years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes about the value of diversity in predicting immigrant youth's attitudes and experiences. Results indicated that Latino immigrant children in this White community held positive and important ethnic identities and perceived low overall rates of discrimination. As expected, however, school and teacher characteristics were important in predicting children's perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity, and moderated whether perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity were related to attitudes about school and academic performance. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Child and Family Predictors of Academic Functioning in Homeless Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, E. Wayne; Danseco, Evangeline R.

    Differential predictors of the educational achievement status of homeless children were studied using multivariate statistical modeling. The effects of more general influences such as age, gender, and maternal educational level were studied before the influence of intellectual, behavioral, and emotional factors was examined. Participants were…

  2. Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement in Elementary School Children

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    McClelland, Megan M.; Cameron, Claire E.

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation is a key construct in children's healthy and adaptive development. In this chapter, the authors situate self-regulation in a theoretical context that describes its underlying components that are most important for early school success: flexible attention, working memory, and inhibitory control. The authors review evidence that…

  3. Fasting during Pregnancy and Children's Academic Performance. CEE DP 134

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    Almond, Douglas; Mazumder, Bhashkar; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2012-01-01

    We consider the effects of daytime fasting by pregnant women during the lunar month of Ramadan on their children's test scores at age seven. Using English register data, we find that scores are 0.05 to 0.08 standard deviations lower for Pakistani and Bangladeshi students exposed to Ramadan in early pregnancy. These estimates are downward biased to…

  4. Neuropsychological Correlates of Academic Success among Elementary School Children.

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    Townes, B. D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Significant differences were found between younger and older children on most neuropsychological tests. Girls were found to be superior to boys in verbal reasoning, language skills, and serial perceptual matching skills, whereas boys were superior on tests of spatial memory and motor skills. (Author)

  5. Learning skills and academic performance in children and adolescents with absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talero-Gutiérrez, C; Sánchez-Torres, J M; Velez-van-Meerbeke, A

    2015-03-01

    Although cognitive and learning disorders have been described in patients with epilepsy, very few studies focus on specific disorders such as absence epilepsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate learning skills and academic performance in children and adolescents with absence epilepsy. Observational case-control study. Cases were chosen from the Central League against Epilepsy's clinic in Bogotá, Colombia. Controls were selected from a private school and matched with cases by age, school year, and sex. Medical history, seizure frequency, antiepileptic treatment, and academic performance were assessed. Academic abilities were tested with Batería de Aptitudes Diferenciales y Generales (BADyG) (a Spanish-language test of differential and general aptitudes). Data were analysed using Student t-test. The sample consisted of 19 cases and 19 controls aged between 7 and 16. In 15 patients, seizures were controlled; all patients had received antiepileptic medication at some point and 78.9% were actively being treated. Although cases had higher rates of academic failure, a greater incidence of grade retention, and more therapeutic interventions than controls, these differences were not significant. Similarly, there were no significant differences on the BADyG test, except for the immediate memory subcategory on which cases scored higher than controls (P=.0006). Children treated pharmacologically for absence epilepsy, whose seizures are controlled, have normal academic abilities and skills for their age. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Early academic achievement in children with isolated clefts: a population-based study in England.

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    Fitzsimons, Kate Jane; Copley, Lynn P; Setakis, Efrosini; Charman, Susan C; Deacon, Scott A; Dearden, Lorraine; van der Meulen, Jan H

    2017-11-02

    We used national data to study differences in academic achievement between 5-year-old children with an isolated oral cleft and the general population. We also assessed differences by cleft type. Children born in England with an oral cleft were identified in a national cleft registry. Their records were linked to databases of hospital admissions (to identify additional anomalies) and educational outcomes. Z-scores (signed number of SD actual score is above national average) were calculated to make outcome scores comparable across school years and across six assessed areas ( personal development, communication and language, maths, knowledge of world, physical development and creative development ). 2802 children without additional anomalies, 5 years old between 2006 and 2012, were included. Academic achievement was significantly below national average for all six assessed areas with z-scores ranging from -0.24 (95% CI -0.32 to -0.16) for knowledge of world to -0.31 (-0.38 to -0.23) for personal development . Differences were small with only a cleft lip but considerably larger with clefts involving the palate. 29.4% of children were documented as having special education needs (national rate 9.7%), which varied according to cleft type from 13.2% with cleft lip to 47.6% with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Compared with national average, 5-year-old children with an isolated oral cleft, especially those involving the palate, have significantly poorer academic achievement across all areas of learning. These outcomes reflect results of modern surgical techniques and multidisciplinary approach. Children with a cleft may benefit from extra academic support when starting school. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. INTELLECTUAL AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF CHILDREN WITH CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM IN RELATION TO TIME OF DIAGNOSIS

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    Madhava Vijaya Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Context- Congenital hypothyroidism is an important cause of preventable mental retardation in children. Since, neonatal screening is not done routinely in India, many cases are diagnosed late. Earlier, the diagnosis and initiation of treatment, better will be the outcome. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of time of onset of treatment in intellectual and scholastic performances in children with congenital hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Children were classified into 3 groups. Group 1 were diagnosed and treatment initiated within one month of birth. Group 2, between 1 and 6 months and group 3 after 6 months. General intelligence and IQ were assessed by Malin’s intelligence scale for Indian children. Scholastic performance were evaluated by academic evaluation scale for slow learners and ADHD were diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria. Settings and Design- The study was done in the Paediatric Endocrinology Clinic of Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Department of Paediatrics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode. Study population included children of age group 6-9 years with congenital hypothyroidism. Statistical Methods Used- Statistical analysis was done with SPSS software version 16. The statistical analysis was done by ANOVA test. RESULTS IQ and intellectual outcomes were better in group 1 where treatment was initiated within one month. Similarly, poor academic abilities and increased incidence of ADHD were noted in children in whom diagnosis was made late. CONCLUSION Later the diagnosis more will be the intellectual and scholastic backwardness in children underscoring the importance of universal newborn screening.

  8. A Pilot Intervention Designed to Address Behavioral Factors That Place Overweight/Obese Young Children at Risk for Later-Life Obesity.

