WorldWideScience

Sample records for academic race stereotype

  1. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Ndidi A; Howard, Lionel C; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J

    2009-08-01

    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independent samples. Among students with high racial centrality, endorsement of traditional race stereotypes was linked to lower self-perceptions of academic competence. The stereotype/self-concept relation was nonsignificant among youth for whom race was less central to their identities. These results confirm the supposition of expectancy-value theory and illustrate the interweaving of group and individual identity with motivational beliefs.

  2. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independent samples. Among students with high racial centrality, endorsement of traditional race stereotypes was linked to lower self-perceptions of academic competence. The stereotype/self-concept relation was nonsignificant among youth for whom race was less central to their identities. These results confirm the supposition of expectancy-value theory and illustrate the interweaving of group and individual identity with motivational beliefs. PMID:20625536

  3. Academic Self-Concept in Black Adolescents: Do Race and Gender Stereotypes Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ashley B; Copping, Kristi; Rowley, Stephanie J; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    2011-04-01

    We examined the relation between race- and gender-group competence ratings and academic self-concept in 252 Black seventh- and eighth-graders. On average, youth reported traditional race stereotypes, whereas gender stereotypes were traditional about verbal abilities and were nontraditional regarding math/science abilities. Among boys, in-group gender and in-group race-based competence ratings (i.e. ratings of boys and Blacks) were related to math/science and verbal self-concepts. However, only gender-based ratings (i.e. ratings of girls' abilities for reading/writing) were related to girls' self-concepts. These findings suggest that the influence of race stereotypes on Black adolescents' academic self-concepts is different for girls than boys. Whereas self-relevant gender groups were associated with both Black girls' and boys' academic self-concept, race-based competence ratings were only relevant for the academic self-views of Black boys.

  4. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals’ behavior. Harsh and unpredictable (“desperate”) ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable (“hopeful”) ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2–4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person’s race (but not ecology), individuals’ inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals’ inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals’ inferences reflect the targets’ ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one’s ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  5. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological features shape people’s goals, strategies, and behaviors. Our research suggests that social perceivers possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Moreover, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups may actually reflect their stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that (i) individuals possess ecology-dri...

  6. Age and Race Differences in Racial Stereotype Awareness and Endorsement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copping, Kristine E.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Wood, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Age and race differences in race stereotype awareness and endorsement were examined in 382 Black and White fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Youth reported their own beliefs and their perceptions of adults’ beliefs about racial differences in ability in two domains: academics and sports. Children’s own endorsement of race stereotypes was highly correlated with their perceptions of adults’ race stereotypes. Blacks reported stronger traditional sports stereotypes than Whites, and fourth- and sixth-grade Blacks reported roughly egalitarian academic stereotypes. At every grade level, Whites reported academic stereotypes that favored Whites, and sixth and eighth grade Whites reported sports stereotypes that favored Blacks. Results support the tenets of status theory and have implications for identity development and achievement motivation in adolescents. PMID:23729837

  7. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour...

  8. Race Salience and Essentialist Thinking in Racial Stereotype Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini; Apfelbaum, Evan P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored the emergence and antecedents of racial stereotyping in 89 children ages 3–10 years. Children completed a number of matching and sorting tasks, including a measure designed to assess their knowledge and application of both positive and negative in-group and out-group stereotypes. Results indicate that children start to apply stereotypes to the out-group starting around 6 years of age. Controlling for a number of factors, two predictors contributed significantly towards uniquely explaining the use of these stereotypes: race salience (i.e., seeing and organizing by race) and essentialist thinking (i.e., believing that race cannot change). These results provide insight into how and when real-world interventions aimed at altering the acquisition of racial stereotypes may be implemented. PMID:21077865

  9. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour......, and entailing a self-defeating and hence counter-productive pattern, where more publications is always better and where it becomes increasingly difficult for researchers to keep up with the new research in their field. The article identifies the pressure to publish as a problem of collective action. It ends up...

  10. Prejudices in Cultural Contexts: Shared Stereotypes (Gender, Age) Versus Variable Stereotypes (Race, Ethnicity, Religion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T

    2017-09-01

    Some prejudices share cross-cultural patterns, but others are more variable and culture specific. Those sharing cross-cultural patterns (sexism, ageism) each combine societal status differences and intimate interdependence. For example, in stereotypes of sex and age, lower status groups-women and elders-gain stereotypic warmth (from their cooperative interdependence) but lose stereotypic competence (from their lower status); men and middle-aged adults show the opposite trade-off, stereotypically more competent than warm. Meta-analyses support these widespread ambivalent (mixed) stereotypes for gender and age across cultures. Social class stereotypes often share some similarities (cold but competent rich vs. warm but incompetent poor). These compensatory warmth versus competence stereotypes may function to manage common human dilemmas of interacting across societal and personal positions. However, other stereotypes are more variable and culture specific (ethnicity, race, religion). Case studies of specific race/ethnicities and religions reveal much more cultural variation in their stereotype content, supporting their being responses to particular cultural contexts, apparent accidents of history. To change stereotypes requires understanding their commonalities and differences, their origins and patterns across cultures.

  11. From Racial Stereotyping and Deficit Discourse toward a Critical Race Theory in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students. Presents…

  12. Testing Stereotype Threat: Does Anxiety Explain Race and Sex Differences in Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2001-07-01

    Steele's (1992, 1997) stereotype-threat theory attempts to explain underperformance of minority students in academic domains and of women in mathematics. Steele argues that situational self-relevance of negative group stereotypes in testing situations increases the anxiety these students experience and that these differential anxiety levels explain performance differences. Research shows that manipulation of stereotype threat can affect academic performance. However, there has been little research testing whether anxiety does at least partially explain the relationship between race and achievement. The goal of this study was to examine whether anxiety will explain racial differences in academic performance and gender differences in math performance in the context of a nationally representative sample of high school seniors. Partial mediation was observed, with anxiety explaining significant portions of the racial differences in academic performance. Anxiety also partially explained sex differences in math achievement, although the effect sizes were very small. These results provide general support for Steele's stereotype-threat hypothesis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

  14. The Academic Opportunity Gap: How Racism and Stereotypes Disrupt the Education of African American Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Ahorlu, Robin Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Using Critical Race Theory as a framework, this article reveals how racism and stereotypes obstruct the academic success of black students. Through the use of focus groups, African American undergraduates from a large California State University campus, share the ways in which campus racism impacts their achievement potential as well as their…

  15. A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

  16. Challenging Stereotypes about Academic Writing: Complexity, Elaboration, Explicitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    The stereotypical view of professional academic writing is that it is grammatically complex, with elaborated structures, and with meaning relations expressed explicitly. In contrast, spoken registers, especially conversation, are believed to have the opposite characteristics. Our goal in the present paper is to challenge these stereotypes, based…

  17. Race Essentialism and Social Contextual Differences in Children’s Racial Stereotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauker, Kristin; Xu, Yiyuan; Williams, Amanda; Biddle, Ashley Morris

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored the differential emergence and correlates of racial stereotyping in 136 children ages 4–11 years across two broad social contexts: Hawai‘i and Massachusetts. Children completed measures assessing race salience, race essentialism, and in-group and out-group stereotyping. Results indicated that the type of racial stereotypes emerging with age was context dependent. In both contexts in-group stereotyping increased with age. By contrast, there was only an age-related increase in out-group stereotyping in Massachusetts. Older children in Massachusetts reported more essentialist thinking (i.e., believing that race cannot change) than their counterparts in Hawai’i, which explained their higher out-group stereotyping. These results provide insight into the factors that may shape contextual differences in racial stereotyping. PMID:27684395

  18. Stereotype Threat and College Academic Performance: A Latent Variables Approach*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jayanti; Massey, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory has gained experimental and survey-based support in helping explain the academic underperformance of minority students at selective colleges and universities. Stereotype threat theory states that minority students underperform because of pressures created by negative stereotypes about their racial group. Past survey-based studies, however, are characterized by methodological inefficiencies and potential biases: key theoretical constructs have only been measured using summed indicators and predicted relationships modeled using ordinary least squares. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshman, this study overcomes previous methodological shortcomings by developing a latent construct model of stereotype threat. Theoretical constructs and equations are estimated simultaneously from multiple indicators, yielding a more reliable, valid, and parsimonious test of key propositions. Findings additionally support the view that social stigma can indeed have strong negative effects on the academic performance of pejoratively stereotyped racial-minority group members, not only in laboratory settings, but also in the real world. PMID:23950616

  19. Perfectionism moderates stereotype threat effects on STEM majors' academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G; Lopez, Frederick G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Stinson, Jennifer M

    2013-04-01

    Using a randomized, between-subjects experimental design, we tested hypotheses that self-critical perfectionism would moderate the effects of subtle stereotype threat (ST) for women and students in underrepresented racial/ethnic groups who are pursuing traditional degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). A diverse sample of freshmen students (N = 294) was recruited from 2 major universities. Students were blocked by gender and race/ethnicity and randomly assigned to experience subtle ST or no ST. Participants in the subtle ST condition were primed to consider their gender, race, and ethnicity prior to completing measures of science self-efficacy. Those in the control condition completed the measures without such priming. Controlling for prior academic performance and university context, ST priming significantly interacted (a) with self-critical perfectionism to predict coping self-efficacy scores and (b) with race/ethnicity to predict end-of-semester STEM grades. A 3-way interaction of ST priming, sex, and self-critical perfectionism also predicted students' grades in courses wherein women and men were more proportionally represented. The Sex × Self-Critical Perfectionism interaction was not significant for those in the ST group but was for those in the control group. Men in the control group had higher grade-point averages (GPAs) at low levels of self-critical perfectionism than they had at higher levels of perfectionism. In contrast, women had lower GPAs when self-critical perfectionism was low, but their GPAs were higher when self-critical perfectionism was high. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for self-efficacy and performance in the pursuit of a STEM major.

  20. Testing Stereotype Threat: Does Anxiety Explain Race and Sex Differences in Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.

    The stereotype threat theory of C. Steele (1992, 1997) attempts to explain the underperformance of minority students in academic domains and of women in mathematics. Steele asserts that situational self-relevance of negative group stereotypes in testing situations increases the anxiety these students experience, and that these differential anxiety…

  1. Academic gender stereotypes of pre-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at studying the content of academic gender stereotypes of pre-service teachers who are being prepared for working in different cycles of education. The sample included 408 students of teaching programmes of the Teacher Training College, Faculty of Mathematics and Faculty of Philology in Belgrade. It has been established that future class and subject teachers have gender stereotypes about the interests and achievements of students in different school subjects. pre-service teachers from both groups are of the opinion that girls get interested more easily than boys in the majority of school subjects, as well as that girls are more talented for the subjects in the field of humanities and languages, while boys are more talented for the subjects in the field of sciences. Pre-service teachers estimate that boys typically have a low achievement in languages, arts and music, while girls have a low achievement in physics, computer science, technical sciences and physical education. Since teachers’ gender stereotypes can affect students’ achievement, educational and career choices, it is important to raise awareness about the content and consequences of such beliefs in teachers and focus on certain actions towards their altering. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje, stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu i br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije

  2. Developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness. Children who knew of broadly held stereotypes more often explained hypothetical negative interracial encounters between White actors and Black targets as discriminatory. In addition, among African American and Latino children who knew about broadly held stereotypes, diagnostic testing conditions led to stereotype threat effects on a standardized working memory task. Findings are discussed in terms of the contribution to our understanding of children's developing thinking about and response to stereotypes and related phenomena.

  3. Personality Characteristics and Choice of Academic Major: Are Traditional Stereotypes Obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Charles D.; DuBose, Philip B.; Yankey, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Among the many reasons for choosing an academic major are stereotypes that students hold of particular occupations and the degree to which they believe that their personalities match those stereotypes. We examined relevant personality characteristics (i.e., achievement motivation, conformity, conscientiousness, creativity and extroversion) of 899…

  4. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  5. Predicting Stereotype Endorsement and Academic Motivation in Women in Science Programs: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Marie-Noelle; Guay, Frederic; Senecal, Caroline; Larose, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This study proposed and tested a model based on stereotype threat theory. The hypothesis is that women who are exposed to a low percentage of women in a science program are more likely to endorse the gender stereotype that science is a male domain, which will in turn undermine their autonomous academic motivation. A total of 167 women university…

  6. The Relationship between Sex Role Stereotypical Beliefs, Self Efficacy, Academic Engagement and Academic Achievement: In the Case of Tana Hiq Secondary School Students, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnew, Asrat

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the relationship between sex role stereotypical beliefs, self-efficacy, academic engagement and academic achievement in Tana Hiq Secondary School. This research was also examining the predictive effects of sex role stereotypical beliefs, self-efficacy and academic engagement on academic achievement of…

  7. Negating Stereotype Threat: Autonomy Support and Academic Identification Boost Performance of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Dustin R.; Komarraju, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, we examined the effects of stereotype threat and autonomy support on the test performance of 190 African American college students. Participants completed a set of 7 easy and 7 difficult problems from Raven's Progressive Matrices and a survey including measures of Academic Self-Concept, Learning Climate, and…

  8. A qualitative exploration of stereotypes in the South African academic environment / Annemie Viljoen

    OpenAIRE

    Viljoen, Annemie

    2015-01-01

    After South Africa had adopted a democratic government, the labour force was changed profoundly. With the emphasis on diversity, employees were faced with work teams comprising people from different ages, genders, positions, races etc. The opportunity was given to value and embrace diversity in organisations. On the other hand, opportunities for prejudice and discrimination were greater than ever before. Consequently, stereotyping is evident within these diverse workplaces. If not properly ma...

  9. Gender-, Race-, and Income-Based Stereotype Threat: The Effects of Multiple Stigmatized Aspects of Identity on Math Performance and Working Memory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the relative impact of gender-, race-, and income-based stereotype threat and examined if individuals with multiple stigmatized aspects of identity experience a larger stereotype threat effect on math performance and working memory function than people with one stigmatized aspect of identity. Seventy-one college students of the…

  10. Do Teachers Equate Male and Masculine with Lower Academic Engagement? How Students' Gender Enactment Triggers Gender Stereotypes at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyder, Anke; Kessels, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Girls presently outperform boys in overall academic success. Corresponding gender stereotypes portray male students as lazy and troublesome and female students as diligent and compliant. The present study investigated whether these stereotypes impact teachers' perceptions of students and whether students' visible enactment of their gender at…

  11. "I Can Do More Things": How Black Female Student-Athletes Contend with Race, Gender, and Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Tomika

    2015-01-01

    Black female student-athletes who attend a predominantly White, Division I institution navigate their college experiences differently than their peers. They may face social, academic, and athletic challenges related to their race and gender which may impact their social and academic integration into the campus community. The purpose of this study…

  12. Impact of Gender Stereotype on Secondary School Students’ Self-Concept and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Igbo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of gender stereotype as a predictor of secondary school students’ self-concept and academic achievement. The study was guided by four purposes, four research questions, and four hypotheses. The study adopted ex post facto design. The research sample was drawn from eight government/public senior secondary schools in Udi education zone. Nine schools were randomly selected from the 227 schools. A total of 342 senior secondary II school (SSII students made up the sample of the study. A 20-item students’ stereotype self-concept questionnaire (SSSCQ was adapted from Marsh’s Self Descriptive Questionnaire II (SDQII, and a 10-item students’ mathematics achievement test (SMAT was developed by the researchers after reviewing related literature. This was done with the help of experts in the areas. The instruments were face and content validated and used for the collection of data. In analyzing the data, mean and standard deviation were used in answering the research questions while a t test was used in testing the four hypotheses. The findings of the study indicate that gender stereotype has significant influence on students’ self-concept and academic achievement in favor of the male students. On the other hand, school location has significant influence on academic achievement of students but has no significant influence on students’ self-concept.

  13. Race, disadvantage and faculty experiences in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda; Cooper, Lisa A; Carr, Phyllis

    2010-12-01

    Despite compelling reasons to draw on the contributions of under-represented minority (URM) faculty members, US medical schools lack these faculty, particularly in leadership and senior roles. The study's purpose was to document URM faculty perceptions and experience of the culture of academic medicine in the US and to raise awareness of obstacles to achieving the goal of having people of color in positions of leadership in academic medicine. The authors conducted a qualitative interview study in 2006-2007 of faculty in five US medical schools chosen for their diverse regional and organizational attributes. Using purposeful sampling of medical faculty, 96 faculty were interviewed from four different career stages (early, plateaued, leaders and left academic medicine) and diverse specialties with an oversampling of URM faculty. We identified patterns and themes emergent in the coded data. Analysis was inductive and data driven. Predominant themes underscored during analyses regarding the experience of URM faculty were: difficulty of cross-cultural relationships; isolation and feeling invisible; lack of mentoring, role models and social capital; disrespect, overt and covert bias/discrimination; different performance expectations related to race/ethnicity; devaluing of research on community health care and health disparities; the unfair burden of being identified with affirmative action and responsibility for diversity efforts; leadership's role in diversity goals; and financial hardship. Achieving an inclusive culture for diverse medical school faculty would help meet the mission of academic medicine to train a physician and research workforce that meets the disparate needs of our multicultural society. Medical school leaders need to value the inclusion of URM faculty. Failure to fully engage the skills and insights of URM faculty impairs our ability to provide the best science, education or medical care.

  14. Race, Disadvantage and Faculty Experiences in Academic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lisa A.; Carr, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Despite compelling reasons to draw on the contributions of under-represented minority (URM) faculty members, US medical schools lack these faculty, particularly in leadership and senior roles. Objective The study’s purpose was to document URM faculty perceptions and experience of the culture of academic medicine in the US and to raise awareness of obstacles to achieving the goal of having people of color in positions of leadership in academic medicine. Design The authors conducted a qualitative interview study in 2006–2007 of faculty in five US medical schools chosen for their diverse regional and organizational attributes. Participants Using purposeful sampling of medical faculty, 96 faculty were interviewed from four different career stages (early, plateaued, leaders and left academic medicine) and diverse specialties with an oversampling of URM faculty. Approach We identified patterns and themes emergent in the coded data. Analysis was inductive and data driven. Results Predominant themes underscored during analyses regarding the experience of URM faculty were: difficulty of cross-cultural relationships; isolation and feeling invisible; lack of mentoring, role models and social capital; disrespect, overt and covert bias/discrimination; different performance expectations related to race/ethnicity; devaluing of research on community health care and health disparities; the unfair burden of being identified with affirmative action and responsibility for diversity efforts; leadership’s role in diversity goals; and financial hardship. Conclusions Achieving an inclusive culture for diverse medical school faculty would help meet the mission of academic medicine to train a physician and research workforce that meets the disparate needs of our multicultural society. Medical school leaders need to value the inclusion of URM faculty. Failure to fully engage the skills and insights of URM faculty impairs our ability to provide the best science

  15. Characteristics Expected in Fields of Higher Education and Gender Stereotypical Traits Related to Academic Success: A Mirror Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniers, Catherine; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the content of a gender stereotype concerning general academic achievement matched the characteristics deemed to predict success in the fields of higher education dominated by women and men respectively. A sample of 207 undergraduate students rated the extent to which characteristics ascribed to…

  16. Mothers' Academic Gender Stereotypes and Education-Related Beliefs about Sons and Daughters in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi

    2010-01-01

    The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic…

  17. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers’ (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents’ attributions about their children’s academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children’s academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents’ stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children’s successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers’ attributions, in turn, were related to children’s attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers’ attributions of their children’s successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents’ beliefs on young adolescents’ identity beliefs are discussed. PMID:23878519

  18. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2013-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers' ( N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents' attributions about their children's academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children's academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents' stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children's successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers' attributions, in turn, were related to children's attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers' attributions of their children's successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents' beliefs on young adolescents' identity beliefs are discussed.

  19. Stereotype Threat, Identification with Academics, and Withdrawal from School: Why the Most Successful Students of Colour Might Be Most Likely to Withdraw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.; Walker, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Claude Steeles' stereotype threat hypothesis posits that when there are negative stereotypes about the intellectual capacity of certain (stigmatised) groups, members of that group suffer aversive consequences; group members who are most strongly identified with the stigmatised domain in question (e.g., intellectual or academic ability) are those…

  20. Uncovering Scientist Stereotypes and Their Relationships with Student Race and Student Success in a Diverse, Community College Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey; Cardenas, Monica; Kaliangara, Jahana

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have identified correlations between children’s stereotypes of scientists, their science identities, and interest or persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Yet relatively few studies have examined scientist stereotypes among college students, and the literature regarding these issues in predominantly nonwhite and 2-yr college settings is especially sparse. We piloted an easy-to-analyze qualitative survey of scientist stereotypes in a biology class at a diverse, 2-yr, Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander–Serving Institution. We examined the reliability and validity of the survey, and characterized students’ comments with reference to previous research on stereotypes. Positive scientist stereotypes were relatively common in our sample, and negative stereotypes were rare. Negative stereotypes appeared to be concentrated within certain demographic groups. We found that students identifying nonstereotypical images of scientists at the start of class had higher rates of success in the course than their counterparts. Finally, evidence suggested many students lacked knowledge of actual scientists, such that they had few real-world reference points to inform their stereotypes of scientists. This study augments the scant literature regarding scientist stereotypes in diverse college settings and provides insights for future efforts to address stereotype threat and science identity. PMID:26338318

  1. Negative Gender Ideologies and Gender-Science Stereotypes Are More Pervasive in Male-Dominated Academic Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Banchefsky

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Male-dominated work environments often possess masculine cultures that are unwelcoming to women. The present work investigated whether male-dominated academic environments were characterized by gender ideologies with negative implications for women. A survey of 2622 undergraduates across a variety of academic majors examined how gender imbalance within the major corresponded with students’ gender ideologies. We hypothesized that men in male-dominated domains might justify their dominance and prototypical status by adopting gender ideologies and stereotypes that denigrate women and treat men as the normative and superior group. Confirming this hypothesis, men in increasingly male-dominated academic majors were more likely to endorse Assimilationism—that women should adapt and conform to masculine work norms in order to succeed—and Segregationism—that men and women should pursue traditional social roles and careers. Moreover, they were less likely to endorse Gender Blindness—that attention to gender should be minimized. They were also more likely to agree with the gender-science stereotype that men do better in math and science than women. In contrast, gender imbalance in the major did not influence women’s gender ideologies, and women in increasingly male-dominated majors were significantly less likely to endorse the gender-science stereotype.

  2. Enduring Influence of Stereotypical Computer Science Role Models on Women's Academic Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Drury, Benjamin J.; Vichayapai, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    The current work examines whether a brief exposure to a computer science role model who fits stereotypes of computer scientists has a lasting influence on women's interest in the field. One-hundred undergraduate women who were not computer science majors met a female or male peer role model who embodied computer science stereotypes in appearance…

  3. Uncovering Scientist Stereotypes and Their Relationships with Student Race and Student Success in a Diverse, Community College Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey; Cardenas, Monica; Kaliangara, Jahana

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have identified correlations between children's stereotypes of scientists, their science identities, and interest or persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Yet relatively few studies have examined scientist stereotypes among college students, and the literature regarding these issues in predominantly nonwhite and 2-yr college settings is especially sparse. We piloted an easy-to-analyze qualitative survey of scientist stereotypes in a biology class at a diverse, 2-yr, Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institution. We examined the reliability and validity of the survey, and characterized students' comments with reference to previous research on stereotypes. Positive scientist stereotypes were relatively common in our sample, and negative stereotypes were rare. Negative stereotypes appeared to be concentrated within certain demographic groups. We found that students identifying nonstereotypical images of scientists at the start of class had higher rates of success in the course than their counterparts. Finally, evidence suggested many students lacked knowledge of actual scientists, such that they had few real-world reference points to inform their stereotypes of scientists. This study augments the scant literature regarding scientist stereotypes in diverse college settings and provides insights for future efforts to address stereotype threat and science identity. © 2015 J. Schinske et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. Race and Assessment Practice in South Africa: Understanding Black Academic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawitz, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Despite efforts to transform the racialised system of higher education in South Africa inherited from apartheid, there has been little research published that interrogates the relationship between race and the experience of academic staff within the South African higher education environment. Drawing on critical discourse analysis and critical…

  5. Race-Conscious Professionalism and African American Representation in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Brian W; White, Augustus A; Oriol, Nancy E; Jain, Sachin H

    2016-07-01

    African Americans remain substantially less likely than other physicians to hold academic appointments. The roots of these disparities stem from different extrinsic and intrinsic forces that guide career development. Efforts to ameliorate African American underrepresentation in academic medicine have traditionally focused on modifying structural and extrinsic barriers through undergraduate and graduate outreach, diversity and inclusion initiatives at medical schools, and faculty development programs. Although essential, these initiatives fail to confront the unique intrinsic forces that shape career development. America's ignoble history of violence, racism, and exclusion exposes African American physicians to distinct personal pressures and motivations that shape professional development and career goals. This article explores these intrinsic pressures with a focus on their historical roots; reviews evidence of their effect on physician development; and considers the implications of these trends for improving African American representation in academic medicine. The paradigm of "race-conscious professionalism" is used to understand the dual obligation encountered by many minority physicians not only to pursue excellence in their field but also to leverage their professional stature to improve the well-being of their communities. Intrinsic motivations introduced by race-conscious professionalism complicate efforts to increase the representation of minorities in academic medicine. For many African American physicians, a desire to have their work focused on the community will be at odds with traditional paths to professional advancement. Specific policy options are discussed that would leverage race-conscious professionalism as a draw to a career in academic medicine, rather than a force that diverts commitment elsewhere.

  6. Race

    OpenAIRE

    Shelby, Tommie

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting on the idea of “race” and the normative significance of race relations is an essential part of the enterprise of political philosophy. The principal goal is to think systematically about whether, and if so how, race should figure in our evaluation of institutional arrangements and power relations, in our treatment of each other within civil society, and in our self-conceptions and group affiliations. This article discusses the idea of race, racism, racial discrimination and social ...

  7. The consequences of chronic stereotype threat: domain disidentification and abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P Wesley

    2012-10-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s "leak" from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat.

  8. Pleasure, affection, and love among Black men who have sex with men (MSM) versus MSM of other races: countering dehumanizing stereotypes via cross-race comparisons of reported sexual experience at last sexual event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa R; Novak, David S

    2015-10-01

    Black men have historically been stereotyped as hedonistic, aggressive, and animalistic in their sexual interactions. This study sought to describe pleasure, affection, and love experienced by Black men who have sex with men (MSM) during their last male-partnered sexual event and to examine differences relative to White, Latino, and Asian MSM. A total of 21,696 (793 Black, 18,905 White, 1,451 Latino, and 547 Asian) U.S. men ages 18-87 (M Age = 39) were recruited from social/sexual networking sites targeting MSM in 2010-2011. Participants reported multiple dimensions of sexual experience (pleasure, affection, and love) occurring at their last male-partnered sexual event, partner relationship, and sociodemographic characteristics. Across relationship categories, a sizeable percentage of Black MSM reported pleasure (72-87  % orgasmed, 57-82 % experienced high subjective pleasure) and affection (70-91 % kissed, 47-90 % cuddled). Love was primarily reported for events involving main partners (felt love for partner: 96 %; felt loved by partner: 97 %; verbalized love to partner: 89 %). Latent class analysis with MSM of all races, adjusting for partner relationship and sociodemographic characteristics, revealed three distinct profiles of sexual experience: affection and love (Class 1); affection in the absence of love (Class 2); and neither affection nor love (Class 3). Pleasure was probable across profiles. Some racial differences in profile probability were present, but no overall pattern emerged. Contrary to Black male stereotypes, Black MSM commonly reported pleasure, affection, and love at their last male-partnered sexual event and did not show a meaningful pattern of difference from other-race MSM in their likelihood of experiencing all three.

  9. Are Parents' Academic Gender Stereotypes and Changes in Them Related to Their Perceptions of Their Child's Mathematical Competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raty, Hannu; Karkkainen, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    In the course of their child's school years, a group of parents were asked to assess their child's mathematical competence and indicate whether they endorsed the gender stereotype pertaining to it. Once the child had entered upper primary school, the consistent stereotypic parents tended to rate their boys' mathematical competence higher than the…

  10. Seeing is not stereotyping: the functional independence of categorization and stereotype activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tiffany A; Tomelleri, Silvia

    2017-05-01

    Social categorization has been viewed as necessarily resulting in stereotyping, yet extant research suggests the two processes are differentially sensitive to task manipulations. Here, we simultaneously test the degree to which race perception and stereotyping are conditionally automatic. Participants performed a sequential priming task while either explicitly attending to the race of face primes or directing attention away from their semantic nature. We find a dissociation between the perceptual encoding of race and subsequent activation of associated stereotypes, with race perception occurring in both task conditions, but implicit stereotyping occurring only when attention is directed to the race of the face primes. These results support a clear conceptual distinction between categorization and stereotyping and show that the encoding of racial category need not result in stereotype activation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. (How) Does Obesity Harm Academic Performance? Stratification at the Intersection of Race, Sex, and Body Size in Elementary and High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Amelia R.

    2017-01-01

    In this study I hypothesize a larger penalty of obesity on teacher-assessed academic performance for white girls in English, where femininity is privileged, than in math, where stereotypical femininity is perceived to be a detriment. This pattern of associations would be expected if obesity largely influences academic performance through social…

  12. Performing the Grade: Urban Latino Youth, Gender Performance, and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foiles Sifuentes, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the intersection of race, gender, class, and academic success through an ethnographic case study in a Texas charter high school. The 98% working-class, Latino student population was exposed to an array of stigmas ascribed to their persons based on negative social stereotypes of race, ethnicity, gender, and class due to the…

  13. The Influence of Academic Discipline, Race, and Gender on Web-Use Skills among Graduate-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jennifer; Lilly, Flavius

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on the digital literacy of graduate-level students. The study examined whether academic discipline, age, gender, race, parental education, international status, GPA, and self-perceived skills is associated with web-use skills among this population. Hargittai and Hsieh's 27-item Web-use Skills Index was used to…

  14. Gender Stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellemers, N.

    There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing

  15. Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemers, Naomi

    2018-01-04

    There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes. Empirical studies show that gender stereotypes affect the way people attend to, interpret, and remember information about themselves and others. Considering the cognitive and motivational functions of gender stereotypes helps us understand their impact on implicit beliefs and communications about men and women. Knowledge of the literature on this subject can benefit the fair judgment of individuals in situations where gender stereotypes are likely to play a role.

  16. Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  17. The Persistence of Traditional Gender Stereotypes: Evidence from the Distribution of Academic Honors at a Female-Majority University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A. Lynn; Phillips, G. Michael

    2010-01-01

    A shift from male-majority to female-majority university campuses has opened up new areas for research on gender bias, stereotypes, and discrimination. At one large state university on the west coast, there were more female than male graduates in Spring, 2008 in 7 out of 8 colleges, including the traditionally male-majority areas of business and…

  18. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.

  19. Race, Ideology, and Academic Ability: A Relational Analysis of Racial Narratives in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Niral

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: There is evidence that race affects students' learning experiences in mathematics, a subject typically thought of as "race-neutral" and "culture-free." Research in psychology and sociology has shown that racial narratives (e.g., "Asians are good at math") are pervasive in U.S. culture and play a…

  20. The Development of Occupational Sex-Role Stereotypes, Occupational Preferences and Academic Subject Preferences in Children at Ages 8, 12 and 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Linda; Budd, Jacqueline

    1999-01-01

    Reports data from a questionnaire-based United Kingdom study that examined male and female students at ages 8, 12, and 16 for occupational sex-role stereotypes, occupational preferences, and favorite school subjects. Observed differences between gender and among age groups for occupational stereotypes. Suggests that gender stereotyping of school…

  1. [Stereotypic movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  2. Stereotypes and Stereotyping: A Moral Analysis | Blum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stereotypes are false or misleading generalizations about groups held in a manner that renders them largely, though not entirely, immune to counterevidence. In doing so, stereotypes powerfully shape the stereotyper's perception of stereotyped groups, seeing the stereotypic characteristics when they are not present, failing ...

  3. A Two Decade Examination of Historical Race/Ethnicity Disparities in Academic Achievement by Poverty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Katherine W; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Kuhfeld, Megan

    2018-01-08

    Research on achievement gaps by race/ethnicity and poverty status typically focuses on each gap separately, and recent syntheses suggest the poverty gap is growing while racial/ethnic gaps are narrowing. In this study, we used time-varying effect modeling to examine the interaction of race/ethnicity and poverty gaps in math and reading achievement from 1986-2005 for poor and non-poor White, Black, and Hispanic students in three age groups (5-6, 9-10, and 13-14). We found that across this twenty-year period, the gaps between poor White students and their poor Black and Hispanic peers grew, while the gap between non-poor Whites and Hispanics narrowed. We conclude that understanding the nature of achievement gaps requires simultaneous examination of race/ethnicity and income.

  4. Safety in Stereotypes? The Impact of Gender and "Race" on Young People's Perceptions of Their Post-Compulsory Education and Labour Market Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Vanessa; Fuller, Alison; Unwin, Lorna

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the impact of gender and "race" on young people's perceptions of the educational and labour market opportunities available to them after they complete their compulsory schooling in England. Its findings are based on a study of the views of girls and boys about the government-supported "Apprenticeships"…

  5. Academics, Self-Esteem, and Race: A Look at the Underlying Assumptions of the Disidentification Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.

    1995-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that African American children protect themselves from failure by detaching their self-esteem from academic outcomes. Analyses revealed a pattern of weakening correlations between self-esteem and academic outcomes from 8th to 10th grade for African American students. Correlations for white students remained stable or increased.…

  6. Confronting Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Carol

    2011-01-01

    People confront stereotypes every day, both in and out of the classroom. Some ideas have been carried in the collective memory and classroom textbooks for so long they are generally recognized as fact. Many are constantly being reinforced by personal experiences, family discussions, and Hollywood productions as well. The distinct advantage to…

  7. Seasonal Dynamics of Academic Achievement Inequality by Socioeconomic Status and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David M.; Cooc, North; McIntyre, Joe; Gomez, Celia J.

    2016-01-01

    Early studies examining seasonal variation in academic achievement inequality generally concluded that socioeconomic test score gaps grew more over the summer than the school year, suggesting schools served as "equalizers." In this study, we analyze seasonal trends in socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic test score gaps using…

  8. College Student Engagement and Early Career Earnings: Differences by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Academic Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shouping; Wolniak, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the 2001 cohort of applicants to the Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program, the authors examined scaled measures of academic and social engagement in relation to labor market earnings to test whether the economic value of student engagement among high-achieving students of color differs by student characteristics.…

  9. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Thad E.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  10. The Consequences of Chronic Stereotype Threat: Domain Disidentification and Abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s “leak” from each juncture of the academic scientific pip...

