This paper deals with the data of dormitory students in National Institute of Technology, Kagoshima College to demonstrate the existence of peer effects in academic performance. The data have unique advantages to avoid the difficulties of the self-selection problem and reflection problem. The data shows freshmen's academic performance and previous year's junior high school records, and roommate's previous year's academic performance for using an instrumental variable method. The results of my...
Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Kosola, Silja; Degenhardt, Louisa; Allen, Nicholas B; Patton, George C
Peer victimization is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. In this study we aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimization and academic performance in a large population sample of children. Eight- to 9-year-old children were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (1 year of learning equals 40 points). Physical and verbal victimization were measured according to child self-report. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses were conducted. For female children, verbal victimization was associated with poorer academic performance on writing (β = 17.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -28.2 to -6.2) and grammar/punctuation (β = -20.8; 95% CI, -40.1 to -1.6). Physical victimization was associated with poorer performance on numeracy (male children: β = -29.0; 95% CI, -53.8 to -4.1; female children: β = -30.1; 95% CI, -56.6 to -3.5), and writing (female children: β = -21.5; 95% CI, -40.4 to -2.7). Verbal and physical victimization were associated with poorer performance on reading (male children: β = -31.5; 95% CI, -59.9 to -3.1; female children: β = -30.2; 95% CI, -58.6 to -1.8), writing (female children: β = -25.5; 95% CI, -42.8 to -8.2), spelling (female children: β = -32.3; 95% CI, -59.6 to -4.9), and grammar/punctuation (female children: β = -32.2; 95% CI, -62.4 to -2.0). Children who were physically victimized were 6 to 9 months behind their non-victimized peers on measures of academic performance. There are growing reasons for education systems to invest in the prevention of bullying and promotion of positive peer relationships from the earliest years of school. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Skipper, Tracy L.; Keup, Jennifer R.
Open-ended data from the 2009 National Survey of Peer Leaders were analyzed to explore the impact of peer leadership on academic performance. While most participants suggested the experience had no effect on academics, perceptions varied by role. Peer leaders in academic and community service roles described increased skills and understanding of…
Fung, Yee-wang; Wong, Ngai-ying
Reveals findings of a survey of 294 Hong Kong secondary school students. Evaluates relationships among involvement in extracurricular activities, academic performance, personality, and peer acceptance. Concludes that activity involvement is positively related to academic performance, personality, and peer acceptance. Suggests that further research…
Woodman, Richard J.; Parappilly, Maria B.
The success of peer review of teaching (PRT) in shaping teaching practice during an academic's formative years may depend on the peers' teaching experience and the frequency of evaluation. Two Australian early-career University lecturers with no previous experience of peer review performed a single PRT on one another following a one week academic…
DuPaul, G J; Ervin, R A; Hook, C L; McGoey, K E
We investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the classroom behavior and academic performance of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typical instructional activities were contrasted with CWPT for 18 children with ADHD and 10 peer comparison students attending first- through fifth-grade general education classes. CWPT led to increases in active engagement in academic tasks along with reductions in off-task behavior for most participants. Of students with ADHD, 50% exhibited improvements in academic performance in math or spelling during CWPT conditions, as measured by a treatment success index. Participating teachers and students reported a high level of satisfaction with intervention procedures. Our results suggest that peer tutoring appears to be an effective strategy for addressing the academic and behavioral difficulties associated with ADHD in general education settings.
DeLay, Dawn; Zhang, Linlin; Hanish, Laura D; Miller, Cindy F; Fabes, Richard A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Kochel, Karen P; Updegraff, Kimberly A
Longitudinal social network analysis (SNA) was used to examine how a social-emotional learning (SEL) intervention may be associated with peer socialization on academic performance. Fifth graders (N = 631; 48 % girls; 9 to 12 years) were recruited from six elementary schools. Intervention classrooms (14) received a relationship building intervention (RBI) and control classrooms (8) received elementary school as usual. At pre- and post-test, students nominated their friends, and teachers completed assessments of students' writing and math performance. The results of longitudinal SNA suggested that the RBI was associated with friend selection and peer influence within the classroom peer network. Friendship choices were significantly more diverse (i.e., less evidence of social segregation as a function of ethnicity and academic ability) in intervention compared to control classrooms, and peer influence on improved writing and math performance was observed in RBI but not control classrooms. The current findings provide initial evidence that SEL interventions may change social processes in a classroom peer network and may break down barriers of social segregation and improve academic performance.
Kassarnig, Valentin; Bjerre-Nielsen, Andreas; Mones, Enys
. Based on measured attendance data of nearly 1,000 undergraduate students, we demonstrate that early and consistent class attendance strongly correlates with academic performance. In addition, our novel dataset allows us to determine that attendance among social peers was substantially correlated (>0...
Raskauskas, Juliana; Rubiano, Sherry; Offen, Ilanit; Wayland, Ann Kathleen
Victimization by peers has been associated with low academic performance and internalizing problems. Still, not all students who experience peer victimization report a reduction in performance. The current study examines the potential protective nature of self-esteem and social self-efficacy in the relationship between peer victimization and…
Kassarnig, Valentin; Bjerre-Nielsen, Andreas; Mones, Enys
Identifying the factors that determine academic performance is an essential part of educational research. Existing research indicates that class attendance is a useful predictor of subsequent course achievements. The majority of the literature is, however, based on surveys and self-reports, methods....... Based on measured attendance data of nearly 1,000 undergraduate students, we demonstrate that early and consistent class attendance strongly correlates with academic performance. In addition, our novel dataset allows us to determine that attendance among social peers was substantially correlated (>0...
Kassarnig, Valentin; Bjerre-Nielsen, Andreas; Mones, Enys; Lehmann, Sune; Lassen, David Dreyer
Identifying the factors that determine academic performance is an essential part of educational research. Existing research indicates that class attendance is a useful predictor of subsequent course achievements. The majority of the literature is, however, based on surveys and self-reports, methods which have well-known systematic biases that lead to limitations on conclusions and generalizability as well as being costly to implement. Here we propose a novel method for measuring class attendance that overcomes these limitations by using location and bluetooth data collected from smartphone sensors. Based on measured attendance data of nearly 1,000 undergraduate students, we demonstrate that early and consistent class attendance strongly correlates with academic performance. In addition, our novel dataset allows us to determine that attendance among social peers was substantially correlated (>0.5), suggesting either an important peer effect or homophily with respect to attendance.
Full Text Available Identifying the factors that determine academic performance is an essential part of educational research. Existing research indicates that class attendance is a useful predictor of subsequent course achievements. The majority of the literature is, however, based on surveys and self-reports, methods which have well-known systematic biases that lead to limitations on conclusions and generalizability as well as being costly to implement. Here we propose a novel method for measuring class attendance that overcomes these limitations by using location and bluetooth data collected from smartphone sensors. Based on measured attendance data of nearly 1,000 undergraduate students, we demonstrate that early and consistent class attendance strongly correlates with academic performance. In addition, our novel dataset allows us to determine that attendance among social peers was substantially correlated (>0.5, suggesting either an important peer effect or homophily with respect to attendance.
First year students at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, one of the leading Chilean universities, are randomly assigned to their first semester college class groups. This paper takes advantage of this natural experiment in order to robustly estimate the impact of peer characteristics on undergraduate academic performance. The research hypothesis is that being assigned as a freshman to a group with more or less students from a same school, or from a given socioeconomic background, ...
AbdulRaheem, Yusuf; Yusuf, Hamdallat T.; Odutayo, Adesegun O.
Peer tutoring has generated a great deal of scholarly interest in the field of education. It is viewed as an essential instructional strategy for inclusive education because it constitutes one of the strongholds of cooperative learning. This study examines the effect of peer tutoring and the moderating effect of gender on the academic performance…
Krnjajić Stevan B.
Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.
Gest, Scott D; Rulison, Kelly L; Davidson, Alice J; Welsh, Janet A
The associations between children's academic reputations among peers and their academic self-concept, effort, and performance were examined in a longitudinal study of 427 students initially enrolled in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Assessments were completed in the fall and spring of 2 consecutive school years and in the fall of a 3rd school year. Peer academic reputation (PAR) correlated moderately strongly with teacher-rated skills and changed over time as a function of grades earned at the prior assessment. Path-analytic models indicated bidirectional associations between PAR and academic self-concept, teacher-rated academic effort, and grade point average. There was little evidence that changes in self-concept mediated the association between PAR and effort and GPA or that changes in effort mediated the association between PAR and GPA. Results suggest that peers may possess unique information about classmates' academic functioning, that children's PARs are psychologically meaningful, and that these reputations may serve as a useful marker of processes that forecast future academic engagement and performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).
Moore, Catherine; Westwater-Wood, Sarah; Kerry, Roger
Peer coaching has been associated with positive effects on learning. Specifically, these associations have been explored in complex healthcare professions. A social theory of learning has been proposed as a key component of the utility of peer coaching. Further, within the peer coaching model, assessment has been considered as an important driver. Empirical support for these dimensions of the model is lacking. To quantify assessment achievements and explore emergent attitudes and beliefs about learning related to a specific peer coaching model with integrated assessment. A longitudinal study based in a UK Higher Education Institute recorded assessment achievements and surveyed attitudes and beliefs in consecutive Year 1 undergraduate (physiotherapy) students (n = 560) between 2002 and 2012. A 6% improvement in academic achievement was demonstrated following the introduction of a peer coaching learning model. This was increased by a further 5% following the implementation of an integrated assessment. The improvement related to an overall averaged increase of one marking band. Students valued the strategy, and themes relating to the importance of social learning emerged from survey data. Peer coaching is an evidence-based teaching and learning strategy which can facilitate learning in complex subject areas. The strategy is underpinned by social learning theory which is supported by emergent student-reported attitudes.
Fite, Paula J.; Hendrickson, Michelle; Rubens, Sonia L.; Gabrielli, Joy; Evans, Spencer
Background: There is substantial evidence to suggest that aggressive behavior is associated with poor academic performance in school-aged children. However, less is known about how different subtypes of aggression are related to academic performance and what variables may account for this association. Objective: The current study examined unique…
Okilwa, Nathern S. A.; Shelby, Liz
This synthesis examined the effects of peer tutoring on academic performance of students with disabilities in Grades 6 through 12. Twelve studies met all the criteria for this synthesis: (a) original studies, (b) published in peer-reviewed journals between 1997 and 2007, (c) investigated peer tutoring in special education students in Grades 6…
Daniel Z Grunspan
Full Text Available Women who start college in one of the natural or physical sciences leave in greater proportions than their male peers. The reasons for this difference are complex, and one possible contributing factor is the social environment women experience in the classroom. Using social network analysis, we explore how gender influences the confidence that college-level biology students have in each other's mastery of biology. Results reveal that males are more likely than females to be named by peers as being knowledgeable about the course content. This effect increases as the term progresses, and persists even after controlling for class performance and outspokenness. The bias in nominations is specifically due to males over-nominating their male peers relative to their performance. The over-nomination of male peers is commensurate with an overestimation of male grades by 0.57 points on a 4 point grade scale, indicating a strong male bias among males when assessing their classmates. Females, in contrast, nominated equitably based on student performance rather than gender, suggesting they lacked gender biases in filling out these surveys. These trends persist across eleven surveys taken in three different iterations of the same Biology course. In every class, the most renowned students are always male. This favoring of males by peers could influence student self-confidence, and thus persistence in this STEM discipline.
Grunspan, Daniel Z; Eddy, Sarah L; Brownell, Sara E; Wiggins, Benjamin L; Crowe, Alison J; Goodreau, Steven M
Women who start college in one of the natural or physical sciences leave in greater proportions than their male peers. The reasons for this difference are complex, and one possible contributing factor is the social environment women experience in the classroom. Using social network analysis, we explore how gender influences the confidence that college-level biology students have in each other's mastery of biology. Results reveal that males are more likely than females to be named by peers as being knowledgeable about the course content. This effect increases as the term progresses, and persists even after controlling for class performance and outspokenness. The bias in nominations is specifically due to males over-nominating their male peers relative to their performance. The over-nomination of male peers is commensurate with an overestimation of male grades by 0.57 points on a 4 point grade scale, indicating a strong male bias among males when assessing their classmates. Females, in contrast, nominated equitably based on student performance rather than gender, suggesting they lacked gender biases in filling out these surveys. These trends persist across eleven surveys taken in three different iterations of the same Biology course. In every class, the most renowned students are always male. This favoring of males by peers could influence student self-confidence, and thus persistence in this STEM discipline.
Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan; McKay, Tara
This article reports a short-term longitudinal study focusing on popularity and social acceptance as predictors of academic engagement for a sample of 342 adolescents (approximate average age of 14). These youths were followed for 4 consecutive semesters. Popularity, social acceptance, and aggression were assessed with a peer nomination inventory, and data on academic engagement were obtained from school records. For adolescents who were highly aggressive, increases in popularity were associated with increases in unexplained absences and decreases in grade point average. Conversely, changes in social acceptance were not predictive of changes in grade point average or unexplained absences. These results highlight the importance of multidimensional conceptualizations of social standing for research on school adjustment during adolescence and emphasize the potential risks associated with popularity.
Gleason, Katie A.; Kwok, Oi-man; Hughes, Jan N.
Using latent variable structural equation modeling, we tested a theoretical model positing that grade retention has a positive effect on children’s teacher- and peer-rated academic competencies and on sociometric measures of peer acceptance. We also expected that the positive effect of grade retention on peer acceptance would be mediated by children’s ability to meet academic challenges in their classrooms. Participants were 350 (52.6% male) ethnically diverse and academically at-risk first graders attending 1 of 3 school districts in Texas. An individually administered test of academic achievement, teacher-report and peer-report measures of academic competence, and peer-report measures of peer acceptance were collected on children in first grade and 1 year later, at which time 63 children were repeating first grade and 287 were in second grade. The hypothesized model provided a good fit to the data. Children’s academic competencies, as perceived by peers and teachers, fully mediated the effect of retention on subsequent peer acceptance. PMID:20431696
Kassarnig, Valentin; Bjerre-Nielsen, Andreas; Mones, Enys; Lehmann, Sune; Lassen, David Dreyer
Identifying the factors that determine academic performance is an essential part of educational research. Existing research indicates that class attendance is a useful predictor of subsequent course achievements. The majority of the literature is, however, based on surveys and self-reports, methods which have well-known systematic biases that lead to limitations on conclusions and generalizability as well as being costly to implement. Here we propose a novel method for measuring class attenda...
Moore, Catherine; Westwater-Wood, Sarah; Kerry, Roger
Peer coaching has been associated with positive effects on learning. Specifically, these associations have been explored in complex healthcare professions. A social theory of learning has been proposed as a key component of the utility of peer coaching. Further, within the peer coaching model, assessment has been considered as an important driver.…
Spedding, Jason; Hawkes, Amy J.; Burgess, Matthew
The initial year of university is often a sensitive period for new students. Commencing students may lack the necessary skills and resources to adapt to unfamiliar learning environments. One intervention demonstrating academic benefits is Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS). PASS is a structured peer led study group where students collectively…
Latino, Jennifer A.; Unite, Catherine M.
Peer influence in academic settings can have significant positive effects on student learners. Examples of peer support of academic endeavors, most notably tutoring, date back to the colonial period of U.S. higher education and persist today. However, over the years, peer education has evolved from being a marginal endeavor in which academic…
Blackbourn, J M; Campbell, J
A multiple baseline, single-subject design was employed in the analysis of the academic performance of a second grade girl labeled "learning disabled." Peer tutoring combined with praise led to a significant improvement in solving mathematics problems requiring regrouping, word recognition, and ability to locate specific text pages.
Yusuff, Kazeem B
The patient-centered focus of clinical pharmacy practice which demands nuanced application of specialized knowledge and skills targeted to meeting patient-specific therapeutic needs warrant that the training strategy used for PharmD graduates must empower with the ability to use the higher level cognitive processes and critical thinking effectively in service delivery. However, the historical disposition to learning in the Middle East and among Saudi students appeared heavily focused on rote memorization and recall of memorized facts. To assess the impact of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer assessment on pharmacy students' academic performance and metacognitive skills, and evaluate students' feedback on the impact of these active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. An exploratory prospective cohort study was conducted among 4th year students at the College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia to assess the impact of self-reflection and peer-assessment in a semester-wide assessment tasks in two compulsory first semester 4th year courses (Therapeutics-3 and Pharmacoeconomics). An end-of-course evaluation survey with a pre-tested 5-item open-ended questionnaire was also conducted to evaluate students' feedback on the impact of active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. Male students (study group) constituted 40.7% of the cohort while 59.3% were females (control group) with mean ± SD age of 23.2 ± 5.6 and 22.1 ± 4.9 years respectively. The mean ± SD scores for quizzes, mid-term and final exams, and the overall percentage pass were significantly higher in the study group for both courses (P pedagogic strategies enabled them to improve their use of critical thinking, facilitated deeper engagement with their learning and improved their clinical decision-making and discussion skills. The use of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer
Yusuff, Kazeem B.
Background: The patient-centered focus of clinical pharmacy practice which demands nuanced application of specialized knowledge and skills targeted to meeting patient-specific therapeutic needs warrant that the training strategy used for PharmD graduates must empower with the ability to use the higher level cognitive processes and critical thinking effectively in service delivery. However, the historical disposition to learning in the Middle East and among Saudi students appeared heavily focused on rote memorization and recall of memorized facts. Objectives: To assess the impact of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer assessment on pharmacy students’ academic performance and metacognitive skills, and evaluate students’ feedback on the impact of these active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. Method: An exploratory prospective cohort study was conducted among 4th year students at the College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia to assess the impact of self-reflection and peer-assessment in a semester-wide assessment tasks in two compulsory first semester 4th year courses (Therapeutics-3 and Pharmacoeconomics). An end-of-course evaluation survey with a pre-tested 5-item open-ended questionnaire was also conducted to evaluate students’ feedback on the impact of active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. Result: Male students (study group) constituted 40.7% of the cohort while 59.3% were females (control group) with mean ± SD age of 23.2 ± 5.6 and 22.1 ± 4.9 years respectively. The mean ± SD scores for quizzes, mid-term and final exams, and the overall percentage pass were significantly higher in the study group for both courses (P pedagogic strategies enabled them to improve their use of critical thinking, facilitated deeper engagement with their learning and improved their clinical decision-making and discussion skills. Conclusion: The use of active
Pigott, H E; Fantuzzo, J W; Clement, P W
We evaluated the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring combined with group reinforcement contingencies on the arithmetic performance of 12 underachieving fifth-grade students. Results indicated that the intervention increased the students' arithmetic performance to a level indistinguishable from their classmates during treatment and 12-week follow-up phases. Pre-, post-, and follow-up sociometric data indicated that the students who participated in the treatment groups increased their amount of peer affiliation with other treatment group members.
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of great turbulence characterized by cognitive, emotional, social and physical changes. Family environment and role of peers is extremely crucial in the development of an adolescent. Presenting here is a brief case of 15 year old boy who was referred for counseling by his parents for lack of concentration in studies. In the counseling sessions with the boy and his parents it was found that the boy was psychologically disturbed as he was teased at school by his peers. In addition his father had an authoritarian parenting style which was adding to his troubles resulting in low academic scores. The boy’s scores on “The Study Habits Inventory” were lower, indicating poor study habits which includes study concentration. The counsellors used an eclectic approach for the boy and his parents, to develop a healthy family environment, which improved his self-esteem and study habits.
Ockene, Judith K.; Milner, Robert J.; Thorndyke, Luanne E.; Congdon, John; Cain, Joanna M.
The promotion process is challenging, particularly for non-tenure track faculty in academic medicine. To address this challenge, we implemented a facilitated peer mentoring program that included a structured curriculum with regular meetings, guided by two senior faculty mentors. Participants expressed satisfaction with the program, showed…
Leidenfrost, Birgit; Strassnig, Barbara; Schütz, Marlene; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Schabmann, Alfred
Universities frequently offer support programs to assist first-year students with the transition from school to the university. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different mentoring styles on mentee academic performance after 1 year and 2 years of study. Participants consisted of 417 psychology students who started their…
Sallee, Margaret W.; Tierney, William G.
The authors examine how peer relationships influence students' academic success. After defining peer groups, the article considers the ways in which students' peer networks facilitate or inhibit access to academic resources. The authors argue that the composition and purpose of a peer group influences academic achievement and students' likelihood…
Llorca, Anna; Cristina Richaud, María; Malonda, Elisabeth
The aim of the present study is to analyze the relation between authoritative and permissive parenting styles with the kinds of adolescent peer relationships (attachment, victimization, or aggression), and of the latter ones, in turn, with academic self-efficacy, and academic performance, in three waves that range from the early-mid adolescence to late adolescence. Five hundred Spanish adolescents, of both sexes, participated in a three-wave longitudinal study in Valencia, Spain. In the first wave, adolescents were either in the third year of secondary school or the fourth year of secondary school. The mean age in the first wave was 14.70 ( SD = 0.68; range = 13-16 years). Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (Schaefer, 1965; Samper et al., 2006), Peer Attachment (from the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment by Armsden and Greenberg, 1987), Victimization (from the Kit at School, Buhs et al., 2010), Physical and Verbal Aggression Scale (Caprara and Pastorelli, 1993; Del Barrio et al., 2001), items of academic self-efficacy, and items of academic performance were administered. Structural equations modeling-path analysis was employed to explore the proposed models. The results indicated that parenting styles relate to the way the adolescents develops attachments to their peers and to academic self-efficacy. The mother's permissive style is an important positive predictor of aggressive behavior and a negative predictor of attachment to their peers. At the end, peer relations and academic self-efficacy are mediator variables between parenting styles and academic performance.
High attrition rates among students in associate degree nursing programs are a concern for faculty, administrators, and students. Programs offering academic and emotional support for students at risk for failing a clinical course may decrease attrition rates and improve academic performance. A peer tutoring program was developed for returning nursing students who were unsuccessful in a previous clinical course. Peer tutors met with returning students weekly to review course work, complete case studies and practice NCLEX questions. Trusting, supportive relationships developed among students and a significant increase in grades was noted at the end of the course for 79% of students. Implementation of peer tutoring was beneficial for returning students, tutors, and the nursing program and may be valuable in other courses where academic achievement is a concern.
Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J
The literature has documented theoretical/conceptual models delineating the facilitating role of peer relationships in academic and non-academic outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which peer relationships link to those outcomes is an area requiring further research. The study examined the role of adolescents' perceptions of their relationships with same-sex and opposite-sex peers in predicting their academic performance and general self-esteem and the potentially mediating role of school engagement in linking these perceived peer relationships with academic and non-academic outcomes. The sample comprised 1,436 high-school students (670 boys, 756 girls; 711 early adolescents, 723 later adolescents). Self-report measures and objective achievement tests were used. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to test the hypothesized model and its invariance across gender and age groups. Perceived same-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with academic performance and general self-esteem. Perceived opposite-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with general self-esteem and an indirect positive link with academic performance, but mediation via school engagement was not as strong as that of perceived same-sex peer relationships. These findings generalized across gender and age groups. Adolescents' same-sex and opposite-sex peer relationships seem to positively impact their academic performance and general self-esteem in distinct ways. It appears that school engagement plays an important role in mediating these peer relationship effects, particularly those of same-sex peer relationships, on academic and non-academic functioning. Implications for psycho-educational theory, measurement, and practice are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Llorca, Anna; Cristina Richaud, María; Malonda, Elisabeth
The aim of the present study is to analyze the relation between authoritative and permissive parenting styles with the kinds of adolescent peer relationships (attachment, victimization, or aggression), and of the latter ones, in turn, with academic self-efficacy, and academic performance, in three waves that range from the early-mid adolescence to late adolescence. Five hundred Spanish adolescents, of both sexes, participated in a three-wave longitudinal study in Valencia, Spain. In the first wave, adolescents were either in the third year of secondary school or the fourth year of secondary school. The mean age in the first wave was 14.70 (SD = 0.68; range = 13–16 years). Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (Schaefer, 1965; Samper et al., 2006), Peer Attachment (from the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment by Armsden and Greenberg, 1987), Victimization (from the Kit at School, Buhs et al., 2010), Physical and Verbal Aggression Scale (Caprara and Pastorelli, 1993; Del Barrio et al., 2001), items of academic self-efficacy, and items of academic performance were administered. Structural equations modeling—path analysis was employed to explore the proposed models. The results indicated that parenting styles relate to the way the adolescents develops attachments to their peers and to academic self-efficacy. The mother's permissive style is an important positive predictor of aggressive behavior and a negative predictor of attachment to their peers. At the end, peer relations and academic self-efficacy are mediator variables between parenting styles and academic performance. PMID:29326615
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze the relation between authoritative and permissive parenting styles with the kinds of adolescent peer relationships (attachment, victimization, or aggression, and of the latter ones, in turn, with academic self-efficacy, and academic performance, in three waves that range from the early-mid adolescence to late adolescence. Five hundred Spanish adolescents, of both sexes, participated in a three-wave longitudinal study in Valencia, Spain. In the first wave, adolescents were either in the third year of secondary school or the fourth year of secondary school. The mean age in the first wave was 14.70 (SD = 0.68; range = 13–16 years. Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (Schaefer, 1965; Samper et al., 2006, Peer Attachment (from the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment by Armsden and Greenberg, 1987, Victimization (from the Kit at School, Buhs et al., 2010, Physical and Verbal Aggression Scale (Caprara and Pastorelli, 1993; Del Barrio et al., 2001, items of academic self-efficacy, and items of academic performance were administered. Structural equations modeling—path analysis was employed to explore the proposed models. The results indicated that parenting styles relate to the way the adolescents develops attachments to their peers and to academic self-efficacy. The mother's permissive style is an important positive predictor of aggressive behavior and a negative predictor of attachment to their peers. At the end, peer relations and academic self-efficacy are mediator variables between parenting styles and academic performance.
Lomi, Alessandro; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Torlo, Vanina Jasmine
Studies of peer effects in educational settings confront two main problems. The first is the presence of endogenous sorting which confounds the effects of social influence and social selection on individual attainment. The second is how to account for the local network dependencies through which
Hott, Brittany L.; Evmenova, Anya; Brigham, Frederick J.
This study examined the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring coupled with academic self-monitoring on the mathematics vocabulary acquisition of students with emotional or behavioral disabilities (EBD). Six middle school students from diverse backgrounds with EBD attending a public, urban middle school participated in the study. A rigorous multiple…
Samruddhi Karnik; Neha Sahasrabudhe
Adolescence is a period of great turbulence characterized by cognitive, emotional, social and physical changes. Family environment and role of peers is extremely crucial in the development of an adolescent. Presenting here is a brief case of 15 year old boy who was referred for counseling by his parents for lack of concentration in studies. In the counseling sessions with the boy and his parents it was found that the boy was psychologically disturbed as he was teased at school by ...
Hendrickx, M.M.H.G.; Mainhard, M.T.; Boor-Klip, H.J.
Rejection by peers puts students at risk for limited academic achievement. The present study first explored teacher behavior and then examined the role of teacher behavior in changes in peer liking status as well as academic achievement for 228 peer-rejected students (Mage = 10.47). Frequency and
Menesses, Keri F.; Gresham, Frank M.
This study directly compared the academic gains of reciprocal peer tutoring, nonreciprocal peer tutoring, and a waiting-list control group. Participants included 59 elementary students from second-, third-, and fourth-grade classrooms who performed below average on curriculum-based measurement (CBM) math probes. Students involved in peer tutoring…
Benner, Aprile D
Implications of high school exit examination performance were examined with a sample of 672 racial/ethnic minority students. Exit examination failure in the 10th grade was negatively linked to subsequent grade point average, school engagement, and school belonging one year later, controlling for outcomes prior to taking the examination. Academically incongruent students-those who failed the exit examination but were in schools where their same-race/ethnicity peers were performing well academically-seemed to be at particular risk for struggling grades and poorer socioemotional well-being (e.g., experiencing greater depressive symptoms and loneliness). Findings contribute to the limited research base on exit examinations and highlight the links between exit examination performance and developmental outcomes beyond the oft-studied academic domain. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bailey, Charles D.; Hair, Joe F.; Hermanson, Dana R.; Crittenden, Victoria L.
Publication in refereed journals is critical to career success for most marketing faculty members, and the peer review process is the gatekeeper for a refereed journal. The study reported here examines marketing academics' perceptions of this peer review process. Based on responses from 653 marketing academics, we find favorable overall…
Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.; Liew, Jeffrey; Kwok, Oi-Man
The longitudinal relationships between two dimensions of peer relationships and subsequent academic adjustment were investigated in a sample of 543 relatively low achieving children (M = 6.57 years at Year 1, 1st grade). Latent variable SEM was used to test a four stage model positing indirect effects of peer acceptance and peer academic…
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the academic achievement and perceived peer support levels of 4th-8th grade Turkish elementary and middle school students at low socio-economic status. Factorial design analyses were used to test the statistical effects of gender and preschool education variables on the dependent variables. The findings indicated that while girls performed a higher general academic achievement in school courses than boys, the perceived peer support levels were similar for both groups. On the other hand, although no significant effect of preschool education was detected on academic achievement, students who had completed preschool education were found to have significantly higher perceived peer support scores than their peers. Similar to findings of studies from non-Western contexts, no significant relationship was found between the Turkish students’ academic achievement and perceived peer support levels.
Neoliberal reforms in higher education have resulted in corporate managerial practices in universities and a drive for efficiency and productivity in teaching and research. As a result, there has been an intensification of academic work, increased stress for academics and an emphasis on accountability and performativity in universities. This paper…
Novarese, Marco; Di Giovinazzo, Viviana
This article uses university administration data to investigate the relation between student behavior (rapid response in finalizing enrolment procedures) and academic performance. It shows how student solicitude in enrolment, or a lack of it, can be a useful forecast of academic success. Several explanations can be given, including the greater or lesser tendency to procrastinate.
Many institutions monitor academic engagement to investigate student achievement and institutional performance. Relying only on self-reports is prone to misjudgment. Peer evaluation through teamwork has the potential to substitute for measuring engagement, which has not been emphasized in the literature. This study examines whether peer evaluation…
Kalz, M. (2012, 8 March). Peer review - Why does it matter for your academic career? Presentation provided in the context of the Young Researchers Special Issue 2012 of the International Journal of Technology-Enhanced Learning (IJTEL).
Zaritsky, Joyce; Toce, Andi
This manual consists of an introduction to our Academic Peer Instruction (API) program at LaGuardia Community College, a compilation of the materials we have developed and use for training of our tutors (with answers), and a bibliography. API is based on an internationally recognized peer tutoring program, Supplemental Instruction. (Contains 6…
Arnaud Cabanac; Perlovsky, Leonid; Bonniot-Cabanac, Marie-Claude; Cabanac, Michel
In a previous study we demonstrated that listening to a pleasant music while performing an academic test helped students to overcome stress, to devote more time to more stressful and more complicated task and the grades were higher. Yet, there remained ambiguities as for the causes of the higher test performance of these students: do they perform better because they hear music during their examinations, or would they perform better anyway because they are more gifted/motivated? This motivated the current study as a preliminary step toward that general question: Do students who like/perform music have better grades than the others? Our results confirmed this hypothesis: students studying music have better grades in all subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yarris, Lalena M; Gottlieb, Michael; Scott, Kevin; Sampson, Christopher; Rose, Emily; Chan, Teresa M; Ilgen, Jonathan
Peer review, a cornerstone of academia, promotes rigor and relevance in scientific publishing. As educators are encouraged to adopt a more scholarly approach to medical education, peer review is becoming increasingly important. Junior educators both receive the reviews of their peers, and are also asked to participate as reviewers themselves. As such, it is imperative for junior clinician educators to be well-versed in the art of peer reviewing their colleagues' work. In this article, our goal was to identify and summarize key papers that may be helpful for faculty members interested in learning more about the peer-review process and how to improve their reviewing skills. The online discussions of the 2016-17 Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Faculty Incubator program included a robust discussion about peer review, which highlighted a number of papers on that topic. We sought to augment this list with further suggestions by guest experts and by an open call on Twitter for other important papers. Via this process, we created a list of 24 total papers on the topic of peer review. After gathering these papers, our authorship group engaged in a consensus-building process incorporating Delphi methods to identify the papers that best described peer review, and also highlighted important tips for new reviewers. We found and reviewed 24 papers. In our results section, we present our authorship group's top five most highly rated papers on the topic of peer review. We also summarize these papers with respect to their relevance to junior faculty members and to faculty developers. We present five key papers on peer review that can be used for faculty development for novice writers and reviewers. These papers represent a mix of foundational and explanatory papers that may provide some basis from which junior faculty members might build upon as they both undergo the peer-review process and act as reviewers in turn.
Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley
School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Helmer, S M; Pischke, C R; Van Hal, G
BACKGROUND: Overestimations of non-prescribed stimulant use of peers are well documented in the USA and have also been identified as predictive of personal stimulant consumption. This study aimed to examine whether overestimations of peer use and approval of the use are associated with personal u...
The field of expertise studies offers several models from which to develop training programs that accelerate the development of novice performers in a variety of domains. This research study implemented two methods of expertise-based training in a course to develop undergraduate peer academic coaches through a ten-week program. An existing…
This thesis is about the development and validation of a performance-based test, labeled as Performance Samples on academic tasks in Education and Child Studies (PSEd). PSEd is designed to identify students who are most able to perform the academic tasks involved in an Education and Child Studies
Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
Peer victimization is a concern because victimized youth are more likely to have social, emotional, and academic difficulties. The current study examined the link between peer victimization and academic achievement by exploring the indirect effect of academic self-concept on two variables. The sample consisted of 140 middle school students (40%…
Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.
Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.
Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.
Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…
Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana
Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to define the students' psychological distress. Perceived peer social support was investigated with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Poor academic self-perception was defined as the lowest 30% of a subscale score of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Analyses evaluated the presence of additive interactions between psychological distress and peer social support on poor academic self-perception, adjusted for possible confounders. Both psychological distress and low peer social support were negatively associated with poor academic self-perception, adjusted for local language proficiency and social support from family. Students with psychological distress and low peer social support had an odds ratio of 11.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-56.6) for poor academic self-perception as compared with those without distress who had high peer social support. The presence of an additive interaction was confirmed in that the joint association was four times as large as what would have been expected to be on summing the individual risks of psychological distress and low peer social support (synergy index = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-14.9). Psychological distress and low peer social support may synergistically increase the probability of poor academic self-perception among international medical students. Promoting peer social relationships at medical school may interrupt the vicious cycle of psychological distress and poor academic performance.
Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Martin, Andrew J.
Background: The literature has documented theoretical/conceptual models delineating the facilitating role of peer relationships in academic and non-academic outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which peer relationships link to those outcomes is an area requiring further research. Aims: The study examined the role of adolescents' perceptions…
Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J; Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan; Zhou, Ying
This study explored the longitudinal relations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement in Chinese primary school students. Participants were N = 945 fourth-grade students (485 boys, 460 girls; M age = 10.16 years, SD = 2 months) attending elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Three waves of data on peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement were collected from peer nominations, self-reports, and school records, respectively. The results indicated that peer victimization had both direct and indirect effects on later depression and academic achievement. Depression also had both direct and indirect negative effects on later academic achievement, but demonstrated only an indirect effect on later peer victimization. Finally, academic achievement had both direct and indirect negative effects on later peer victimization and depression. The findings show that there are cross-cultural similarities and differences in the various transactions that exist among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Peer victimization directly and indirectly relates to depression and academic achievement. Depression directly and indirectly relates to academic achievement. Academic achievement directly and indirectly relates to depression. What the present study adds? A developmental cascade approach was used to assess the interrelations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement. Academic achievement mediates the relation between peer victimization and depression. Depression is related to peer victimization through academic achievement. Academic achievement directly and indirectly relates to peer victimization. Academic achievement is related to depression through peer victimization. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
The significant increase of entrepreneurship education (EE) is a trend in Europe. Entrepreneurship education is supposed to promote general and specific entrepreneurial abilities and improve academic performance. This paper evaluates whether EE influences academic performance, measured by Grade Point Average. The main indicator used for EE is the…
The fairness and precision of peer assessment have been questioned by educators and academics. Of particular interest, yet poorly understood, are the factors underlying the biases that cause unfair and imprecise peer assessments. To shed light on this issue, I investigated gender and academic major biases in peer assessments of oral presentations.…
This thesis is about the development and validation of a performance-based test, labeled as Performance Samples on academic tasks in Education and Child Studies (PSEd). PSEd is designed to identify students who are most able to perform the academic tasks involved in an Education and Child Studies bridging program. Many Dutch universities set up bridging programs that aim to prepare students with non-university degrees in the Netherlands for Master’s programs at the university level. Some univ...
Lake, D A
Effectiveness of a peer tutoring system developed for an advanced physiology course was assessed in terms of academic performance and perceived value. Forty-five students took the course without the peer tutoring system, and sixty-nine students took the course with peer tutoring. Grades from both groups of students were compared with grades earned in an introductory physiology course. Tutored students were asked how much they valued the peer tutoring. There was a decline in grades received by the students in the advanced physiology course compared with their scores in the introductory physiology course in both tutored and untutored groups. However, the decline in the tutored group was significantly (P = 0.015) less than that in the untutored group of students. Tutored students reacted very favorably to the tutoring sessions and expressed a desire to see tutoring expanded to other courses. This was the first demonstration of the effectiveness of peer tutoring in college science teaching. Peer tutoring appears to be effective in enhancing student performance as well as being perceived as beneficial by the students.
Wright, Dawn Elizabeth
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a personal response system (PRS) in conjunction with a form of cooperative learning in an introductory, undergraduate psychology class to determine if the combination produced a beneficial impact on student academic achievement. Student attitudes toward use of a PRS with cooperative learning…
Altermatt, Ellen Rydell
Prior research demonstrates that perceived academic support from peers positively predicts school adjustment. In this cross-sectional study, we provide evidence that perceived academic support from peers declines from 3rd to 8th grade and that this decline is partially mediated by grade-level declines in perceptions that academic success…
Roberts, Thomas J.; Shambrook, Jennifer
Academic peer review is widely viewed as fair, equitable, and essential to academic quality. Successfully completing the process through publication or award is widely deemed as one of the most rigorous and prestigious forms of scholarly accomplishment. Despite this sentiment the academic peer review process is not without fault. It is criticized…
Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele
This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…
Brennan, Geoffrey; Pettit, Philip
Three possible motivators for college teachers (individual economic interest, academic virtue, and academic honor) suggest mechanisms that can be used to improve performance. Policies need to address all three motivators; economic levers alone may undermine alternative ways of supporting good work. (MSE)
Ip, Barry; Jacobs, Gabriel; Watkins, Alan
There are numerous claims that playing computer and video games may be educationally beneficial, but there has been little formal investigation into whether or not the frequency of exposure to such games actually affects academic performance. This paper explores the issue by analysing the relationships between gaming frequency –measured as the amount of time undergraduate students spend playing games in their free time – and their academic performance as measured by their examination marks. U...
Kofler, Michael J; Sarver, Dustin E; Spiegel, Jamie A; Day, Taylor N; Harmon, Sherelle L; Wells, Erica L
Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with impairments in peer, family, and academic functioning. Although impairment is required for diagnosis, children with ADHD vary significantly in the areas in which they demonstrate clinically significant impairment. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms and processes underlying these individual differences. The current study examined neurocognitive predictors of heterogeneity in peer, family, and academic functioning in a well-defined sample of 44 children with ADHD aged 8-13 years (M = 10.31, SD = 1.42; 31 boys, 13 girls; 81% Caucasian). Reliable change analysis indicated that 98% of the sample demonstrated objectively-defined impairment on at least one assessed outcome measure; 65% were impaired in two or all three areas of functioning. ADHD children with quantifiable deficits in academic success and family functioning performed worse on tests of working memory (d = 0.68 to 1.09), whereas children with impaired parent-reported social functioning demonstrated slower processing speed (d = 0.53). Dimensional analyses identified additional predictors of peer, family, and academic functioning. Working memory abilities were associated with individual differences in all three functional domains, processing speed predicted social functioning, and inhibitory control predicted family functioning. These results add to a growing literature implicating neurocognitive abilities not only in explaining behavioral differences between ADHD and non-ADHD groups, but also in the substantial heterogeneity in ecologically-valid functional outcomes associated with the disorder.
This study examined the influence of academic teaming (i.e., sharing academic classes with the same classmates) on the relationship between social preference and peer victimization among 6th grade students in middle school. Approximately 1,000 participants were drawn from 5 middle schools that varied in their practice of academic teaming. A novel methodology for measuring academic teaming at the individual level was employed, in which students received their own teaming score based on the unique set of classmates with whom they shared academic courses in their class schedule. Using both peer- and self-reports of victimization, the results of two path models indicated that students with low social preference in highly teamed classroom environments were more victimized than low preference students who experienced less teaming throughout the school day. This effect was exaggerated in higher performing classrooms. Implications for the practice of academic teaming were discussed. PMID:25937668
This paper discussed advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of "admission tests" as predictors of performance in undergraduate studies programs. The paper analyzes performance of economics and business administration students. This performance is linked to admission tests results. The paper also analyzes aspects of performance related to (i) differential progress through time, and (ii) differences in the extent to which students have "areas of interest/ability". The paper conclu...
Vedel, Anna; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Larsen, Lars
Personality–performance research typically uses samples of psychology students without questioning their representativeness. The present article reports two studies challenging this practice. Study 1: group differences in the Big Five personality traits were explored between students (N = 1067......) in different academic majors (medicine, psychology, law, economics, political science, science, and arts/humanities), who were tested immediately after university enrolment. Study 2: six and a half years later the students’ academic records were obtained, and predictive validity of the Big Five personality...... traits and their subordinate facets was examined in the various academic majors in relation to Grade Point Average (GPA). Significant group differences in all Big Five personality traits were found between students in different academic majors. Also, variability in predictive validity of the Big Five...
O'Kelly, Mary; Garrison, Julie; Merry, Brian; Torreano, Jennifer
Academic libraries are well lauded for offering supportive spaces for students' self-directed study, and significant resources are dedicated to librarian instruction in the classroom. What many academic libraries lack, however, is a middle ground, a routine way for students to help one another using best practices in peer-to-peer learning theory.…
Teodorescu, Daniel; Andrei, Tudorel
The purpose of this research was to examine student perceptions of academic integrity among faculty and peers at a sample of public universities in Romania. The study explores the factors that influence academic dishonesty among college students and compares the relative importance of faculty influences and peer influences on students' intent to…
Zhang, Linlin; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.
In this two-wave longitudinal study, concurrent and longitudinal relations among teacher-reported shyness, peer acceptance, and academic achievement were examined (Ns = 162 and 155; and Ms[subscript age] = 6.09 and 7.07 years). Concurrently, at both times, shyness was negatively related to peer acceptance and academic achievement, and peer…
Fiebert, Martin S.; Mead, Travis M.
An experimental group of college students were taught and asked to practice actualism meditation techniques before studying and before examinations. Controls were taught the techniques but asked to practice at other times. The groups did not differ in mean study time, but the experimental group performed significantly better on examinations.…
Ip, Barry; Jacobs, Gabriel; Watkins, Alan
There are numerous claims that playing computer and video games may be educationally beneficial, but there has been little formal investigation into whether or not the frequency of exposure to such games actually affects academic performance. This paper explores the issue by analysing the relationships between gaming frequency--measured as the…
Leung, Chi-hung; Choi, Eudora
Background: A limited amount of research has been conducted on children and adolescents who are low achievers. In Hong Kong, educators describe low achieving students in terms of academic performance, they seldom focus on socio-emotional aspects, such as self-esteem, peer affiliation, and inter-personal relationships. However, low achieving…
Rogers, Todd; Feller, Avi
People are exposed to exemplary peer performances often (and sometimes by design in interventions). In two studies, we showed that exposure to exemplary peer performances can undermine motivation and success by causing people to perceive that they cannot attain their peers' high levels of performance. It also causes de-identification with the relevant domain. We examined such discouragement by peer excellence by exploiting the incidental exposure to peers' abilities that occurs when students are asked to assess each other's work. Study 1 was a natural experiment in a massive open online course that employed peer assessment (N = 5,740). Exposure to exemplary peer performances caused a large proportion of students to quit the course. Study 2 explored underlying psychological mechanisms in an online replication (N = 361). Discouragement by peer excellence has theoretical implications for work on social judgment, social comparison, and reference bias and has practical implications for interventions that induce social comparisons. © The Author(s) 2016.
Thijs, Jochem T.; Verkuyten, Maykel
This study examines the link between perceived peer victimization and academic adjustment in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,895 Grade 6 students nested within 108 school classes. It was hypothesized that students’ academic self-efficacy mediates the (negative) link between victimization
Swindle, Nicholas; Wimsatt, Leslie
Peer tutoring can benefit both tutors and tutored students, but information is lacking regarding establishing and measuring outcomes of such a program at new medical schools. To examine the outcomes of a pilot peer tutoring initiative and explore the implications for long-term program development. Fifty-one osteopathic medical students who participated in a pilot peer tutoring program during the 2013-2014 academic year were surveyed regarding satisfaction with the program. Course grade means for the tutors (all courses) and tutored students (specific courses) were analyzed before and after participating in the tutoring experience. Data analyses were performed using frequency distributions, t tests, and qualitative assessment of emergent themes. The survey had a 76% response rate (39 of 51 students). Both tutored students and tutors were satisfied with the tutoring program. Statistically significant changes in course grades for the tutored courses were noted at 3 to 4 and 8 to 9 months among the tutored students who were most at risk for failure (P=.001). Tutor course grades showed no significant changes for any of the courses in which they were enrolled (P=.445). Learning gains were realized by the students at greatest academic risk. Additional research is needed to evaluate long-term outcomes.
Although academic advising in Kenyan universities exists, no research has been done to find out how it impacts on students' educational and career goals. This research aimed at establishing the effect of academic advising on academic performance and the influence of year of study and gender on students' tendency to ...
van Lier, P.A.C.; Barker, E.D.; Brendgen, M.; Tremblay, R.E.; Vitaro, F.; Boivin, M.
This study explored whether early elementary school aged children's externalizing problems impede academic functioning and foster negative social experiences such as peer victimization, thereby making these children vulnerable for developing internalizing problems and possibly increasing their
Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley
School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…
This paper considers the relationship between architecture and construction management students' overall academic abilities (as measured by Weighted Average Marks [WAMs]), their peer ratings for contributions to team design assignments (as measured by an online Self-and-Peer-Assessment [SAPA] tool), and their specific abilities as building…
Hakimzadeh, Rezvan; Besharat, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghinezhad, Seyed Ali; Ghorban Jahromi, Reza
This study investigates the relationships among peers' perceived support, life satisfaction, and student engagement in academic activities. Three hundred and fifteen Iranian students (172 boys and 143 girls) who were studying in one suburb of Tehran participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete Peers' Perceived Support scale…
This study compares the impact of "open" and "anonymous" peer feedback as an adjunct to teacher-mediated feedback in a digital online environment utilising data gathered on an academic writing course at a Turkish university. Students were divided into two groups with similar writing proficiencies. Students peer reviewed papers…
Sijtsema, J.J.; Verboom, C.E.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.
Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and
Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.
Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and
Sijtsema, J.J.; Verboom, C.E.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.
Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and
Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dishion, Thomas J.; Tremblay, Richard E.
This study tested a transactional model of reciprocal influences regarding students' peer experiences (peer acceptance, peer rejection, and friends' academic achievement) and students' academic achievement from middle childhood to early adolescence. This longitudinal model was tested on 452 students (198 girls), mostly Caucasian and French…
Li, Jinrong; Li, Mimi
Despite the benefits of peer review, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to make it more effective for L2 students. With the development of technology, computer-mediated peer review has captured increasing attention from L2 writing researchers and instructors. While Turnitin is known for its use in detecting plagiarism, its newly…
van Lier, Pol A C; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel
This study explored whether early elementary school aged children's externalizing problems impede academic functioning and foster negative social experiences such as peer victimization, thereby making these children vulnerable for developing internalizing problems and possibly increasing their externalizing problems. It also explored whether early internalizing problems contributed to an increase in externalizing problems. The study examined 1,558 Canadian children from ages 6 to 8years. Externalizing and internalizing problems, peer victimization, and school achievement were assessed annually. Externalizing problems lead to academic underachievement and experiences of peer victimization. Academic underachievement and peer victimization, in turn, predicted increases in internalizing problems and in externalizing problems. These pathways applied equally to boys and girls. No links from internalizing to externalizing problems were found. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Antshel, Kevin M
Despite having average intellectual abilities, academic difficulties are relatively common in children and adolescents with PKU. These academic difficulties may be a function of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), executive functioning deficits, and processing speed deficits, all of which are known to affect academic performance in non-PKU populations. This review focuses on what is currently known about academic performance in youth with PKU and offers suggestions for future research. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Formalised peer-to-peer collaboration and the use of web-enhanced materials that are consistent with course objectives, graded assessments and learning outcomes is well known in educational practice. This study compared the academic gains of college students enrolled in Physics using Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT) with others using non-Reciprocal…
Gardner, Linda M.
Foundations of Chemistry courses at the University of Kansas have traditionally accommodated nearly 1,000 individual students every year with a single course in a large lecture hall. To develop a more student-centered learning atmosphere, Peer Led Undergraduate Supplements (PLUS) were introduced to assist students, starting in the spring of 2010. PLUS was derived from the more well-known Peer-Led Team Learning with modifications to meet the specific needs of the university and the students. The yearlong investigation of PLUS Chemistry began in the fall of 2012 to allow for adequate development of materials and training of peer leaders. We examined the impact of academic achievement for students who attended PLUS sessions while controlling for high school GPA, math ACT scores, credit hours earned in high school, completion of calculus, gender, and those aspiring to be pharmacists (i.e., pre-pharmacy students). In a least linear squares multiple regression, PLUS participants performed on average one percent higher on exam scores for Chemistry 184 and four tenths of a percent on Chemistry 188 for each PLUS session attended. Pre-pharmacy students moderated the effect of PLUS attendance on chemistry achievement, ultimately negating any relative gain associated by attending PLUS sessions. Evidence of gender difference was demonstrated in the Chemistry 188 model, indicating females experience a greater benefit from PLUS sessions. Additionally, an item analysis studied the relationship between PLUS material to individual items on exams. The research discovered that students who attended PLUS session, answered the items correctly 10 to 20 percent more than their comparison group for PLUS interrelated items and no difference to 10 percent for non-PLUS related items. In summary, PLUS has a positive effect on exam performance in introductory chemistry courses at the University of Kansas.
LUMINI A RADU
Researchers’ focus on academic performance brings forth the “quality of academic life” and it’s highly positive correlations with “students’ welfare” as well as with certain personality features such as “self-respect” and “positive affectivity” alongside negative correlations such as „academic stress” and “negative affectivity”
LUMINI A RADU
Full Text Available Researchers’ focus on academic performance brings forth the “quality of academic life” and it’s highly positive correlations with “students’ welfare” as well as with certain personality features such as “self-respect” and “positive affectivity” alongside negative correlations such as „academic stress” and “negative affectivity”
Academic procrastination is a prevalent phenomenon with a range of negative outcomes. Many studies focused on causes and correlates of academic procrastination; however, the study of interventions for academic procrastination is scarce. The present study is an initial effort to study the relationship between academic procrastination, online course participation, and achievement, as a basis for developing an intervention for academic procrastination. Findings indicated that studying procrastination was negatively associated with final exam grade as well as with the three online course participation measures. Final exam grade was positively associated with two of the online course participation measures, and they positively correlated with each other. In addition, results indicated that studying procrastination, in combination with online course participation measures, explained about 50% of variance in final exam's grade. Frequency of activities in course Web site had the strongest positive effect on final exam's grade. These findings strengthen the notion that studying procrastination is an impediment to students' academic performance and outcomes and clarifies the need to develop and study academic interventions for academic procrastination as a means to decrease its prevalence in academic settings.
Tatiani dos Santos
Full Text Available This study aimed at to investigate of the procedure of peer tutoring on the academic performance of pupils with intellectual disability in common classrooms of Early Education schools. Participate on the study two children with intellectual disability and twelve typical developmental as tutorial. The taught task was the recognition and the nomination of vowels of the alphabet, through playful activities, being that in the condition without peer tutoring the task was individualized and in the tutoring condition, the task was made in pairs. The results even so point that the peer tutoring can be effective in the improvement of the academic performance, although that is not applied for all of the children and the subject deserve more inquiry.
Austin, Ann Marie Berghout; Draper, Dianne C.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of academic achievement to four categories of social status including popular, rejected, isolated, and amiable, and to the variables of peer acceptance and social impact. Subjects were 145 elementary school children, grades 3 through 6. The children responded to a questionnaire designed to assess peer acceptance as well as rejection. Data consisted of (a) acceptance scores based on the predominance of either acceptance or rejection...
Owen, Julie E.
Involving undergraduates in the design, delivery, and evaluation of classroom-based learning enhances student ownership of the learning environment and stimulates peer interest in the transformative possibilities of education. As bell hooks (1994) eloquently describes, the process of honoring student voices in the classroom enhances "the…
Depression in Groups of Bullies and Victims: Evidence for the Differential Importance of Peer Status, Reciprocal Friends, School Liking, Academic Self-Efficacy, School Motivation and Academic Achievement
Stefanek, Elisabeth; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Yanagida, Takuya
The goals of this study were (1) to identify groups of bullies and victims, (2) to investigate level differences in depression, peer relationships, and academic variables, and (3) to examine how peer relationships and academic variables were associated with depression in these groups. The sample comprised 1,451 students (48.6% girls) aged 10-15…
Many researchers are asked to perform peer review, even at a young age. A simple and practical guide to perform a good peer review of a scientific article is therefore relevant. This paper is such a guide aimed primarily at the young researcher being a debutant in this field.
Ganguly, Sohinee; Kulkarni, Mrinmoyi; Gupta, Meenakshi
There are two dominant strains in the literature on academic performance, the attribution studies and the self-efficacy studies. The present study attempted to incorporate these two strains while examining the academic performance of engineering undergraduate students in India. Time management and perceived stress were included in the model to…
A study of the effects of various manifestations of onchocerciasis namely visual impairment, oncho-rashes (papular oncodermatitis) and palpable nodules on academic performance was undertaken with the objective of finding out the manifestation with the most serious negative effect on academic performance. The study ...
Introduction: Behavioural disorders can have a negative influence on the academic performance of school children. There are no similiar published is no known studies in Nigeria. Objective: To compare the academic performance of primary school children with behavioural disorders with that of their controls. Methods: A ...
Baumann, Chris; Krskova, Hana
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of school discipline in achieving academic performance. The study aims to clarify the role of permissive "vis-à-vis" authoritative teaching styles with an overarching hypothesis that better discipline leads to better academic performance. The authors also probe whether uniformed…
The study investigated the influence of motivation on the academic performance of undergraduate distance learners of the University of Cape Coast, Ghana. The study was guided by two hypotheses; the relationship between intrinsic motivation and academic performance of Level 300 undergraduate students of College of ...
The purpose of this paper is to show that quality teaching and learning are the bed rock of discipline and academic performance. The main aim is to show how the escalation of indiscipline has effect on the academic performance of the learners. Indiscipline has become strife in schools and which has plunged our learners ...
This study focused on identifying whether certain factors affected the academic performance of Soldiers attending an Army educational institution. Academic performance was measured by the grade percentile average of the participant upon the completion of their course of enrollment. Factors that were considered within the study through…
Doleck, Tenzin; Lajoie, Susanne
The ubiquitous use of social networking sites by students and the potential impacts of such use on academic performance are of both theoretical and practical importance. Hence, this paper addresses the question: how does the use of social networking sites influence academic performance? The present review synthesizes the empirical findings of the…
This study investigated the influence of teacher's competence on students; academic performance in senior secondary ... of science teachers in Nigeria. KEY WORDS: Influence, Qualification, Experience, Teachers' Competence, Academic Performance. ... a variety of teaching methods, or strategies and show enthusiasm for ...
Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Tianlong; Yu, Zelong; Li, Yufeng
In order to reduce the simulation complexity and time of peer-to-peer network such as Ad Hoc network, most simulations only use the simplified Free Space Model or Two Ray Ground model to approximate the attenuation due to the wireless transmission without considering the dependency between system performance and channel models. In this paper, the effects of channel models on the wireless peer-to-peer network performance is analyzed in more details by using the conventional routing and medium access control algorithm to find the system performance sensitivity to different channel models. Through the computer simulation using network simulator 2, we found that some aspects of the system performance is only sensitive to the large scale fading effects, while others are not.
Munde, Gail; Coonin, Bryna
This study investigated the skills, knowledge, abilities or dispositions that are most valued and respected by academic librarians, and determined how these qualities might, or might not, be associated with generational membership. Other variables included institutional classification, career length, years since first professional degree, and…
Rambaran, J. Ashwin; Hopmeyer, Andrea; Schwartz, David; Steglich, Christian; Badaly, Daryaneh; Veenstra, Rene
In this study, the associations between peer effects and academic functioning in middle adolescence (N = 342; 14-15 years old; 48% male) were investigated longitudinally. Similarity in achievement (grade point averages) and unexplained absences (truancy) was explained by both peer selection and peer
Rambaran, J. Ashwin; Hopmeyer, Andrea; Schwartz, David; Steglich, Christian; Badaly, Daryaneh; Veenstra, René
In this study, the associations between peer effects and academic functioning in middle adolescence (N = 342; 14-15 years old; 48% male) were investigated longitudinally. Similarity in achievement (grade point averages) and unexplained absences (truancy) was explained by both peer selection and peer influence, net of acceptance, and connectedness.…
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal design study consists of 7th and 8th graders (n = 670, 50% male) from an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse middle school. Victimization was measured using 10 items that assessed frequency of verbal, physical, and relational victimization experiences, and outcomes were assessed with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (2nd ed.) and school records. There was support for gender differences in frequency of peer victimization experiences based on type of victimization. More specifically, boys reported higher levels of physical and verbal victimization, and girls reported higher levels of relational victimization. In addition, there were statistically significant differences between boys and girls on the relation between victimization and anxiety, attendance, and grades, with girls experiencing more maladjustment than boys in response to peer victimization. Finally, results demonstrated no gender differences in indirect effects of psychological adjustment on the relation between peer victimization and academic outcomes, whether victimization was physical, verbal, and relational. These findings highlight the importance of addressing social-emotional functioning as well as peer victimization in the schools for both boys and girls, as both affect students' academic functioning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Rao, Sumangala P.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.
Applies Benson's think-pair-share and Mazur's peer instruction techniques to enhance student involvement during the respiratory component of the medical physiology class. Investigates changes in students' level of understanding and ability to synthesize and integrate material. Includes 15 references. (Author/YDS)
Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.
Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…
Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J.
The goal of this study was to explore longitudinal associations between peer victimization and academic achievement in Chinese children. Participants were N = 805 3rd-grade students (486 boys, 319 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.5 years, SD = 3 months) attending primary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. At Time 1 and Time 2 (2 years…
This study was conducted to investigate the academic achievement and perceived peer support levels of 4th-8th grade Turkish elementary and middle school students at low socio-economic status. Factorial design analyses were used to test the statistical effects of gender and preschool education variables on the dependent variables. The findings…
Lubbers, Miranda J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Creemers, Bert P. M.; Kuyper, Hans
The purpose of this study is to examine whether peer relations within classrooms were related to students' academic progress, and if so, whether this can be explained by students' relatedness and engagement, in line with Connell and Wellborn's self-system model. We analyzed data of 18,735 students
Wang, Clare Wen; Neihart, Maureen
This study investigated how perceived external factors such as supports from parents and teachers, and influences from peers contributed to the academic successes and failures of Singaporean twice-exceptional (2e) students. A total of six 2e participants from one secondary school in Singapore voluntarily participated in the study. This study used…
Wichmann, Astrid; Funk, Alexandra; Rummel, Nikol
The act of revising is an important aspect of academic writing. Although revision is crucial for eliminating writing errors and producing high-quality texts, research on writing expertise shows that novices rarely engage in revision activities. Providing information on writing errors by means of peer feedback has become a popular method in writing…
Leung, Kim Chau
Previous meta-analyses of the effects of peer tutoring on academic achievement have been plagued with theoretical and methodological flaws. Specifically, these studies have not adopted both fixed and mixed effects models for analyzing the effect size; they have not evaluated the moderating effect of some commonly used parameters, such as comparing…
J Gordon Millichap
The effects of 0.3 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg of methylphenidate on the overt behavior and academic functioning of 12 children with ADDH are reported from the Department of Psychiatry Research, Hospital For Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Makar, Kathryn K.
Research conclusions concerning predictors of academic success have been, at best, less than convincing. In fact, these conclusions are more conflicting or mixed when emotional constructs are used. As a result, modern curriculum developers as well as classroom instructors seem to deemphasize, if not ignore, the role of the affective domain in…
Moonie, Sheniz; Sterling, David A; Figgs, Larry W; Castro, Mario
Children with asthma experience more absenteeism from school compared with their nonasthma peers. Excessive absenteeism is related to lower student grades, psychological, social, and educational adjustment. Less is known about the relationship between the presence of asthma and the academic achievement in school-aged children. Since students with asthma miss more days from school, this may negatively impact their academic achievement. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between absenteeism, presence of asthma, and asthma severity level with standardized test level performance in a predominantly African American urban school district. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 3812 students (aged 8-17 years) who took the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) standardized test during the 2002-2003 academic year. After adjustment for covariates, a significant inverse relationship was found between absenteeism and test level performance on the MAP standardized test in all children (F = 203.9, p achievement between those with and without asthma (p = .12). Though not statistically different, those with persistent asthma showed a modestly increased likelihood of scoring below Nearing Proficient compared with those with mild intermittent asthma (adjusted odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence intervals = 0.93-4.01, p = .08). A negative impact of absenteeism on standardized test level achievement was demonstrated in children from an urban African American school district. Children with asthma perform the same academically as their nonasthma peers. However, those with persistent asthma show a trend of performing worse on MAP standardized test scores and have more absence days compared with other students. More research is warranted on the effects of persistent asthma on academic achievement.
Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Lerner, Richard M; Leventhal, Tama
During adolescence, peer groups present an important venue for socializing school-related behaviors such as academic achievement and school engagement. While a significant body of research emphasizes the link between a youth's immediate peer group and academic outcomes, the current manuscript expands on this idea, proposing that, in addition to smaller peer groups, within each school exists a school-wide peer culture that is comprised of two components (a relational and a behavioral component), each of which is related to individual academic outcomes. The relational component describes the aggregate of students' perceptions of the quality of peer relationships within each school. The behavioral component is an aggregate representation of students' actual behaviors in regard to academic tasks. We used data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, which surveyed 1,718 5th grade students (45.9 % male, 51.4 % White, 17.8 % Hispanic, 7.6 % African American) in 30 schools, to explore the idea that, during adolescence, the relational and behavioral components of a school's peer culture are related to students' academic achievement and school engagement. Results suggested that above and beyond a variety of individual, familial, peer, and school characteristics that have previously been associated with academic outcomes, aspects of behavioral peer culture are associated with individual achievement while components of both relational and behavioral peer culture are related to school engagement. Implications for future research are discussed.
Hughes, Jan N; Im, Myung Hee; Wehrly, Sarah E
This longitudinal study examined the prospective relations between 713 elementary students' individual peer teacher support reputation (PTSR) and a measure of the classroom-wide dispersion of peer nominations of teacher support (Centralization of Teacher Support) on students' peer relatedness (i.e., peer acceptance and peer academic reputation) and academic motivation (i.e., academic self-efficacy and teacher-rated behavioral engagement). PTSR was measured as the proportion of classmates who nominated a given student on a descriptor of teacher-student support. Centralization of Teacher Support was assessed using social network analysis to identify the degree to which peer nominations of teacher support in a classroom centered on a few students. PTSR predicted changes in all student outcomes, above academic achievement and relevant covariates. Centralization of Teacher Support predicted changes in students' peer academic reputation, net the effect of PTSR and covariates. Students' academic achievement moderated effects of PTSR and Centralization of Teacher Support on some outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of peers' perceptions of teacher support and of the structure of those perceptions for children's social and academic outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meho, Lokman I.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between citation ranking and peer evaluation in assessing senior faculty research performance. Other studies typically derive their peer evaluation data directly from referees, often in the form of ranking. This study uses two additional...... sources of peer evaluation data: citation content analysis and book review content analysis. Two main questions are investigated: (a) To what degree does citation ranking correlate with data from citation content analysis, book reviews, and peer ranking? (b) Is citation ranking a valid evaluative...... indicator of research performance of senior faculty members? Citation data, book reviews, and peer ranking were compiled and examined for faculty members specializing in Kurdish studies. Analysis shows that normalized citation ranking and citation content analysis data yield identical ranking results...