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    Small, Leigh; Thacker, Leroy; Aldrich, Heather; Bonds-McClain, Darya; Melnyk, Bernadette

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to intervene with parents of overweight/obese 4- to 8-year-old children to improve child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Parent-child dyads ( N = 60) were randomly assigned to treatment or comparison conditions. Parents attended four intervention sessions at their child's primary health care office over 3 months. Child behaviors were assessed at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Parental beliefs in their skills/abilities increased in the experimental group parents, but there was no statistical difference between groups at any time. Child externalizing behaviors significantly decreased from baseline to postintervention for both groups ( F = 3.26, p = .020). Post hoc model testing suggests that this change was more pronounced in the intervention group ( F = 0.56, p = .692). Child somatic symptoms significantly decreased over time ( F = 4.55, p = .004), and there were group differences in child depressive behaviors ( F = 6.19, p = .020). These findings suggest that a parent-focused intervention program demonstrated positive preliminary effects on children's behaviors.

  9. Are Children or Adolescents More at Risk for Posttraumatic Stress Reactions Following Exposure to Violence?: Evidence From Post-Genocide Rwanda.

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    Neugebauer, Richard; Forde, Allana; Fodor, Kinga E; Fisher, Prudence W; Turner, J Blake; Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Yamabe, Saori

    2018-01-01

    Whether children or adolescents exhibit higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in response to violence is an unresolved research question. We examine this issue in UNICEF's 1995 National Trauma Survey (NTS) of 8-19-year-olds (n = 942) who survived the Rwandan Genocide and lived and attended schools in the community. PTSS were assessed with a symptom checklist based on DSM-IV indexed using an overall score comprising the sum of scores on all items and mean item scores of each of five distinct factors identified in a factor analysis within this sample. Eighty percent of the sample had witnessed massacres; 25%, rape/sexual mutilation. The overall symptom score among children was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than among adolescents. Among the five separate factors, this direct association of age with symptom levels held for two: re-experiencing (p < 0.001) and dysphoric arousal (p < 0.05), but not for the remaining three: avoidance, numbing, and anxious arousal. This discordance in factorial response to violence may help explain prevailing inconsistencies in the age-PTSS association reported to date.

  10. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

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    Ishaan K Desai

    Full Text Available Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test, demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05. After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score, children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg(-1 * min(-1 had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively. This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their

  11. Response inhibition and academic abilities in typically developing children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder-combined subtype.

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    Bledsoe, Jesse C; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R

    2010-11-01

    Research in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) generally utilizes clinical samples or children with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Findings indicated that children with ADHD experience academic underachievement and poor performance on measures of response inhibition (RI). Less is known, about the neuropsychological profile of typically developing children with ADHD. The aim of the current study was twofold: (1) determine if academic skills and RI were impaired in typically developing children with ADHD-combined subtype (ADHD-C) and (2) determine to what extent RI may predict academic abilities. Children with ADHD-C did not differ on any academic domain from controls. Children with ADHD-C performed more poorly than controls on RI measures. Regression analyses suggest that Written Expression ability was significantly influenced by RI. No other academic domain was related to RI. Results suggest that children with ADHD-C may experience impairments in RI despite adequate academic functioning. Impaired RI is not solely responsible for difficulties found in academic skills in ADHD-C.

  12. The impact of oral health on the academic performance of disadvantaged children.

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    Seirawan, Hazem; Faust, Sharon; Mulligan, Roseann

    2012-09-01

    We measured the impact of dental diseases on the academic performance of disadvantaged children by sociodemographic characteristics and access to care determinants We performed clinical dental examinations on 1495 disadvantaged elementary and high school students from Los Angeles County public schools. We matched data with academic achievement and attendance data provided by the school district and linked these to the child's social determinants of oral health and the impact of oral health on the child's school and the parents' school or work absences. Students with toothaches were almost 4 times more likely to have a low grade point average. About 11% of students with inaccessible needed dental care missed school compared with 4% of those with access. Per 100 elementary and high school-aged children, 58 and 80 school hours, respectively, are missed annually. Parents averaged 2.5 absent days from work or school per year because of their children's dental problems. Oral health affects students' academic performance. Studies are needed that unbundle the clinical, socioeconomic, and cultural challenges associated with this epidemic of dental disease in children.

  13. Improving operating room efficiency in academic children's hospital using Lean Six Sigma methodology.

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    Tagge, Edward P; Thirumoorthi, Arul S; Lenart, John; Garberoglio, Carlos; Mitchell, Kenneth W

    2017-06-01

    Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a process improvement methodology that utilizes a collaborative team effort to improve performance by systematically identifying root causes of problems. Our objective was to determine whether application of LSS could improve efficiency when applied simultaneously to all services of an academic children's hospital. In our tertiary academic medical center, a multidisciplinary committee was formed, and the entire perioperative process was mapped, using fishbone diagrams, Pareto analysis, and other process improvement tools. Results for Children's Hospital scheduled main operating room (OR) cases were analyzed, where the surgical attending followed themselves. Six hundred twelve cases were included in the seven Children's Hospital operating rooms (OR) over a 6-month period. Turnover Time (interval between patient OR departure and arrival of the subsequent patient) decreased from a median 41min in the baseline period to 32min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). Turnaround Time (interval between surgical dressing application and subsequent surgical incision) decreased from a median 81.5min in the baseline period to 71min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). These results demonstrate that a coordinated multidisciplinary process improvement redesign can significantly improve efficiency in an academic Children's Hospital without preselecting specific services, removing surgical residents, or incorporating new personnel or technology. Prospective comparative study, Level II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Racial-ethnic Identity in Context: Examining Mediation of Neighborhood Factors on Children's Academic Adjustment.