  11. The race for a new internet rival academics are competing to create a new, faster internet.

    CERN Multimedia

    Dodson, S

    2001-01-01

    From Dec 1, Europe's research communities will be able to hook up to the fastest network in the world, serving more than 3000 academic and research institutions and operating in 32 countries. When the LHC becomes operational in 2005, terabytes of data will be generated. The idea is that computers held on the networks could be connected to share processing power and hard disc space. They will be locked in to a grid to imitate one super computer. Apart from the computing advantages, this new network will actively promote collaboration between institutions enabling them to work on projects on scales too large for individual groups to manage alone.

  12. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    , there is still some way to go before genuine gender equality and emancipation may become reality, in spite of Denmark’s image as egalitarian society. To try to explain this paradox, the paper explores gender perceptions by analysing how men and women talk about gender in focus group discussions and how the two...... stereotypical categorizations made by the interviewees, the article argues that employees in the bank tend to reproduce and perpetuate a patriarchal management system in spite of various forces pulling in a new post-patriarchal direction where gender is just one of many identities....

  13. Person categorization and automatic racial stereotyping effects on weapon identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H

    2010-08-01

    Prior stereotyping research provides conflicting evidence regarding the importance of person categorization along a particular dimension for the automatic activation of a stereotype corresponding to that dimension. Experiment 1 replicated a racial stereotyping effect on object identification and examined whether it could be attenuated by encouraging categorization by age. Experiment 2 employed socially complex person stimuli and manipulated whether participants categorized spontaneously or by race. In Experiment 3, the distinctiveness of the racial dimension was manipulated by having Black females appear in the context of either Black males or White females. The results indicated that conditions fostering categorization by race consistently produced automatic racial stereotyping and that conditions fostering nonracial categorization can eliminate automatic racial stereotyping. Implications for the relation between automatic stereotype activation and dimension of categorization are discussed.

  14. Race/Ethnicity and Success in Academic Medicine: Findings From a Longitudinal Multi-Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Samantha E; Raj, Anita; Carr, Phyllis L; Terrin, Norma; Breeze, Janis L; Freund, Karen M

    2017-10-24

    To understand differences in productivity, advancement, retention, satisfaction, and compensation comparing underrepresented medical (URM) faculty with other faculty at multiple institutions. A 17-year follow-up was conducted of the National Faculty Survey, a random sample from 24 U.S. medical schools, oversampled for URM faculty. The authors examined academic productivity, advancement, retention, satisfaction, and compensation, comparing white, URM, and non-URM faculty. Retention, productivity, and advancement data were obtained from public sources for nonrespondents. Covariates included gender, specialty, time distribution, and years in academia. Negative binomial regression was used for count data, logistic regression for binary outcomes, and linear regression for continuous outcomes. In productivity analyses, advancement, and retention, 1,270 participants were included; 604 participants responded to the compensation and satisfaction survey. Response rates were lower for African American (26%) and Hispanic faculty (39%) than white faculty (52%, P climate and deliberative programming to support productivity and advancement.

  15. The increasing impact of socioeconomics and race on standardized academic test scores across elementary, middle, and high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gwyne W; Stepney, Cesalie T; Hatchimonji, Danielle Ryan; Moceri, Dominic C; Linsky, Arielle V; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin A; Elias, Maurice J

    2016-01-01

    For students and schools, the current policy is to measure success via standardized testing. Yet the immutable factors of socioeconomic status (SES) and race have, consistently, been implicated in fostering an achievement gap. The current study explores, at the school-level, the impact of these factors on test scores. Percentage of students proficient for Language and Math was analyzed from 452 schools across the state of New Jersey. By high school, 52% of the variance in Language and 59% in Math test scores can be accounted for by SES and racial factors. At this level, a 1% increase in school minority population corresponds to a 0.19 decrease in percent Language proficient and 0.33 decrease for Math. These results have significant implications as they suggest that school-level interventions to improve academic achievement scores will be stymied by socioeconomic and racial factors and efforts to improve the achievement gap via testing have largely measured it. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Unhealthy interactions: the role of stereotype threat in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Joshua; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M; Juarez, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors.

  17. Race and Academic Achievement in Racially Diverse High Schools: Opportunity and Stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Chandra; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Schiller, Kathryn S; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Frank, Kenneth A

    2010-04-01

    BACKGROUND/CONTEXT: Brown v Board of Education fundamentally changed our nation's schools, yet we know surprisingly little about how and whether they provide equality of educational opportunity. Although substantial evidence suggests that African American and Latino students who attend these schools face fewer learning opportunities than their White counterparts, until now, it has been impossible to examine this using a representative sample because of lack of data. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE/RESEARCH QUESTION/FOCUS OF STUDY: This study uses newly available data to investigate whether racially diverse high schools offer equality of educational opportunity to students from different racial and ethnic groups. This is examined by measuring the relative representation of minority students in advanced math classes at the beginning of high school and estimating whether and how this opportunity structure limits the level of achievement attained by African American and Latino students by the end of high school. SETTING: This study uses data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and its partner study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a stratified, nationally representative study of students in U.S. high schools first surveyed in 1994-1995. POPULATION/PARTICIPANTS/SUBJECTS: Two samples of racially diverse high schools were used in the analysis: one with African Americans, Whites, and Asians (26 schools with 3,149 students), and the other with Latinos, Whites, and Asians (22 schools with 2,775 students). RESEARCH DESIGN: Quantitative analyses first assess how high schools vary in the extent to which minority students are underrepresented in advanced sophomore math classes. Hierarchical multilevel modeling is then used to estimate whether racial-ethnic differences in representation in advanced math have an impact on African American and Latino students' achievement by the end of high school, relative to the Whites and Asians

  18. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  19. On the Elephant in the Room: Toward a Generative Politics of Place on Race in Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulysse, Baudelaire; Berry, Theodorea Regina; Jupp, James C.

    2016-01-01

    In our conceptual essay, we draw on an exchange between a White scholar and a group of panelists on Critical Race Theory at an international conference. Taking up this exchange as our point of departure, we work in dialectical and multidimensional ways between the essentialized politics of place on race and critical anti-essentializing foundations…

  20. An analysis of stereotype threat in African American engineering students at predominantly White, ethnically diverse, and historically Black colleges and universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, David M.

    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The researcher collected demographic and survey data using the Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The study was offered to the entire population of African American engineering students at each college using an online survey. Results were analyzed using MANOVA and Pearson's correlational statistical analyses to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that little differences exist between students' scores on an assessment of stereotype vulnerability, with a few areas showing that HBCUs and ethnically diverse universities are doing a similar job in addressing perceptions of their African American engineering students. Finding also revealed that the percentage of African American students at a university did not correlate with the scores on the SVS accept on questions related to the personal feelings students have about their race. The strongest findings related to the differences in male and female students across the universities. African American female engineering students appeared to perceive more stereotype threat than did their male counterparts; although, this fining was not statistically significant. Overall, no statistically significant differences were found between students' perceptions of stereotype threat at the three types of universities. Future research should expand the number of survey participants at the current universities, add more HBCUs to the study population, run similar experiments in different parts of the country, compare stereotype threat in private and elite universities, use ethnically diverse universities as models for minority student development, and use new or improved survey instruments

  1. The perfect match: Do criminal stereotypes bias forensic evidence analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalarz, Laura; Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Guyll, Max; Buck, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    This research provided the first empirical test of the hypothesis that stereotypes bias evaluations of forensic evidence. A pilot study (N = 107) assessed the content and consensus of 20 criminal stereotypes by identifying perpetrator characteristics (e.g., sex, race, age, religion) that are stereotypically associated with specific crimes. In the main experiment (N = 225), participants read a mock police incident report involving either a stereotyped crime (child molestation) or a nonstereotyped crime (identity theft) and judged whether a suspect's fingerprint matched a fingerprint recovered at the crime scene. Accompanying the suspect's fingerprint was personal information about the suspect of the type that is routinely available to fingerprint analysts (e.g., race, sex) and which could activate a stereotype. Participants most often perceived the fingerprints to match when the suspect fit the criminal stereotype, even though the prints did not actually match. Moreover, participants appeared to be unaware of the extent to which a criminal stereotype had biased their evaluations. These findings demonstrate that criminal stereotypes are a potential source of bias in forensic evidence analysis and suggest that suspects who fit criminal stereotypes may be disadvantaged over the course of the criminal justice process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  3. Stereotypes in a context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnilica, Karel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study we tested some hypotheses concerning the influence of a context on stereotypes. Our first hypothesis concerns explicit stereotypes. According to it Czech respondents will ascribe to their own category more positive attributes if a list of categories will include only Czech and Roma people than when it will include also some categories which are more positively evaluated than Czechs. The next hypothesis concerns implicit stereotypes. According to it when using IAT (Implicit Association Test; Greenwald et al., 1998, where there are compared two categories, we will ascertain a more profound difference between attitudes to Czech and Roma people than when we use BFP (Bona Fide Pipeline; Fazio et al., 1995, in which there is no such a comparison. Our next two hypotheses concern consensual stereotypes. According to one of them the content of a consensual stereotype will overlap with content of a no personal stereotype. According to the other, the valences of consensual stereotypes will be more polarized than the mean valences of personal stereotypes. The context will have similar influences on consensual and personal stereotypes. In our two researches there took part two samples (N1 = 86, N2 = 201 of adult members. To ascertain the content of explicit stereotypes we used an open-form technique. The first sample adduced attributes of members of two categories, the second sample adduced attributes of members of twelve categories. We define the consensual stereotype as a set of ten most often cited attributes. To measure implicit stereotypes, we used IAT and BFP. Results show that responses of the respondents were influenced by context in the directions expected. The content of no personal stereotype overlapped with the content of any consensual stereotype. The context had influence on both explicit and implicit measures. At the same time it was found that context had on personal and consensual stereotypes similar, but not identical

  4. Race/Ethnicity, Primary Language, and Income Are Not Demographic Drivers of Mortality in Breast Cancer Patients at a Diverse Safety Net Academic Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya A. Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the impact of patient demographics on mortality in breast cancer patients receiving care at a safety net academic medical center. Patients and Methods. 1128 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution between August 2004 and October 2011. Patient demographics were determined as follows: race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, age at diagnosis, marital status, income (determined by zip code, and AJCC tumor stage. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to mortality at the end of follow-up in March 2012. Results. There was no significant difference in mortality by race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, or income in the multivariate adjusted model. An increased mortality was observed in patients who were single (OR = 2.36, CI = 1.28–4.37, p=0.006, age > 70 years (OR = 3.88, CI = 1.13–11.48, p=0.014, and AJCC stage IV (OR = 171.81, CI = 59.99–492.06, p<0.0001. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, breast cancer patients who were single, presented at a later stage, or were older had increased incidence of mortality. Unlike other large-scale studies, non-White race, non-English primary language, low income, or Medicaid insurance did not result in worse outcomes.

  5. Aging and stereotype suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Lynchard, Nicholas A; von Hippel, William

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in social cognitive aging has suggested that older adults are more likely than younger adults to activate and use stereotypic information, even when they intend not to. Furthermore, evidence suggests that older adults have difficulty altering their interpretation of a situation, even when it has become clear that their initial interpretation is incorrect. In the current study, younger and older adults read a series of narratives in which a character had a sex-stereotyped occupation (e.g., a plumber is stereotypically male), and the character's gender was either consistent or inconsistent with that stereotype. Explicit labeling of gender was also varied. Results revealed that with explicit labeling, older adults were able to discount their stereotypes and avoid processing difficulties when subsequent stereotype-inconsistent information was encountered. These data suggest that when counter-stereotypic information is explicitly provided at encoding, older adults are no more likely than younger adults to rely on stereotypes, and are similarly capable of altering their interpretation of a situation when information suggests that interpretation is incorrect. These findings indicate that although older adults are more prone to the influence of unwanted stereotypes, this effect can be averted and judgments can be made more egalitarian by providing older adults with explicit stereotype contradiction at encoding.

  6. What is behind Saturn's Rings? Methodological Problems in the Investigation of Gender and Race in the Academic Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heward, Christine; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study to examine the hidden processes underlying the underrepresentation of women and minority ethnic groups in the academic profession. Identifies the importance of subject communities and their implicit values and assumptions. Illustrates the importance of judgments of academic merit at the very earliest stages of careers for racial…

  7. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  8. The basis of shooter biases: beyond cultural stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Saul L; Zielaskowski, Kate; Plant, E Ashby

    2012-10-01

    White police officers and undergraduate students mistakenly shoot unarmed Black suspects more than White suspects on computerized shoot/don't shoot tasks. This bias is typically attributed to cultural stereotypes of Black men. Yet, previous research has not examined whether such biases emerge even in the absence of cultural stereotypes. The current research investigates whether individual differences in chronic beliefs about interpersonal threat interact with target group membership to elicit shooter biases, even when group membership is unrelated to race or cultural stereotypes about danger. Across two studies, participants with strong beliefs about interpersonal threats were more likely to mistakenly shoot outgroup members than ingroup members; this was observed for unfamiliar, arbitrarily formed groups using a minimal group paradigm (Study 1) and racial groups not culturally stereotyped as dangerous (Asians; Study 2). Implications for the roles of both group membership and cultural stereotypes in shaping decisions to shoot are discussed.

  9. Racial athletic stereotype confirmation in college football recruiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Grant; Good, Jessica J; Gross, Alexi R

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested real-world racial stereotype use in the context of college athletic recruiting. Stereotype confirmation suggests that observers use stereotypes as hypotheses and interpret relevant evidence in a biased way that confirms their stereotypes. Shifting standards suggest that the evaluative standard to which we hold a target changes as a function of their group membership. We examined whether stereotype confirmation and shifting standards effects would be seen in college football coaches during recruiting. College football coaches evaluated a Black or White player on several attributes and made both zero- and non-zero-sum allocations. Results suggested that coaches used the evidence presented to develop biased subjective evaluations of the players based on race while still maintaining equivalent objective evaluations. Coaches also allocated greater overall resources to the Black recruit than the White recruit.

  10. Cultural-Ecological Theory of Academic Disengagement Used to Explain a Story of Race, Culture and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunyemi, Boluwaji

    2017-01-01

    Students of African ancestry often share an experience of being a racialized minority in the context of the educational institution. Late Professor of Anthropology John Ogbu's Cultural-ecological Theory of Academic Disengagement is employed to describe the negative responses encountered by peers in the name of academic achievement. The late Nigerian-American anthropologist John Ogbu described that it is often socially disadvantageous for black youth to prosper academically in formal education. Black students are often seen as betraying their cultural identities by aspiring to academic success and scholastic achievement and are met with repugnance by black peers. The notion of "acting white" is unnecessary, impertinent should be abandoned outright as achievement should have no color. Copyright © 2017 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Female Surgeons as Counter Stereotype: The Impact of Gender Perceptions on Trainee Evaluations of Physician Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassiotto, Magali; Li, Jie; Maldonado, Yvonne; Kothary, Nishita

    2018-02-02

    Similar to women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics disciplines, women in medicine are subject to negative stereotyping when they do not adhere to their sex-role expectations. These biases may vary by specialty, largely dependent on the gender's representation in that specialty. Thus, females in male-dominated surgical specialties are especially at risk of stereotype threat. Herein, we present the role of gender expectations using trainee evaluations of physician faculty at a single academic center, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Using Graduate Medical Education evaluation data of physician faculty from MedHub, we examined the differences in evaluation scores for male and female physicians within specialties that have traditionally had low female representation (e.g., surgical fields) compared to those with average or high female representation (e.g., pediatrics). Stanford Medicine residents and fellows' MedHub ratings of their physician faculty from 2010 to 2014. A total of 3648 evaluations across 1066 physician faculty. Overall, female physicians received lower median scores than their male counterparts across all specialties. When using regression analyses controlling for race, age, rank, and specialty-specific characteristics, the negative effect persists only for female physicians in specialties with low female representation. This finding suggests that female physicians in traditionally male-dominated specialties may face different criteria based on sex-role expectations when being evaluated by trainees. As trainee evaluations play an important role in career advancement decisions, dictate perceptions of quality within academic medical centers and affect overall job satisfaction, we propose that these differences in evaluations based merely on gender stereotypes could account, in part, for the narrowing pipeline of women promoted to higher ranks in academic medicine. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published

  12. The exploration of stereotypes within selected South African organisations / Lizelle Brink

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, Lizelle

    2014-01-01

    After the first democratic election that took place in South Africa in 1994, numerous changes occurred within the labour force. The labour force has become increasingly diverse with individuals from different races, genders and ages now fulfilling various positions within organisations. Consequently, organisations have become more focused on managing this diverse workforce and eliminating stereotypes, and consequently discrimination that accompanies this diversity. Stereotypes ...

  13. Divergent Streams: Race-Gender Achievement Gaps at Selective Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Probasco, Lierin

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we extend previous research on racial performance gaps at 28 selective US colleges and universities by examining differences in grade achievement and graduate rates across race-gender categories. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen, we show that black males, black females, and Hispanic males attain significantly lower grades than other race-gender groups, and that black males are 35% less likely to graduate on-time than other race-gender groups. Analyses consider an array of personal and institutional indicators of academic performance. Grades and graduation rates are improved by academic preparation (particularly high school GPA), scholarly effort, and, for graduation rates, membership in career-oriented or majority-white campus groups. Grade performance and graduation rates are undermined by a hostile racial climate on campus, family stress, and stereotype threat, all of which disproportionately affect minority students. We conclude with recommendations to college administrators for ways of selecting and supporting minority students to reduce differentials in academic achievement across race-gender groups.

  14. Gender stereotypes in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on stereotypes of women as managers. The literature review summarizes the most common areas of gender stereotypes. In the empirical part we conducted research on a sample of 111 respondents (students. Research data was obtained by administration of translated and adapted questionnaire Women as Managers Scale (L. Peters et al.. Psychometric analysis of the questionnaire was conducted and its factor structure verified. The goal of this study was to create and pilot Czech adaptation of the questionnaire as an instrument for diagnostics of gender stereotypes in different types of organizations

  15. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  16. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls' interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students' stereotypes about the culture of these fields-including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field-steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are compatible with qualities that are typically more valued in men than women in American culture. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes-by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs-significantly increases girls' sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations.

  17. Unleashing Latent Ability: Implications of Stereotype Threat for College Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logel, Christine R.; Walton, Gregory M.; Spencer, Steven J.; Peach, Jennifer; Mark, Zanna P.

    2012-01-01

    Social-psychological research conducted over the past 15 years provides compelling evidence that pervasive psychological threats are present in common academic environments--especially threats that originate in negative intellectual stereotypes--and that these threats undermine the real-world academic performance of non-Asian ethnic minority…

  18. Predictors of Collegiate Student-Athletes' Susceptibility to Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L.; Schneider, Richard; Hwang, Seunghyun; Skogsberg, Nikolaus J.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation sought to determine the extent to which collegiate student-athletes are susceptible to stereotype threat and the factors that predict it. We proposed a structural equation model (SEM) by which a perceived coach's positive regard for an athlete's academic ability, athletic identity, and academic identity predicts the…

  19. The Ball Curve: Racist Psychology And Stereotype of The "Dumb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent publication of race based intelligence differentials coincides with stereotypes of the "dumb black" -Bell Curve. As a function of same athletes of African descent dominate in basketball and other physically rigorous sports. Although it is assumed, conclusive data establishing anatomical and/or genetic superiority of ...

  20. Multiracial Women Students and Racial Stereotypes on the College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jessica C.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have explored how multiracial women students encounter different racialized experiences when compared to their monoracial peers and multiracial men on campus, suggesting that their experiences with racial stereotypes may also diverge from both of these populations. Guided by critical race theory, in this study I explored 10 multiracial…

  1. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-08-31

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  2. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarov, S. S.

    2000-08-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  3. Affirmative Action and Stereotype Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence on the effect of affirmative action (AA). In particular, we investigate whether affirmative action has a ”stereotype threat effect” – that is, whether AA cues a negative stereotype that leads individuals to conform to the stereotype and adversely affects their performance. Stereotype threat has been shown in the literature to be potentially significant for individuals who identify strongly with the domain of the stereotype and who engage in complex st...

  4. TRAILING GENDER STEREOTYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Sekhar P M; J. Parameswari

    2017-01-01

    A gender stereotype is a kind of over generalization about characteristics, attributes and differences on the basis of gender. Gender stereotypes construct certain gender roles. A gender role is a behavior learned by a person as desirable, acceptable appropriate, to their gender, determined by the prevailing cultural norms. In society, the gender role continues through generation. There are certain factors which help to transmit these roles. This conceptual paper will try to explain the role ...

  5. The Development of Spontaneous Gender Stereotyping in Childhood: Relations to Stereotype Knowledge and Stereotype Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Rainer; Gawronski, Bertram; Rebetez, Christine; Gutt, Helene; Morton, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in children was investigated using the newly developed Action Interference Paradigm (AIP). This task consists of assigning gender-stereotypical toys as quickly as possible to boys and girls in either a stereotype-congruent or a stereotype-incongruent manner. A pilot study with 38 children (mean…

  6. Disentangling stereotype activation and stereotype application in the stereotype misperception task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieglmeyer, Regina; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2012-08-01

    When forming impressions about other people, stereotypes about the individual's social group often influence the resulting impression. At least 2 distinguishable processes underlie stereotypic impression formation: stereotype activation and stereotype application. Most previous research has used implicit measures to assess stereotype activation and explicit measures to assess stereotype application, which has several disadvantages. The authors propose a measure of stereotypic impression formation, the stereotype misperception task (SMT), together with a multinomial model that quantitatively disentangles the contributions of stereotype activation and application to responses in the SMT. The validity of the SMT and of the multinomial model was confirmed in 5 studies. The authors hope to advance research on stereotyping by providing a measurement tool that separates multiple processes underlying impression formation.

  7. Queer eye for the straight guy: sexual orientation and stereotype lift effects on performance in the fashion domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Chad; Burkley, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype lift is defined as a boost in performance caused by an awareness of a positive ingroup stereotype. This study investigated if gay men experience stereotype lift in the fashion domain. To date, no studies have examined stereotype lift in regards to stereotypes about sexual orientation or in regards to a non-academic task. To address this gap in the literature, gay and straight men completed a test of fashion knowledge under conditions where the relevant gay stereotype was either salient or not by reminding participants of their sexual orientation before or after completing the test. A sample of 66 undergraduate male students (31 heterosexual and 35 homosexual) showed that gay men did outperform straight men on the fashion test, but only when the relevant stereotype was made salient, F(1, 62) = 5.23, p = .03. Implications of stereotype lift in gay men and on non-academic tasks are discussed.

  8. Stereotypes of Black American Women Related to Sexuality and Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target’s race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes. PMID:27821904

  9. Retirement as Meaningful: Positive Retirement Stereotypes Associated with Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining the association between retirement and health have produced mixed results. This may be due to previous studies treating retirement as merely a change in job status rather than a transition associated with stereotypes or societal beliefs (e.g., retirement is a time of mental decline or retirement is a time of growth). To examine whether these stereotypes are associated with health, we studied retirement stereotypes and survival over a 23-year period among 1,011 older adults. As predicted by stereotype embodiment theory, it was found that positive stereotypes about physical health during retirement showed a survival advantage of 4.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.88, p = .022) and positive stereotypes about mental health during retirement tended to show a survival advantage of 2.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.87, p = .034). Models adjusted for relevant covariates such as age, gender, race, employment status, functional health, and self-rated health. These results suggest that retirement preparation could benefit from considering retirement stereotypes. PMID:27346893

  10. Gender Stereotyping in Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hussain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotyping and gender role development is one of the debatable concerns to sociologists especially those who are interested in sociology of gender. This study attempts to investigate the role of family inculcating gender stereotyping in Pakhtun culture and its impact on gender role development conducted in public-sector universities of Malakand Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The data were collected through in-depth interview method using interview guide as a tool of data collection. A sample size of 24 respondents consisting male and female students and teachers (8 samples from each university through purposive sampling technique was selected from three universities in the region, that is, University of Malakand, University of Swat, and Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sharingal (main campus. The collected information has been analyzed qualitatively where primary information has been linked with secondary data for further elaboration and attainment of grounded facts. The study reveals that gender stereotyping and gender role formation are sociocultural and relational constructs, which are developed and inculcated in the institutional network, social interaction, and social relationships especially in family. The study indicated that in family sphere, gender stereotyping and gender role formation are the outcome of gender socialization, differential familial environment, and parents’ differential role with children. The study recommends that gender-balanced familial environment, adopting the strategy of gender mainstreaming and positive role of media, can overcome gender stereotyping and reduce its impacts on gender and social role formation.

  11. The Creative Stereotype Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Dumas

    Full Text Available Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals' performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective.

  12. The Creative Stereotype Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Denis; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2016-01-01

    Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals' performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective.

  13. Condoning stereotyping? How awareness of stereotyping prevalence impacts expression of stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguid, Michelle M; Thomas-Hunt, Melissa C

    2015-03-01

    The deleterious effects of stereotyping on individual and group outcomes have prompted a search for solutions. One approach has been to increase awareness of the prevalence of stereotyping in the hope of motivating individuals to resist natural inclinations. However, it could be that this strategy creates a norm for stereotyping, which paradoxically undermines desired effects. The present research demonstrates that individuals who received a high prevalence of stereotyping message expressed more stereotypes than those who received a low prevalence of stereotyping message (Studies 1a, 1b, 1c, and 2) or no message (Study 2). Furthermore, working professionals who received a high prevalence of stereotyping message were less willing to work with an individual who violated stereotypical norms than those who received no message, a low prevalence of stereotyping message, or a high prevalence of counter-stereotyping effort message (Study 3). Also, in a competitive task, individuals who received a high prevalence of stereotyping message treated their opponents in more stereotype-consistent ways than those who received a low prevalence of stereotyping message or those who received a high prevalence of counter-stereotyping effort message (Study 4). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Stereotype(s of music in literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Hejmej

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the question of music in literature, one of the problems of comparative studies, and terms: "non-musicality", "musicality" as stereotypes in literary studies. In the course of considering these views the following problems are discussed: analogy between literature and music (esthetic point of view, "non-musicality" of literature (as quite controversial category in literary research, musical contexts and intertexts (numerous artistic and analytical-literary strategies, contemporary typology of music in literature (S. P. Scher, E. Wiegandt, F. Arroyas, S. Jeanneret.

  15. Women, race, and science: The academic experiences of twenty women of color with a passion for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Angela C.

    Women of color drop out of science at higher rates than other students. This study is an ethnographic examination of why this occurs and how women of color can be supported in studying science. Through participant observation in science classes, labs, and a program supporting high-achieving students of color, as well as interviews with minority women science students, the student identities celebrated by science departments, as well as those embraced by my informants, were uncovered. Cultural norms of science classes often differed from those of the women in the study. Only one identity---apprentice research scientist---was celebrated in science settings, although others were tolerated. The women tended to either embrace the apprentice research scientist identity, form an alternative science-oriented identity, or never form a satisfying science student identity. Women who were more racially marked were more likely to fall into the second and third groups. This study uncovered difficulties which women students of color faced more than other science students. In addition, it uncovered several seemingly neutral institutional features of science lectures and labs which actually served to discourage or marginalize women students of color. It revealed values held in common by the women in the study and how those characteristics (especially altruism and pride and pleasure in academic challenge) led them to study science. It also revealed strategies used by the most successful women science students, as well as by professors and programs most successful at supporting women of color in the study of science. Based on this study, increasing the participation of women of color in science holds the possibility of altering the basic values of science; however, institutional features and personal interactions within science departments tend to resist those changes, primarily by encouraging women of color to abandon their study of science.

  16. Towards exaggerated emphysema stereotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Sørensen, Lauge; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype for some image class of interest, which emphasizes/exaggerates the characteristic patterns in an image class and visualizes what visual information the classication relies on. This is useful for gaining insight into the classi cation...... and serves for comparison with thebiological models of disease. We build the exaggerated image stereotypes by optimizing an objective function which consists of a discriminativeterm based on the classi cation accuracy, and a generative term based on the class distribution. Agradient descent method...... is employed for optimization. We use this idea with Fisher's Linear Discriminant rule,and assume a multivariate normal distribution for samples within a class. The proposed framework is appliedto computed tomography (CT) images of lung tissue with emphysema. The synthesized stereotypes illustratethe...

  17. Cultural Stereotypes as Gatekeepers: Increasing Girls’ Interest in Computer Science and Engineering by Diversifying Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna eCheryan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry, women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students’ stereotypes about the culture of these fields—including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field—steer girls away from choosing to enter these fields. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are more compatible with qualities that are typically valued in men than women. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes—by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs—significantly increases girls’ sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations.

  18. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls’ interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students’ stereotypes about the culture of these fields—including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field—steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are compatible with qualities that are typically more valued in men than women in American culture. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes—by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs—significantly increases girls’ sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations. PMID:25717308

  19. Analyzing Stereotypes in Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jackie

    1996-01-01

    A high school film teacher studied how students recognized messages in film, examining how film education could help students identify and analyze racial and gender stereotypes. Comparison of students' attitudes before and after the film course found that the course was successful in raising students' consciousness. (SM)

  20. Towards exaggerated image stereotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Igel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Given a training set of images and a binary classifier,we introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype forsome image class of interest, which emphasizes/exaggerates thecharacteristic patterns in an image and visualizes which visualinformation the classification relies on. This is useful...

  1. Towards exaggerated emphysema stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Sørensen, L.; Lauze, F.; Igel, C.; Loog, M.; Feragen, A.; de Bruijne, M.; Nielsen, M.

    2012-03-01

    Classification is widely used in the context of medical image analysis and in order to illustrate the mechanism of a classifier, we introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype based on training data and trained classifier. The stereotype of some image class of interest should emphasize/exaggerate the characteristic patterns in an image class and visualize the information the employed classifier relies on. This is useful for gaining insight into the classification and serves for comparison with the biological models of disease. In this work, we build exaggerated image stereotypes by optimizing an objective function which consists of a discriminative term based on the classification accuracy, and a generative term based on the class distributions. A gradient descent method based on iterated conditional modes (ICM) is employed for optimization. We use this idea with Fisher's linear discriminant rule and assume a multivariate normal distribution for samples within a class. The proposed framework is applied to computed tomography (CT) images of lung tissue with emphysema. The synthesized stereotypes illustrate the exaggerated patterns of lung tissue with emphysema, which is underpinned by three different quantitative evaluation methods.

  2. Professional Stereotypes of Interprofessional Education Naive Pharmacy and Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Maria Miller; Harris, Elaine C.; Ryan, Gina J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To assess and compare interprofessional education (IPE) naive pharmacy and nursing student stereotypes prior to completion of an IPE activity. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three pharmacy students and 275 nursing students at Mercer University completed the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire. Responses from pharmacy and nursing students were compared, and responses from different level learners within the same profession also were compared. Results. Three hundred and fifty-six (59.5%) students completed the survey. Pharmacy students viewed pharmacists more favorably than nursing students viewed pharmacists for all attributes except the ability to work independently. Additionally, nursing students viewed nurses less favorably than pharmacy students viewed nurses for academic ability and practical skills. There was some variability in stereotypes between professional years. Conclusion. This study confirms the existence of professional stereotypes, although overall student perceptions of their own profession and the other were generally positive. PMID:28720912

  3. Who Is Whistling Vivaldi? How Black Football Players Engage with Stereotype Threats in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Whitney

    2017-01-01

    In light of the impact of negative stereotypes on student-athlete academic performance, the purpose of this paper was to conduct a qualitative study that examined how Black American male football players engage and cope with negative stereotypes at a predominantly White institution. Data were collected and analyzed from semi-structured interviews…

  4. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  5. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  6. Racial Primes and Black Misandry on Historically White Campuses: Toward Critical Race Accountability in Educational Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William A.; Yosso, Tara J.; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Racial primes are an outgrowth and inculcation of a well-structured, highly developed, racially conservative, "race-neutral" or "color-blind" racial socialization process in which children learn race-specific stereotypes about African Americans and other race/ethnic groups. As they get older, they continue to receive--both involuntary…

  7. Transcending Frozen Gender Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Troels Bo Haarh; Svanborg, Mikkel; Kühn, Lena; Lomholm Chemnitz, Marie; Barba, Clara; Howard Kitchen, Nikolaj

    2013-01-01

    This project is centered around examining the root of gender stereotyping and discrimination. It entails an account for the heteronormative matrix as an inhibiting norm that was coined by Judith Butler. This ground-giving model will be explored and then applied to Simon Baron-Cohen who participates in the project as a representation of the heteronormative matrix. Cordelia Fine allows us to understand how the matrix influences our way of thinking and performing gender. Gender neutrality is the...

  8. Stereotyping and nurses' recommendations for treating pain in hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ruth A; Polit, Denise F; Byrne, Mary W

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether nurses' recommendations for managing children's pain were influenced by stereotypes based on children's personal attributes. Three vignettes, in which hospitalized children's sex, race, and attractiveness were experimentally manipulated, were mailed to a national random sample of 700 pediatric nurses; 334 nurses responded. Responses to vignette questions indicated little evidence of stereotyping. Nurses perceived similar levels of pain and recommended similar pain treatments, regardless of sex, race, and attractiveness. Nurses, on average, perceived children's pain at levels consistent with the children's self-reports and recommended assertive analgesic and non-pharmacologic pain management strategies. The results appear consistent with prevailing views on providing adequate pain treatment for children.