Howell, Andrew J; Jahrig, Jesse C; Powell, Russell A
We examined associations between measures of sleep propensity on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, sleep quality on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and academic performance by GPA and grades in introductory psychology for 414 students. In the total sample, neither sleep propensity nor sleep quality correlated with GPA or introductory psychology grades. However, among students carrying a full course load, those reporting poor sleep quality performed less well on academic measures than those reporting a better quality of sleep. Further research is needed to assess the moderating influence of overall demands of daytime functioning on the association between sleep quality and academic performance.
Robinson, Erin; Niemer, Louise
Due to the difficult and rigorous nature of nursing education, student retention and attrition are major concerns for faculty. This article describes the implementation and outcomes of a peer-based mentor tutor program (PMTP) for at-risk students in a traditional baccalaureate program. Funding was obtained to provide scholarship incentives for student participants and cover costs of training and materials. Criteria were determined for the selection of student mentors-tutors and the identification of at-risk students. Interventions consisted of weekly PMTP sessions offered for the first four semesters of nursing courses. Course grades were used to determine outcome differences between control and intervention groups. Students in the intervention group were found to score significantly higher than the control group on both summative and final grades.
Moosmann, Danyel A. V.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.
Research has shown that immigrant students often do better academically than their U.S.-born peers from the same ethnic group but it is unclear whether this pattern holds for Mexican Americans. We examined the academic performance of four generations of Mexican American students from fifth to 10th grade looking for generation differences and explanations for them. Using data from 749 families, we tested a model with fifth grade variables that differed by generation as potential mediators linking student generation to 10th grade academic performance. Results showed that immigrants were academically behind at fifth grade but caught up by seventh. Only economic hardship mediated the long term relationship between student generation and 10th grade academic performance; maternal educational expectations and child language hassles, English usage, discrimination, and mainstream values helped explained the early academic deficit of immigrant children. The results identified potential targets for interventions to improve Mexican American students' academic performance. PMID:24578588
De Gale, S.; Boisselle, L. N.
POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) is a collaborative learning technique that employs guided inquiry within a cyclic system of exploration, concept invention, and application. This action research explores students' academic performance on a unit of organic chemistry work taught using POGIL, in addition to the effect of POGIL on…
This study was designed to seek explanations for differences in academic performance among junior secondary school pupils in a Ghanaian municipality. A random sample of 600 junior secondary school pupils in form 2 was used for the study. Multiple regression procedures were used to analyse the data. The results of ...
score was used as an index of their academic performance. The respondents were also asked to provide other general information that assisted in the interpretation of the data. .... Higher Education, 38, 727-742. Cobb, N. J. (2001). The child. California: Mayfield Publishing Company. Vol. 5 (5), Serial No. 22, October, 2011.
Hashim, Rahman; Shawkataly, Rahimah HP
The quality of universitiesnormally depends on their exelence and performance of academicians.Academicians normally teach efficiently besides giving full commitment to theirrespective institution. Academics are requested to perform better by fulfillinga series of requirements by the universities. For instance, if academics arenot satisfied, they may not be committed to deliver the best. In addition,there is a possibility that their perfprmance may not achieve the target. Theseresearch aims to...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Prescription Peer Academic Detailing (Rx-PAD project is an educational intervention study aiming at improving GPs' competence in pharmacotherapy. GPs in CME peer groups were randomised to receive a tailored intervention, either to support a safer prescription practice for elderly patients or to improve prescribing of antibiotics to patients with respiratory tract infections. The project was based on the principles of peer group academic detailing, incorporating individual feedback on GPs' prescription patterns. We did a study to explore GPs and tutors' experiences with peer group academic detailing, and to explore GPs' reasons for deviating from recommended prescribing practice. Methods Data was collected through nine focus group interviews with a total of 39 GPs and 20 tutors. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed by two researchers according to a procedure for thematic content analysis. Results A shared understanding of the complex decision-making involved in prescribing in general practice was reported by both GPs and tutors as essential for an open discussion in the CME groups. Tutors experienced that CME groups differed regarding structure and atmosphere, and in some groups it was a challenge to run the scheme as planned. Individual feedback motivated GPs to reflect on and to improve their prescribing practice, though feedback reports could cause distress if the prescribing practice was unfavourable. Explanations for inappropriate prescriptions were lack of knowledge, factors associated with patients, the GP's background, the practice, and other health professionals or health care facilities. Conclusions GPs and tutors experienced peer group academic detailing as a suitable method to discuss and learn more about pharmacotherapy. An important outcome for GPs was being more reflective about their prescriptions. Disclosure of inappropriate prescribing can cause distress in some doctors, and tutors must be
Shigaki, Helena Belintani; Patrus, Roberto
In a productivist culture, marked by the appreciation of the publication of scientific papers, the subject of peer review becomes relevant. The aim of this study was to reflect on how productivism is seen by the reviewers of scientific papers in the area of Administration, in the light of three specific objectives: to identify the motivations and external influences that teachers act as reviewers, to understand their assessment about the peer review system in Brazil, and to identify the possi...
Tetzner, Julia; Becker, Michael; Maaz, Kai
This study examined interrelations between three indicators of main challenges during adolescence: academic achievement, self-perceived peer acceptance, and self-esteem. An additional aim was to investigate whether the findings hold for girls and boys and across school types (academically oriented track vs. non-academically oriented track). We…
Dendle, Claire; Baulch, Julie; Pellicano, Rebecca; Hay, Margaret; Lichtwark, Irene; Ayoub, Sally; Clarke, David M; Morand, Eric F; Kumar, Arunaz; Leech, Michelle; Horne, Kylie
The impact of medical student psychological distress on academic performance has not been systematically examined. This study provided an opportunity to closely examine the potential impacts of workplace and study related stress factors on student's psychological distress and their academic performance during their first clinical year. This one-year prospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary hospital based medical school in Melbourne, Australia. Students completed a questionnaire at three time points during the year. The questionnaire included the validated Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), as well as items about sources of workplace stress. Academic outcome scores were aggregated and correlated with questionnaire results. One hundred and twenty six students participated; 126 (94.7%), 102 (76.7%), and 99 (74.4%) at time points one, two, and three, respectively. 33.1% reported psychological distress at time point one, increasing to 47.4% at time point three. There was no correlation between the K10 scores and academic performance. There was weak negative correlation between the GHQ-28 at time point three and academic performance. Keeping up to date with knowledge, need to do well and fear of negative feedback were the most common workplace stress factors. Poor correlation was noted between psychological distress and academic performance.
Lewis, Jakeem Amir; Nishina, Adrienne; Ramirez Hall, Alysha; Cain, Shannon; Bellmore, Amy; Witkow, Melissa R
As the U.S. becomes increasingly ethnically diverse, opportunities for cross-ethnic interaction at school may be increasing, and these interactions may have implications for academic outcomes for both ethnic minority and White youth. The current study examines how cross-ethnic peer relationships, measured using peer nominations for acceptance and daily lunchtime interactions, relate to academic outcomes for an ethnically diverse sample of 823 (45% boys and 55% girls; M age = 11.69) public middle school sixth graders across one Midwestern and two Western states. For White, Black, Asian, Latino/a, and Multiethnic students, self-reported daily cross-ethnic peer interactions were associated with higher end-of-year GPAs in core academic courses and teachers' expectations for educational attainment, but not self-reported school aversion. Making cross-ethnic acceptance nominations was not associated with any academic outcomes. Thus, daily opportunities for cross-ethnic interactions may be important school experiences for early adolescents.
Kiuru, Noona; Pakarinen, Eija; Vasalampi, Kati; Silinskas, Gintautas; Aunola, Kaisa; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
In the longitudinal study presented here, we tested the theoretical assumption that children's task-focused behavior in learning situations mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and academic performance. The sample consisted of 2,137 Finnish-speaking children. Data on supportive interpersonal environments (characterized by authoritative parenting, positive teacher affect toward the child, and peer acceptance) were gathered in Grade 1. The children's task-focused behavior was measured in Grades 2 and 3, and academic performance was measured in Grades 1 and 4. The results supported our assumption by showing that all three supportive environments were positively associated with children's subsequent academic performance via increased task-focused behavior in learning situations. These findings suggest that students' academic performance can be promoted by increasing the support they receive from peers, parents, and teachers because such increased support leads to better task focus in learning tasks.
O'Sullivan, Íde; Cleary, Lawrence
non-peer-reviewed LINK TO DIALOGUES: http://e-learning.coventry.ac.uk/ojs/index.php/joaw/article/view/110 On 29 June 2011, 280 delegates interested in the teaching, tutoring, research, administration and development of academic writing in higher education in Europe descended upon the University of Limerick to discuss the role of the student experience in shaping academic writing development in higher education. The EATAW 2011 conference invited all those interested in academic writing d...
Conclusion: Perceived stress has negative direct relationship with social support and positive direct relationship with academic burnout. Social support also has positive direct relationship with academic performance. Relationship of maladaptive perfectionism with academic burnout and also the relationship of adaptive perfectionism with academic performance is direct positive. Relationship of perceived stress with academic performance is indirect mediated by social support.
Gedeon, Julie A.; Rubin, Richard E.
Discusses problems with performance evaluations in academic libraries and examines attribution theory, a sociopsychological theory which helps explain how biases may arise in the performance-evaluation process and may be responsible for producing serious and unrecognized inequities. Considers fairness in performance evaluation and differential…
Aschhoff, Birgit; Grimpe, Christoph
at situations in which both types of social influence are incongruent and the academic is faced with “dissonance”. Based on survey data of 355 German academics in the field of biotechnology and publication data from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), we find that the scientist's involvement...... that a scientist's involvement increases with the industry orientation of the scientist's co-authors (“personal peer effect”), irrespective of the scientist's age. In case both types of social influence are incongruent, younger scientists will revert to localized norms while more experienced scientists will orient...
Heath, Nancy; Roberts, Elizabeth; Toste, Jessica R.
Children with academic and behavioral difficulties have been found to report overly positive self-perceptions of performance in their areas of specific deficit. Researchers typically investigate self-perceptions in reference to both actual performance and ratings by teachers, peers, and parents. However, few studies have investigated whether or…
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh
The ability to design and implement performance management systems that motivate employees to high performance has become pivotal for many public leaders. Many public organizations use command systems which are based on the threat of sanctions, but our knowledge on the effects of such systems...
Mileidy Salcedo Barragán
Full Text Available This study intends to find the relationship between academic performance in High School and College, focusing on Natural Sciences and Mathematics. It is a descriptive correlational study, and the variables were academic performance in High School, performance indicators and educational history. The correlations between variables were established with Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results suggest that there is a positive relationship between academic performance in High School and Educational History, and a very weak relationship between performance in Science and Mathematics in High School and performance in College.
Reese, Latasha Shireen
Studies indicated that teaching styles and learning styles of students play a very important role in the academic success of students. A lack of knowledge about teaching styles and learning styles often complicates the challenge of learning and, therefore, affects the academic achievement of students. The research site at a college had a retention rate of 70% of its biology majors and needed to improve the retention rate of the biology program. The purpose of this study was to improve the academic performance of university biology students through a multicomponent program, the Student Retention Engagement Program. The 3 components included students and teachers understanding students' learning styles, teachers acquiring knowledge of learner-based teaching methodology, and peer mentoring. In the implementation of this applied dissertation, the researcher sought to increase the grade point averages of 100 Biology 103 students from 2.25 to at least an overall 2.50 out of a 4.00 point grade point average scale. After implementation of the intervention strategies. the overall retention ratc of biology majors was also targeted to improve from 70% to at least 75%. The focus of the dissertation was on the outcomes associated with implementing successful teaching and learning strategies with the biology students. In 1 component of the Student Retention Engagement Program, biology teachers learned to identify their preferred teaching styles through a teaching perspectives inventory administered during a professional development program. A training program focused on utilizing teaching strategies for specific student learning styles was implemented. Another component involved training and using upper class peer mentors. The supervisors of the Office of Retention selected upper class participants who held a 3.0 or higher grade point average. A learning style inventory was administered to the upper class peer mentors and participating students. The results helped to identify
Dills, Angela K.; Hernandez-Julian, Rey
This paper examines the relationship between course scheduling and student achievement, controlling for student and course characteristics. The literature in psychology recognizes that performance varies by time of day and that spacing learning out over time may foster greater long-term memory of items. We use student grades as a measure of…
Adair, Kirk; Swinton, Omari H.
The benefits from attendance of lectures have been established in the literature. This paper focuses on attendance not of the lecture, but of smaller labs. These labs are 50 minutes one-day-a-week sessions to emphasis material covered during lecture. Using a 200-student Principles of Economics class that covers microeconomics with six different labs, we investigate the effect of lab attendance on exam performance by taking into account individual characteristics. We find that lab attendance b...
Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Mali, Luiza V; Duong, Mylien T
Adolescents who have been exposed to violence in the community often experience subsequent difficulties with academic achievement. Because competence in the classroom is a salient developmental task during the adolescent years, outcomes in this critical context can then have broader implications for social and psychological functioning. In the current study, we tested a hypothesized progression in which the association between violence exposure and deficient achievement is presumed to potentiate friendships with academically disengaged peers. We followed 415 urban adolescents (53 % girls; average age of 14.6 years) for a one-year period, with two annual assessment of psychosocial functioning. Exposure to violence in the community and academic engagement were assessed with a self-report inventory; reciprocated friendships were assessed with a peer interview; and achievement was indexed based on a review of school records. Consistent with our hypotheses, neighborhood violence was associated with deficient classroom achievement. Poor achievement, in turn, mediated associations between community violence exposure and low academic engagement among friends. Our findings highlight pathways though which exposure to community violence potentially predicts later dysfunction.
Leidenfrost, Birgit; Strassnig, Barbara; Schabmann, Alfred; Spiel, Christiane; Carbon, Claus-Christian
The purpose of our study was to explore peer mentoring styles and examine their contribution to academic success among mentees. Data were collected as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a peer mentoring program. The sample consisted of 49 mentors (advanced students) who supported 376 mentees (first year students) in small groups. Indicators for…
Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Lambert, Kerrylin; Gravelle, Maggie
Peer cultures of effort and achievement influence early adolescents' academic adjustment. A randomized controlled trials design was used to test the extent to which aspects of peer cultures of effort and achievement were enhanced following teachers' participation in the Supporting Early Adolescents' Learning and Social Success…
Simmons, Deborah C.; And Others
Examined effects of explicit teaching and peer tutoring on reading achievement of learning-disabled students and nondisabled, low-performing readers in academically integrated classrooms. Found that explicit-teaching students did not achieve reliably better than controls; students in the explicit teaching plus peer tutoring condition scored higher…
This paper investigates how individuals' performances of a cognitive task in a high-pressure competition are affected by their peers' performances. To do so, I use novel data from the National Spelling Bee, in which students attempt to spell words correctly in a tournament setting. Across OLS and instrumental variables approaches, I…
To compare the effectiveness of peer assisted learning versus expert assisted learning in terms of academic scores. Cross over-randomized control trial followed by a cross-sectional survey. Fatima Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, during January to October 2012. This study was conducted on 4th year MBBS students. The students were randomly divided in two groups by lottery method following their roll numbers. The groups A and B were dealt with Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) and Expert Assisted Learning (EAL) respectively. Effectiveness of both methods of learning was calculated on the basis of academic scores obtained in MCQ tests. One best answer type of MCQs were used and their construct validity was checked by other senior faculty members. After crossover of groups and altered teaching strategy, academic scores were compared again within the group and the comparable group. Student's views about this technique were measured by Likert's scale. P-values were obtained by applying independent and paired t-tests and considered statistically significant at ≥ 0.05. There were 70 students of 4th year MBBS which included 24 (34.3%) males and 46 (65.7%) females. TheCrohnbach's alpha value of these MCQs was 0.64. Scores of MCQ test were compared by applying independent t-test and p-value obtained was 0.971; after cross over p-value was 0.468 which was not significant between the results obtained by two learning strategies. Twenty five students (46.3%) said that PAL is an effective technique. Thirty eight (70.4%) students found it easy to communicate with a peer. For incorporation of PAL in curriculum of community medicine, 24 (44.4%) students voted in its favour. Peer assisted learning has proved of equivalent efficacy in terms of students score in MCQs test as expert assisted learning.
Austin Blackburn Wiles MD
Full Text Available Academic pathologists perform clinical duties, as well as valuable nonclinical activities. Nonclinical activities may consist of research, teaching, and administrative management among many other important tasks. While clinical duties have many clear metrics to measure productivity, like the relative value units of Medicare reimbursement, nonclinical performance is often difficult to measure. Despite the difficulty of evaluating nonclinical activities, nonclinical productivity is used to determine promotion, funding, and inform professional evaluations of performance. In order to better evaluate the important nonclinical performance of academic pathologists, we present an evaluation system for leadership use. This system uses a Microsoft Excel workbook to provide academic pathologist respondents and reviewing leadership a transparent, easy-to-complete system that is both flexible and scalable. This system provides real-time feedback to academic pathologist respondents and a clear executive summary that allows for focused guidance of the respondent. This system may be adapted to fit practices of varying size, measure performance differently based on years of experience, and can work with many different institutional values.
Pestana, Leonor; Duarte, João; Coutinho, Emília; Nelas, Paula; Chaves, Cláudia; Amaral, Odete
Abstract: Sleep has numerous important functions in the body, such as consolidation of memory, concentration and learning. Changes in sleep cycles in adolescents lead to sleep deprivation with consequences to academic performance. Our research question was What are the sleep habits that influence school performance (study environment, study planning, study method, reading skills, motivation to study, overall school performance) in adolescents? We aimed to identify sleep habits predictors of t...
Determinants of Perceived Students' Academic Performance in Vocational Education in Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State. ... Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that the teachers should be more motivated by ensuring participation in continuous training programmes. There should be improvement in the ...
González Gándara, David
There is a concern in Galicia (Spain) about possible negative effects on academic performance caused by the introduction of CLIL (content and language integrated learning) in schools. It has been said that when three languages coexist in the same context as vehicles of education, it is too much for the students, especially in primary education. In…
Martin Sanz, Noemy; Rodrigo, Inés G.; Izquierdo García, Cristina; Ajenjo Pastrana, Patricia
Academic performance has always been associated to the evaluation tests results, which are those corresponding to student's IQ, and leaving aside other personal characteristics. Among such characteristics, the importance of emotional intelligence is worth highlighting (management, facilitation, understanding and perception), dimensions associated…
This study investigated the influence of teacher's competence on students; academic performance in senior secondary chemistry. A random sampling technique was used to select 6 secondary schools out of 10 secondary schools in Tai Local Government Area of Rivers State. 200 students, 20 teachers and 6 principals ...
The study examined the influence of internet usage on academic performance of undergraduate students of the University ofIlorin, Nigeria.This study adopted descriptive survey method. Six faculties were randomly selected from the 13 faculties in the University while 200 undergraduate students were sampled across these ...
The study investigated the influence of learning environment on academic performance of primary school children. Two learning environments: the home and the school environments were identified for this study. Three research hypotheses were raised as guide to the study. The study made use of survey design.
Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.
We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic
Finding accurate predictors of tertiary academic performance, specifically for disadvantaged students, is essential because of budget constraints and the need of the labour market to address employment equity. Increased retention, throughput and decreased dropout rates are vital. When making admission decisions, the
Nasrullah, Shazia; Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Khan, Irfanullah
The current study will be conducted in relationship of entrepreneurship education and academic performance. The study will be conducted on the post graduate students in the Universities of Bahawalpur. In the current study those universities will be included that were offering and also not offering entrepreneurship as a subject of teaching. The…
This study investigated instructional Television (ITV) programmes and Academic performance of Senior Secondary School students in Anambra state-Nigeria. The need for the study arose from the problem of the declining nature of West African school certificate examination results of senior secondary school students in ...
Purpose: While numerous studies about academic performance that focused on only one factor, studies aiming to measure academicians' perceptions across many factors have not been observed in the literature. The current study aims to fill this gap and become a resource for upcoming studies. The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable…
This causal-comparative study was carried out to investigate the influence of environmental variables on pupils' academic performance in primary science in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study namely: environmental ...
To determine the relationship of stress and academic performance in first year medical students and to identify sources of stress, levels of stress and relevant coping strategies. Mixed method sequential. Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, from March to December 2010. Survey questionnaire and in-depth interviews were carried out in the first year students with their consent. Two hundred and fifty students were surveyed, out of whom 120 students responded. Twelve students with their consent were interviewed. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed for both types of data collection. SPSS version 20 was used. The qualitative data generated through structured in-depth interviews, were analyzed by content analysis. Low level of stress was found in 7.5% (score ‹150), moderate level of stress was present in 71.67% (score between 150 and 300), and high level of stress was observed in 20.83% (score ›300) of the students. There is moderate negative (-0.583) and significant (p academic performance and sources of stress. Similarly there is moderate negative (-0.478) and significant (p academic performance and levels of stress. There was strong positive (0.799) and significant (p stress level and number of stress sources. The study showed a diversity of stress sources and a high level of stress in the medical students. The results also show that higher level of stress is associated with poor academic performance.
Curcio, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi
At a time when several studies have highlighted the relationship between sleep, learning and memory processes, an in-depth analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation on student learning ability and academic performance would appear to be essential. Most studies have been naturalistic correlative investigations, where sleep schedules were correlated with school and academic achievement. Nonetheless, some authors were able to actively manipulate sleep in order to observe neurocognitive and behavioral consequences, such as learning, memory capacity and school performance. The findings strongly suggest that: (a) students of different education levels (from school to university) are chronically sleep deprived or suffer from poor sleep quality and consequent daytime sleepiness; (b) sleep quality and quantity are closely related to student learning capacity and academic performance; (c) sleep loss is frequently associated with poor declarative and procedural learning in students; (d) studies in which sleep was actively restricted or optimized showed, respectively, a worsening and an improvement in neurocognitive and academic performance. These results may been related to the specific involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in vulnerability to sleep loss. Most methodological limitations are discussed and some future research goals are suggested.
This was a correlational design study that explored the relationship between pupils' psychosocial variables such as self-esteem, hearing status, attitude towards teachers and school; and between these and academic performance. A total of 194 pupils, 110 hearing normally and 84 hearing impaired were compared in ...
Md Rahim, Nasrudin; Meon, Hasni
Study skills play an important role in influencing academic performance of university students. These skills, which can be modified, can be used as an indicator on how a student would perform academically in his course of study. The purpose of the study is to determine the study skills profile among Universiti Selangor's (Unisel) students and to find the relationships of these skills with student's academic performance. A sample of seventy-eight (78) foundation studies and diploma students of Unisel were selected to participate in this study. Using Study Skills Inventory instrument, eight skills were measured. They are note taking; test taking; textbook study; concentration and memory; time management; analytical thinking and problem solving; nutrition; and vocabulary. Meanwhile, student's academic performance was measured through their current Grade Point Average (GPA). The result showed that vocabulary skill scored the highest mean with 3.01/4.00, followed by test taking (2.88), analytical thinking and problem solving (2.80), note taking (2.79), textbook study (2.58), concentration and memory (2.54), time management (2.25) and nutrition (2.21). Correlation analysis showed that test taking (r=0.286, p=0.011), note taking (r=0.224, p=0.048), and analytical thinking and problem solving (r=0.362, p=0.001) skills were positively correlated with GPA achievement.
Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas
This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…
Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H
Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Samuolis, Jessica; Lazowski, Andrew; Kessler, Janice
Objectives: This paper explores the extent to which curriculum infusion (CI) impacted undergraduate students' alcohol use, perceived peer alcohol use, use of protective behavioural strategies, academic performance and course engagement. Design: Two faculty members infused content on norms and protective behavioural strategies into selected…
Wilcox, Michael Lee
The purpose of this study was two-fold in nature. First, this study sought to identify whether extracurricular participation for students in a rural, Grades 7-12 building created significant differences when examining academic performance, attendance, gender, lunch status, and student discipline compared to their non-participant peers. Secondly,…
Iwata, Kazuya; Furmedge, Daniel S; Sturrock, Alison; Gill, Deborah
Peer-assisted learning (PAL) is recognised as an effective learning tool and its benefits are well documented in a range of educational settings. Learners find it enjoyable and their performances in assessments are comparable with those of students taught by faculty tutors. In addition, PAL tutors themselves report the development of improved clinical skills and confidence through tutoring. However, whether tutoring leads to actual improvement in performance has not been fully investigated. As high-achieving students are already en route to succeeding in final examinations, we wanted to examine whether participation in a peer-tutoring programme in itself leads to better final-year examination performance. We conducted a retrospective analysis of results on final-year written and clinical examinations at University College London Medical School during 2010-2012. Z-scores were calculated and the performances of PAL tutors and students who were not PAL tutors were compared using analysis of covariance (ancova). Year 4 examination results were used as indicators of previous academic attainment. Of the 1050 students who attempted the final examination, 172 were PAL tutors in the final year. Students who acted as PAL tutors outperformed students who did not in all examination components by 1-3%. Z-scores differed by approximately 0.2 and this was statistically significant, although the significance of this difference diminished when controlling for Year 4 results. Students who acted as PAL tutors who had scored in the top quartile in Year 4 examinations scored significantly better in a long-station objective structured clinical examination (LSO). Although students who acted as PAL tutors performed better than students who did not in final-year examinations, this difference was small and attributable to the students' background academic abilities. High-achieving students appear to be self-selecting as peer-tutors and their enhanced performance in LSOs may reflect their
David L. La Red Martinez
Full Text Available The relatively low% of students promoted and regularized in Operating Systems Course of the LSI (Bachelor’s Degree in Information Systems of FaCENA (Faculty of Sciences and Natural Surveying - Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Naturales y Agrimensura of UNNE (academic success, prompted this work, whose objective is to determine the variables that affect the academic performance, whereas the final status of the student according to the Res. 185/03 CD (scheme for evaluation and promotion: promoted, regular or free1. The variables considered are: status of the student, educational level of parents, secondary education, socio-economic level, and others. Data warehouse (Data Warehouses: DW and data mining (Data Mining: DM techniques were used to search pro.les of students and determine success or failure academic potential situations. Classifications through techniques of clustering according to different criteria have become. Some criteria were the following: mining of classification according to academic program, according to final status of the student, according to importance given to the study, mining of demographic clustering and Kohonen clustering according to final status of the student. Were conducted statistics of partition, detail of partitions, details of clusters, detail of fields and frequency of fields, overall quality of each process and quality detailed (precision, classification, reliability, arrays of confusion, diagrams of gain / elevation, trees, distribution of nodes, of importance of fields, correspondence tables of fields and statistics of cluster. Once certain profiles of students with low academic performance, it may address actions aimed at avoiding potential academic failures. This work aims to provide a brief description of aspects related to the data warehouse built and some processes of data mining developed on the same.
Hulsman, Robert L.; Peters, Joline F.; Fabriek, Marcel
Peer-assessment of communication skills may contribute to mastery of assessment criteria. When students develop the capacity to judge their peers' performance, they might improve their capacity to examine their own clinical performance. In this study peer-assessment ratings are compared to
Janet L. Goosney
Full Text Available For librarians engaged in teaching and learning, reflection has the potential to create opportunities to examine one’s instructional practice, identify and address challenges, and find new instructional pathways. It can also lead to a deeper understanding of one’s teaching. As valuable as it is, it can be challenging for librarians to find time to deeply contemplate instruction experiences. In the fast-paced environment of academic libraries, reflection is too often passed over as we rush from one teaching experience to the next. Recognizing the value of reflective practice, a team of academic librarians at Memorial University created a peer mentoring program for librarians involved in information literacy and other forms of teaching. The goal was to create an inviting and collaborative environment for exploring and developing instructional self-awareness by working with librarian colleagues. The resulting Reflective Peer Mentoring (RPM program requires minimal librarian time yet offers satisfying opportunities for brainstorming, problem solving, and reflection by bringing colleagues together into small co-mentored learning communities. This paper explores the successful evolution of this peer-based, collegial approach to reflection. It describes the inspiration and experimentation that led to the eventual creation of the RPM model, including Reflective Teaching & Observation (RTO, an earlier program founded on peer observation and collaborative exploration. It also describes the foundational principles that form the basis for the RPM program as well as the three-step framework on which it is structured. Finally, the article examines the information gathered and lessons learned from assessment of the program during the first year of implementation.
Abd-Elmotaleb, Moustafa; Saha, Sudhir K.
This study examines the mediating influence of academic self-efficacy on the link between perceived academic climate and academic performance among university students. The participants in the study consist of 272 undergraduate students at the University of Assiut, Assiut, Egypt. A scale to measure perceived academic climate, was developed. To…
Full Text Available Peer Mediated Instruction and Intervention (PMII tipe Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPTdan Kemampuan Akademik pada Pembelajaran IPA Biologi SMK Abstract: Learning science in SMK 1 Bontang still dominated by conventional learning strategy is a method of learning with lecture. This has an impact on learning outcomes of cognitive science that tends biology is still low because the students have not been trained become independent learners, thus learning innovation PMII CWPT types can be used as a breakthrough to develop the cognitive learning. This study was conducted to determine the application CWPT strategies and academic skills in science teaching vocational Biology. Quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest design Nonequivalent Control Group. Results of the study, namely: (1 there CWPT effect on the cognitive learning, (2 no influence academic ability to cognitive learning outcomes, and (3 there is no interaction effect between learning strategy and the academic ability toward the cognitive learning. Key Words: peer-mediated instruction and intervention, classwide peer tutoring, academic skills, cognitive learning outcomes Abstrak: Pembelajaran IPA di SMKN 1 Bontang masih didominasi dengan strategi belajar konvensio-nal yaitu metode belajar dengan ceramah. Hal ini berdampak terhadap hasil belajar kognitif IPA biolo-gi yang cendrung masih rendah karena siswa belum terlatih menjadi pebelajar yang mandiri, sehingga inovasi pembelajaran PMII tipe CWPT dapat digunakan sebagai terobosan untuk mengembangkan hasil belajar kognitif. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui penerapan strategi CWPT dan kemam-puan akademik pada pembelajaran IPA Biologi SMK. Penelitian eksperimen semu dengan rancangan pretest-posttest Nonequivalent Control Group. Hasil penelitian, yaitu: (1 ada pengaruh CWPT ter-hadap hasil belajar kognitif, (2 ada pengaruh kemampuan akademik terhadap hasil belajar kognitif, dan (3 tidak ada pengaruh interaksi antara
Holland, Alice Ann; Hughes, Carroll W; Stavinoha, Peter L
Academic difficulties are widely acknowledged but not adequately studied in survivors of pediatric medulloblastoma. Although most survivors require special education services and are significantly less likely than healthy peers to finish high school, measured academic skills are typically average. This study sought to identify potential factors associated with academic difficulties in this population and focused on school competence and fluent academic performance. Thirty-six patients (ages 7-18 years old) were recruited through the Departments of Neurosurgery and Neuro-Oncology at Children's Medical Center Dallas and Cook Children's Medical Center in Fort Worth, TX. Participants completed a neuropsychological screening battery including selected Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement subtests. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. School competence was significantly correlated with measured academic skills and fluency. Basic academic skill development was broadly average, in contrast to significantly worse fluent academic performance. School competence may have utility as a measure estimating levels of educational success in this population. Additionally, academic difficulties experienced by childhood medulloblastoma survivors may be better captured by measuring deficits in fluent academic performance rather than skills. Identification of these potential factors associated with educational outcomes of pediatric medulloblastoma survivors has significant implications for research, clinical assessment, and academic services/interventions.
Full Text Available The article has the objective identify the associated factors to academic performance of adult students in mathematics and statistics modules. Was realized a study quantitative correlational in a sample of 80 students with age over 30 years old. A group of institutional aspects, social-demographics, psychosocials and pedagogic factors were used as independent variable. Results indicate that style of learning associated with type of intelligence, deficit conscience associated to abstraction capability and family motivation predicts the higher levels of performance, constituting explicative variables. Conclusion: type and style of learning, type of intelligence, motivation, conscience of deficit are associated factors to performance in adults.