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    Witherspoon, Dawn P; Daniels, Lisa L; Mason, Amber E; Smith, Emilie Phillips

    2016-03-01

    Research consistently shows that neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics and residents' neighborhood perceptions matter for youth well-being, including a positive sense of racial-ethnic identity. Although elementary-school children are likely in the earlier phases of identity formation, the authors examined whether objective and subjective neighborhood characteristics are related to their racial-ethnic identity and, in turn, their academic adjustment. A diverse sample (30.4% African American, 35.2% White, 12.3% Latino, & 22.0% Other) of 227 children in Grades 2 through 5 were surveyed in afterschool programs. Bivariate correlations showed that youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods reported more barriers due to their race-ethnicity, but these barriers were not related to their sense of academic efficacy. Residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood was unrelated to youth's academic self-efficacy. However, path analyses showed that positive neighborhood perceptions were associated with a stronger sense of race-ethnicity (i.e., affirmation and belonging), which was in turn related to greater academic efficacy. These results suggest that neighborhood connection provides a source of affirmation and value for young children, helping them to understand who they are as part of a racial-ethnic group and helping to foster a sense of future achievement opportunities. This study provides additional evidence that along with other important proximal contexts (e.g., family, school), young children's neighborhood context is important for development. Results are discussed to highlight environmental influences on young children's awareness of race-ethnicity and the implications of the combined impact of neighborhood and racial-ethnic identity on psychosocial adjustment. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  15. The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behavior is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases, and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs) were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behavior in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality) and SBPs have a positive effect on children's academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behavior in class.

  16. Music Strategies to Promote Engagement and Academic Growth of Young Children with ASD in the Inclusive Classroom

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    Vaiouli, Potheini; Ogle, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Typical group activities for kindergarten children depend heavily on children's ability to follow directions, respond verbally to adults' prompts, take turns, initiate, and sustain peer interactions. Therefore, young children with autism may often be excluded from academic group activities because their social skills are under-developed or delayed…

  17. The Mediating Effects of Child Strengths and Hopes on Academic Achievement for Palestinian Children Exposed to Armed Conflict

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    Khamis, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of academic achievement among Palestinian children, including child and parent characteristics, exposure to armed conflict, child strengths, and children's hope. Participants were 1,697 children of both genders. The mean age of participants was 12 years, 10 months. Results of the final hierarchical multiple…

  18. Teacher Ratings of Academic Achievement of Children between 6 and 12 Years Old from Intact and Non-Intact Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molepo, Lephodisa S.; Maunganidze, Levison; Mudhovozi, Pilot; Sodi, Tholene

    2010-01-01

    We investigated teacher ratings of the impact of parental divorce on academic achievement of children between 6 and 12 years old up to 12 months after their parents divorced. A purposive sample of 120 children attending four different primary schools in a small South African town took part in the study. One third (n = 40) of the children had…

  19. Physical Activity, Fitness, Cognitive Function, and Academic Achievement in Children: A Systematic Review.

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    Donnelly, Joseph E; Hillman, Charles H; Castelli, Darla; Etnier, Jennifer L; Lee, Sarah; Tomporowski, Phillip; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N

    2016-06-01

    The relationship among physical activity (PA), fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncertain; thus, this position stand will provide clarity from the available science. The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: 1) among children age 5-13 yr, do PA and physical fitness influence cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function? 2) Among children age 5-13 yr, do PA, physical education (PE), and sports programs influence standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention? This study used primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on, PA, fitness, or PE/sport participation and cognition, learning, brain function/structure, academic achievement, or concentration/attention were included. Two separate searches were performed to identify studies that focused on 1) cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function and 2) standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention. PubMed, ERIC, PsychInfo, SportDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and Embase were searched (January 1990-September 2014) for studies that met inclusion criteria. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria for the first search (cognition/learning/brain), and 73 studies met inclusion criteria for the second search (academic achievement/concentration). Articles were grouped by study design as cross-sectional, longitudinal, acute, or intervention trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed for several important study parameters; therefore, results were synthesized and presented by study design. A majority of the research supports the view that physical fitness, single bouts of PA, and PA interventions benefit children's cognitive functioning. Limited evidence was available concerning the effects of PA on learning

  20. Physical Activity, Fitness, Cognitive Function, and Academic Achievement in Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Hillman, Charles H.; Castelli, Darla; Etnier, Jennifer L.; Lee, Sarah; Tomporowski, Phillip; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.

    2016-01-01

    Background The relation among physical activity (PA), fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncertain; thus, this position stand will provide clarity from the available science. Objective To answer the following questions: (1) among children aged 5-13, do PA and physical fitness influence cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function? (2) among children aged 5-13, do PA, physical education, and sports programs influence standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention? Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on, PA, fitness or physical education (PE)/sport participation and cognition, learning, brain function/structure, academic achievement, or concentration/attention were included. Data Sources Two separate searches were performed to identify studies that focused on (1) cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function; and (2) standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention. PubMed, ERIC, PsychInfo, SportDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and Embase were searched (January 1990- September 2014) for studies that met inclusion criteria. Sixty-four met inclusion criteria for the first search (cognition/learning/brain) and 73 studies met inclusion criteria for the second search (academic achievement/concentration). Study appraisal and synthesis methods Articles were grouped by study design as cross-sectional, longitudinal, acute, or intervention trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed for several important study parameters, therefore results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results A majority of the research supports the view that physical fitness, single bouts of PA, and PA interventions benefit children's cognitive functioning. Limited

  1. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and potential academic benefits.

  2. Promoting parent academic expectations predicts improved school outcomes for low-income children entering kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin-Presnal, John E; Bierman, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    This study explored patterns of change in the REDI (Research-based Developmentally Informed) Parent program (REDI-P), designed to help parents support child learning at the transition into kindergarten. Participants were 200 prekindergarten children attending Head Start (55% European-American, 26% African American, 19% Latino, 56% male, M age =4.45years, SD=0.29) and their primary caregivers, who were randomized to a 16-session home-visiting intervention (REDI-P) or a control group. Extending beyond a prior study documenting intervention effects on parenting behaviors and child kindergarten outcomes, this study assessed the impact of REDI-P on parent academic expectations, and then explored the degree to which intervention gains in three areas of parenting (parent-child interactive reading, parent-child conversations, parent academic expectations) predicted child outcomes in kindergarten (controlling for baseline values and a set of child and family characteristics). Results showed that REDI-P promoted significant gains in parent academic expectations, which in turn mediated intervention gains in child emergent literacy skills and self-directed learning. Results suggest a need to attend to the beliefs parents hold about their child's academic potential, as well as their behavioral support for child learning, when designing interventions to enhance the school success of children in low-income families. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Academic Performance in Primary School Children With Common Emotional and Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Tucker, Dawn; Bayer, Jordana; Romaniuk, Helena; Sawyer, Susan; Lietz, Petra; Redmond, Gerry; Proimos, Jenny; Allen, Nicholas; Patton, George