  9. Scientist-Image Stereotypes: The Relationships among Their Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaçam, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine primary school students' scientist-image stereotypes by considering the relationships among indicators. A total of 877 students attending Grades 6 and 7 in Düzce, Turkey participated in this study. The Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) was implemented during the 2013-2014 academic year to determine students' images…

  10. Stereotype threat and racial differences in citizens' experiences of police encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdowski, Cynthia J; Bottoms, Bette L; Goff, Phillip Atiba

    2015-10-01

    We conducted 2 studies to investigate how cultural stereotypes that depict Blacks as criminals affect the way Blacks experience encounters with police officers, expecting that such encounters induce Blacks to feel stereotype threat (i.e., concern about being judged and treated unfairly by police because of the stereotype). In Study 1, we asked Black and White participants to report how they feel when interacting with police officers in general. As predicted, Blacks, but not Whites, reported concern that police officers stereotype them as criminals simply because of their race. In addition, this effect was found for Black men but not Black women. In Study 2, we asked Black and White men to imagine a specific police encounter and assessed potential downstream consequences of stereotype threat. Consistent with Study 1, Black but not White men anticipated feeling stereotype threat in the hypothetical police encounter. Further, racial differences in anticipated threat translated into racial differences in anticipated anxiety, self-regulatory efforts, and behavior that is commonly perceived as suspicious by police officers. By demonstrating that Blacks might expect to be judged and treated unfairly by police because of the negative stereotype of Black criminality, this research extends stereotype threat theory to the new domain of criminal justice encounters. It also has practical implications for understanding how the stereotype could ironically contribute to bias-based policing and racial disparities in the justice system. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Children's Stereotypes of Older Adults: Evaluating Contributions of Cognitive Development and Social Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Tara T.; Roy, Ashley; Horth, Madison

    2017-01-01

    Past research has investigated the development of stereotypes surrounding race and gender in children; however, there is a lack of literature examining the development of children's stereotypes of older adults. In this study, 163 children from four grades: first (n = 44), fourth (n = 49), fifth (n = 35), and eighth (n = 35) completed a new…

  12. Shaping stereotypical behaviour through the discussion of social stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura G E; Postmes, Tom

    2011-03-01

    In two studies, we demonstrate that small group discussions change the extent to which an activated stereotype affects performance in a relevant domain. In Study 1, female participants were asked why men are (or are not) better than them at maths. They generated their answers individually or through group discussion, and their subsequent maths performance was highest when they collectively challenged the stereotype and lowest when they collectively affirmed the stereotype. When participants affirmed the stereotype through discussion, they used more theories which supported the validity of the stereotype, compared to the individual thought condition; and consensus mediated the effect of group discussion on performance (relative to individual rumination). In Study 2, male and female participants affirmed or challenged the stereotype in same-gender discussion groups. After affirming the stereotype, women's performance decreased relative to their baseline scores and men's performance was 'lifted'. In contrast, when they challenged the stereotype, there was no difference between the performance of men and women on the maths test. This pattern of effects was mediated by confidence in mathematical ability. The findings support the idea that topical small group discussions can, in the short term, differentially alter the impact that stereotypes have on performance. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Psychological and biological responses to race-based social stress as pathways to disparities in educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Dorainne J; Heissel, Jennifer A; Richeson, Jennifer A; Adam, Emma K

    2016-09-01

    We present the race-based disparities in stress and sleep in context model (RDSSC), which argues that racial/ethnic disparities in educational achievement and attainment are partially explained by the effects of race-based stressors, such as stereotype threat and perceived discrimination, on psychological and biological responses to stress, which, in turn, impact cognitive functioning and academic performance. Whereas the roles of psychological coping responses, such as devaluation and disidentification, have been theorized in previous work, the present model integrates the roles of biological stress responses, such as changes in stress hormones and sleep hours and quality, to this rich literature. We situate our model of the impact of race-based stress in the broader contexts of other stressors [e.g., stressors associated with socioeconomic status (SES)], developmental histories of stress, and individual and group differences in access to resources, opportunity and employment structures. Considering both psychological and biological responses to race-based stressors, in social contexts, will yield a more comprehensive understanding of the emergence of academic disparities between Whites and racial/ethnic minorities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Stereotypes as justifications of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Christian S; Bahns, Angela J; Warner, Ruth; Schaller, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Three experiments investigate how stereotypes form as justifications for prejudice. The authors created novel content-free prejudices toward unfamiliar social groups using either subliminal (Experiment 1, N = 79) or supraliminal (Experiment 2, N = 105; Experiment 3, N = 130) affective conditioning and measured the consequent endorsement of stereotypes about the groups. Following the stereotype content model, analyses focused on the extent to which stereotypes connoted warmth or competence. Results from all three experiments revealed effects on the warmth dimension but not on the competence dimension: Groups associated with negative affect were stereotyped as comparatively cold (but not comparatively incompetent). These results provide the first evidence that-in the absence of information, interaction, or history of behavioral discrimination-stereotypes develop to justify prejudice.

  15. Sex Trait Stereotypes in Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Colleen

    1985-01-01

    To examine the development of sex-role stereotyping in Malaysia, 80 children were tested with the Sex Stereotype Measurement II. Results revealed that stereotyping increases with age, that the male stereotype is more easily recognized than the female, and that boys are more familiar with the male stereotype than are girls. (KH)

  16. Sexual Stereotypes Ascribed to Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: An Intersectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Magnus, Manya; Hansen, Nathan B; Krakower, Douglas S; Underhill, Kristen; Mayer, Kenneth H; Kershaw, Trace S; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2018-01-01

    Sexual stereotypes may adversely affect the health of Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Greater understanding of the nature and nuances of these stereotypes is needed. This online, survey-based study used an inductive, intersectional approach to characterize the sexual stereotypes ascribed to Black MSM by the U.S. general public, their distinctiveness from those ascribed to Black men and MSM in general, and their relative prototypicality as compared to dominant subgroups. Members of the public, recruited in 2014-2015, were randomly assigned to survey conditions that varied systematically by race (Black, White, or unspecified) and sexual orientation (gay, heterosexual, or unspecified) of a designated social group. Participants (n = 285) reported stereotypes of their assigned group that they perceived to exist in U.S. culture in an open-response format. Cross-condition comparisons revealed that, overall, Black gay male stereotypes were non-prototypical of Black men or gay men. Rather, stereotypes of Black men were more similar to Black heterosexual men and stereotypes of gay men were more similar to White gay men. Nonetheless, 11 of the 15 most frequently reported Black gay male stereotypes overlapped with stereotypes of Black men (e.g., large penis), gay men (e.g., deviant), or both (e.g., promiscuous). Four stereotypes were unique relative to both Black men and gay men: down low, diseased, loud, and dirty. Findings suggest that Black MSM face multiple derogatory sexual stereotypes, several of which are group-specific. These stereotypes are consistent with cultural (mis)representations of Black MSM and suggest a need for more accurate portrayals of existing sexual diversity within this group.

  17. STEREOTYPICAL FACTORS IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Elena ALBU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available International tourism has grown rapidly nowdays, contributing to the growth of the global economy. The purpose of this essay is to identify and analyze stereotypical factors in the development of strategies concerning the offer for the tourism industry: the image of a tourist destination, brand, country of origin and customer behaviour. Documentary study was the research method used: representative articles were analysed, as recent as possible, to determine the factors mentioned above. Professionals in the industry of tourism need to understand cultural differences between tourists, as well as those of the host country, to be able to create tourist reception offers that live up to the standards expected by clients.

  18. Stereotypes and Welfare Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    What is the impact of a predominantly negative debate about social assistance on public and individual support for the social benefit? Over the course of a year the public debate about social assistance flared up twice in Denmark. The debates drew on classic stereotypes of the social assistance...... recipients lacking both the financial incentives and the will to work. According to theories of the impact of media on welfare attitudes, this had the potential to undermine public support. A two-wave panel survey, however, showed only a small drop in public support for spending on social assistance...

  19. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Virtual Threat Effect: A Test of Competing Explanations for the Effects of Racial Stereotyping in Video Games on Players' Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Hoffswell, Joseph; Chen, Szu-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Past research provides evidence that embodying a racially stereotyped African American video game character triggers stereotyped thinking among White players. However, the mechanisms through which virtual racial embodiment of a negatively stereotyped character in a video game impacts stereotyped thinking are still unknown. This study expands on past research and utilizes a between-subjects experimental design to test two possible theoretical explanations: the virtual threat effect and presence. On the one hand, embodying a negatively stereotyped African American character may elicit stereotyped thinking among White players due to the mere exposure to the threatening stereotype. According to this explanation, negative affective response to the threatening stimulus predicts stereotyping. On the other hand, the process of embodying, not just observing, the stereotyped African American character suggests that presence in the game may determine how impactful the game imagery is on White players' stereotyping of African Americans. In this case, level of presence would predict stereotyping. The findings of this study advance research by providing evidence of a psychological explanation for the negative effects of embodying a racially stereotyped video game character on players' race-related perceptions. We conceptualize the "virtual threat effect," which may be applied in additional contexts to understand how embodying stereotyped representations of outgroups in virtual environments may negatively affect individuals' perceptions and support of these groups.

  1. Looking the part: social status cues shape race perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Freeman

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that race is perceived through another's facial features, such as skin color. In the present research, we demonstrate that cues to social status that often surround a face systematically change the perception of its race. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along White-Black morph continua and that were presented with high-status or low-status attire. Low-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as Black, whereas high-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as White; and this influence grew stronger as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 1. When faces with high-status attire were categorized as Black or faces with low-status attire were categorized as White, participants' hand movements nevertheless revealed a simultaneous attraction to select the other race-category response (stereotypically tied to the status cue before arriving at a final categorization. Further, this attraction effect grew as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 2. Computational simulations then demonstrated that these effects may be accounted for by a neurally plausible person categorization system, in which contextual cues come to trigger stereotypes that in turn influence race perception. Together, the findings show how stereotypes interact with physical cues to shape person categorization, and suggest that social and contextual factors guide the perception of race.

  2. Looking the part: social status cues shape race perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B; Penner, Andrew M; Saperstein, Aliya; Scheutz, Matthias; Ambady, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that race is perceived through another's facial features, such as skin color. In the present research, we demonstrate that cues to social status that often surround a face systematically change the perception of its race. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along White-Black morph continua and that were presented with high-status or low-status attire. Low-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as Black, whereas high-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as White; and this influence grew stronger as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 1). When faces with high-status attire were categorized as Black or faces with low-status attire were categorized as White, participants' hand movements nevertheless revealed a simultaneous attraction to select the other race-category response (stereotypically tied to the status cue) before arriving at a final categorization. Further, this attraction effect grew as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 2). Computational simulations then demonstrated that these effects may be accounted for by a neurally plausible person categorization system, in which contextual cues come to trigger stereotypes that in turn influence race perception. Together, the findings show how stereotypes interact with physical cues to shape person categorization, and suggest that social and contextual factors guide the perception of race.

  3. The colour of gender stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-08-01

    Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted colour-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped colours (Experiment 1); (2) colour-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) colour-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) colour-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-10-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The semantic representation of prejudice and stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sudeep

    2017-07-01

    We use a theory of semantic representation to study prejudice and stereotyping. Particularly, we consider large datasets of newspaper articles published in the United States, and apply latent semantic analysis (LSA), a prominent model of human semantic memory, to these datasets to learn representations for common male and female, White, African American, and Latino names. LSA performs a singular value decomposition on word distribution statistics in order to recover word vector representations, and we find that our recovered representations display the types of biases observed in human participants using tasks such as the implicit association test. Importantly, these biases are strongest for vector representations with moderate dimensionality, and weaken or disappear for representations with very high or very low dimensionality. Moderate dimensional LSA models are also the best at learning race, ethnicity, and gender-based categories, suggesting that social category knowledge, acquired through dimensionality reduction on word distribution statistics, can facilitate prejudiced and stereotyped associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Academic Achievement and Problem Behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests whether the relationship between academic achievement and problem behaviors is the same across racial and ethnic groups. Some have suggested that academic achievement may be a weaker predictor of problem behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American (API) youth; that they can have high grades but still exhibit problem behaviors. This study finds that academic performance is a significant predictor of aggressive and nonaggressive delinquent offenses, gang initiation, sexual behaviors, and substance use, and that the relationship generally does not vary by race and ethnicity. Thus, there is little evidence that API youth are high achievers who are also engaging significantly in problem behaviors. The existing perceptions of API youth may be largely based on stereotype and ambivalence. PMID:25170181

  7. GENDER STEREOTYPES IN THE SCHOOL DROPOUT: CASE EL FUERTE, SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruíz-Ramírez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are accepted preconceptions of what should be a man and a woman. Affect all areas of life, in the relationships that stablished in the family and the school. Within education, these stereotypes are reflected in the access, retention and completion of education degrees, as well as the area of study that preferred the women and men. They also have different effects on the causes of dropout depending on the gender to which they belong. This article aims to show the influence of gender stereotypes on dropout students and high school students in rural areas, specifically in three schools located in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, the academic unit (AU San Blas and its extensions La Constancia and Las Higueras of Los Natoches. The results were obtained through a wider investigation in 2013.

  8. A posteriori stereotype activation: The preservation of stereotypes through memory distortion

    OpenAIRE

    Knippenberg, A. van; Dijksterhuis, A.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments investigated memory for stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent information after a posteriori stereotype activation. In Experiment 1 it was established that, in comparison with a no stereotype control condition, recall of stereotype-inconsistent behaviors of group members deteriorated after a posteriori stereotype activation, while recall of stereotype-consistent information was not affected. An explanation of this phenomenon in terms of the memory organization of ...

  9. Stereotypes and advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many times, we have had a chance to hear that marketing communications are something that can move ahead of time. However, there are many areas in which they are moving slowly than time, without consideration of provided conditions. One of these areas is gender portraying, that is, accepted roles of women and men in the society. We cannot deny that gentle movements have been made towards their more realistic presentation, but a persistent claim that results from recent researches is that marketing communications and particularly advertising, as instrument that most directly reflects this theme, has remained rather resistant to changes in the society. Consequently values that have been built in brands with help of advertising are rather obsolete. Differently speaking, advertising has a showdown with stereotyping - as an assignment of a (usually negative label to certain groups of people based on a certain belief about how these people tend to behave in the society.

  10. Understanding the Role of Spirituality in African American Undergraduate Men's Responses to Stereotype Threat at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Some African American undergraduate men attending Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) are adversely affected by perception of institutional barriers, such as negative stereotypes, that may exist on campus. The awareness of the possibility of being stereotyped can have a negative impact on a student's academic performance. This phenomenon is…

  11. Gender Stereotypes and Discrimination: How Sexism Impacts Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Stone, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize and integrate some of the latest developmental science research on gender stereotypes and discrimination in childhood and adolescence. We focus on five forms of sexism: (a) stereotypes and discrimination against boys regarding their school behaviors and disciplinary actions; (b) stereotypes and discrimination against girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains; (c) stereotypes and discrimination in sports; (d) peer gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and teasing because of gender atypicality or nonconformity; and (e) sexualized gender stereotypes that sexually objectify girls and assume boys are sexually voracious. First, we document each type of sexism and examine children's awareness and perceptions of that bias, including their own self-reports and attributions. We examine the implications of this sexism for children and adolescents' developmental health (i.e., social, academic, and psychological well-being). We then draw connections between these various areas of research, focusing on how these different forms of sexism interact to reduce equity and justice among children and negatively impact positive developmental outcomes. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future research. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Straight Talk on Race: Challenging the Stereotypes in Kids' Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Mitali

    2009-01-01

    As a teenager, the author lived in two worlds: (1) the traditional Bengali heritage inside their home; and (2) the contemporary California of her suburban peers. Sometimes the gap between those two worlds seemed huge. She trudged back and forth between cultures, relying heavily on stories for insight into the secrets and nuances of North American…

  13. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  14. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  15. Brief Report: Stereotypes in Autism Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Jennifer Christina; Schmitz, Florian; Dziobek, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Autism involves core impairments in social cognition. Given that social learning underlies the acquisition of stereotypes, it was hypothesized that use of stereotypes would be reduced in autism. Contrary to this prediction, previous studies found the same use of stereotypes in autistic individuals as in controls. Measurement of stereotypes,…

  16. A posteriori stereotype activation: The preservation of stereotypes through memory distortion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippenberg, A. van; Dijksterhuis, A.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments investigated memory for stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent information after a posteriori stereotype activation. In Experiment 1 it was established that, in comparison with a no stereotype control condition, recall of stereotype-inconsistent behaviors of group members

  17. Assessing aging stereotypes: Personal stereotypes, self-stereotypes and self-perception of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Olmos, Ricardo; Santacreu, Marta; Bustillos, Antonio; Schettini, Rocío; Huici, Carmen; Rivera, José M

    2017-11-01

    There is a broad semantic network of aging stereotypes; where different concepts and their measurement are confused: personal stereotypes, self-stereotypes and self-perception of aging. First, we analyze the translated version of the Image of Aging Scale (IAS) measurement model through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, with two representative sub-samples of the Spanish population aged over eighteen (N = 1,105) and in a sample of gerontologists and geriatricians (N = 325). Second, in an effort to disentangle the theoretical relationships between personal stereotypes, self-stereotypes and self-perception of aging, both the IAS (with different instructions) and Lawton’s 5-item scale were administered to a representative sample of Spanish people over 50. Our results indicate that the Spanish version of the IAS has a similar psychometric structure to that proposed by the authors. Furthermore, the factorial structure (equal form and metric invariance) is replicated in both samples, but latent means and factor correlations were higher in the professional group. We discuss Levy’s theoretical assumptions about personal-stereotypes and the self-stereotype measured with IAS and their relationship to self-perception of ageing.

  18. Understanding Korean Transnational Girls in High School Science Classes: Beyond the Model Minority Stereotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    This study examines six Korean transnational girls enrolled in two advanced placement (AP) biology classes to understand their experiences in science classrooms at the intersection of race, language, and gender. Confronting the model minority stereotype for Asian students, which is particularly salient in science, technology, engineering, and…

  19. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurturant qualities predominate.

  20. Children's Control/Display Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S; Tai, Judy P C

    2018-02-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine control/display stereotypes for children of a range of ages and development of these stereotypes with age. Background Little is known about control/display stereotypes for children of different ages and the way in which these stereotypes develop with age. This study is part of a program to determine the need to design differentially for these age groups. Method We tested four groups of children with various tasks (age groups 5 to 7, 8 to 10, 11 to 13, 14 to 16), with about 30 in each group. Examples of common tasks were opening a bottle, turning on taps, and allocating numbers to keypads. More complex tasks involved rotating a control to move a display in a requested direction. Results Tasks with which different age groups were familiar showed no effect of age group. Different control/display arrangements generally showed an increase in stereotype strength with age, with dependence on the form of the control/display arrangement. Two-dimensional arrangements, with the control on the same plane as the display, had higher stereotype strength than three-dimensional arrangements for all age groups, suggesting an effect of familiarity with controls and displays with increasing age. Conclusion Children's control/display stereotypes do not differ greatly from those of adults, and hence, design for children older than 5 years of age, for control/display stereotypes, can be the same as that for adult populations. Application When designing devices for children, the relationship between controls and displays can be as for adult populations, for which there are considerable experimental data.

  1. Priming media stereotypes reduces support for social welfare policies: the mediating role of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James D; Olivo, Nelgy; Gibson, Nathan; Reed, William; Ashburn-Nardo, Leslie

    2009-04-01

    Two experiments involving White participants tested the influence of media-based priming of Black stereotypes on support for government policy that assisted Black versus White persons-in-need. Experiment 1 showed that priming the "Black criminal" stereotype through exposure to photographs of Blacks looting after Hurricane Katrina reduced policy support for Black evacuees-in-need but did not influence support responses toward White evacuees-in-need. Experiment 2 showed that priming the "promiscuous Black female" stereotype through exposure to sexual rap music reduced policy support for a Black pregnant woman-in-need but did not influence support responses toward a White pregnant woman-in-need. Further tests of mediated moderation demonstrated that in both experiments, the interactive influence of priming Black stereotypes and race of persons-in-need on policy support was mediated by empathic responding.

  2. 'Stereotypes are reality': addressing stereotyping in Canadian Aboriginal medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Anh; Crowshoe, Lynden

    2015-06-01

    Efforts are underway in many parts of the world to develop medical education curricula that address the health care issues of indigenous populations. The topic of stereotypes and their impact on such peoples' health, however, has received little attention. An examination of stereotypes will shed light on dominant cultural attitudes toward Aboriginal people that can affect quality of care and health outcomes in Aboriginal patients. This study examines the views of undergraduate medical students regarding Canadian Aboriginal stereotypes and how they potentially affect Aboriginal people's health. The goal of this study was to gain insight into how medical learners perceive issues related to racism, discrimination and social stereotypes and to draw attention to gaps in Aboriginal health curricula. This study involved a convenience sample of medical learners drawn from one undergraduate medical programme in western Canada. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we conducted a total of seven focus group interviews with 38 first- and second-year undergraduate medical students. Data were analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. Medical students recognise that stereotypes are closely related to processes of racism and discrimination. However, they generally feel that stereotypes of Aboriginal people are rooted in reality. Students also identified medical school as one of the environments in which they are commonly exposed to negative views of Aboriginal people. Student responses suggest they see the cultural gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people as being both a cause and a consequence of discrimination against Aboriginal people. The results of this study suggest that teaching medical students about the realities and impacts of stereotypes on Aboriginal peoples is a good starting point from which to address issues of racism and health inequities affecting the health of Aboriginal people. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Immigration-Crime Nexus and Post-Deportation Experiences: En/Countering Stereotypes in Southern California and El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG; Dingeman, MK

    2010-01-01

    Historically, periods of accelerating immigration have been accompanied by nativist alarms, perceptions of threat, and pervasive stereotypes of the newcomers, particularly during economic downturns or national crises, and when immigrants have arrived en masse and differed from the native born in language, race, religion, and national origin. Stereotypes about immigrants and crime not only take root in public opinion and popular myth, but can also provide the underpinnings for public policies ...

  4. Seeing Is Eating: How and When Activation of a Negative Stereotype Increases Stereotype-Conducive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret C. Campbell; Gina S. Mohr

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the effect of activation of a negative stereotype on behaviors that are perceived to increase the chance of becoming a member of the stereotyped group. Activation of a negative stereotype (the overweight stereotype) is shown to lead to stereotype-consistent goal commitment (low health goal commitment), which partially explains increases in stereotype-conducive behavior (eating indulgent foods). Two theoretically relevant moderators are proposed and supported. Increa...

  5. Relay race

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  6. Relay race

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12·15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  7. Victim Blaming in Rape: Effects of Victim and Perpetrator Race, Type of Rape, and Participant Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, William H.; Martinez, Lorraine J.

    2002-01-01

    Stereotypes about Black sexuality fostered hypotheses that racial factors and racism influence rape victim blaming. Predominantly White and Asian college students (170 men, 162 women) completed the Modern Racism Scale and evaluated a rape vignette varying victim race, perpetrator race, and rape type. As predicted, racial factors determined victim…

  8. Critical Race Theory, Democratization, and the Public Good: Deploying Postmodern Understandings of Racial Identity in the Social Justice Classroom to Contest Academic Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sabrina N.

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses an academic capitalist knowledge regime (i.e. the increasing engagement of public institutions of higher education in market-based ventures) and the alterations to teacher and student behavior and the learning environment that result. Social justice-oriented university courses are positioned as sites where democratization and…

  9. Who Dropped the Ball: Examining the Relationship between Race, Memorable Messages about Academic and Athletic Achievement, and Graduation Rates for Football Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored memorable messages that former football student-athletes recalled regarding academics and athletics. Respondents were asked via interviews and a survey questionnaire to recall memorable messages and to describe the source, context, and importance of the message. Student-athletes were asked what memorable messages were evoked…

  10. RELAY RACE

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Well done to all runners, the fans and the organizers of this great race which took place on Thursday 23rd May! You were many to participate in the run or by supporting your colleagues. The Staff Association contributed with its team of runners and also with its information stall where you could meet with your delegates.  

  11. Transcending race?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Using accounts of militant schoolteachers from a province in the central sierra of Peru, this article attempts to show how and why concepts of race and political commitment among teachers changed at three critical moments in Peruvian history: agrarian reform, mass unionisation, and Maoist insurge...

  12. Lessons Learned: Teaching the Race Concept in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Helen

    2011-01-01

    For a faculty member of East Asian ancestry, raised in Latin America, race became a salient part of the author's identity during adulthood while living and working in the southern United States. While the race-related experiences the author continues to have on and off campus are deeply personal, race became an academic undertaking, and centering…

  13. Undoing Gender Stereotypes in Hindi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande, Anjali

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for using any language is the willingness of the speaker to follow the rules of the game. Socially defined norms of language use then tend to set the limits within which one can express oneself using this language. Whether these norms set the speaker free or whether they act as constraints in a free expression of Self, is a question that will be raised in this article. Using examples from Hindi, the paper highlights the role of such norms of language use in perpetuating gender stereotypes. Gender stereotypes get constructed as part of a broader process of social differentiation but the site of this construction is to a large extent the normal everyday discourse. A normal classroom discussion amongst university students in New Delhi thus shows how deep rooted such stereotypes are and how effectively they get perpetuated through language and linguistic norms in Indian society. The basic premise in this paper is that meanings are context-specific, they are not fixed and they get created in discourse. But since language use is one thread in social fabric, it serves as an instrument to construct and perpetuate gender stereotypes. The paper is more of an essay on issues that became obvious about gender stereotypes during two classroom discussions. It should not therefore be taken as a study into the deeper aspects of gender representation in Hindi.

  14. Complicated Conversations: Exploring Race and Ideology in an Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Liz

    2009-01-01

    This is a case study of an elementary teacher's decision to add multicultural children's books to her curriculum and an analysis of how her ideologies about race shaped the classroom discourse. Although the teacher's stated purpose was to teach the pitfalls of racial stereotypes by encouraging conversations about prejudice, often the classroom…

  15. Healthcare Stereotype Threat in Older Adults in the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Fingerhut, Adam W; Jackson, James S; Wheaton, Felicia

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare stereotype threat is the threat of being personally reduced to group stereotypes that commonly operate within the healthcare domain, including stereotypes regarding unhealthy lifestyles and inferior intelligence. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which people fear being judged in healthcare contexts on several characteristics, including race/ethnicity and age, and to test predictions that experience of such threats would be connected with poorer health and negative perceptions of health care. Data were collected as part of the 2012 Health and Retirement Study (HRS). A module on healthcare stereotype threat, designed by the research team, was administered to a random subset (n=2,048 of the total 20,555) of HRS participants. The final sample for the present healthcare stereotype threat experiment consists of 1,479 individuals. Logistic regression was used to test whether healthcare stereotype threat was associated with self-rated health, reported hypertension, and depressive symptoms, as well as with healthcare-related outcomes, including physician distrust, dissatisfaction with health care, and preventative care use. Seventeen percent of respondents reported healthcare stereotype threat with respect to one or more aspects of their identities. As predicted, healthcare stereotype threat was associated with higher physician distrust and dissatisfaction with health care, poorer mental and physical health (i.e., self-rated health, hypertension, and depressive symptoms), and lower odds of receiving the influenza vaccine. The first of its kind, this study demonstrates that people can experience healthcare stereotype threat on the basis of various stigmatized aspects of social identity, and that these experiences can be linked with larger health and healthcare-related outcomes, thereby contributing to disparities among minority groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996 there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms. The results showed that sexy women is more associated with the masculine description, whereas the executive women is more associated to the feminine product description, and in both cases the housewife is the least associated with the two different descriptions. It was also found that the influence and the women prestige mediated the relationship between the stereotypes and the preference shown for the product described in feminine terms

  17. Stereotyped perceptions of chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger hvordan stærke sociale stereotyper former socialarbejderes tilgang til hjælpesøgende borgere. Den empiriske analyse fokuserer på betydningen af 'deservingness' kriterier, samt på hvordan paternalistiske og følelsesmæssige argumenter bliver brugt af socialarbejdere til at retfæ......Artiklen undersøger hvordan stærke sociale stereotyper former socialarbejderes tilgang til hjælpesøgende borgere. Den empiriske analyse fokuserer på betydningen af 'deservingness' kriterier, samt på hvordan paternalistiske og følelsesmæssige argumenter bliver brugt af socialarbejdere til...... at retfærdiggøre stereotype kategoriseringer....

  18. The Effect of Differential Weighting of Academics, Experiences, and Competencies Measured by Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) on Race and Ethnicity of Cohorts Accepted to One Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terregino, Carol A; McConnell, Meghan; Reiter, Harold I

    2015-12-01

    To examine whether academic scores, experience scores, and Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) core personal competencies scores vary across applicants' self-reported ethnicities, and whether changes in weighting of scores would alter the proportion of ethnicities underrepresented in medicine (URIM) in the entering class composition. This study analyzed retrospective data from 1,339 applicants to the Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School interviewed for entering classes 2011-2013. Data analyzed included two academic scores-grade point average (GPA) and Medical College Admission Test (MCAT)-service/clinical/research (SCR) scores, and MMI scores. Independent-samples t tests evaluated whether URIM ethnicities differed from non-URIM across GPA, MCAT, SCR, and MMI scores. A series of "what-if" analyses were conducted to determine whether alternative weighting methods would have changed final admissions decisions and entering class composition. URIM applicants had significantly lower GPAs (P < .001), MCATs (P < .001), and SCR scores (P < .001). However, this pattern was not found with MMI score (non-URIM 10.4 [1.6], URIM 10.4 [1.3], P = .55). Alternative weighting analyses show that including academic/experiential scores impacts the percentage of URIM acceptances. URIM acceptance rate declined from 57% (100% MMI) to 43% (10% GPA/10% MCAT/10% SCR/70% MMI), 39% (30% GPA/70% MMI), to as low as 22% (50% MCAT/50% MMI). Sole reliance on the MMI for final admissions decisions, after threshold academic/experiential preparation are met, promotes diversity with the accepted applicant pool; weighting of "the numbers" or what is written about the application may decrease the acceptance of URIM applicants.

  19. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Adaptive memory: stereotype activation is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom; Merckelbach, Harald; Jelicic, Marko; Verschuere, Bruno; Galliot, Anne-Marie; van Riel, Laura

    2011-08-01

    Studies have shown that survival processing leads to superior memorability. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this survival recall advantage might result from stereotype activation. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a pilot study and two experiments in which participants were primed with stereotypes (Experiment 1, professor and elderly person; Experiment 2, survival-stereotype). In Experiment 1, 120 undergraduates were randomly assigned to a survival, professor stereotype, elderly person stereotype, or moving scenario and rated words for their relevance to the imagined scenario. In Experiment 2, 75 undergraduates were given a survival, survival-stereotype (based on our pilot study), or moving scenario. Both experiments showed that survival processing leads to a greater recall advantage over the stereotype groups and control group. These data indicate that the mere activation of stereotypes cannot explain the survival recall advantage.

  1. Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.

  2. Stereotypes and the Achievement Gap: Stereotype Threat Prior to Test Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Markus; Kronberger, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat is known as a situational predicament that prevents members of negatively stereotyped groups to perform up to their full ability. This review shows that the detrimental influence of stereotype threat goes beyond test taking: It impairs stereotyped students to build abilities in the first place. Guided by current theory on…

  3. Stereotypes help people connect with others in the community: A situated functional analysis of the stereotype consistency bias in communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, A.E.; Kashima, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Communicators tend to share more stereotype-consistent than stereotype-inconsistent information. The authors propose and test a situated functional model of this stereotype consistency bias: Stereotype-consistent and inconsistent information differentially serve 2 central functions of

  4. Images and Stereotypes of the Native American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews how the popular stereotypes of American Indians have changed since the colonization of North America. Once seen as noble savages by European settlers, the popular stereotypes changed to become less and less positive as colonization advanced. Urges teachers to vigorously challenge the stereotypes and negative images. (JDH)

  5. Age Stereotypes about Emotional Resilience at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, Cornelia; Goritz, Anja S.; Hertel, Guido

    2012-01-01

    In light of an aging workforce, age stereotypes have become an important topic both for researchers and for practitioners. Among other effects, age stereotypes might predict discriminatory behavior at work. This study examined stereotypic beliefs about emotional resilience as a function of both targets' and judges' age. In a web-based study, 4,181…

  6. Can counter-stereotypes boost flexible thinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.; Labuschagne, K.

    2013-01-01

    To reduce prejudice psychologists design interventions requiring people to think of counter-stereotypes (i.e., people who defy stereotypic expectations—a strong woman, a Black President). Grounded in the idea that stereotypes constrain the ability to think flexibly, we propose that thinking of

  7. A Dual Processing Approach to Stereotype Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lucy; Coolen, Petra

    1995-01-01

    Considered stereotype change within a framework of dual process models. Using three experiments, manipulated task involvement, source credibility, and message quality. Findings proved dual process as appropriate when considering the processing of stereotype-disconfirming information and processing's impact on existing stereotypes. Different…

  8. Stereotyping Physical Attractiveness: A Sociocultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Karen K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studies the tendency to stereotype physical attractiveness and identification in a collectivist culture using a group of 53 Chinese Canadian college students. Finds that introverts tended to be more prone to stereotyping than extroverts. Subjects with the highest cultural involvement were least prone to stereotyping with regard to social…

  9. The effects of gender stereotypic and counter-stereotypic textbook images on science performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jessica J; Woodzicka, Julie A; Wingfield, Lylan C

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of gender stereotypic and counter-stereotypic images on male and female high school students' science comprehension and anxiety. We predicted stereotypic images to induce stereotype threat in females and impair science performance. Counter-stereotypic images were predicted to alleviate threat and enhance female performance. Students read one of three chemistry lessons, each containing the same text, with photograph content varied according to stereotype condition. Participants then completed a comprehension test and anxiety measure. Results indicate that female students had higher comprehension after viewing counter-stereotypic images (female scientists) than after viewing stereotypic images (male scientists). Male students had higher comprehension after viewing stereotypic images than after viewing counter-stereotypic images. Implications for alleviating the gender gap in science achievement are discussed.

  10. When suppressing one stereotype leads to rebound of another: on the procedural nature of stereotype rebound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraert, Nicolas

    2013-09-01

    A known consequence of stereotype suppression is post-suppressional rebound (PSR), an ironic activation of the suppressed stereotype. This is typically explained as an unintended by-product from a dual-process model of mental control. Relying on this model, stereotype rebound is believed to be conceptual. Alternative accounts predict PSR to be featural or procedural. According to the latter account, stereotype rebound would not be limited to the suppressed social category, but could occur for a target from any social category. The occurrence of procedural stereotype rebound was examined across five experiments. Suppression of one particular stereotype consistently led to rebound for social targets belonging to the same or a different stereotype in an essay-writing task (Experiments 1-3) and led to facilitation in recognition of stereotype-consistent words (Experiment 4). Finally, stereotype suppression was shown to impact on assessments of stereotype use but not on heuristic thinking (Experiment 5).

  11. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Bécares

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115, we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed.

  12. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Priest, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115), we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys) and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept) across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed. PMID:26505623

  13. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Priest, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115), we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys) and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept) across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed.

  14. Model Minority Stereotype: Influence on Perceived Mental Health Needs of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice W; Chang, Janet; O'Brien, Janine; Budgazad, Marc S; Tsai, Jack

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the influence of the model minority stereotype on the perceived mental health functioning of Asian Americans. It was hypothesized that college students would perceive Asian Americans as having fewer mental health problems and clinical symptoms than Whites due to the model minority stereotype. Four hundred and twenty-five undergraduate students from a predominately White college campus in the American northeast were randomly exposed to one of four conditions: (1) a clinical vignette describing a White college student suffering from adjustment disorder; (2) the same vignette describing an Asian American college student; (3) a newspaper article describing a success story of Whites and the White clinical vignette; (4) the same newspaper article and clinical vignette describing an Asian American. Following exposure to one of the conditions, participants completed a memory recall task and measures of colorblindness, attitudes towards Asian Americans, attitudes towards out-group members, and perceived mental health functioning. Participants exposed to the vignettes primed with the positive/model minority stereotype perceived the target regardless of race/ethnicity as having better mental health functioning and less clinical symptoms than the condition without the stereotype. Additionally, the stereotype primer was found to be a modest predictor for the perception of mental health functioning in Asian American vignettes. Results shed light on the impact of the model minority stereotype on the misperception of Asian Americans' mental health status, contributing to the invisibility or neglect of this minority group's mental health needs.