Bipp, Tanja; Kleingeld, Ad; van Mierlo, Heleen; Kunde, Wilfried
We investigated the impact of subconscious goals on academic performance in two field experiments. We show that unobtrusive priming of goals with regard to achievement motivation by means of a photograph improves performance in different educational contexts. High-school students who were exposed to an achievement-related photograph achieved…
Twilhaar, E Sabrina; de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke Sh; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Oosterlaan, Jaap
Advances in neonatal healthcare have resulted in decreased mortality after preterm birth but have not led to parallel decreases in morbidity. Academic performance provides insight in the outcomes and specific difficulties and needs of preterm children. To study academic performance in preterm children born in the antenatal steroids and surfactant era and possible moderating effects of perinatal and demographic factors. PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO were searched for peer-reviewed articles. Cohort studies with a full-term control group reporting standardised academic performance scores of preterm children (Academic test scores and special educational needs of preterm and full-term children were analysed using random effects meta-analysis. Random effects meta-regressions were performed to explore the predictive role of perinatal and demographic factors for between-study variance in effect sizes. The 17 eligible studies included 2390 preterm children and 1549 controls. Preterm children scored 0.71 SD below full-term peers on arithmetic (pacademic performance (p=0.006). Preterm children born in the antenatal steroids and surfactant era show considerable academic difficulties. Preterm children with bronchopulmonarydysplasia are at particular risk for poor academic outcome. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Eliasson, Arne; Eliasson, Anders; King, Joseph; Gould, Ben; Eliasson, Arn
Poor school performance by adolescent students has been attributed in part to insufficient sleep. It is recognized that a number of factors lead to diminished total sleep time and chief among these are early school start times and sleep phase delay in adolescence. Political initiatives are gaining momentum across the United States to require later school start times with the intent of increasing total sleep time and consequently improving school performance. Later school start times come with significant costs and impact other activities of families and communities. The decision to implement later school start times cannot be made lightly and deserves support of well-performed research on the impact of these changes. A study evaluating the association of academic performance and total sleep time was performed in middle school and high school students in a suburban Maryland school system. Preliminary results of this study show no correlation of total sleep time with academic performance. Before mandating costly changes in school schedules, it would be useful to perform further research to determine the effects of increasing sleep time on the behaviors of adolescent students.
Hashim, R.; Ayyub, A.; Hameed, S.; Qamar, K.; Raza, G.
Objective: This study aims to determine the educational impact of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) on various academic activities of undergraduate female medical students. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan from June 2013 to November 2013 Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) Islamabad. Data were collected from 224 undergraduate female medical students of all professional years. PMS was diagnosed according to WHO's ICD-10 criteria. Impact of premenstrual syndrome on academic activities of female medical students was assessed using a 22-itemed, structured questionnaire. Results: Two hundred and twenty four female undergraduate medical students gave their written consent to participate in this study. PMS was present among 207 (92.4%) female students. Major PMS symptoms experienced by the female students were backache (87.5%), fatigue (80.2%), depressed mood (78.2%), anxiety (76.8%), hypersomnia (71%) and poor emotional control (64.3%). The frequency of various PMS symptoms interfered with their academic activities (76.3%), with large group discussion sessions (79.2%), with small group discussion sessions (72.9%), written assessment (66.6%) and oral assessment (70.0%). Conclusion: The study findings affirm the fact that premenstrual syndrome profoundly affects the academic activities of young female medical students. In the light of these pertinent findings we recommend that health education and counselling services are essential to be provided at medical college campuses for female undergraduates. This will not only help them alleviate the negative effects of PMS but also develop an understanding about their problems, enhancing their academic output and performance in early medical carrier. (author)
Huang, Gary G.; Du, Jianxia
Analyzing data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 to 1992, this report examines how computer use produces generic benefit to all children and differential benefits to minority and poor children. Specifically, the authors examined computer use at home vis-a-vis computer use at school in relation to the academic performance of disadvantaged children and their peers (defined by race-ethnicity and socioeconomic status). Home computer use typifies socially differentiated opportunities, whereas school computer use promises generic benefits for all children. The findings suggest that with other relevant conditions constant, (a) disadvantaged children did not lag far behind their peers in computer use at school, but they were much less likely to use computers at home; (b) computer use at home was far more significant than computer use at school in relation to high academic performance; (c) wing a computer at school seemed to have dubious effects on learning—taking computer science courses at school related consistently to low performance far both disadvantaged children and their peers, (d) disadvantaged children benefited less than other children from computer use, including computer use at home; and (e) compared to their peers, disadvantaged children's academic performance seemed less predictable by computer use and other predictor variables.
Garzarelli, P; Everhart, B; Lester, D
This study investigated potential correlates of academic achievement, including self-concept, extracurricular activities, family environment, and gender. Findings indicated that while self-concept and academic achievement were associated for gifted 7th and 8th graders, the two variables were not associated for academically weak students. For this latter group, living with a stepparent was associated with poorer academic performance.
Khanehkeshi, Ali; Basavarajappa
This paper investigates the relationship of academic stress with aggression, depression and academic performance of college students. Using a random sampling technique, 60 students consist of boys and girls were selected as students having academic stress. The scale for assessing academic stress (Sinha, Sharma and Mahendra, 2001); the Buss-Perry…
Schmidt, David; Bridgeman, Ariel; Kohl, Patrick
Undergraduate physics students commonly collaborate with one another on homework assignments, especially in more challenging courses. However, there currently exists a dearth of empirical research directly comparing the structure of students' collaborative networks to their academic performances in lower and upper division physics courses. We investigate such networks and associated performances through a mandated collaboration reporting system in two sophomore level and three junior level physics courses during the Fall 2012 and Spring 2013 semesters. We employ social network analysis to quantify the structure and time evolution of networks involving approximately 140 students. Analysis includes analytical and numerical assignments in addition to homework and exam scores. Preliminary results are discussed.
Kleinman, R E; Hall, S; Green, H; Korzec-Ramirez, D; Patton, K; Pagano, M E; Murphy, J M
To determine whether nutrient intake and academic and psychosocial functioning improve after the start of a universal-free school breakfast program (USBP). Information was gathered from 97 inner city students prior to the start of a USBP and again after the program had been in place for 6 months. Students who had total energy intakes of breakfast at school than children who were not at nutritional risk. Six months after the start of the free school breakfast programs, students who decreased their nutritional risk showed significantly greater: improvements in attendance and school breakfast participation, decreases in hunger, and improvements in math grades and behavior than children who did not decrease their nutritional risk. Participation in a school breakfast program enhanced daily nutrient intake and improvements in nutrient intake were associated with significant improvements in student academic performance and psychosocial functioning and decreases in hunger. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
Schwartz, David; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E
This article presents a prospective investigation focusing on the moderating role of peer victimization on associations between harsh home environments in the preschool years and academic trajectories during elementary school. The participants were 388 children (198 boys, 190 girls) who we recruited as part of an ongoing multisite longitudinal investigation. Preschool home environment was assessed with structured interviews and questionnaires completed by parents. Peer victimization was assessed with a peer nomination inventory that was administered when the average age of the participants was approximately 8.5 years. Grade point averages (GPAs) were obtained from reviews of school records, conducted for 7 consecutive years. Indicators of restrictive punitive discipline and exposure to violence were associated with within-subject declines in academic functioning over 7 years. However, these effects were exacerbated for those children who had also experienced victimization in the peer group during the intervening years. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available This cross-national scenario based study exam-ined fourth-grade students’ perceptions of high-performing classmates in terms of their ex-pected intellectual abilities, positive social qual-ities and popularity among their peers across seven countries. The overall results show that high academic achievements predominantly lead to positive expectations within the peer group. However, pronounced differences were found between the countries. The results indi-cated that students from Spanish-speaking countries viewed their potential high-perform-ing peers most favorably, followed by students from Australia, the United Kingdom and Ger-many. The least favorable expectations, but by no means negative attitude, were exhibited by students from the two East-Asian countries Ko-rea and Vietnam. In contrast, the respondents’ gender and the gender of the hypothetical suc-cessful classmates had less influence on student perceptions of high-performers. These findings have implications for the educational provision of high performing students in different cross-national contexts.
Tarun Jain; Mudit Kapoor
This paper uses random assignment of students to investigate the impact of study groups and roommates on academic achievement. We find that informal social interaction with roommates has a significant positive impact on academic achievement, while study group peers have no discernible impact, a result driven by group heterogeneity in ability. We also find that lower-ability students benefit from high-ability students but not vice versa. Â© 2015 The President and Fellows of Harvard College and...
adults (Levinson, 1978). Research evidence suggests that there is an empirical link between student mentoring and student retention (Campbell & Cambell, ... Kessler, Brown, & Broman, 1981). Unfortunately, males appear to be reluctant to avail themselves for services even when the helper is a peer rather than some ...
Dhaqane, Mahad Khalif; Afrah, Nor Abdulle
This study examines the role of satisfaction on students' academic performance and investigates the relationship between satisfaction of students and academic performance and explores other factors that contribute academic performance. A correlation research was used. The study population was the third and the last year students of Benadir…
Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Tucker, Dawn; Bayer, Jordana; Romaniuk, Helena; Sawyer, Susan; Lietz, Petra; Redmond, Gerry; Proimos, Jenny; Allen, Nicholas; Patton, George
Many emotional and behavioral problems first emerge in primary school and are the forerunners of mental health problems occurring in adolescence. However, the extent that these problems may be associated with academic failure has been explored less. We aimed to quantify the association between emotional and behavioral problems with academic performance. A stratified random sample of 8- to 9-year-olds (N = 1239) were recruited from schools in Australia. Data linkage was performed with a national assessment of academic performance to assess reading and numeracy. Parent report assessed emotional and behavioral problems with students dichotomized into "borderline/abnormal" and "normal" categories. One in 5 grade 3 students fell in the "borderline/abnormal" category. Boys with total difficulties (β = -47.8, 95% CI: -62.8 to -32.8), conduct problems, and peer problems scored lower on reading. Numeracy scores were lower in boys with total difficulties (β = -37.7, 95% CI: -53.9 to -21.5) and emotional symptoms. Children with hyperactivity/inattention scored lower in numeracy. Girls with peer problems scored lower in numeracy. Boys with emotional and behavioral problems in mid-primary school were 12 months behind their peers. Children with emotional and behavioral problems are at high risk for academic failure, and this risk is evident in mid-primary school. © 2017, American School Health Association.
The BaBar Copy Program (bbcp) is an excellent representative of peer-to-peer (P2P) computing. It is also a pioneering application of its type in the P2P arena. Built upon the foundation of its predecessor, Secure Fast Copy (sfcp), bbcp incorporates significant improvements performance and usability. As with sfcp, bbcp uses ssh for authentication; providing an elegant and simple working model -- if you can ssh to a location, you can copy files to or from that location. To fully support this notion, bbcp transparently supports 3rd party copy operations. The program also incorporates several mechanism to deal with firewall security; the bane of P2P computing. To achieve high performance in a wide area network, bbcp allows a user to independently specify, the number of parallel network streams, tcp window size, and the file I/O blocking factor. Using these parameters, data is pipelined from source to target to provide a uniform traffic pattern that maximizes router efficiency. For improved recoverability, bbcp also keeps track of copy operations so that an operation can be restarted from the point of failure at a later time; minimizing the amount of network traffic in the event of a copy failure. Here, we preset the bbcp architecture, it's various features, and the reasons for their inclusion
Hanushevsky, A.; Trunov, A.; Cottrell, L.
The BaBar Copy Program (bbcp) is an excellent representative of peer-to-peer (P2P) computing. It is also a pioneering application of its type in the P2P arena. Built upon the foundation of its predecessor, Secure Fast Copy (sfcp), bbcp incorporates significant improvements performance and usability. As with sfcp, bbcp uses ssh for authentication; providing an elegant and simple working model--if you can ssh to a location, you can copy files to or from that location. To fully support this notion, bbcp transparently supports 3rd party copy operations. The program also incorporates several mechanism to deal with firewall security; the bane of P2P computing. To achieve high performance in a wide area network, bbcp allows a user to independently specify, the number of parallel network streams, tcp window size, and the file I/O blocking factor. Using these parameters, data is pipelined from source to target to provide a uniform traffic pattern that maximizes router efficiency. For improved recoverability, bbcp also keeps track of copy operations so that an operation can be restarted from the point of failure at a later time; minimizing the amount of network traffic in the event of a copy failure. Here, the authors present the bbcp architecture, it's various features, and the reasons for their inclusion
Graham, Andrew T.
This small-scale case study focused on academic managers to explore the ways in which they control the workload of academic staff and the extent to which they use the workload model in performance management of academic staff. The links that exist between the workload and performance management were explored to confirm or refute the conceptual…
Ho, Roger Chun-Man; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Tao, Ren; Lu, Yanxia; Day, Jeffrey R; Pan, Fang
Peer review is the major method used by biomedical journals for making the decision of publishing an article. This cross-sectional survey assesses views concerning the review system of biomedical journals among academics globally. A total of 28,009 biomedical academics from high-ranking universities listed by the 2009 Times Higher Education Quacquarelli Symonds (THE-QS) World University Rankings were contacted by email between March 2010 and August 2010. 1,340 completed an online survey which focused on their academic background, negative experiences and views on biomedical journal peer review and the results were compared among basic scientists, clinicians and clinician scientists. Fewer than half of the respondents agreed that the peer review systems of biomedical journals were fair (48.4%), scientific (47.5%), or transparent (25.1%). Nevertheless, 58.2% of the respondents agreed that authors should remain anonymous and 64.4% agreed that reviewers should not be disclosed. Most, (67.7%) agreed to the establishment of an appeal system. The proportion of native English-speaking respondents who agreed that the "peer review system is fair" was significantly higher than for non-native respondents (p = 0.02). Similarly, the proportion of clinicians stating that the "peer review system is fair" was significantly higher than that for basic scientists and clinician-scientists (p = 0.004). For females, (β = -0.1, p = 0.03), the frequency of encountering personal attacks in reviewers' comments (β = -0.1, p = 0.002) and the frequency of imposition of unnecessary references by reviewers (β = -0.06, p = 0.04) were independently and inversely associated with agreement that "the peer review system is fair". Academics are divided on the issue of whether the biomedical journal peer review system is fair, scientific and transparent. A majority of academics agreed with the double-blind peer review and to the establishment of an appeal system. Female academics, experience of
Hidayat, Levita; Vansal, Sandeep; Kim, Esther; Sullivan, Maureen; Salbu, Rebecca
To assess the association of pharmacy students' personal characteristics with absenteeism and academic performance. A survey instrument was distributed to first- (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students to gather characteristics including employment status, travel time to school, and primary source of educational funding. In addition, absences from specific courses and reasons for not attending classes were assessed. Participants were divided into "high" and "low" performers based on grade point average. One hundred sixty survey instruments were completed and 135 (84.3%) were included in the study analysis. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to have missed more than 8 hours in therapeutics courses. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to miss class when the class was held before or after an examination and low performers were significantly more likely to believe that participating in class did not benefit them. There was a negative association between the number of hours students' missed and their performance in specific courses. These findings provide further insight into the reasons for students' absenteeism in a college or school of pharmacy setting.
Background. Adolescents with epilepsy experience significant academic difficulties. However, little is known about the effects of epilepsy on the academic performance of adolescents with the disorder in Northern Nigeria. Objective. To assess the academic performance of adolescents with epilepsy and factors associated ...
and academic performance of secondary school students in Cross River State: A basis for counselling ... impact significantly on academic performance of learners. ... teaching methods, interpersonal relationship among the school personnels, nature of curriculum and the school topography could affect the academic.
Ruthig, Joelle C.; Marrone, Sonia; Hladkyj, Steve; Robinson-Epp, Nancy
This study investigated the longitudinal associations of health perceptions and behaviors with subsequent academic performance among college students. Multiple health perceptions and behaviors were assessed for 203 college students both at the beginning and end of an academic year. Students' academic performance was also measured at the end of the…
Shibuya, Megumi; Ogishi, Tomohiko; Yamamoto, Shu
P2P (Peer-to-Peer) file sharing architectures have scalable and cost-effective features. Hence, the application of P2P architectures to media streaming is attractive and expected to be an alternative to the current video streaming using IP multicast or content delivery systems because the current systems require expensive network infrastructures and large scale centralized cache storage systems. In this paper, we investigate the P2P progressive download enabling Internet video streaming services. We demonstrated the capability of the P2P progressive download in both laboratory test network as well as in the Internet. Through the experiments, we clarified the contribution of the FTTH links to the P2P progressive download in the heterogeneous access networks consisting of FTTH and ADSL links. We analyzed the cause of some download performance degradation occurred in the experiment and discussed about the effective methods to provide the video streaming service using P2P progressive download in the current heterogeneous networks.
Kumar, Prashant; Rafiq, Imran; Imam, Boulent
This study provides an insight into the dominant negotiation processes that occur between the authors of research articles and academic reviewers at the peer reviewing stage. Data of reviewers comments and authors responses on 32 science and engineering based journal articles covering four decision categories (accept as is, accept with minor…
Although researchers often acknowledge the importance of linguistically rich interactions in the academic language development of emergent bilingual students, few studies have explicitly examined the role of linguistic peer support and the underlying structure of social relationships in the second language learning experiences and outcomes of…
Kleinman, R.E.; Hall, S.; Green, H.; Korzec-Ramirez, D.; Patton, K.; Pagano, M.E.; Murphy, J.M.
Objective To determine whether nutrient intake and academic and psychosocial functioning improve after the start of a universal-free school breakfast program (USBP). Methods Information was gathered from 97 inner city students prior to the start of a USBP and again after the program had been in place for 6 months. Students who had total energy intakes of <50% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) and/or 2 or more micronutrients of <50% of RDA were considered to be at nutritional risk. Results Prior to the USBP, 33% of all study children were classified as being at nutritional risk. Children who were at nutritional risk had significantly poorer attendance, punctuality, and grades at school, more behavior problems, and were less likely to eat breakfast at school than children who were not at nutritional risk. Six months after the start of the free school breakfast programs, students who decreased their nutritional risk showed significantly greater: improvements in attendance and school breakfast participation, decreases in hunger, and improvements in math grades and behavior than children who did not decrease their nutritional risk. Conclusion Participation in a school breakfast program enhanced daily nutrient intake and improvements in nutrient intake were associated with significant improvements in student academic performance and psychosocial functioning and decreases in hunger. PMID:12428078
Su, Sophia; Baird, Kevin
This study provides an insight into the collegiality of Australian accounting academics and the association of collegiality with their work-related attitudes and academic performance. Data were collected by a survey questionnaire from a random sample of 267 accounting academics within Australian universities. The results suggest a moderate level…
Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V
Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs.
LYA FELDMAN; LILA GONCALVES; GRACE CHACÓN-PUIGNAU; JOANMIR ZARAGOZA; NURI BAGÉS; JOAN DE PABLO
The objective of the present study was to evaluate academic stress, social support and their relationships with mental health and academic performance in university students. Three hundred and twenty one students from a technological university in Caracas, Venezuela, responded instruments on academic stress, social support and mental health during the most academically stressful period. The results indicate that favorable conditions of mental health were associated to more social support and ...
Kauts Amit; Sharma Neelam
Background: Academic performance is concerned with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject or group of subjects after a long period of instruction. Excessive stress hampers students′ performance. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. Materials and Methods: The study started ...
Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Avilan, Rosa Ivette Guzman; Cruz, Juan Jose Bazaldua; Guzman-Lopez, Santos
Few studies have evaluated resilience in an academic environment as it relates to academic success or failure. This work sought to assess resilience in regular and remedial students of gross anatomy during the first and second semesters of medical school and to correlate this personal trait with academic performance. Two groups of students were…
Meriac, John P.
In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic motivation and performance. A total of 440 undergraduate students completed measures of work ethic and academic motivation, and reported their cumulative grade point average. Results indicated that several dimensions of work ethic were related to academic motivation and academic…
Bailey, Sarah; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi
The Academic Progress Rate (APR) of 34 sports was investigated to determine whether the top athletic teams performed significantly better "academically" compared to their bottom counterparts. A "p" value of 0.0029 revealed that top athletic teams academically outperformed bottom athletic teams. Further analysis showed the…
Zalba, Julieta; Durán, Lucas G; Carletti, Diego R; Zavala Gottau, Patxi; Serralunga, María G; Jouglard, Ezequiel F; Esandi, María E
Bullying among peers has immediate and long-term consequences, as it affects children's health-related quality of life. The aim was to examine the association between the frequency, type and dynamics of children's involvement in bullying situations and their academic performance over the school year. Longitudinal study conducted in 2015 in 9 to 12 year-olds in schools of Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Outcome measures: children's involvement in bullying situations, frequency of participation in bullying and academic performance. Bullying categories were obtained through the Preconceptions of Bullying and Intimidation Among Peers (PRECONCIMEI) questionnaire and academic performance as reflected by each child's school grades. The survey included 375 children, of which 22.1% (83/375) were repeatedly involved and 30.12% (113/375) were occasionally involved in bullying situations (20.27% [76/375] reported having participated by the year end but not at the beginning, and 9.85% [37/375] showed the opposite behavior). No statistically significant differences were found, regardless of the course subject analyzed. Grades were found to have improved by school year-end, in all groups assessed. No association was found between bullying and academic performance. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Muntaner-Mas, Adrià; Pere, Palou; Vidal-Conti, Josep; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene
To examine the relationship between a battery of obesity indicators and physical fitness components with academic performance in children and to explore the combined and mediation role of the physical fitness components in the relationship between obesity and academic performance in children. A cross-sectional study including data from 250 Spanish schoolchildren (Balearic Islands) between 10 and 12 years of age (mean age, 10.98 ± 0.76 years) was conducted. Obesity measures (body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-height ratio), physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, and speed-agility), and academic performance (Spanish language, Catalan language, English language, natural sciences, social sciences, arts, physical education, religion, and grade point average [GPA]) were collected. All obesity measures were negatively related to at least 3 of the 10 academic indicators, including GPA (β range, -0.135 to -0.229; all P academic indicators (β range, 0.182 to 0.350; all P academic indicators (β range, 0.143 to 0.253; all P academic performance than their unfit peers (score +0.75; P = .001). The association between body mass index and GPA was mediated by cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility. This investigation contributes to the current knowledge by adding evidence about the crucial role of physical fitness in terms of academic performance rather than obesity status, suggesting that physical fitness may ameliorate the negative influence of obesity on academic performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Earlier studies show an effect of self-efficacy on students’ learning and achievement. Self efficacy has operationally defined as one’s belief that people can successfully perform a given task. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss how self-efficacy developed and the way it influences students’ academic performance in addition to social interaction with peers. A scenario was given to Pakistani high school students by solving mathematical problems. Present study was designed to study the impact of self-efficacy on 15 boys, students of the 5th grade of a local school. Hague’s (1990 Urdu Self-efficacy scale was administered. It was found that students with high self-efficacy obtained higher scores on 50 mathematical problems test. Further, content analysis of interviewees’ responses showed that students with high self-efficacy planned to study complex subjects in future. A cross-cultural study is strongly recommended in this issue that determines the students’ future.
Wang, Song; Kong, Feng; Zhou, Ming; Chen, Taolin; Yang, Xun; Chen, Guangxiang; Gong, Qiyong
As a component of self-discipline, delay discounting refers to the ability to wait longer for preferred rewards and plays a pivotal role in shaping students' academic performance. However, the neural basis of the association between delay discounting and academic performance remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the neuroanatomical substrates underlying delay discounting and academic performance in 214 adolescents via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) by performing structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI). Behaviorally, we confirmed the significant correlation between delay discounting and academic performance. Neurally, whole-brain regression analyses indicated that regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was associated with both delay discounting and academic performance. Furthermore, delay discounting partly accounted for the association between academic performance and brain structure. Differences in the rGMV of the left DLPFC related to academic performance explained over one-third of the impact of delay discounting on academic performance. Overall, these results provide the first evidence for the common neural basis linking delay discounting and academic performance. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3917-3926, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate academic stress, social support and their relationships with mental health and academic performance in university students. Three hundred and twenty one students from a technological university in Caracas, Venezuela, responded instruments on academic stress, social support and mental health during the most academically stressful period. The results indicate that favorable conditions of mental health were associated to more social support and less academic stress. In women, higher stress levels were associated to a lesser amount of social support from friends whereas in men stress was related to less social support coming from close people and general social support. Both displayed better performance when perceived higher levels of academic stress and the social support of the near people was moderate. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for academic life and mental health in university students.
The South African Higher Education system is in a state of rapid flux. Various factors are rendering education vulnerable to destructive influences. It has become imperative for academic managers to ensure that academic staff function productively. Management information systems which will generate correct information as ...
de Jong, Bart A.; Bijlsma-Frankema, Katinka M.; Cardinal, Laura B.
Integrating theorizing on situational strength and complementarity with control theory, we investigate the mediating processes that transmit peer control combination effects to team performance. We argue that two critical peer control mechanisms-norm strength and peer pressure-complement each other
Soutar, Geoffrey N.; Wilkinson, Ian; Young, Louise
We report the results of an analysis of the research impact of marketing academics using citation metrics for 2263 academics in the top 500 research universities in the Academic Ranking of World Universities based in Australia and New Zealand, Canada, the United Kingdom and the USA. The metrics...... are computed for publications from 2001 to 2013, which were collected in 2014 and 2015. We also report the same metrics for all universities in Australia and New Zealand that employ more than 4 marketing academics. The results provide an objective measure of research impact and provide benchmarks that can...... be used by governments, universities and individual academics to compare research impact. In an appendix we rank the top 100 university marketing departments in the top 500....
Christensen, Kaare; Petersen, Inge; Skytthe, Axel
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether twins in recent cohorts show similar academic performance in adolescence to singletons and to test the effect of birth weight on academic performance in twins and singletons. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All twins (n=3411) and a 5% random...... increase in birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Although older cohorts of twins have been found to have lower mean IQ scores than singletons, twins in recent Danish cohorts show similar academic performance in adolescence to that of singletons. Birth weight has a minimal effect on academic performance in recent...
Manterola Álvarez, David
Academic performance is the mean objective of the teaching-learning process, but there are many other variables or factors outside the OB/GYN resident involved in this process, such as those related to the environment in which they operate, teachers, interaction with their peers, family, society, and many other factors contained individually, such as learning styles, motivation, study habits, personality traits, among others. Identify which are the main socio-economic and psycho-affective factors that influence on academic performance of residents in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Observational, cross-sectional quantitative, correlational and non-experimental study in Obstetrics and Gynecology residents of a public general hospital tertiary care. A type survey to obtain data and deepen personal and socioeconomic status of each resident instrument was designed. Females predominated with 15 cases and only 5 were male. Sixteen of medical residents claimed that having a good habit of sleep helps improve their academic performance and their performance in academic and healthcare activities. Fifteen felt that work much better with peers of the opposite sex. Ten felt that developing a type of self-directed learning contributes greatly to improve their performance and 19 felt that having a mentor during residency contributes to improve their academic performance. Fifteen reported being victim of abuse or discrimination from their peers. Sixteen claimed to have been very sad or depressed at some point during residency. Eight consumed alcohol and seven used tobacco to relax.
McCarey, Margaret; Barr, Tony; Rattray, Janice
The recruitment, selection and retention of nursing students have become crucial in securing the future workforce required by the NHS. Concerns regarding the academic performance of what is a changing student profile led to an audit being performed to explore the predictive relationship between entry qualifications, age, gender, attendance and academic performance in a cohort of pre-registration Diploma of Nursing students. Data was collated from a cohort of 154 students. Statistical analysis demonstrated that students with higher level entry qualifications performed consistently better than those with lower level qualifications. Mature students, over the age of 26, achieved better average marks in coursework and examinations that their younger peers. Year 1 performance predicted year 3 performance in both examinations and assignments. Non-attendance was shown to have an impact on academic performance with a correlation existing between high absenteeism and poor academic achievement. The findings highlight interesting issues for nurse educators relating to academic student support particularly in first year; recruitment and selection of the most suitable candidates; absenteeism monitoring and curriculum design.
Abdu-Raheem, B. O.
This study examined the influence of drug abuse on secondary school students in relation to their family background, family cohesion, peer group influence, and students' academic performance. Descriptive research design of the survey type and an inventory were used for the study. The population comprised all secondary school students in Ekiti and…
Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinç
Introduction: Procrastination has become one of the most researched topics due its adverse effects on the both general and student population in social sciences. The general tendency toward delaying academic tasks has been conceptualized as academic procrastination in academic setting. It is a prevalent issue among students and a numerous students…
Maulida, Juwita Dien; Kariyam
Utilization of data in an information system that can be used for decision making that utilizes existing data warehouse to help dig useful information to make decisions correctly and accurately. Experience API (xAPI) is one of the enabling technologies for collecting data, so xAPI can be used as a data warehouse that can be used for various needs. One software application whose data is collected in xAPI is LMS. LMS is a software used in an electronic learning process that can handle all aspects of learning, by using LMS can also be known how the learning process and the aspects that can affect learning achievement. One of the aspects that can affect the learning achievement is the background of each student, which is not necessarily the student with a good background is an outstanding student or vice versa. Therefore, an action is needed to anticipate this problem. Prediction of student academic performance using Naive Bayes algorithm obtained accuracy of 67.7983% and error 32.2917%.
High stress levels in nursing students may affect memory, concentration, and problem-solving ability, and may lead to decreased learning, coping, academic performance, and retention. College students with higher levels of learned resourcefulness develop greater self-confidence, motivation, and academic persistence, and are less likely to become anxious, depressed, and frustrated, but no studies specifically involve nursing students. This explanatory correlational study used Gadzella's Student-life Stress Inventory (SSI) and Rosenbaum's Self Control Scale (SCS) to explore learned resourcefulness, stressors, and academic performance in 53 baccalaureate nursing students. High levels of personal and academic stressors were evident, but not significant predictors of academic performance (p = .90). Age was a significant predictor of academic performance (p = < .01) and males and African-American/Black participants had higher learned resourcefulness scores than females and Caucasians. Studies in larger, more diverse samples are necessary to validate these findings.
Roger Michael Alan Yallop
Full Text Available Publishing scientific articles in English is often a prerequisite for academic success. Thus, developing effective pedagogies to support Estonian university students develop writing skills in L2 (English is becoming increasingly more important. One such method is by forming small writing groups where each member periodically gives written feedback on their colleague’s writing. Here, the affective language used in the written communication between the reviewer and writer may strongly influence their relationship. This in turn may have a significant impact on the writing process. This study describes the development of a novel taxonomy to measure the cumulative effect of affective factors by accounting for the uniqueness of each individual, and how they project their distinct personalities or ‘social presence’ to build rapport within the group. The hypothesis is that individuals exhibiting a high social presence are more likely to produce higher-quality feedback and more improved subsequent texts than those with a lower social presence. The paper concludes by illustrating how this taxonomy can be used to both test this hypothesis and gain further insight into the peer feedback process in future studies.
Johns, M W; Dudley, H A; Masterton, J P
The academic performance of 104 fourth-year medical students was assessed in relation to their sleep habits reported in a questionary and their scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Poorer academic performance was related significantly to later times of waking up in the morning, particularly at weekends, and to subjectively poorer quality sleep, but not to the amount of sleep usually obtained. Poor academic performance was related also to scores on scales 3 (hysteria), 4 (psychopathic deviate) and 8 (schizophrenia) of the MMPI. Simple enquiries about sleep habits may make it easier for students who are at greatest risk of academic failure to be identified and helped.
Moss, Ellen; St-Laurent, Diane
Examined longitudinally the association between attachment at age 6 and school-related cognitive functioning 2 years later in a French Canadian sample. Found that secure children had higher scores than insecure peers on communication, cognitive engagement, and mastery motivation. Controlling children were at greatest risk for school…
Alswat, Khaled A; Al-Shehri, Abdullah D; Aljuaid, Tariq A; Alzaidi, Bassam A; Alasmari, Hassan D
To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the academic performance of students from Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using the grade point average (GPA). Method: A cross-sectional study that includes students from intermediate and high schools located in Taif city, KSA between April 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Related risk factors including dietary habits, activity, parent's education, sleeping pattern, and smoking were recorded. Result: A total of 14 schools included 424 students. 24.5% were either overweight or obese. The mean age was 15.44 year, 74.8% of the students were male, 53.8% were high school students, and 83.7% attended public schools. The mean overall GPA was 82.44% and the mean GPA for science subjects was 70.91%. No statically significant difference in the BMI was found between those who achieved greater than 90% of the overall grade compared with those who achieved less than 90%. Post hoc 1-way-analysis of variance showed that obese students were performing worse in physics than normal weight peers (p=0.049). Students who achieved greater than 90% overall grade are more likely to attend private school (p less than 0.05), live with their parents (p=0.013), having educated parents (p=0.037), getting optimal sleep (p less than 0.05), and they rarely eat their food outside their home (p less than 0.05). Conclusion: There was no correlation between the BMI and school performance, except in physics results where obese students perform worse than normal-weight students.
Jéssica Ribeiro Rangel
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether the use of social networks influences on the academic performance of students in the undergraduate program in accounting. Data were collected from 322 students of the course of a federal University of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The regression results show that the variables "gender", "motivation" and "classification in the University entrance examination" are significant in explaining students' academic performance measured by the Grade Point Average (GPA. The results show that the performance of male students is lower than that of female students at the level of 5%. Also was identified that the greater the student's motivation level, the greater your academic performance (at the level of 1 percent. Finally, it was observed that the best ranked students in the University entrance examination, the higher their academic performance. However, none of the variables relating to the use of social networks ("familiarity with technological resources", "hours", "Internet hours on social networks" and "use of social networks to study" presented relation with academic performance. In other words, these results show that the use of social networks does not have positive or negative impacts directly on academic performance. We can conclude for the sample analyzed, that use of social networks during the academic period does not influence significantly the performance of the students. However, you can verify that the motivation is directly related to the academic performance of the Accounting student with regard to perception of motivation, to familiarity with technological resources and the use of applications.
da Silva Pacheco, Sheila Cristina; Gabbard, Carl; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Bobbio, Tatiana Godoy
The specific mechanisms linking motor ability and cognitive performance, especially academic achievement, are still unclear. Whereas the literature provides an abundance of information on fine and visual-motor skill and cognitive attributes, much less has been reported on gross motor ability. This study examined interlimb coordination and its relationship to academic performance in children aged 8-11 years. Motor and academic skills were examined in 100 Brazilian children using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and the Academic Performance Test. Participants were grouped into low (75%) academic achievers. There was a significant difference between groups for Total Motor Composite (P academic performance and Body Coordination. Of the subtests of Body Coordination (Bilateral Coordination and Balance), Bilateral Coordination accounted for the highest impact on academic performance. Of interest here, that subtest consists primarily of gross motor tasks involving interlimb coordination. Overall, there was a positive relationship between motor behavior, in particular activities involving interlimb coordination, and academic performance. Application of these findings in the area of early assessment may be useful in the identification of later academic problems. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Mulder, Raoul; Baik, Chi; Naylor, Ryan; Pearce, Jon
Involving students in peer review has many pedagogical benefits, but few studies have explicitly investigated relationships between the content of peer reviews, student perceptions and assessment outcomes. We conducted a case study of peer review within a third-year undergraduate subject at a research-intensive Australian university, in which we…
Sorensen, Lucy C.; Cook, Philip J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.
Prior research and anecdotal evidence from educators suggest that classroom peers play a meaningful role in how students learn. However, the literature has failed to consider the dynamic and context-dependent nature of classroom peer influence. Developmental psychology theories suggest that peer influence will increase and family influence will…
Jewett-Tennant, Jeri; Collins, Cyleste; Matloub, Jacqueline; Patrick, Alison; Chupp, Mark; Werner, James J; Borawski, Elaine A
Community engagement and rigorous science are necessary to address health issues. Increasingly, community health organizations are asked to partner in research. To strengthen such community organization-academic partnerships, increase research capacity in community organizations, and facilitate equitable partnered research, the Partners in Education Evaluation and Research (PEER) program was developed. The program implements an 18-month structured research curriculum for one mid-level employee of a health-focused community-based organization with an organizational mentor and a Case Western Reserve University faculty member as partners. The PEER program was developed and guided by a community-academic advisory committee and was designed to impact the research capacity of organizations through didactic modules and partnered research in the experiential phase. Active participation of community organizations and faculty during all phases of the program provided for bidirectional learning and understanding of the challenges of community-engaged health research. The pilot program evaluation used qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques, including experiences of the participants assessed through surveys, formal group and individual interviews, phone calls, and discussions. Statistical analysis of the change in fellows' pre-test and post-test survey scores were conducted using paired sample t tests. The small sample size is recognized by the authors as a limitation of the evaluation methods and would potentially be resolved by including more cohort data as the program progresses. Qualitative data were reviewed by two program staff using content and narrative analysis to identify themes, describe and assess group phenomena and determine program improvements. The objective of PEER is to create equitable partnerships between community organizations and academic partners to further research capacity in said organizations and develop mutually beneficial research
Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Barrientos, Laura Gática; Castro, Patricia Eugenia García; García, Jesús Hernández
The present work aims to describe academic performance, school desertion and the emotional paradigm of the university students of the accounting school of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (FCPBUAP). We have found that low academic performance is related to students' economic deficiency, which affects their concentration on their…
Academic performance at universities in South Africa is a cause of concern. It is widely acknowledged that there are a variety of factors that contribute to poor academic performance, but language is regarded as one of the most important issues in this discussion. In this article, the relationship between language and ...
This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…
This study was carried out to examine the relationship between parental background and academic performance of secondary school students. It was hypothesized that there is no significant difference between the academic performance of students from high socio-economic status background and those from low SES ...
Honken, Nora; Ralston, Patricia A.; Tretter, Thomas R.
Self-control has been related to positive student outcomes including academic performance of college students. Because of the critical nature of the first semester academic performance for engineering students in terms of retention and persistence in pursuing an engineering degree, this study investigated the relationship between freshmen…
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette
The Problem: Problems that might be expected to affect perceived academic performance were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: Breakup Distress Scale scores, less time since the breakup and no new relationship contributed to 16% of the variance on perceived academic performance. Variables that were related to academic…
Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Taun, Chih-Yang
Background: This study examined the association between fitness change and subsequent academic performance in Taiwanese schoolchildren from 7th grade to 9th grade. Methods: The 7th graders from 1 junior high school district participated in this study (N=669). Academic performance was
compare the relationship between street hawking and academic performance of those who are engaged in the activities with those who do ... KEY WORDS: Child Labour, Abuse, Street Hawking, Academic Performance and Effect. INTRODUCTION ... in class sleeping while teaching is going on, when asked why they sleep.
The results show no significant differences between corporal punishment and academic performance and self-esteem of the students. Whereas self-esteem and academic performance were found to be positively related, there was no significant variation in self-esteem across gender. The implications of the findings are ...
Meriac, John P.
In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic performance, compared with standardized test scores and high school grade point average (GPA). Academic performance was expanded to include student organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and student counterproductive behavior, comprised of cheating and disengagement, in addition…
This study assessed and investigated the academic performance of secondary school students in two principal ... encouraged secondary education by adopting the social demand approach towards planning the sector ..... possible causes and effects of students' poor academic performance in examinations with a view to ...
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing
Background: Sleep problems may have different influences on students' academic performance. We investigated the prevalence of sleep patterns, naps, and sleep disorders, and their associations with academic performance in Hong Kong adolescents. Methods: In 2007-2008, 22,678 students aged 12-18 (41.6% boys) completed a questionnaire on…
Background: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease encountered among school children in Nigeria. Studies in developed countries show conflicting reports on it\\'s effect on academic performance. There is also a dearth of information on the academic performance of Nigerian children with epilepsy.
Van Dusen, Duncan P.; Kelder, Steven H.; Kohl, Harold W., III; Ranjit, Nalini; Perry, Cheryl L.
Background: Public schools provide opportunities for physical activity and fitness surveillance, but are evaluated and funded based on students' academic performance, not their physical fitness. Empirical research evaluating the connections between fitness and academic performance is needed to justify curriculum allocations to physical activity…
Comparison between the Academic Performance of the National and Regional Intake Medical Students at the University of Kordofan, Western Sudan. ... The dropout rate was 5.9% among the regional students compared to 8.9% among the national students. Conclusions: The academic performance of the national intake ...
Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Seog Ju
Study Objectives: The present study investigated academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) and attempted to identify independent predictors of academic performance among BISS-related factors. Methods: A total of 51 students with BISS and 50 without BISS were recruited from high schools in South Korea based on self-reported weekday sleep durations, weekend oversleep, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants reported their academic performance in the form of class quartile ranking. The Korean version of the Composite Scale (KtCS) for morningness/eveningness, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-II (BIS-II) for impulsivity were administered. Results: Adolescents with BISS reported poorer academic performance than adolescents without BISS (p = 0.02). Adolescents with BISS also exhibited greater levels of eveningness (p academic performance among adolescents with BISS even after controlling for ESS, KtCS, BDI, and BIS-II (β = 0.42, p academic performance and that sleep debt, as represented by weekend oversleep, predicts poorer academic performance independent of depression, impulsiveness, weekday sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and morningness/eveningness among adolescents with BISS. Citation: Lee YJ, Park J, Kim S, Cho SJ, Kim SJ. Academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(1):61–68. PMID:25515277
Batz, Zachary; Olsen, Brian J; Dumont, Jonathan; Dastoor, Farahad; Smith, Michelle K
The high attrition rate among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors has long been an area of concern for institutions and educational researchers. The transition from introductory to advanced courses has been identified as a particularly "leaky" point along the STEM pipeline, and students who struggle early in an introductory STEM course are predominantly at risk. Peer-tutoring programs offered to all students in a course have been widely found to help STEM students during this critical transition, but hiring a sufficient number of tutors may not be an option for some institutions. As an alternative, this study examines the viability of an optional peer-tutoring program offered to students who are struggling in a large-enrollment, introductory biology course. Struggling students who regularly attended peer tutoring increased exam performance, expert-like perceptions of biology, and course persistence relative to their struggling peers who were not attending the peer-tutoring sessions. The results of this study provide information to instructors who want to design targeted academic assistance for students who are struggling in introductory courses. © 2015 Z. Batz et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Vizoso Gómez, Carmen María; Arias Gundín, Olga
This study aimed to examine the principal stress sources perceived by university students at academic context and to analyze the relationship between these stressors and academic burnout and performance. Participants were 532 undergraduate students from Universidad de León. The techniques used in this survey were Academic Stress Questionnaire and the Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey. Results showed that situations related to exams are perceived as stressor more ...
Pourseyyed SM; Motevalli MM; Pourseyyed SR; Barahimi Z
Aims: Academic burnout is of most important researchable issues in the universities and identifying its predictor variables is very important. The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship of perceived stress, perfectionism and social support with academic burnout and academic performance in students. Instrument & Methods: In this inexperimental study with correlative design, 200 students of basic sciences of general medical of Ahvas Jundishapur Unive...
So, Eun Sun; Park, Byoung Mo
This study aimed to examine the most prominent health-related behaviors impacting the academic performance of Korean adolescents. The 2012 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data were analyzed using an ordinal regression analysis after adjusting for general and other health behaviors. Before adjustment, all health behaviors were significantly associated with academic performance. After adjustment for other health behaviors and confounding factors, only smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.98, 2.16), p academic performance, and engaging in a regular diet [OR = 0.65, 95% CI (0.65, 0.62), p academic performance. Regular diet, reducing smoking and alcohol drinking, and physical activity should be the target when designing health interventions for improving academic performance in Korean adolescents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Razaque, Fahad; Soomro, Nareena; Shaikh, Shoaib Ahmed; Soomro, Safeeullah; Samo, Javed Ahmed; Kumar, Natesh; Dharejo, Huma
Academic Data Mining was one of emerging field which comprise procedure of examined students details by different elements such as earlier semester marks, attendance, assignment, discussion, lab work were of used to improved bachelor academic performance of students, and overcome difficulties of low ranks of bachelor students. It was extracted useful knowledge from bachelor academic students data collected from department of Computing. Subsequently preprocessing data, which was applied data m...
Lee, Wincy Wing Sze
The present study examined the relationships among grit, academic performance, perceived academic failure, and stress levels of Hong Kong associate degree students using path analysis. Three hundred and forty-five students from a community college in Hong Kong voluntarily participated in the study. They completed a questionnaire that measured their grit (operationalized as interest and perseverance) and stress levels. The students also provided their actual academic performance and evaluated their perception of their academic performance as a success or a failure. The results of the path analysis showed that interest and perseverance were negatively associated with stress, and only perceived academic failure was positively associated with stress. These findings suggest that psychological appraisal and resources are more important antecedents of stress than objective negative events. Therefore, fostering students' psychological resilience may alleviate the stress experienced by associate degree students or college students in general. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Drago, Anthony; Rheinheimer, David C.; Detweiler, Thomas N.
This study investigated the connection between locus of control (LOC), academic self-efficacy (ASE), and academic performance, and whether these variables are affected by tutoring. Additional variables of interest, including gender, students' Pell Grant status, ethnicity, and class size, were also considered for the research models. The population…
Hogan, Eileen A.; Bryant, Sarah K.; Overymyer-Day, Leslie E.
The acquisition of credit card debt by college students has long been a topic of concern. This study explores relationships among debt, undesirable academic behaviors and cognitions, and academic performance, through surveys of 338 students in a public university, replicating two past measures of credit card debt and creating new measures of…
Ebadi, Saman; Rahimi, Masoud
This article reports the results of a sequential explanatory mixed-methods approach to explore the impact of online peer-editing using Google Docs and peer-editing in a face-to-face classroom on EFL learners' academic writing skills. As the study adopted a quasi-experimental design, two intact classes, each with ten EFL learners, attending an…
Clausen, Nicola G; Pedersen, Dorthe A; Pedersen, Jacob K
OBJECTIVE: Early life exposure to anesthesia and surgery is suspected to associate with cognitive impairment later in life. We compared academic achievement among adolescents with cleft lip only (CL), cleft palate only (CP), and cleft lip and cleft palate (CLP) with a noncleft control group...
2School of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, National University of Malaysia. (UKM). ABSTRACT: A binary logit ... dents (614 boys and 515 girls) in ten senior high schools (SHSs) during the 2008/2009 academic year. Respondents were ... This suggests that at least. 32.6% of the sample population live with a.
Rosadi, R.; Akamal; Sudrajat, R.; Kharismawan, B.; Hambali, Y. A.
Grade Point Average (GPA) is commonly used as an indicator of academic performance. Academic performance evaluations is a basic way to evaluate the progression of student performance, when evaluating student’s academic performance, there are occasion where the student data is grouped especially when the amounts of data is large. Thus, the pattern of data relationship within and among groups can be revealed. Grouping data can be done by using clustering method, where one of the methods is the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm. Furthermore, this algorithm is then applied to a set of student data form the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padjadjaran University.
Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A; Al-Khateeb, Abdulrahman A; Abudan, Zainab; Alkhani, Mohammed A; Zebian, Sanderlla I; Qannita, Ahmed S; Tabrizi, Mariam J
The high academic performance of medical students greatly influences their professional competence in long term career. Meanwhile, medical students greatly demand procuring a good quality of life that can help them sustain their medical career. This study examines validity and reliability of the tool among preclinical students and testifies the influence of their scholastic performance along with gender and academic year on their quality of life. A cross sectional study was conducted by distributing World Health Organization Quality of Life, WHOQOL-BREF, survey among medical students of year one to three at Alfaisal University. For validity, item discriminate validity(IDV) and confirmatory factor analysis were measured and for reliability, Cronbach's α test and internal item consistency(IIC) were examined. The association of GPA, gender and academic year with all major domains was drawn using Pearson's correlation, independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA, respectively. A total of 335 preclinical students have responded to this questionnaire. The construct has demonstrated an adequate validity and good reliability. The high academic performance of students positively correlated with physical (r = 0.23, p student scored higher than female peers in physical and psychological health. This study has identified a direct relationship between the academic performance of preclinical students and their quality of life. The WHOQOL-BREF is a valid and reliable tool among preclinical students and the positive direction of high academic performance with greater QOL suggests that academic achievers procure higher satisfaction and poor achievers need a special attention for the improvement of their quality of life.
Lawrence, Yaacov Richard; Whiton, Michal A.; Symon, Zvi; Wuthrick, Evan J.; Doyle, Laura; Harrison, Amy S.; Dicker, Adam P.
Purpose: In light of concerns regarding the quality of radiation treatment delivery, we surveyed the practice of quality assurance peer review chart rounds at American academic institutions. Methods and Materials: An anonymous web-based survey was sent to the chief resident of each institution across the United States. Results: The response rate was 80% (57/71). The median amount of time spent per patient was 2.7 minutes (range, 0.6–14.4). The mean attendance by senior physicians and residents was 73% and 93%, respectively. A physicist was consistently present at peer review rounds in 66% of departments. There was a close association between attendance by senior physicians and departmental organization: in departments with protected time policies, good attendance was 81% vs. 31% without protected time (p = 0.001), and in departments that documented attendance, attending presence was 69% vs. 29% in departments without documentation (p 75% of institutions, whereas dosimetric details (beams, wedges), isodose coverage, intensity-modulated radiation therapy constraints, and dose–volume histograms were always peer reviewed in 63%, 59%, 42%, and 50% of cases, respectively. Chart rounds led to both minor (defined as a small multileaf collimator change/repeated port film) and major (change to dose prescription or replan with dosimetry) treatment changes. Whereas at the majority of institutions changes were rare (<10% of cases), 39% and 11% of institutions reported that minor and major changes, respectively, were made to more than 10% of cases. Conclusion: The implementation of peer review chart rounds seems inconsistent across American academic institutions. Brachytherapy and radiosurgical procedures are rarely reviewed. Attendance by senior physicians is variable, but it improves when scheduling clashes are avoided. The potential effect of a more thorough quality assurance peer review on patient outcomes is not known.
This report highlights key recommendations and best practices identified at the peer exchange on Transportation Asset Management Plans (TAMP), held on February 5 and 6, 2014, in Columbia, South Carolina. This event was sponsored by the Transportation...
Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Seog Ju
The present study investigated academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) and attempted to identify independent predictors of academic performance among BISS-related factors. A total of 51 students with BISS and 50 without BISS were recruited from high schools in South Korea based on self-reported weekday sleep durations, weekend oversleep, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants reported their academic performance in the form of class quartile ranking. The Korean version of the Composite Scale (KtCS) for morningness/eveningness, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-II (BIS-II) for impulsivity were administered. Adolescents with BISS reported poorer academic performance than adolescents without BISS (p = 0.02). Adolescents with BISS also exhibited greater levels of eveningness (p academic performance among adolescents with BISS even after controlling for ESS, KtCS, BDI, and BIS-II (β = 0.42, p academic performance and that sleep debt, as represented by weekend oversleep, predicts poorer academic performance independent of depression, impulsiveness, weekday sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and morningness/eveningness among adolescents with BISS. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Gahagan, Sheila
To explore associations between the nutritional quality of diet at age 16 years and academic performance in students from Santiago, Chile. We assessed the nutritional quality of diet, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, in 395 students aged 16.8 ± 0.5 years. Depending on the amount of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, diet was categorized as unhealthy, fair or healthy. Academic performance was assessed using high school grade-point average (GPA) and tests for college admission in language and mathematics. Academic results on or above the 75th percentile in our sample were considered good academic performance. We tested associations between nutritional quality of diet and good academic performance using logistic regression models. We considered sociodemographic, educational and body-mass index (BMI) factors as potential confounders. After controlling for potential confounding factors, an unhealthy diet at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance. Compared to participants with healthy diets, those with unhealthy diets were significantly less likely to perform well based on language tests (odds ratio, OR: 0.42; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.18-0.98) mathematics tests (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15-0.82) or GPA (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09-0.56). In our sample, excessive consumption of energy-dense, low-fibre, high-fat foods at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance.
In the digital era any student in the institution of higher learning who intends to excel in academics should have the ability to effectively utilize electronic information resources and services. This study examined self-efficacy and use of electronic information as predictors of academic performance. Seven hundred students ...
The present study was carried out to evaluate student achievement in medical school professional examinations in the light of previous pre-medical school academic performance. This was done as part of the process of evaluating factors which might contribute to academic success and high quality of medical education.
Importance of Course Module in Academic Performance of Students M.Ranga Reddy (PhD)* 49. * Expatriate staff member, Education faculty, ... University is centre for Academic Excellence and Training to all types of students to promote sustainable .... improve the quality of education. In the group interviews with students,.
Zubairu, Umaru Mustapha; Sakariyau, Olalekan Busra
In this paper, the association between religiosity and academic performance among accounting students enrolled at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) is explored, as recent research demonstrates a positive association between religiosity and academic success. Students' religiosity was measured using proxies from an Islamic…
Study habit is one of the major factors that could influence students' academic attainment. Thus, this study examined study habit skills as correlate of academic performance of undergraduates in Edo state, Nigeria. It employed a correlation research design, using multistage sampling technique. Two hundred and forty eight ...
Batlis, Nick C.
A job involvement measure was altered to reflect academic involvement and was employed as a predictor of academic performance. Contrary to the findings of prior industrial research, involvement was found to be correlated neither with age nor with course satisfaction; however, it did prove an efficacious predictor of course grade. (Author/JKS)
Berezowitz, Claire K.; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B.; Schoeller, Dale A.
Background: Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Methods: Database searches in CABI,…
This article analyses the direct effect of demographic variables on academic outcomes. The study concludes that ethnic group plays a pivotal role in determining the academic performance of students registered for the Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing Management at the University of Cape Town. White students ...
Abdulghani, Hamza M; Alrowais, Norah A; Bin-Saad, Norah S; Al-Subaie, Nourah M; Haji, Alhan M A; Alhaqwi, Ali I
Medical students are exposed to a significant level of pressure due to academic demands. Their sleep pattern is characterized by insufficient sleep duration, delayed sleep onset, and occurrence of napping episodes during the day. To examine the prevalence of sleep disorder among medical students and investigate any relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance. This is a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire-based study. The participants were medical students of the first, second, and third academic years. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was also included to identify sleep disorder and grade point average was recorded for academic performance. There were 491 responses with a response rate of 55%. The ESS score demonstrated that 36.6% of participants were considered to have abnormal sleep habits, with a statistically significant increase in female students (p = 0.000). Sleeping between 6-10 h per day was associated with normal ESS scores (p = 0.019) as well as the academic grades ≥ 3.75. Abnormal ESS scores were associated with lower academic achievement (p = 0.002). A high prevalence of sleep disorder was found in this group of students, specifically female students. Analysis of the relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance indicates a significant relationship between abnormal ESS scores, total sleeping hours, and academic performance.
Lewine, Rich; Sommers, Alison; Waford, Rachel; Bustanoby, Heather; Robertson, Catherine; Hall, Rachel; Eisenmenger, Karen
The academic impact of serious depression among college students is beginning to receive increased attention in the research literature. In contrast, we know very little about the affect of mild depression, or dysphoria, on academic performance. This study examines the relationship of baseline dysphoria in 188 students to five measures of academic…
Galland, Barbara; Spruyt, Karen; Dawes, Patrick; McDowall, Philippa S; Elder, Dawn; Schaughency, Elizabeth
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children is associated with daytime functioning decrements in cognitive performance and behavioral regulation. Studies addressing academic achievement are underrepresented. This study aimed to evaluate the strength of the relationships between SDB and achievement in core domains and general school performance. Data sources included PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Studies of school-aged children investigating the relationships between SDB and academic achievement were selected for inclusion in a systematic literature review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Data extracted were converted into standardized mean differences; effect sizes (ES) and statistics were calculated by using random-effects models. Heterogeneity tests (I(2)) were conducted. Of 488 studies, 16 met eligibility criteria. SDB was significantly associated with poorer academic performance for core academic domains related to language arts (ES -0.31; P performance. Variable definitions of both academic performance and SDB likely contributed to the heterogeneity among published investigations. Clear links between SDB and poorer academic performance in school-age children are demonstrated. ES statistics were in the small to medium range, but nevertheless the findings serve to highlight to parents, teachers, and clinicians that SDB in children may contribute to academic difficulties some children face. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Hayley, Amie C; Sivertsen, Børge; Hysing, Mari; Vedaa, Øystein; Øverland, Simon
Sleep difficulties are common among university students and may detrimentally affect academic outcomes. Despite this, remarkably little information is currently available during this critical developmental period of early adulthood, and thus, the direct effect on measurable domains of academic ability and proficiency is equivocal. To evaluate the associations between difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS) and subjective and objective academic performance in a large sample of university students. A total of 12,915 students who participated in large student survey in Norway from 24 February 2014 to 27 March 2014. DIMS was assessed by the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25), and academic outcomes included failed examinations, delayed study progress, and school-related self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale). Difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep was independently associated with increased odds for poor school performance for all academic outcomes. Reporting 'extreme' DIMS was associated with increased odds of reporting delayed study progress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.57, p academic outcomes as well as poorer self-rated academic proficiency among higher education students. Amelioration of sleep difficulties may improve overall academic performance and health outcomes in affected students. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Chou, Calvin L; Teherani, Arianne
Most medical students on clerkships currently experience lack of continuity of patient care, disjointed learning, and frequent changes in supervisors. Clerkship programs with continuity of care, curriculum, and supervisors appear to benefit student learning and patient-centeredness. A fourth form of continuity is proposed: continuity of peers, in which a stable cohort of students frequently meets to process their experiences on clerkships. This structure builds on benefits previously seen in peer-assisted learning, including enhanced knowledge, technical skills, and collegial peer relationships. Additional advantages of peer continuity in clerkships include facilitated integration into the workplace, social support, and enhanced clinical and professional learning. Practical components required for a successful peer continuity structure include intentional formation of peer cohorts; regular meetings that cover didactic or clinical skills learning; frequent opportunities for reflection on patient care, professional development, and well-being; and skilled facilitators without evaluative roles. Theoretical support for peer continuity comes from social cognitive theory, communities of clinical practice, and social comparison theory. Therefore, in conjunction with empirical programs that have shown benefits of developing these structures, peer continuity should become a formalized educational structure in clerkships.
Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Davis, Heather; Vannest, Kimberly; Williams, Lauren; Greenwood, Charles; Parker, Richard
Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that involves students helping each other learn content through repetition of key concepts. This meta-analysis examined effects of peer tutoring across 26 single-case research experiments for 938 students in Grades 1-12. The TauU effect size for 195 phase contrasts was 0.75 with a confidence interval of…
Arnold, L Eugene; Hodgkins, Paul; Kahle, Jennifer; Madhoo, Manisha; Kewley, Geoff
The aim of this study was to synthesize published data regarding long-term effects of ADHD on information learned (measured via achievement tests) and success within the school environment (academic performance). A systematic search identified 176 studies (1980-2012) of long-term (≥2 years) academic outcomes with ADHD. Achievement test outcomes (79%) and academic performance outcomes (75%) were worse in individuals with untreated ADHD compared with non-ADHD controls, also when IQ difference was controlled (72% and 81%, respectively). Improvement in both outcome groups was associated with treatment, more often for achievement test scores (79%) than academic performance (42%), also when IQ was controlled (100% and 57%, respectively). More achievement test and academic performance outcomes improved with multimodal (100% and 67%, respectively) than pharmacological (75% and 33%) or non-pharmacological (75% and 50%) treatment alone. ADHD adversely affects long-term academic outcomes. A greater proportion of achievement test outcomes improved with treatment compared with academic performance. Both improved most consistently with multimodal treatment. © 2015 SAGE Publications.
De Four-Babb, Joyanne; Pegg, Jerine; Beck, Makini
Academia is changing and a growing number of academics are finding themselves in non-tenure-track positions, experiencing increasing numbers of career transitions, or following alternative career trajectories. Academics in these positions often find themselves positioned as outsiders within their institutions and/or the broader academic community.…
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing
Sleep problems may have different influences on students' academic performance. We investigated the prevalence of sleep patterns, naps, and sleep disorders, and their associations with academic performance in Hong Kong adolescents. In 2007-2008, 22,678 students aged 12-18 (41.6% boys) completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, sleep patterns and problems, and lifestyle factors including exercise, smoking, alcohol drinking, and academic performance. The prevalence of having >8 hours of sleep was higher on holiday nights (86.4%) than on school-day nights (27.4%). Sleeping after midnight was more common before holidays (49.3%) than before school days (19.9%). Symptoms of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were reported by 21.5% and 34.4% of students. Having >2 hours of weekend sleep delay was associated with poor academic performance with an odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) of 1.46 (1.29-1.65). However, having 1-2 hours and >2 hours of weekend wake-up delay were both associated with less likelihood of poor academic performance with ORs of 0.64 (0.56-0.73) and 0.69 (0.59-0.80). Other factors associated with poor academic performance included >2 hours of sleep debt, OR of 1.17 (1.03-1.33); having any insomnia symptoms in the past 30 days, OR of 1.27 (1.17-1.37); and having any OSA symptoms at least weekly, OR of 1.23 (1.14-1.32). Napping in the past 5 school days was only marginally associated with poor school performance with an OR of 1.08 (1.00-1.16). Poorer academic performance was associated with sleep debt, and symptoms of insomnia and OSA. Sleep compensation but not naps may be a protective factor of poor academic performance. © 2012, American School Health Association.
Maher, Carol; Lewis, Lucy; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Dumuid, Dot; Cassidy, Leah; Olds, Tim
To examine the relationships between children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behaviours, and academic performance. This study investigated cross-sectional relationships between children's accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns, and academic performance using a standardised, nationally-administered academic assessment. A total of 285 Australian children aged 9-11 years from randomly selected schools undertook 7-day 24h accelerometry to objectively determine their MVPA and sedentary behaviour. In the same year, they completed nationally-administered standardised academic testing (National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy; NAPLAN). BMI was measured, and socio-demographic variables were collected in a parent-reported survey. Relationships between MVPA, sedentary behaviour and academic performance across five domains were examined using Generalised Linear Mixed Models, adjusted for a wide variety of socio-demographic variables. Higher academic performance was strongly and consistently related to higher sedentary time, with significant relationships seen across all five academic domains (range F=4.13, p=0.04 through to F=18.65, p=academic performance was only related to higher MVPA in two academic domains (writing F=5.28, p=0.02, and numeracy F=6.28, p=0.01) and was not related to language, reading and spelling performance. Findings highlight that sedentary behaviour can have positive relationships with non-physical outcomes. Positive relationships between MVPA and literacy and numeracy, as well as the well documented benefits for MVPA on physical and social health, suggest that it holds an important place in children's lives, both in and outside of school. Copyright Â© 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In Slovenia, the existing studies of relations between physical activity (PA, academic performance (AP and urbanization grade have used subjective self-reporting tools for assessing physical activity, which usually led to an underestimation of true PA. We have attempted to overcome this and have investigated the link between PA in rural and urban Slovenian schoolchildren by an objective assessment of PA, using a multi-sensor SenseWear PRO armband. The analysis showed that urban children in Slovenia are more physically active than rural children are and achieve better AP (mathematics grade. Additionally, children who are active between 60 and 120 minutes of MVPA/day have higher AP than their peers who are active less than 60 or more than 120 minutes, whereas the latter groups did not differ in academic performance.
Saniee Monfared, Mohammad Ali; Safi, Mahsa
As governmental subsidies to universities are declining in recent years, sustaining excellence in academic performance and more efficient use of resources have become important issues for university stakeholders. To assess the academic performances and the utilization of the resources, two important issues need to be addressed, i.e., a capable methodology and a set of good performance indicators as we consider in this paper. In this paper, we propose a set of performance indicators to enable efficiency analysis of academic activities and apply a novel network DEA structure to account for subfunctional efficiencies such as teaching quality, research productivity, as well as the overall efficiency. We tested our approach on the efficiency analysis of academic colleges at Alzahra University in Iran.
Firssova, O. (2011, January 19). Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction. Presentation at the ICO Course Domain specific research on learning and instruction: theories, methodology and curricular innovations, Utrecht, The Netherlands: Interuniversitair Centrum voor Onderwijswetenschappen.
Firssova, O. (2012, 19 January). Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction. Presentation given at the ICO Masterclass, Theme Domain-Specific Instruction, January 19-February 10, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Firssova, O. (2011, January 19). Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction. Presentation at the ICO Course Domain specific research on learning and instruction: theories, methodology and curricular innovations, Utrecht, The Netherlands: Interuniversitair Centrum voor
related factors that influenced student academic performance in public day secondary schools of Manga District, Kenya. The descriptive survey design was adopted. The sample of seven head teachers (7), twenty eight (28) teachers and four ...
soncept and academic performance of secondary school students in Sokoto metropolis. A sample of 351 students was drawn from the population of secondary school students in Sokoto smetropolis. Three instruments were used in obtaining the data ...
Aronen, E T; Vuontela, V; Steenari, M-R; Salmi, J; Carlson, S
Previous studies of the relationship among working memory function, academic performance, and behavior in children have focused mainly on clinical populations. In the present study, the associations of the performance in audio- and visuospatial working memory tasks to teacher reported academic achievement and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated in a sample of fifty-five 6-13-year-old school children. Working memory function was measured by visual and auditory n-back tasks. Information on incorrect responses, reaction times, and multiple and missed responses were collected during the tasks. The children's academic performance and behavioral and emotional status were evaluated by the Teacher Report Form. The results showed that good spatial working memory performance was associated with academic success at school. Children with low working memory performance, especially audiospatial memory, were reported to have more academic and attentional/behavioral difficulties at school than children with good working memory performance. An increased number of multiple and missed responses in the auditory and visual tasks was associated with teacher reported attentional/behavioral problems and in visual tasks with teacher reported anxiety/depressive symptoms. The results suggest that working memory deficits may underlie some learning difficulties and behavioral problems related to impulsivity, difficulties in concentration, and hyperactivity. On the other hand, it is possible that anxiety/depressive symptoms affect working memory function, as well as the ability to concentrate, leading to a lower level of academic performance at school.
Lund, Asta Breinholt; Holm, Anders
Parental education and mothers education in particular are believed to play an important role for children’s academic outcomes. This paper analyzes the causal effect of mothers' education on children’s academic performance. Using Danish administrative data on mothers’ education careers, we apply...... a difference-in-differences design to control for the nonrandom selection into maternal education and find that mothers’ education has a positive effect on children’s academic performance. The effect diminishes, the higher the mothers’ initial educational attainment....
Haller, Moira; Handley, Elizabeth; Chassin, Laurie; Bountress, Kaitlin
Using a high-risk community sample (N = 405), the current study examined developmental cascades among substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement over an 18-year period and tested whether these pathways mediated the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol and drug use disorders. Results showed that the influence of parental alcoholism on adult drug disorders was mediated by developmental cascades across all three domains, whereas the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol disorders was mediated through affiliation with substance use promoting peers and persistence in binge drinking. Adolescent drug use had more implications for adult outcomes than did adolescent alcohol use, which was less likely to spill over into other domains of functioning. Findings indicated that adolescent risk factors had indirect rather than unique effects on adult substance use disorders, suggesting that adolescent risk is not immutable and is largely mediated by later influences. PMID:20883589
Montanaro, Marilee Kaye Fannon
A variety of academic and financial performance metrics are used to assess higher education institution performance. However, there is no consensus on the best performance measures. Signaling theory and agency theory are used to frame the challenges of assessing post-secondary institution performance related to information asymmetry between the…
M. O. Welcome; E. V. Pereverzeva; V. A. Pereverzev
The regulatory competence of blood glucose homeostasis might determine the degree of academic performance. The aim of this study was to produce a model of students' alcohol use based on glucose homeostasis control and cognitive functions that might define the pathogenetic mechanism of alcohol's effect on academic performance. The study took six hours and thirty minutes on fasting, involving thirteen male students. Disturbances in cognitive functions, precisely a decrease in the effectiveness ...
Ezenwosu, Osita U; Emodi, Ifeoma J; Ikefuna, Anthony N; Chukwu, Barth F; Osuorah, Chidiebere D
Background Some factors are known to influence the academic performance of children with Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA). Information on their effects in these children is limited in Nigeria. The factors which influence academic performance of children with SCA in Enugu, Nigeria are determined in this study. Methods Consecutive children with SCA aged 5?11?years were recruited at the weekly sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria. Their age- and sex- m...
Andrietti, Vincenzo; D´Addazio, Rosaria; Velasco Gómez, Carlos
This paper presents new evidence on the effects of class attendance on academic performance. We analyse survey data collected for an Introductory Econometrics Course at the Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas of Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, matched to administrative data. Using OLS-proxy regressions to control for unobservable student characteristics potentially correlated with attendance, we find a positive and significant effect of attendance on academic performance. However, the...
豊田, 弘司; 森本, 里香
The present study was carried out to examine the relationship between the learning strategy and the academic performance in elementary school children. Ninety-three sixth graders were required to respond the 40 statements representing the four learning strategies, namely "Motivation" , "Thinking" , "Calculation" , and "Memory" strategies. Multiple regression indicated that the "Thinking" strategy scale predicted 22 % of academic test performance. Factor analysis yielded three factors which co...
Sapsani, Georgia; Tselios, Nikolaos
The present paper examines the relationship between the students personality, use of social media and their academic performance and engagement. In specific, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship of students facebook (fb) use and personality characteristics using the Big Five Personality Test with (a) student engagement, (b) time spent preparing for class, (c) time spent in co-curricular activities and (d) academic performance. Results illustrate that fb time was significantly ...
Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Gahagan, Sheila
Abstract Objective To explore associations between the nutritional quality of diet at age 16?years and academic performance in students from Santiago, Chile. Methods We assessed the nutritional quality of diet, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, in 395 students aged 16.8???0.5?years. Depending on the amount of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, diet was categorized as unhealthy, fair or healthy. Academic performance was assessed using high school grade-point avera...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Learning is a stressful experience of human life; reduced adaption to stressors causes academic burnout which is a reason for academic failure among students. This study investigated the correlation among academic stress, academic burnout, and academic performance in nursing and paramedic students of Qom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 264 nursing and paramedic students were randomly selected. Demographic characteristics checklist, academic burnout questionnaire, and academic stress scale were used to gather data, and grade point average was considered to be the indicator of academic performance. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The level of significance was considered to be p<0.05. Results: The mean score for students' academic burnout was 28.52±15.84. Univariate regression analysis showed that the students' employment, years of education, academic performance, and all academic stress subscales had a significant correlation with academic burnout. According to multivariate regression analysis, having a field of study-related occupation was a protective factor and academic stress a risk factor for academic burnout. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that a large proportion of students experienced academic burnout, and students with higher levels of stress experienced more severe academic burnout and had poorer performance. Therefore, training ways to cope with stress can cause reduction in academic burnout and improvement of performance.
Holt, Melissa K; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman
This study explored the victimization experiences of urban elementary school students to determine whether subsets of youth emerged with similar victimization profiles (e.g., no victimization, multiple types of victimization). It also evaluated whether multiple victimization was associated with greater psychological distress and lower academic performance. Participants were 689 fifth grade students from an urban, ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast. Youth completed self-report measures in school about bullying victimization, victimization in the home and community, and psychosocial functioning. Cluster analysis suggested the existence of three distinct youth profiles: those with minimal victimization, those victimized primarily by their peers, and those with multiple types of victimizations. As hypothesized, youth with multiple victimizations experienced more psychological distress and earned lower grades than their peers. Findings highlight the heterogeneity of youth victimization experiences and their relations to functioning, and have implications for treatment planning among practitioners working with youth.
Poussel, M; Laure, P; Genest, J; Fronzaroli, E; Renaud, P; Favre, A; Chenuel, B
In French law (Code du Sport), the status of elite athlete is allowed for young athletes beginning at the age of 12 years. For these young athletes, the aim is to reach the highest level of performance in their sport without compromising academic performance. Training time is therefore often substantial and sleep patterns appear to play a key role in performance recovery. The aim of this study was to assess sleep patterns and their effects on academic performance in young elite athletes. Sleep patterns were assessed using questionnaires completed during a specific information-based intervention on sports medicine topics. The academic performance of young elite athletes was assessed by collecting their grades (transmitted by their teachers). Sleep patterns were assessed for 137 young elite athletes (64 females, 73 males; mean age, 15.7 years) and academic performance for 109 of them. Daily sleep duration during school periods (8h22 ± 38 min) were shorter compared to holidays and week-ends (10h02 ± 1h16, Psleep quality as poor or just sufficient. Poor sleep quality was correlated with poor academic performance in this specific athlete population. Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily activity, but little information is available regarding the specific population of young elite athletes. The results reported herein suggest insufficiency (quantitatively and qualitatively) of sleep patterns in some of the young athletes, possibly leading to detrimental effects on athletic performance. Moreover, disturbed sleep patterns may also impact academic performance in young elite athletes. Teachers, athletic trainers, physicians, and any other professionals working with young elite athletes should pay particular attention to this specific population regarding the possible negative repercussions of poor sleep patterns on academic and athletic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Alicia Aleli Chaparro Caso López
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify profiles of high school students, based on variables related to academic performance, socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family organization. A total of 21,724 high school students, from the five municipalities of the state of Baja California, took part. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify the profiles. The analyses identified two clearly-defined clusters: Cluster 1 grouped together students with high academic performance and who achieved higher scores for socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family involvement, whereas Cluster 2 brought together students with low academic achievement, and who also obtained lower scores for socioeconomic status and cultural capital, and had less family involvement. It is concluded that the family variables analyzed form student profiles that can be related to academic achievement.
Houston, Diane M
Previous research into the relationship between attributions and academic performance has produced contradictory findings that have not been resolved. The present research examines the role of specific dimensions of attributional style in predicting subsequent academic performance in a sample of pupils ( N = 979) from both high- and low-achieving schools. Hierarchical regression and moderation analyses indicate that internal, stable, and global, attributional styles for positive events predict higher levels of academic performance. Global attributions for negative events were related to poorer performance across all schools. Stable attributions for negative events were related to higher levels of performance in high-achieving schools but not in low-achieving schools. Higher levels of internality for negative events were associated with higher performance only in low achieving schools.
Pololi, Linda H; Evans, Arthur T
To address a dearth of mentoring and to avoid the pitfalls of dyadic mentoring, the authors implemented and evaluated a novel collaborative group peer mentoring program in a large academic department of medicine. The mentoring program aimed to facilitate faculty in their career planning, and targeted either early-career or midcareer faculty in 5 cohorts over 4 years, from 2010 to 2014. Each cohort of 9-12 faculty participated in a yearlong program with foundations in adult learning, relationship formation, mindfulness, and culture change. Participants convened for an entire day, once a month. Sessions incorporated facilitated stepwise and values-based career planning, skill development, and reflective practice. Early-career faculty participated in an integrated writing program and midcareer faculty in leadership development. Overall attendance of the 51 participants was 96%, and only 3 of 51 faculty who completed the program left the medical school during the 4 years. All faculty completed a written detailed structured academic development plan. Participants experienced an enhanced, inclusive, and appreciative culture; clarified their own career goals, values, strengths and priorities; enhanced their enthusiasm for collaboration; and developed skills. The program results highlight the need for faculty to personally experience the power of forming deep relationships with their peers for fostering successful career development and vitality. The outcomes of faculty humanity, vitality, professionalism, relationships, appreciation of diversity, and creativity are essential to the multiple missions of academic medicine. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.
In this retrospective analysis of 140 third-year Psychology students, their academic performance was analysed in relation to their performance in the previous two years and, in particular, on a tutorial-based foundation programme in the first semester of their first-year. The results indicate that performance in third-year is not ...
Serghini Idrissi, Aïcha; Garcia-Prieto Sol, Patricia
In this paper we argue that Leading Academic Performance (LAP) expectations in universities are gendered, hindering female academic leadership. Integrating concepts from social identity theory of leadership, prototypicality, and social identity performance we describe how evaluations of female academic performance are shaped by gender social identity negatively affecting the career advancement of female faculty. We then illustrate how female academics can perform their academic and/or female ...
Giones, Ferran; Billström, Anders; Rasmussen, Einar
) performance. A longitudinal sample, between 2000 and 2012, of 125 academic spin-offs of Norway provides valuable insights on how the origin and characteristics of the technology relates to differences in market performance. The results show how different dimensions of innovativeness have a different impact...... on ASOs’ market performance, offering a nuanced view of the relationship between innovativeness and performance in this context. The findings provide insights for policy makers and university managers interested in understanding the effects of their policy choices on academic spin-offs....
Full Text Available The idea that academic work requires certain personal qualities, character traits or dispositions is as old as the university. However, no matter how ubiquitous the phenomenon, it is only in recent years, in the wake of a ‘cultural turn’ in the history of science, that historians have begun exploring ideals and practices of scholarly selfhood. This theme issue seeks to make a modest contribution to this emerging field of scholarship with articles that offer conceptual reflection, as well as case studies drawn from the Low Countries. They do so under the banner of ‘scholarly personae’, not with the intention of excluding competing vocabularies, but by way of entry into a new and not yet clearly defined field of study. Introductie: repertoires voor de academische identiteitHet idee dat academisch onderzoek bepaalde persoonlijke kwaliteiten, karaktertrekken en talenten vereist is zo oud als de universiteit zelf. Toch zijn historici pas recent, in het kielzog van de ‘cultural turn’ in de wetenschapsgeschiedenis, de idealen en praktijken van de academische identiteit gaan onderzoeken. Dit themanummer wil met conceptuele reflecties en casestudies over de Lage Landen een bescheiden bijdrage leveren aan dit opkomende veld van onderzoek. De artikelen gebruiken daarvoor het concept ‘schoarly personae’, niet met de bedoeling om andere benaderingen uit te sluiten, maar bij wijze van ingang in een nieuw en nog niet helder afgebakend onderzoeksgebied.
Full Text Available The idea that academic work requires certain personal qualities, character traits or dispositions is as old as the university. However, no matter how ubiquitous the phenomenon, it is only in recent years, in the wake of a ‘cultural turn’ in the history of science, that historians have begun exploring ideals and practices of scholarly selfhood. This theme issue seeks to make a modest contribution to this emerging field of scholarship with articles that offer conceptual reflection, as well as case studies drawn from the Low Countries. They do so under the banner of ‘scholarly personae’, not with the intention of excluding competing vocabularies, but by way of entry into a new and not yet clearly defined field of study. Introductie: repertoires voor de academische identiteit. Het idee dat academisch onderzoek bepaalde persoonlijke kwaliteiten, karaktertrekken en talenten vereist is zo oud als de universiteit zelf. Toch zijn historici pas recent, in het kielzog van de ‘cultural turn’ in de wetenschapsgeschiedenis, de idealen en praktijken van de academische identiteit gaan onderzoeken. Dit themanummer wil met conceptuele reflecties en casestudies over de Lage Landen een bescheiden bijdrage leveren aan dit opkomende veld van onderzoek. De artikelen gebruiken daarvoor het concept ‘schoarly personae’, niet met de bedoeling om andere benaderingen uit te sluiten, maar bij wijze van ingang in een nieuw en nog niet helder afgebakend onderzoeksgebied.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify whether there are any differences in the quality of the notes constructed in English between students for whom English is a first language and those for whom it is a second language. Subsequently we assessed whether this difference, if any, affected their grades. Unsurprisingly, the first-language students produced better structured and more detailed notes; they also performed better academically than their second-language peers. However, when students were provided with training that focused on using writing as a means to promote critical thinking, there was an improvement in the personalisation of their notes. The improvement in grades was significant for second-language students. Thus the university has a pivotal role to play in preparing students for academic success by providing them with supportive measures to aid their transition into first year.
Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Gahagan, Sheila
Abstract Objective To explore associations between the nutritional quality of diet at age 16 years and academic performance in students from Santiago, Chile. Methods We assessed the nutritional quality of diet, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, in 395 students aged 16.8 ± 0.5 years. Depending on the amount of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, diet was categorized as unhealthy, fair or healthy. Academic performance was assessed using high school grade-point average (GPA) and tests for college admission in language and mathematics. Academic results on or above the 75th percentile in our sample were considered good academic performance. We tested associations between nutritional quality of diet and good academic performance using logistic regression models. We considered sociodemographic, educational and body-mass index (BMI) factors as potential confounders. Findings After controlling for potential confounding factors, an unhealthy diet at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance. Compared to participants with healthy diets, those with unhealthy diets were significantly less likely to perform well based on language tests (odds ratio, OR: 0.42; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.18–0.98) mathematics tests (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15–0.82) or GPA (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09–0.56). Conclusion In our sample, excessive consumption of energy-dense, low-fibre, high-fat foods at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance. PMID:26966329
Trudeau, François; Shephard, Roy J
Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE ...
Liem, Gregory Arief D.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Yeung, Alexander S.
The study examined the relations between academic achievement and self-concepts in a sample of 1,067 seventh-grade students from 3 core ability streams in Singapore secondary education. Although between-stream differences in achievement were large, between-stream differences in academic self-concepts were negligible. Within each stream, levels of…
This paper explores the role of study groups in mediating academic writing, particularly among multilingual black students at the University of the Western Cape (UWC). Using data from questionnaires, focus groups, and interviews, as well as academic texts generated by study groups, the paper focuses on the efficacy of ...
Chew, Boon-How; Md Zain, Azhar; Hassan, Faezah
Positive social interaction with peers was said to facilitate cognitive and intellectual development leading to good academic performance. There was paucity of published data on the effect of social management (SM) emotional intelligence (EI) on academic performance. We conducted this study to examine their relationship in the undergraduate medical students in a public medical school in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to measure the SM. The first and final year medical students were invited to participate. Students answered a paper-based demography questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT in privacy. Independent predictors were identified using multivariate analyses. A total of 163 (84 first year and 79 final year) medical students completed the study (at a response rate of 66.0%). SM score (B = -.10 95% CI -.175 to -.015, p = .021) was significantly related to the continuous assessment (CA) marks (adjusted R(2) = .45, F13,137 = 10.26, p social intelligence and academic success in undergraduate medical students. A different collection of social skills and SM EI could be constructive towards academic achievement in medical schools.
Berberoğlu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit
This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students' academic performance. By way of multiple linear regression analysis, their study sought to evaluate whether the impact of private tutoring varies in different subject areas, taking into account several student-related characteristics such as family and academic backgrounds as well as interest in and perception of academic success. In terms of subject areas, the results indicate that while private tutoring does have a positive impact on academic performance in mathematics and Turkish language, this is not the case in natural sciences. However, as evidenced by the effect sizes, these impacts are rather small compared to the impacts of other variables such as interest in and perception of academic success, high school graduation fields of study, high school cumulative grade point average (CGPA), parental education and students' sociocultural background. While the authors point out that more research on the impact of further important variables needs to be done, their view is that school seems to be an important factor for determining students' academic performance.
Ezenwosu, Osita U; Emodi, Ifeoma J; Ikefuna, Anthony N; Chukwu, Barth F; Osuorah, Chidiebere D
Some factors are known to influence the academic performance of children with Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA). Information on their effects in these children is limited in Nigeria. The factors which influence academic performance of children with SCA in Enugu, Nigeria are determined in this study. Consecutive children with SCA aged 5-11 years were recruited at the weekly sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria. Their age- and sex- matched normal classmates were recruited as controls. The total number of days of school absence for 2009/2010 academic session was obtained for each pair of pupils from the class attendance register. Academic performance was assessed using the average of the overall scores in the three term examinations of same session. Intelligence ability was determined with Draw-A-Person Quotient (DAPQ) using the Draw-A-Person Test while socio-economic status was determined using the occupational status and educational attainment of each parent. Academic performance of children with SCA showed statistically significant association with their socio-economic status (χ2 = 9.626, p = 0.047), and significant correlation with DAPQ (r = 0.394, p = 0.000) and age (r = -0.412, p = 0.000). However, no significant relationship existed between academic performance and school absence in children with SCA (r = -0.080, p = 0.453). Academic performance of children with SCA is influenced by their intelligence ability, age and socio-economic status but not negatively affected by their increased school absenteeism.
The increasing diversity of students, particularly in age, attending university has seen a concomitant interest in factors predicting academic success. This 2-year correlational study examined whether age, gender (demographic variables), and hardiness (cognitive/emotional variable) differentiate and predict university final degree grade point average (GPA) and final-year dissertation mark. Data are reported from a total of 134 university undergraduate students. Participants provided baseline data in questionnaires administered during the first week of their second year of undergraduate study and gave consent for their academic progress to be tracked. Final degree GPA and dissertation mark were the academic performance criteria. Mature-age students achieved higher final degree GPA compared to young undergraduates. Female students significantly outperformed their male counterparts in each measured academic assessment criteria. Female students also reported a significantly higher mean score on hardiness commitment compared to male students. commitment was the most significant positive correlate of academic achievement. Final degree GPA and dissertation mark were significantly predicted by commitment, and commitment and gender, respectively. The findings have implications for universities targeting academic support services to maximize student scholastic potential. Future research should incorporate hardiness, gender, and age with other variables known to predict academic success.
Raat, A N Janet; Kuks, Jan B M; van Hell, E Ally; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
During clinical rotations, students move from one clinical situation to another. Questions exist about students' strategies for coping with these transitions. These strategies may include a process of social comparison because in this context it offers the student an opportunity to estimate his or her abilities to master a novel rotation. These estimates are relevant for learning and performance because they are related to self-efficacy. We investigated whether student estimates of their own future performance are influenced by the performance level and gender of the peer with whom the student compares him- or herself. We designed an experimental study in which participating students (n = 321) were divided into groups assigned to 12 different conditions. Each condition entailed a written comparison situation in which a peer student had completed the rotation the participant was required to undertake next. Differences between conditions were determined by the performance level (worse, similar or better) and gender of the comparison peer. The overall grade achieved by the comparison peer remained the same in all conditions. We asked participants to estimate their own future performance in that novel rotation. Differences between their estimates were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Students' estimates of their future performance were highest when the comparison peer was presented as performing less well and lowest when the comparison peer was presented as performing better (p influences students' estimates of their future performance in a novel rotation. The effect depends on the performance level and gender of the comparison peer. This indicates that comparisons against particular peers may strengthen or diminish a student's self-efficacy, which, in turn, may ease or hamper the student's learning during clinical rotations. The study is limited by its experimental design. Future research should focus on students' comparison behaviour in real transitions
Zhou, Yuanyuan; Graham, Lori; West, Courtney
To investigate if and to what extent the Learning and Study Strategy Inventory (LASSI) and the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) yield academic performance predictors; To examine if LASSI findings are consistent with previous research. Medical school students completed the LASSI and SDLRS before their first and second years (n = 168). Correlational and regression analyses were used to determine the predictive value of the LASSI and the SDLRS. Paired t-tests were used to test if the two measurement points differed. Bivariate correlations and R 2 s were compared with five other relevant studies. The SDLRS was moderately correlated with all LASSI subscales in both measures (r (152) =.255, p=.001) to (r (152) =.592, p =.000). The first SDLRS, nor the first LASSI, were predictive of academic performance. The second LASSI measure was a significant predictor of academic performance (R 2 (138) = 0.188, p = .003). Six prior LASSI studies yielded a range of R 2 s from 10-49%. The SDLRS is moderately correlated with all LASSI subscales. However, the predictive value of the SDLRS and LASSI differ. The SDLRS does not appear to be directly related to academic performance, but LASSI subscales: Concentration, Motivation, Time Management, and Test Strategies tend to be correlated. The explained LASSI variance ranges from 10% to 49%, indicating a small to substantial effect. Utilizing the LASSI to provide medical school students with information about their strengths and weaknesses and implementing targeted support in specific study strategies may yield positive academic performance outcomes.
Valladares, Macarena; Durán, Elizabeth; Matheus, Alexis; Durán-Agüero, Samuel; Obregón, Ana María; Ramírez-Tagle, Rodrigo
To determine the association between academic performance and eating behavior in university students in Chile. A total of 680 college students, 409 (60%) women and 271 (40%) men, were randomly recruited and the mean age of the entire sample was 26. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), which evaluates 3 dimensions of eating behavior-cognitive restriction (limiting own intake), uncontrolled eating (inclination to eat), and emotional eating (control of food intake in the context of negative emotions)-was used. Academic performance was measured by the grade point average (GPA) and was associated with eating behavior. Women had significantly higher scores in the "emotional eating" dimension than men (p = 0.002). The eating behavior analysis showed that female students with higher GPAs (above 5.5) had statistically significantly lower uncontrolled eating scores (p = 0.03) and higher cognitive restriction scores (p = 0.05) than women with lower academic performance (below 5.5). There were no significant associations between eating behavior and academic performance in men. A positive association between eating behavior and academic performance was observed in female university students in Chile. Further studies are needed to explore the causes of this association and determine how to improve the nutritional habits of this population.
Turner, Dana P; Thompson, Michael E; Huber, Larissa R Brunner; Arif, Ahmed A
Depression negatively affects cognitive functioning and, consequently, academic performance. Studies of this association have yielded conflicting results and have not fully considered other factors that may play a role in academic performance. This study examines the relation between depression and academic performance in students at a large urban university in North Carolina. We analyzed data from student responses to the 2008 cross-sectional National College Health Assessment to create categories of depressive symptomatology. E-mail invitations to participate in the assessment were sent to 8,000 students at the university in an effort to obtain at least 900 responses, the minimum number considered valid for a campus of its size. We analyzed the responses of the 1,280 undergraduates who completed the survey. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between depressive symptoms and academic performance in this group. Students in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of depressive symptomatology had increased, though statistically non-significant, odds of having a lower cumulative grade average, even after adjustment for age, sex, year in school, race/ethnicity, substance use, and level of credit-card debt. This difference was most pronounced among students in the second quartile of depressive symptomatology. This cross-sectional study did not allow for evaluation of causality. In addition, the self-report nature of this questionnaire could have led to some inaccuracy in reporting. Students reporting even a small number of depressive symptoms may be at increased risk for academic problems.
Marie, O.; Zölitz, U.N.
This paper investigates how legal cannabis access affects student performance. Identification comes from an exceptional policy introduced in the city of Maastricht which discriminated legal access based on individuals’ nationality. We apply a difference in-difference approach using administrative
Shephard Roy J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE, free school physical activity (PA and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007, PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007, SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA, and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF. Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.
Trudeau, François; Shephard, Roy J
The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007), PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007), SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA), and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF). Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.
Athanasiou, Thanos; Patel, Vanash; Garas, George; Ashrafian, Hutan; Shetty, Kunal; Sevdalis, Nick; Panzarasa, Pietro; Darzi, Ara; Paroutis, Sotirios
To determine the association between professors' self-perception of mentoring skills and their academic performance. Two hundred and fifteen professors from Imperial College London, the first Academic Health Science Centre (AHSC) in the UK, were surveyed. The instrument adopted was the Mentorship Skills Self-Assessment Survey. Statement scores were aggregated to provide a score for each shared core, mentor-specific and mentee-specific skill. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to evaluate their relationship with quantitative measures of academic performance (publications, citations and h-index). There were 104 professors that responded (response rate 48%). There were no statistically significant negative correlations between any mentoring statement and any performance measure. In contrast, several mentoring survey items were positively correlated with academic performance. The total survey score for frequency of application of mentoring skills had a statistically significant positive association with number of publications (B=0.012, SE=0.004, p=0.006), as did the frequency of acquiring mentors with number of citations (B=1.572, SE=0.702, p=0.030). Building trust and managing risks had a statistically significant positive association with h-index (B=0.941, SE=0.460, p=0.047 and B=0.613, SE=0.287, p=0.038, respectively). This study supports the view that mentoring is associated with high academic performance. Importantly, it suggests that frequent use of mentoring skills and quality of mentoring have positive effects on academic performance. Formal mentoring programmes should be considered a fundamental part of all AHSCs' configuration. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
O'Sullivan, Íde; Cleary, Lawrence
non-peer-reviewed Students often struggle with writing as they are unaware of the process of writing and of strategies and skills to help them write well. They often focus on the product of writing rather than engaging with the process of writing. However, it is in the process of writing, and in the discovery of that process, that learning happens (Murray 1973, Emig 1977, Berlin 1982). It is thought that the inductive, non-intrusive model of student peer-tutoring practiced at the Regional ...
Shehu, A U; Idris, S H
The use of Marijuana is on the increase worldwide especially among adolescents and youths. Marijuana smoking has gained a foothold in our environment because of peer group influence, accessibility and availability. Its medico-social effects could ruin the life and future of our youths. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the factors that influence secondary school students in Zaria LGA to smoke and the effects on academic performance. A cross-sectional descriptive study was employed to generate data among secondary school students. A multi-stage sampling technique was used. Data was collected with the use of a structured, pre tested self-administered questionnaire. F2 test was used to test for significance of association between categorical variables. Of the 350 respondents, 262 (74.9%) were males, while 88 (25.1%) were females. The study shows that 33 of the students smoke marijuana giving a prevalence of 9.4%. There were more smokers in the age group 15-19 years (54.6%). Other factors that influence marijuana smoking include family background, peer pressure and attendance of social functions. There was better academic performance (51.1%) among non smokers as compared to smokers (27.2%), and this was found to be statistically significant (chi2 = 11.73, df = 5, P attendance of social function influence marijuana smoking. A comprehensive school health education program should be instituted to curtail this menace.
Dascalu, Mihai; Popescu, Elvira; Becheru, Alexandru; Crossley, Scott; Trausan-Matu, Stefan
This study investigates the degree to which textual complexity indices applied on students’ online contributions, corroborated with a longitudinal analysis performed on their weekly posts, predict academic performance. The source of student writing consists of blog and microblog posts, created in
In Nigeria, studies have linked epilepsy with missing school, dropping out of school and poor academic performance.4-,11. Factors that predispose a child or adolescent with epilepsy to poor school performance include the age of the child, age of onset of seizures, seizure frequency,12 type of seizure, IQ of the child,4 poor.
This study examined the impact of e-learning strategies on students' academic performance at Strathmore University. The purpose of the study was to investigate the methodology, ideologies, output and ecology of ICT strategies and their impact on students' performance. This was done through comparing students' mean ...
Macan, Therese Hoff; And Others
The relationships between time management of college students and self-reported academic performance and various affective measures of stress were explored for 123 undergraduates. The study indicates that self-reported time management is multidimensional and that there are important relationships among time management, performance, and stress.…
Sime, Wesley E.; And Others
Administered the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale to Introductory Statistics college students. A high mathematics anxiety was associated with lower performance on a statistics examination. Classroom stress-coping intervention reduced anxiety and physiological stress responses, but did not improve academic performance. (Author/KS)
Risser, Scott D.
To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…
Kauts, Amit; Sharma, Neelam
Academic performance is concerned with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject or group of subjects after a long period of instruction. Excessive stress hampers students' performance. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. The study started with 800 adolescent students; 159 high-stress students and 142 low-stress students were selected on the basis of scores obtained through Stress Battery. Experimental group and control group were given pre test in three subjects, i.e., Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. A yoga module consisting of yoga asanas, pranayama, meditation, and a value orientation program was administered on experimental group for 7 weeks. The experimental and control groups were post-tested for their performance on the three subjects mentioned above. The results show that the students, who practiced yoga performed better in academics. The study further shows that low-stress students performed better than high-stress students, meaning thereby that stress affects the students' performance.
Full Text Available Background: Academic performance is concerned with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject or group of subjects after a long period of instruction. Excessive stress hampers students′ performance. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. Materials and Methods: The study started with 800 adolescent students; 159 high-stress students and 142 low-stress students were selected on the basis of scores obtained through Stress Battery. Experimental group and control group were given pre test in three subjects, i.e., Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. A yoga module consisting of yoga asanas, pranayama, meditation, and a value orientation program was administered on experimental group for 7 weeks. The experimental and control groups were post-tested for their performance on the three subjects mentioned above. Results: The results show that the students, who practiced yoga performed better in academics. The study further shows that low-stress students performed better than high-stress students, meaning thereby that stress affects the students′ performance.
needed to ensure satisfaction, which leads to improved performance. Key words: adequacy, correlation, examination, .... Study skills are influenced by learner motivation and when they are psychological balanced. Besides ... lectures. If the student is not psychologically balanced, this may lead to low academic performance.
Kauts, Amit; Sharma, Neelam
Background: Academic performance is concerned with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject or group of subjects after a long period of instruction. Excessive stress hampers students’ performance. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. Materials and Methods: The study started with 800 adolescent students; 159 high-stress students and 142 low-stress students were selected on the basis of scores obtained through Stress Battery. Experimental group and control group were given pre test in three subjects, i.e., Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. A yoga module consisting of yoga asanas, pranayama, meditation, and a value orientation program was administered on experimental group for 7 weeks. The experimental and control groups were post-tested for their performance on the three subjects mentioned above. Results: The results show that the students, who practiced yoga performed better in academics. The study further shows that low-stress students performed better than high-stress students, meaning thereby that stress affects the students’ performance. PMID:21234215
hamid Asayesh; Fatemeh Sharififard; Mojtaba Mosavi; Zahra Taheri Kharameh; Zahra Aliakbarzade Arani; Alireza Shouri Bidgoli
Background and Objectives: Learning is a stressful experience of human life; reduced adaption to stressors causes academic burnout which is a reason for academic failure among students. This study investigated the correlation among academic stress, academic burnout, and academic performance in nursing and paramedic students of Qom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 264 nursing and paramedic students were randomly selected. Demographic ch...
Barks Amanda; Searight H. Russell; Ratwik Susan
University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were ...
Simpson, C. Kenneth; Boyle, David
Measures of global, specific, and task-specific self-esteem were administered to male and female college students and related to predicted and actual performance on a midterm examination. Significant correlations were found between global and specific measures and between specific and task measures, but not between global and task measures.…
Holmes, Robyn M.; Liden, Sharon; Shin, Lisa
Based on the study of seventy-four middle school children of mostly Filipino and part Hawaiian heritages, this article explores the relationships of children's thinking styles, play preferences, and school performance. Using the Group Embedded Figures Test, the Articulation of the Body Scale, and written responses to three questions, the authors…
Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Kragh Andersen, Per
of academic performance from the 2010–2013 Danish National Tests. Hierarchical multilevel linear regression of 216,350 assessments made in 71,850 children born to 67,528 mothers revealed no differences in academic performance among the children according to prenatal exposure to fever (odds ratio (OR) = 1......Prenatal exposure to fever and infections has been linked to various neurodevelopmental disorders, but it is not yet known whether more subtle effects on neurodevelopment may exist as well. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether these early-life exposures were associated with academic...... performance in childhood and early adolescence. Children and mothers who were enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996–2002 were included in this study. Information on fever and infections common in pregnancy was prospectively collected in 2 pregnancy interviews and linked with assessments...
Marianela Noriega Biggio
Full Text Available This paper discusses the results of research on factors affecting academic performance and attrition in a sample of 1,500 freshman students majoring in architecture, design and urbanism at the Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina [University of Buenos Aires, Argentina] who were enrolled in a drafting course. The hypotheses we tested concern the mediating role of learning styles on the relationship between spatial competence and academic performance, learning-style differences by gender and cohort, and the relationship between attrition, spatial competence level and learning style. Statistical analysis of the data was performed and spatial competence enhanced by motivational profile was found to predict final achievement. Educational implications are identified, highlighting the need to promote in students those academic behaviors that characterize a self-regulated learning style and encourage the use of specific intellectual abilities.
Robb, Elizabeth; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert
This mixed methods counterbalanced study compared the gain score means of two different approaches to vocabulary acquisition--Vocabulary Theater (VT) and Teacher Directed Instruction (TDI) for 8th grade students from three schools in New York. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of a peer teaching approach on students' vocabulary…
Dancer, Diane; Morrison, Kellie; Tarr, Garth
Peer-assisted study session (PASS) programs have been shown to positively affect students' grades in a majority of studies. This study extends that analysis in two ways: controlling for ability and other factors, with focus on international students, and by presenting results for PASS in business statistics. Ordinary least squares, random effects…
Dennehy, Tara C; Dasgupta, Nilanjana
Scientific and engineering innovation is vital for American competitiveness, quality of life, and national security. However, too few American students, especially women, pursue these fields. Although this problem has attracted enormous attention, rigorously tested interventions outside artificial laboratory settings are quite rare. To address this gap, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment investigating the effect of peer mentoring on women's experiences and retention in engineering during college transition, assessing its impact for 1 y while mentoring was active, and an additional 1 y after mentoring had ended. Incoming women engineering students ( n = 150) were randomly assigned to female or male peer mentors or no mentors for 1 y. Their experiences were assessed multiple times during the intervention year and 1-y postintervention. Female (but not male) mentors protected women's belonging in engineering, self-efficacy, motivation, retention in engineering majors, and postcollege engineering aspirations. Counter to common assumptions, better engineering grades were not associated with more retention or career aspirations in engineering in the first year of college. Notably, increased belonging and self-efficacy were significantly associated with more retention and career aspirations. The benefits of peer mentoring endured long after the intervention had ended, inoculating women for the first 2 y of college-the window of greatest attrition from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Thus, same-gender peer mentoring for a short period during developmental transition points promotes women's success and retention in engineering, yielding dividends over time.
Hultman Özek, Yvonne; Edgren, Gudrun; Jandér, Katarina
Objective – The role of the academic librarian has become increasingly educative in nature. In this study, the critical friend method was introduced among teaching librarians in an academic setting of medicine and health sciences to ascertain whether this approach could be implemented for feedback on teaching of these librarians as part of their professional development. Methods – We used a single intrinsic case study. Seven teaching librarians and one educator from the faculty of medicin...
Adamopoulou, Effrosyni; Tanzi, Giulia M.
In this paper we study how the Great Recession affected university students in terms of performance, with a special focus on the dropout probability. To do so, we use individual-level data on a representative sample of university students in Italy in 2007 and 2011. We measure the severity of the recession in terms of increases in adult and youth unemployment rate and we exploit geographical variation to achieve identification. On the one hand, an increase in adult male unemployment rate deter...
Full Text Available University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1. a group that sent andreceived text messages during a lecture or, 2. a group that did not engage in text messagingduring the lecture. Participants who engaged in text messaging demonstrated significantlypoorer performance on a test covering lecture content compared with the group that did notsend and receive text messages. Participants exhibiting higher levels of text messaging skill hadsignificantly lower test scores than participants who were less proficient at text messaging. It ishypothesized that in terms of retention of lecture material, more frequent task shifting by thosewith greater text messaging proficiency contributed to poorer performance. Overall, the findingsdo not support the view, held by many university students, that this form of multitasking has littleeffect on the acquisition of lecture content. Results provide empirical support for teachers andprofessors who ban text messaging in the classroom.
Baker, Majel R; Frazier, Patricia A; Greer, Christiaan; Paulsen, Jacob A; Howard, Kelli; Meredith, Liza N; Anders, Samantha L; Shallcross, Sandra L
College women frequently report having experienced sexual victimization (SV) in their lifetime, including child sexual abuse and adolescent/adult sexual assault. Although the harmful mental health sequelae of SV have been extensively studied, recent research suggests that SV is also a risk factor for poorer college academic performance. The current studies examined whether exposure to SV uniquely predicted poorer college academic performance, even beyond contributions from three well-established predictors of academic performance: high school rank, composite standardized test scores (i.e., American College Testing [ACT]), and conscientiousness. Study 1 analyzed longitudinal data from a sample of female college students (N = 192) who were assessed at the beginning and end of one semester. SV predicted poorer cumulative end-of-semester grade point average (GPA) while controlling for well-established predictors of academic performance. Study 2 replicated these findings in a second longitudinal study of female college students (N = 390) and extended the analyses to include follow-up data on the freshmen and sophomore students (n = 206) 4 years later. SV predicted students' GPA in their final term at the university above the contributions of well-established academic predictors, and it was the only factor related to leaving college. These findings highlight the importance of expanding the scope of outcomes of SV to include academic performance, and they underscore the need to assess SV and other adverse experiences on college campuses to target students who may be at risk of poor performance or leaving college. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M
Astigmatism is an important refractive condition in children. However, the functional impact of uncorrected astigmatism in this population is not well established, particularly with regard to academic performance. This study investigated the impact of simulated bilateral astigmatism on academic-related tasks before and after sustained near work in children. Twenty visually normal children (mean age: 10.8 ± 0.7 years; six males and 14 females) completed a range of standardised academic-related tests with and without 1.50 D of simulated bilateral astigmatism (with both academic-related tests and the visual condition administered in a randomised order). The simulated astigmatism was induced using a positive cylindrical lens while maintaining a plano spherical equivalent. Performance was assessed before and after 20 min of sustained near work, during two separate testing sessions. Academic-related measures included a standardised reading test (the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability), visual information processing tests (Coding and Symbol Search subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and a reading-related eye movement test (the Developmental Eye Movement test). Each participant was systematically assigned either with-the-rule (WTR, axis 180°) or against-the-rule (ATR, axis 90°) simulated astigmatism to evaluate the influence of axis orientation on any decrements in performance. Reading, visual information processing and reading-related eye movement performance were all significantly impaired by both simulated bilateral astigmatism (p 0.05). Simulated astigmatism led to a reduction of between 5% and 12% in performance across the academic-related outcome measures, but there was no significant effect of the axis (WTR or ATR) of astigmatism (p > 0.05). Simulated bilateral astigmatism impaired children's performance on a range of academic-related outcome measures irrespective of the orientation of the astigmatism. These findings have
Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R
The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the performance. The RAE remains, even with residual
Nielsen, Lisbeth Palmhøj; Hansen, Anne Toft
of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employment has a positive effect on children’s academic performance in all specifications, particularly when women work...... part-time. This is in contrast with the larger literature on maternal employment, much of which takes place in other contexts, and which finds no or a small negative effect of maternal employment on children’s cognitive development and academic performance. (JEL J13, J22)...
Higueras-Fresnillo, Sara; Martínez-Gómez, David; Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Conde-Caveda, Julio; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene
Dance is a predominant type of physical activity among girls. Dance characteristics imply skills associated to health-related physical fitness, as well as others such as learning and memory, mental representation, imagination and creativity, which are related to cognitive development. Although dance has been shown to influence physical health among youth girls, whether dance may influence academic performance and cognition in youth remains to be elucidated. The objective of this work was to examine the association between participation in dance and academic performance in youth girls.
Full Text Available The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE. This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES, and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders.The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5, in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest.The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the performance.The RAE remains, even
Zhou, Ying; Yuan, Huikang; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xia; Yi, Lihua
The rapidly advancing implementation of public hospital reform urgently requires the identification and classification of a pool of exceptional medical specialists, corresponding with incentives to attract and retain them, providing a nucleus of distinguished expertise to ensure public hospital preeminence. This paper examines the significance of academic leadership, from a strategic management perspective, including various tools, methods and mechanisms used in the theory and practice of performance evaluation, and employed in the selection, training and appointment of academic leaders. Objective methods of assessing leadership performance are also provided for reference.
Carter, Christina Michelle
Division I intercollegiate student-athletes represent a unique population of college students on college campuses today because they face competing demands between the student and athlete roles. Without the proper environment and motivation for academic performance, some Division I student-athletes are unable to obtain a college degree and leave…
Edwards, Jack E.; Waters, L. K.
A job involvement measure adapted to reflect course involvement was unrelated to age, sex, class rank, and tested verbal ability. However, it was significantly and positively related to achievement motivation, locus of control, Protestant ethic attitudes, academic satisfaction, and performance. (Author/CP)
Rania, Nadia; Siri, Anna; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Sasso, Loredana
The psychological climate within organisations affects not only the behaviour and the attitude of group members, but also the performance of the group itself. According to the ecological model, this research examines how learning in different classroom contexts of the same nursing degree programme can affect academic performance, well-being, self-esteem and perceived climate. Four scales were used to assess students' perceptions by collecting primary data while academic performance was measured by obtaining students' academic records. A questionnaire completed by 391 first-year nursing students was administered. Differences were observed in the perceptions of climate and academic performance in different classroom contexts with trends, which did not always overlap; however, strong correlations were observed among self-esteem, well-being and climate, and schoolmate relationships. Universities should not merely train competent professionals but also build learning communities that support the well-being of relationships and the development of well-being contexts. The findings support the need for an educational intervention for improving the quality of life and well-being of the community and individual students. This type of intervention requires a 'compliant' organisational environment that puts studetns, teachers and professionals in the condition to practice their professional skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yucha, Carolyn B; Kowalski, Susan; Cross, Chad
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether nursing students assigned to a home hospital experience less stress and improved academic performance. Students were assigned to a home hospital clinical placement (n = 78) or a control clinical placement (n = 79). Stress was measured using the Student Nurse Stress Index (SNSI) and Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory. Academic performance included score on the RN CAT, a standardized mock NCLEX-RN(®)-type test; nursing grade point average; and first attempt pass-fail on the NCLEX-RN. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups for age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, or score on the nurse entrance examination. There were significant changes in SNSI over time but not between groups. Academic load and state anxiety showed an interaction of time by group, with the home hospital group showing reductions over time, compared with the control group. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available The way students perceive learning is influenced by multiple factors. The present study aimed at establishing relationships between the learning approaches, academic performance, and the academic year in a sample of students from different courses of Universidad Central “Marta Abreu”, Las Villas. For this ex post facto study, a probabilistic sample was used based on a simple random sampling of 524 university students who participated in the Study Process Questionnaire. The analysis of variance (MANOVA and ANOVA and the analysis of clusters reported associations between a deep approach to learning and a better academic performance. These analyses showed differences in the learning approach in the different courses, predominantly a soft approach.
Alberto A. Alegre
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between academic self-efficacy, self-regulated learning and academic performance of first-year university students in the Metropolitan Lima area. An assessment was made of 284 students (138 male and 146 female students admitted to a private university of Lima for the 2013-2 term by using a non-probability and incidental procedure and the General Academic Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, the University Academic Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire; and for the academic performance of every student, their registered weighted GPA was taken into account. Formulated hypothesis was accepted as correlation coefficients resulting from academic selfefficacy; self-regulated learning and academic performance were both positive and significant, but low. In addition, the correlation between academic selfefficacy and self-regulated learning were positive, significant and moderate.
Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E; Bachman, Jerald G
Teenagers working over 20 hours per week perform worse in school than youth who work less. There are two competing explanations for this association: (1) that paid work takes time and effort away from activities that promote achievement, such as completing homework, preparing for examinations, getting help from parents and teachers, and participating in extracurricular activities; and (2) that the relationship between paid work and school performance is spurious, reflecting preexisting differences between students in academic ability, motivation, and school commitment. Using longitudinal data from the ongoing national Monitoring the Future project, this research examines the impact of teenage employment on school performance and academic engagement during the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades. We address issues of spuriousness by using a two-level hierarchical model to estimate the relationships of within-individual changes in paid work to changes in school performance and other school-related measures. Unlike prior research, we also compare youth school performance and academic orientation when they are actually working in high-intensity jobs to when they are jobless and wish to work intensively. Results indicate that the mere wish for intensive work corresponds with academic difficulties in a manner similar to actual intensive work.
Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.
Teenagers working over 20 hours per week perform worse in school than youth who work less. There are two competing explanations for this association: (1) that paid work takes time and effort away from activities that promote achievement, such as completing homework, preparing for examinations, getting help from parents and teachers, and participating in extracurricular activities; and (2) that the relationship between paid work and school performance is spurious, reflecting preexisting differences between students in academic ability, motivation, and school commitment. Using longitudinal data from the ongoing national Monitoring the Future project, this research examines the impact of teenage employment on school performance and academic engagement during the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades. We address issues of spuriousness by using a two-level hierarchical model to estimate the relationships of within-individual changes in paid work to changes in school performance and other school-related measures. Unlike prior research, we also compare youth school performance and academic orientation when they are actually working in high-intensity jobs to when they are jobless and wish to work intensively. Results indicate that the mere wish for intensive work corresponds with academic difficulties in a manner similar to actual intensive work. PMID:20802795
Neamţu Adina Claudia
Full Text Available The current economical evolution determines the improvement process of the employees that should be prepared as well as possible at all levels, so that they could accomplish the objectives of the organization in a world where the success depends on the capacity to supply quality, diversity, the satisfaction of the clients’ needs, optimal advantages and promptness. The easy access to information in the current world forces the universities to keep up to the requirements of the labour market and of the future graduates, to change into open, active, dynamic, emphatic spaces, in launching ramps for them, allowing the simulation of the roles the students will have as adults in the knowledge economy. In this context, the higher education institutions in Romania have understood that only by means of performance and competence we may reach the global domination of a category of complex situation, by mobilizing certain diverse resources (knowledge, practical abilities, social representations, values and attitudes. All of these may develop in the context of a university centre that understands that, next to the theory, the students’ practice is based on an integrated ensemble of knowledge, skills and attitudes that allow the subject, in front of a category of situations of adapting, solving problems and accomplishing projects.
The article discusses theoretical and practical approaches to the problems of assessing performance of academic libraries and library performance indicators in general. The author emphasises the importance of a systematic evaluation of library's activities and the use of modern management methods, of which the process of library performance measurement is an integral part. The role of library statistics as a method of quantitative representation of the library's activities is presented and th...
The article discusses theoretical and practical approaches to the problems of assessing performance of academic libraries and library performance indicators in general. The author emphasises the importance of a systematic evaluation of library activities and the use of modern management methods, of which the process of library performance measurement is an integral part. The role of library statistics as a method of quantitative representation of the library's activities is presented and the ...
Using Doise spatial task, this study examined the following three hypotheses about preschoolers' attainment of spatial skills: (1) A different viewpoint promotes faster advancement through developmental levels of spatial skills than the same viewpoint. (2) An interaction partner with a different skill level, rather than the same level, promotes faster advancement. And (3) a socio-cognitive conflict with the partner promotes faster advancement. To test these hypotheses, the method of Doise and Mugny (1984) was used in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, the method was modified in several ways. Most notably by pointing out and changing the shape of the marker, and by decreasing the number of objects to be arranged. Results of the experiments supported Hypothesis 3, but not 1 or 2. It was concluded that socio-cognitive conflicts in preschooler peer interaction contributed to children's development of spatial skills.
Hamm, Jill V; Lambert, Kerrylin; Agger, Charlotte A; Farmer, Thomas W
This study investigated the social network system of African American early adolescents (N = 237) in rural, low-wealth schools, specifically in terms of networks with norms strongly favoring effort and achievement. Networks with norms favoring effort and achievement were more likely to be central to the social system at the end of the school year. Subsequent analyses focused on boys (n = 103) and the effects of affiliation in networks with norms that strongly favored effort and achievement. Twenty-four percent of boys sustained membership in these networks and experienced greater school valuing and likeability, but reduced admiration among peers, net of scores at the beginning of the school year. The results of the study stand to inform both an understanding of positive peer group affiliations of minority boys and intervention work with this population by clarifying developmental mechanisms that contribute to positive school adaptation among rural African American boys. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Brechwald, Whitney A.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.
A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents' individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents'…
This preliminary research shows incidences of positive true peer learning duringtutoring sessions in writing centers at Japanese universities. In most writing centers atJapanese universities, tutors are required to be graduate students. There is apreconceived notion among some administrative staff and some faculty that undergraduatestudents are unable to properly assist each other because someone must always be in the“teacher role” and someone must always be in the “learner role”. This assum...
Pitt, Michael B; Furnival, Ronald A; Zhang, Lei; Weber-Main, Anne M; Raymond, Nancy C; Jacob, Abraham K
Evaluate a dual incentive model combining positive peer pressure through increased transparency of peers' academic work with a weighted lottery where entries are earned based on degree of productivity. We developed a dual-incentive peer mentoring model, Positive Peer-Pressured Productivity (P-QUAD), for faculty in the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Division at the University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital. This model provided relative value-based incentives, with points assigned to different scholarly activities (eg. 1 point for abstract submission, 2 points for poster presentation, 3 points for oral presentation, etc.). These points translated into to lottery tickets for a semi-annual drawing for monetary prizes. Productivity was compared among faculty for P-QUAD year to the preintervention year. Fifteen (83%) of 18 eligible faculty members participated. Overall annual productivity per faculty member as measured by total P-QUAD score increased from a median of 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 0-14) in the preintervention year to 4 (IQR 0-27) in the P-QUAD year (P = .051). Submissions and acceptances increased in all categories except posters which were unchanged. Annual abstract submissions per faculty member significantly increased from a median of 1 (IQR 0-2) to 2 (IQR 0-2; P = .047). Seventy-three percent (8 of 11) of post-survey respondents indicated that the financial incentive motivated them to submit academic work; 100% indicated that increased awareness of their peers' work was a motivator. The combination of increased awareness of peers' academic productivity and a weighted lottery financial incentive appears to be a useful model for stimulating academic productivity in early-career faculty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bilić, Vesna; Buljan Flander, Gordana; Rafajac, Branko
This paper analyses the relationship between the exposure of school children to various forms of peer bullying (classic/cyber) and their life satisfaction in the domain of school, family, friends and school performance. The sample included 562 children from rural and urban areas of Croatia who were attending the seventh and the eighth grade of primary school. Results show that children were more often exposed to classic forms of peer bullying, especially verbal, and then physical bullying. On...
Rivers, Jewrell; Mullis, Ann K.; Fortner, Lauren A.; Mullis, Ronald L.
Relationships between parenting styles, academic performance, and the mediating effects of motivation, goal orientation, and self-efficacy were examined. One hundred forty-eight high school students participated, including 58 males and 90 females. The Parenting Style/Parental Involvement Questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions of…
Tan, Lin Mei; Laswad, Fawzi
This study examines the impact of learning styles on academic performance using major assessment methods (examinations and assignments including multiple-choice and constructed response questions (CRQs)) in an introductory accounting course. Students' learning styles were assessed using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Version 3.1. The results…
Objective: This study was intended to assess the prevalence, determinants, and effect of khat use on academic performance of high school students in Sidama Ethiopia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2015. We used a stratified sampling technique to draw a total of 1,577students.
This study investigated the effect of sporting equipment on students academic performance in the concept of projectile in Nigerian senior secondary school Physics in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A total of 183 senior secondary two (SS2) Physics students were involved in the study. The design ...
schooling and the academic performance of pre-schooled lower primary school pupils in a rural Zambian ... effects and that access to quality early childhood educational resources is a key engine to upward mobility. ... excellence of their children (Escarce, 2003 & Eamon, 2005; Jeynes, 2002; Sirin 2005)). It is important to ...
ABSTRACT. This paper investigates the academic performance of students from less endowed senior high schools in the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Question- naires were administered to 152 (123 males and 29 females) fourth year students who enrolled for various programmes at ...
This paper investigates the academic performance of students from less endowed senior high schools in the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Questionnaires were administered to 152 (123 males and 29 females) fourth year students who enrolled for various programmes at KNUST in 2007 ...
Irtwange, S. V.; Orsaah, S.
The objective of this study is to assess the impact of management style on academic staff performance with University of Agriculture, Makurdi as a case study. The management style of the vice chancellor of the University of Agriculture, Makurdi between the periods, September 3, 1996 to September 3, 2001 was determined using the Ohio State…
designed questionnaires distributed by stratified random sampling with proportional allocation scheme, to find out the impact of finance on students‟ academic performance with reference to Kaduna. Polytechnic. The statistical tests we applied are Chi-square, Phi coefficient and Bi-serial correlation. It was found that ...
Recent developments in the higher education sectors of the Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK concerning accountability and performance measurement in research have resulted in a variety of responses from individual academics. The concept of hybridity enables us to explain these developments over time.
Talib, Nadeem; Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad
This study aims to investigate the effect of factor such as perceived stress on the academic performance of the students. A sample of 199 university graduates and undergraduates in Rawalpindi and Islamabad was selected as a statistical frame. Instrumentation used for this study is previously validated construct in order to evaluate the effect of…
The study examined career choice and its influence on academic performance of library and information science students in the University of Benin. Questionnaire was used to obtain information from the respondents. The entire population was used as sample because of the size of the population and the simple ...
The study investigated the influence of types of exceptionality on the self perception of students with special needs. It examined the influence of sex of students with special needs on their self perception. It also compared the academic performance of male and female students with special needs. One instrument named Self ...
The study was conducted to investigate the influence of family background on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria. The study was carried out in the three senatorial districts of Kwara State. Three hundred respondents participated in this research. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the ...
This study examined the relationship between self-concept and academic performance of Nigerian students. The study made use of 1000 participants (500 males and 500 females) whose ages ranged from 15-18 with a mean of 16.7 and a standard deviation of 1.12. The study used an indigenous self concept scale ...
A binary logit model is used to investigate the determinants of students' performance in the final high school examination. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 1,129 final year students (614 boys and 515 girls) in ten senior high schools (SHSs) during the 2008/2009 academic year. Respondents were requested ...
Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson
Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…
The main intent of this study was to identify the impact of using learning log as a learning strategy on the academic performance of university students. Second year psychology students were included as subjects of this study. In the beginning of the study, the students were divided into two: experimental group (N = 60) and ...
Meera, K. P.; Jumana, M. K.
This study reviews the relevant self-efficacy related literature, a central point of social cognitive theory, in the area of language learning. Role of self-efficacy in academic performance of learners is also considered. In the global world, English language has become the fundamental means of international affairs and communication. As a…
This study investigated the causal variables (Child, Family, School, Society and Government) and academic performance of secondary school students in Cross River State: A basis for counselling and programme planning. The study adopted the descriptive survey method. It made use of two research questions and ...
Libao, Nhorvien Jay P.; Sagun, Jessie John B.; Tamangan, Elvira A.; Pattalitan, Agaton P., Jr.; Dupa, Maria Elena D.; Bautista, Romiro G.
This study was designed to analyze the relationship of students' learning motivation and their academic performances in science. The study made use of 21 junior and senior Biological Science students to conclude on the formulated research problems. The respondents had a good to very good motivation in learning science. In general, the extent of…
The aim of this study was to find out the influence of child abuse on pupils academic performance in primary science. To carry out this study effectively two variables were identified for the study. These were used to formulate the research hypotheses. The design for the study was ex-post-facto. The area of study was Cross ...
First year students' academic performance in three Life Science courses (Botany, Zoology and Bioscience) was compared. Pass rates, as well as the means and distributions of final marks were analysed. Of the three components (coursework, practical and theory examinations) contributing to the final mark of each course, ...
Ayodele, Timothy Oluwafemi; Oladokun, Timothy Tunde; Gbadegesin, J.T.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors affecting academic performance of real estate students in a developing country like Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the study were collected with the aid of questionnaire served on 152 final year real estate students of
Alanzi, Khalid A.; Alfraih, Mishari M.
Purpose: This quantitative study aims to examine the impact of accumulated knowledge of accounting on the academic performance of Cost Accounting students. Design/methodology/approach The sample consisted of 89 students enrolled in the Accounting program run by a business college in Kuwait during 2015. Correlation and linear least squares…
This research work investigates the impact of the internet on the academic performance of students in some selected tertiary institutions in Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted in conducting this research. Questionnaire was the instrument employed for data collection. Frequency count and simple percentage was ...
Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chong; Liu, Zhongming; Cai, Yunfei; Cao, Xingguo; He, Yushan; Liu, Guoxiang; Miao, Hongming
The effect of scientific training on course learning in undergraduates is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the academic performance of undergraduate students with and without scientific training. The results show that scientific training improves students' test scores in general medical courses, such as biochemistry and…
Sun, Jie; Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Zhang, Yi
For this study we identified factors exerting significant influence on homesickness and explored the impact of the homesick experience on students' academic performance and retention in the first year in college. The findings reveal 2 constructs underlying the homesickness scale: homesick separation and homesick distress. Demographic variables…
students' academic performance in senior secondary school Chemistry in Cross River State. A two group pre-test post test ... chemistry students by encouraging the use of instructional materials in teaching-learning chemistry. KEY WORDS: Instructional ... classroom with many misconceptions to correct for proper scientific ...
This study investigated the impact of classroom attendance on academic performance of university students in an Organic Chemistry course. It also looked into the ... Data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 17.0 to present the descriptive and inferential statistics. The results ...
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai
The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…
This work used the ex post facto to design and deepen our understanding of the relationship between gender and students academic performances in social studies. The sample comprised 330 JSS III students (130 male and 200 female) drawn from 50 out of 73 schools in Calabar Educational Zone. Two instruments were ...
Ponnet, Koen; Wouters, Edwin; Walrave, Michel; Heirman, Wannes; Van Hal, Guido
The non-medical use of stimulants for academic performance enhancement is becoming a more common practice among college and university students. The objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of students' intention to use stimulant medication for the purpose of enhancing their academic performance. Based on an extended model of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, psychological distress, procrastination, substance use, and alcohol use on students' intention to use stimulants to improve their academic performance. The sample consisted of 3,589 Flemish university and college students (mean age: 21.59, SD: 4.09), who participated anonymously in an online survey conducted in March and April 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that subjective norm is the strongest predictor of students' intention to use stimulant medication, followed by attitude and perceived behavioral control. To a lesser extent, procrastinating tendencies, psychological distress, and substance abuse contribute to students' intention. Conclusions/ Importance: Based on these findings, we provide several recommendations on how to curtail students' intention to use stimulant medication for the purpose of improving their academic performance. In addition, we urge researchers to identify other psychological variables that might be related to students' intention.
Juvonen, Jaana; Wang, Yueyan; Espinoza, Guadalupe
The goal of the study was to examine whether bullying experiences are associated with lower academic performance across middle school among urban students.The ethnically diverse sample was drawn from a longitudinal study of 2,300 sixth graders (44% Latino, 26% African American, 10% Asian, 10% White, and 10% mixed) from 11 public middle schools.…
affect or influence the academic performance of secondary school students. Information on the incidence will sensitize the family/guardians and relevant policy-makers to the magnitude of child labour as an aspect of child abuse and neglect in the area of study. Furthermore, the study would review the pattern of relationship ...
Results indicated that use of electronic resources had a positive impact on students' academic performance. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that more emphasis should be laid on the acquisition of electronic resources so as to give room for wider and multiple access to information resources in order to ...
Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson
Objective: To investigate weight perception and related psychological factors in Chinese adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire on weight perception, academic performance, stress, hostility, and depression was completed by 6863 middle and high school students. Weight and height were measured. Results: Overweight perception was related to…
Langevin, Elizabeth L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between undergraduate student happiness and academic performance (GPA), controlling for age, gender, and race/ethnicity for third and fourth year business students at University of Phoenix, Little Rock Campus. The eight-item Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) was used to measure the…
Shanti, T.I.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Setiadi, B.N.
The main purpose of this study was to examine relationships between university support and academic performance, as mediated by motivation to learn and emotional adjustment among freshmen of X University. Data were collected from 327 X University's freshmen at the end of their first year. Results
The study examined the influence of internet usage on academic performance of ... 3Department of Social Sciences Education University of Ilorin, Nigeria ... computer network.The internet offers various services, but the two most popular services are E-mail and World Wide Web. Chanlin (2009) pointed out that World.
This research work investigated the influence of instructional materials (teaching aids) on students' academic performance in senior secondary school Chemistry in Cross River State. A two group pre-test post test quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. One research question and one hypothesis were ...
This study inestigated the effects of classroom feedback on the academic performance of senior secondary students in Bassa LGA of Plateau State. The research made use of the experimental design with a total of 60 participants comprising of 33 boys and 27 girls within the age range of 15-17. To achieve the purpose of the ...
Bugueño, Maithe; Curihual, Carolina; Olivares, Paulina; Wallace, Josefa; López-AlegrÍa, Fanny; Rivera-López, Gonzalo; Oyanedel, Juan Carlos
Sleeping and studying are the day-to-day activities of a teenager attending school. To determine the quality of sleep and its relationship to the academic performance among students attending morning and afternoon shifts in a public high school. Students of the first and second year of high school answered an interview about socio-demographic background, academic performance, student activities and subjective sleep quality; they were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The interview was answered by 322 first year students aged 15 ± 5 years attending the morning shift and 364 second year students, aged 16 ± 0.5 years, attending the afternoon shift. The components: sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, drug use and daytime dysfunction were similar and classified as good in both school shifts. The components subjective sleep quality and duration of sleep had higher scores among students of the morning shift. The mean grades during the first semester of the students attending morning and afternoon shifts were 5.9 and 5.8, respectively (of a scale from 1 to 7). Among students of both shifts, the PSQI scale was associated inversely and significantly with academic performance. A bad sleep quality influences academic performance in these students.
Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario
Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and…
Arshad, Muhammad; Zaidi, Syed Muhammad Imran Haider; Mahmood, Khalid
The current study was conducted to assess the self-esteem and academic performance among university students after arising of several behavioral and educational problems. A total number of 80 students, 40 male students and 40 female students were selected through purposive sampling from G. C. University Faisalabad. The participants were…
This study was conducted to determine the relationship between pupils' academic self-esteem and performance in English language and Mathematics. The sample consisted of 365 pupils selected from 82 primary schools in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council, Borno State. Krejcie and Morgan's table for determining sampling ...
The focus of this study is on street hawking as an aspect of child labour, abuse and neglect. The goal of the research on child abuse and academic performance of children who participate in it as a routine scholars and people have defined child labour in several ways. In a nutshell it is the exploitation of children, premature ...
The focus of this study is on child labour as an aspect of child abuse and neglect. The goal of the research on child abuse and academic performance of children who participate in it as a routine scholars and people have defined child labour in several ways. In a nutshell it is the exploitation of children, premature ...
The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between Internet addiction and academic performance among university undergraduates. The study also focused to examine the gender differences among students on internet addiction. The sample comprised of 359 university undergraduates. Their responses to the "Internet Addiction…
Yeboah, Alex Kumi; Smith, Patriann
The study investigated the relationship between minority students' use of technology, social media, the number of online courses, program of study, satisfaction, and academic performance. Participants in the study were a diverse student body regarding age, gender, and educational level, and functioned at both undergraduate and graduate levels.…
This study examined the relationship between level of stress and students' academic performance in Universities in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to select 300 students for the study. A “Students' Stress Level Questionnaire ...
A survey of the examination of the factors that affect job satisfaction and performance of academic librarians was conducted on selected eight universities comprising both state and federal universities, in southwest Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was use to select 130 respondents across the institution of study.
students' academic performance in senior secondary school Chemistry in Cross River State. A two group pre-test post test ... students (Experimental group) were taught with instructional materials and another forty (Control group) were taught without ... It is use to get the attention of the students and eliminate boredom.
Children from a low socioeconomic status (SES) are exposed to numerous stress factors that are negatively associated with sustained attention and academic performance. This association suggests that the timed component of lengthy assessments may be unfair for students from such backgrounds, as they may have an inability to sustain attention during…
A three-sectioned 37-item questionnaire was designed using previously validated constructs. Student's t-test and ANOVA was carried out to evaluate the effect of the factors on academic performance. Results showed that students who were less anxious had significantly higher cumulative grade point average M±SD (CGPA ...
The pass rate in all phases of medical study as well as the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) was lower among private admission students. This difference is proportionate to the difference in grades obtained at SSCE and number of re-sits. Conclusion: The academic performance of medical students in Sudan is ...
Whitney, Stephen D; Renner, Lynette M; Herrenkohl, Todd I
Using holistic-interactionistic theory, the simultaneous nature of risk and protection factors for both males and females (age 6-11 in Wave 1) is examined using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA). Risk/protection classes are estimated using multiple risk factor variables (e.g., physical child abuse) and multiple protective factors (e.g., extracurricular activities). These risk/protection classes were used to predict low academic performance. For both males and females, high risk, low protection individuals were significantly more likely to experience low academic performance than low risk, high protection cases. Gender differences emerged in a class for females that included the importance of parental/peer disapproval of anti-social behavior as a protective factor that was not present for males. Findings support elements of the holistic-interactionistic theory for human development and suggest the need to examine risk and protective factors in combination to account for their shared influences on developmental outcomes. Implications for youths underperforming academically are discussed.
Recognizing that graduate students seldom have the opportunity to participate collaboratively, either in providing or receiving feedback to improve their academic writing skills, this study reports on the design of a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) system used to investigate how graduate students transform and construct their…
Graham, Lori; West, Courtney
Objectives To investigate if and to what extent the Learning and Study Strategy Inventory (LASSI) and the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) yield academic performance predictors; To examine if LASSI findings are consistent with previous research. Methods Medical school students completed the LASSI and SDLRS before their first and second years (n = 168). Correlational and regression analyses were used to determine the predictive value of the LASSI and the SDLRS. Paired t-tests were used to test if the two measurement points differed. Bivariate correlations and R2s were compared with five other relevant studies. Results The SDLRS was moderately correlated with all LASSI subscales in both measures (r(152) =.255, p=.001) to (r(152) =.592, p =.000). The first SDLRS, nor the first LASSI, were predictive of academic performance. The second LASSI measure was a significant predictor of academic performance (R2(138) = 0.188, p = .003). Six prior LASSI studies yielded a range of R2s from 10-49%. Conclusions The SDLRS is moderately correlated with all LASSI subscales. However, the predictive value of the SDLRS and LASSI differ. The SDLRS does not appear to be directly related to academic performance, but LASSI subscales: Concentration, Motivation, Time Management, and Test Strategies tend to be correlated. The explained LASSI variance ranges from 10% to 49%, indicating a small to substantial effect. Utilizing the LASSI to provide medical school students with information about their strengths and weaknesses and implementing targeted support in specific study strategies may yield positive academic performance outcomes. PMID:27718497
Haraszti, Réka Ágnes; Ella, Krisztina; Gyöngyösi, Norbert; Roenneberg, Till; Káldi, Krisztina
Discrepancies between sleep timing on workdays and weekends, also known as social jetlag (SJL), affect the majority of the population and have been found to be associated with increased health risk and health-impairing behaviors. In this study, we explored the relationship between SJL and academic performance in a sample of undergraduates of the Semmelweis University. We assessed SJL and other sleep-related parameters with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) (n = 753). Academic performance was measured by the average grade based on weekly test results as well as scores acquired on the final test (n = 247). The average mid-sleep point on free days in the Hungarian sample fits well the regression line plotted for longitudes within the Central European Time Zone and chronotypes, confirming that sunlight has a major impact on chronotype. Multivariate analysis showed negative effect of SJL on the weekly average grade (p = 0.028, n = 247) during the lecture term with its highly regular teaching schedules, while this association disappeared in the exam period (p = 0.871, n = 247) when students had no scheduled obligations (lower SJL). We also analyzed the relationship between the time of the weekly tests and academic performance and found that students with later sleep times on free days achieved worse in the morning (p = 0.017, n = 129), while the inverse tendency was observed for the afternoon test-takers (p = 0.10, n = 118). We did not find significant association between academic performance and sleep duration or sleep debt on work days. Our data suggest that circadian misalignment can have a significant negative effect on academic performance. One possible reason for this misalignment is socially enforced sleep times.
Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang
Using data from 19,839 adolescents from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study investigates whether the effects of parental divorce on adolescents' academic test performance vary by sibship size. Analyses show that the negative effect of divorce on adolescent performance attenuates as sibship size increases. On the other side of the interaction, the inverse relationship between sibship size and test performance is weaker in disrupted than in two-biological-parent families. Trends of such interactions are evident when sibship size is examined either as a continuous or a categorical measure. Finally, the observed interactions on adolescents' academic performance are completely explained by variations in parental financial, human, cultural, and social resources. In sum, this study underlines the importance of treating the effect of parental divorce as a variable and calls for more research to identify child and family features that may change the magnitude of such an effect.
Angela S. Anderson
Full Text Available For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan–May 2013 and Jan–May 2014 were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = −0.190 and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P < 0.001; Pearson's r = 0.357. Our findings show a correlation between healthy body weight and improved academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.
Singleton, Royce A; Wolfson, Amy R
Three independent lines of inquiry have found associations between alcohol use and academic performance, sleep and academic performance, and alcohol use and sleep. The present study bridges this research by examining the links among alcohol use, sleep, and academic performance in college students. Personal interview surveys were conducted with a random sample of 236 students (124 women) at a liberal arts college. The interviews measured alcohol consumption, gender, academic class, weekday and weekend bedtimes and rise times, and daytime sleepiness; 95% of the sample granted permission to obtain grade-point average (GPA) and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores from official college records. Ordinary least squares regressions showed that alcohol consumption was a significant predictor of four sleep patterns: the duration of sleep, the timing of sleep, the difference between weekday and weekend nighttime sleep hours (oversleep), and the difference between weekday and weekend bedtimes (bedtime delay). Women and students with late sleep schedules were more apt to report daytime sleepiness. SAT score was the strongest predictor of GPA. However, gender, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness also were significant predictors when other variables were controlled. In addition to alcohol's direct relationship with GPA, mediational analysis indicated that alcohol had indirect effects on sleepiness and GPA, primarily through its effect on sleep schedule. The findings show how alcohol use among college students is related to sleep-wake patterns and further support the connection between alcohol use and grades.
Anderson, Angela S; Good, Deborah J
For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan-May 2013 and Jan-May 2014) were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male) consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs) and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t -tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades ( P = 0.001 Pearson's r = - 0.190) and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades ( P academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.
Marín Vila, María; Carballo Crespo, José Luis; Coloma Carmona, Ainhoa
Only few studies have examined the relationship between problematic Internet use (PIU) and cognitive and academic performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in academic and cognitive performance (perception, attention, memory, verbal fluency and abstract reasoning) between adolescents with and without PIU. A total of 575 students from different high schools of the region of Alicante participated. Students were divided into two groups: adolescents with and without PIU (PIU and NPIU, respectively). Several questionnaires were administered to assess problematic Internet use, as well as students' academic performance. Substance use (alcohol / cannabis) was also assessed as exclusion criteria. A battery of neuropsychological tests was used to assess cognitive abilities. On the one hand, PIU users group obtained poorer academic results than NPIU, in terms of lower marks and more failed subjects. On the other hand, PIU group had a better hit ratio in the perception test than NPIU group. However, PIU adolescents got higher error rates for the abstract reasoning test. This greater number of errors, plus a similar number of hits compared to the NPIU group, could indicated a higher response rate for the PIU group, which may might be associated with greater impulsivity. As occurs in other addictive and non-substance-related problems studies, these results could mean difficulties in impulse control and regulation of response inhibition circuits in PIU users group. Future research is needed to analyze in depth the results presented in this paper.
Vitale, Romina; Degoy, Emilse; Berra, Silvina
During adolescence, school performance may be related to health, and academic achievements at this age can have an impact on the future. Our objective was to assess the relationship between academic performance and perceived health among adolescents, considering sociodemographic characteristics of their families. Cross-sectional pilot study conducted in a sample of adolescents attending common basic courses of three public secondary schools in the city of Córdoba (Argentina). Academic performance was calculated as the average grade in all subjects; performance was considered satisfactory if equal to or higher than 6. Perceived health was assessed using the KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire, which scores ten dimensions. In addition, age, sex, maternal education level, socioeconomic level and household composition were also recorded. Univariate and bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression models were conducted. Five hundred fifty-four adolescents participated, 52% of them were girls. Unsatisfactory academic performance (27.6%) was more common among adolescents who evidenced a worse relationship with parents (OR: 2.68, 95% CI: 1.22-5.85) and a better relationship with peers (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.26-0.82). Stratification by socioeconomic level showed differences: among those with a high socioeconomic level, an unsatisfactory performance was more common among adolescents who perceived themselves as having a low autonomy, while it was more common among those who perceived a worse school environment in the middle-low socioeconomic level. Academic performance was associated with psychosocial dimensions of health, such as relationship with family members, peers, autonomy and school environment.
Ioana Alexandra HORODNIC
Evaluation of scientific research is crucial, however, although numerous studies have been conducted in this area, it is not easy to measure academic productivity/ performance. The most important perspective in measuring the productivity/ performance comes from the economic field, where it is the ratio between outputs and inputs for a particular product. This article aims to address the most important elements to be considered in the measurement of scientific research: types of indicators, qu...
Juan Sebastián Muñoz
This paper presents evidence of the relationship between the disparity in the academic performance of boys and girls in Colombia and the country's excessively high school dropout rates. By using the OLS and trimming for bounds techniques, and based on data derived from the PISA 2009 database, the presented findings show that the vast majority of this gender-related performance gap is explained by selection problems in the group of low-skilled and poor male students. In particular, the high dr...
Alqahtani, Ragea Mohammed
A mixed methods research design was chosen for this study in order to examine the effectiveness of the Peer Buddy Program across one year on the social and academic skill acquisition of high school students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or emotional/behavioral disabilities (EBD). Specifically, this research focused on identifying the…
West, Courtney; Sadoski, Mark
Study strategies, such as time and study management techniques, seem to be consistently related to achievement even when aptitude is controlled for, but the picture is not entirely clear. As there is limited research in this area, we explored the relative strengths of academic aptitude, as measured by the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), undergraduate grade point average (UGPA) and study strategies, as measured by the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI), in predicting academic performance in 106 students in the first semester of an integrated curriculum. Our purpose was to determine whether relationships could be identified between academic aptitude, study strategies and academic performance which would enable us to provide students with feedback in certain skill areas in order to maximise achievement. Data analysis consisted of four multiple regression analyses. The criterion variables were: semester overall final average, semester written examination average, semester practical examination average, and percentage correct on a customised National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) examination. The predictor variables in each regression were: MCAT score; UGPA; and subscores on the 10 LASSI subscales for Anxiety, Attitude, Motivation, Concentration, Information Processing, Self-Testing, Selecting Main Idea, Study Aids, Time Management and Test-Taking Strategies. The results of three regressions indicated that two study skills, time management and self-testing, were generally stronger predictors of first-semester academic performance than aptitude. Improving the prioritisation and organisation of study time and teaching students to predict, compose and answer their own questions when studying may help to advance student performance regardless of student aptitude, especially on course-specific examinations. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.
Eid, Nourhan; Maltby, Josephine; Talavera, Oleksandr
This paper uses a unique dataset from Lending Club (LC), the largest online lender in the U.S, to analyze the consequences of income rounding in terms of loans performance. We find that rounding of income by a borrower may indicate a bad outcome for a loan. Borrowers with a rounding tendency are more likely to default and less likely to prepay than borrowers with more accurate income reporting. Furthermore, investors are not compensated for the extra risk associated with rounding. Borrowers w...
Tyagi, Preeti; Yadav, Shiv Prasad; Singh, S P
The process of liberalization and globalization of Indian economy has brought new opportunities and challenges in all areas of human endeavor including education. Educational institutions have to adopt new strategies to make best use of the opportunities and counter the challenges. One of these challenges is how to assess the performance of academic programs based on multiple criteria. Keeping this in view, this paper attempts to evaluate the performance efficiencies of 19 academic departments of IIT Roorkee (India) through data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique. The technique has been used to assess the performance of academic institutions in a number of countries like USA, UK, Australia, etc. But we are using it first time in Indian context to the best of our knowledge. Applying DEA models, we calculate technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies and identify the reference sets for inefficient departments. Input and output projections are also suggested for inefficient departments to reach the frontier. Overall performance, research performance and teaching performance are assessed separately using sensitivity analysis.
Charlotte Loumann Krogh
Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to explore the learning effect of engaging trainees by assessing peer performance during simulation-based training. Methods. Eighty-four final year medical students participated in the study. The intervention involved trainees assessing peer performance during training. Outcome measures were in-training performance and performance, both of which were measured two weeks after the course. Trainees’ performances were videotaped and assessed by two expert raters using a checklist that included a global rating. Trainees’ satisfaction with the training was also evaluated. Results. The intervention group obtained a significantly higher overall in-training performance score than the control group: mean checklist score 20.87 (SD 2.51 versus 19.14 (SD 2.65 P=0.003 and mean global rating 3.25 SD (0.99 versus 2.95 (SD 1.09 P=0.014. Postcourse performance did not show any significant difference between the two groups. Trainees who assessed peer performance were more satisfied with the training than those who did not: mean 6.36 (SD 1.00 versus 5.74 (SD 1.33 P=0.025. Conclusion. Engaging trainees in the assessment of peer performance had an immediate effect on in-training performance, but not on the learning outcome measured two weeks later. Trainees had a positive attitude towards the training format.
Eum, KoUn; Rice, Kenneth G
Dimensions of perfectionism and goal orientation have been reported to have differential relationships with test anxiety. However, the degree of inter-relationship between different dimensions of perfectionism, the 2 × 2 model of goal orientations proposed by Elliot and McGregor, cognitive test anxiety, and academic performance indicators is not known. Based on data from 134 university students, we conducted correlation and regression analyses to test associations between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, four types of goal orientations, cognitive test anxiety, and two indicators of academic performance: proximal cognitive performance on a word list recall test and distal academic performance in terms of grade point average. Cognitive test anxiety was inversely associated with both performance indicators, and positively associated with maladaptive perfectionism and avoidance goal orientations. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism accounted for significant variance in cognitive test anxiety after controlling for approach and avoidance goal orientations. Overall, nearly 50% of the variance in cognitive test anxiety could be attributed to gender, goal orientations, and perfectionism. Results suggested that students who are highly test anxious are likely to be women who endorse avoidance goal orientations and are maladaptively perfectionistic.
Stromberg, H.M.; DeHaan, M.S.; Gentillon, C.D.; Wilson, G.E.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N.
Accurate performance evaluation and plant trending by the performance indicator program are integral parts of monitoring the operation of commercial nuclear power plants. The presentations of the NRC/AEOD performance indicator program have undergone a number of enhancements. The diversity of the commercial nuclear plants, coupled with continued improvements in the performance indicator program, has resulted in the evaluation of plants in logical peer groups and highlighted the need to evaluate the impact of plant operational conditions on the performance indicators. These enhancements allow a more-meaningful evaluation of operating commercial nuclear power plant performance. This report proposes methods to enhance the presentation of the performance indicator data by analyzing the data in logical peer groups and displaying the performance indicator data based on the operational status of the plants. Previously, preliminary development of the operational cycle displays of the performance indicator data was documented. This report extends the earlier findings and presents the continued development of the peer groups and operational cycle trend and deviation data and displays. This report describes the peer groups and enhanced PI data presentations by considering the operational cycle phase breakdowns, calculation methods, and presentation methods
Stromberg, H.M.; DeHaan, M.S.; Gentillon, C.D.; Wilson, G.E. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Vanden Heuvel, L.N. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))
Accurate performance evaluation and plant trending by the performance indicator program are integral parts of monitoring the operation of commercial nuclear power plants. The presentations of the NRC/AEOD performance indicator program have undergone a number of enhancements. The diversity of the commercial nuclear plants, coupled with continued improvements in the performance indicator program, has resulted in the evaluation of plants in logical peer groups and highlighted the need to evaluate the impact of plant operational conditions on the performance indicators. These enhancements allow a more-meaningful evaluation of operating commercial nuclear power plant performance. This report proposes methods to enhance the presentation of the performance indicator data by analyzing the data in logical peer groups and displaying the performance indicator data based on the operational status of the plants. Previously, preliminary development of the operational cycle displays of the performance indicator data was documented. This report extends the earlier findings and presents the continued development of the peer groups and operational cycle trend and deviation data and displays. This report describes the peer groups and enhanced PI data presentations by considering the operational cycle phase breakdowns, calculation methods, and presentation methods.
Baumann, Chris; Hamin
A nation's culture, competitiveness and economic performance explain academic performance. Partial Least Squares (PLS) testing of 2252 students shows culture affects competitiveness and academic performance. Culture and economic performance each explain 32%; competitiveness 36%. The model predicts academic performance when culture, competitiveness…
Wu, Nan; Chen, Yulu; Yang, Jinhua; Li, Fei
The present study examined the role of working memory in the association between childhood obesity and academic performance, and further determined whether memory deficits in obese children are domain-specific to certain tasks or domain-general. A total of 227 primary school students aged 10-13 years were analyzed for weight and height, of which 159 children (44 "obese," 23 "overweight," and 92 "normal weight") filled out questionnaires on school performance and socioeconomic status. And then, all subjects finished three kinds of working memory tasks based on the digit memory task in 30 trials, which were image-generated with a series of numbers recall trial sets. After each trial set, subjects were given 5 s to recall and write down the numbers which hand appeared in the trial, in the inverse order in which they had appeared. The results showed there were significant academic performance differences among the three groups, with normal-weight children scoring higher than overweight and obese children after Bonferroni correction. A mediation model revealed a partial indirect effect of working memory in the relationship between obesity and academic performance. Although the performance of obese children in basic working memory tests was poorer than that of normal-weight children, they recalled more items than normal-weight children in working memory tasks involving with food/drink. Working memory deficits partially explain the poor academic performance of obese children. Those results indicated the obese children show domain-specific working memory deficits, whereas they recall more items than normal-weight children in working memory tasks associated with food/drink.
Wu, Nan; Chen, Yulu; Yang, Jinhua; Li, Fei
The present study examined the role of working memory in the association between childhood obesity and academic performance, and further determined whether memory deficits in obese children are domain-specific to certain tasks or domain-general. A total of 227 primary school students aged 10–13 years were analyzed for weight and height, of which 159 children (44 “obese,” 23 “overweight,” and 92 “normal weight”) filled out questionnaires on school performance and socioeconomic status. And then, all subjects finished three kinds of working memory tasks based on the digit memory task in 30 trials, which were image-generated with a series of numbers recall trial sets. After each trial set, subjects were given 5 s to recall and write down the numbers which hand appeared in the trial, in the inverse order in which they had appeared. The results showed there were significant academic performance differences among the three groups, with normal-weight children scoring higher than overweight and obese children after Bonferroni correction. A mediation model revealed a partial indirect effect of working memory in the relationship between obesity and academic performance. Although the performance of obese children in basic working memory tests was poorer than that of normal-weight children, they recalled more items than normal-weight children in working memory tasks involving with food/drink. Working memory deficits partially explain the poor academic performance of obese children. Those results indicated the obese children show domain-specific working memory deficits, whereas they recall more items than normal-weight children in working memory tasks associated with food/drink. PMID:28469593
Skinner, Christopher H.; And Others
Compared effects of peer-delivered (PDF) and self-delivered (SDF) immediate corrective feedback intervention on multiplication performance of six second grade students. SDF resulted in greater multiplication performance for four of six students, suggesting that SDF interventions may be more efficient and less obtrusive than PDF interventions and…
Sullivan, Lauren L; Ballen, Cissy J; Cotner, Sehoya
Women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Evidence suggests the microclimate of the classroom is an important factor influencing female course grades and interest, which encourages retention of women in STEM fields. Here, we test whether the gender composition of small (8-9 person) learning groups impacts course performance, sense of social belonging, and intragroup peer evaluations of intellectual contributions. Across two undergraduate active learning courses in introductory biology, we manipulated the classroom microclimate by varying the gender ratios of learning groups, ranging from 0% female to 100% female. We found that as the percent of women in groups increased, so did overall course performance for all students, regardless of gender. Additionally, women assigned higher peer- evaluations in groups with more women than groups with less women. Our work demonstrates an added benefit of the retention of women in STEM: increased performance for all, and positive peer perceptions for women.
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate, with a preliminarystudy, the distribution of circadian rhythms, sleepschedule patterns and their relationship withacademic performance on medical students.Methodology: in this descriptive study, a 10 itemoriginal questionnaire about sleep rhythms andacademic performance was applied to medicalstudents from different semesters. Week (classtime and weekend schedules, preferences,daytime somnolence and academic performancewere asked. Three chronotypes (morningness,intermediate and eveningness were definedamong waking-sleeping preference, difficulty tosleep early, exam preparation preference hour and real sleep schedule. The sleep hour deficit perweek night was also calculated. Results: Of the318 medical students that answered the questionnaire,62.6% corresponded to intermediatechronotypes, 8.8% to evening-type and 28.7%to morning-type. Significant difference wasfound among the two chronotype tails (p=0.000,Chi-square 31.13. No correlation was foundbetween academic performance and age, sex,chronotype, week sleep deficit and sleep hours inweek and weekends. A 71.1% of the students slept6 or fewer hours during class time and 78% hada sleep deficit (more frequent in the eveningchronotype. Conclusions: No relation was foundbetween sleep chronotype and academic performance.Students tend to morningness. Fewstudies have been made on equatorial zones orwithout seasons.
Lucieer, Susanna M; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris; Rikers, Remy M J P; Themmen, Axel P N
Medical schools aim to graduate medical doctors who are able to self-regulate their learning. It is therefore important to investigate whether medical students' self-regulated learning skills change during medical school. In addition, since these skills are expected to be helpful to learn more effectively, it is of interest to investigate whether these skills are related to academic performance. In a cross-sectional design, the Self-Regulation of Learning Self-Report Scale (SRL-SRS) was used to investigate the change in students' self-regulated learning skills. First and third-year students (N = 949, 81.7%) SRL-SRS scores were compared with ANOVA. The relation with academic performance was investigated with multinomial regression analysis. Only one of the six skills, reflection, significantly, but positively, changed during medical school. In addition, a small, but positive relation of monitoring, reflection, and effort with first-year GPA was found, while only effort was related to third-year GPA. The change in self-regulated learning skills is minor as only the level of reflection differs between the first and third year. In addition, the relation between self-regulated learning skills and academic performance is limited. Medical schools are therefore encouraged to re-examine the curriculum and methods they use to enhance their students' self-regulated learning skills. Future research is required to understand the limited impact on performance.
AbdelSalam, Maha; El Tantawi, Maha; Al-Ansari, Asim; AlAgl, Adel; Al-Harbi, Fahad
To describe peer-assisted learning (PAL) groups formed by dental undergraduate students in a biomedical course and to investigate the association of individual and group characteristics with academic performance. In 2015, 92 fourth-year students (43 males and 49 females) in the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, were invited to form PAL groups to study a unit of a biomedical course. An examination was used to assess their knowledge after 2 weeks. In addition, a questionnaire and social network analysis were used to investigate (1) individual student attributes: gender, role, subject matter knowledge, grade in previous year, teaming with friends, previous communication with teammates, and content discussion, and (2) group attributes: group teacher's previous grade, number of colleagues with whom a student connected, teaming with friends, similarity of teammates' previous grades, and teacher having higher previous grades than other teammates. Regression analysis was used to assess the association of examination scores with individual and group attributes. The response rate was 80.4% (74 students: 36 males and 38 females). Students who previously scored grades A and B had higher examination scores than students with grades C/less (regression coefficient = 18.50 and 13.39) within the groups. Higher scores were not associated with working in groups including friends only (regression coefficient = 1.17) or when all students had similar previous grades (regression coefficient = 0.85). Students with previous high grades benefited to a greater extent from working in PAL groups. Similarity of teammates in PAL groups was not associated with better scores. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Syväoja, Heidi J; Kantomaa, Marko T; Ahonen, Timo; Hakonen, Harto; Kankaanpää, Anna; Tammelin, Tuija H
This study aimed to determine the relationships between objectively measured and self-reported physical activity, sedentary behavior, and academic performance in Finnish children. Two hundred and seventy-seven children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (58% of the 475 eligible students, mean age = 12.2 yr, 56% girls) participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Self-reported physical activity and screen time were evaluated with questions used in the WHO Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study. Children's physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively by using an ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer for seven consecutive days. A cutoff value of 2296 counts per minute was used for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and 100 counts per minute for sedentary time. Grade point averages were provided by the education services of the city of Jyväskylä. ANOVA and linear regression analysis were used to analyze the relationships among physical activity, sedentary behavior, and academic performance. Objectively measured MVPA (P = 0.955) and sedentary time (P = 0.285) were not associated with grade point average. However, self-reported MVPA had an inverse U-shaped curvilinear association with grade point average (P = 0.001), and screen time had a linear negative association with grade point average (P = 0.002), after adjusting for sex, children's learning difficulties, highest level of parental education, and amount of sleep. In this study, self-reported physical activity was directly, and screen time inversely, associated with academic achievement. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time were not associated with academic achievement. Objective and subjective measures may reflect different constructs and contexts of physical activity and sedentary behavior in association with academic outcomes.
Haemmerlie, Frances Montgomery; Montgomery, Robert L.
This study examined the role of academic performance factors, and personality traits as measured by the "Hogan Personality Inventory" (Hogan & Hogan, 2007), in the academic success and retention of undergraduate engineering majors. With regard to academic performance, the academic measures of ACT score and high school GPA were…
Casey, M M; McVitie, S
At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.
Casey, M M; McVitie, S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.
Casey, M. M.; McVitie, S.
At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.
Marques,Marcia Mattos; Ganança,Mauricio Malavasi; Marques,Carolina Mattos; Ganança,Fernando Freitas; Caovilla,Heloisa Helena
OBJECTIVE: To compare the academic performance of university students with or without neurotological symptoms. METHOD: 100 students enrolled in the Biomedical Sciences Graduate School - Medical Modality of UNIFESP-EPM in 2007 and answered a neurotological screening questionnaire. RESULTS: The symptoms presented once, sometimes, many times or always, in a decreasing order of prevalence, were headache (74.0%), difficulty with concentration (57.0%), lack of memory (45.0%), physical indisposition...
Syam, Aminuddin; Palutturi, Sukri; Djafar, Nurhaedar; Astuti, Nurpudji; Razak Thaha, Abdul
Teenage group include groups who are vulnerable to nutritional problems. at this age group, experienced a rapid growth and development so that the nutritional requirements are also increasing rapidly. Hormonal changes, cognitive, and emotional make adolescent period has become one of the phases that are prone to health problems. The purpose of this paper was to examine the influence of particular micronutrient content of Fe-folate and zinc on the academic performance and the concentration of ...
Zhou, Yuanyuan; Graham, Lori; West, Courtney
Objectives To investigate if and to what extent the Learning and Study Strategy Inventory (LASSI) and the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) yield academic performance predictors; To examine if LASSI findings are consistent with previous research. Methods Medical school students completed the LASSI and SDLRS before their first and second years (n = 168). Correlational and regression analyses were used to determine the predictive value of the LASSI and the SDLRS. Paired t-tests wer...
Khaled A. Alswat; Abdullah D. Al-Shehri; Tariq A. Aljuaid; Bassam A. Alzaidi; Hassan D. Alasmari
Objectives: To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the academic performance of students from Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using the grade point average (GPA). Method: A cross-sectional study that includes students from intermediate and high schools located in Taif city, KSA between April 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Related risk factors including dietary habits, activity, parent’s education, sleeping pattern, and sm...
Alswat, Khaled A.; Al-shehri, Abdullah D.; Aljuaid, Tariq A.; Alzaidi, Bassam A.; Alasmari, Hassan D.
Objectives: To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the academic performance of students from Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using the grade point average (GPA). Method: A cross-sectional study that includes students from intermediate and high schools located in Taif city, KSA between April 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Related risk factors including dietary habits, activity, parent?s education, sleeping pattern, and smokin...
Wang, Kurt; Sabia, Joseph J.; Cesur, Resul
Policymakers advocating for later school starting times argue that increased sleep duration may generate important schooling benefits. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines the relationship between sleep duration and academic performance, while carefully controlling for difficult-to-measure characteristics at the family- and individual-levels. We find that increased sleep time is associated with improvements in classroom concentration as wel...
Ameer Kadhim Al-Humairi
Background:Sleep plays a very important role in a human health. Poor sleep quality remains as a frequent feature of student life. Quantity and quality of sleep in addition to average sleep time are strongly linked with students’ learning abilities and academic performance. Subjects and method:The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted to assess sleep quality among medical college students – University of Babylon using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). This study was...
Ameer Kadhim Al-Humairi
Full Text Available Background:Sleep plays a very important role in a human health. Poor sleep quality remains as a frequent feature of student life. Quantity and quality of sleep in addition to average sleep time are strongly linked with students’ learning abilities and academic performance. Subjects and method:The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted to assess sleep quality among medical college students – University of Babylon using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. This study was done during April 2016. Results:Mean age of students was (20.63 ± 0.65. Majority was female. According to PSQI(60.4% of students were poor sleeper. Significant association between quality of sleep and academic performance was found in our study, (72.9% of those fail in one or more subjects have poor sleep quality. Conclusion: Poor sleep quality was regarded as an important problem among medical college students. Majority of students (60.4% was poor sleepers. Our study shows significant relation between sleep quality and academic performance among students of Babylon University –College of Medicine.
Fernández-Alonso, Rubén; Álvarez-Díaz, Marcos; Woitschach, Pamela; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Cuesta, Marcelino
Parental involvement in the educational process is desirable, although more involvement does not guarantee better results. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between styles of parental involvement at home and academic performance. A random sample of 26,543 Spanish students was used, with a mean age of 14.4 (SD = 0.75). Two thirds (66.2%) attended a publicly funded school; 49.7% were girls; 87.8% had Spanish nationality; and 73.5% were in the school year corresponding to their age. Different three-level hierarchical-linear models were fitted: student, school, and region (autonomous community). Students whose parents exhibited a more distal or indirect profile of family involvement tended to demonstrate better results than those from homes with a more controlling style. Parental involvement styles have an effect on achievement at an individual and school level, even after accounting for the effect of context or background variables. Given the importance of parental involvement in academic performance, schools should consider it in their family information and training policies. Schools which have more communicative family profiles tend to demonstrate lower levels of intra-school differences in students’ academic performance.
Camiel, Lana Dvorkin; Kostka-Rokosz, Maria; Tataronis, Gary; Goldman, Jennifer
Objective. To compare student performance, elements of peer evaluation and satisfaction of teams created according to students' course entrance grade point average (GPA). Methods. Two course sections were divided into teams of four to five students utilizing Comprehensive Assessment of Team Member Effectiveness (CATME) software. Results. Of 336 students enrolled, 324 consented to participation. Weekly team quiz averages were 99.1% (higher GPA), 97.2% (lower GPA), 97.7% (mixed GPA). Weekly individual quiz averages were 87.2% (higher GPA), 83.3% (lower GPA), 85.2% (mixed GPA). Students with same GPA performed similarly individually independent of team assignment. Satisfaction ranged from 4.52 (higher GPA), 4.73 (lower GPA), 4.53 (mixed GPA). Conclusion. Academically stronger students in mixed GPA teams appeared to be at a slight disadvantage compared to similar students in higher GPA teams. There was no difference in team performance for academically weaker students in lower GPA versus mixed GPA teams. Team satisfaction was higher in lower GPA teams.