    2017-08-01

    Many emotional and behavioral problems first emerge in primary school and are the forerunners of mental health problems occurring in adolescence. However, the extent that these problems may be associated with academic failure has been explored less. We aimed to quantify the association between emotional and behavioral problems with academic performance. A stratified random sample of 8- to 9-year-olds (N = 1239) were recruited from schools in Australia. Data linkage was performed with a national assessment of academic performance to assess reading and numeracy. Parent report assessed emotional and behavioral problems with students dichotomized into "borderline/abnormal" and "normal" categories. One in 5 grade 3 students fell in the "borderline/abnormal" category. Boys with total difficulties (β = -47.8, 95% CI: -62.8 to -32.8), conduct problems, and peer problems scored lower on reading. Numeracy scores were lower in boys with total difficulties (β = -37.7, 95% CI: -53.9 to -21.5) and emotional symptoms. Children with hyperactivity/inattention scored lower in numeracy. Girls with peer problems scored lower in numeracy. Boys with emotional and behavioral problems in mid-primary school were 12 months behind their peers. Children with emotional and behavioral problems are at high risk for academic failure, and this risk is evident in mid-primary school. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  4. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Chan, Yu.Lung; Au, Kit Sum Agnes; Yeung, Ka Wai David; Kwan, Ting Fai; To, Cho Yee

    2005-01-01

    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  5. Oral Health and Its Effect on the Academic Performance of Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; Almeida, Raquel Francis; Medonca, Jordana Guedes Amorim; Leal, Soraya Coelho

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to verify whether child and adolescent oral health affected academic performance. A literature search conducted in March 2017 on PubMed, Lilacs, Web of Science, and Scopus databases identified 2,009 papers, six of which were included in the final review. Quality appraisal and risk of bias were evaluated using the quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies. Two papers were classified as being of good quality, one as fair, and three as poor. In four publications, oral health conditions were measured by taking only dental caries into account, while in two others treatment needs and dental trauma were also considered. Although four papers concluded that children's academic performance and poor oral health were associated, the results were not considered reliable because of the high risk of bias. The two papers classified as being of good quality did not show an association between oral health and academic performance, unless mediated by socioeconomic factors. Further well-designed studies are required to demonstrate whether children's oral health can have a negative influence on their academic performance.

  6. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Chan, Yu.Lung [Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Au, Kit Sum Agnes [James Cook University, Department of Psychology, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Yeung, Ka Wai David; Kwan, Ting Fai; To, Cho Yee

    2005-06-01

    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  7. Cognitive and academic achievement changes associated with day hospital rehabilitation in children with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gerald; Mayfield, Joan; Thaler, Nicholas S; Walker, Jon; Allen, Daniel N

    2018-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the outcome of a day hospital rehabilitation program for children who experienced an acquired neurological illness, mainly traumatic brain injury. Participants were administered neuropsychological and academic evaluations upon entry to the program, immediately upon discharge and several months after discharge Repeated measures ANOVA results for variables selected from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment and the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System found that comparisons showed significant (≥p < .01) improvement occurred between the first and second assessment, generally with large effect sizes. There were some nonsignificant decrements in performance between the discharge and follow-up assessments. A correlational analysis showed that while the association between cognitive function and academic achievement was robust, correlation coefficients did not differ in strength before and following rehabilitation. The study demonstrates significant improvement in children with acquired neurological disorders following rehabilitation.

  8. Divorce, approaches to learning, and children's academic achievement: a longitudinal analysis of mediated and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James Clyde; Amato, Paul R

    2014-06-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) were used to test the hypothesis that approaches to learning (ATL) mediates the link between parental divorce and academic achievement. Fixed effects regression was utilized to test for mediation, and subsequent moderation analyses examining gender and age at time of divorce also were conducted. Results indicated that divorce was associated with less growth in test scores and that ATL mediated 18% and 12% of this association in reading and mathematics respectively. Parental divorce also was associated with larger negative effects for children who experienced divorce at an older age as well as for girls' mathematics test scores. These findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of parental divorce on children's academic achievement and underscore the importance of focusing on the variability of child outcomes following parental divorce. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The family, neuroscience, and academic skills: An interdisciplinary account of social class gaps in children's test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Daniel; Mashburn, Andrew; Grissmer, David

    2013-03-01

    Current explanations of social class gaps in children's early academic skills tend to focus on non-cognitive skills that more advantaged children acquire in the family. Accordingly, social class matters because the cultural resources more abundant in advantaged families cultivate children's repertories and tool kits, which allow them to more easily navigate social institutions, such as schools. Within these accounts, parenting practices matter for children's academic success, but for seemingly arbitrary reasons. Alternatively, findings from current neuroscience research indicate that family context matters for children because it cultivates neural networks that assist in learning and the development of academic skills. That is, children's exposure to particular parenting practices and stimulating home environments contribute to the growth in neurocognitive skills that affect later academic performance. We synthesize sociological and neuroscience accounts of developmental inequality by focusing on one such skill-fine motor skills-to illustrate how family context alters children's early academic performance. Our findings support an interdisciplinary account of academic inequality, and extend current accounts of the family's role in the transmission of social inequality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Parental Absence Accompanies Worse Academic Achievements: Evidence Based upon a Sample of Left-Behind Children in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchen Fu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In China, with the rapid urbanization and large amount of labor force migrating from rural-to-urban areas, an enormous number of children living in rural China are in the absence of parental care. The objective of the study was to investigate the academic performance of left-behind children under various statuses of parental absence. We investigated 3,076 children (1,761 non-left-behind and 1,315 left-behind regarding their academic achievement in different subjects. We found that children with different status of parental absence would perform differently on Chinese, mathematics, and English learning. In addition, left-behind children would be significantly more likely to get low scores in academic examinations as compared with non-left-behind children. Strengths and limitations of the study are discussed.