  15. Stereotypes of Old People Persist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Tornstam

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, as well as in 1982, almost 90 percent of Swedes subscribed to the stereotype that retirement pensioners suffer from loneliness and more than half of Swedes also believed that pensioners suffer from boredom and dissatisfaction with life.Little seems to have changed for the better, or even impaired with regard to the images of the psychological conditions of pensioners, at the same time as Swedes have become somewhat more knowledgeable about the physiological/material conditions associated with aging. This follows from a 2005 follow-up of a Swedish Facts on Aging Quiz, first given in 1982. The comparatively stable pattern of stereotypes over the 23-year period indicates that stereotypes – in old, well-known or permutated forms – will prevail as long as their ageist roots do. The changes observed indicate the possibility of a future pattern of stereotypes, which combines an exaggerated “positive” image of retirement pensioners’ health and wealth, with associated envy of the “greedy geezers”, and pity for their lonely and meaningless lives.

  16. Sex Stereotyping and Sex Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Moira

    1977-01-01

    Although unable to find any evidence to indicate that secondary schools in Canada have or have not made any progress in reducing sex stereotyping or sex discrimination, the author states that the Canadian educational system is aware of its responsibility to uphold non-sexist standards for its young students. Discusses some research done on undoing…

  17. Stereotypes possess heterogeneous directionality: a theoretical and empirical exploration of stereotype structure and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William T L; Devine, Patricia G

    2015-01-01

    We advance a theory-driven approach to stereotype structure, informed by connectionist theories of cognition. Whereas traditional models define or tacitly assume that stereotypes possess inherently Group → Attribute activation directionality (e.g., Black activates criminal), our model predicts heterogeneous stereotype directionality. Alongside the classically studied Group → Attribute stereotypes, some stereotypes should be bidirectional (i.e., Group ⇄ Attribute) and others should have Attribute → Group unidirectionality (e.g., fashionable activates gay). We tested this prediction in several large-scale studies with human participants (NCombined = 4,817), assessing stereotypic inferences among various groups and attributes. Supporting predictions, we found heterogeneous directionality both among the stereotype links related to a given social group and also between the links of different social groups. These efforts yield rich datasets that map the networks of stereotype links related to several social groups. We make these datasets publicly available, enabling other researchers to explore a number of questions related to stereotypes and stereotyping. Stereotype directionality is an understudied feature of stereotypes and stereotyping with widespread implications for the development, measurement, maintenance, expression, and change of stereotypes, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination.

  18. Memory shaped by age stereotypes over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Becca R; Zonderman, Alan B; Slade, Martin D; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies showed that negative self-stereotypes detrimentally affect the cognitive performance of marginalized group members; however, these findings were confined to short-term experiments. In the present study, we considered whether stereotypes predicted memory over time, which had not been previously examined. We also considered whether self-relevance increased the influence of stereotypes on memory over time. Multiple waves of memory performance were analyzed using individual growth models. The sample consisted of 395 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Those with more negative age stereotypes demonstrated significantly worse memory performance over 38 years than those with less negative age stereotypes, after adjusting for relevant covariates. The decline in memory performance for those aged 60 and above was 30.2% greater for the more negative age stereotype group than for the less negative age stereotype group. Also, the impact of age stereotypes on memory was significantly greater among those for whom the age stereotypes were self-relevant. This study shows that the adverse influence of negative self-stereotypes on cognitive performance is not limited to a short-term laboratory effect. Rather, the findings demonstrate, for the first time, that stereotypes also predict memory performance over an extended period in the community.

  19. Challenging gender stereotypes: resistance and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The likelihood of resisting gender-stereotypic peer group norms, along with expectations about personal resistance, was investigated in 9- to 10-year-olds and 13- to 14-year-olds (N = 292). Participants were told about a stereotype conforming group (boys playing football; girls doing ballet) and a stereotype nonconforming group (boys doing ballet; girls playing football). Contrary to expectations from gender-stereotyping research, participants stated that they would personally resist gender-stereotypic norms, and more so than they would expect their peers to resist. However, expecting peers to resist declined with age. Participants expected that exclusion from the group was a consequence for challenging the peer group, and understood the asymmetrical status of gender stereotypes with an expectation that it would be more difficult for boys to challenge stereotypes than for girls. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Relay race

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45  Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...

  1. When Using a Negative Gender Stereotype as an Excuse Increases Gender Stereotyping in Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkley, Melissa; Andrade, Angela; Burkley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has shown that women use gender stereotypes to excuse their stereotypic failures, and doing so incurs negative costs. This study examined if the audience who witnesses a woman using such a stereotypic excuse also incurs costs in the form of increased gender stereotype endorsement. Male and female participants reviewed a survey supposedly completed by a female target who recently took a math exam. In this survey, the female target either performed well or poorly on the exam, and when asked to explain her performance, either invoked a gender stereotype as an excuse (e.g., women are worse at math than men) or not. The results indicated that men (but not women) showed greater gender stereotype endorsement after reading about a female target that invoked a stereotypic excuse. These results suggest that when women use a gender stereotype as an excuse, they may unintentionally cause some observers to increase their endorsement of gender stereotypes.

  2. Positive stereotypes, negative outcomes: Reminders of the positive components of complementary gender stereotypes impair performance in counter-stereotypical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahalon, Rotem; Shnabel, Nurit; Becker, Julia C

    2018-04-01

    Gender stereotypes are complementary: Women are perceived to be communal but not agentic, whereas men are perceived to be agentic but not communal. The present research tested whether exposure to reminders of the positive components of these gender stereotypes can lead to stereotype threat and subsequent performance deficits on the complementary dimension. Study 1 (N = 116 female participants) revealed that compared to a control/no-stereotype condition, exposure to reminders of the stereotype about women's communality (but not to reminders of the stereotype about women's beauty) impaired women's math performance. In Study 2 (N = 86 male participants), reminders of the stereotype about men's agency (vs. a control/no-stereotype condition) impaired men's performance in a test of socio-emotional abilities. Consistent with previous research on stereotype threat, in both studies the effect was evident among participants with high domain identification. These findings extend our understanding of the potentially adverse implications of seemingly positive gender stereotypes. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Why people stereotype affects how they stereotype: the differential influence of comprehension goals and self-enhancement goals on stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Arne; Stapel, Diederik A

    2009-01-01

    In four studies, the authors examined the hypothesis that the way people stereotype is determined by the motives that instigate it. Study 1 measured and demonstrated the effectiveness of a commonly used priming technique to manipulate comprehension and self-enhancement goals. Study 2 demonstrated that why people stereotype determines how they stereotype: When a comprehension goal was salient, positive as well as negative stereotypes were applied, whereas a salient self-enhancement goal led to the application of negative but not positive stereotypes. Study 3 replicated these effects with different stereotypes. Study 4 replicated these effects and gave more insight in the consequences of goal fulfillment on stereotyping. Results indicated the fulfillment of a salient self-enhancement or comprehension goal led to the reduction of stereotyping. These effects were goal specific: Fulfillment of a self-enhancement goal decreased enhancement-driven but not comprehension-driven stereotyping; fulfillment of a comprehension goal decreased comprehension-driven but not enhancement-driven stereotyping.

  4. Mood and heuristics: the influence of happy and sad states on sensitivity and bias in stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Banaji, M R

    2000-06-01

    The influence of mood states on the propensity to use heuristics as expressed in stereotypes was examined using signal detection statistics. Participants experienced happy, neutral, or sad moods and "remembered" whether names connoting race (African American, European American) belonged to social categories (criminal, politician, basketball player). Positive mood increased reliance on heuristics, indexed by higher false identification of members of stereotyped groups. Positive mood lowered sensitivity (d'), even among relative experts, and shifted bias (beta) or criterion to be more lenient for stereotypical names. In contrast, sad mood did not disrupt sensitivity and, in fact, revealed the use of a stricter criterion compared with baseline mood. Results support theories that characterize happy mood as a mental state that predisposes reliance on heuristics and sad mood as dampening such reliance.

  5. Male Stereotypes in a Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel García Toca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to know the attitude that men have towards stereotypes in couples relationships established by society. The rating scale used consists of 51 items divided in five families: macho thoughts, power, demonstrating feelings, expectations in couple’s relationships and how a couple is seen in society. The instrument used Likert scale, and valued by three types of discrimination, reliability and the validation to content. The instrument was applied to men in a not random way. The results indicate that now a day’s men are still concerned in following stereotypes established in couple’s relationships. However this conduct has decreased slowly and insignificantly.

  6. Physical attractiveness stereotype and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2011-08-01

    Three experiments examined explicit and implicit memory for information that is congruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-positive and unattractive-negative) and information that is incongruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-negative and unattractive-positive). Measures of explicit recognition sensitivity and implicit discriminability revealed a memorial advantage for congruent compared to incongruent information, as evident from hit and false alarm rates and reaction times, respectively. Measures of explicit memory showed a recognition bias toward congruent compared to incongruent information, where participants tended to call congruent information old, independently of whether the information had been shown previously or not. This recognition bias was unrelated to reports of subjective confidence in retrieval. The present findings shed light on the cognitive mechanisms that might mediate discriminatory behavior towards physically attractive and physically unattractive individuals. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  7. Male Stereotypes in a Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel García Toca; Fernanda Nader Carreta

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to know the attitude that men have towards stereotypes in couples relationships established by society. The rating scale used consists of 51 items divided in five families: macho thoughts, power, demonstrating feelings, expectations in couple’s relationships and how a couple is seen in society. The instrument used Likert scale, and valued by three types of discrimination, reliability and the validation to content. The instrument was applied to men in a not random way. ...

  8. The invisible stereotypes of bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivony, Alon; Lobel, Thalma

    2014-08-01

    Bisexual men have little public visibility, yet previous reports indicate that heterosexuals have specific prejudicial attitudes towards them. This article reports on two studies that examined the stereotypical beliefs of heterosexual men and women regarding bisexual men. In Study 1 (n = 88), we examined awareness of social stereotypes (stereotype knowledge). Most of the participants were unable to describe the various stereotypes of bisexual men. Contrary to previous studies, low-prejudiced participants had more stereotype knowledge than high-prejudiced participants. In Study 2 (n = 232), we examined prejudice in a contextual evaluation task that required no stereotype knowledge. Participants evaluated a single target character on a first date: a bisexual man dating a heterosexual woman, a bisexual man dating a gay man, a heterosexual man dating a heterosexual woman, or a gay man dating a gay man. The findings indicated that participants implemented stereotypical beliefs in their evaluation of bisexual men: compared to heterosexual and gay men, bisexual men were evaluated as more confused, untrustworthy, open to new experiences, as well as less inclined towards monogamous relationships and not as able to maintain a long-term relationship. Overall, the two studies suggest that the stereotypical beliefs regarding bisexual men are prevalent, but often not acknowledged as stereotypes. In addition, the implementation of stereotypes in the evaluations was shown to be dependent on the potential romantic partner of the target. Possible theoretical explanations and implications are discussed.

  9. Commentary: cultural stereotypes can and do die: it's time to move on with transracial adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This commentary argues that the Multiethnic Placement Act, designed to combat common cultural stereotypes, provides clear guidance to state child welfare agencies and the mental health professionals that serve them, eliminating any regular consideration of race in the foster and adoptive placement of children. Given recent enforcement action by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, those who ignore this guidance act at peril of subjecting state agencies to the significant financial penalties mandated for any violation of the law.

  10. Content and uniformity of stereotypes and meta-stereotypes of homeless people in Madrid (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Cabrera, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Zúñiga, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the content and the uniformity of meta-stereotypes among homelessness people, and the stereotypes that domiciled people have of homeless people. The research took place in Madrid (Spain), based on data provided by a representative sample of homeless people (n=188) and a sample of people at no risk of becoming homeless (n=180). Results show that stereotypes of homeless people and homeless people's meta-stereotypes predominantly have negative or indulgent content, with very ...

  11. How sadness and happiness influence ethnic stereotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žeželj Iris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidental affective states tend to influence stereotyping in counterintuitive way: experimentally induced happiness leads to more stereotyping while experimentally induced sadness leads to less stereotyping. It was therefore predicted that happy subjects would a. would make more stereotype-consistent errors in memory task; b. attribute more stereotypical features to a specific ethnic group, and c. be less sensitive to ethnic discrimination in comparison to sad subjects. In a sample of 90 high school students from Belgrade, Serbia, differently valenced affects were successfully induced using 'autobiographic recollection' procedure. Experiment 1 showed that happy and sad subjects did not differ in the number of stereotype consistent errors in memory task. In experiment 2, however, happy subjects in comparison to sad subjects attributed more stereotypic traits to a non-stereotypical exemplar of a national category and expected him to behave more stereotypically in the future. Additionally, in thought listing task, happy subjects recorded more irrelevant and less story-focused thoughts in comparison to sad subjects. Finally, in Experiment 3 (N=66 sad subjects demonstrated more sensitivity to ethnic discrimination in comparison to happy subjects. These findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional experience on social information-processing strategies.

  12. Girls' Math Performance under Stereotype Threat: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed…

  13. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  14. Disinhibition of stereotyping: Context, prejudice, and target characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawakami, K.L.; Spears, R.; Dovidio, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    The present research examined the moderating influences of individual differences in sexism on the application of gender stereotypes to stereotypic versus nonstereotypic targets as a function of contexts that induced sex stereotypic or counterstereotypic responses. Specifically, participants first

  15. Female gender stereotype in French advertising texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А С Борисова

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of female gender stereotypes in French advertising texts. On the ground of the practical analysis of advertising texts published in some modern French periodicals, we managed to expose and define general and national-cultural female gender stereotypes fixed in collective consciousness of the French.

  16. Myths and Stereotypes in "Asterix le Gaulois"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Christopher

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of "Asterix," the comic book series, and an analysis of its use of myths and stereotypes usually associated with the French. Some of these are: their love of food, individualism and spirit of resistance, sense of "Frenchness," and "esprit." Goscinny succeeds in making these stereotypes universal in application. (AMH)

  17. The Stereotypes in Pupil's Self Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Franc; Žakelj, Amalija; Grmek, Milena Ivanuš

    2012-01-01

    Through the influences of our social environment, both boys and girls learn their sexual norms, specific rules and values from the early childhood. Hence, children grow up in the world of distinct sexual duality. In their efforts to act according to their sexual stereotypes, children adopt these widespread stereotyped conceptions in developing…

  18. Stereotype Threat and Gender Differences in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Cijy Elizabeth; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Clark, Lauren; Marchand, Gwen

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory (STT) offers one explanation for achievement differences in math and science for both women and minority students. Specifically, STT posits that the perceived risk of confirming a negative stereotype about an individual's identity group acts as a psychological burden that negatively impacts performance. This study examined…

  19. Cultural stereotypes in Nigerian print media advertisements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study set out to examine the extent to which cultural stereotype roles are depicted in print advertisements in Nigeria. It specifically sought to highlight what kind of influence (negative or positive) such stereotype representations carry. The study also attempts to identify those factors that may have been responsible for the ...

  20. Visual Stereotypes and Virtual Pedagogical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, Magnus; Gulz, Agneta

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the use of visual stereotypes in virtual pedagogical agents and its potential impact in digital learning environments. An analysis of the concept of visual stereotypes is followed by a discussion of affordances and drawbacks as to their use in the context of traditional media. Next, the paper explores whether virtual…

  1. Licensed Practical Nurses' Sex Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallston, Barbara Strudler; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined whether sex-role stereotypes would affect nurses' (N=32) attitudes toward simulations of male and female patients. Emotional style and patients' diagnosis were manipulated. Results showed significant sex-role differences and stereotypical attitudes. Male patients were rated more positively, and were more likely to possess traditional male…

  2. Knowing about Racial Stereotypes versus Believing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McKinney de Royston, Maxine; O'Connor, Kathleen; Wischnia, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite post-racial rhetoric, stereotypes remain salient for American youth. We surveyed 150 elementary and middle schoolers in Northern California and conducted case studies of 12 students. Findings showed that (a) students hold school-related stereotypes that get stronger in middle school, (b) African American and Latino students experience…

  3. The function of stereotypes in visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Greg O

    2003-01-01

    Human vision is a product of both physiological and cultural dispositions. This cultural study investigates the role of cultural dispositions in visual perception. In particular, the study focuses on the role of stereotypes, which are involved in recognition. I propose that stereotypes are essential for basic functions of perception and human perception. However, stereotypes also introduce significant limitations on human experience. The fact that stereotypes are abstract simplifications of realities is not the limiting factor, since scientific and cultural progress continually refines stereotypes. The very principle of the stereotype appears to introduce the limitation, because the process of forming stereotypes requires both temporal and functional fragmentations of the continuum of our perception. This fragmentation can be a cause of sensory overload, a postmodern condition that generates cultural, perceptual and behavioral problems. To address this problem, I propose a cultural modification to our modality of perception. The modification shifts the emphasis of our perception from the recognition of stereotypes to the recognition of flows, processes and durations. References to the work of Henri Bergson and Martin Heidegger provide the philosophical basis for this modification and several empirical and experimental examples illustrate such modifications in practice.

  4. Stereotyped: Investigating Gender in Introductory Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Shanda; Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Christensen, Warren; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research in science education has documented achievement gaps between men and women in math and physics that may reflect, in part, a response to perceived stereotype threat. Research efforts to reduce achievement gaps by mediating the impact of stereotype threat have found success with a short values-affirmation writing exercise. In biology and…

  5. Gender Stereotypes in Selected Igbo Proverbs | Ezeifeka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates observed encodings of gender stereotypes in Igbo proverbs, the obvious pigeonhole effects of these stereotypes on male-female operational spaces, and how the fixed formats of these proverbs present them as taken-for-granted, impermeable for deconstruction and recontextualization. Drawing ...

  6. Being smart or getting smarter: Implicit theory of intelligence moderates stereotype threat and stereotype lift effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Laura; Martiny, Sarah E; Deaux, Kay; Goetz, Thomas; Mok, Sog Yee

    2016-09-01

    This research explores implicit theory of intelligence (TOI) as a moderator of stereotype activation effects on test performance for members of negatively stereotyped and of favourably stereotyped groups. In Germany, Turkish-origin migrants are stereotyped as low in verbal ability. We predicted that on a test diagnostic of verbal intelligence, endorsement of an entity TOI predicts stereotype threat effects for Turkish-origin students and stereotype lift effects for German students. This effect could account for some of the performance gap between immigrants and host society members after stereotype activation. Study 1 (N = 107) established structural equivalence of implicit theories across the ethnic groups. In two experimental studies (Study 2: N = 182, Study 3: N = 190), we tested the moderating effect of TOI in a 2 (stereotype activation: diagnostic vs. non-diagnostic test) × 2 (ethnicity: German vs. Turkish migration background) experimental design. The results showed that when the test was described as diagnostic of verbal intelligence, higher entity theory endorsement predicted stereotype threat effects for Turkish-origin students (Study 2 and Study 3) and stereotype lift effects for German students (Study 3). The results are discussed in terms of practical implications for educational settings and theoretical implications for processes underlying stereotype activation effects. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Race, Ethnicity, and Eating Disorder Recognition by Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition, and health care referral after reading a vignette concerning a patient of different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorder across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects acros...

  8. Stereotype Fit Effects for Golf Putting Nonexperts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lisa R; Lewis, Benjamin; Maddox, W Todd; Markman, Arthur B

    2016-02-01

    Research has connected stereotype threat and regulatory fit by showing improved performance for individuals with negative stereotypes when they focused on minimizing potential losses. In the current study, non-Black participants, who were non-experts at golf putting, were told that a golf-putting task was diagnostic of natural athletic ability (i.e., negative stereotype) or sports intelligence (i.e., positive stereotype). Participants tried to maximize earned points or minimize lost points assigned after every putt, which was calculated based on the distance to a target. We demonstrate better performance for participants experiencing a fit between their global task stereotype and the task goal, and argue that regulatory fit allows for increased attention on the strategies beneficial for task performance. Interestingly, we find that performance of individuals high in working memory capacity suffers greatly when those individuals experience a regulatory mismatch.

  9. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  10. The Great Society: An Introduction to Stereotype Threat and Social Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, R.; Ali, N. A.; Mendez, B.; Meinke, B. K.

    2015-11-01

    This workshop introduced the concept of stereotype threat, in which an individual's academic performance is affected by awareness of stereotypes. We explored how stereotype threat builds into perceptions and creates contradictions in our society that can impact work with particular groups, with an emphasis on working with Afro-American and urban audiences. Through the “The Great Society” activity, participants worked in groups to develop aesthetics and taboos for fictional societies. We discussed the ways in which each group's values are compatible and conflicting, how they influence our perceptions of self and others, and how similar interactions may be experienced while working with diverse audiences in earth and space science education and outreach efforts. This workshop sought to give participants a conceptual framework for cultivating awareness of their own and their audience's perceptions, which can then be used to work with cultural sensitivity with diverse audiences.

  11. The perception of pain in others: how gender, race, and age influence pain expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandner, Laura D; Scipio, Cindy D; Hirsh, Adam T; Torres, Calia A; Robinson, Michael E

    2012-03-01

    Sex, race/ethnic, and age differences in pain have been reported in clinical and experimental research. Gender role expectations have partly explained the variability in sex differences in pain, and the Gender Role Expectations of Pain questionnaire (GREP) was developed to measure sex-related stereotypic attributions about pain. It is hypothesized that similar expectations exist for age- and race-related pain decisions. This study investigated new measures of race/ethnic- and age-related stereotypic attributions of pain sensitivity and willingness to report pain, and examined the psychometric properties of a modified GREP. Participants completed the Race/Ethnicity Expectations of Pain questionnaire, Age Expectations of Pain questionnaire, and modified GREP. Results revealed a 3-factor solution to the race/ethnicity questionnaire and a 2-factor solution to the age questionnaire, consistent with theoretical construction of the items. Results revealed a 4-factor solution to the modified GREP that differed from the original GREP and theoretical construction of the items. Participants' pain-related stereotypic attributions differed across racial/ethnic, age, and gender groups. These findings provide psychometric support for the measures examined herein and suggest that stereotypic attributions of pain in others differ across demographic categories. Future work can refine the measures and examine whether select demographic variables influence pain perception, assessment, and/or treatment. The findings suggest that one's expectations of the pain experience of another person are influenced by the stereotypes one has about different genders, races, and ages. The 3 pain expectation measures investigated in the current study could be used in future work examining biases in pain assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Contents of Stereotypes toward Woman Subgroups: An Investigation in the Framework of Stereotype Content Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timucin Aktan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the stereotype contents toward woman subgroups and relate these contents to social-structural predictors and sexism. In this respect, 119 university students were recruited for the first study and they were asked to rate 10 woman subgroups in terms of their competence and warmth, and their status and competitiveness. Participants' level of sexism was also measured using ambivalent sexism scale. The findings of the first study revealed that competence and warmth were the two fundamental dimensions of the stereotype contents, these stereotypes could be depicted in three clusters, the content of many women stereotypes were mixed, and status was linked to competence and competition was related to lack of warmth. Besides replicating the main hypotheses of stereotype content model, the findings supported its two basic assumptions, i.e. negative stereotypes are not necessary to reveal stereotype clusters and personal stereotypes are more open to motivational concerns. Finally, sexism was related only with competition, but not with stereotype contents. Since, high competent / high warm cluster was not observed in the first study, the number of woman subgroups was increased in the second study. Thus, 86 university students were asked to rate 18 women subgroups on the scales used in the first study. Results replicated the findings of the first study, supporting the main hypothesis of stereotype content model. The findings of the studies were discussed in the light of relevant literature.

  13. Counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear eFinnegan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the use of counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes when certain social role nouns and professional terms are read. Across two experiments, participants completed a judgement task in which they were presented with word pairs comprised of a role noun with a stereotypical gender bias (e.g. beautician and a kinship term with definitional gender (e.g. brother. Their task was to quickly decide whether or not both terms could refer to one person. In each experiment they completed 2 blocks of such judgement trials separated by a training session in which they were presented with pictures of people working in gender counter-stereotypical (Experiment 1 or gender stereotypical roles (Experiment 2. To ensure participants were focused on the pictures, they were also required to answer 4 questions on each one relating to the character’s leisure activities, earnings, job satisfaction and personal life. Accuracy of judgements to stereotype incongruent pairings was found to improve significantly across blocks when participants were exposed to counter-stereotype images (9.87% as opposed to stereotypical images (0.12%, while response times decreased significantly across blocks in both studies. It is concluded that exposure to counter-stereotypical pictures is a valuable strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotype biases in the short term.

  14. How social-class stereotypes maintain inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Federica; Fiske, Susan T

    2017-12-01

    Social class stereotypes support inequality through various routes: ambivalent content, early appearance in children, achievement consequences, institutionalization in education, appearance in cross-class social encounters, and prevalence in the most unequal societies. Class-stereotype content is ambivalent, describing lower-SES people both negatively (less competent, less human, more objectified), and sometimes positively, perhaps warmer than upper-SES people. Children acquire the wealth aspects of class stereotypes early, which become more nuanced with development. In school, class stereotypes advantage higher-SES students, and educational contexts institutionalize social-class distinctions. Beyond school, well-intentioned face-to-face encounters ironically draw on stereotypes to reinforce the alleged competence of higher-status people and sometimes the alleged warmth of lower-status people. Countries with more inequality show more of these ambivalent stereotypes of both lower-SES and higher-SES people. At a variety of levels and life stages, social-class stereotypes reinforce inequality, but constructive contact can undermine them; future efforts need to address high-status privilege and to query more heterogeneous samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Content of teachers' stereotypes about adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse on 'problematic behavior' of the young in adolescence period is often present in lay, media, professional and scientific public. In this research, we performed empirical testing of the psychological concept of 'storm and stress', which is manifested by stereotypes about adolescents as rebels. The goal was to establish whether teachers hold stereotypes about younger adolescents as a social group and what the content of the stereotype is. Research participants were 193 teachers teaching the seventh grade in ten Belgrade primary schools. Factor analysis method established the presence of several factors, which reflect the psychological content and meaning of teachers' stereotypes about younger adolescents. The results of our research point out: (a that stereotypes of teachers about younger adolescents stand in partial correspondence with the content of a widely distributed concept of 'storm and stress'; (b that this concept is mostly loaded with a negative perception of pupils on the part of teachers and (c that teachers less often perceive pupils through the prism of some positive qualities. That is, teachers think that these positive qualities are not 'typical' qualities of adolescents if they are observed as a group. Interviewed teachers hold stereotypes about younger adolescents, but intensity and valence of stereotypes vary depending on the nature of obtained factors.

  16. Unethical Female Stereotypes in Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garanina I. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the established stereotypes which are summarized prejudices identifying the membership of certain people in a certain group. The article reveals that women are victims of stereotyping them as housekeepers and mothers in the negative sense, which exclude them from performing other roles and functions. There are examples from the foreign legislation where they dispel the stereotype of a woman as a reproductive instrument and uphold the woman‘s right to equal dignity with men in their reproductive choice

  17. Biological Races in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two m...

  18. Stereotype confirmation concerns predict dropout from cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Suzanne; Price, Matthew; Mehta, Natasha; Anderson, Page L

    2014-08-19

    There are high attrition rates observed in efficacy studies for social anxiety disorder, and research has not identified consistent nor theoretically meaningful predictors of dropout. Pre-treatment symptom severity and demographic factors, such as age and gender, are sometimes predictive of dropout. The current study examines a theoretically meaningful predictor of attrition based on experiences associated with social group membership rather than differences between social group categories--fear of confirming stereotypes. This is a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing two cognitive behavioral treatments for social anxiety disorder: virtual reality exposure therapy and exposure group therapy. Participants (N = 74) with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder who were eligible to participate in the parent study and who self-identified as either "African American" (n = 31) or "Caucasian" (n = 43) completed standardized self-report measures of stereotype confirmation concerns (SCC) and social anxiety symptoms as part of a pre-treatment assessment battery. Hierarchical logistic regression showed that greater stereotype confirmation concerns were associated with higher dropout from therapy--race, age, gender, and pre-treatment symptom severity were not. Group treatment also was associated with higher dropout. These findings urge further research on theoretically meaningful predictors of attrition and highlight the importance of addressing cultural variables, such as the experience of stereotype confirmation concerns, during treatment of social anxiety to minimize dropout from therapy.

  19. The persistent stereotype: children's images of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emens McAdam, Janice

    1990-03-01

    Through their reading children learn to regard scientists as eccentrics. It is shown that this stereotype has persisted for over thirty years and affects many adult attitudes. Some methods of breaking the author-reader cycle are suggested.

  20. Stereotypic movement disorder: easily missed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Roger D; Soltanifar, Atefeh; Baer, Susan

    2010-08-01

    To expand the understanding of stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) and its differentiation from tics and autistic stereotypies. Forty-two children (31 males, mean age 6y 3mo, SD 2y 8mo; 11 females, mean age 6y 7mo, SD 1y 9mo) consecutively diagnosed with SMD, without-self-injurious behavior, intellectual disability, sensory impairment, or an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), were assessed in a neuropsychiatry clinic. A list of probe questions on the nature of the stereotypy was administered to parents (and to children if developmentally ready). Questionnaires administered included the Stereotypy Severity Scale, Short Sensory Profile, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised, and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. The stereotyped movement patterns were directly observed and in some cases further documented by video recordings made by parents. The probe questions were used again on follow-up at a mean age of 10 years 7 months (SD 4y 4mo). Mean age at onset was 17 months. Males exceeded females by 3:1. Family history of a pattern of SMD was reported in 13 and neuropsychiatric comorbidity in 30 (attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in 16, tics in 18, and developmental coordination disorder in 16). Obsessive-compulsive disorder occurred in only two. The Short Sensory Profile correlated with comorbidity (p<0.001), the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.009), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale (p<0.001); the last correlated with the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.001). Children (but not their parents) liked their movements, which were usually associated with excitement or imaginative play. Mean length of follow-up was 4 years 8 months (SD 2y 10mo). Of the 39 children followed for longer than 6 months, the behavior stopped or was gradually shaped so as to occur primarily privately in 25. Misdiagnosis was common: 26 were initially referred as tics, 10 as ASD, five as compulsions, and one as epilepsy. Co-occurring facial

  1. Gender Stereotypes in Same-Sex Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Bro, Jesper Koch; Jensen, Ditte; Stokholm, Martin Valdemar Sachse; Kristoffersen, Simone Ryegaard; Tranberg, Line Falk

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Through five qualitative interviews with people that currently are or have been in same-sex relationship, analyzed by applying the theories of social constructivism by Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann and Queer theorist Judith Butler, the project explores heterosexual stereotypes in same-sex relationships. The result is a thoroughgoing analysis where it appears from the interviews as if the interviewed people reproduce heterosexual stereotypical gender roles in their relationsh...

  2. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...

  3. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relebohile Phatoli

    2015-05-01

    Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and ‘othering’. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof.

  4. "A Fly in the Ointment": African American Male Preservice Teachers' Experiences with Stereotype Threat in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sonya V.; Rodriguez, Louie F.

    2015-01-01

    This study draws from a larger phenomenological study on African American academic persistence and career aspirations in education. This article highlights three African American males' experiences with concentrated forms of stereotype threat in teacher education. Their voices revealed dimensions of how power and privilege operate in teacher…

  5. Stereotype Threat: A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Facing Female Undergraduate Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entsminger, J. R., II

    are bad at engineering' was untrue. The findings illustrated the need for systematic changes at the university level. Intervention recommendations were provided. In regards to female underrepresentation in science fields, including engineering, stereotype threat certainly had the potential to cause the female students to question themselves, their abilities, their choice of an academic major, and subsequently remove themselves from a hostile learning or working environment. Thus, educational institutions and workplace organizations are responsible for not only educating themselves regarding stereotype threat, but also for taking steps to alleviate the pernicious effects of stereotype threat.

  6. Race, ethnicity, and eating disorder recognition by peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M; Bardone-Cone, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition and health care referrals after subjects read a vignette concerning a patient of a different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorders across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects across the four different race/ethnicity conditions and no significant race by condition interactions. Lack of general eating disorder recognition and health care referrals by student participants were found. [Supplemental files are available for this article. Go to the publishers's online edition of Eating Disorders for the following free supplemental resource: online appendix containing vignettes 1-3, as described in the "Methods" section].

  7. Trait Implications as a Moderator of Recall of Stereotype-Consistent and Stereotype-Inconsistent Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijksterhuis, Ap; Knippenberg, Ad van

    1996-01-01

    Tests the assumption that organization in memory of behavior information and recall depends on the descriptive relatedness of consistent information with inconsistent information. Subjects read stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent behavioral descriptions implying the same trait dimension or different trait dimensions. Predictions were…

  8. A Lesson Not to Be Learned? Understanding Stereotype Threat Does Not Protect Women from Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Appoloni, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This research examines whether reading a text presenting scientific evidence concerning the phenomenon of stereotype threat improves or disrupts women's performance in a subsequent math task. In two experimental conditions participants (N=118 ) read a text summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown…

  9. Why we stereotype influences how we stereotype. Self-enhancemmt and comprehension effects on social perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arne van den

    2008-01-01

    Stereotypes are generalized beliefs about the characteristics of groups of individuals and form the basis of prejudice. Stereotyping can be functional in at least two ways: as a tool to understand the world around us and because it can help to elevate ones self-esteem. In this dissertation, the

  10. Does stereotype threat influence performance of girls in stereotyped domains? : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flore, P.C.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although the effect of stereotype threat concerning women and mathematics has been subject to various systematic reviews, none of them have been performed on the sub-population of children and adolescents. In this meta-analysis we estimated the effects of stereotype threat on performance of girls on

  11. Stereotype validation: the effects of activating negative stereotypes after intellectual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jason K; Thiem, Kelsey C; Barden, Jamie; Stuart, Jillian O'Rourke; Evans, Abigail T

    2015-04-01

    With regard to intellectual performance, a large body of research has shown that stigmatized group members may perform more poorly when negative, self-relevant stereotypes become activated prior to a task. However, no research to date has identified the potential ramifications of stereotype activation that happens after-rather than before-a person has finished performing. Six studies examined how postperformance stereotype salience may increase the certainty individuals have in evaluations of their own performance. In the current research, the accessibility of gender or racial stereotypes was manipulated after participants completed either a difficult math test (Studies 1-5) or a test of child-care knowledge (Study 6). Consistent with predictions, stereotype activation was found to increase the certainty that women (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5), African Americans (Study 3), and men (Study 6) had toward negative evaluations of their own test performance. These effects emerged when performance-related perceptions were stereotype consistent rather than inconsistent (Studies 1-6) and were found to be most pronounced among those who were highly identified with the stereotyped group (Study 5). Furthermore, greater certainty-triggered by negative stereotypes-predicted lowered domain-relevant beliefs (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 6) and differential exposure to domain-relevant stimuli (Studies 4 and 5). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Los bibliotecarios, el estereotipo y la comunidad Librarians, stereotypes and comunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunilda Roggau

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se establecen las características del fenómeno de la estereotipia desde la perspectiva de las representaciones sociales y de los medios de comunicación, en interacción con las teorías cognitivas. En ese marco se analiza la construcción y vigencia de los estereotipos. Se considera la posibilidad de que el estereotipo sea causa y efecto en un proceso de retroalimentación entre la imagen del bibliotecario y la comunidad que lo sostiene. Los condicionamientos socio-culturales, la evolución del concepto de lectura, la profesionalización, entre otros aspectos influyen en la construcción y vigencia del estereotipo del bibliotecario. En función de las dificultades para la inserción y el crecimiento de los profesionales en el campo laboral, se analizan otros factores: la feminización de la actividad, la formación académica, la internalización del estereotipo por parte de los mismos profesionales, el estereotipo de las bibliotecas.The characteristics of the stereotype phenomenon are established from the perspective of social representations and mass media, interacting with cognitive theories. In the frame, the construction and validity of stereotypes are analyzed. The article considers the possibility that the stereotype is the cause and effect in a feedback process, between the librarian image and the community that sustains it. Socio-cultural conditions, the evolution of the reading concept and the professionalization, among other aspects, influence the construction and validity of the librarian stereotype. Other factors are analyzed taking into account the difficulties for the insertion and development of professionals in the labor market: the feminization of the activity; the academic training; the internalization made by the librarians themselves of the stereotype; the stereotype of the libraries.

  13. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  14. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine eBieg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait versus state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207. As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students’ self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts. Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  15. Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups' roles shape stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Affectivity and Race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  17. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  18. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...

  19. Affectivity and Race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...

  20. Restricted, canonical, stereotyped and convergent immunoglobulin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Dunand, Carole J; Wilson, Patrick C

    2015-09-05

    It is becoming evident that B-cell responses to particular epitopes or in particular contexts can be highly convergent at the molecular level. That is, depending on the epitope targeted, persons of diverse genetic backgrounds and immunological histories can use highly similar, stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs) for a particular response. In some cases, multiple people with immunity to a particular epitope or with a type of B-cell neoplasia will elicit antibodies encoded by essentially identical immunoglobulin gene rearrangements. In other cases, particular VH genes encode antibodies important for immunity against pathogens such as influenza and HIV. It appears that the conserved antibody structures driving these stereotyped responses are highly limited and selected. There are interesting and important convergences in the types of stereotyped BCRs induced in conditions of immunity and B-cell-related pathology such as cancer and autoimmunity. By characterizing and understanding stereotyped B-cell responses, novel approaches to B-cell immunity and in understanding the underlying causes of B-cell pathology may be discovered. In this paper, we will review stereotyped BCR responses in various contexts of B-cell immunity and pathology. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Social stereotypes in realities of modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. K. Kolisnyk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the social stereotypes as a stable emotional image of the nowadays social reality. It is a kind of the common and effective ways to use the manipulation technology to impact on society. This kind of interaction could made a transformation of social identities, spreading different forms of intolerance, creating phantom world. Making the analysis of this phenomenon of social reality is a real way to reduce social risks and unforeseen conflicts in society. It is noted that stereotypical thinking making perception of reality in some special way, offering of tern an illusion of reality, instead of an objective information. Subjects of social interactions should recognize and consciously abandon them in favor of perception of reality in its undistorted not limited form of social stereotypes that goes beyond the usual concepts or contradict them. However, this phenomenon is ambivalent  and not only has a negative side. The positive expression of stereotypical thinking is that it simplifies the processes of learning and creativity, allowing extensive use of existing knowledge, which is actually a complex set of stereotypes.

  2. Neural processing of race by individuals with Williams syndrome: do they show the other-race effect? (And why it matters).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Inna; Ng, Rowena; Bellugi, Ursula

    2012-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition with a distinctive social phenotype characterized by excessive sociability accompanied by a relative proficiency in face recognition, despite severe deficits in the visuospatial domain of cognition. This consistent phenotypic characteristic and the relative homogeneity of the WS genotype make WS a compelling human model for examining genotype-phenotype relations, especially with respect to social behavior. Following up on a recent report suggesting that individuals with WS do not show race bias and racial stereotyping, this study was designed to investigate the neural correlates of the perception of faces from different races, in individuals with WS as compared to typically developing (TD) controls. Caucasian WS and TD participants performed a gender identification task with own-race (White) and other-race (Black) faces while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. In line with previous studies with TD participants, other-race faces elicited larger amplitude ERPs within the first 200 ms following the face onset, in WS and TD participants alike. These results suggest that, just like their TD counterparts, individuals with WS differentially processed faces of own-race versus other-race, at relatively early stages of processing, starting as early as 115 ms after the face onset. Overall, these results indicate that neural processing of faces in individuals with WS is moderated by race at early perceptual stages, calling for a reconsideration of the previous claim that they are uniquely insensitive to race.

  3. Race: Deflate or pop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Neven Sesardic has recently defended his arguments in favour of racial naturalism-the view that race is a valid biological category-in response to my criticism of his work. While Sesardic claims that a strong version of racial naturalism can survive critique, he has in fact weakened his position considerably. He concedes that conventional racial taxonomy is arbitrary and he no longer identifies 'races' as human subspecies. Sesardic now relies almost entirely on Theodosius Dobzhansky's notion of race-as-population. This weak approach to 'race'-according to which all genetic difference between populations is 'racial' and 'the races' are simply the populations we choose to call races-survived its early critiques. As it is being mobilised to support racial naturalism once more, we need to continue the debate about whether we should weaken the concept of race to mean 'population', or abandon it as a failed biological category. I argue that Sesardic's case for racial naturalism is only supported by his continued mischaracterisation of anti-realism about biological race and his appeal to Dobzhansky's authority. Rather than deflating the meaning of 'race', it should be eliminated from our biological ontology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Two strikes: race and the disciplining of young students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonofua, Jason A; Eberhardt, Jennifer L

    2015-05-01

    There are large racial disparities in school discipline in the United States, which, for Black students, not only contribute to school failure but also can lay a path toward incarceration. Although the disparities have been well documented, the psychological mechanisms underlying them are unclear. In two experiments, we tested the hypothesis that such disparities are, in part, driven by racial stereotypes that can lead teachers to escalate their negative responses to Black students over the course of multiple interpersonal (e.g., teacher-to-student) encounters. More generally, we argue that race not only can influence how perceivers interpret a specific behavior, but also can enhance perceivers' detection of behavioral patterns across time. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and practical benefits of employing this novel approach to stereotyping across a range of real-world settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Disinhibition of stereotyping : context, prejudice, and target characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawakami, K; Spears, R; Dovidio, JF

    2002-01-01

    The present research examined the moderating influences of individual differences in sexism on the application of gender stereqtypes to stereotypic versus nonstereotypic targets as a function of contexts that induced sex stereotypic or counterstereotypic responses. Specifically, participants first

  6. Gold diggers, video vixens, and Jezebels: stereotype images and substance use among urban African American girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Scyatta A; Townsend, Tiffany G; Glasgow, Y Marcia; Ojie, Mary Jane

    2011-09-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship of negative stereotype attitudes and endorsement of western standards of beauty (i.e., colorism) on the substance use behavior of low-income urban African American girls. Racial socialization was also examined as a potential moderator to identify any buffering effects of parental messages concerning race. Two hundred seventy-two African American female adolescents (mean age 13.02 years) were recruited from community venues in a Northeastern city. Adolescents completed a self-report questionnaire. Results of a series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that girls who accepted an African American standard of beauty reported lower levels of substance use than those who endorsed colorism. Additionally, racial socialization buffered the negative relationship of colorism to substance use behavior, but only for a certain subset of girls. Tailored health interventions that consider both gender-specific and race-specific issues may improve risk behaviors, including substance use among adolescent females.

  7. The Kinesiology of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Myosha

    2014-01-01

    In this research article, Myosha McAfee presents findings from her grounded theory and microethnographical study of math instruction in a racially and socioeconomically diverse public school. Her analysis puts forth a new theory-the kinesiology of race-which conceptualizes race as a verb rather than a noun. It centrally considers how racial…

  8. Race and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Frank

    1974-01-01

    An investigation of the relationship between race and research output by examining the productivity of black and non-black holders of the Ph.D. in sociology, revealed that race had no predictive value in regard to the publication productivity of sociologists. (EH)

  9. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.

    2008-01-01

    In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...

  10. Academic performance and self-regulatory skills in elite youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Toering, Tynke T.; Lyons, James; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Although elite athletes have been reported to be high academic achievers, many elite soccer players struggle with a stereotype of being low academic achievers. The purpose of this study was to compare the academic level (pre-university or pre-vocational) and self-regulatory skills (planning,

  11. Native American Stereotypes, TV Portrayals, and Personal Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Alexis; Fujioka, Yuki; Lucht, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Investigates stereotyping of Native Americans by white college students, examining effects of vicarious contact via television and affective evaluations of direct and vicarious contact on stereotypes. Finds that evaluations of contact with minority groups determine group evaluation and that stereotyping is predicted by pleasant or unpleasant first…

  12. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources : A Visual Content Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoven, A.H.; Rodrigues, Dos Santos Russo P.M.; Land, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Rodenburg, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people’s social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are

  13. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  14. Japanese International Female Students' Experience of Discrimination, Prejudice, and Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzo, Claude; Wong, Y. Joel

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study examined four Japanese international female college students' experience of discrimination, prejudice, and stereotypes in a predominately white university. Four themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) overt forms of prejudice and discrimination; (2) stereotypes common to Asians; (3) stereotypes unique to the Japanese;…

  15. Stereotypes about Children with Traditional and Nontraditional Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Assessed adults' stereotypes of gender-traditional and nontraditional children by analyzing undergraduates' ratings of the desirability of 25 personality traits, and their classifying children as "tomboys" or "sissies" based on 26 traits and behaviors. Results show extensive adult stereotyping of young children. Tomboys were stereotyped similar to…

  16. 276 The Felonious Stereotyping of the Woman in Nollywood Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    Keywords: Stereotyping, Gender roles, Idemili, Woman, Violence,. Nature, Nurture. .... express her self-will and make sound judgments in the film, especially .... gender stereotypes are beliefs and attitudes about masculinity and femininity. It goes ahead to state that: The concepts of gender role and gender stereotype tend to.

  17. Prejudice Masquerading as Praise: The Negative Echo of Positive Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siy, John Oliver; Cheryan, Sapna

    2016-07-01

    Five studies demonstrate the powerful connection between being the target of a positive stereotype and expecting that one is also being ascribed negative stereotypes. In Study 1, women who heard a man state a positive stereotype were more likely to believe that he held negative stereotypes of them than women who heard no stereotype. Beliefs about being negatively stereotyped mediated the relationship between hearing a positive stereotype and believing that the stereotyper was prejudiced. Studies 2 to 4 extended these results to Asian Americans and accounted for alternative explanations (e.g., categorization threat). In Study 5, the same positive stereotype (e.g., good at math) was directed to Asian American men's racial or gender identity. Their perceptions about whether negative racial or gender stereotypes were being applied to them depended on the identity referenced by the positive stereotype. Positive stereotypes signal a latent negativity about one's group, thereby explaining why they can feel like prejudice. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Media Stereotypes Analysis in the Classroom at the Student Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Media Stereotypes Analysis is the identification and analysis of stereotypical images of people, ideas, events, stories, themes and etc. in media texts. Media stereotype reflects the well-established attitudes towards a particular object, it is schematic averaged, familiar, stable representation of genres, social processes/events, ideas, people,…

  19. An Examination of Stereotype Threat Effects on Girls' Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Mingle, Leigh A.; Ryan, Allison M.; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In…

  20. Stereotype Endorsement And Mathematics-Related Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By endorsing the stereotypic belief that Mathematics is a male-only subject, some females accept the limitation placed on them by the gendering process and this inhibits the identification, development and utilization of their Mathematics ability for the development of self and the society. To determine the extent and effect of ...

  1. Fighting TV Stereotypes. An ACT Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperowicz, Cynthia

    Suitable for classroom use, the handbook promotes public awareness of the need to provide more positive role models and fewer negative stereotypes on children's television. Each section contains photographic examples and quotations by members representing organizations such as Black Endowment Television, the National Association for the…

  2. Europeans among themselves: Geographical and linguistic stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.D.; Dąbrowska, A.; Pisarek, W.; Stickel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Stereotypes can be studied from the perspective of political geography and critical geopolitics as part of geographical imaginations, in other words those geopolitical representations that help us make sense of the world around us. They necessarily frame our perception of ongoing events, and inform

  3. The inaccuracy of national character stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R. R.; Chan, W.; Jussim, L.; De Fruyt, F.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Reátigui, N.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Knežević, G.; Purić, D.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2013), s. 831-842 ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : national character * stereotypes * Five- Factor Model of Personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor : 2.011, year: 2013

  4. Spreading stereotypes through media and translation

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorslaer, Luc

    2009-01-01

    This presentation makes a distinction between several subcategories in the field of media translation, mainly between research on audiovisual translation and news translation. It brings in imagology as a framework for the examples of stereotyping and translation of images in news translation.

  5. Sex Role Stereotypes Are Alive and Well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Sara E.

    Two studies, in late 1988 and early 1990, examined sex-role stereotypes held by northeastern liberal arts college students (N=719) and southern state university college students (N=145). The first study used the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and compared ratings of men and women with the traditional sex-roles represented by the PAQ in…

  6. Gender Stereotypes in Children's Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahara, May M.

    Research has examined how gender stereotypes and sexism in picture books affect the development of gender identity in young children, how children's books in the last decade have portrayed gender, and how researchers evaluate picture books for misrepresentations of gender. A review of the research indicated that gender development is a critical…

  7. Stereotype-based modulation of person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadflieg, Susanne; Flannigan, Natasha; Waiter, Gordon D; Rossion, Bruno; Wig, Gagan S; Turk, David J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-07-15

    A core social-psychological question is how cultural stereotypes shape our encounters with other people. While there is considerable evidence to suggest that unexpected targets-such as female airline pilots and male nurses-impact the inferential and memorial aspects of person construal, it has yet to be established if early perceptual operations are similarly sensitive to the stereotype-related status of individuals. To explore this issue, the current investigation measured neural activity while participants made social (i.e., sex categorization) and non-social (i.e., dot detection) judgments about men and women portrayed in expected and unexpected occupations. When participants categorized the stimuli according to sex, stereotype-inconsistent targets elicited increased activity in cortical areas associated with person perception and conflict resolution. Comparable effects did not emerge during a non-social judgment task. These findings begin to elucidate how and when stereotypic beliefs modulate the formation of person percepts in the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adaptive memory: stereotype activation is not enough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otgaar, H.; Smeets, T.; Merckelbach, H.; Jelicic, M.; Verschuere, B.; Galliot, A.M.; van Riel, L.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that survival processing leads to superior memorability. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this survival recall advantage might result from stereotype activation. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a pilot study and two experiments in which participants were

  9. Combatting Stereotype Threat: College Math Classroom Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Joelle

    2017-01-01

    This research provides new insight into stereotype threat by examining a real-world intervention in community college classrooms. Practitioners need information about which interventions work in authentic school settings to implement them and begin to bring educational equity to historically marginalized students. The experimental study examined…

  10. The inaccuracy of national character stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R. R.; Chan, W.; Jussim, L.; De Fruyt, F.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Reátigui, N.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Knežević, G.; Purić, D.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2013), s. 831-842 ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : national character * stereotypes * Five-Factor Model of Personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.011, year: 2013

  11. The elephant in the room: talking race in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Malika; Kuper, Ayelet

    2017-08-01

    The deaths of black men and women while in police custody, rising anti-immigrant sentiment and rhetoric in high-income countries, and the continued health disparities experienced by Indigenous communities globally have brought race and racism to the forefront of public discourse in recent years. In a context where academic health science centres are increasingly called to be "socially accountable," ignoring the larger social context of race and racism is something that medical education institutions can little afford to do. However, many such institutions have largely remained silent on the issue of race and racism, both within and outside of healthcare. Most medical education continues to emphasize a primarily biological understanding of race. We argue that a different approach is needed. Highlighting the social construction of race is an essential starting point for educators and trainees to tackle racialized health disparities in our clinics and to challenge racism in our classrooms, educational and research institutions, and communities.

  12. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls’ interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students’ stereotypes about the culture of these fields—including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field—steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve ...

  13. How Community College African American Students with or without a Father or Male Surrogate Presence at Home Develop Their Personal Identity, Academic Self-Concept, Race Theory, Social Sensitivity, Resiliency, and Vision of Their Own Success and the Influence on Their Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, A'lon Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on African American students' academic achievement and the role mothers play in their child's academic development, few studies (Carter, 2008; Fordham, 1988) examined the role fathers play in the development of their child's academic achievement. The primary aim of this study was to examine how the father or…

  14. Gender stereotype-inconsistent acts are seen as more acceptable than stereotype-consistent acts, if they are clever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, M.H.J.; Lammers, J.; Ratliff, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Four studies show that gender stereotype-inconsistent behavior is seen as more acceptable than gender stereotype-consistent behavior, if it is clever. Four studies found consistently that participants rated the behavior of a man who relied on attractiveness or passiveness (stereotypically female) to

  15. Priming Prejudice: How Stereotypes and Counter-Stereotypes Influence Attribution of Responsibility and Credibility among Ingroups and Outgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J. Gerard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effect of priming negative stereotypic and positive counter-stereotypic portrayals of African Americans and women on interpretations of actual media events. Shows that a counter-stereotypic portrayal of an African American male led participants to make more external or situational attributions of responsibility to other African…

  16. Threatening the heart and mind of gender stereotypes: Can imagined contact influence the physiology of stereotype threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ben; Friedman, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that when a gender stereotype is made salient and the target of the stereotype is asked to perform in the stereotyped domain, targets of the stereotype often perform at a lower level compared to situations when the stereotype was not made salient. The noticeable absence of female faculty and students in math and science departments at coed universities throughout the United States may increase the belief in gender stereotypes and discourage women from pursuing careers in these fields. Contact with counterstereotypical exemplars, such as female science experts, decreases belief in gender stereotypes and increases women's motivation to pursue careers in science. Thus, the present study examined whether imagining an interpersonal interaction with a counterstereotypical exemplar removes the physiological and performance effects of stereotype threat. Subjects were asked to imagine either a nature scene or meeting a female math professor, and were also assigned to either a control or stereotype threat condition. Imagination was used because studies have shown it to be an effective method of simulating interpersonal contact. Subjects were 139 young women (mean age 19 years) recruited from a pool of undergraduates. Results showed that the stereotype threat manipulation elicited greater vagal withdrawal and poorer working memory capacity during the n-back, and that vagal withdrawal was attenuated when the stereotype threat manipulation was preceded by a brief imagined interaction with a counterstereotypical exemplar. This study provides novel evidence that exposure to counterstereotypical exemplars can diminish cardiovascular reactions to salient information about threatening gender stereotypes. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. When abstraction does not increase stereotyping : Preparing for intragroup communication enables abstract construal of stereotype-inconsistent information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greijdanus, Hedy; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments investigated when perceivers can construe stereotype-inconsistent information abstractly (i.e., interpret observations as generalizable) and whether stereotype-consistency delimits the positive relation between abstract construal level and stereotyping. Participants (N1=104, N2=83)

  18. Stereotype Threat Alters the Subjective Experience of Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that negative age-related stereotypes about memory reduce older adults' memory performance, and inflate age differences in this domain. Here, we examine whether stereotype threat may also influence the basic feeling that one is more or less able to remember. Using the Remember/Know paradigm, we demonstrated that stereotype threat conducted older adults to a greater feeling of familiarity with events, while failing to retrieve any contextual detail. This finding indicates that stereotype threat alters older adults' subjective experience of memory, and strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects.

  19. Understanding him in STEM: Sharing the stories of African American male scholars in engineering academic programs at a predominantly White university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Robert E., III

    Globalization of the world economy has confirmed the need for citizens to exemplify competitive capacities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. Since the 1970s, American higher education has seen increasing numbers of students entering college but has witnessed a decline in the number of students enrolling in STEM programs. African American men fall behind other students in regards to academic performance, persistence, and success throughout primary, secondary, and tertiary schooling. Accordingly, participation of African American men in STEM disciplines is low in comparison to White males and other race groups. Various factors have been identified as contributing to the academic failures of Black men. Poor academic and social preparedness, racial identity issues, institutional climates, negative stereotypes, and fear of success have been cited as potential contributors to the relative invisibility of African American men in STEM disciplines. This study explores the life stories of five African American male scholars in the college of engineering at a predominantly white university. The goal of the qualitative investigation is to help university faculty and administrators understand the institutional, interpersonal, and collective mechanisms influencing the success identities of African American male undergraduates in STEM academic programs. Understanding the lived experiences of this population may help universities innovate stronger supports for men of color in college and broaden the borders for all students interested in STEM careers.

  20. Angels and swingers, matrons and sinners: nursing stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns, Terry; Chojnacka, Irena

    Media sexual stereotyping of the nursing profession is a well-recognized phenomenon; however the sexual stereotyping of the image of the nurse by the sex/pornography industry is a much less publicized or discussed phenomenon within the nursing profession. This paper aims to examine the presentation of the sexual stereotyping of nurses by newspapers and the sex/pornography industry. Both national and local newspapers in the UK frequently use derogatory terminology to depict the sexual stereotyping of nurses. Images and sexual stereotyping of nursing by the sex industry is also noted. The media was found to emphasize both positive and negative nursing stereotypes and in comparison with other occupations and professions sexual stereotyping was prevalent. The utilization of nursing imagery is also significantly visible across a wide range of pornographic and sex industry material.

  1. Overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys: Stereotype impact on neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresson, Megan; Meulemans, Thierry; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie

    2018-02-12

    There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological assessment (observation of psychology students and child's cognitive performance). In experiment 1, after the stereotype was activated, psychology students rated a "boy," a "girl," or a "child" on a behavioral assessment scale. In experiment 2, 103 children (boys and girls) completed neuropsychological tasks under stereotype threat or neutral conditions. The gender stereotype led psychology students to assess a child's behaviors more negatively if they thought the child was a boy. Boys' performance on one cognitive score declined following stereotype threat. Regression path analyses suggested moderation by stigma consciousness. Additionally, there were mediating and suppressing (through stereotype endorsement) effects. Our results suggest that the gender stereotype might contribute to the overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys.

  2. The Impacts of Friendship Groups' Racial Composition When Perceptions of Prejudice Threaten Students' Academic Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Literature on racially prejudiced stereotypes suggests that students' academic self-concepts (ASC) can be damaged when a stereotype demeans the intelligence of their racial or ethnic group. There is little research on how students overcome this burden, but there is some evidence that the racial composition of friendship groups play a role. One…

  3. Intersecting Race and Gender Cues are Associated with Perceptions of Gay Men's Preferred Sexual Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L

    2015-07-01

    Preferences for anal sex roles (top/bottom) are an important aspect of gay male identity, but scholars have only recently begun to explore the factors that covary with these preferences. Here, we argue that the gendered nature of both racial stereotypes (i.e., Black men are masculine, Asian men are feminine) and sexual role stereotypes (i.e., tops are masculine, bottoms are feminine) link the categories Asian/bottom and the categories Black/top. We provide empirical evidence for these claims at three levels of analysis: At the cultural level based upon gay men's stereotypic beliefs about others (Study 1), at the interpersonal level based upon gay men's perceptions of others' sexual role preferences (Study 2), and at the intrapersonal level based upon racially diverse men's self-reported sexual roles on a public hookup website (Study 3). These studies offer the first systematic evidence of linkages between race categories and sexual roles in gay male communities.

  4. Ethno-cultural duality and, ethnic, stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žikić Bojan P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A construction of an individual identity, in dual ethno-cultural environments, is often based on a premise that an ethnic identity is a primary human determinant. In such dual ethno-cultural communities, a basic ethnic stereotype could be called „relational“: it is founded on the concept of „Others/We-group“ distinction, where the Others appear as a main reason for the existence of the We-group members who use the distinction. This stereotype is based on the following premises: the first one says that a local socio-cultural reality contains two solid ethno-cultural groups, whereas the other suggests that in a local context, there exist just „They“ as a solid ethno-cultural group while among „Us“ the solidity is in fact, limited to ethnic affiliation. The consequence of the attitude is pervasive presentation of intra-ethnic differences, more than mere stereotyping of the Others. These stereotypes are based on the so-called „homeland“ classifications and appear to represent a small ethnography of ideas and images on what constitutes and makes a local ethnic community. The stereotypes of this particular kind are more often seen among members of Serbian ethnic group, at least based on a research in two local communities - Bečej and Seleuš. In the two communities, the prevailing attitudes on intra-ethnic differences and the stereotypes developed out of the differences are more numerous and elaborated, based on the „homeland“ classification. This cultural, cognitive process is a consequence of intertwining of two perspectives in understanding of the We-group. The first perspective narrates about the We-group ethnic background, and the second emphasizes the group domicile, that is, it defines the We-group in space. The first perspective is founded, more or less, on indispensable experience of an ethnic identity, while the other perspective is more based on empirical experience; the second perspective is also a creation of a

  5. Religion, Intersectionality, and Epistemic Habits of Academic Feminism. Perspectives from Global Feminist Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Vuola

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article pays critical attention to the ways in which academic feminism has regarded religion. Issues related to religion and gender have by and large either been ignored or treated quite stereotypically. I have called this phenomenon a simultaneous under- and overestimation of religion. The phenomenon is not global. Feminists of the global south tend to pay much more and more multi-faceted attention to religion than scholars from the global north. I will illustrate this problem through a close reading of intersectionality in feminist research in religion, especially feminist theology. My argument – which can be supported by evidence from historical records – is that what has been called intersectionality since Kimberlé Crenshaw, has in fact been explicitly present in early feminist theology (1970s-. The reason why feminist liberation theologians stressed the interstructuring of gender, class, and race/ethnicity lies in their practical and theoretical cooperation with liberation and feminist theologians from the global south, for example through the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians (EATWOT. My article is a critical re-reading of the history of feminist theorizing from the perspective of religious feminists, academic feminist theologians and liberation theologians from both the global north and south (including black and womanist theologians from the USA, Latin America and Africa. My aim is to correct a long-held understanding of the history of feminist theorizing as purely “secular”.

  6. Invisible Asian Americans: The Intersection of Sexuality, Race, and Education among Gay Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Anthony C.; Soodjinda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Most research on Asian American education has centered on addressing and deconstructing the model minority stereotype. While recent studies have highlighted the socioeconomic and cultural heterogeneity among Asian American students, few have examined how sexual identity and masculinity mitigate their academic experiences. In this article, we draw…

  7. Recognition bias and the physical attractiveness stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have found a recognition bias for information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (PAS), in which participants believe that they remember that attractive individuals have positive qualities and that unattractive individuals have negative qualities, regardless of what information actually occurred. The purpose of this research was to examine whether recognition bias for PAS congruent information is replicable and invariant across a variety of conditions (i.e. generalizable). The effects of nine different moderator variables were examined in two experiments. With a few exceptions, the effect of PAS congruence on recognition bias was independent of the moderator variables. The results suggest that the tendency to believe that one remembers information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype is a robust phenomenon. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  8. Adult-onset stereotypical motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltête, D

    Stereotypies have been defined as non-goal-directed movement patterns repeated continuously for a period of time in the same form and on multiple occasions, and which are typically distractible. Stereotypical motor behaviors are a common clinical feature of a variety of neurological conditions that affect cortical and subcortical functions, including autism, tardive dyskinesia, excessive dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia. The main differential diagnosis of stereotypies includes tic disorders, motor mannerisms, compulsion and habit. The pathophysiology of stereotypies may involve the corticostriatal pathways, especially the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulated cortices. Because antipsychotics have long been used to manage stereotypical behaviours in mental retardation, stereotypies that present in isolation tend not to warrant pharmacological intervention, as the benefit-to-risk ratio is not great enough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Stereotype Threat and Women's Performance in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2013-12-01

    Stereotype threat (ST), which involves confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, is a factor thought to contribute to the gender gap in science achievement and participation. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which 312 US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST conditions. The conditions included an explicit ST condition, an implicit ST condition, and a nullified condition. Results indicated that males in all three conditions performed similarly on a set of physics problems. Females in the nullified condition outperformed females in the explicit ST condition and females in the implicit and explicit conditions performed similarly. Males performed better than females in the implicit and explicit ST conditions, but male and female performance on the physics problems was not significantly different in the nullified condition. The implications of these findings for physics instruction and future research on gender differences in physics and ST in science are discussed.

  10. Does stereotype threat influence performance of girls in stereotyped domains? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, Paulette C; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2015-02-01

    Although the effect of stereotype threat concerning women and mathematics has been subject to various systematic reviews, none of them have been performed on the sub-population of children and adolescents. In this meta-analysis we estimated the effects of stereotype threat on performance of girls on math, science and spatial skills (MSSS) tests. Moreover, we studied publication bias and four moderators: test difficulty, presence of boys, gender equality within countries, and the type of control group that was used in the studies. We selected study samples when the study included girls, samples had a mean age below 18years, the design was (quasi-)experimental, the stereotype threat manipulation was administered between-subjects, and the dependent variable was a MSSS test related to a gender stereotype favoring boys. To analyze the 47 effect sizes, we used random effects and mixed effects models. The estimated mean effect size equaled -0.22 and significantly differed from 0. None of the moderator variables was significant; however, there were several signs for the presence of publication bias. We conclude that publication bias might seriously distort the literature on the effects of stereotype threat among schoolgirls. We propose a large replication study to provide a less biased effect size estimate. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How stereotypes impair women's careers in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Ernesto; Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi

    2014-03-25

    Women outnumber men in undergraduate enrollments, but they are much less likely than men to major in mathematics or science or to choose a profession in these fields. This outcome often is attributed to the effects of negative sex-based stereotypes. We studied the effect of such stereotypes in an experimental market, where subjects were hired to perform an arithmetic task that, on average, both genders perform equally well. We find that without any information other than a candidate's appearance (which makes sex clear), both male and female subjects are twice more likely to hire a man than a woman. The discrimination survives if performance on the arithmetic task is self-reported, because men tend to boast about their performance, whereas women generally underreport it. The discrimination is reduced, but not eliminated, by providing full information about previous performance on the task. By using the Implicit Association Test, we show that implicit stereotypes are responsible for the initial average bias in sex-related beliefs and for a bias in updating expectations when performance information is self-reported. That is, employers biased against women are less likely to take into account the fact that men, on average, boast more than women about their future performance, leading to suboptimal hiring choices that remain biased in favor of men.

  12. Stereotyped movement disorder in ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan J. Stein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to current proposals for ICD-11, stereotyped movement disorder will be classified in the grouping of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a qualifier to indicate whether self-injury is present, similar to the classification of stereotypic movement disorder in DSM-5. At the same time, the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders has proposed a grouping of body-focused repetitive behavior disorders within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD cluster to include trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder. DSM-5 has taken a slightly different approach: trichotillomania and excoriation (skin picking disorder are included in the OCRD grouping, while body-focused repetitive behavior disorder is listed under other specified forms of OCRD. DSM-5 also includes a separate category of nonsuicidal self-injury in the section on “conditions for further study.” There are a number of unresolved nosological questions regarding the relationships among stereotyped movement disorder, body-focused repetitive behavior disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury. In this article, we attempt to provide preliminary answers to some of these questions as they relate to the ICD-11 classification of mental and behavioral disorders.

  13. Stereotyped movement disorder in ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Woods, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    According to current proposals for ICD-11, stereotyped movement disorder will be classified in the grouping of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a qualifier to indicate whether self-injury is present, similar to the classification of stereotypic movement disorder in DSM-5. At the same time, the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders has proposed a grouping of body-focused repetitive behavior disorders within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) cluster to include trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder. DSM-5 has taken a slightly different approach: trichotillomania and excoriation (skin picking) disorder are included in the OCRD grouping, while body-focused repetitive behavior disorder is listed under other specified forms of OCRD. DSM-5 also includes a separate category of nonsuicidal self-injury in the section on "conditions for further study." There are a number of unresolved nosological questions regarding the relationships among stereotyped movement disorder, body-focused repetitive behavior disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury. In this article, we attempt to provide preliminary answers to some of these questions as they relate to the ICD-11 classification of mental and behavioral disorders.

  14. Stereotype threat lowers older adults’ self-reported hearing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J.; Lee, Soohyoung Rain

    2016-01-01

    Background Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults’ subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in non-cognitive domains. Objective Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adult's subjective hearing abilities. Methods To test this, 115 adults (M age = 50.02, range = 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. Results The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40's and early 50's were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50's and 60's rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. Conclusion The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults’ subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype-threat free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. PMID:26461273

  15. Stereotype Threat Lowers Older Adults' Self-Reported Hearing Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Lee, Soohyoung Rain

    2015-01-01

    Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in noncognitive domains. Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adults' subjective hearing abilities. To test this, 115 adults (mean age 50.03 years, range 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40s and early 50s were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50s and 60s rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype threat-free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Mentioning race at the beginning of clinical case presentations: a survey of US medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Hamayun; Brett, Allan S

    2009-02-01

    Medical students and doctors in the USA frequently mention the patient's race at the beginning of oral or written clinical case presentations. However, this practice is controversial. We aimed to determine whether US medical schools explicitly teach students to mention race at the beginning of case presentations, and to collect additional information on the schools' perspectives on this practice. An Internet-based questionnaire was submitted to directors of courses on history taking and physical examination at all US medical schools. The response rate was 85%. Students are taught to mention race routinely at 11% of schools and selectively at 63% of schools; this practice is discouraged at 9% of schools and not addressed at 18% of schools. Most respondents noted that resident doctors at their institutions routinely mention race at the beginning of case presentations. Even at schools in which mentioning race is discouraged or not addressed, students tend to include race during their clinical rotations. Respondents were divided on whether a standardised approach to inclusion of race should exist at US schools. Teaching about inclusion or exclusion of race in the opening statement of clinical case presentations varies across US medical schools. This variation presents an opportunity for medical educators to discuss tensions between stereotyping and cultural competence in medical education.

  17. Effects of Race and Precipitating Event on Suicide versus Nonsuicide Death Classification in a College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L.; Flowers, Kelci C.