  11. Relationship Between Parenting Style and Children Academic Achievement Among Elementary Students Grade II and III

    OpenAIRE

    Defia Rizki, Sari; Susilawati; Mariam, Iyam

    2017-01-01

    HUBUNGAN POLA ASUH ORANG TUA DENGAN PRESTASI BELAJARANAK USIA SEKOLAH DASAR KELAS II DAN IIIRelationship between Parenting Style and Children Academic Achievementamong Elementary Students Grade II and IIISari Defia Rizki1, Susilawati2, Iyam Mariam3123Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan SukabumiJalan Karamat Nomor 36, Karamat, Kec. Sukabumi, Kota Sukabumi,Jawa Barat 431221e-mail: Pola asuh merupakan cara yang digunakan orang tua dalam mencoba berbagai strategi untukmendoron...

  12. The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L.; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic perf...

  13. The effects of breakfast on behaviour and academic performance in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie eAdolphus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behaviour, cognitive and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behaviour is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behaviour and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behaviour in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality and SBPs have a positive effect on children’s academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behaviour in class.

  14. The effects of breakfast on behaviour and academic performance in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Katie eAdolphus; Clare L Lawton; Louise eDye

    2013-01-01

    Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behaviour, cognitive and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic perf...

  15. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city-wide assessment of student’s perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3rd-8th graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students’ self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2%-8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16%-22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children’s academic performance. PMID:21197388

  16. Diet quality and academic achievement: a prospective study among primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Eero A; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Jalkanen, Henna; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Ahonen, Timo; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-10-01

    Poor diet quality may impair academic achievement in children, but such evidence is limited. Therefore, we investigated the associations of healthy diet in Grade 1 assessed by Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS), and Finnish Children Healthy Eating Index (FCHEI) with academic achievement in Grades 1-3 in children. The participants were 161 Finnish children who were 6-8 years old in Grade 1 and attended in a large ongoing physical activity and dietary intervention study. Dietary factors were assessed using 4-day food records, and MDS, BSDS, and FCHEI were calculated. Academic achievement was assessed by reading fluency, reading comprehension, and arithmetic skill tests. The data were analyzed using linear regression analysis and analysis of covariance adjusted for age, sex, parental education, household income, body fat percentage, physical activity, the PANIC Study group, and total energy intake. MDS was positively associated with reading comprehension in Grade 3 (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.167, P = 0.032). BSDS was positively associated with reading fluency in Grades 2-3 and reading comprehension in Grades 1-3 (β = 0.161-0.274, P < 0.05). FCHEI was positively related to reading fluency in Grades 1-2 and reading comprehension in Grades 1-3 (β = 0.190-0.344, P < 0.05). Children in the highest third of BSDS and FCHEI had better reading fluency and reading comprehension in Grades 1-3 than children in the lowest third (P < 0.05). None of the diet scores was associated with arithmetic skills. Healthier diet assessed by BSDS or FCHEI in Grade 1 was associated with better reading skills, but not with arithmetic skills, among children in Grades 1-3. Long-term intervention studies are needed to investigate the effects of improvements in diet quality on academic achievement among children. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01803776.

  17. The association between aerobic fitness and language processing in children: implications for academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Mark R; Federmeier, Kara D; Raine, Lauren B; Direito, Artur; Boyd, Jeremy K; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-06-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have been instrumental for discerning the relationship between children's aerobic fitness and aspects of cognition, yet language processing remains unexplored. ERPs linked to the processing of semantic information (the N400) and the analysis of language structure (the P600) were recorded from higher and lower aerobically fit children as they read normal sentences and those containing semantic or syntactic violations. Results revealed that higher fit children exhibited greater N400 amplitude and shorter latency across all sentence types, and a larger P600 effect for syntactic violations. Such findings suggest that higher fitness may be associated with a richer network of words and their meanings, and a greater ability to detect and/or repair syntactic errors. The current findings extend previous ERP research explicating the cognitive benefits associated with greater aerobic fitness in children and may have important implications for learning and academic performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Parent praise to toddlers predicts fourth grade academic achievement via children's incremental mindsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Sorhagen, Nicole S; Gripshover, Sarah J; Dweck, Carol S; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C

    2018-03-01

    In a previous study, parent-child praise was observed in natural interactions at home when children were 1, 2, and 3 years of age. Children who received a relatively high proportion of process praise (e.g., praise for effort and strategies) showed stronger incremental motivational frameworks, including a belief that intelligence can be developed and a greater desire for challenge, when they were in 2nd or 3rd grade (Gunderson et al., 2013). The current study examines these same children's (n = 53) academic achievement 1 to 2 years later, in 4th grade. Results provide the first evidence that process praise to toddlers predicts children's academic achievement (in math and reading comprehension) 7 years later, in elementary school, via their incremental motivational frameworks. Further analysis of these motivational frameworks shows that process praise had its effect on fourth grade achievement through children's trait beliefs (e.g., believing that intelligence is fixed vs. malleable), rather than through their learning goals (e.g., preference for easy vs. challenging tasks). Implications for the socialization of motivation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Factors Influencing the Academic Performance of Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Ekiti, South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunya, Oladele Simeon; Oke, Oluwasola Julius; Kuti, Bankole Peter; Ajayi, Iyiade Adeseye; Olajuyin, Oyebanji; Omotosho-Olagoke, Olubunmi; Taiwo, Adekunle Bamidele; Faboya, Opeyemi Ayodeji; Ajibola, Ayodeji

    2018-02-01

    There is a paucity of information on factors that influence the school performance of children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in Nigeria, despite her huge burden of the disease. In total, 101 children with SCA were recruited at a paediatric clinic in Nigeria. Their socio-demographic-matched classmates were the controls. Academic performance and cognitive functioning were obtained from school reports and Ziler's Draw-a-Person Test, respectively. Factors influencing the academic performance were determined. Children with SCA had higher rates of school absence and lower haemoglobin concentration (p  1 week independently predicts poor school performance among the study participants (odds ratio = 15.71; 95% confidence interval = 5.93-41.66; p =0.000). Most SCA children with poor performance were absent from school for > 1 week. There is need to address causes of school absenteeism among children with SCA. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. The Relationship between Mathematics and Language: Academic Implications for Children with Specific Language Impairment and English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Arizmendi, Genesis D.; Beal, Carole R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the relationship between mathematics and language to better understand the nature of the deficit and the academic implications associated with specific language impairment (SLI) and academic implications for English language learners (ELLs). Method: School-age children (N = 61; 20 SLI, 20 ELL, 21 native…

  1. Effect of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, Johannes W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preventing overweight and improving physical fitness in primary school children is a worldwide challenge, and physically active intervention programs usually come with the cost of academic instruction time. This study aimed to investigate effects of physically active academic lessons on body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in…

  2. Effect of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness in Primary School Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Greeff, Johannes W; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J; Bosker, Roel J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    BACKGROUND: Preventing overweight and improving physical fitness in primary school children is a worldwide challenge, and physically active intervention programs usually come with the cost of academic instruction time. This study aimed to investigate effects of physically active academic lessons on

  3. Self-regulation in ethnic minority children : associations with academic performance and the transition to formal schooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeniad Malkamak, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of the current dissertation is on the associations between self-regulation and academic outcomes, with special attention to these issues in ethnic minority children. Following a systematic meta-analysis on the association between cognitive self-regulation and academic achievement

  4. The Impact of Oral Health on the Academic Performance of Disadvantaged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seirawan, Hazem; Faust, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We measured the impact of dental diseases on the academic performance of disadvantaged children by sociodemographic characteristics and access to care determinants Methods. We performed clinical dental examinations on 1495 disadvantaged elementary and high school students from Los Angeles County public schools. We matched data with academic achievement and attendance data provided by the school district and linked these to the child’s social determinants of oral health and the impact of oral health on the child’s school and the parents’ school or work absences. Results. Students with toothaches were almost 4 times more likely to have a low grade point average. About 11% of students with inaccessible needed dental care missed school compared with 4% of those with access. Per 100 elementary and high school–aged children, 58 and 80 school hours, respectively, are missed annually. Parents averaged 2.5 absent days from work or school per year because of their children’s dental problems. Conclusions. Oral health affects students’ academic performance. Studies are needed that unbundle the clinical, socioeconomic, and cultural challenges associated with this epidemic of dental disease in children. PMID:22813093

  5. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL ON THE EFFICACY OF MEDHYA RASAYANA TABLET ON ACADEMIC STRESS AND PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Abhimanyu Kumar; Reena Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Background:School children and academics are not exempted from stress. In Indian context, especially for high school children, the demands to be placed high, parental pressures, the future career option and time bound targets along with inherent biological variations of adolescence create paramount stress. Such stress can be detrimental if not well managed. Despite of loss of lives consequent upon stress and poor performance, academic stress is less researched. Psychotherapy is the current go...

  7. Comparison of Social Skills, Mental Health and Academic Performance in Children with Divorced, Divorcing and Intact Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حسین قمری گیوی

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare social skills, mental health and academic performance in children with divorced, divorcing and intact parents. The study sample included 481 children with divorced parents and 419 children with divorcing parents, who were matched to 500 children with normal parents. The participants responded to the Matson's Social Skills Scale and Goldenberg's Mental Health Questionnaire. To assess the academic performance GPA was used. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test. The Findings showed that children with divorced and divorcing parents had more average scores of the components of physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, depression and general mental disorder than those of children with normal parents. Also children with divorcing parents had more scores in components of social dysfunction, depression and general mental disorder than children with divorced parents had. Social skills scores and academic performance in children with normal parents were higher than those of divorced parents’ children and children with divorced parents had higher scores than children with divorcing parents. Hence, due to the harm and the conesquences of divorce on children, strategies for minimalizing these conesquences should be planed.

  8. Academic and Behavioral Outcomes in School-Age South African Children Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollman, Aimee K.; Figaji, Anthony A.; Schrieff-Elson, Leigh E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) demonstrate a range of post-injury neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have adverse effects on their academic and behavioral outcomes and interfere with school re-entry, educational progress, and quality of life. These post-TBI sequelae are exacerbated within the context of a resource-poor country like South Africa (SA) where the education system is in a somewhat precarious state especially for those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Objectives: To describe behavioral and academic outcomes of a group of school-aged SA children following severe TBI. Methods: The sample included 27 school-age children who were admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RXH), SA, between 2006 and 2011 for closed severe TBI and who received intracranial monitoring. We collected behavioral data using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and academic information sourced from the BRIEF, CBCL, medical folders, and caregivers. Analyses include descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation matrices. Results: The descriptive results show that (1) more than half of the participants experienced clinically-significant behavioral problems across the CBCL scales, (2) the working memory BRIEF subscale appeared to be the most problematic subdomain, (3) two thirds of the sample were receiving some form of, or were in the process of being placed in, special needs education, (4) there was a three-fold increase in the use of special education services from pre- to post-injury, and (5) more than half (n = 16) of the sample repeated at least one grade after returning to school post-injury. Correlation analyses results suggest that children with increased externalizing behavioral problems and executive dysfunction are more likely to repeat a grade post-injury; and that children with executive dysfunction post-TBI are more likely to

  9. Academic and Behavioral Outcomes in School-Age South African Children Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee K. Dollman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs demonstrate a range of post-injury neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have adverse effects on their academic and behavioral outcomes and interfere with school re-entry, educational progress, and quality of life. These post-TBI sequelae are exacerbated within the context of a resource-poor country like South Africa (SA where the education system is in a somewhat precarious state especially for those from disadvantaged backgrounds.Objectives: To describe behavioral and academic outcomes of a group of school-aged SA children following severe TBI.Methods: The sample included 27 school-age children who were admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RXH, SA, between 2006 and 2011 for closed severe TBI and who received intracranial monitoring. We collected behavioral data using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF and academic information sourced from the BRIEF, CBCL, medical folders, and caregivers. Analyses include descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation matrices.Results: The descriptive results show that (1 more than half of the participants experienced clinically-significant behavioral problems across the CBCL scales, (2 the working memory BRIEF subscale appeared to be the most problematic subdomain, (3 two thirds of the sample were receiving some form of, or were in the process of being placed in, special needs education, (4 there was a three-fold increase in the use of special education services from pre- to post-injury, and (5 more than half (n = 16 of the sample repeated at least one grade after returning to school post-injury. Correlation analyses results suggest that children with increased externalizing behavioral problems and executive dysfunction are more likely to repeat a grade post-injury; and that children with executive dysfunction post-TBI are more likely