    2011-01-01

    Race group differences in suicide death classification in a sample of 109 Black and White university students were examined. Participants were randomly assigned to read three vignettes for which the vignette subjects' race (only) varied. The vignettes each described a circumstance (terminal illness, academic failure, or relationship difficulties)…

  18. High Schools, Race, and America's Future: What Students Can Teach Us about Morality, Diversity, and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    In "High Schools, Race, and America's Future", Lawrence Blum offers a lively account of a rigorous high school course on race and racism. Set in a racially, ethnically, and economically diverse high school, the book chronicles students' engagement with one another, with a rich and challenging academic curriculum, and with questions that relate…

  19. Race, Gender, and Affirmative Action Attitudes in American and Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchanovski, Ivan; Nevitte, Neil; Rothman, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Direct comparisons of American and Canadian faculty and students' views concerning issues of race, gender, and affirmative action in higher education are rare. The 1999 North American Academic Study Survey provides a unique opportunity to analyze the role of national and positional factors in faculty and student attitudes towards race, gender, and…

  20. Race and Research Methods Anxiety in an Undergraduate Sample: The Potential Effects of Self-Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckberg, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores race as a potential predictor of research methods anxiety among a sample of undergraduates. While differences in academic achievement based on race and ethnicity have been well documented, few studies have examined racial differences in anxiety with regard to specific subject matter in undergraduate curricula. This exploratory…

  1. Stereotype Directionality and Attractiveness Stereotyping: Is Beauty Good or is Ugly Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Angela M.; Langlois, Judith H.

    2005-01-01

    Dion, Berscheid, and Walster (1972), in their seminal article, labeled the attribution of positive characteristics to attractive people the “beauty-is-good” stereotype. The stereotyping literature since then provides extensive evidence for the differential judgment and treatment of attractive versus unattractive people, but does not indicate whether it is an advantage to be attractive or a disadvantage to be unattractive. Two studies investigated the direction of attractiveness stereotyping by comparing judgments of positive and negative attributes for medium vs. low and medium vs. high attractive faces. Taken together, results for adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2) suggest that most often, unattractiveness is a disadvantage, consistent with negativity bias (e.g., Rozin & Royzman, 2001) but contrary to the “beauty-is-good” aphorism. PMID:17016544

  2. Visual-Motor Test Performance: Race and Achievement Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Gerald B.; Friedrich, Douglas

    1979-01-01

    Rural Black and White children of variant academic achievement were tested on the Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test, which consists of six gestalt designs for the subject to copy. Analyses resulted only in a significant achievement effect; when intellectual level was statistically controlled, race was not a significant variable. (Editor/SJL)

  3. The Elephant in the Room: Talking Race in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Malika; Kuper, Ayelet

    2017-01-01

    The deaths of black men and women while in police custody, rising anti-immigrant sentiment and rhetoric in high-income countries, and the continued health disparities experienced by Indigenous communities globally have brought race and racism to the forefront of public discourse in recent years. In a context where academic health science centres…

  4. Stereotype threat”: a self-fulfilling prophecy in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Gulevitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the phenomenon of “stereotype threat”– the influence of stereotypes on learning and achievement level in members of gender, age and ethnic groups. We analyze overt and covert forms of actualization of such ideas. We describe the basic mechanisms of their action (actualization of social identity, negative emotions, extraneous thoughts, increased self-control, difficulty in learning, reduction of self-efficacy, increased motivation of avoidance, de-identification with the area of activity. We highlight the main ways to reduce the “stereotype threat” focused on social identity (actualization or creating a new identity, stereotypes (from the removal of stereotype stimuli to demonstration of positive behaviors, task (modified instruction and individual human characteristics (higher self-efficacy, learning coping strategies. We note that the knowledge of the “stereotype threat”impact laws can improve learning efficiency.

  5. Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research, we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment. Because of this, we predicted that stereotype threat might reduce older adults' memory errors. Results were consistent with this prediction. Older adults under stereotype threat had lower intrusion rates during free-recall tests (Experiments 1 and 2). They also reduced their false alarms and adopted more conservative response criteria during a recognition test (Experiment 2). Thus, stereotype threat can decrease older adults' false memories, albeit at the cost of fewer veridical memories, as well.

  6. Able but unintelligent: including positively stereotyped black subgroups in the stereotype content model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Amy S; Czopp, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) posits that warmth and competence are the key components underlying judgments about social groups. Because competence can encompass different components (e.g., intelligence, talent) different group members may be perceived to be competent for different reasons. Therefore, we believe it may be important to specify the type of competence being assessed when examining perceptions of groups that are positively stereotyped (i.e., Black athletes and musical Blacks). Consistent with the SCM, these subgroups were perceived as high in competence-talent but not in competence-intelligence and low in warmth. Both the intelligence and talent frame of competence fit in the SCM's social structural hypothesis.

  7. "Queering" and Querying Academic Identities in Postgraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Jeanette; Prinsloo, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In the social imaginary of higher education, there are many mutually constitutive forces shaping academic identities, such as academics' habitus, dispositions, race, gender and student expectations. Our queer academic identities are furthermore robustly intertwined with, and emerging within, cultural, political and economic histories and…

  8. The Roots of Stereotype Threat: When Automatic Associations Disrupt Girls' Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, Silvia; Cadinu, Mara; Tomasetto, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although stereotype awareness is a prerequisite for stereotype threat effects (Steele & Aronson, 1995), research showed girls' deficit under stereotype threat before the emergence of math-gender stereotype awareness, and in the absence of stereotype endorsement. In a study including 240 six-year-old children, this paradox was addressed by…

  9. Identifying Stereotypes in the Online Perception of Physical Attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Camila Souza; Meira Jr., Wagner; Almeida, Virgilio

    2016-01-01

    Stereotyping can be viewed as oversimplified ideas about social groups. They can be positive, neutral or negative. The main goal of this paper is to identify stereotypes for female physical attractiveness in images available in the Web. We look at the search engines as possible sources of stereotypes. We conducted experiments on Google and Bing by querying the search engines for beautiful and ugly women. We then collect images and extract information of faces. We propose a methodology and app...

  10. How to harvest brainpower for a brighter future on Earth - bypassing stereotypes in practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Emma U.

    2016-04-01

    Our ability to detect and respond to patterns, the core asset in scientific work, likely has been a strong evolutionary advantage when navigating between need and danger. We therefore argue that our use of stereotypes for the most part is decoupled from malice but instead profoundly rooted, pervasive and often unchallenged in our daily thought process. The fundamental need for patterns also means that we all express biases - regardless of our gender - such as during teaching, mentoring or collaborations. As culprits, our implicit bias both disfavor (e.g. female or immigrant students) and favor (e.g. the-celebrated-worker's-results-are-probably-stronger-than-they-seem) our fellow workers in unsolicited ways. Additionally, people in our environment adapt to the expectations we express, called the stereotype threat. Ultimately, these two effects likely lead to missed opportunities for new questions and achievements. The omni-present implicit bias also means that some equality efforts, such as quotas, would soon be neutralized unless we train in catching our use of stereotypes in action. We will share our experiences from gender sensitivity training during teaching and assessment, such as the use of anonymous exams, simple 'traps' to demonstrate gender bias, and group work management. We also present views collected in our group on how academic talent management may improve through mentorship, career coaching and general policy decisions. All with the selfish ambition to improve future harvests of brainpower, for science and for sustainable human life on Earth.

  11. Increasing College Students' Interest and Engagement in STEM: A Comparison of Strategies for Challenging STEM Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jiyun Elizabeth L.

    Increasing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates has become an important part of the education agenda in the U.S. in recent years. Stereotypes about STEM (i.e., belief that STEM abilities are innate, and that European American men are best suited for STEM) have been identified as one of the critical factors that may contribute to low recruitment and retention of STEM students. Drawing from the literatures on biological essentialism and role models, this study compared different strategies for challenging STEM stereotypes among undergraduate students in STEM and non-STEM fields. STEM stereotypes were challenged directly with research articles that provided non-biological explanations for STEM success and interest (a strategy used in the essentialism research) and indirectly with biographies of successful STEM role models who are underrepresented in their field and who succeeded through hard work (a strategy used in the role model research). Contrary to the predictions, exposure to the role model biographies, research articles, or combination of both did not have statistically significant effects on participants' reported STEM interest and academic intentions. Possible explanations for the lack of significant findings as well as suggestions for developing effective interventions to promote STEM engagement among students are discussed.

  12. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  13. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19 May starting at 12-15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details of the course and of how to register your team for the relay race can be found here. Some advice for all runners from the Medical Service can also be found here.   

  14. Stereotypes of women solders about army and military service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Kalahin

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the results of the study showed that among women soldiers are not common stereotypes of patriarchal views on the presence of women in the military. The results showed dissemination of gender­determined stereotypes that structure the military activity in male and female. Stereotypes denying the allocation of military activity differences for men and women, are also common among women soldiers. Analysis of the results of the study revealed a new group of respondents who share the dominant stereotypes about the role of women in the military.

  15. The effects of stereotypes of women's performance in male-dominated hierarchies: Stereotype threat activation and reduction through role models

    OpenAIRE

    Latu, V.; Schmid Mast, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress in increasing gender equality in organizations, workplace hierarchies remain male-dominated in most domains. We discuss how gender stereotypes contribute to holding women back in leadership and workplace domains and how we can reduce the negative effects of gender stereotypes. In the first part of the chapter we discuss how awareness of negative stereotypes of women in leadership can decrease women's performance and self-related cognitions in leadership tasks such as m...

  16. Doing race and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses race and ethnicity as social practices among young students at a Danish public sports school and explores how these practices engage with emotional well-being in the institutional context. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in two school classes in 2012...

  17. Race By Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the qualities of sharing biometric data in re- al-time between athletes, in order to increase two motivational factors for gym- goers: Enjoyment and social interaction. We present a novel smartphone appli- cation, called Race By Hearts, which enables competition based...

  18. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  19. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  20. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race, now in its 39th year, is already a well-known tradition, but this year the organizers say the event will have even more of a festival feeling. Just off the starting line of the CERN relay race.For the past few years, spectators and runners at the CERN relay race have been able to enjoy a beer while listening to music from the CERN music and jazz clubs. But this year the organizers are aiming for "even more of a festival atmosphere". As David Nisbet, President of the CERN running club and organizer of the relay race, says: "Work is not just about getting your head down and doing the theory, it’s also about enjoying the company of your colleagues." This year, on top of music from the Santa Luis Band and the Canettes Blues Band, there will be demonstrations from the Aikido and softball clubs, a stretching session by the Fitness club, as well as various stalls and of course, the well-earned beer from AGLUP, the B...

  1. 2005 CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race takes place each year in May and sees participants from all areas of the CERN staff. The winners in 2005 were The Shabbys with Los Latinos Volantes in second and Charmilles Technologies a close third. To add a touch of colour and levity, the CERN Jazz Club provided music at the finishing line.

  2. Race, Racism, and Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  3. Sports, Race, and Ressentiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the problem of college sports corruption and the debate over "the plight of the black athlete," suggesting that this debate is actually not about race or athletics but a code for examining contradictions between education and mass democracy. Calls this the problem of "ressentiment." Examines how athletes have used the "plight of the…

  4. 47th Relay Race!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On Thursday June 1st at 12.15, Fabiola Gianotti, our Director-General, will fire the starting shot for the 47th Relay Race. This Race is above all a festive CERN event, open for runners and walkers, as well as the people cheering them on throughout the race, and those who wish to participate in the various activities organised between 11.30 and 14.30 out on the lawn in front of Restaurant 1. In order to make this sports event accessible for everyone, our Director-General will allow for flexible lunch hours on the day, applicable for all the members of personnel. An alert for the closure of roads will be send out on the day of the event. The Staff Association and the CERN Running Club thank you in advance for your participation and your continued support throughout the years. This year the CERN Running Club has announced the participation of locally and internationally renowned runners, no less! A bit over a week from the Relay Race of 1st June, the number of teams is going up nicely (already almost 40). Am...

  5. Perceived social structural relations and group stereotypes : A test of the Stereotype Content Model in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Heleen; Verkuijten, Maykel; Khan, Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    Using data from two studies, the current research tests the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) within a Malaysian context using Chinese and ethnic Malay participants. The aim of the research is to examine the theoretical underpinnings of the SCM in a new context by investigating the role of aspects of

  6. Implicit stereotyping and medical decisions: unconscious stereotype activation in practitioners' thoughts about African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Gordon B; Stone, Jeff; Childs, Amanda

    2012-05-01

    We investigated whether stereotypes unconsciously influence the thinking and behavior of physicians, as they have been shown to do in other professional settings, such as among law enforcement personnel and teachers. We conducted 2 studies to examine whether stereotypes are implicitly activated in physicians. Study 1 assessed what diseases and treatments doctors associate with African Americans. Study 2 presented these (and control terms) to doctors as part of a computerized task. Subliminal images of African American and White men appeared prior to each word, and reaction times to words were recorded. When primed with an African American face, doctors reacted more quickly for stereotypical diseases, indicating an implicit association of certain diseases with African Americans. These comprised not only diseases African Americans are genetically predisposed to, but also conditions and social behaviors with no biological association (e.g., obesity, drug abuse). We found implicit stereotyping among physicians; faces they never consciously saw altered performance. This suggests that diagnoses and treatment of African American patients may be biased, even in the absence of the practitioner's intent or awareness.

  7. The neuroscience of prejudice and stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, David M

    2014-10-01

    Despite global increases in diversity, social prejudices continue to fuel intergroup conflict, disparities and discrimination. Moreover, as norms have become more egalitarian, prejudices seem to have 'gone underground', operating covertly and often unconsciously, such that they are difficult to detect and control. Neuroscientists have recently begun to probe the neural basis of prejudice and stereotyping in an effort to identify the processes through which these biases form, influence behaviour and are regulated. This research aims to elucidate basic mechanisms of the social brain while advancing our understanding of intergroup bias in social behaviour.

  8. Women stereotypes in Shi Zhecun's short stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmeier, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the representation of women in two 1933 short story collections by Shi Zhecun: An Evening of Spring Rain and Exemplary Conduct of Virtuous Women. It discusses how the New Woman image was a site of contestation in Republican China, and argues that Shi Zhecun’s short stories contain four basic stereotypes: the enigmatic woman, the estranged wife, the prostitute, and the inhibited woman. Using these narratives of women and how they were perceived by men, Shi Zhecun deconstructed the New Woman image by subverting the various ways modernity was projected onto women.

  9. The physiognomic basis of sexual stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakdimen, K A

    1984-04-01

    Although it is routine for mental status reports to comment on appearance and attractiveness, there is no prevailing theory to explain the psychological impact of physical features. Two perceptual processes are proposed: nonverbal quasi-communication (counterfeit body language) and nonverbal quasi-information (spurious information). Applying this perspective to the sexual dimorphism of anatomy, clothing, and makeup, one finds that appearance fosters the belief that men and women have the personality traits that are stereotypically attributed to them, and this seems to be at the heart of physical attractiveness.

  10. Biogeographical ancestry and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    The use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research is controversial-for example, in the comparison of disease risk in different groups or as a means of making use of or controlling for population structure in the mapping of genes to chromosomes. Biogeographical ancestry (BGA) has been recommended as a more accurate and appropriate category. BGA is a product of the collaboration between biological anthropologist Mark Shriver from Pennsylvania State University and molecular biologist Tony Frudakis from the now-defunct biotechnology start-up company DNAPrint genomics, Inc. Shriver and Frudakis portray BGA as a measure of the 'biological', 'genetic', 'natural', and 'objective' components of race and ethnicity, what philosophers of science would call a natural kind. This paper argues that BGA is not a natural kind that escapes social and political connotations of race and ethnicity, as Shriver and Frudakis and other proponents believe, but a construction that is built upon race-as race has been socially constructed in the European scientific and philosophical traditions. More specifically, BGA is not a global category of biological and anthropological classification but a local category shaped by the U.S. context of its production, especially the forensic aim of being able to predict the race or ethnicity of an unknown suspect based on DNA found at the crime scene. Therefore, caution needs to be exercised in the embrace of BGA as an alternative to the use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma cortisol and faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations in stereotypic and non-stereotypic horses: do stereotypic horses cope better with poor environmental conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fureix Carole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereotypic behaviours, i.e. repetitive behaviours induced by frustration, repeated attempts to cope and/or brain dysfunction, are intriguing as they occur in a variety of domestic and captive species without any clear adaptive function. Among the different hypotheses, the coping hypothesis predicts that stereotypic behaviours provide a way for animals in unfavourable environmental conditions to adjust. As such, they are expected to have a lower physiological stress level (glucocorticoids than non-stereotypic animals. Attempts to link stereotypic behaviours with glucocorticoids however have yielded contradictory results. Here we investigated correlates of oral and motor stereotypic behaviours and glucocorticoid levels in two large samples of domestic horses (NStudy1 = 55, NStudy2 = 58, kept in sub-optimal conditions (e.g. confinement, social isolation, and already known to experience poor welfare states. Each horse was observed in its box using focal sampling (study 1 and instantaneous scan sampling (study 2. Plasma samples (collected in study 1 but also non-invasive faecal samples (collected in both studies were retrieved in order to assess cortisol levels. Results Results showed that 1 plasma cortisol and faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations did not differ between horses displaying stereotypic behaviours and non-stereotypic horses and 2 both oral and motor stereotypic behaviour levels did not predict plasma cortisol or faecal cortisol metabolites concentrations. Conclusions Cortisol measures, collected in two large samples of horses using both plasma sampling as well as faecal sampling (the latter method minimizing bias due to a non-invasive sampling procedure, therefore do not indicate that stereotypic horses cope better, at least in terms of adrenocortical activity.

  12. The roots of stereotype threat: when automatic associations disrupt girls' math performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, Silvia; Cadinu, Mara; Tomasetto, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although stereotype awareness is a prerequisite for stereotype threat effects (Steele & Aronson, 1995), research showed girls' deficit under stereotype threat before the emergence of math-gender stereotype awareness, and in the absence of stereotype endorsement. In a study including 240 six-year-old children, this paradox was addressed by testing whether automatic associations trigger stereotype threat in young girls. Whereas no indicators were found that children endorsed the math-gender stereotype, girls, but not boys, showed automatic associations consistent with the stereotype. Moreover, results showed that girls' automatic associations varied as a function of a manipulation regarding the stereotype content. Importantly, girls' math performance decreased in a stereotype-consistent, relative to a stereotype-inconsistent, condition and automatic associations mediated the relation between stereotype threat and performance. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. First and second year medical students identify and self-stereotype more as doctors than as students: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Bryan; Rosenthal-Stott, Harriet E S

    2017-11-13

    The emergence of medical students' professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October) and end (April) of the academic year. Questionnaires consisted of scales measuring the strength and importance of identity and self-stereotyping, referent to 'doctors' and 'students'. Linear mixed effects regression considered longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of progress through the course, and differences in responses to 'doctor' and 'student' measures. In October, responses were received from 99% (n = 102) and 75% (n = 58) of first and second year cohorts respectively, and in April from 81% (n = 83) and 73% (n = 56). Response rates were over 95% of those present. Linear mixed effects regression found that all 'doctor'-referent measures were higher than 'student' measures. Strength of identity and self-stereotyping decreased between beginning and end of the year (across both groups). Men indicated lower importance of identity than women, also across both groups. There were no differences between year groups. Self-stereotyping was predicted more by importance of identification with a group than by strength of identification. Findings reinforce observations that medical students identify strongly as doctors from early in their studies, and that this identification is greater than as students. Decreases over time are surprising, but may be explained by changing group salience towards the end of the academic year. The lack of a gender effect on strength of identification contrasts with the literature, but may reflect students' lack of 'performance' of professional identity, while the

  14. First and second year medical students identify and self-stereotype more as doctors than as students: a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Burford

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of medical students’ professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. Method Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October and end (April of the academic year. Questionnaires consisted of scales measuring the strength and importance of identity and self-stereotyping, referent to ‘doctors’ and ‘students’. Linear mixed effects regression considered longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of progress through the course, and differences in responses to ‘doctor’ and ‘student’ measures. Results In October, responses were received from 99% (n = 102 and 75% (n = 58 of first and second year cohorts respectively, and in April from 81% (n = 83 and 73% (n = 56. Response rates were over 95% of those present. Linear mixed effects regression found that all ‘doctor’-referent measures were higher than ‘student’ measures. Strength of identity and self-stereotyping decreased between beginning and end of the year (across both groups. Men indicated lower importance of identity than women, also across both groups. There were no differences between year groups. Self-stereotyping was predicted more by importance of identification with a group than by strength of identification. Conclusions Findings reinforce observations that medical students identify strongly as doctors from early in their studies, and that this identification is greater than as students. Decreases over time are surprising, but may be explained by changing group salience towards the end of the academic year. The lack of a gender effect on strength of identification contrasts with the literature

  15. Race, Beyond Fact and Fiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'charek, A.

    2011-01-01

    What is biological race and how is it made relevant in specific practices? How to address the materiality of biological race without fixing it? And how to write about it without reifying race as a singular object? These are the central questions in this short essay. Instead of debunking or

  16. Addressing the Puzzle of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Although racial discrimination poses a devastating instrument of oppression, social work texts lack a clear and consistent definition of "race". The solution lies in according race the status of an "actor version" concept, while exploring the origins and variations of race ideas using "scientific observer version" explanations. This distinction…

  17. Prime-Time Stereotyping on the New Television Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, B. Carol

    1997-01-01

    Finds that women are underrepresented in all five television networks' promotional announcements (ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, and UPN), and that stereotypical portrayals of women in these announcements varied due to the television network's target audience: announcements on networks seeking a younger male audience contained more stereotypical female…

  18. Content Analysis and Gender Stereotypes in Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on gender stereotypes in popular childrens' books. Proposes a student exercise for identifying gender stereotypes, using Dr. Seuss as an example. Asks students to articulate how their gender identities have been shaped by media. Provides actual student comments to highlight major discussion points. (Author/KDR)

  19. The Huns in Western Consciousness: Images, Stereotypes and Civilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to negative images and stereotypes to the Huns in Western historiography. The author points out that the aforementioned negative images and stereotypes connected, in turn, to the very concept of 'civilization' in its Western interpretation, have strongly affected the

  20. Negative stereotypes examined through the HIV and AIDS discourse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies reporting perceptions of HIV and AIDS by white youth in South Africa suggest both explicit and implicit racial stereotypes and negative attitudes. This paper contributes to the literature on the discourse of racial stereotypes found in discussions about HIV and AIDS. The study was conducted in the suburb of ...

  1. National stereotypes in the context of the European crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, Aline; Karner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this article we position the contributions to our special issue in relation to existing scholarship on racism and stereotypes. We pay close attention to conceptual strands in the literature that emphasize two cognitive-discursive characteristics of stereotypes: their essentialist reductions and

  2. Students' Gender Stereotypes about Running in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Lin, Shuqiong; Gao, Zan; Francis, Xueying

    2018-01-01

    Two hundred forty-six students (132 boys, 114 girls) were tracked from fifth to eighth grades, and changes in gender stereotypes about running as a male sport, running performance, interest in running, and intention for future running participation were assessed. Results revealed that neither sex held gender stereotypes about running as a male…

  3. Occupational Gender Stereotypes and Problem-Solving in Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The first purpose of the study was to establish how Italian adolescents perceive jobs in the newly emerging economy sectors as well as more traditional jobs from gender-stereotyped and gender-segregated perspectives. The second purpose was to verify the role of problem-solving and gender in gender-role stereotyping. A total of 217 Italian high…

  4. Men as cultural ideals: Cultural values moderate gender stereotype content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wolf, Elizabeth Baily; Glick, Peter; Crotty, Susan; Chong, Jihye; Norton, Michael I

    2015-10-01

    Four studies tested whether cultural values moderate the content of gender stereotypes, such that male stereotypes more closely align with core cultural values (specifically, individualism vs. collectivism) than do female stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, using different measures, Americans rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas Koreans rated men as more collectivistic than women. In Study 3, bicultural Korean Americans who completed a survey in English about American targets rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas those who completed the survey in Korean about Korean targets did not, demonstrating how cultural frames influence gender stereotype content. Study 4 established generalizability by reanalyzing Williams and Best's (1990) cross-national gender stereotype data across 26 nations. National individualism-collectivism scores predicted viewing collectivistic traits as more-and individualistic traits as less-stereotypically masculine. Taken together, these data offer support for the cultural moderation of gender stereotypes hypothesis, qualifying past conclusions about the universality of gender stereotype content. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Implicit stereotyping and prejudice and the primed Stroop task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawakami, K.L.; Dion, K.L.; Dovidio, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, automatic stereotype activation related to racial categories was examined utilizing a primed Stroop task. The speed of participants' ink-color naming of stereotypic and nonstereotypic target words following Black and White category primes were compared: slower naming times are

  6. Beyond the Stereotypes: An Inside Look at Canada's Emerging Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Reginald W.

    2010-01-01

    Stereotypes about teenagers typically result in negative views of young people and contribute to the age-old idea that every new generation of teenagers is somehow inferior to previous ones. One of the reasons for the prevalence of inaccurate stereotypes about teenagers in Canada is that people have not been having very many national conversations…

  7. Mathematically Gifted Adolescent Females' Mixed Sentiment toward Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chen-yao

    2015-01-01

    There has been a paucity of research on gifted individuals' perceptions of gender stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to explore mathematically gifted adolescent females' perceptions of gender stereotypes through a research design of the qualitative multiple case study involving the constant comparison and the Three C's analysis scheme.…

  8. Teaching Diversity in Organizations: Stereotyping the Stock Photo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherston, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Course: Organizational Communication. Objectives: After completing this single-class activity, students should be able to (1) identify stereotypes that are created and/or reinforced by images frequently used in communication materials, (2) explain how those stereotypes influence communication and relational barriers in organizations, and (3)…

  9. Older workers : stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiesa, Rita; Toderi, Stefano; Dordoni, Paola; Henkens, Kene; Fiabane, Elena Maria; Setti, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between organizational age stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy. First, the authors intend to test the measurement invariance of Henkens's (2005) age stereotypes scale across two age group, respectively, under 50 and 50 years

  10. Older workers: stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiesa, R.; Toderi, S.; Dordoni, P.; Henkens, K.; Fiabane, E.M.; Setti, I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The present study aims to explore the relationship between organizational age stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy. First, we intend to test the measurement invariance of Henkens (2005)’s age stereotypes scale across two age group, respectively under 50 years and 50 years and older.

  11. Older workers : Stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiesa, R.; Toderi, S.; Dordoni, P.; Henkens, K.; Fiabane, E.M.; Setti, I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between organizational age stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy. First, the authors intend to test the measurement invariance of Henkens’s (2005) age stereotypes scale across two age group, respectively, under 50 and 50 years and

  12. Stereotype threat in salary negotiations is mediated by reservation salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellhed, Una; Björklund, Fredrik

    2011-04-01

    Women are stereotypically perceived as worse negotiators than men, which may make them ask for less salary than men when under stereotype threat (Kray et al., 2001). However, the mechanisms of stereotype threat are not yet properly understood. The current study investigated whether stereotype threat effects in salary negotiations can be explained by motivational factors. A total of 116 business students negotiated salary with a confederate and were either told that this was diagnostic of negotiating ability (threat manipulation) or not. Measures of minimum (reservation) and ideal (aspiration) salary goals and regulatory focus were collected. The finding (Kray et al., 2001) that women make lower salary requests than men when under stereotype threat was replicated. Women in the threat condition further reported lower aspiration salary, marginally significantly lower reservation salary and less eagerness/more vigilance than men. Reservation salary mediated the stereotype threat effect, and there was a trend for regulatory focus to mediate the effect. Thus, reservation salary partly explains why women ask for less salary than men under stereotype threat. Female negotiators may benefit from learning that stereotype threat causes sex-differences in motivation. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  13. Ethnic stereotypes and the ideological manifestations of ethnicity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is informed by a series of Internet texts that were collected in the months leading to the 2007 general elections in Kenya. It explores the ethnic stereotype, linking it to ideas of ethnicity and power, 'othering' and the constructed nature of stereotypes. It asks a number of questions, including: Is there signifi cance to ...

  14. Academic Blogging: Academic Practice and Academic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkup, Gill

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…

  15. Academic and Career Development: Rethinking Advising for Asian American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne M.; Huynh, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Academic and career development for Asian American students is complicated by cultural influences, interdependence with family, and racial stereotyping. This chapter highlights research, theory, and practice to help educators rethink traditional advising approaches to more appropriately work with Asian American students as they navigate their…

  16. Disparity in Academic Achievement in Selected Colleges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out by employing closed-ended questionnaires addressing issues attributing to academic achievements like gender stereotype, admission procedure, institutional satisfaction, parental style, learning style, personality style and accommodation issues and Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of ...

  17. How do we Draw a Picture of the World: Cultural Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Tskhakaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “No man is an island” said a famous poet John Donne, implying that it is impossible to live in isolation from the society. This is what makes us, people, similar. But what is that makes us all different? The first answer that may come to our mind is culture. Every culture is unique and divides the individuals that present it into hundreds of groups. In this article a closer examination will be given to the process of communication of these cultures. People all over the world interact daily with each other for personal, academic and business purposes. But is it easy to be done or does it require specific knowledge of one another? Well, certainly it does, that is why we all live in the stereotypes that our ancestors have fostered in us: we think that the British are conservative, the Germans organized and Italians are talkative. On the first case study that was provided for the purpose of the article it will be shown how stereotypes appear on the screens of our TV sets and will reveal the vision of the British people on some other cultures. On the second case study an online conference between Russian and Chinese students will depict of two behavior models and demonstrate how two groups interacted with each other in an academic environment.

  18. Exploring Gender and Race amongst Female Sociologists Exiting Academia in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Marlize; Rugunanan, Pragna

    2012-01-01

    This article explores issues of gender and race in the academic careers of female sociologists in South Africa by focusing on selected women who left academic departments in higher education institutions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants who left various Sociology departments at different times. It was found that young black…

  19. Ageism at Organizations: a study of stereotypes in ageing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Blauth Loth

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is facing a rapidly aging population. In 2020 it is projected a median age of 31,8 years. This represents an increase of 12,4% over the average age in 2010. In 2030 this figure should reach 34,6average age and will continue to grow. This process offers challenges and opportunities for organizations, which are becoming increasingly diverse. However there are few studies in the country that focus on the phenomenon of ageism within organizational context. The present study attempted, through an exploratory and descriptive research, to understand whichare the stereotypes perceived by aging people in relation to ageism at work. Through open interviews was possible to identify three categories of stereotypical perceptions: stereotypical perceptions of themselves, stereotypical perceptions of others and stereotypical perceptions of young people. The results can help organizations to develop better intergenerational policies that promote a growing proximity between people who are in different stages of life and ages.

  20. Stereotyping by Omission: Eliminate the Negative, Accentuate the Positive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Leslie, Lisa M.; Constantine, Vanessa S.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Communicators, motivated by strategic self-presentation, selectively underreport negative content in describing their impressions of individuals and stereotypes of groups, particularly for targets whom they view ambivalently with respect to warmth and competence. Communicators avoid overtly inaccurate descriptions, preferring to omit negative information and emphasize positive information about mixed individual targets (Study 1). With more public audiences, communicators increasingly prefer negativity omission to complete accuracy (Study 2), a process driven by self-presentation concerns (Study 3), and moderated by bidimensional ambivalence. Similarly, in an extension of the Princeton Trilogy studies, reported stereotypes of ethnic and national outgroups systematically omitted negative dimensions over 75 years—as anti-prejudice norms intensified—while neutral and positive stereotype dimensions remained constant (Study 4). Multiple assessment methods confirm this stereotyping-by-omission phenomenon (Study 5). Implications of negativity omission for innuendo and stereotype stagnation are discussed. PMID:22448889

  1. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatoli, Relebohile; Bila, Nontembeko; Ross, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation. Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and 'othering'. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof.

  2. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatoli, Relebohile; Bila, Nontembeko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation. Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and ‘othering’. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof. PMID:28730019

  3. Resisting Negative Images and Stereotypes: One Latina Prospective Teacher’s Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri L. Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one Latina prospective teacher’s act of resisting negative stereotypes regarding attire imposed upon her by a white female principal.  The event is embedded within a larger life history study that explores the experiences of bilingual Latino prospective teachers in the elementary education program of a large Midwestern university.  The selected narrative is contextualized in relation to resistance narratives. Patricia Morales tells about her experiences in U.S. schools.  It explores how Patricia’s life history is marked by experiences of discrimination, yet how her constructions of these events represent “counterstories” (Delgado, 2000; Solorzano & Yosso, 2002 through which she “talks back” (hooks, 1989 to distorted images and stereotypes.  Patricia’s narratives are shown to constitute creative acts of resistance through which she negotiates a positive and affirming identity (Suarez-Orozco & Suarez-Orozco, 2001 as a Latina prospective teacher.   Keywords: preservice teachers; teacher education; Latino critical race theory; narrative inquiry

  4. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relebohile Phatoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation.Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and ‘othering’. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof.

  5. Academic Hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  6. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record.

  7. An Experimental Study of the Effects of Stereotype Threat and Stereotype Lift on Men and Women's Performance in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather J.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Saxon, Terrill F.; Johnson, Megan K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the differential effects of stereotype threat and lift between genders on math test performance. They asked 3 questions: (a) What is the effect of gender on math test performance?, (b) What is the effect of stereotyping condition (threat, lift, or neither) on math test performance?, and (c) What is the effect of…

  8. Stereotypes as stumbling-blocks: how coping with stereotype threat affects life outcomes for people with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Arielle M; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2014-10-01

    Stereotype threat, the concern about being judged in light of negative stereotypes, causes underperformance in evaluative situations. However, less is known about how coping with stereotypes can aggravate underperformance over time. We propose a model in which ongoing stereotype threat experiences threaten a person's sense of self-integrity, which in turn prompts defensive avoidance of stereotype-relevant situations, impeding growth, achievement, and well-being. We test this model in an important but understudied population: the physically disabled. In Study 1, blind adults reporting higher levels of stereotype threat reported lower self-integrity and well-being and were more likely to be unemployed and to report avoiding stereotype-threatening situations. In Study 2's field experiment, blind students in a compensatory skill-training program made more progress if they had completed a values-affirmation, an exercise that bolsters self-integrity. The findings suggest that stereotype threat poses a chronic threat to self-integrity and undermines life outcomes for people with disabilities. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. The racing dragon

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Dating back nearly 2000 years, the ancient Chinese tradition of Dragon Boat Racing was originally a celebration that fell on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month as a gesture to please the Gods and bring forth necessary rains to cultivate the lands. Now the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, too, participates in this tradition, though not so much to please the Gods on the ritualistic date, but to bring forth giant smiles on the faces of members. Dragon Boat Racing has been rising steadily in popularity in Europe since the mid nineties and with the great potential to host and promote Dragon Boat Racing in the Geneva area, the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, has taken the initiative to bring the sport to the region. Some members of the Club traveled to Dole in June to participate in the Festival Dragon Boat 2009. Under perfect sunny conditions, the team triumphed in their first ever tournament, cruising to a convincing first place overall finish. T...