  10. Academic and Behavioral Outcomes in School-Age South African Children Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollman, Aimee K; Figaji, Anthony A; Schrieff-Elson, Leigh E

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) demonstrate a range of post-injury neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have adverse effects on their academic and behavioral outcomes and interfere with school re-entry, educational progress, and quality of life. These post-TBI sequelae are exacerbated within the context of a resource-poor country like South Africa (SA) where the education system is in a somewhat precarious state especially for those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Objectives: To describe behavioral and academic outcomes of a group of school-aged SA children following severe TBI. Methods: The sample included 27 school-age children who were admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RXH), SA, between 2006 and 2011 for closed severe TBI and who received intracranial monitoring. We collected behavioral data using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and academic information sourced from the BRIEF, CBCL, medical folders, and caregivers. Analyses include descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation matrices. Results: The descriptive results show that (1) more than half of the participants experienced clinically-significant behavioral problems across the CBCL scales, (2) the working memory BRIEF subscale appeared to be the most problematic subdomain, (3) two thirds of the sample were receiving some form of, or were in the process of being placed in, special needs education, (4) there was a three-fold increase in the use of special education services from pre- to post-injury, and (5) more than half ( n = 16) of the sample repeated at least one grade after returning to school post-injury. Correlation analyses results suggest that children with increased externalizing behavioral problems and executive dysfunction are more likely to repeat a grade post-injury; and that children with executive dysfunction post-TBI are more likely to

  11. Academic achievement in school-aged children with active epilepsy: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Das, Krishna B; Chin, Richard F C; Aylett, Sarah E; Burch, Victoria; Gillberg, Christopher; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R

    2014-12-01

    To provide population-based data on the performance of school-aged children with epilepsy on measures of academic achievement and factors associated with this performance after controlling for IQ. Eighty-five (74%) of 115 children with "active" epilepsy (experienced a seizure in the past year and/or on antiepileptic drugs [AEDs]) underwent psychological assessment including measures of IQ, aspects of working memory and processing speed. Sixty-five of the 85 were able to complete subtests on the Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition (WRAT-4). Paired sample t-tests were conducted to compare subtest scores. Factors associated with academic performance after controlling for IQ were examined using linear regression. Seventy-two percent of the children, who could complete subtests on the WRAT-4, displayed "low achievement" (1 standard deviation [SD] below test mean) and 42% displayed "underachievement" (1 SD below assessed IQ) on at least one of the four WRAT-4 subtests. The mean scores on the Math Computation subtest and Sentence Comprehension subtest were significantly lower than scores on the Word Reading (p academic achievement are common in school-aged children with "active" epilepsy. Much of the difficulties can be attributed to lowered global cognition. However, specific cognitive deficits, younger onset of first seizure, and school attendance difficulties may contribute to difficulties independent of global cognition. There is a need to screen all children with "active" epilepsy for difficulties in school achievement, to identify contributory factors and to identify efficacious interventions for ameliorating such difficulties. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Multifractal Value at Risk model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hojin; Song, Jae Wook; Chang, Woojin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper new Value at Risk (VaR) model is proposed and investigated. We consider the multifractal property of financial time series and develop a multifractal Value at Risk (MFVaR). MFVaR introduced in this paper is analytically tractable and not based on simulation. Empirical study showed that MFVaR can provide the more stable and accurate forecasting performance in volatile financial markets where large loss can be incurred. This implies that our multifractal VaR works well for the risk measurement of extreme credit events.

  13. Defining the impact of hemophilia: the Academic Achievement in Children with Hemophilia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A D; Donfield, S M; Lynn, H S; Cool, V A; Stehbens, J A; Hunsberger, S L; Tonetta, S; Gomperts, E D

    2001-12-01

    We characterized a population-based cohort of school-aged children with severe hemophilia with respect to type of treatment, on-demand versus prophylaxis, and frequency of bleeding episodes in the year before enrollment. We also investigated the association between hemophilia-related morbidity, measured by number of bleeding episodes in the year before enrollment, and academic performance after adjustment for other factors known to have an effect on achievement. Finally, we explored the mechanisms for the association between bleeding episodes and academic achievement. This study was a multicenter investigation of boys 6 to 12 years old with severe factor VIII deficiency (clotting factor level 2 months with a goal of preventing bleeding episodes. Academic achievement was measured by the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test. Quality of life was measured by the Child Health Questionnaire. Of particular interest was the Physical Summary (PhS) measure of the Child Health Questionnaire. The type of information captured by the PhS includes limitations in physical activity, limitations in the kind or amount of schoolwork or social activities the child engaged in, and presence of pain or discomfort. One hundred thirty-one children were enrolled, a median center recruitment rate of 77%. The mean age of the participants was 9.6 years, and approximately half of the participants had completed less than the fourth grade at the time of enrollment. Sixty-two percent of the children were on prophylaxis at enrollment, and 9% had previously been on prophylaxis but were currently on on-demand therapy. Two groups were defined: ever treated with prophylaxis and never treated with prophylaxis. For those ever treated, treatment duration ranged from 2.7 months to 7.7 years, with one half of the children treated with prophylaxis for >40% of their lifetimes; 29% had always been on on-demand therapy. Children in both treatment groups were similar with respect to age, clotting factor level

  14. Teacher-and child-managed academic activities in preschool and kindergarten and their influence on children's gains in emergent academic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, Annika K E; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool (n = 8) and kindergarten (n = 8) classrooms revealed that

  15. Exercise and Academic Achievement in Children: Effects of Acute Class-Based Circuit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Ben D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. For schools, the increasingly imposed requirement to achieve well in academic tests puts increasing emphasis on improving academic achievement. While treadmill exercise has been shown to have beneficial effects on cognitive function and cycling ergometers produce stronger effect sizes than treadmill running, it is impractical for schools to use these on a whole-class basis. There is a need to examine if more ecologically valid modes of exercise might have a similar impact on academic achievement. Circuit training is one such modality shown to benefit cognitive function and recall ability and is easily operationalised within schools. Methods. In a repeated measures design, twenty-six children (17 boys, 8 girls aged 10-11 years (mean age 10.3; SD ± 0.46 years completed the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 4 at rest and following 30 minutes of exercise. Results. Standardised scores for word reading were significantly higher post exercise (F(1,18 = 49.9, p = 0.0001 compared to rest. In contrast, standardised scores for sentence comprehension (F(1,18 = 0.078, p = 0.783, spelling (F(1,18 = 4.07, p = 0.06 mathematics (F(1,18 = 1.257, p = 0.277, and reading (F(1,18 = 2.09, p = 0.165 were not significantly different between rest and exercise conditions. Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest acute bouts of circuit based exercise enhances word reading but not other areas of academic ability in 10-11 year old children. These findings support prior research that indicates acute bouts of exercise can selectively improve cognition in children.

  16. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms.

  17. Visual attention and academic performance in children with developmental disabilities and behavioural attention deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Hannah E; Gray, Kylie; Riby, Deborah M; Taffe, John; Cornish, Kim M

    2017-11-01

    Despite well-documented attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), distinctions across types of attention problems and their association with academic attainment has not been fully explored. This study examines visual attention capacities and inattentive/hyperactive behaviours in 77 children aged 4 to 11 years with IDD and elevated behavioural attention difficulties. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 23), Down syndrome (DS; n = 22), and non-specific intellectual disability (NSID; n = 32) completed computerized visual search and vigilance paradigms. In addition, parents and teachers completed rating scales of inattention and hyperactivity. Concurrent associations between attention abilities and early literacy and numeracy skills were also examined. Children completed measures of receptive vocabulary, phonological abilities and cardinality skills. As expected, the results indicated that all groups had relatively comparable levels of inattentive/hyperactive behaviours as rated by parents and teachers. However, the extent of visual attention deficits varied as a result of group; namely children with DS had poorer visual search and vigilance abilities than children with ASD and NSID. Further, significant associations between visual attention difficulties and poorer literacy and numeracy skills were observed, regardless of group. Collectively the findings demonstrate that in children with IDD who present with homogenous behavioural attention difficulties, at the cognitive level, subtle profiles of attentional problems can be delineated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Impact of executive function deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on academic outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C; Doyle, Alysa E; Seidman, Larry J; Wilens, Timothy E; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L; Faraone, Stephen V

    2004-10-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as at least 2 executive function measures impaired. Significantly more children and adolescents with ADHD had EFDs than did control participants. ADHD with EFDs was associated with an increased risk for grade retention and a decrease in academic achievement relative to (a) ADHD alone, (b) controlled socioeconomic status, (c) learning disabilities, and (d) IQ. No differences were noted in social functioning or psychiatric comorbidity. Children and adolescents with ADHD and EFDs were found to be at high risk for significant impairments in academic functioning. These results support screening children with ADHD for EFDs to prevent academic failure.

  19. HOMEWORK ACCURACY TO INCREASE THE ACADEMIC REPERTOIRE OF YOUNG CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina GILIC

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many forms of interventions used to increase homework completion. However, there is far less research to assess homework accuracy for young children with special needs, and even less for young children diagnosed with Autism. Homework intervention methods have been proven by researchers to be effective under certain specific circumstances. Emphasis should be placed on increasing the accuracy of homework completed prior to deciding what intervention would be more effective for a particular student struggling with homework completion. Educators should take into consideration the level of participation from the children’s home, the needs of the student, and how data would be collected and communicated for homework accuracy. Data for visual analysis would identify the homework completed correctly rather than just completed, and also identify progress over time. Researchers have demonstrated that homework completed cannot determine academic skill gained which is needed for academic success for young students with or without disabilities. Homework accuracy requires greater attention and emphasis in the early childhood research. The need for research on young children with Autism is evident as it is the fastest growing neurobiological condition in the world. The inclusion of children with Autism in the general environment has also greatly increased. Recommendations for further research focused on homework accuracy are offered.

  20. A crossover randomised and controlled trial of the impact of active video games on motor coordination and perceptions of physical ability in children at risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, L; Howie, E; Smith, A; Jensen, L; Piek, J; Campbell, A

    2015-08-01

    Impaired motor development can significantly affect a child's life and may result in an increased risk of a range of physical and psychological disorders. Active video game (AVG) interventions have been demonstrated to enhance motor skills in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD); however a home-based intervention has not been assessed. The primary aim of this study was to compare the changes in motor coordination between a 16 week period of AVG use, with 16 weeks of normal activities (NAG). The secondary aim was to compare the child and parent perceptions of their physical performance between the AVG and NAG conditions. Twenty-one 9-12 year olds (10 males) were confirmed to be at risk of DCD (⩽ 16th percentile Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2) and ⩽ 15th percentile Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ)) and participated in this crossover randomised and controlled trial. Data was collected at study entry, after the first 16 week condition and following the final 16 week condition, including; (1) the MABC-2, (2) three-dimensional motion analysis of single leg balance and finger-nose tasks, and (3) parent perception of physical skills. Participant perception of physical skills was collected only after the first and second conditions. There was no significant difference between AVG and NAG for any of the primary variables including the MABC-2, balance centre-of-mass path distance and finger-nose path distance. There was no significant intervention effect for secondary measures of motor coordination; however the children perceived their motor skills to be significantly enhanced as a result of the AVG intervention in comparison to the period of no intervention. A 16 week home based AVG intervention did not enhance motor skills in children with DCD, although they perceived their physical skills to be significantly improved. Australia and New Zealand Clinical trials Registry (ACTRN 12611000400965