  10. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    This year’s CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20th May at 12h00. This annual event is for teams of 6 runners covering distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner receives a souvenir prize. As usual, there will be a programme of entertainments from 12h in the arrival area, in front of the Restaurant no. 1. Drinks, food, CERN club information and music will be available for the pleasure of both runners and spectators. The race starts at 12h15, with results and prize giving at 13:15.   For details of the race, and of how to sign up a team, please visit: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay The event is organised by the CERN Running Club with the support of the CERN Staff Association.  

  11. CERN Relay Race 2018

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Running club

    2018-01-01

    The CERN running club, in collaboration with the Staff Association, is happy to announce the 2018 relay race edition. It will take place on Thursday, May 24th and will consist as every year in a round trip of the CERN Meyrin site in teams of 6 members. It is a fun event, and you do not have to run fast to enjoy it. Registrations will be open from May 1st to May 22nd on the running club web site. All information concerning the race and the registration are available there too: http://runningclub.web.cern.ch/content/cern-relay-race. A video of the previous edition is also available here : http://cern.ch/go/Nk7C. As every year, there will be animations starting at noon on the lawn in front of restaurant 1, and information stands for many CERN associations and clubs will be available. The running club partners will also be participate in the event, namely Berthie Sport, Interfon and Uniqa.

  12. Breaking the Silence: Time to Talk About Race and Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, David; Ackerman-Barger, Kupiri

    2017-03-01

    Recent events in the United States have catalyzed the need for all educators to begin paying attention to and discovering ways to dialogue about race. No longer can health professions (HP) educators ignore or avoid these difficult conversations. HP students are now demanding them. Cultural sensitivity and unconscious bias training are not enough. Good will and good intentions are not enough. Current faculty development paradigms are no longer sufficient to meet the educational challenges of delving into issues of race, power, privilege, identity, and social justice.Engaging in such conversations, however, can be overwhelmingly stressful for untrained faculty. The authors argue that before any curriculum on race and racism can be developed for HP students, and before faculty members can begin facilitating conversations about race and racism, faculty must receive proper training through intense and introspective faculty development. Training should cover how best to engage in, sustain, and deepen interracial dialogue on difficult topics such as race and racism within academic health centers (AHCs). If such faculty development training-in how to conduct interracial dialogues on race, racism, oppression, and the invisibility of privilege-is made standard at all AHCs, HP educators might be poised to actualize the real benefits of open dialogue and change.

  13. Race walking gait and its influence on race walking economy in world-class race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ezeiza, Josu; Torres-Unda, Jon; Tam, Nicholas; Irazusta, Jon; Granados, Cristina; Santos-Concejero, Jordan

    2018-03-06

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between biomechanical parameters of the gait cycle and race walking economy in world-class Olympic race walkers. Twenty-One world-class race walkers possessing the Olympic qualifying standard participated in this study. Participants completed an incremental race walking test starting at 10 km·h -1 , where race walking economy (ml·kg -1 ·km -1 ) and spatiotemporal gait variables were analysed at different speeds. 20-km race walking performance was related to race walking economy, being the fastest race walkers those displaying reduced oxygen cost at a given speed (R = 0.760, p economy (moderate effect, p economi cal than the lesser performers. Similarly, shorter flight times are associated with a more efficient race walking economy. Coaches and race walkers should avoid modifying their race walking style by increasing flight times, as it may not only impair economy, but also lead to disqualification.

  14. Extracting the Evaluations of Stereotypes: Bi-factor Model of the Stereotype Content Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Sayans-Jiménez, Pablo; Cuadrado, Isabel; Rojas, Antonio J.; Barrada, Juan R.

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype dimensions—competence, morality and sociability—are fundamental to studying the perception of other groups. These dimensions have shown moderate/high positive correlations with each other that do not reflect the theoretical expectations. The explanation for this (e.g., halo effect) undervalues the utility of the shared variance identified. In contrast, in this work we propose that this common variance could represent the global evaluation of the perceived group. Bi-factor models ar...

  15. Women leaders in academia, gender and stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Carolina Moncayo Orjuela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the leadership characteristics typical of women in managerial positions in higher education institutions, starting from a particular literary approach and found in research regarding this topic. It is based on the subjective constructions of social duality between the masculine and feminine genders and attributes in the social relations of power. Also, within the conceptual framework examines leadership as a social construction and, therefore, their dependence on the various social characterizations. To fulfill the goal four themes were set. They allow the categorization of the literature review, namely: leadership and development, gender and stereotypes, leadership and gender, and to end, women's leadership in education institutions. Finally, we present the results of the literature research, where the transactional transformational, participative and authoritarian leadership styles are clearly evident, from which the transformational, characteristic of women, is the must in power and leadership positions in higher education institutions.

  16. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  17. Stereotypic movement disorder after acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Cynthia M; Kennedy, Richard E; Hoye, Wayne; Yablon, Stuart A

    2002-05-01

    Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) consists of repetitive, non-functional motor behaviour that interferes with daily living or causes injury to the person. It is most often described in patients with mental retardation. However, recent evidence indicates that this condition is common among otherwise normal individuals. This case study describes a patient with new-onset SMD occurring after subdural haematoma and brain injury. SMD has rarely been reported after acquired brain injury, and none have documented successful treatment. The current psychiatric literature regarding neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, and treatment of SMD are reviewed with particular application to one patient. Treatment options include serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, opioid antagonists and dopamine antagonists. SMD has been under-appreciated in intellectually normal individuals, and may also be unrecognized after brain injury. Further investigation is needed in this area, which may benefit other individuals with SMD as well.

  18. Tracking subtle stereotypes of children with trisomy 21: from facial-feature-based to implicit stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea-Drapeau, Claire; Carlier, Michèle; Huguet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Stigmatization is one of the greatest obstacles to the successful integration of people with Trisomy 21 (T21 or Down syndrome), the most frequent genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability. Research on attitudes and stereotypes toward these people still focuses on explicit measures subjected to social-desirability biases, and neglects how variability in facial stigmata influences attitudes and stereotyping. The participants were 165 adults including 55 young adult students, 55 non-student adults, and 55 professional caregivers working with intellectually disabled persons. They were faced with implicit association tests (IAT), a well-known technique whereby response latency is used to capture the relative strength with which some groups of people--here photographed faces of typically developing children and children with T21--are automatically (without conscious awareness) associated with positive versus negative attributes in memory. Each participant also rated the same photographed faces (consciously accessible evaluations). We provide the first evidence that the positive bias typically found in explicit judgments of children with T21 is smaller for those whose facial features are highly characteristic of this disorder, compared to their counterparts with less distinctive features and to typically developing children. We also show that this bias can coexist with negative evaluations at the implicit level (with large effect sizes), even among professional caregivers. These findings support recent models of feature-based stereotyping, and more importantly show how crucial it is to go beyond explicit evaluations to estimate the true extent of stigmatization of intellectually disabled people.

  19. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Bernhard; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have stereotypes, support in school, and family support contribute to the self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects—something that in the present study proved to be especially beneficial for women

  20. Backlash against gender stereotype-violating preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jessica; Moss-Racusin, Corinne; Lopez, Michael; Williams, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    While there is substantial evidence that adults who violate gender stereotypes often face backlash (i.e. social and economic penalties), less is known about the nature of gender stereotypes for young children, and the penalties that children may face for violating them. We conducted three experiments, with over 2000 adults from the US, to better understand the content and consequences of adults' gender stereotypes for young children. In Experiment 1, we tested which characteristics adults (N = 635) believed to be descriptive (i.e. typical), prescriptive (i.e. required), and proscriptive (i.e. forbidden) for preschool-aged boys and girls. Using the characteristics that were rated in Experiment 1, we then constructed vignettes that were either 'masculine' or 'feminine', and manipulated whether the vignettes were said to describe a boy or a girl. Experiment 2 (N = 697) revealed that adults rated stereotype-violating children as less likeable than their stereotype-conforming peers, and that this difference was more robust for boys than girls. Experiment 3 (N = 731) was a direct replication of Experiment 2, and revealed converging evidence of backlash against stereotype-violating children. In sum, our results suggest that even young children encounter backlash from adults for stereotype violations, and that these effects may be strongest for boys.

  1. Stereotypes of football players as a function of positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R L; Youssef, Z I

    1975-01-01

    Sports experts agree that different football positions require different personality characteristics and a varied level of motor skill, e.g., quarterback position presumably demands a calm personality, a cerebral endowment, and great motor finesse. By contrast, some other positions may require sheer physical strength and a combative aggressive personality. This study investigated whether football coaches stereotype players according to their various positions and attempted to determine the profile, magnitude and consistency of such stereotyping on both personality traits and motor skill dimensions. This study also investigated the relationship between such stereotypes and the players' scores on psychological tests. On two separate occasions, each of six coaches rated thirteen football positions as to their players' motor skill and personality characteristics. Coaches were instructed to base their ratings on their actual experiences with the players of each position throughout their coaching careers. MMPI-derived scales and the 16 PF test were administered to 251 players. Test-retest correlation coefficients indicate that the six coaches were reliably stable in their stereotypes of the players. Coefficients of concordance indicate significant agreement among the coaches on the stereotypes. Only the 16 PF scores yielded a personality picture consistent with the coaches' stereotypes. Effect of such stereotyping on interpersonal relationships between coach and player are discussed.

  2. The effect of gender stereotype activation on entrepreneurial intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal K; Turban, Daniel B; Bhawe, Nachiket M

    2008-09-01

    In this study, the impact of implicit and explicit activation of gender stereotypes on men's and women's intentions to pursue a traditionally masculine career, such as entrepreneurship, was examined. On the basis of stereotype activation theory, it was hypothesized that men and women would confirm the gender stereotype about entrepreneurship when it was presented implicitly but disconfirm it when it was presented explicitly. Hypotheses were tested by randomly assigning 469 business students to one of 6 experimental conditions and then measuring their entrepreneurial intentions. Results supported the hypothesis when entrepreneurship was associated with stereotypically masculine characteristics but not when it was associated with traditionally feminine characteristics. Men also had higher entrepreneurial intention scores compared with women when no stereotypical information about entrepreneurship was presented, suggesting that underlying societal stereotypes associating entrepreneurship with masculine characteristics may influence people's intentions. However, men and women reported similar intentions when entrepreneurship was presented as gender neutral, suggesting that widely held gender stereotypes can be nullified. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Getting to Know You: Familiarity, Stereotypes, and Children's Eyewitness Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordón, Ingrid M; Silberkleit, Gent; Goodman, Gail S

    2016-01-01

    The present study concerned how the acquisition of social information, specifically knowledge about personal characteristics, influences young children's memory and suggestibility. Effects of two sources of knowledge about a target person were systematically examined: familiarity and stereotypes. Children, aged 4-5 and 7-9 years (N = 145), were randomly assigned, per age group, to experimental conditions based on a familiarity (6 hours vs. no prior exposure) × stereotype (negative depiction as messy and clumsy vs. no stereotype) factorial design. Children then watched the target person engage in a target event (a series of contests) at a preschool ("Camp Ingrid"). The children's memory and suggestibility about the target person and target event were tested after a delay of 2 weeks. Results indicated that the negative stereotype resulted in an increase in children's correct responses both to free-recall stereotype-related questions (when children were unfamiliar with the target person) and to closed-ended questions overall (for younger children). However, the stereotype was associated with greater error to stereotype-related closed-ended questions. Moreover, familiarity increased children's accuracy to closed-ended questions. Implications for theory and application are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Contributions of dental colour to the physical attractiveness stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, J; Gómez-Polo, C; Santos, J A; Portillo, M; Lorenzo, M C; Albaladejo, A

    2014-10-01

    Dental appearance may play a key role on the way we develop a first impression of another person. To test whether relatively minor changes in the lightness of tooth colour would influence the perceived social appeal (social, intellectual, psychological and relational abilities) of an unknown male and unknown female, this cross-sectional study was performed on 555 Spanish adults. The two major independent variables related to the photograph were tooth lightness (computer-derived), divided into three levels that included lightened teeth, natural teeth and darkened teeth, and the gender of the observed face. Moreover, six independent variables related to the observer were assessed (age, gender, educational level, place of residence, frequency of brushing and self-reported health status). The dependent variables were scored on five-point Likert scales designed to quantify four domains (social, intellectual, psychological and relationship competences) of the Social Appeal Scale (SAS). Tooth lightness influences the perception of social appeal in all dimensions, as darkened smiles received significantly poorer scores than natural-colour smiles, but these were also worse than lightened smiles. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the major predictor of social appeal was tooth lightness, and for each increment in lightness (from darkened to lightened smiles), the odds ratio (OR) of positive values being perceived increased significantly in all items (from 2·3 in Popularity to 6·9 in Happiness). A perceptible change in dental lightness is the strongest factor associated with the dental attractiveness stereotype, affecting significantly the 12 traits assessed, but mainly the Happiness, Social Relations and Academic Performance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Ethical Aspects of Gender Stereotypes in Romanian Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRUNZA Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim at arguing that the advertising agencies – as significant organizations in the field of public communication – should follow the example of business corporations that are voluntarily using ethical practices to increase the trust of customers. One area where this can be done safely and constructively is the area of gender stereotypes in advertisement. By removing gender stereotypes and promoting non-stereotypical, creative images of gender relations, ads can simultaneously promote their brands as open-minded, creative and modern and inspire building the trust of their customers.

  6. [Cultural diversity and stereotyping: implication for the medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux-Paillard, S; Loutan, L

    2005-09-28

    Increasing number of migrants worldwide brings doctors to treat patients of various origins. Patients' diversity enriches health professionals but also induces a risk of mutual incomprehension, due to cultural and language barriers. Multicultural context stimulates unwittingly stereotyping, based on a simplistic assessment of the patient's culture. Stereotyping is also influenced by the political and media coverage. Studies underscored that universally, minorities patients have an unequal access to health care in host countries. Health professionals should be aware that racial stereotyping exists in medical practice: it is a first step to bridge cultural gap between them and their patients.

  7. Stereotype threat and social function in opioid substitution therapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Henry, Julie D; Terrett, Gill; Mercuri, Kimberly; McAlear, Karen; Rendell, Peter G

    2017-06-01

    People with a history of substance abuse are subject to widespread stigmatization. It seems likely that this societal disapproval will result in feelings of stereotype threat, or the belief that one is the target of demeaning stereotypes. If so, stereotype threat has the potential to contribute to functional difficulties including poor social outcomes. Eighty drug users on opioid substitution therapy and 84 demographically matched controls completed measures of mental health and social function. The opioid substitution therapy group were additionally asked to complete a measure that focused on their feelings of stereotype threat in relation to their drug use history. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to establish the magnitude and specificity of the relationship between stereotype threat and social functioning. Relative to controls, the opioid substitution therapy group reported higher levels of negative affect and schizotypy, and poorer social functioning, with all three of these indices significantly correlated with their feelings of stereotype threat. The results also showed that stereotype threat contributed significant unique variance to social functioning in the opioid substitution therapy group, even after taking into account other background, clinical, and mental health variables. Social functioning is an important aspect of recovery, yet these data indicate that people with a history of drug abuse who believe they are the target of stereotypical attitudes have poorer social functioning. This relationship holds after controlling for the impact of other variables on social functioning, including mental health. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Concerns about being stereotyped can shape the social experiences of opioid substitution therapy patients. Opioid substitution therapy patients who feel negatively stereotyped experience greater social function deficits, and this

  8. Bike Racing Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  9. Logical empiricists on race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Liam Kofi

    2017-10-01

    The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An examination of age-based stereotype threat about cognitive decline: Implications for stereotype threat research and theory development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype threat” is often thought of as a singular construct, with moderators and mechanisms that are stable across groups and domains. However, this is not always true. To illustrate this, the current review focuses on the stereotype threat that older adults face about their cognitive abilities. Using Shapiro and Neuberg's (2007) Multi-Threat Framework, I first provide evidence that this is a self-concept threat, and not a group-reputation threat. Because this differs from the form(s) of threat experienced by other groups (e.g., the threat that minority students face about their intellectual abilities), the moderators of threat observed in other groups (i.e., group identification) do not always generalize to age-based stereotype threat about cognitive decline. Looking beyond the form(s) of threat elicited, this review also provides evidence that the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects may vary across the lifespan. Due to age-related improvements in emotion regulation abilities, stereotype threat does not seem to reduce older adults' executive control resources. Overall, this review highlights the need to approach the concept of stereotype threat with more granularity. This will allow us to design more effective stereotype threat interventions. It will also shed light on why certain effects “fail to replicate” across domains or groups. PMID:28073332

  11. Academic dishonsty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    avoidance and mastery orientation, Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA), awareness of academic rules and regulations, assessment practices, faculty, and university attended predicted the different types of academic dishonesty with varying levels of significance. INTRODUCTION. Today's undergraduate students are ...

  12. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  13. Stereotype Strength and Attentional Bias: Preference for Confirming versus Disconfirming Information Depends on Processing Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas J.; Sherman, Jeffrey W.; Conrey, Frederica R.; Stroessner, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the relationships among stereotype strength, processing capacity, and the allocation of attention to stereotype-consistent versus stereotype-inconsistent information describing a target person. The results of both experiments showed that, with full capacity, greater stereotype strength was associated with increased attention toward stereotype-consistent versus stereotype-inconsistent information. However, when capacity was diminished, greater stereotype strength was associated with increased attention toward inconsistent versus consistent information. Thus, strong stereotypes may act as self-confirming filters when processing capacity is plentiful, but as efficient information gathering devices that maximize the acquisition of novel (disconfirming) information when capacity is depleted. Implications for models of stereotyping and stereotype change are discussed. PMID:20161043

  14. Gender-related academic and occupational interests and goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the theories and empirical evidence concerning whether gender differences in academic and occupational goals and interests exist, and if so, why those differences may be present. Expectancy-value theory, stereotype threat, sociocultural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis lay the theoretical framework for this chapter. Following a brief review of these theories, we describe the evidence for gender differences in academic ability and occupational interests and goals, using meta-analytic reviews wherever possible. Although there are few gender differences in academic ability, some gender differences in occupational goals and interests persist, particularly in science and mathematics. These gender differences may be due to parental or cultural expectations, changes in developmental trends, stereotypes and discrimination, or gendered-expectations to achieve work-family balance. Overall, the pathways to adult occupations are complex, involving many factors that affect occupational goals, interests, and self-concept.

  15. academic libraries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Enhancing research visibility of academics: the role of academic libraries. Information Impact: Journal of Information and. Knowledge Management. 2017, Vol. .... Social media platforms allow users to connect, create, promote, share and follow interest groups. With these capabilities, academic libraries can make use of ...

  16. Politicy of care in the criticism towards gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Maria Raquel Gomes Maia; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Padilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    analyze gender inequalities among Brazilian women in Portugal and in contemporary nursing based on care politicity in the light of gender; disclose oppression of the female produced by the stereotypes that look upon women as natural caregivers; point out politicity to deconstruct gender stereotypes. theoretical reflection with narrative review of literature to analyze classic references in the feminist epistemology combined with the care politicity thesis. the similarities between the stereotypes of the Brazilian Eves and the Portuguese Maries as either the sexualized or sanctified nurse are inserted in the Jewish-Christian moral genealogy that reaffirms the subservience of the female to the male. by attaching priority to care that needs non-care to expand the possibilities of care giving, the theoretical assumption of politicy of care can contribute to subvert the stereotypical images of Brazilian women in Portuguese lands and in contemporary nursing.

  17. Forming impressions: effects of facial expression and gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Tay

    2014-04-01

    The present study of 138 participants explored how facial expressions and gender stereotypes influence impressions. It was predicted that images of smiling women would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting warmth, and that images of non-smiling men would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting competence. As predicted, smiling female faces were rated as more warm; however, contrary to prediction, perceived competence of male faces was not affected by facial expression. Participants' female stereotype endorsement was a significant predictor for evaluations of female faces; those who ascribed more strongly to traditional female stereotypes reported the most positive impressions of female faces displaying a smiling expression. However, a similar effect was not found for images of men; endorsement of traditional male stereotypes did not predict participants' impressions of male faces.

  18. Sex-Trait Stereotypes in India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Sex-trait stereotypes were studied among five- and eight-year-old children and among university students in India and Pakistan. Results were generally congruent with the findings from similar studies in western countries. (Author/MP)

  19. Stereotypes of Age Differences in Personality Traits: Universal and Accurate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wayne; McCrae, Robert R.; De Fruyt, Filip; Jussim, Lee; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Hřebíčková, Martina; Kourilova, Sylvie; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claduio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Age trajectories for personality traits are known to be similar across cultures. To address whether stereotypes of age groups reflect these age-related changes in personality, we asked participants in 26 countries (N = 3,323) to rate typical adolescents, adults, and old persons in their own country. Raters across nations tended to share similar beliefs about different age groups; adolescents were seen as impulsive, rebellious, undisciplined, preferring excitement and novelty, whereas old people were consistently considered lower on impulsivity, activity, antagonism, and Openness. These consensual age group stereotypes correlated strongly with published age differences on the five major dimensions of personality and most of 30 specific traits, using as criteria of accuracy both self-reports and observer ratings, different survey methodologies, and data from up to 50 nations. However, personal stereotypes were considerably less accurate, and consensual stereotypes tended to exaggerate differences across age groups. PMID:23088227

  20. CODING LOGICAL MECHANISM AND STEREOTYPING IN GENDER CYBER HUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truly Almendo Pasaribu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related humors have their own way of being funny; and this research aims to find out how and why they are funny. For this purpose, both researchers have collected 50 gender cyber humors and analyzed them, first, to decode how their logical mechanism relates to specific linguistic features, and secondly, to uncover how gender stereotyping contributes to the comical effects. The twisting of logic and linguistic ambiguity is analyzed formally using Attardos (2001 General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH and supported by gender studies. The findings reveal that the logical mechanism consists of elements of incongruities, and gender stereotyping presents negative stereotypical images. The analysis further shows that some gender stereotypical images ridicule traditional roles of man and woman while others make fun of non-traditional representations. This shift from women only to both men and women as targets of gender humors has been an impact of effective feminist movements.

  1. Disgust, contempt, and anger and the stereotypes of obese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Thomas, Margaret A; Vanman, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    Emotions form an important part of stereotyping and prejudice, but little is known about how intergroup emotions are associated with anti-fat prejudice. This study examined the relation between negative intergroup emotions (disgust, contempt, and anger) and the stereotypes of obese people. A community sample (n = 380) and an undergraduate sample (n = 96) rated obese people on common obesity stereotypes (e.g., lazy, sloppy), and also indicated the extent to which they felt disgust, contempt, and anger toward obese people. In both samples, participants reported feeling more disgust and contempt than anger toward obese people. Furthermore, regression analyses indicated that disgust was a significant positive predictor of obesity stereotypes, but contempt and anger were not. Overall, these findings provide further evidence that disgust plays an important role in prejudice toward obese people.

  2. Emotion blocks the path to learning under stereotype threat

    OpenAIRE

    Mangels, Jennifer A.; Good, Catherine; Whiteman, Ronald C.; Maniscalco, Brian; Dweck, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Gender-based stereotypes undermine females’ performance on challenging math tests, but how do they influence their ability to learn from the errors they make? Females under stereotype threat or non-threat were presented with accuracy feedback after each problem on a GRE-like math test, followed by an optional interactive tutorial that provided step-wise problem-solving instruction. Event-related potentials tracked the initial detection of the negative feedback following errors [feedback relat...

  3. Women and men in management : Stereotypes, evaluation and discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Kusterer, Hanna Li

    2014-01-01

    Very few women hold top corporate positions in Sweden, and women are underrepresented as managers in all work sectors. The present thesis examined stereotypes, perceptions and presuppositions about women, men and management with a combination of perspectives from social and organizational psychology, discourse analysis and gender in organization research. Study 1 of Paper I was a content analysis of management attributes and cultural stereotypes of female and male managers. In Study 2, an inv...

  4. Young and older adults’ gender stereotype in multitasking

    OpenAIRE

    Tilo eStrobach; Alesia eWoszidlo

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collec...

  5. Superman meets Don Quixote: stereotypes in clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkus, Rosa Lynn

    1986-01-01

    Drawing in part on her experiences as a "humanist-in-residence" on a neurological surgery service, the author discusses how stereotypic views held by and toward physicians and humanists interfere with the teaching of ethics to physicians and, indirectly, to the general public. She traces the development of these stereotypes over the past hundred years and suggests ways that they can be overcome to permit more effective working relationships between physicians and clinical ethicists.

  6. Hiring retirees: impact of age norms and stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Karspinska, K.; Henkens, K.; Schippers, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to investigate the role of managers in the re-employment of early retirees and focuses on the effect of managers' age norms and stereotypes on managers' employment decisions. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of a factorial study and a survey was conducted. First, information on the age norms and stereotypes was collected. Secondly, profiles of hypothetical retired job applicants were presented to the employers, who were asked to make a specific hiring deci...

  7. Tracking subtle stereotypes of children with trisomy 21: from facial-feature-based to implicit stereotyping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Enea-Drapeau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stigmatization is one of the greatest obstacles to the successful integration of people with Trisomy 21 (T21 or Down syndrome, the most frequent genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability. Research on attitudes and stereotypes toward these people still focuses on explicit measures subjected to social-desirability biases, and neglects how variability in facial stigmata influences attitudes and stereotyping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The participants were 165 adults including 55 young adult students, 55 non-student adults, and 55 professional caregivers working with intellectually disabled persons. They were faced with implicit association tests (IAT, a well-known technique whereby response latency is used to capture the relative strength with which some groups of people--here photographed faces of typically developing children and children with T21--are automatically (without conscious awareness associated with positive versus negative attributes in memory. Each participant also rated the same photographed faces (consciously accessible evaluations. We provide the first evidence that the positive bias typically found in explicit judgments of children with T21 is smaller for those whose facial features are highly characteristic of this disorder, compared to their counterparts with less distinctive features and to typically developing children. We also show that this bias can coexist with negative evaluations at the implicit level (with large effect sizes, even among professional caregivers. CONCLUSION: These findings support recent models of feature-based stereotyping, and more importantly show how crucial it is to go beyond explicit evaluations to estimate the true extent of stigmatization of intellectually disabled people.

  8. Sygdomsrelateret adfærd og sociale stereotyper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2008-01-01

    Som lægmandskategorier bruges stereotyper til at præsentere en given gruppes essentielle eller iboende kulturelle værdier. Det er også tilfældet indenfor sundhedsvæsnet, hvor stereotyper ofte bruges som billeder på kønslige og kulturelle forskelle. Her opstår stereotyper som blandt andet 'den...... hypokondriske kvinde' og 'den jyske landmand'. Formålet med denne artikel er at diskutere de sociale stereotypers funktion i sundhedsvæsnet ud fra et antropologisk perspektiv. Vi ønsker at bidrage til en processuel forståelse af, hvordan sociale stereotyper benyttes i forhold til sygdomsrelateret adfærd....... Artiklen tager udgangspunkt i to kvalitative studier af henholdsvis lægesøgningsadfærd blandt danske kræftpatienter og postoperativ smertebehandlingspraksis i Danmark og Italien. Det er artiklens hovedargument at stereotyper har en social funktion, mere end de er en præsentation af den sociale virkelighed...

  9. Challenging gender stereotypes: Theory of mind and peer group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Rizzo, Michael T; Killen, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the social cognitive skills related to challenging gender stereotypes, children (N = 61, 3-6 years) evaluated a peer who challenged gender stereotypic norms held by the peer's group. Participants with false belief theory of mind (FB ToM) competence were more likely than participants who did not have FB ToM to expect a peer to challenge the group's stereotypes and propose that the group engage in a non-stereotypic activity. Further, participants with FB ToM rated challenging the peer group more positively. Participants without FB ToM did not differentiate between their own and the group's evaluation of challenges to the group's stereotypic norms, but those with ToM competence asserted that they would be more supportive of challenging the group norm than would the peer group. Results reveal the importance of social-cognitive competencies for recognizing the legitimacy of challenging stereotypes, and for understanding one's own and other group perspectives. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Evolution of gender stereotypes in Spain: traits and roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sáez, Mercedes; Morales, J Francisco; Lisbona, Ana

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study is twofold: to determine whether (and how) gender stereotypes have changed over time through a comparison of two different sets of data collected in 1993 (N=1255) and 2001 (N=1255) from a representative sample of the Spanish population, and to examine the relation between gender traits and roles and its stability over time. In addition, special attention is paid to the psychometric properties of the measures of gender traits and roles used in the study. The content of gender stereotypes was found to remain stable over the target period of time, confirming the classical typology (a higher assignment of expressive-communal traits to women and of instrumental-agentic traits to men). The structure of the gender-role questionnaire allows us to distinguish between family-role and work-role stereotyping. Gender-role stereotyping shows a marked decline between 1993 and 2001, a result that contrasts with the stability of trait-role stereotyping. The fact that a very low correlation is observed at the two time points between these two components of gender stereotyping strongly suggests their independence.

  11. Impact of social pressure on stereotypes about obese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jessica; Carels, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to test the effects of different types of influence on the expression of stereotypes towards people who are obese. It was hypothesized that public social pressure would more significantly impact the expression of stereotypes towards obese people than other types of influence. One-hundred fifty-eight undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions or a control condition. Participants completed measures of stereotypes towards obese people prior to and after receiving manipulated feedback depicting purported stereotypes possessed by others (anonymously or publically) or scientific information about the base rates of these stereotypical traits in the obese population (i.e., trait prevalence). Participants also completed a measure of weight bias unrelated to the manipulated feedback. Explicit beliefs were influenced more when people perceived that others' views were inconsistent with their own in a public setting than an anonymous setting or when they received trait prevalence feedback. However, levels of weight bias on a separate measure were unchanged. Strong, public manipulations of social feedback have great potential to impact, at least, the short-term expression of stereotypes towards obese people.

  12. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  13. Stereotype threat can both enhance and impair older adults' memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-12-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults' memory via stereotype threat; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In two experiments, we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts of stereotype threat: executive-control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about age-related memory declines or not under such threat. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive-control-interference account predicts that stereotype threat decreases the availability of executive-control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory-fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus, which should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were consistent only with the regulatory-fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses.

  14. Stereotype threat reduces false recognition when older adults are forewarned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessica T; Gallo, David A

    2016-01-01

    Exposing older adults to ageing stereotypes can reduce their memory for studied information--a phenomenon attributed to stereotype threat--but little is known about stereotype effects on false memory. Here, we assessed ageing stereotype effects on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory illusion. Older adults studied lists of semantically associated words, and then read a passage about age-related memory decline (threat condition) or an age-neutral passage (control condition). They then took a surprise memory test with a warning to avoid false recognition of non-studied associates. Relative to the control condition, activating stereotype threat reduced the recognition of both studied and non-studied words, implicating a conservative criterion shift for associated test words. These results indicate that stereotype threat can reduce false memory, and they help to clarify mixed results from prior ageing research. Consistent with the regulatory focus hypothesis, threat motivates older adults to respond more conservatively when error-prevention is emphasised at retrieval.

  15. The N400 as an index of racial stereotype accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehman, Eric; Volpert, Hannah I; Simons, Robert F

    2014-04-01

    The current research examined the viability of the N400, an event-related potential (ERP) related to the detection of semantic incongruity, as an index of both stereotype accessibility and interracial prejudice. Participants' EEG was recorded while they completed a sequential priming task, in which negative or positive, stereotypically black (African American) or white (Caucasian American) traits followed the presentation of either a black or white face acting as a prime. ERP examination focused on the N400, but additionally examined N100 and P200 reactivity. Replicating and extending previous N400 stereotype research, results indicated that the N400 can indeed function as an index of stereotype accessibility in an interracial domain, as greater N400 reactivity was elicited by trials in which the face prime was incongruent with the target trait than when primes and traits matched. Furthermore, N400 activity was moderated by participants' self-reported explicit bias. More explicitly biased participants demonstrated greater N400 reactivity to stereotypically white traits following black faces than black traits following black faces. P200 activity was additionally associated with participants' implicit biases, as more implicitly biased participants similarly demonstrated greater P200 reactivity to stereotypically white traits following black faces than black traits following black faces.

  16. Teacher Race and School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Constance A.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Does having a teacher of the same race make it more or less likely that students are subject to exclusionary school discipline? In this study, the authors analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at…

  17. Race and Class on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Angel B.

    2016-01-01

    Colleges and universities have a significant role to play in shaping the future of race and class relations in America. As exhibited in this year's presidential election, race and class continue to divide. Black Lives Matter movements, campus protests, and police shootings are just a few examples of the proliferation of intolerance, and higher…

  18. Teaching about the Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, Dietrich

    1983-01-01

    Focusing on long-term arms-race education, discusses what physicists can do to help provide students and the public with technical information needed to understand issues involved in the nuclear cold war. Suggestions provided focus on public programs, media, publications, education of physicists, arms-race courses, "enrichment in physics courses,"…

  19. Intersectionality and Critical Race Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePouw, Christin

    2018-01-01

    This conceptual article employs critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical framework to explore the importance of intersectionality in critical race parenting. In particular, I focus on intersectionality to understand better how Whiteness and racial power play out in intimate relationships within the family, particularly between White parents and…

  20. [Stereotyping of overweight children by their contemporaries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Ansgar; Alizadeh, Manuela; Giel, Katrin; Zipfel, Stephan

    2008-12-01

    Childhood obesity represents not only a health risk but results also in social exclusion and stigmatization. While several studies have been conducted on this topic in America [1-3], there are hardly any German trials on the social impact of obesity in childhood and adolescence. This study investigates whether and how obese children and adolescents are stigmatized by their contemporaries because of their corpulence. A total of 454 (230 female, 224-male) children and adolescents aged 10-15 years from high and secondary modern schools in a Southern German university city were asked about how they appreciate their obese contemporaries. The interviewees were asked to assess six photographs of girls and boys with regard to sympathy, playmate preference, activity, intelligence and attractiveness. Obese children were assessed far more negatively in all asked areas compared to normal weight healthy and physically disabled children respectively. They were also referred to as more dislikable, lazy, less intelligent, unalluring and less considerable as playmates. This applies particularly for the obese boy. Hence, negative stereotypization of obese people can already be observed in childhood and adolescence.

  1. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 18 May between 12.15 and 12.35. This year, weather permitting, there will be some new attractions in the start/finish area on the field behind the Main Building. You will be able to: listen to music played by the CERN Jazz Club; buy drinks at the bar organised by the CERN Running Club; buy lunch served directly on the terrace by the restaurant Novae. ATTENTION: concerning traffic, the recommendations are the same as always: If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  2. Young, Black, Mathematically Gifted, and Stereotyped

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Ebony

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I describe the academic dilemma experienced by Tamara (pseudonym), a mathematically high-achieving high school sophomore. Raised in an economically strapped neighborhood, Tamara had the opportunity to attend a prestigious private high school, tuition free. Confronted by being viewed as an affirmative action student Tamara uses this…

  3. 2008 annual CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Dear runners, The 2008 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 24 September at 6.00 p.m. This 5.4 km race consists of 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. Past races have attracted runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, with starting times staggered to ensure that (in theory) all runners finish together. However, if the popularity of the race continues to grow (95 runners took part last year), its format may be modified to a classic single start. For more information and to complete the online entry form, go to http://club-running.web.cern.ch

  4. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  5. Classroom Race/Ethnic Composition, Family-School Connections, and the Transition to School

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Aprile D.; Yan, Ni

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort (N = 13,970), we examined whether two aspects of school-family connections—parental involvement and communication quality—accounted for the association between classroom composition and children's academic and socioemotional functioning following the transition to elementary school. For students with more same-race/ethnic representation in their classrooms, greater classroom race/ethnic diversity promoted more parental...

  6. A review and meta-analysis of age-based stereotype threat: negative stereotypes, not facts, do the damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Ruth A; Swift, Hannah J; Abrams, Dominic

    2015-03-01

    Stereotype threat effects arise when an individual feels at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about their group and consequently underperforms on stereotype relevant tasks (Steele, 2010). Among older people, underperformance across cognitive and physical tasks is hypothesized to result from age-based stereotype threat (ABST) because of negative age-stereotypes regarding older adults' competence. The present review and meta-analyses examine 22 published and 10 unpublished articles, including 82 effect sizes (N = 3882) investigating ABST on older people's (Mage = 69.5) performance. The analysis revealed a significant small-to-medium effect of ABST (d = .28) and important moderators of the effect size. Specifically, older adults are more vulnerable to ABST when (a) stereotype-based rather than fact-based manipulations are used (d = .52); (b) when performance is tested using cognitive measures (d = .36); and (c) occurs reliably when the dependent variable is measured proximally to the manipulation. The review raises important theoretical and methodological issues, and areas for future research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Extracting the Evaluations of Stereotypes: Bi-factor Model of the Stereotype Content Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayans-Jiménez, Pablo; Cuadrado, Isabel; Rojas, Antonio J; Barrada, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype dimensions-competence, morality and sociability-are fundamental to studying the perception of other groups. These dimensions have shown moderate/high positive correlations with each other that do not reflect the theoretical expectations. The explanation for this (e.g., halo effect) undervalues the utility of the shared variance identified. In contrast, in this work we propose that this common variance could represent the global evaluation of the perceived group. Bi-factor models are proposed to improve the internal structure and to take advantage of the information representing the shared variance among dimensions. Bi-factor models were compared with first order models and other alternative models in three large samples (300-309 participants). The relationships among the global and specific bi-factor dimensions with a global evaluation dimension (measured through a semantic differential) were estimated. The results support the use of bi-factor models rather than first order models (and other alternative models). Bi-factor models also show a greater utility to directly and more easily explore the stereotype content including its evaluative content.

  8. Extracting the Evaluations of Stereotypes: Bi-factor Model of the Stereotype Content Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sayans-Jiménez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stereotype dimensions—competence, morality and sociability—are fundamental to studying the perception of other groups. These dimensions have shown moderate/high positive correlations with each other that do not reflect the theoretical expectations. The explanation for this (e.g., halo effect undervalues the utility of the shared variance identified. In contrast, in this work we propose that this common variance could represent the global evaluation of the perceived group. Bi-factor models are proposed to improve the internal structure and to take advantage of the information representing the shared variance among dimensions. Bi-factor models were compared with first order models and other alternative models in three large samples (300–309 participants. The relationships among the global and specific bi-factor dimensions with a global evaluation dimension (measured through a semantic differential were estimated. The results support the use of bi-factor models rather than first order models (and other alternative models. Bi-factor models also show a greater utility to directly and more easily explore the stereotype content including its evaluative content.

  9. A simple strategy to reduce stereotype threat for orthopedic residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Everlyne; Wright, James G

    2014-04-01

    Stereotype threat, defined as the predicament felt by people in either positive or negative learning experiences where they could conform to negative stereotypes associated with their own group membership, can interfere with learning. The purpose of this study was to determine if a simple orientation session could reduce stereotype threat for orthopedic residents. The intervention group received an orientation on 2 occasions focusing on their possible responses to perceived poor performance in teaching rounds and the operating room (OR). Participants completed a survey with 7 questions typical for stereotype threat evaluating responses to their experiences. The questions had 7 response options with a maximum total score of 49, where higher scores indicated greater degree of experiences typical of stereotype threat. Of the 84 eligible residents, 49 participated: 22 in the nonintervention and 27 in the intervention group. The overall scores were 29 and 29.4, and 26.2 and 25.8 in the nonintervention and intervention groups for their survey responses to perceived poor performance in teaching rounds (p = 0.85) and the OR (p = 0.84), respectively. Overall, responses typical of stereotype threat were greater for perceived poor performance at teaching rounds than in the OR (p = 0.001). Residents experience low self-esteem following perceived poor performance, particularly at rounds. A simple orientation designed to reduce stereotype threat was unsuccessful in reducing this threat overall. Future research will need to consider longer-term intervention as possible strategies to reduce perceived poor performance at teaching rounds and in the OR.

  10. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Bernhard; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects-something that in the present study proved to be especially beneficial for women's positive self-concept when studying STEM topics.

  11. Will opposites attract? Similarities and differences in students' perceptions of the stereotype profiles of other health and social care professional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hean, Sarah; Clark, Jill Macleod; Adams, Kim; Humphris, Debra

    2006-03-01

    The extent to which health and social care (HSC) students hold stereotypical views of other HSC professional groups is of great potential importance to team working in health care. This paper explores students' perceptions of different HSC professional groups at the beginning of their university programmes. Findings are presented from an analysis of baseline data collected as part of the New Generation Project longitudinal cohort study which is assessing the impact of interprofessional education over time on a range of variables including stereotyping. Questionnaires were administered to a cohort of over 1200 students from 10 different HSC professional groups entering their first year of university. Stereotypes were measured using a tool adapted from Barnes et al. (2000) designed to elicit stereotype ratings on a range of nine characteristics. The findings confirm that students arrive at university with an established and consistent set of stereotypes about other health and social care professional groups. Stereotypical profiles were compiled for each professional group indicating the distinctive characteristics of the groups as well as the similarities and differences between groups.Midwives, social workers and nurses were rated most highly on interpersonal skills and on being a team player whilst doctors were rated most highly on academic ability. Doctors, midwives and social workers were perceived as having the strongest leadership role, whilst doctors were also rated most highly on decision making. All professions were rated highly on confidence and professional competence and, with the exception of social workers, on practical skills. A comparison of profiles for each professional group reveals that, for example, pharmacists and doctors were perceived as having very similar characteristics as were social workers, midwives and nurses. However, the profiles of nurses and doctors were perceived to be very different. The implications of these similarities and

  12. Stereotype Threat? Male and Female Students in Advanced High School Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corra, Mamadi

    Propositions of stereotype threat theory imply that the social consequences of academic distinction in advanced quantitative areas (such as math and the physical sciences) for women may promote the under representation of female students in advanced quantitative academic courses. The hypothesis that female students will be underrepresented in advanced quantitative (honors and advanced placement math and physical science) courses is tested using academic performance and enrollment data for high school students in a "Student/Parent Informed Choice" (open registration) school district in North Carolina. Results show female students to be overrepresented in both advanced verbal/writing intensive (honors and advanced placement English, foreign language, and social science) and advanced quantitative (honors and advanced placement math and physical science) courses compared to their proportion of the student body. More surprisingly, results also indicate female students (compared to male students) to be overrepresented in advanced courses compared to their proportion of high-performing students. Furthermore, as with patterns observed at the district level, additional analysis of enrollment data for the entire state reveals similar results. Taken together, the findings call into question the prevailing presumption that female students continue to be underrepresented in math and physical science courses. Instead, the changing social context within which females and males experience schooling may provide an explanation for the findings.

  13. Why People Stereotype Affects How They Stereotype : The Differential Influence of Comprehension Goals and Self-Enhancement Goals on Stereotyping (Retracted article. See vol. 38, pg. 1378, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Arne; Stapel, Diederik A.

    In four studies, the authors examined the hypothesis that the way people stereotype is determined by the motives that instigate it. Study 1 measured and demonstrated the effectiveness of a commonly used priming technique to manipulate comprehension and self-enhancement goals. Study 2 demonstrated

  14. (Academic) preparation of/for students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Engstrøm, Emma; Sandermann, Weibke

    This paper contributes to an understanding of cultural intervention across geographical borders based on two cases from the academic setting of RUC. The first is about preparation of university students, who would be future health workers in NGOs, the private sector and governmental organizations...... their own motives and western power hegemony. While the second case documents the experiences of inclusion for some in socio-academic practice of group work, simultaneously with exclusion in an array of spheres especially regarding linguistic barriers signifying embodied privilege, stereotypes related...... to cultural background and phenotypes. Lastly transformations in the socio-academic spheres for more inclusive encounters are discussed, through more (co-)organization about privileges, institutional racism on the personal, group and structural level against the backdrop of reflexivity. Word count- 250...

  15. Racial and mental illness stereotypes and discrimination: an identity-based analysis of the Virginia Tech and Columbine shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charlene Y; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Phelan, Jo C; Yu, Gary; Yang, Lawrence H

    2015-04-01

    The Virginia Tech and Columbine High shootings are 2 of the deadliest school massacres in the United States. The present study investigates in a nationally representative sample how White Americans' causal attributions of these shooting moderate their attitudes toward the shooter's race. White Americans shown a vignette based on the Virginia Tech shooting were more likely to espouse negative beliefs about Korean American men and distance themselves from this group the more they believed that the shooter's race caused the shooting. Among those who were shown a vignette based on the Columbine High shooting, believing that mental illness caused the shooting was associated with weaker negative beliefs about White American men. White Americans in a third condition who were given the Virginia Tech vignette and prompted to subtype the shooter according to his race were less likely to possess negative beliefs about Korean American men the more they believed that mental illness caused the shooting. There was no evidence for the ultimate attribution error. Theoretical accounts based on the stereotype and in-group-out-group bias literature are presented. The current findings have important implications for media depictions of minority group behavior and intergroup relations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Race, Academic Achievement, and Self-Concept of Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Robert; Wakstein, Julie

    1985-01-01

    In 1982, the College Board published a statistical report that included tables profiling the differences among racial and ethnic segments of test takers. The data behind those tables are explored and a fuller explanation of the differences in SAT scores is presented. (Author/MLW)

  17. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  18. The 2009 Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 CERN Relay Race was as popular as ever, with a record number of 88 teams competing. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-480x360.wmv', 'false', 288, 216, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-posterframe-480x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1178303', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); Even the rain didn’t dampen the spirits, and it still managed to capture the ‘festival feeling’ with live music, beer and stalls from various CERN clubs set up outside Restaurant 1. The Powercuts on the podium after win...

  19. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A

    2015-03-01

    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Emotion blocks the path to learning under stereotype threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Jennifer A; Good, Catherine; Whiteman, Ronald C; Maniscalco, Brian; Dweck, Carol S

    2012-02-01

    Gender-based stereotypes undermine females' performance on challenging math tests, but how do they influence their ability to learn from the errors they make? Females under stereotype threat or non-threat were presented with accuracy feedback after each problem on a GRE-like math test, followed by an optional interactive tutorial that provided step-wise problem-solving instruction. Event-related potentials tracked the initial detection of the negative feedback following errors [feedback related negativity (FRN), P3a], as well as any subsequent sustained attention/arousal to that information [late positive potential (LPP)]. Learning was defined as success in applying tutorial information to correction of initial test errors on a surprise retest 24-h later. Under non-threat conditions, emotional responses to negative feedback did not curtail exploration of the tutor, and the amount of tutor exploration predicted learning success. In the stereotype threat condition, however, greater initial salience of the failure (FRN) predicted less exploration of the tutor, and sustained attention to the negative feedback (LPP) predicted poor learning from what was explored. Thus, under stereotype threat, emotional responses to negative feedback predicted both disengagement from learning and interference with learning attempts. We discuss the importance of emotion regulation in successful rebound from failure for stigmatized groups in stereotype-salient environments.

  1. [Gender and job satisfaction in stereotypical masculine and feminine occupations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Grobelny, Agnieszka; Goździk, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the relationship between gender and job satisfaction among employees involved in a stereotypical masculine (tram driver) and a stereotypical feminine occupation (nurse). It was expected that people with feminine gender schema would be more satisfied with their traditionally feminine occupations compared with those with masculine gender schema and vice versa. A group of 103 individuals, including 47 females (15 tram drivers and 32 nurses) and 56 males (41 tram drivers and 15 nurses) completed the following battery of instruments: The Bem Sex Role Inventory by Kuczyńska, Job Affect Scale by Brief, et al. Job Descriptions Questionnaire by Neuberger and Allerbeck. The results of the study showed that gender proved to be a variable that differentiates the level of job satisfaction (both overall satisfaction and satisfaction with different components) only as regards stereotypical feminine occupations. Moreover, individuals with feminine gender schema working in a stereotypical feminine occupation are more satisfied with co-workers and work conditions, and those with masculine gender schema involved in a stereotypical masculine occupation are more satisfied with a supervisor. The gender analysis can be an important tool for the recruitment and selection procedures and plays an essential role in assessing the person-environment fit.

  2. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources: A Visual Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoven, Anne H; Russo, Pedro; Land-Zandstra, Anne M; Saxena, Aayush; Rodenburg, Frans J

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people's social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are visible in education include the use of gender-biased visuals, language, teaching methods, and teachers' attitudes. The goal of this study was to determine whether science education resources for primary school contained gender-biased visuals. Specifically, the total number of men and women depicted, and the profession and activity of each person in the visuals were noted. The analysis showed that there were more men than women depicted with a science profession and that more women than men were depicted as teachers. This study shows that there is a stereotypical representation of men and women in online science education resources, highlighting the changes needed to create a balanced representation of men and women. Even if the stereotypical representation of men and women in science is a true reflection of the gender distribution in science, we should aim for a more balanced representation. Such a balance is an essential first step towards showing children that both men and women can do science, which will contribute to more gender-balanced science and technology fields.

  3. The association between stereotyping and interprofessional collaborative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachma Sari, Vika; Hariyati, Rr Tutik Sri; Syuhaimie Hamid, Achir Yani

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to identify the association between stereotyping and professional intercollaborative practice. This study used a cross-sectional analytical study involving physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and dietitians in a hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, who were selected using the stratified random sampling method. Data was collected using the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire (SSRQ) and the Assessment of Interprofessional Team Collaboration Scale (AITCS). The stereotyping level was analyzed based on a nine-point SSRQ, while interprofessional collaborative practice was scored based on partnership/shared decision-making, cooperation, and coordination. Stereotyping was shown to significantly correlate with interprofessional collaborative practice as measured by the SSRQ and AITCS. Poor interprofessional collaborative practice in subscale partnership/decision-making was dominant. Also, low-rating stereotyping was shown to be dominant with poor interprofessional collaborative practice. The research recommends that health care providers improve partnership/ decision-making skills for better interprofessional collaboration. For further research, it's recommended to explore another barrier of interprofessional collaborative practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Stereotype-based faultlines and out-group derogation in diverse teams: The moderating roles of task stereotypicality and need for cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Alignment of individuals on more than one diversity attribute (i.e., faultlines) may lead to intergroup biases in teams, disrupting the efficiency expectancies. Research has yet to examine if this can be a consequence of a stereotypical consistency between social and information attributes of diversity. The present study tests the hypothesis that, in a team with a stereotype-based faultline (a stereotypical consistency between gender and skills), there is increased out-group derogation compared to a team with a stereotype-inconsistent faultline. Furthermore, the study proposes that tasks can activate stereotypes, and the need for cognition dictates whether stereotypes are applied. The findings confirm the hypothesis and additionally provide evidence that tasks that activate gender stereotypes emphasize out-group derogation, especially for team members with low need for cognition.

  5. Analysing race inequality in employment

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Elisabeth Griffiths, principal lecturer at Northumbria Law School at Northumbria University, explores employment issues in the recent review by the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) of prejudice and unlawful behaviour because of race.

  6. Expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The literature on business expatriates has been increasing rapidly, but research on expatriate academics has remained scant, despite the apparent increasing globalisation of the academic world. Therefore, more research is needed on the latter group of expatriates. This paper aims to fil...

  7. Critical Race Theory and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Mike; Ikeno, Norio; Komatsu, Mariko; Kawaguchi, Hiromi; Goto, Kenjiro

    2010-01-01

    This paper recapitulates the lecture which Mike Cole, the Professor of Bishop Grosseteste University College Lincoln gave on the 15th September 2009 at the Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University. The title of his lecture was "Critical Race Theory and Education". The purpose was to introduce the nature of Critical Race Theory (CRT) and examine the theory from the perspective of Marxist. First, Cole explained two major tenets of CRT: '"white supremacy" rather than racism' and '"...

  8. "Great Technology, Football and...": Malaysian Language Learners' Stereotypes about Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Nikitina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on stereotypes about Germany, its culture and people, held by learners of German in a big public university in Malaysia. It examines not only the stereotypical representations of the target language country but also assesses its favourability and salience, which has not been done previously. The findings revealed that the students' stereotypes about Germany were varied and diverse. Also, they were overwhelmingly positive. The top three salient categories of images about Germany were related to technology, famous personalities - for the most part football players and scientists - and cars. The findings also indicated that very few references had been made to German culture and to its great cultural figures. The results of the present study suggest that students could benefit from a wider and deeper exposure to German culture in the language classroom.

  9. Math-gender stereotypes in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Greenwald, Anthony G

    2011-01-01

    A total of 247 American children between 6 and 10 years of age (126 girls and 121 boys) completed Implicit Association Tests and explicit self-report measures assessing the association of (a) me with male (gender identity), (b) male with math (math-gender stereotype), and (c) me with math (math self-concept). Two findings emerged. First, as early as second grade, the children demonstrated the American cultural stereotype that math is for boys on both implicit and explicit measures. Second, elementary school boys identified with math more strongly than did girls on both implicit and self-report measures. The findings suggest that the math-gender stereotype is acquired early and influences emerging math self-concepts prior to ages at which there are actual differences in math achievement. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Stress and stereotypic behaviour in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Jeppesen, Leif Lau; Palme, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether female mink with low (LS) and high (HS) occurrence of stereotypic behaviour differ in their adrenocortical activity in baseline conditions or in response to immobilisation (Experiment 1), handling, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge (Experiment 2) and excretion...... 4-20 h after the handling (P = 0.001). In Experiment 3 (n = 16), the excretion of infused (3)H-cortisol did not differ between LS and HS mink. Stereotypic behaviour is concurrent with higher baseline concentrations of FCM, which cannot be explained by a greater adrenocortical reactivity...... or a different excretion of the circulating cortisol. Instead, we conclude that mink with a high level of stereotypic behaviour have a greater perception of stress, or increased sensitivity to stressors at the pituitary level....

  11. Perception of intentions and actions: gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Wecker, Matthias; Krombholz, Kerstin; Sokolov, Arseny A

    2010-01-22

    Gender differences are evident in the comprehension of social signals, but the underlying basis for these differences is unclear. There is some indication that gender effects have neurobiological sources. Here we manipulated stereotype messages about gender differences in a social cognition task, on which no gender gap has previously been documented. The outcome indicates that manipulation of stereotype messages elicits gender effects. A positive message enhances performance, whereas a negative message diminishes it. Furthermore, this effect is more pronounced in females, with a greater force of a negative stereotype message. The study provides novel insights into the possible sources of gender related fluctuations in social cognition. The findings are discussed in terms of behavioral components and brain mechanisms underpinning gender effects in social cognition. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Depicted welfare recipient stereotypes in Norway and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Lundberg, Kjetil G.

    2016-01-01

    Welfare recipients are continuously subjected to media debates and governmental campaigns drawing on images and symbols encouraging improved work ethic and individual responsibility. Only few studies, however, have analysed how welfare recipients as ‘othered’ citizens react to these often...... stereotypical symbols and images targeting them. In this study we have investigated how welfare recipients in Norway and Denmark, and caseworkers in Denmark, understand and account for images which, through the use of stereotypes, directly or indirectly may question welfare recipients’ work ethic...... and deservedness. Analysing photo-elicitation interview data, we have uncovered a variety of reactions characterized by ‘problematization’. The interviewees problematize the image and depicted stereotypes, which they link both with motif and symbols and with surrounding public debates on the work ethic...

  13. Depicted welfare-recipient stereotypes in Norway and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Lundberg, Kjetil G.

    2016-01-01

    Welfare recipients are continuously subjected to media debates and governmental campaigns drawing on images and symbols encouraging improved work ethic and individual responsibility. Only few studies, however, have analysed how welfare recipients as ‘othered’ citizens react to these often...... stereotypical symbols and images targeting them. In this study we have investigated how welfare recipients in Norway and Denmark, and caseworkers in Denmark, understand and account for images which, through the use of stereotypes, directly or indirectly may question welfare recipients’ work ethic...... and deservedness. Analysing photo-elicitation interview data, we have uncovered a variety of reactions characterized by ‘problematization’. The interviewees problematize the image and depicted stereotypes, which they link both with motif and symbols and with surrounding public debates on the work ethic...

  14. Aggressors or victims: gender and race in music video violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, M; Woods, E R; Goodman, E; Emans, S J; DuRant, R H

    1998-04-01

    aggressors. Compared with United States demographics, blacks were overrepresented as aggressors and victims, whereas whites were underrepresented. White females were most frequently victims. Music videos may be reinforcing false stereotypes of aggressive black males and victimized white females. These observations raise concern for the effect of music videos on adolescents' normative expectations about conflict resolution, race, and male-female relationships.

  15. GENDER STEREOTYPES IN THE SCHOOL DROPOUT: CASE EL FUERTE, SINALOA

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalva Ruíz-Ramírez; María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo; Emma Zapata-Martelo

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are accepted preconceptions of what should be a man and a woman. Affect all areas of life, in the relationships that stablished in the family and the school. Within education, these stereotypes are reflected in the access, retention and completion of education degrees, as well as the area of study that preferred the women and men. They also have different effects on the causes of dropout depending on the gender to which they belong. This article aims to show the influence o...

  16. What's the Use of Race? Investigating the Concept of Race in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Marc Phillip

    2013-01-01

    What's the use of race and does race matter? These two questions serve as the foundation for this dissertation comprised of three studies examining: (1) how scholars "use" race in their research and how their decisions matter for the way race is interpreted; (2) how students make meaning of race (as a social construct) during a time…

  17. Gendered organisational cultures in German academic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felizitas Sagebiel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will describe and analyse how female professors manage formal and informal norms and values of their departments and organizations. State of the art includes different gender theories and research. With a qualitative methodological design (especially interviews and focus discussion groups, case studies were conducted in companies, political institutions, governmental research organizations and universities. From a gender perspective, the following aspects were analysed: gender stereotypes and gendered leadership expectations, transparent and strategic communication, expectations of output, commitment and availability, gender awareness, and integration in gendered networking and networks. The results focus on academic engineering cultures in investigated research institutes and one technical university.

  18. The stigmatizing effect of visual media portrayals of obese persons on public attitudes: does race or gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obese persons are frequently stigmatized in news media. The present study is the first to systematically compare public reactions to positive and negative images of obese persons accompanying news reports on obesity (while manipulating gender and race of the target)and their effects on generalized attitudes and social distance toward obese persons. The authors conducted 3 randomized experimental studies using online surveys to assess public perceptions of positive versus stereotypical images of obese adults (who varied by gender and race) accompanying a neutral news report about obesity. The sample included 1,251 adults, who were recruited through a national survey panel during May of 2010. Participants who viewed negative, stereotypical images of obese targets increased social distance, antifat attitudes, and ratings of laziness and dislike toward obese persons, whereas positive, nonstereotypical images induced more positive attitudes. These findings remained consistent when accounting for sociodemographic variables. African American female obese targets portrayed in images evoked higher ratings of dislike and social distance compared with Caucasian targets, but ratings were similar for male and female targets. This study provides evidence that images of obese person accompanying written media influence public attitudes toward obese people, and may reinforce weight stigmatization if images contain stereotypical portrayals of obese persons. Implications for efforts to report about obesity in the news media are discussed.

  19. Stereotype threat in classroom settings: the interactive effect of domain identification, task difficulty and stereotype threat on female students' maths performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Johannes

    2007-06-01

    Stereotype threat research revealed that negative stereotypes can disrupt the performance of persons targeted by such stereotypes. This paper contributes to stereotype threat research by providing evidence that domain identification and the difficulty level of test items moderate stereotype threat effects on female students' maths performance. The study was designed to test theoretical ideas derived from stereotype threat theory and assumptions outlined in the Yerkes-Dodson law proposing a nonlinear relationship between arousal, task difficulty and performance. Participants were 108 high school students attending secondary schools. Participants worked on a test comprising maths problems of different difficulty levels. Half of the participants learned that the test had been shown to produce gender differences (stereotype threat). The other half learned that the test had been shown not to produce gender differences (no threat). The degree to which participants identify with the domain of maths was included as a quasi-experimental factor. Maths-identified female students showed performance decrements under conditions of stereotype threat. Moreover, the stereotype threat manipulation had different effects on low and high domain identifiers' performance depending on test item difficulty. On difficult items, low identifiers showed higher performance under threat (vs. no threat) whereas the reverse was true in high identifiers. This interaction effect did not emerge on easy items. Domain identification and test item difficulty are two important factors that need to be considered in the attempt to understand the impact of stereotype threat on performance.

  20. Academic Allies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Rebekka Birkebo

    the national associations of European law: Fédération Internationale pour le Droit Européen, the European law journal Common Market Law Review, and the ITL project, carried out at the European University Institute.It carefully documents an alliance between academics and community actors with the aim...... of providing academic support to the constitutional claim, and it argues that the academic discipline of European law was built and developed through a circular attribution of legal ideas, legitimacy, and self-image between the European Court of Justice, the Commission, and academia –most particularly so...

  1. Social Evaluations of Stereotypic Images in Video Games: Unfair, Legitimate, or “Just Entertainment”?

    OpenAIRE

    Brenick, Alaina; Henning, Alexandra; Killen, Melanie; O'Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess adolescents' evaluations of, and reasoning about, gender stereotypes in video games. Female (N = 46) and male (N = 41), predominantly European-American, mean age = 19 years, were interviewed about their knowledge of game usage, awareness and evaluation of stereotypes, beliefs about the influences of games on the players, and authority jurisdiction over 3 different types of games: games with negative male stereotypes, and games with negative female stereotyp...

  2. Addressing Stereotype Threat is Critical to Diversity and Inclusion in Organizational Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Casad, Bettina J.; Bryant, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently researchers have debated the relevance of stereotype threat to the workplace. Critics have argued that stereotype threat is not relevant in high stakes testing such as in personnel selection. We and others argue that stereotype threat is highly relevant in personnel selection, but our review focused on underexplored areas including effects of stereotype threat beyond test performance and the application of brief, low-cost interventions in the workplace. Relevant to the workplace, ste...

  3. Different brain mechanisms between stereotype activation and application: evidence from an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lei; Dickter, Cheryl L; Luo, Junlong; Xiao, Xiao; Yang, Qun; Lei, Ming; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2012-01-01

    Stereotyping involves two processes in which first, social stereotypes are activated (stereotype activation), and then, stereotypes are applied to given targets (stereotype application). Previous behavioral studies have suggested that these two processes are independent of each other and may have different mechanisms. As few psychophysiological studies have given an integrated account of these stages in stereotyping so far, this study utilized a trait categorization task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to explore the brain mechanisms associated with the processes of stereotype activation and its application. The behavioral (reaction time) and electrophysiological data showed that stereotype activation and application were elicited respectively in an affective valence identification subtask and in a semantic content judgment subtask. The electrophysiological results indicated that the categorization processes involved in stereotype activation to quickly identify stereotypic and nonstereotypic information were quite different from those involved in the application. During the process of stereotype activation, a P2 and N2 effect was observed, indicating that stereotype activation might be facilitated by an early attentional bias. Also, a late positive potential (LPP) was elicited, suggesting that social expectancy violation might be involved. During the process of the stereotype application, electrophysiological data showed a P2 and P3 effect, indicating that stereotype application might be related to the rapid social knowledge identification in semantic representation and thus may be associated with an updating of existing stereotypic contents or a motivation to resolve the inconsistent information. This research strongly suggested that different mechanisms are involved in the stereotype activation and application processes.

  4. Losing Its Expected Communal Value: How Stereotype Threat Undermines Women's Identity as Research Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessi L.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Thoman, Dustin B.; Deemer, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    The worry or concern over confirming negative gender group stereotypes, called stereotype threat, is one explanation for women's worldwide underrepresentation in undergraduate science classes and majors. But how does stereotype threat translate into fewer women motivated for science? In this quantitative study with a sample from the US, we use…

  5. "Michael Can't Read!" Teachers' Gender Stereotypes and Boys' Reading Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retelsdorf, Jan; Schwartz, Katja; Asbrock, Frank

    2015-01-01

    According to expectancy-value theory, the gender stereotypes of significant others such as parents, peers, or teachers affect students' competence beliefs, values, and achievement-related behavior. Stereotypically, gender beliefs about reading favor girls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether teachers' gender stereotypes in relation to…

  6. Reversing Implicit Gender Stereotype Activation as a Function of Exposure to Traditional Gender Roles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lemus, Soledad; Spears, Russell; Bukowski, Marcin; Moya, Miguel; Lupianez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of exposure to traditional gender roles on the activation of gender stereotypes in Spanish women. An associative procedure was used to expose participants to stereotypical vs. counterstereotypical gender roles, and a word categorization task with stereotypically feminine

  7. Gender and Musical Instrument Stereotypes in Middle School Children: Have Trends Changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Dittloff, Alexandra L.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have established that gender stereotypes are associated with children's choice of musical instrument. Though some have suggested that these gender stereotypes may be trending toward change, other studies have indicated that gender stereotypes are long-standing and still very much at issue. This descriptive study of middle school…

  8. Theory of Mind Is Related to Children's Resource Allocations in Gender Stereotypic Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Michael T.; Killen, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations between 4- to 6-year-old children's (N = 67) gender stereotypes, resource allocations, and mental state knowledge in gender-stereotypic contexts. Participants were told vignettes about female and male characters completing gender-stereotyped activities (making dolls or trucks). Children held stereotypic…

  9. Stereotypes of Aging: Their Effects on the Health of Seniors in North American Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sean; Baker, J.; Deakin, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Seniors are routinely subjected to negative stereotypes regarding their physical and cognitive abilities. The power and prevalence of cultural stereotypes of aging essentially results in a "double-whammy" to seniors. First, they influence the way that seniors are treated by society. Second, cultural stereotypes affect how seniors see…

  10. Accuracy of Black and White College Students' In-Group and Out-Group Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Carey S.

    1996-01-01

    Examined accuracy of black and of white students' in-group and out-group stereotypes by comparing judgments of stereotypicality and dispersion of black and of white first-year college students (N=100) with stereotypicality and dispersion of self-ratings provided by random samples of group members. Consistent with social identity theory,…

  11. Poles apart: The processing and consequences of mixed media stereotypes of older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, A.C.; van Selm, M.; ter Hoeven, C.L.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the Stereotype Content Model to examine how mixed-media stereotypes about older workers affect the implicit activation and application of competence and warmth stereotypes among employees. By means of a 2 × 2 experiment, we show that a newspaper article portraying older workers in a

  12. Reliable and unproductive? Stereotypes of older employees in corporate and news media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, A.C.; van Selm, M.; ter Hoeven, C.L.; Vliegenthart, R.

    Older employees face a severe employability problem, partly because of dominant stereotypes about them. This study investigates stereotypes of older employees in corporate and news media. Drawing on the Stereotype Content Model, we content analysed newspaper coverage and corporate media of 50

  13. Believing What You Hear: The Impact of Aging Stereotypes upon the Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Teri; Gaines, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Stereotypes about aging and the old, both negative and positive, have significant influence upon older people themselves. Often unknowingly, older people incorporate these stereotypes into their own thinking and self-perceptions. A literature search revealed four primary hypotheses about the manner in which these self-stereotypes impact older…

  14. The Effect of Implicit Stereotypes on the Physical Performance of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Gabriele; Cotter, J. James; Shook, Nathalie; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Welleford, E. Ayn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how stereotypes affect physical performance in older adults. During Experiment 1, older adults were primed with objects representing aging stereotypes to determine whether these objects can activate stereotypes of aging. Results from the first part of this study provide evidence that certain material…

  15. Counter-Stereotypes and Images: An Exploratory Research and Some Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Messabel, Christine; Ferrière, Séverine; Martinez, Frederic; Devif, Julie; Reeb, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the construction and perpetuation of gender stereotypes are classic research subjects in social psychology and in the field of educational guidelines in France. The most recent government decree aims to counter stereotypes in schools, by exposing pupils to counter-stereotypes. This study examines the effects of activating…

  16. Stigma and Glucose Levels: Testing Ego Depletion and Arousal Explanations of Stereotype Threat Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Andrew M.; Willer, Robb

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that when stigmatized group membership is made salient, group members' cognitive performance is lowered; however, the mechanism through which this effect operates is not well understood. This study tests between arousal and ego depletion accounts of stereotype threat by examining whether stereotype threat effects…

  17. Examining the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Test-Taking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Blanshetyn, Victoria; Marshall-Wolp, Elizabeth; McCue, Elizabeth; Strauss, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between stereotype threat and individual test-taking behaviors. Previous research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on test scores, but little research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on the test-taking behaviors impacting those scores. Using a pre-post experimental design, stereotype…

  18. "He Who Can, Does; He Who Cannot, Teaches?": Stereotype Threat and Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihme, Toni A.; Möller, Jens

    2015-01-01

    "Stereotype threat" is defined as a situational threat that diminishes performance, originating from a negative stereotype about one's own social group. In 3 studies, we seek to determine whether there are indeed negative stereotypes of students who have chosen a career in teaching, and whether the performance of these students is…

  19. Stereotype Threat in U.S. Students Abroad: Negotiating American Identity in the Age of Trump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    2017-01-01

    An underinvestigated and significant source of stress for U.S. student sojourners across racial/ethnic groups is exposure to stereotypes that target their American identity. This study built on the extensive research literature on stereotype threat to investigate U.S. students' vulnerability and reactions to being the target of stereotypes.…

  20. Examining perceived stereotype threat among overweight/obese adults using a multi-threat framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Domoff, Sarah E; Burmeister, Jacob M; Koball, Afton M; Hinman, Nova G; Davis, Alan K; Wagner Oehlhof, Marissa; Leroy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants' mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18-64) years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5) kg/m². Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI) and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat). Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals' susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes' impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg