WorldWideScience

Sample records for academic hospital perspective

  1. Academic Hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  2. Challenges of using Hospital Information Systems by nurses: comparing academic and non-academic hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Leila; Dorosti, Nafise; Khajouei, Reza; Gohari, Sadrieh Hajesmaeel

    2017-06-01

    Hospital Information Systems (HIS) are used for easy access to information, improvement of documentation and reducing errors. Nonetheless, using these systems is faced with some barriers and obstacles. This study identifies the challenges and the obstacles of using these systems in the academic and non-academic hospitals in Kerman. This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in 2015. The statistical population in this study consisted of the nurses who had been working in the academic and non-academic hospitals in Kerman. A questionnaire consisting of two sections was used. The first section consisted of the demographic information of the participants and the second section comprised 34 questions about the challenges of HIS use. Data were analyzed by the descriptive and statistical analysis (t-test, and ANOVA) using SPSS 19 software. The most common and important challenges in the academic hospitals were about human environment factors, particularly "negative attitude of society toward using HIS". In the non-academic hospitals, the most common and important challenges were related to human factors, and among them, "no incentive to use system" was the main factor. The results of the t-test method revealed that there was a significant relationship between gender and the mean score of challenges related to the organizational environment category in the academic hospitals and between familiarity with HIS and mean score of human environment factors (pinformation systems are the factors related to the human environment and the human factors. The results of this study can bring a good perspective to the policy makers and the managers regarding obstacles of using HISs from the nurses' perspective, so that they can solve their problems and can successfully implement these systems.

  3. Integrative Perspectives of Academic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittum, Jessica Rebecca

    My overall objective in this dissertation was to develop more integrative perspectives of several aspects of academic motivation. Rarely have researchers and theorists examined a more comprehensive model of academic motivation that pools multiple constructs that interact in a complex and dynamic fashion (Kaplan, Katz, & Flum, 2012; Turner, Christensen, Kackar-Cam, Trucano, & Fulmer, 2014). The more common trend in motivation research and theory has been to identify and explain only a few motivation constructs and their linear relationships rather than examine complex relationships involving "continuously emerging systems of dynamically interrelated components" (Kaplan et al., 2014, para. 4). In this dissertation, my co-author and I focused on a more integrative perspective of academic motivation by first reviewing varying characterizations of one motivation construct (Manuscript 1) and then empirically testing dynamic interactions among multiple motivation constructs using a person-centered methodological approach (Manuscript 2). Within the first manuscript (Chapter 2), a theoretical review paper, we summarized multiple perspectives of the need for autonomy and similar constructs in academic motivation, primarily autonomy in self-determination theory, autonomy supports, and choice. We provided an integrative review and extrapolated practical teaching implications. We concluded with recommendations for researchers and instructors, including a call for more integrated perspectives of academic motivation and autonomy that focus on complex and dynamic patterns in individuals' motivational beliefs. Within the second manuscript (Chapter 3), we empirically investigated students' motivation in science class as a complex, dynamic, and context-bound phenomenon that incorporates multiple motivation constructs. Following a person-centered approach, we completed cluster analyses of students' perceptions of 5 well-known motivation constructs (autonomy, utility value, expectancy

  4. Roles and methods of performance evaluation of hospital academic leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Yuan, Huikang; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xia; Yi, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly advancing implementation of public hospital reform urgently requires the identification and classification of a pool of exceptional medical specialists, corresponding with incentives to attract and retain them, providing a nucleus of distinguished expertise to ensure public hospital preeminence. This paper examines the significance of academic leadership, from a strategic management perspective, including various tools, methods and mechanisms used in the theory and practice of performance evaluation, and employed in the selection, training and appointment of academic leaders. Objective methods of assessing leadership performance are also provided for reference.

  5. Academic underachievement: A neurodevelopmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shapiro Bruce, MD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic underachievement is a common presenting symptom and has many different causes. The disorders that describe academic underachievement are based on the child’s function in cognitive, academic, or behavioral domains. The disorders that are associated with academic underachievement are final common pathways that have different etiologies and mechanisms. Multiple disorders are the rule because brain dysfunction in childhood usually affects multiple functions. Consequently, management programs must be individualized, comprehensive and address issues related to the child, school, and family. Treatment plans include parent training, academic accommodations, techniques to maintain self-esteem, and psychopharmacologic approaches. Ongoing monitoring of the management programs is necessary to detect important comorbidities that may emerge, to modify the program to meet the changing academic and social demands that occur as the child ages, and to provide current information. The outcome for children with academic underachievement is most dependent on the underlying disorder. Health providers have multiple roles to play in the prevention, detection, diagnosis and management of children with academic underachievement.

  6. Academic Freedom: A Lawyer's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Academic freedom is central to ideas of higher education, yet in the United Kingdom it is facing challenges from changing managerial approaches within some universities and changing governmental expectations. Universities are increasingly expected to focus upon knowledge which can be shown to have value and to exploit the results of academic…

  7. Academic knowing in/through double perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Melin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the cultures and learning practices of four academic schools with an expressed wish to bridge the gap between traditional academic and arts or journalistic practices. Pierre Bourdieu, the French sociologist, termed them allodoxic, in that they challenge the traditional academic way of thinking and doing. Results from two research projects, spanning over 5 years, employing a multitude of methods, have been used in this article. The results show that these challenging bridging attempts create conflictual cultures. First, faculties with different backgrounds are employed and they bring with them their respective habitus and doxa (Bourdieu, which is manifested in their different epistemologies, doxas. Despite a strong will to work interdisciplinarily, conflicts (destructive arise particularly around epistemological and pedagogic issues. Second, I show that students at these schools have had double-perspective learning, through theoretical and practice-based methods, despite little help from their lecturers who have high ideals but little actual knowledge themselves of working in/through a double perspective. In many cases, through trial-and-error processes, students have appropriated embodied knowledge of a double perspective, which has given them surplus value when compared with learning through only traditional academic learning practices. It gives reflexive insights and understandings as well as transferrable skills highly useful in professional life. I finally argue that allodoxic conflictual cultures actually construct new ways of knowing through continuous discussions and meetings between faculties with different competences.

  8. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…

  9. Cultural Diversity in the Curriculum: Perceptions and Attitudes of Irish Hospitality and Tourism Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Frances; Hearns, Niamh; Baum, Tom; Murray, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Academics are facing significant challenges in preparing indigenous students for employment in the multicultural working environment of hospitality and tourism organisations. In dealing with the impact of the new skills and flexibilities demanded by increasing globalisation, the indigenous workforce needs to possess a multicultural perspective and…

  10. Academic Entrepreneurship and Institutional Change in Historical Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadhwani, R. Daniel; Galvez-Behar, Gabriel; Mercelis, Joris

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective on academic entrepreneurship and its role in institutional change, and serves as an introduction to a special issue devoted to the subject. Unlike approaches that define academic entrepreneurship narrowly as the commercialization of academic research...

  11. Internationalization in German Academic Libraries: Moving beyond North American Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Karen; Rauchmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how internationalization is understood and experienced in German academic libraries. Its main purpose is to move the discussion of internationalization in academic libraries beyond the boundaries of English-speaking North America by investigating a European perspective. Its secondary purpose is to investigate the role of…

  12. The academic environment: the students' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, K; Barlow, P J; Chendea, S A; Cheong, W S; Dounis, A; Dragan, I F; Hamlin, J; Hosseinzadeh, L; Kuin, D; Mitrirattanakul, S; Mo'nes, M; Molnar, N; Perryer, G; Pickup, J; Raval, N; Shanahan, D; Songpaisan, Y; Taneva, E; Yaghoub-Zadeh, S; West, K; Vrazic, D

    2008-02-01

    Dental education is regarded as a complex, demanding and often stressful pedagogical procedure. Undergraduates, while enrolled in programmes of 4-6 years duration, are required to attain a unique and diverse collection of competences. Despite the major differences in educational systems, philosophies, methods and resources available worldwide, dental students' views regarding their education appear to be relatively convergent. This paper summarizes dental students' standpoint of their studies, showcases their experiences in different educational settings and discusses the characteristics of a positive academic environment. It is a consensus opinion that the 'students' perspective' should be taken into consideration in all discussions and decisions regarding dental education. Moreover, it is suggested that the set of recommendations proposed can improve students' quality of life and well-being, enhance their total educational experience and positively influence their future careers as oral health physicians. The 'ideal' academic environment may be defined as one that best prepares students for their future professional life and contributes towards their personal development, psychosomatic and social well-being. A number of diverse factors significantly influence the way students perceive and experience their education. These range from 'class size', 'leisure time' and 'assessment procedures' to 'relations with peers and faculty', 'ethical climate' and 'extra-curricular opportunities'. Research has revealed that stress symptoms, including psychological and psychosomatic manifestations, are prevalent among dental students. Apparently some stressors are inherent in dental studies. Nevertheless, suggested strategies and preventive interventions can reduce or eliminate many sources of stress and appropriate support services should be readily available. A key point for the Working Group has been the discrimination between 'teaching' and 'learning'. It is suggested that

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Academic hospital accreditation strengthens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case study originated from the combined experiences of the accreditation process of a ... (iv) the benefits of hospital accreditation and quality management. The study ... Tertiary healthcare is in a crisis after nearly 3 decades of neglect,2,3.

  14. Hospital network performance: a survey of hospital stakeholders' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, F; Gibertoni, D; Marcon, A; Sicotte, C; Minvielle, E; Rucci, P; Angelastro, A; Carradori, T; Fantini, M P

    2013-02-01

    Hospital networks are an emerging organizational form designed to face the new challenges of public health systems. Although the benefits introduced by network models in terms of rationalization of resources are known, evidence about stakeholders' perspectives on hospital network performance from the literature is scanty. Using the Competing Values Framework of organizational effectiveness and its subsequent adaptation by Minvielle et al., we conducted in 2009 a survey in five hospitals of an Italian network for oncological care to examine and compare the views on hospital network performance of internal stakeholders (physicians, nurses and the administrative staff). 329 questionnaires exploring stakeholders' perspectives were completed, with a response rate of 65.8%. Using exploratory factor analysis of the 66 items of the questionnaire, we identified 4 factors, i.e. Centrality of relationships, Quality of care, Attractiveness/Reputation and Staff empowerment and Protection of workers' rights. 42 items were retained in the analysis. Factor scores proved to be high (mean score>8 on a 10-item scale), except for Attractiveness/Reputation (mean score 6.79), indicating that stakeholders attach a higher importance to relational and health care aspects. Comparison of factor scores among stakeholders did not reveal significant differences, suggesting a broadly shared view on hospital network performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rural versus urban academic hospital mortality following stroke in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Richard; Bussières, Sylvain; Tounkara, Fatoumata Korika; Turcotte, Stéphane; Légaré, France; Plant, Jeff; Poitras, Julien; Archambault, Patrick M; Dupuis, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in Canada. While stroke care has improved dramatically over the last decade, outcomes following stroke among patients treated in rural hospitals have not yet been reported in Canada. To describe variation in 30-day post-stroke in-hospital mortality rates between rural and urban academic hospitals in Canada. We also examined 24/7 in-hospital access to CT scanners and selected services in rural hospitals. We included Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) data on adjusted 30-day in-hospital mortality following stroke from 2007 to 2011 for all acute care hospitals in Canada excluding Quebec and the Territories. We categorized rural hospitals as those located in rural small towns providing 24/7 emergency physician coverage with inpatient beds. Urban hospitals were academic centres designated as Level 1 or 2 trauma centres. We computed descriptive data on local access to a CT scanner and other services and compared mean 30-day adjusted post-stroke mortality rates for rural and urban hospitals to the overall Canadian rate. A total of 286 rural hospitals (3.4 million emergency department (ED) visits/year) and 24 urban hospitals (1.5 million ED visits/year) met inclusion criteria. From 2007 to 2011, 30-day in-hospital mortality rates following stroke were significantly higher in rural than in urban hospitals and higher than the Canadian average for every year except 2008 (rural average range = 18.26 to 21.04 and urban average range = 14.11 to 16.78). Only 11% of rural hospitals had a CT-scanner, 1% had MRI, 21% had in-hospital ICU, 94% had laboratory and 92% had basic x-ray facilities. Rural hospitals in Canada had higher 30-day in-hospital mortality rates following stroke than urban academic hospitals and the Canadian average. Rural hospitals also have very limited local access to CT scanners and ICUs. These rural/urban discrepancies are cause for concern in the context of Canada's universal health care system.

  16. Managing "Academic Value": The 360-Degree Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret R.; Corr, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of all universities is to create and deliver "academic value", which we define as the sum total of the contributions from the 360-degree "angles" of the academic community, including all categories of staff, as well as external stakeholders (e.g. regulatory, commercial, professional and community…

  17. Academic Integrity: Information Systems Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHaney, Roger; Cronan, Timothy Paul; Douglas, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Academic integrity receives a great deal of attention in institutions of higher education. Universities and colleges provide specific honor codes or have administrative units to promote good behaviors and resolve dishonesty allegations. Students, faculty, and staff have stakes in maintaining high levels of academic integrity to ensure their…

  18. Cybersecurity in Hospitals: A Systematic, Organizational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mohammad S; Kaiser, Jessica P

    2018-05-28

    Cybersecurity incidents are a growing threat to the health care industry in general and hospitals in particular. The health care industry has lagged behind other industries in protecting its main stakeholder (ie, patients), and now hospitals must invest considerable capital and effort in protecting their systems. However, this is easier said than done because hospitals are extraordinarily technology-saturated, complex organizations with high end point complexity, internal politics, and regulatory pressures. The purpose of this study was to develop a systematic and organizational perspective for studying (1) the dynamics of cybersecurity capability development at hospitals and (2) how these internal organizational dynamics interact to form a system of hospital cybersecurity in the United States. We conducted interviews with hospital chief information officers, chief information security officers, and health care cybersecurity experts; analyzed the interview data; and developed a system dynamics model that unravels the mechanisms by which hospitals build cybersecurity capabilities. We then use simulation analysis to examine how changes to variables within the model affect the likelihood of cyberattacks across both individual hospitals and a system of hospitals. We discuss several key mechanisms that hospitals use to reduce the likelihood of cybercriminal activity. The variable that most influences the risk of cyberattack in a hospital is end point complexity, followed by internal stakeholder alignment. Although resource availability is important in fueling efforts to close cybersecurity capability gaps, low levels of resources could be compensated for by setting a high target level of cybersecurity. To enhance cybersecurity capabilities at hospitals, the main focus of chief information officers and chief information security officers should be on reducing end point complexity and improving internal stakeholder alignment. These strategies can solve cybersecurity

  19. The spectrum of orthopaedics at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Pillay, J; Ramokgopa, MT

    2013-01-01

    Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (CHBAH) is the third largest hospital in the world and is the largest in the Southern hemisphere, serving a population of more than 3.5 million people.¹ The purpose of this review is to identify the orthopaedic-related health events that occur within the population being serviced by the hospital, and in doing so provide a tool to be used for improving orthopaedic-related patient care and outcomes in public health services.² We also took special interes...

  20. Challenges and perspectives of academic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Inacio P M Bastos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Academic evaluation has been an essential component of modern science since its inception, as science has moved away from personalized patronage toward its contemporary role as an essential enterprise of contemporary, democratic societies. In recent years, Brazil has experienced sustained growth in its scientific output, which is nowadays fully compatible with its status as a high middle-income country striving to become a fully developed, more equitable country in the years to come. Growth usually takes place amidst challenges and dilemmas and, in Brazil as elsewhere, academic evaluation is not exempt from such difficulties. In a large, profoundly heterogeneous country with a national evaluation system and nationwide on-line platforms disseminating information on the most disparate fields of knowledge, the main challenges refer to how to pay attention to detail without losing sight of comprehensiveness and how to handle social and regional diversity while preserving academic excellence as the fundamental benchmark.

  1. Academic Corrective Action from a Legal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collura, Frank J.

    1997-01-01

    In cases of cheating, plagiarism, or violations of the law in dental education, a very high level of due process is required. University counsel can help administrators determine whether an accused student is professionally suited to dentistry by characterizing as many corrective actions as possible as academic under the rubric of "suitability to…

  2. Learned Ethical Behavior: An Academic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, David E.; Capozzoli, Ernest A.; Rajamma, Rajasree K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyzed the reactions of various academic-level respondent groups to 14 short scenarios reflecting ethical dilemmas in higher education and research. As the authors hypothesized, groups differed in their views of the dilemmas presented. The results did not support a 2nd hypothesis predicting a linear relationship between academic…

  3. Academic Procrastination: The Perspective of University Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrzek, Justine; Grunschel, Carola; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antecedents and consequences of academic procrastination in students who frequent university counselling in regard to this issue. To undertake this, semi-structured interviews with 12 experienced university counsellors in German universities were conducted. A qualitative content analysis resulted in…

  4. Academic Perspectives on the Outcomes of Outward Student Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Kath

    2015-01-01

    This research project was commissioned by the UK Higher Education International Unit (IU) and the Higher Education Academy (HEA) in June 2014 to explore academic perspectives on the outcomes of outward mobility at undergraduate, postgraduate and research levels for UK domiciled students, and to consider how best to facilitate the take up as well…

  5. Mozambican Adolescents' Perspectives on the Academic Procrastination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulano, Celso; Cunha, Jennifer; Núñez, José Carlos; Pereira, Beatriz; Rosário, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    The current study explored Mozambican adolescents' perspectives of the process of academic procrastination, focusing on three key aspects: Type of tasks where youth usually procrastinate, antecedents, and the perceived consequences. Twenty-four adolescents from a pool of 300 (11th and 12th graders) reported high levels of procrastination and were…

  6. Medical apps: public and academic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Medical apps have featured in popular websites and mainstream news media in recent months. However, there has been almost no mention of these tools in journals focusing on relevant ethical or social issues, including conflict of interest, the role of politics in science, and technological oversight. This essay examines the role that these philosophical issues might play in answering both public and academic questions about these pieces of emergent technology.

  7. Physicians' job satisfaction and motivation in a public academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Vasconcelos Filho, Paulo; de Souza, Miriam Regina; Elias, Paulo Eduardo Mangeon; D'Ávila Viana, Ana Luiza

    2016-12-07

    Physician shortage is a global issue that concerns Brazil's authorities. The organizational structure and the environment of a medical institution can hide a low-quality life of a physician. This study examines the relationship between the hospital work environment and physicians' job satisfaction and motivation when working in a large public academic hospital. The study was restricted to one large, multispecialty Brazil's hospital. Six hundred hospital physicians were invited to participate by e-mail. A short version of the Physician Worklife Survey (PWS) was used to measure working satisfaction. Physicians were also asked for socio-demographic information, medical specialty, and the intention to continue working in the hospital. Data from 141 questionnaires were included in the analyses. Forty-five physicians graduated from the hospital's university, and they did not intend to leave the hospital under any circumstance (affective bond). The motivating factor for beginning the career at the hospital and to continue working there were the connection to the medical school and the hospital status as a "prestigious academic hospital"; the physicians were more satisfied with the career than the specialty. Only 30% completely agreed with the statement "If I had to start my career over again, I would choose my current specialty," while 45% completely agreed with the statement "I am not well compensated given my training and experience." The greater point of satisfaction was the relationship with physician colleagues. They are annoyed about the amount of calls they are requested to take and about how work encroaches on their personal time. No significant differences between medical specialties were found in the analysis. The participants were satisfied with their profession. The fact that they remained at the hospital was related to the academic environment, the relationship with colleagues, and the high prestige in which society holds the institution. The points of

  8. Nursing leadership in an academic hospital in Gauteng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboko, D R

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed at describing nursing leadership in an academic hospital in Gauteng, South Africa. Nurse managers' leadership styles affect nurses' attitudes, behaviour and work performance. However, little is known about how nurses experience nurse leadership and what leadership styles are found in academic hospitals in Gauteng. The study was based on Maxwell's framework of leadership (relationships, equipping, leadership and attitude). A qualitative design was used in order to describe the experiences of registered nurses and nurse managers. The population of the study was all registered nurses and nurse managers of the hospital in which the study was conducted. In phase one of the study, a discussion group with 35 registered nurses using the nominal group technique was held to respond to the following statement: 'Please explain how you have experienced leadership by nurse managers in this hospital'. In phase two of the study, five nurse managers were interviewed individually, using a semi-structured interview guide. Some nurse managers were practising autocratic leadership in this hospital. he nurse managers need to be taught about contemporary leadership styles such as transformational leadership and visionary leadership and also about supervision, role modelling and caring. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Universal isolation precautions for patients at an academic hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Maziero,Vanessa Gomes; Vannuchi,Marli Terezinha Oliveira; Vituri,Dagmar Willamourius; Haddad,Maria do Carmo Lourenço; Tada,Cristiane Nakaya

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To apply universal isolation precautions for patients at an academic hospital by a nursing team. METHODS: This descriptive and prospective study used data from advice service of quality control and nursing care that were gathered in observational reports of universal isolation precautions for patients admitted in two surgical inpatient units during 2008 and 2010. RESULTS: The mean general classification for both units was between desirable and adequate in the observational analysis...

  10. Drug Repurposing from an Academic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; Bauman, Julie E; Bologa, Cristian G; Buranda, Tione; Chigaev, Alexandre; Edwards, Bruce S; Jarvik, Jonathan W; Gresham, Hattie D; Haynes, Mark K; Hjelle, Brian; Hromas, Robert; Hudson, Laurie; Mackenzie, Debra A; Muller, Carolyn Y; Reed, John C; Simons, Peter C; Smagley, Yelena; Strouse, Juan; Surviladze, Zurab; Thompson, Todd; Ursu, Oleg; Waller, Anna; Wandinger-Ness, Angela; Winter, Stuart S; Wu, Yang; Young, Susan M; Larson, Richard S; Willman, Cheryl; Sklar, Larry A

    2011-01-01

    Academia and small business research units are poised to play an increasing role in drug discovery, with drug repurposing as one of the major areas of activity. Here we summarize project status for a number of drugs or classes of drugs: raltegravir, cyclobenzaprine, benzbromarone, mometasone furoate, astemizole, R-naproxen, ketorolac, tolfenamic acid, phenothiazines, methylergonovine maleate and beta-adrenergic receptor drugs, respectively. Based on this multi-year, multi-project experience we discuss strengths and weaknesses of academic-based drug repurposing research. Translational, target and disease foci are strategic advantages fostered by close proximity and frequent interactions between basic and clinical scientists, which often result in discovering new modes of action for approved drugs. On the other hand, lack of integration with pharmaceutical sciences and toxicology, lack of appropriate intellectual coverage and issues related to dosing and safety may lead to significant drawbacks. The development of a more streamlined regulatory process world-wide, and the development of pre-competitive knowledge transfer systems such as a global healthcare database focused on regulatory and scientific information for drugs world-wide, are among the ideas proposed to improve the process of academic drug discovery and repurposing, and to overcome the "valley of death" by bridging basic to clinical sciences.

  11. Communication skills in healthcare: academic, clinician and patient perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    CHARLOTTE ABYNA INDERMAUR DENNISTON

    2018-01-01

    This PhD explores healthcare communication skills from the perspectives of academics, clinicians and patients. We know that communication is key to effective healthcare and this research has revealed new approaches for teaching and learning these skills. Findings indicate that we need to consider multiple stakeholders in the design of communication education, we need to develop healthcare professionals’ skills at assessing their own communication and asking for feedback, and workplace teachin...

  12. Residents' Perspectives on Careers in Academic Medicine: Obstacles and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Steven; Nguyen, Cathina; Walters, Emily; Gordon, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Worsening faculty shortages in medical schools and residency programs are threatening the US medical education infrastructure. Little is known about the factors that influence the decision of family medicine residents to choose or not choose academic careers. Our study objective was to answer the following question among family medicine residents: "What is your greatest concern or fear about pursuing a career in academic family medicine?" Participants were family medicine residents who attended the Faculty for Tomorrow Workshop at the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine Annual Spring Conference in 2016 and 2017. Free responses to the aforementioned prompt were analyzed using a constant comparative method and grounded theory approach. A total of 156 participants registered for the workshops and 95 (61%) answered the free response question. Eight distinct themes emerged from the analysis. The most frequently recurring theme was "lack of readiness or mentorship," which accounted for nearly one-third (31%) of the codes. Other themes included work-life balance and burnout (17%), job availability and logistics (15%), lack of autonomy or flexibility (11%), competing pressures/roles (10%), lower financial rewards (4%), politics and bureaucracy (4%), and research (3%). To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify barriers and disincentives to pursuing a career in academic medicine from the perspective of family medicine residents. There may be at least eight major obstacles, for which we summarize and consider potential interventions. More research is needed to understand why residents choose, or don't choose, academic careers.

  13. NEEDLE KNIFE SPHINCTEROTOMY - THE CHRIS HANI BARAGWANATH ACADEMIC HOSPITAL EXPERIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J T; Smith, M D; Omoshoro-Jones, J A O; Devar, J D; Khan, Z K; Jugmohan, B J

    2017-06-01

    Deep biliary cannulation is essential in performing a therapeutic ERCP. Cannulation can be enhanced through the utilization of a pre-cut by means of a needle knife sphincterotomy. Retrospective analysis of the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital's ERCP database was performed. All ERCPs performed with the aid of a needle knife were identified and analysed for successful and unsuccessful deep biliary cannulation. 2830 ERCPs were performed during the study period. 369 (13%) required needle knife sphincterotomies and successful deep biliary cannulation was achieved in 229 (62%) of these patients. Repeat ERCPs were performed on 125 (34%) patients. 61 (49%) of the repeat ERCPs were performed because of previously failed cannulation. 34 (56%) of these repeat ERCPs resulted in successful deep biliary cannulation at re-attempt. 99% of successful cannulations at repeat ERCP had had a needle knife sphincterotomy at the first ERCP. Needle knife sphincterotomy improves deep biliary cannulation at initial ERCP and subsequent ERCPs with low incidences of complications.

  14. Status of Early-Career Academic Cardiology: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Carl W; Madhur, Meena S; Rzeszut, Anne K; Abdalla, Marwah; Abudayyeh, Islam; Alexanderson, Erick; Buber, Jonathan; Feldman, Dmitriy N; Gopinathannair, Rakesh; Hira, Ravi S; Kates, Andrew M; Kessler, Thorsten; Leung, Steve; Raj, Satish R; Spatz, Erica S; Turner, Melanie B; Valente, Anne Marie; West, Kristin; Sivaram, Chittur A; Hill, Joseph A; Mann, Douglas L; Freeman, Andrew M

    2017-10-31

    Early-career academic cardiologists, who many believe are an important component of the future of cardiovascular care, face myriad challenges. The Early Career Section Academic Working Group of the American College of Cardiology, with senior leadership support, assessed the progress of this cohort from 2013 to 2016 with a global perspective. Data consisted of accessing National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute public information, data from the American Heart Association and international organizations, and a membership-wide survey. Although the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute increased funding of career development grants, only a small number of early-career American College of Cardiology members have benefited as funding of the entire cohort has decreased. Personal motivation, institutional support, and collaborators continued to be positive influential factors. Surprisingly, mentoring ceased to correlate positively with obtaining external grants. The totality of findings suggests that the status of early-career academic cardiologists remains challenging; therefore, the authors recommend a set of attainable solutions. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. What Is Career Success for Academic Hospitalists? A Qualitative Analysis of Early-Career Faculty Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumbler, Ethan; Yirdaw, Essey; Kneeland, Patrick; Pierce, Read; Rendon, Patrick; Herzke, Carrie; Jones, Christine D

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the concept of career success is critical for hospital medicine groups seeking to create sustainably rewarding faculty positions. Conceptual models of career success describe both extrinsic (compensation and advancement) and intrinsic (career satisfaction and job satisfaction) domains. How hospitalists define career success for themselves is not well understood. In this study, we qualitatively explore perspectives on how early-career clinician-educators define career success. We developed a semistructured interview tool of open-ended questions validated by using cognitive interviewing. Transcribed interviews were conducted with 17 early-career academic hospitalists from 3 medical centers to thematic saturation. A mixed deductiveinductive, qualitative, analytic approach was used to code and map themes to the theoretical framework. The single most dominant theme participants described was "excitement about daily work," which mapped to the job satisfaction organizing theme. Participants frequently expressed the importance of "being respected and recognized" and "dissemination of work," which were within the career satisfaction organizing theme. The extrinsic organizing themes of advancement and compensation were described as less important contributors to an individual's sense of career success. Ambivalence toward the "academic value of clinical work," "scholarship," and especially "promotion" represented unexpected themes. The future of academic hospital medicine is predicated upon faculty finding career success. Clinician-educator hospitalists view some traditional markers of career advancement as relevant to success. However, early-career faculty question the importance of some traditional external markers to their personal definitions of success. This work suggests that the selfconcept of career success is complex and may not be captured by traditional academic metrics and milestones. © 2018 Society of Hospital Medicine

  16. Improving Exclusive Breastfeeding in an Urban Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Laura P; Williamson, Susan; Burke, Stephanie; Crawford-Hemphill, Ruby; Thompson, Amy M

    2017-02-01

    Breastfeeding has many well-established health benefits for infants and mothers. There is greater risk reduction in health outcomes with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Our urban academic facility has had long-standing low EBF rates, serving a population with breastfeeding disparities. We sought to improve EBF rates through a Learning Collaborative model by participating in the Best Fed Beginnings project. Formal improvement science methods were used, including the development of a key driver diagram and plan-do-study-act cycles. Improvement activities followed the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. We demonstrated significant improvement in the median adherence to 2 process measures, rooming in and skin-to-skin after delivery. Subsequently, the proportion of infants exclusively breastfed at hospital discharge in our facility increased from 37% to 59%. We demonstrated an increase in sustained breastfeeding in a subset of patients at a postpartum follow-up visit. These improvements led to Baby-Friendly designation at our facility. This quality improvement initiative resulted in a higher number of infants exclusively breastfed in our patient population at "high risk not to breastfeed." Other hospitals can use these described methods and techniques to improve their EBF rates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Time Perspective and School Membership as Correlates to Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelabu, Detris Honora

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of academic achievement to time perspective (future, present) and school membership (belonging, acceptance, rejection) among 232 low-income, urban African American adolescents. Findings indicated positive, significant relationships among academic achievement, future time perspective, school belonging, and…

  18. Social Network Perspectives Reveal Strength of Academic Developers as Weak Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Crampton, Andrea; Hill, Matthew; Johnson, Elizabeth D.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Varsavsky, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Social network perspectives acknowledge the influence of disciplinary cultures on academics' teaching beliefs and practices with implications for academic developers. The contribution of academic developers in 18 scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) projects situated in the sciences are explored by drawing on data from a two-year national…

  19. Adoption of Library 2.0 Functionalities by Academic Libraries and Users: A Knowledge Management Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Mi; Abbas, June

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the adoption of Library 2.0 functionalities by academic libraries and users through a knowledge management perspective. Based on randomly selected 230 academic library Web sites and 184 users, the authors found RSS and blogs are widely adopted by academic libraries while users widely utilized the bookmark function.…

  20. The Battle over Professorship: Reform of Human Resource Management and Academic Careers in a Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    Changing conditions of academic and scientific labour markets challenge the current conceptual thinking about the mechanisms of academic promotion, selection and recruitment. This paper explores the models of academic promotion and recruitment of professors in a comparative perspective using the examples of Poland and Germany, and addresses the…

  1. Violence against women: the perspective of academic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaca, Sibel; Dundar, Pınar

    2010-08-17

    Opinion surveys about potential causes of violence against women (VAW) are uncommon. This study explores academic women's opinions about VAW and the ways of reducing violence. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used in this descriptive study. One hundred-and-fifteen academicians participated in the study from two universities. A questionnaire was used regarding the definition and the causes of VAW, the risk groups and opinions about the solutions. Additionally, two authors interviewed 8 academicians from universities other than that of the interviewing author. Academicians discussed the problem from the perspective of "gender-based violence" rather than "family violence". The majority of the participants stated that nonworking women of low socioeconomic status are most at risk for VAW. They indicated that psychological violence is more prevalent against educated women, whilst physical violence is more likely to occur against uneducated and nonworking women. Perpetrator related factors were the most frequently stated causes of VAW. Thirty-five percent of the academicians defined themselves as at risk of some act of VAW. Recommendations for actions against violence were empowerment of women, increasing the educational levels in the society, and legal measures. Academic women introduced an ecological approach for the explanation of VAW by stressing the importance of taking into account the global context of the occurrence of VAW. Similar studies with various community members -including men- will help to define targeted interventions.

  2. Violence against women: The perspective of academic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaca Sibel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opinion surveys about potential causes of violence against women (VAW are uncommon. This study explores academic women's opinions about VAW and the ways of reducing violence. Methods Quantitative and qualitative methods were used in this descriptive study. One hundred-and-fifteen academicians participated in the study from two universities. A questionnaire was used regarding the definition and the causes of VAW, the risk groups and opinions about the solutions. Additionally, two authors interviewed 8 academicians from universities other than that of the interviewing author. Results Academicians discussed the problem from the perspective of "gender-based violence" rather than "family violence". The majority of the participants stated that nonworking women of low socioeconomic status are most at risk for VAW. They indicated that psychological violence is more prevalent against educated women, whilst physical violence is more likely to occur against uneducated and nonworking women. Perpetrator related factors were the most frequently stated causes of VAW. Thirty-five percent of the academicians defined themselves as at risk of some act of VAW. Recommendations for actions against violence were empowerment of women, increasing the educational levels in the society, and legal measures. Conclusions Academic women introduced an ecological approach for the explanation of VAW by stressing the importance of taking into account the global context of the occurrence of VAW. Similar studies with various community members -including men- will help to define targeted interventions.

  3. Hospitality Management: Perspectives from Industry Advisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roginsky

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In prior quarterly reports, Pinnacle Advisory Group presented timely updates about the New England lodging industry, which included focused profiles on particular cities. In this issue, the firm offers more general insight about the hospitality industry. Several Pinnacle executives recently participated in a panel discussion about investment, management, and careers in the hospitality industry.

  4. Academic Careers and the Valuation of Academics. A Discursive Perspective on Status Categories and Academic Salaries in France as Compared to the U.S., Germany and Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermuller, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Academic careers are social processes which involve many members of large populations over long periods of time. This paper outlines a discursive perspective which looks into how academics are categorized in academic systems. From a discursive view, academic careers are organized by categories which can define who academics are (subjectivation)…

  5. Qualities of Inpatient Hospital Rooms: Patients' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Ann Sloan; Andrade, Cláudia Campos; Carvalho, Diana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate what design features of hospital rooms are valued by inpatients. Little research has explored how patients evaluate the physical environment of their hospital rooms. Most responses are captured by the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey, which includes only two questions about the physical environment. Two hundred thirty-six orthopedic patients (78 in the United States and 158 in Portugal) listed three features of their hospital room that influenced their level of satisfaction with their hospital stay, indicating whether the feature was positive or negative. The comments were more positive (71.4%) than negative (28.6%). Using the framework of supportive design from Ulrich, over half the comments (64.31%) could be categorized in one of the three dimensions: 33.2% (positive distraction), 22.4% (perceived control), and 6.0% (social support). This total includes Internet (2.7%), which could be categorized as either social support or positive distraction. Comments called "other aspects" focused on overall environmental appraisals, cleanliness, and functionality and maintenance. The majority of comments could be accommodated by Ulrich's theory, but it is noteworthy that other aspects emerge from patients' comments and affect their experience. Cross-cultural differences pointed to the greater role of light and sun for Portuguese patients and health status whiteboard for U.S. Qualitative research can add significantly to our understanding of the healthcare experience and may inform design decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Outsourcing in public hospitals: a Greek perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschuris, Socrates J; Kondylis, Michael N

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the extent of outsourcing, the decision-making process, the impact of outsourcing, and the future trend of outsourcing in public hospitals in Greece. A survey instrument was designed and mailed to a random sample of 100 public hospitals in Greece and 43 usable questionnaires were received, representing a response rate of 43 percent. The survey instrument focused on the extent to which public hospitals outsource services, the decision-making process for choosing an external service provider, the impact of outsourcing, and the future trend of outsourcing in public healthcare organisations. Public hospitals in Greece outsource a variety of activities. Cost savings and customer satisfaction are the main factors affecting the outsourcing decision. The cooperation with a contract service provider has led to significant improvement in service quality levels. Most users are satisfied with the performance of these companies and believe that there will be an increase in the usage of these services in the future. It provides a decision-making framework regarding outsourcing in public healthcare organisations. This research fills the gap in the area of outsourcing in public hospitals in Greece.

  7. Hospital Casemix Protocol - Medibank Private Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakiel, John

    2010-06-01

    Hospital Casemix Protocol data provide a brief summary outlining morbidity data and costs associated with an episode of care. Federal government legislation requires that hospitals report this information to private health insurers who, in turn, merge these data with benefit outlays and report their findings to the Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA). This article gives a brief outline of the collection, cleansing and processing of these data and subsequent reporting to DoHA by Medibank Private, which accounts for approximately 30% of collected data.

  8. Partial Hospitalization Programs: A Current Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Carolyn A.; Perez, Edgardo L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the historical background, standards, the issue of day treatment versus day care, functional issues, specialization, efficacy and cost effectiveness, utilization issues, and alternative models of care of partial hospitalization programs in North America. Emphasizes issues of relevance when planning alternative programs to inpatient…

  9. Casemix reimbursement: a Singapore Children's Hospital perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, S L

    2001-07-01

    Casemix reimbursement was introduced to Singapore in October 1999 using the Australian National Diagnosis Related Groups Version 3.1 (AN-DRGs 3.1). The possible impact of this classification system on a Singapore Children's Hospital is discussed. Data on paediatric patients in KK Women's and Children's Hospital (KKH) were drawn from the inhouse Datamart warehouse system, and reviewed with regards to volume of patients, length of stay and charges. Several high cost categories were selected for a more in-depth review and discussed. The classification system and reimbursement method did not take into account the higher cost of treating children, thus penalising the Children's Hospital. The wide variety of cases treated also gave rise to difficulty in obtaining appropriate reimbursement. The lack of severity of illness measures was a drawback in the Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) for ventilated patients. The lack of outcome measures gave rise to potentially inequitable reimbursement in some high cost neonatal DRGs. While Casemix is an improvement over previous methods of providing Government funding in Singapore, particular aspects need to be reviewed, and reimbursement criteria refined to ensure equitable funding to Children's Hospital.

  10. Pharmaceutical care in Kuwait: hospital pharmacists' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoue, Maram G; Awad, Abdelmoneim I; Schwinghammer, Terry L; Kombian, Samuel B

    2014-12-01

    Pharmaceutical care practice has been championed as the primary mission of the pharmacy profession, but its implementation has been suboptimal in many developing countries including Kuwait. Pharmacists must have sufficient knowledge, skills, and positive attitudes to practise pharmaceutical care, and barriers in the pharmacy practice model must be overcome before pharmaceutical care can be broadly implemented in a given healthcare system. To investigate hospital pharmacists' attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to provide pharmaceutical care, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. Six general hospitals, eight specialized hospitals and seven specialized health centers in Kuwait. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was distributed to all pharmacists working in the governmental hospitals in Kuwait (385 pharmacists). Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (standard deviations) were calculated and compared using statistical package for social sciences, version 20. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of Kuwait. Completed surveys were received from 250 (64.9%) of the 385 pharmacists. Pharmacists expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt well prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Pharmacists with more practice experience expressed significantly more positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care (p = 0.001) and they felt better prepared to provide pharmaceutical care competencies (p Kuwait advocate implementation of pharmaceutical care while also appreciating the organizational, technical and professional barriers to its widespread adoption. Collaborative efforts between health authorities and educational institutions, and the integration of innovative approaches in

  11. Pediatric primary care providers' perspectives regarding hospital discharge communication: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyenaar, JoAnna K; Bergert, Lora; Mallory, Leah A; Engel, Richard; Rassbach, Caroline; Shen, Mark; Woehrlen, Tess; Cooperberg, David; Coghlin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication between inpatient and outpatient providers may mitigate risks of adverse events associated with hospital discharge. However, there is an absence of pediatric literature defining effective discharge communication strategies at both freestanding children's hospitals and general hospitals. The objectives of this study were to assess associations between pediatric primary care providers' (PCPs) reported receipt of discharge communication and referral hospital type, and to describe PCPs' perspectives regarding effective discharge communication and areas for improvement. We administered a questionnaire to PCPs referring to 16 pediatric hospital medicine programs nationally. Multivariable models were developed to assess associations between referral hospital type and receipt and completeness of discharge communication. Open-ended questions asked respondents to describe effective strategies and areas requiring improvement regarding discharge communication. Conventional qualitative content analysis was performed to identify emergent themes. Responses were received from 201 PCPs, for a response rate of 63%. Although there were no differences between referral hospital type and PCP-reported receipt of discharge communication (relative risk 1.61, 95% confidence interval 0.97-2.67), PCPs referring to general hospitals more frequently reported completeness of discharge communication relative to those referring to freestanding children's hospitals (relative risk 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.51). Analysis of free text responses yielded 4 major themes: 1) structured discharge communication, 2) direct personal communication, 3) reliability and timeliness of communication, and 4) communication for effective postdischarge care. This study highlights potential differences in the experiences of PCPs referring to general hospitals and freestanding children's hospitals, and presents valuable contextual data for future quality improvement initiatives

  12. Challenging Perspectives on Learning and Teaching in the Disciplines: The Academic Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kerri-Lee D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of academic staff perspectives on disciplinary communities and skill development in disciplinary contexts. Fifty-five academic staff were interviewed across eight disciplines in four Australian universities. Responses of historians and mathematicians are the focus of this article. A socio-constructivist framework…

  13. What Makes an Excellent Lecturer? Academics' Perspectives on the Discourse of "Teaching Excellence" in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Margaret; Su, Feng

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF), we examine academics' perspectives on the discourse of "teaching excellence" based on an empirical study with 16 participants from five post-1992 universities. The article reports the findings on academics' views of the term and concept of "teaching excellence",…

  14. Role of Department Heads in Academic Development: A Leader-Member Exchange and Organizational Resource Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Andre Leonard; du Plessis, Yvonne; Nkomo, Stella

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of leadership in the development of academic talent in higher education from a social exchange and organizational support perspective. Drawing from a sample of academic staff at a large South African university, the study investigates the extent to which a quality leader-member exchange relationship versus a formal…

  15. Re-Framing Student Academic Freedom: A Capability Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The scholarly debate about academic freedom focuses almost exclusively on the rights of academic faculty. Student academic freedom is rarely discussed and is normally confined to debates connected with the politicisation of the curriculum. Concerns about (student) freedom of speech reflect the dominant role of negative rights in the analysis of…

  16. Digital Storytelling in Australia: Academic Perspectives and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Robert; Adam, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This project explored the experiences of a small sample (N = 6) of Australian academics with the use of digital storytelling as a pedagogical tool in higher education contexts. This article describes two case studies of academic uses of digital storytelling, along with interpretive analysis of six semi-structured interviews of academics working…

  17. Teaching Quality, Learning Satisfaction, and Academic Performance among Hospitality Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Hwa; Chung, Feng-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the teaching quality of culinary arts teachers and student learning satisfaction on the academic performance of hospitality students. This study surveys the students in hospitality departments at universities in Taiwan. A total of 406 (81.2%) valid questionnaires were received. Research results…

  18. Dishonest Academic Conduct: From the Perspective of the Utility Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Tian, Rui

    Dishonest academic conduct has aroused extensive attention in academic circles. To explore how scholars make decisions according to the principle of maximal utility, the author has constructed the general utility function based on the expected utility theory. The concrete utility functions of different types of scholars were deduced. They are as follows: risk neutral, risk averse, and risk preference. Following this, the assignment method was adopted to analyze and compare the scholars' utilities of academic conduct. It was concluded that changing the values of risk costs, internal condemnation costs, academic benefits, and the subjective estimation of penalties following dishonest academic conduct can lead to changes in the utility of academic dishonesty. The results of the current study suggest that within scientific research, measures to prevent and govern dishonest academic conduct should be formulated according to the various effects of the above four variables.

  19. Academic Librarians and Research: A Study of Canadian Library Administrator Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Selinda Adelle; Jacobs, Heidi L. M.; Cornwall, Dayna

    2013-01-01

    Within the literature exploring the role of research in academic librarianship, very little attention has been paid to the perspectives of upper library administrators. This perspective is critical because library administrators play a key role in hiring, evaluating, supporting, promoting, and tenuring professional librarians. As a way of bringing…

  20. Academic Degradation and the Retreat of the Editors: Academic Irregularities and the Spreading of Academic Corruption from an Editor's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Gong

    2007-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the grave academic crisis in China, editors have become the objects of wooing, favor-currying, connections-seeking, and collusions; they have been targeted for attacks, plots, extortions, and encroachments. Editing and publishing have become avenues for academic irregularities and academic corruption. Editors have the power…

  1. Participating in International Academic Publishing: A Taiwan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hui-Tzu

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing concern among researchers and scholars about how nonnative-English-speaking academics in the "expanding circle" (Kachru, 2001, p. 520) cope with challenges while publishing in English in international refereed journals in the center. Most found that academics from peripheral countries where English is a foreign…

  2. Job Satisfaction of University Academics: Perspectives from Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssesanga, Karim; Garrett, Roger M.

    2005-01-01

    Although several studies in the affluent world have examined the job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of lecturers in higher education, little is known about academic job satisfaction in the low-resource countries. This study probes those factors contributing to academic satisfaction and dissatisfaction in higher education in the developing world.…

  3. Becoming and Being Academic Women: Perspectives from the Maldives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. W.; Mohamed, Mizna; Mohamed, Naashia; Naseer, Badhoora; Zahir, Aminath; Nasheeda, Aminath

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed at understanding the role of women teaching in a university in the Maldives is a first of its kind. The many studies of academic women in Western countries guided the 20 semi-structured interviews. The data were thematically analysed with the assistance of NVivo. Becoming an academic appeared to be an independent…

  4. Academic Freedom and University Autonomy: A Higher Education Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kai; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects upon three seminal articles published in "Higher Education Policy" ("HEP") on academic freedom and university autonomy. The reflections indicate that "HEP" research contributes to a sophisticated and systematic understanding of the complexity of academic freedom, addressing both the original…

  5. Optimizing antibiotic usage in hospitals: a qualitative study of the perspectives of hospital managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, A; Gibson, A F; Broom, J; Kirby, E; Yarwood, T; Post, J J

    2016-11-01

    Antibiotic optimization in hospitals is an increasingly critical priority in the context of proliferating resistance. Despite the emphasis on doctors, optimizing antibiotic use within hospitals requires an understanding of how different stakeholders, including non-prescribers, influence practice and practice change. This study was designed to understand Australian hospital managers' perspectives on antimicrobial resistance, managing antibiotic governance, and negotiating clinical vis-à-vis managerial priorities. Twenty-three managers in three hospitals participated in qualitative semi-structured interviews in Australia in 2014 and 2015. Data were systematically coded and thematically analysed. The findings demonstrate, from a managerial perspective: (1) competing demands that can hinder the prioritization of antibiotic governance; (2) ineffectiveness of audit and monitoring methods that limit rationalization for change; (3) limited clinical education and feedback to doctors; and (4) management-directed change processes are constrained by the perceived absence of a 'culture of accountability' for antimicrobial use amongst doctors. Hospital managers report considerable structural and interprofessional challenges to actualizing antibiotic optimization and governance. These challenges place optimization as a lower priority vis-à-vis other issues that management are confronted with in hospital settings, and emphasize the importance of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes that engage management in understanding and addressing the barriers to change. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dying in the Hospital: Perspectives of family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, Ann Marie; Carey, Elise C; Rhudy, Lori M; Chiu, Yichen; Frimannsdottir, Katrin; Ottenberg, Abigale L; Koenig, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Although most patients express a preference to die at home, many (over 30 percent) still die in hospital. This study's purpose was to explore the experience of hospital death from the perspective of patients' family members. interviews were conducted with family members of patients who had died at hospitals affiliated with a large tertiary referral centre in the United States. Content analysis was used to analyze findings. We interviewed 30 family members by phone. Themes were arranged by time frame: before death, time of death, and after death. Families do not interpret clinical cues leading up to death in the same way healthcare providers do; families need clear and direct explanations from providers. Clinicians should assess patient and family understandings of prognosis and communicate clearly and directly. Family members value being with their loved one at the time of death, and they value spending time with the body after death; this should be facilitated in clinical practice.

  7. Leadership and priority setting: the perspective of hospital CEOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeleder, David; Goel, Vivek; Singer, Peter A; Martin, Douglas K

    2006-11-01

    The role of leadership in health care priority setting remains largely unexplored. While the management leadership literature has grown rapidly, the growing literature on priority setting in health care has looked in other directions to improve priority setting practices--to health economics and ethical approaches. Consequently, potential for improvement in hospital priority setting practices may be overlooked. A qualitative study involving interviews with 46 Ontario hospital CEOs was done to describe the role of leadership in priority setting through the perspective of hospital leaders. For the first time, we report a framework of leadership domains including vision, alignment, relationships, values and process to facilitate priority setting practices in health services' organizations. We believe this fledgling framework forms the basis for the sharing of good leadership practices for health reform. It also provides a leadership guide for decision makers to improve the quality of their leadership, and in so doing, we believe, the fairness of their priority setting.

  8. Service quality of private hospitals: the Iranian patients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Asghar; Arab, Mohammad; Froushani, Abbas Rahimi; Rashidian, Arash; Ghazi Tabatabaei, S Mahmoud

    2012-02-02

    Highly competitive market in the private hospital industry has caused increasing pressure on them to provide services with higher quality. The aim of this study was to determine the different dimensions of the service quality in the private hospitals of Iran and evaluating the service quality from the patients' perspective. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and November 2010 in Tehran, Iran. The study sample was composed of 983 patients randomly selected from 8 private general hospitals. The study questionnaire was the SERVQUAL questionnaire, consisting of 21 items in service quality dimensions. The result of factor analysis revealed 3 factors, explaining 69% of the total variance. The total mean score of patients' expectation and perception was 4.91(SD = 0.2) and 4.02(SD = 0.6), respectively. The highest expectation and perception related to the tangibles dimension and the lowest expectation and perception related to the empathy dimension. The differences between perception and expectation were significant (p SERVQUAL is a valid, reliable, and flexible instrument to monitor and measure the quality of the services in private hospitals of Iran. Our findings clarified the importance of creating a strong relationship between patients and the hospital practitioners/personnel and the need for hospital staff to be responsive, credible, and empathetic when dealing with patients.

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia in an academic hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at determining the clinical manifestations, outcome and prognostic factors associated with P. aeruginosa bacteraemia at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital during the period 1998-99; to describe and quantify resistance to anti-pseudomonal drugs, and characterization of bacteraemic isolates, investigate ...

  10. Perceptions of Challenges in Writing Academically: Iranian Postgraduate Students’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Shakib Kotamjani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Academic writing skills are essential tools that postgraduate students reading for their doctoral degree have to master to be able to produce dissertations, research reports and academic assignments of quality in the course of their studies; and publish research-based articles in established journals. This paper discusses the perceptions of a group of Iranian postgraduate students pursuing their doctoral degrees at UPM (Universiti Putra Malaysia on the challenges they face in writing academically. They provided the data for this paper via their responses to a survey.  The findings indicate that these postgraduate students perceived some academic writing skills to be more challenging than the others.  The paper concludes with a discussion on the implications of the findings; and recommendations on how the situation can be improved.

  11. Positioning academic medical centers and teaching hospitals to thrive in the next decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D E

    1985-06-01

    Market share for academic medical centers and teaching hospitals will decline over the next five years necessitating new strategies to ensure growth and profitability. These types of institutions are, however, in a strong position to compete and gain market share locally by building a defensible competitive advantage. This article offers three avenues for increasing market share: networking, brand name product differentiation, and business diversification.

  12. Hospital and asylum visiting in historical perspective: themes and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Graham; Reinarz, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Compared to doctors, patients and institutions, visitors are an understudied constituency in medical history. The collection of essays in this book situates the historical practice of hospital and asylum visiting in broad social, cultural and geographical perspectives. This introduction loosely categorises visitors into four groups: patient visitors, including family and friends; public visitors, such as entertainers, tourists and the clergy, who have no direct formal ties with the institution or the patients; house visitors involved with the management and government of the hospital; and official visitors, who have inspectorial responsibilities. Discussion of the wider historical significance of visiting draws attention to issues such as urban governance, philanthropy, the public sphere, civil society and citizenship.

  13. Business intelligence gap analysis: a user, supplier and academic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molensky, L.; Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Koppel, van der H.

    2010-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) takes many different forms, as indicated by the varying definitions of BI that can be found in industry and academia. These different definitions help us understand of what BI issues are important to the main players in the field of BI; users, suppliers and academics. The

  14. Perspectives on academic misconduct: implications for education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klainberg, Marilyn B; McCrink, Andrea; Eckardt, Patricia; Schecter, Rose; Bongiorno, Anne; Sedhom, Laila

    2014-01-01

    From Harvard to high school, concern related to academic misconduct, specifically cheating and its impact on societal issues, has become a great concern for educational communities. While a significant number of studies on ethical behaviors in practice in other professions such as business have been published, little research exists on registered nurses in practice. Even fewer studies have, for registered nurses, addressed if there is an association between perceived academic misconduct as students and perceived unethical behaviors in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceptions of registered professional nurses' (RNs) current workplace behaviors and the RNs' retrospective perceptions of their academic misconduct as students. A convenience sample of 1 66 RNs enrolled in master's degree programs at four university schools of nursing completed questionnaires regarding their beliefs and behaviors. The outcome of this study was significant. Results revealed a strong relationship between unethical behaviors of the RN in practice and their prior academic misconduct when they were students.

  15. Strategic Planning for Academic Research: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.; Tamtik, Merli

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical study of research planning in Canadian universities. Drawing on data compiled during interviews with senior administrators from 27 academic units in 10 universities, the paper analyses how strategic planning has been applied to the research mission over the past decade. Findings reveal variability in processes…

  16. Combining clinical practice and academic work in nursing: A qualitative study about perceived importance, facilitators and barriers regarding clinical academic careers for nurses in university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oostveen, Catharina J; Goedhart, Nicole S; Francke, Anneke L; Vermeulen, Hester

    2017-12-01

    To obtain in-depth insight into the perceptions of nurse academics and other stakeholders regarding the importance, facilitators and barriers for nurses combining clinical and academic work in university hospitals. Combining clinical practice and academic work facilitates the use of research findings for high-quality patient care. However, nurse academics move away from the bedside because clinical academic careers for nurses have not yet been established in the Netherlands. This qualitative study was conducted in two Dutch university hospitals and their affiliated medical faculties and universities of applied sciences. Data were collected between May 2015 and August 2016. We used purposive sampling for 24 interviews. We asked 14 participants in two focus groups for their perceptions of importance, facilitators and barriers in nurses' combined clinical and academic work in education and research. We audiotaped, transcribed and thematically analysed the interviews and focus groups. Three themes related to perceived importance, facilitators and barriers: culture, leadership and infrastructure. These themes represent deficiencies in facilitating clinical academic careers for nurses. The current nursing culture emphasises direct patient care, which is perceived as an academic misfit. Leadership is lacking at all levels, resulting in the underuse of nurse academics and the absence of supporting structures for nurses who combine clinical and academic work. The present nursing culture appears to be the root cause of the dearth of academic positions and established clinical academic posts. A culture change would require a show of leadership that would promote and enable combined research, teaching and clinical practice and that would introduce clinical academic career pathways for nurses. Meanwhile, nurse academics should collaborate with established medical academics for whom combined roles are mainstream, and they should take advantage of their established infrastructure

  17. Combining clinical practice and academic work in nursing: a qualitative study about perceived importance, facilitators and barriers regarding clinical academic careers for nurses in university hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, C.J. van; Goedhart, N.S.; Francke, A.L.; Vermeulen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To obtain in-depth insight into the perceptions of nurse aca- demics and other stakeholders regarding the importance, facilitators and barriers for nurses combining clinical and academic work in university hospitals. Background: Combining clinical practice and academic work

  18. "Serving Two Masters"--Academics' Perspectives on Working at an Offshore Campus in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of the internationalisation of higher education on the working lives of academics at an offshore campus in eastern Malaysia. Using the interpretivist paradigm and grounded theory methods it investigates their perspectives on various themes as those emerge during a series of interviews. These emerging themes are:…

  19. The Reliability and Validity of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Scores in Academically Talented Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the reliability, structural validity, and concurrent validity of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scores in a group of 815 academically talented adolescents. Reliability estimates of the purported factors' scores were in the low to moderate range. Exploratory factor analysis supported a five-factor…

  20. Academic Staff's Perspectives upon Student Plagiarism: A Case Study at a University in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan

    2015-01-01

    Much of the previous research concerning student plagiarism has been conducted in Anglo-American settings. The present paper reports a case study of academic staff's perspectives upon student plagiarism at a university in Hong Kong. Based on interviews with 16 instructors, the study focused on the teachers' views and pedagogical practices,…

  1. How to Improve Academic Optimism? an Inquiry from the Perspective of School Resource and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason Hsinchieh; Sheu, Tian-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified many school variables which can have significant effect on academic optimism. However, most of these identified variables are leadership or psychological constructs; thus, it is often too abstract for school administrators to translate into real practice. Therefore, this study adopted the perspective of school…

  2. Prospective Teachers' Future Time Perspective and Professional Plans about Teaching: The Mediating Role of Academic Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the mediating role of prospective teachers' academic optimism in the relationship between their future time perspective and professional plans about teaching. A total of 396 prospective teachers voluntarily participated in the study. Correlation, regression, and structural equation modeling analyses were conducted in…

  3. Parents' Perspectives on Hmong Students' Academic Challenges in Reading and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth Kong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this survey study was to investigate the relationship between Hmong students' academic achievements and Hmong parental involvement, home environment, and acculturation adjustment as measured by the Math and English Language Arts sections of the California Standard Test in the United States from parents' perspective regarding student…

  4. Academics' Perspectives on the Challenges and Opportunities for Student-Generated Mobile Content in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Shamsul Arrieya; Malim, Tanjong

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysian universities, there is a scarcity of local content to support student learning. Mobile content is predominantly supplied by the United States and the United Kingdom. This research aims to understand the situation from the academic perspective, particularly in the field of local cultural studies. Student-generated multimedia is…

  5. Using TRAILER tool for Managing Informal Learning in academic and professional contexts: the learners’ perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viegas, Maria C.; Marques, Maria A.; Alves, Gustavo R.; Zangrando, Valentina; Galanis, Nikolas; Brouns, Francis; Janssen, José; Waszkiewicz, Elwira; Mykowska, Alexandra; Conde, Miguel Á.; García-Holgado, Alicia; García-Peñalvo, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Viegas, C., Marques, A., Alves, G., Zangrando, V., Galanis, N., Brouns, F., Janssen, J., Waszkiewicz, E., Mykowska, A., Gonzalez, M., Holgado, A., & García-Peñalvo, F. (2013). Using TRAILER tool for Managing Informal Learning in academic and professional contexts: the learners’ perspective. In F.

  6. IELTS and Academic Success in Higher Education: A UAE Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Schoepp; Dawn Garinger

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between International English Language Testing System (IELTS) entrance scores and academic success as defined by general education program GPA for students at a federal university in the United Arab Emirates in order to reflect upon regional English language proficiency entrance requirements. It focuses on one group of students, direct entry students who have bypassed the English language foundation program with an overall IELTS 6.0 or greater and were adm...

  7. Academic Librarians' Perceptions on Information Literacy: The Israeli Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Noa; Bronstein, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Information literacy (IL) is a necessary skill crucial for effective functioning in today's knowledge society. This study seeks to explore Israeli librarians' perspectives toward major components of information literacy. Do librarians find there is a need to redefine the concept? Who do they think should teach it? How do they think Web 2.0…

  8. IELTS and Academic Success in Higher Education: A UAE Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schoepp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the relationship between International English Language Testing System (IELTS entrance scores and academic success as defined by general education program GPA for students at a federal university in the United Arab Emirates in order to reflect upon regional English language proficiency entrance requirements. It focuses on one group of students, direct entry students who have bypassed the English language foundation program with an overall IELTS 6.0 or greater and were admitted straight into the baccalaureate program. Students were grouped according to their IELTS proficiency levels: 6.0, 6.5 or ≥7.0. Measures of central tendency for overall GPA and academic-stream-specific GPA, along with the overall IELTS and the corresponding sub-scores were calculated. To test the statistical significance of any mean score GPA differences that existed between the 3 IELTS groups, a One-Way ANOVA was calculated. Based on the statistical analyses, the IELTS ≥7.0 group appears to have achieved a meaningful threshold for academic success in that they have consistently outperformed the other direct entry students. This finding corresponds to international entrance-requirement standards for non-native speakers of English.

  9. Improving operating room efficiency in academic children's hospital using Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagge, Edward P; Thirumoorthi, Arul S; Lenart, John; Garberoglio, Carlos; Mitchell, Kenneth W

    2017-06-01

    Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a process improvement methodology that utilizes a collaborative team effort to improve performance by systematically identifying root causes of problems. Our objective was to determine whether application of LSS could improve efficiency when applied simultaneously to all services of an academic children's hospital. In our tertiary academic medical center, a multidisciplinary committee was formed, and the entire perioperative process was mapped, using fishbone diagrams, Pareto analysis, and other process improvement tools. Results for Children's Hospital scheduled main operating room (OR) cases were analyzed, where the surgical attending followed themselves. Six hundred twelve cases were included in the seven Children's Hospital operating rooms (OR) over a 6-month period. Turnover Time (interval between patient OR departure and arrival of the subsequent patient) decreased from a median 41min in the baseline period to 32min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). Turnaround Time (interval between surgical dressing application and subsequent surgical incision) decreased from a median 81.5min in the baseline period to 71min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). These results demonstrate that a coordinated multidisciplinary process improvement redesign can significantly improve efficiency in an academic Children's Hospital without preselecting specific services, removing surgical residents, or incorporating new personnel or technology. Prospective comparative study, Level II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Service quality of hospital outpatient departments: patients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of patient perceptions of health service quality as an important element in quality assessments has attracted much attention in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to assess the service quality of hospital outpatient departments affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from the patients' perspective. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 in Tehran, Iran. The study samples included 500 patients who were selected by multi-stage random sampling from four hospitals. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of 50 items, and the validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed. For data analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Friedman test, and descriptive statistics were used through LISREL 8.54 and SPSS 18 applications. Eight significant factors were extracted for outpatient service quality, which explained about 67 per cent of the total variance. Physician consultation, information provided to the patient, and the physical environment of the clinic were the three determining factors of the quality of outpatient services. The highest and lowest perceptions were related to physician consultation and perceived waiting time dimension, respectively. The mean score of patients' perception of outpatient service quality was 3.89 (±0.60). About 59.5 per cent of patients assessed the quality of outpatient services as good, 38.2 per cent as moderate, and 2.3 per cent as poor. Practical implications - The instrument developed for this study is valid and reliable, and it can help hospital managers to identify the areas needing improvement and correction. According to the findings of this study, the majority of patients had a positive experience with outpatient departments of teaching hospitals, and the services provided in these centres were of adequate quality, based on patient assessments.

  11. Becoming and being academic women: Perspectives from the Maldives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Maxwell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study aimed at understanding the role of women teaching in a university in the Maldives is a first of its kind. The many studies of academic women in Western countries guided the 20 semi-structured interviews. The data were thematically analysed with the assistance of NVivo. Becoming an academic appeared to be an independent decision for the majority of women. There was little parental influence. A common theme was the women perceived that, in general, they worked harder than men. They perceived little or no work differences, despite the observation that men filled senior positions at the university. Although work/life balance was difficult to maintain, a striking finding was that the majority of the women were quite satisfied. From the point of view of most of the women interviewed, gender was little or not an issue, in that there was no indication of frustration or anger amongst the women interviewed. Several issues are identified for future research.

  12. Exploring Plagiarism into Perspectives of Indonesian Academics and Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Agustina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism has been done by students from around the globes. There has been a heated discussion of finding reasons why plagiarism occurred in academic world and Eastern students in particular. This research wants to explore how actually students perceive plagiarism in their academic writing as well as how lecturers coped with plagiarism in the students’ assignments. The research participants were taken from 2 different majors, 32 English Education students and 10 Psychology students as well as 5 lecturers from English Education Department and 3 lecturers from Psychology Faculty in one of private universities in Central Java Province, Indonesia. Questionnaires were distributed to those respondents and also interviews were conducted to several lecturers and students. The results of questionnaire and interview showed that both students and lecturers knew and understand the essence of plagiarism, however, students admitted that they still plagiarised in their assignment. Lecturers, on the other hand, revealed that they could figure out when students plagiarised others’ works. However, it was limited to crossing over assignments between students. In other words, detecting plagiarism was done manually and restricted to students’ written works only. In conclusion, despite comprehending the meaning of plagiarism, student still plagiarised since there was not any real action from lecturers to encounter it.

  13. Factors Influencing Adoption of Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcer Prevention Programs in US Academic Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Valuck, Robert J; Makic, Mary Beth F; Wald, Heidi L

    2015-01-01

    Recent data show a decrease in hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (PUs) throughout US hospitals; these changes may be associated with increased success in implementing evidence-based practices for PU prevention. The purpose of this study was to identify wound care nurse perceptions of the primary factors that influenced the overall reduction of PUs. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Surveys were sent to wound care nurses at 98 University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) hospitals. The UHC consists of more than 120 academic medical centers and affiliated facilities across the United States. Responses solicited from this survey represented a geographically diverse set of hospitals from less than 200 beds to more than 1000 beds. The survey questionnaire used a framework of 7 internal and 5 external influential factors for implementing evidence-based practices for PU prevention. Internal influential factors queried included availability of nurse specialists, high nursing job turnover, high PU rates, and prevention campaigns. External influential factors included data sharing, Medicare nonpayment policy, and applications for Magnet recognition. Hospital-acquired PU prevention experts at UHC hospitals were contacted through the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society membership directory to complete the questionnaire. Consenting participants were e-mailed a disclosure and online questionnaire; they were also sent monthly reminders until they either responded to the survey or declined participation. Fifty-five respondents (59% response rate) indicated several internal factors that influenced evidence-based practice: hospital prevention campaigns; the availability of nursing specialists; and the level of preventive knowledge among hospital staff. External influential factors included financial concerns; application for Magnet recognition; data sharing among peer institutions; and regulatory issues. These findings suggest that the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services

  14. [Support to spiritual needs in hospital care. Integration perspective in modern hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Tullio; Piccinelli, Claudia; Arice, Carmine; Petrini, Massimo; Mozzanica, Mario; Veneroni, Laura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Within the course of medical care in the most advanced health care settings, an increasing attention is being paid to the so-called care humanization. According to this perspective, we try to integrate the usual care pathways with aspects related to the spiritual and religious dimension of all people and their families, as well as the employees themselves. It is clearly important to establish this kind of practices on the basis of scientific evidences. That is the reason why it's a necessity to improve the knowledge about the importance that spiritual assistance can offer within the current health service. The aim of this work is to show the relevance of the integration of spiritual perspectives in the hospital setting according to a multidisciplinary point of view. In this work many data that emerge from the international scientific literature, as well as the definition that is given to the concept of "spirituality" are analyzed; about this definition in fact there is not unanimous consent even today. It is also analyzed the legal situation in force within the European territory according to the different laws and social realities. Finally, the possible organizational practices related to spiritual support are described and the opportunity to specific accreditation pathways and careful training of chaplains able to integrate traditional religious practices with modern spiritual perspectives is discussed.

  15. Soft Robotics: Academic Insights and Perspectives Through Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guanjun; Fang, Hui; Chen, Lingfeng; Wan, Yuehua; Xu, Fang; Yang, Qinghua; Zhang, Libin

    2018-05-21

    Soft robotics is of growing interest in the robot community as well as in public media, and there is an increase in the quality and quantity of publications related to this topic. To formally elaborate this growth, we have used a bibliometric analysis to evaluate the publications in the field from 1990 to 2017 based on the Science Citation Index Expanded database. We present a detailed overview and discussion based on keywords, citation, h-index, year, journal, institution, country, author, and review articles. The results show that the United States takes the leading position in this research field, followed by China and Italy. Harvard University has the most publications, high average number of citations per publication and the highest h-index. IEEE Transactions on Robotics ranks first among the top 20 academic journals publishing articles related to this field, whereas Soft Robotics holds the top position in journals categorized with "ROBOTICS." Actuator, fabrication, control, material, sensing, simulation, bionics, stiffness, modeling, power, motion, and application are the hot topics of soft robotics. Smart materials, bionics, morphological computation, and embodiment control are expected to contribute to this field in the future. Application and commercialization appear to be the initial driving force and final goal for soft robots.

  16. An auto-ethnographic perspective on academic entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Morten; Moroz, Peter; Neergaard, Helle

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs a qualitative method to analyze a successful university spinoff venture that originates from research conducted in a humanities discipline.  We offer insight into 1) how socio-spatial contexts may be structured to better evaluate the entrepreneurial facilitation process and 2) ...... existing institutional structures to legitimize and facilitate entrepreneurial activity.  The research also demonstrates the great value in auto-ethnographic techniques to bring fresh insight to the study of entrepreneurship. Directions for future research are offered.......This paper employs a qualitative method to analyze a successful university spinoff venture that originates from research conducted in a humanities discipline.  We offer insight into 1) how socio-spatial contexts may be structured to better evaluate the entrepreneurial facilitation process and 2......) why academic entrepreneurship in the social sciences and humanities may differ from the hard sciences.  Our findings illustrate the importance of bridging innovation using twin skills to balance research and commercial goals, the need for codifying knowledge capacities and creating new or changing...

  17. Soft Robotics: Academic Insights and Perspectives Through Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guanjun; Fang, Hui; Chen, Lingfeng; Xu, Fang; Yang, Qinghua; Zhang, Libin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Soft robotics is of growing interest in the robot community as well as in public media, and there is an increase in the quality and quantity of publications related to this topic. To formally elaborate this growth, we have used a bibliometric analysis to evaluate the publications in the field from 1990 to 2017 based on the Science Citation Index Expanded database. We present a detailed overview and discussion based on keywords, citation, h-index, year, journal, institution, country, author, and review articles. The results show that the United States takes the leading position in this research field, followed by China and Italy. Harvard University has the most publications, high average number of citations per publication and the highest h-index. IEEE Transactions on Robotics ranks first among the top 20 academic journals publishing articles related to this field, whereas Soft Robotics holds the top position in journals categorized with “ROBOTICS.” Actuator, fabrication, control, material, sensing, simulation, bionics, stiffness, modeling, power, motion, and application are the hot topics of soft robotics. Smart materials, bionics, morphological computation, and embodiment control are expected to contribute to this field in the future. Application and commercialization appear to be the initial driving force and final goal for soft robots. PMID:29782219

  18. UTILIZATION OF LEISURE TIME AND ACADEMIC CAREERS: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY GENDER PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Nitza Davidovitch; Eran Druckman

    2017-01-01

    This research focuses on the advancement of women in academia from an interdisciplinary perspective. It examines the leisure activities of faculty from various departments from a gender-based point of view, with regard to the association between time devoted to research and teaching and time devoted to family and social life. In addition, other possible correlations between academic output (number of articles per year, number of conferences attended, research grants submitted, teaching feedba...

  19. UTILIZATION OF LEISURE TIME AND ACADEMIC CAREERS: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY GENDER PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitza Davidovitch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the advancement of women in academia from an interdisciplinary perspective. It examines the leisure activities of faculty from various departments from a gender-based point of view, with regard to the association between time devoted to research and teaching and time devoted to family and social life. In addition, other possible correlations between academic output (number of articles per year, number of conferences attended, research grants submitted, teaching feedback scores and personal background data (marital status, size of family, age, country of birth, and ethnicity were also explored. Many studies have dealt with the "glass ceiling" encountered by women in academia. The following case study is the first to explore performance measures of personnel at an academic institution in Israel from a gender perspective, in light of their leisure choices. The point of departure guiding the researchers was that the representation of women in academic personnel, including their research and teaching output, has a significance and influence on the system of higher education and, both in Israel and internationally. The research findings might help identify and develop interventions for utilization of time, with the goal of increasing academic output.

  20. Mortality among inpatients of a psychiatric hospital: Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Shireesh Shatwaji; Nagarajaiah; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Viswanath, Biju; Kumar, Naveen C; Gangadhar, B N; Math, Suresh Bada

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess mortality and its correlates among psychiatric inpatients of a tertiary care neuropsychiatric hospital. Given the background that such a study has never been undertaken in India, the findings would have a large bearing on policy making from a mental health-care perspective. The medical records of those psychiatric inpatients (n = 333) who died during their stay at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences in past 26 years (January 1983 to December 2008) constituted the study population. During the 26 years, there were a total of 103,252 psychiatric in-patient admissions, out of which 333 people died during their inpatient stay. Majority (n = 135, 44.6%) of the mortality was seen in the age group of 21-40 years. Most of the subjects were males (n = 202, 67%), married (n = 172, 56.8%) and from urban areas (n = 191, 63%). About, 54% of the subjects had short inpatient stay (history of physical illness. Leading cause of death were cardiovascular system disorders (n = 132, 43.6%), followed by respiratory system disorders (n = 45, 14.9%), nervous system disorders (n = 30, 9.9%) and infections (n = 31, 10.1%). In 21 (7%), cause of death was suicide. Identifying the factors associated with the death of inpatients is of utmost importance in assessing the care in a neuropsychiatric hospital and in formulating better treatment plan and policy in mental health. The discussion focuses on the analysis of different factors associated with inpatient mortality.

  1. [The hospital perspective: disease management and integrated health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrappe, Matthias

    2003-06-01

    Disease Management is a transsectoral, population-based form of health care, which addresses groups of patients with particular clinical entities and risk factors. It refers both to an evidence-based knowledge base and corresponding guidelines, evaluates outcome as a continuous quality improvement process and usually includes active participation of patients. In Germany, the implementation of disease management is associated with financial transactions for risk adjustment between health care assurances [para. 137 f, Book V of Social Code (SGB V)] and represents the second kind of transsectoral care, besides a program designed as integrated health care according to para. 140 a ff f of Book V of Social Code. While in the USA and other countries disease management programs are made available by several institutions involved in health care, in Germany these programs are offered by health care insurers. Assessment of disease management from the hospital perspective will have to consider three questions: How large is the risk to compensate inadequate quality in outpatient care? Are there synergies in internal organisational development? Can the risk of inadequate funding of the global "integrated" budget be tolerated? Transsectoral quality assurance by valid performance indicators and implementation of a quality improvement process are essential. Internal organisational changes can be supported, particularly in the case of DRG introduction. The economic risk and financial output depends on the kind of disease being focussed by the disease management program. In assessing the underlying scientific evidence of their cost effectiveness, societal costs will have to be precisely differentiated from hospital-associated costs.

  2. Job Stress and Burnout among Academic Career Anaesthesiologists at an Egyptian University Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tarek; El-Masry, Ragaa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: There is compelling evidence that anaesthesiology is a stressful occupation and, when this stressful occupation is associated with an academic career, the burnout level is high. This study aimed to assess the predictors and prevalence of stress and burnout, associated sociodemographic characteristics, and job-related features. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was carried out at Mansoura University Hospital in Egypt among 98 anaesthesiologists who had academic careers. The English version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) scale and the Workplace Stress Scale of the American Institute of Stress were used to measure job stress and burnout. Data were analysed according to the guidelines for data processing and an analysis of the scales used. Results: The participation rate of this study was 73.1%, where 69.4% were encountering job stress, while 62.2% experienced emotional exhaustion, 56.1% depersonalisation, and 58.2% reduced personal capacity. There was a significant positive correlation between job stress and MBI-HSS subscales. Residents and assistant lecturers were the most affected group. The strongest significant single predictor of all burnout dimensions was a lack of job support. Conclusion: Stress and burnout among academic anaesthesiologists were caused by the lack of job support; this was especially true among residents and assistant lecturers. We can conclude that a well-organised institutional strategy to mitigate the heavy professional demands of academic anaesthesiologists’ will relieve their stress and burnout. PMID:23862036

  3. Job Stress and Burnout among Academic Career Anaesthesiologists at an Egyptian University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tarek; El-Masry, Ragaa

    2013-05-01

    There is compelling evidence that anaesthesiology is a stressful occupation and, when this stressful occupation is associated with an academic career, the burnout level is high. This study aimed to assess the predictors and prevalence of stress and burnout, associated sociodemographic characteristics, and job-related features. A cross-sectional survey study was carried out at Mansoura University Hospital in Egypt among 98 anaesthesiologists who had academic careers. The English version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) scale and the Workplace Stress Scale of the American Institute of Stress were used to measure job stress and burnout. Data were analysed according to the guidelines for data processing and an analysis of the scales used. The participation rate of this study was 73.1%, where 69.4% were encountering job stress, while 62.2% experienced emotional exhaustion, 56.1% depersonalisation, and 58.2% reduced personal capacity. There was a significant positive correlation between job stress and MBI-HSS subscales. Residents and assistant lecturers were the most affected group. The strongest significant single predictor of all burnout dimensions was a lack of job support. Stress and burnout among academic anaesthesiologists were caused by the lack of job support; this was especially true among residents and assistant lecturers. We can conclude that a well-organised institutional strategy to mitigate the heavy professional demands of academic anaesthesiologists' will relieve their stress and burnout.

  4. Towards a Good Practice Model for an Entrepreneurial HEI: Perspectives of Academics, Enterprise Enablers and Graduate Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Perri; Fenton, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an examination of the perspectives of academics, enterprise enablers and graduate entrepreneurs of an entrepreneurial higher education institution (HEI). The research was conducted in Ireland among 30 graduate entrepreneurs and 15 academics and enterprise enablers (enterprise development agency personnel) to provide a…

  5. Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Compatibility Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Several theories suggest that African American culture facilitates academic achievement, but others suggest that identifying with Black culture contributes to the achievement gap by undermining the academic performance among youth. These opposing perspectives are labeled "cultural compatibility theories" and "cultural incompatibility theories,"…

  6. A Cultural Hybridization Perspective: Emerging Academic Subculture among International Students from East Asia in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the emerging academic subculture of international students from East Asia in U.S. academics from the cultural hybridization perspective. In a knowledge-based economy, international education plays a pivotal role in the global educational environment. Advocacy of international student mobility is essential; international…

  7. Experiencing hospitality : an exploratory study on the experiential dimensions of hospitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls-Hoekstra, Ruth; Groen, Brenda H.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Ad T.H.

    2015-01-01

    What is hospitality? Only few academic articles tap into the meaning of the concept of hospitality. Especially academic investigation of hospitality from a guest perspective is scarce; the combination of ‘hospitality’ and ‘experience’ has received hardly any attention. The present paper describes a

  8. A nurse-led model at public academic hospitals maintains high adherence to colorectal cancer surveillance guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Erin L; Simpson, Kalindra; Coats, Michelle; Chaplin, Angela; Saxty, Karen; Sandford, Jayne; Young Am, Graeme P; Cock, Charles; Fraser, Robert; Bampton, Peter A

    2018-06-18

    To examine the compliance of colorectal cancer surveillance decisions for individuals at greater risk with current evidence-based guidelines and to determine whether compliance differs between surveillance models. Prospective auditing of compliance of surveillance decisions with evidence-based guidelines (NHMRC) in two decision-making models: nurse coordinator-led decision making in public academic hospitals and physician-led decision making in private non-academic hospitals. Selected South Australian hospitals participating in the Southern Co-operative Program for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer (SCOOP). Proportions of recall recommendations that matched NHMRC guideline recommendations (March-May 2015); numbers of surveillance colonoscopies undertaken more than 6 months ahead of schedule (January-December 2015); proportions of significant neoplasia findings during the 15 years of SCOOP operation (2000-2015). For the nurse-led/public academic hospital model, the recall interval recommendation following 398 of 410 colonoscopies (97%) with findings covered by NHMRC guidelines corresponded to the guideline recommendations; for the physician-led/private non-academic hospital model, this applied to 257 of 310 colonoscopies (83%) (P < 0.001). During 2015, 27% of colonoscopies in public academic hospitals (mean, 27 months; SD, 13 months) and 20% of those in private non-academic hospitals (mean, 23 months; SD, 12 months) were performed more than 6 months earlier than scheduled, in most cases because of patient-related factors (symptoms, faecal occult blood test results). The ratio of the numbers of high risk adenomas to cancers increased from 6.6:1 during 2001-2005 to 16:1 during 2011-2015. The nurse-led/public academic hospital model for decisions about colorectal cancer surveillance intervals achieves a high degree of compliance with guideline recommendations, which should relieve burdening of colonoscopy resources.

  9. Implementing managed alcohol programs in hospital settings: A review of academic and grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Hannah L; Kassam, Shehzad; Salvalaggio, Ginetta; Hyshka, Elaine

    2018-04-01

    People with severe alcohol use disorders are at increased risk of poor acute-care outcomes, in part due to difficulties maintaining abstinence from alcohol while hospitalised. Managed alcohol programs (MAP), which administer controlled doses of beverage alcohol to prevent withdrawal and stabilise drinking patterns, are one strategy for increasing adherence to treatment, and improving health outcomes for hospital inpatients with severe alcohol use disorders. Minimal research has examined the implementation of MAPs in hospital settings. We conducted a scoping review to describe extant literature on MAPs in community settings, as well as the therapeutic provision of alcohol to hospital inpatients, to assess the feasibility of implementing formal MAPs in hospital settings and identify knowledge gaps requiring further study. Four academic and 10 grey literature databases were searched. Evidence was synthesised using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Forty-two studies met review inclusion criteria. Twenty-eight examined the administration of alcohol to hospital inpatients, with most reporting positive outcomes related to prevention or treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Fourteen studies examined MAPs in the community and reported that they help stabilise drinking patterns, reduce alcohol-related harms and facilitate non-judgemental health and social care. MAPs in the community have been well described and research has documented effective provision of alcohol in hospital settings for addressing withdrawal. Implementing MAPs as a harm reduction approach in hospital settings is potentially feasible. However, there remains a need to build off extant literature and develop and evaluate standardised MAP protocols tailored to acute-care settings. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Modifying the Toyota Production System for continuous performance improvement in an academic children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, F Bruder; Hendricks, James; Hagan, Patrick; DelBeccaro, Mark

    2009-08-01

    The Toyota Production System (TPS) has become a successful model for improving efficiency and eliminating errors in manufacturing processes. In an effort to provide patients and families with the highest quality clinical care, our academic children's hospital has modified the techniques of the TPS for a program in continuous performance improvement (CPI) and has expanded its application to educational and research programs. Over a period of years, physicians, nurses, residents, administrators, and hospital staff have become actively engaged in a culture of continuous performance improvement. This article provides background into the methods of CPI and describes examples of how we have applied these methods for improvement in clinical care, resident teaching, and research administration.

  11. IAIMS and JCAHO: implications for hospital librarians. Integrated Academic Information Management Systems. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J D

    1999-01-01

    The roles of hospital librarians have evolved from keeping print materials to serving as a focal point for information services and structures within the hospital. Concepts that emerged from the Integrated Academic Information Management Systems (IAIMS) as described in the Matheson Report and the 1994 Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) standards have combined to propel hospital libraries into many new roles and functions. This paper will review the relations...

  12. LGBT Trainee and Health Professional Perspectives on Academic Careers--Facilitators and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Nelson F; Rankin, Susan; Callahan, Edward; Ng, Henry; Holaday, Louisa; McIntosh, Kadian; Poll-Hunter, Norma; Sánchez, John Paul

    2015-12-01

    Diversity efforts in the academic medicine workforce have often neglected the identification and inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health professionals. Many of these professionals have served as educators, researchers, administrators, and leaders at their academic institutions, but their perspectives on the barriers to and facilitators of pursuing academic careers, as well as the perspectives of trainees, have not been explored. We applied a purposeful convenience sampling strategy to collect quantitative and qualitative data among LGBT health care professionals (HCP) and trainees. The authors identified trends in data using bivariate analyses and consensual qualitative research methods. We analyzed data from 252 surveys completed by HCPs and trainees and a subset of 41 individuals participated in 8 focus groups. Among survey participants, 100% identified as lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) or queer; 4.5% identified along the trans-spectrum; 31.2% identified as a racial or ethnic minority; 34.1% identified as faculty; and 27.4% as trainees. Eighty-one percent of trainees were interested in academia and 47% of HCPs held faculty appointments. Overall, 79.4% were involved in LGBT-related educational, research, service, or clinical activities. Facilitators of academic careers included engagement in scholarly activities, mentorship, LGBT-specific networking opportunities, personal desire to be visible, campus opportunities for involvement in LGBT activities, and campus climate inclusive of LGBT people. Barriers included poor recognition of LGBT scholarship, a paucity of concordant mentors or LGBT networking opportunities, and hostile or non-inclusive institutional climates. LGBT trainees and HCPs contribute significantly to services, programs, and scholarship focused on LGBT communities. LGBT individuals report a desire for a workplace environment that encourages and supports diversity across sexual orientation and gender identities

  13. Quality Improvement Practices in Academic Emergency Medicine: Perspectives from the Chairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DelliFraine, Jami L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess academic emergency medicine (EM chairs’ perceptions of quality improvement (QI training programs.Methods: A voluntary anonymous 20 item survey was distributed to a sample of academic chairs of EM through the Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine. Data was collected to assess the percentage of academic emergency physicians who had received QI training, the type of training they received, their perception of the impact of this training on behavior, practice and outcomes, and any perceived barriers to implementing QI programs in the emergency department.Results: The response rate to the survey was 69% (N = 59. 59.3% of respondents report that their hospital has a formal QI program for physicians. Chairs received training in a variety of QI programs. The type of QI program used by respondents was perceived as having no impact on goals achieved by QI (χ2 = 12.382; p = 0.260, but there was a statistically significant (χ2 = 14.383; p = 0.006 relationship between whether or not goals were achieved and academic EM chairs’ perceptions about return on investment for QI training. Only 22% of chairs responded that they have already made changes as a result of the QI training. 78.8% of EM chairs responded that quality programs could have a significant positive impact on their practice and the healthcare industry. Chairs perceived that QI programs had the most potential value in the areas of understanding and reducing medical errors and improving patient flow and throughput. Other areas of potential value of QI include improving specific clinical indicators and standardizing physician care.Conclusion: Academic EM chairs perceived that QI programs were an effective way to drive needed improvements. The results suggest that there is a high level of interest in QI but a low level of adoption of training and implementation.[West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:479-485.

  14. Plastic surgeons' self-reported operative infection rates at a Canadian academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wendy Ky; Kaur, Manraj Nirmal; Thoma, Achilleas

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infection rates are of great interest to patients, surgeons, hospitals and third-party payers. While previous studies have reported hospital-acquired infection rates that are nonspecific to all surgical services, there remain no overall reported infection rates focusing specifically on plastic surgery in the literature. To estimate the reported surgical site infection rate in plastic surgery procedures over a 10-year period at an academic hospital in Canada. A review was conducted on reported plastic surgery surgical site infection rates from 2003 to 2013, based on procedures performed in the main operating room. For comparison, prospective infection surveillance data over an eight-year period (2005 to 2013) for nonplastic surgery procedures were reviewed to estimate the overall operative surgical site infection rates. A total of 12,183 plastic surgery operations were performed from 2003 to 2013, with 96 surgical site infections reported, corresponding to a net operative infection rate of 0.79%. There was a 0.49% surgeon-reported infection rate for implant-based procedures. For non-plastic surgery procedures, surgical site infection rates ranged from 0.04% for cataract surgery to 13.36% for high-risk abdominal hysterectomies. The plastic surgery infection rate at the study institution was found to be site infection rates. However, these results do not report patterns of infection rates germane to procedures, season, age groups or sex. To provide more in-depth knowledge of this topic, multicentre studies should be conducted.

  15. Hospitalist and Internal Medicine Leaders' Perspectives of Early Discharge Challenges at Academic Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hemali; Fang, Margaret C; Mourad, Michelle; Green, Adrienne; Wachter, Robert M; Murphy, Ryan D; Harrison, James D

    2018-06-01

    Improving early discharges may improve patient flow and increase hospital capacity. We conducted a national survey of academic medical centers addressing the prevalence, importance, and effectiveness of early-discharge initiatives. We assembled a list of hospitalist and general internal medicine leaders at 115 US-based academic medical centers. We emailed each institutional representative a 30-item online survey regarding early-discharge initiatives. The survey included questions on discharge prioritization, the prevalence and effectiveness of early-discharge initiatives, and barriers to implementation. We received 61 responses from 115 institutions (53% response rate). Forty-seven (77%) "strongly agreed" or "agreed" that early discharge was a priority. "Discharge by noon" was the most cited goal (n = 23; 38%) followed by "no set time but overall goal for improvement" (n = 13; 21%). The majority of respondents reported early discharge as more important than obtaining translators for non-English-speaking patients and equally important as reducing 30-day readmissions and improving patient satisfaction. The most commonly reported factors delaying discharge were availability of postacute care beds (n = 48; 79%) and patient-related transport complications (n = 44; 72%). The most effective early discharge initiatives reported involved changes to the rounding process, such as preemptive identification and early preparation of discharge paperwork (n = 34; 56%) and communication with patients about anticipated discharge (n = 29; 48%). There is a strong interest in increasing early discharges in an effort to improve hospital throughput and patient flow. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  16. The evolution of urban mobility: The interplay of academic and policy perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban mobility in Western countries has evolved substantially over the past fifty years, from an early interest in catering for growing car ownership and use through major road expansion, to the current emphasis on reducing car use and cutting back on road provision, encouraging sustainable travel and promoting liveable cities with a high quality of life. This can be observed in the changing patterns of car use in many European cities over time (i.e. a rapid increase followed by stabilisation and now decline. This evolution can be related to changes in the transport policy paradigm, which has been heavily influenced by the involvement of an increasing range of academic disciplines, many of which have contributed to modifying the supporting data collection, modelling and appraisal methodologies. The paper explores the varying interplay over time between academic/applied research and policy practice, and the methodological legacy left by earlier perspectives on urban mobility. It highlights a recent reinterpretation of mobility provided through taking a 'socio-technical perspective', and speculates on how policy thinking on urban mobility might further evolve over the next forty years.

  17. Stakeholder Perspectives on Creating and Maintaining Trust in Community-Academic Research Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Kim, Mimi; Dave, Gaurav; Cheney, Ann; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Jones, Jennifer; Young, Tiffany L; Cene, Crystal W; Varma, Deepthi S; Schaal, Jennifer; Black, Adina; Striley, Catherine W; Vassar, Stefanie; Sullivan, Greer; Cottler, Linda B; Brown, Arleen; Burke, Jessica G; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-02-01

    Community-academic research partnerships aim to build stakeholder trust in order to improve the reach and translation of health research, but there is limited empirical research regarding effective ways to build trust. This multisite study was launched to identify similarities and differences among stakeholders' perspectives of antecedents to trust in research partnerships. In 2013-2014, we conducted a mixed-methods concept mapping study with participants from three major stakeholder groups who identified and rated the importance of different antecedents of trust on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Study participants were community members ( n = 66), health care providers ( n = 38), and academic researchers ( n = 44). All stakeholder groups rated "authentic communication" and "reciprocal relationships" the highest in importance. Community members rated "communication/methodology to resolve problems" ( M = 4.23, SD = 0.58) significantly higher than academic researchers ( M = 3.87, SD = 0.67) and health care providers ( M = 3.89, SD = 0.62; p importance of issues related to "sustainability." The importance of communication and relationships across stakeholders indicates the importance of colearning processes that involve the exchange of knowledge and skills. The differences uncovered suggest specific areas where attention and skill building may be needed to improve trust within partnerships. More research on how partnerships can improve communication specific to problem solving and sustainability is merited.

  18. Publication among academic staff and students: an analysis from the ethical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Urrutia Soto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes, from the ethical perspective, the authorship of particles carried out among students and professors and their potential conflicts. After the literature review, it has been found that the Vancouver criteria that should be fulfilled for the attribution of authorship of an article are not popularly known by students and academic staff. Many problems are posed in this area, among which the following are highlighted: ghost writer, honorary author, and incorrect assignment in the order authors should appear. The professor-student relationship brings with it implicit risks that could lead to conflict, against which it is the academician who should be cautious to curtail any ethical fault when assigning the authors. The measures recommended to avoid conflicts of authorship among students and academic staff are: early assignment of the authors, reflection among academicians, education to students/academic staff, and external control conducted by journal editors. Conclusion is that lack of awareness of the criteria of authorship by academicians and students is the principal problem in the attribution of authorships. It is indispensable to improve this knowledge and look after the application of said criteria in practice.

  19. Factors affecting nurse retention at an academic Magnet® hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Annsley; Zwink, Jennifer; Fink, Regina; Devine, Deborah; Sanders, Carolyn

    2012-05-01

    : The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting the retention of registered nurses (RNs) and validate the revised Casey-Fink Nurse Retention Survey (2009). : Creating an organizational culture of retention may reduce nurse turnover. Focusing on why nurses leave and identifying factors why nurses stay are essential. : A descriptive survey design gathered data from RNs with 1 or more years of experience providing direct patient care and employed in inpatient/ambulatory settings in an acute care, academic, Magnet hospital. : There were no statistically significant relationships between nurse respondents' perceptions of work environment/support/encouragement and age or years of experience. However, there were significant differences between inpatient and ambulatory nurse responses in several key areas including job satisfaction, mentorship, and educational support. Overall, nurses reported feeling a lack of support and recognition from managers. Results provide evidence to support improved strategies to foster nurse retention.

  20. Cost-Analysis of Seven Nosocomial Outbreaks in an Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H; Dinkelacker, Ariane G; Vemer, Pepijn; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; Lokate, Mariëtte; Sinha, Bhanu; Friedrich, Alex W; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial outbreaks, especially with (multi-)resistant microorganisms, are a major problem for health care institutions. They can cause morbidity and mortality for patients and controlling these costs substantial amounts of funds and resources. However, how much is unclear. This study sets out to provide a comparable overview of the costs of multiple outbreaks in a single academic hospital in the Netherlands. Based on interviews with the involved staff, multiple databases and stored records from the Infection Prevention Division all actions undertaken, extra staff employment, use of resources, bed-occupancy rates, and other miscellaneous cost drivers during different outbreaks were scored and quantified into Euros. This led to total costs per outbreak and an estimated average cost per positive patient per outbreak day. Seven outbreaks that occurred between 2012 and 2014 in the hospital were evaluated. Total costs for the hospital ranged between €10,778 and €356,754. Costs per positive patient per outbreak day, ranged between €10 and €1,369 (95% CI: €49-€1,042), with a mean of €546 and a median of €519. Majority of the costs (50%) were made because of closed beds. This analysis is the first to give a comparable overview of various outbreaks, caused by different microorganisms, in the same hospital and all analyzed with the same method. It shows a large variation within the average costs due to different factors (e.g. closure of wards, type of ward). All outbreaks however cost considerable amounts of efforts and money (up to €356,754), including missed revenue and control measures.

  1. Cost-Analysis of Seven Nosocomial Outbreaks in an Academic Hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Willem H Dik

    Full Text Available Nosocomial outbreaks, especially with (multi-resistant microorganisms, are a major problem for health care institutions. They can cause morbidity and mortality for patients and controlling these costs substantial amounts of funds and resources. However, how much is unclear. This study sets out to provide a comparable overview of the costs of multiple outbreaks in a single academic hospital in the Netherlands.Based on interviews with the involved staff, multiple databases and stored records from the Infection Prevention Division all actions undertaken, extra staff employment, use of resources, bed-occupancy rates, and other miscellaneous cost drivers during different outbreaks were scored and quantified into Euros. This led to total costs per outbreak and an estimated average cost per positive patient per outbreak day.Seven outbreaks that occurred between 2012 and 2014 in the hospital were evaluated. Total costs for the hospital ranged between €10,778 and €356,754. Costs per positive patient per outbreak day, ranged between €10 and €1,369 (95% CI: €49-€1,042, with a mean of €546 and a median of €519. Majority of the costs (50% were made because of closed beds.This analysis is the first to give a comparable overview of various outbreaks, caused by different microorganisms, in the same hospital and all analyzed with the same method. It shows a large variation within the average costs due to different factors (e.g. closure of wards, type of ward. All outbreaks however cost considerable amounts of efforts and money (up to €356,754, including missed revenue and control measures.

  2. Knowledge Management Orientation: An Innovative Perspective to Hospital Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Matina; Ghadiri Nejad, Mazyar; Bagzibagli, Kemal

    2017-12-01

    By considering innovation as a new project in hospitals, all the project management's standard steps should be followed in execution. This study investigated the validation of a new set of measures in terms of providing a procedure for knowledge management-oriented innovation that enriches the hospital management system. The relation between innovation and all the knowledge management areas, as the main constructs of project management, was illustrated by referring to project management standard steps and previous studies. Through consultations and meetings with a committee of professional project managers, a questionnaire was developed to measure ten knowledge management areas in hospital's innovation process. Additionally, a group of experts from hospital managers were invited to comment on the applicability of the questionnaires by considering if the items are measurable in hospitals practically. A close-ended, Likert-type scale items, consisted of ten sections, were developed based on project management body of knowledge thorough Delphi technique. It enables the managers to evaluate hospitals' situation to be aware whether the organization follows the knowledge management standards in innovation process or not. By pilot study, confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were conducted to ensure the validity and reliability of the measurement items. The developed items seem to have a potential to help hospital managers and subsequently delivering new products/services successfully based on the standard procedures in their organization. In all innovation processes, the knowledge management areas and their standard steps help hospital managers by a new tool as questionnaire format.

  3. [Competition between hospitals--from a legal perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Competition between hospitals exists in many different fields. In legal terms this competition is shaped by disputes over the status of "hospitals forming part of the Hospital Plan" (Plankrankenhaus). The German Federal Constitutional Court's ruling of January 14, 2004 granted hospital authorities the right of action for unfair competition. According to the Federal Administrative Court's ruling of September 25, 2008, however, third-party protection is limited to cases where the hospital filing the suit has itself unsuccessfully applied for inclusion in the state-level hospitals plan for the market segment served by the accepted hospital. In contrast, action that merely challenges an unfair preference of a competitor will remain inadmissible. Third-party protection between hospitals is also under way in the field of "Integrated Healthcare" (Integrierte Versorgung) (Sect. 140a et seqq. Book V of the German Social Security Code-SGB V): in the case of ECJ C-300/07 on December 16, 2008 (Oymanns/AOK Rheinland & Hamburg) the Advocate General in his final submissions not only expressed the opinion that the statutory health insurance funds are contract-placing authorities, but also argued that integration contracts are public orders. If the European Court of Justice (ECJ) takes the Advocate General's view, future integration contracts will become subject to the regulations governing public orders and thus also subject to the relevant verification procedure.

  4. Authors’ perspectives on academic publishing: initial observations from a large-scale global survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil D’Souza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors are at the heart of academic publishing, but their voices are underrepresented in discussions about improving the academic publishing system. To understand the viewpoints of authors on various aspects of academic publishing and the challenges they face, we developed a large-scale survey entitled “Author perspectives on the academic publishing process” and made it available in December 2016. The survey has received 8,795 responses; this paper is based on the interim results drawn from 5,293 survey responses, and presents some interesting and thought-provoking trends that were observed in the authors’ responses, such as their interpretation of plagiarism and decisive factors in journal selection, as well as their thoughts on what needs to change in the publishing system for it to be more author-friendly. Some of the most important findings of the survey were: (1 the majority of the authors found manuscript preparation to be the most challenging task in the publication process, (2 the impact factor of a journal was reported to be the most important consideration for journal selection, (3 most authors found journal guidelines to be incomplete, (4 major gaps existed in author-journal communication, and (5 although awareness of ethics was high, awareness of good publication practice standards was low. Moreover, more than half of the participants indicated that among areas for improvement in the publishing system, they would like to see changes in the time it takes to publish a paper, the peer review process, and the fairness and objectivity of the publication process. These findings indicate the necessity of making the journal publication process more author-centered and smoothing the way for authors to get published.

  5. Patient‐friendly hospital environments: exploring the patients’ perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Calbert H.; Douglas, Mary R.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To investigate the perceptions and attitudes of patients to the built environments of NHS Trust hospitals, in order to inform design excellence so as to make future hospitals places and spaces responsive to patient needs. Design  An exploratory study of patients perceptions based on qualitative semi‐structured personal interviews. Setting and participants  Fifty one‐to‐one interviews held with hospital in‐patients across the four directorates of surgery, medicine, care of the elderly and maternity at Salford Royal Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford, UK. Results  The research found that there was much similarity in the priorities, issues and concerns raised by patients in each of the four directorates. Patients perceived the built environment of the hospital as a supportive environment. Their accounts in each area pointed to the significance of the factors that immediately impacted on them and their families. Patients identified having a need for personal space, a homely welcoming atmosphere, a supportive environment, good physical design, access to external areas and provision of facilities for recreation and leisure. Responses suggest that patient attitudes and perceptions to the built environment of hospital facilities relates to whether the hospital provides a welcoming homely space for themselves and their visitors that promotes health and wellbeing. Conclusions  The findings have important implications for capital development teams, clinical staff, managers and NHS Estates personnel. Although the study has immediate relevance for Salford Royal Hospitals Trust, findings and recommendations reported provide NHS Estates and other relevant stakeholders with evidence‐based knowledge and understanding of patients’ perceptions and expectations of and preferences for particular facilities and estates provision in NHS hospitals. PMID:14982500

  6. A new perspective on hospital financial ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, T L; Stanko, B B; Cleverley, W O

    1997-11-01

    Using audit financial data in a study of 2,189 not-for-profit hospitals for the period 1989-1992, six financial characteristics of performance were defined. These characteristics are profitability factor, fixed-asset efficiency, capital structure, fixed-asset age, working capital efficiency, and liquidity. The statistical output also shows the specific sets of financial ratios that can be used to measure the six characteristics of hospital performance. The results of this study can be beneficial to healthcare financial managers, hospital boards, policy groups, and other relevant entities because it affords them a clear understanding of an institution's financial performance.

  7. A survey of rural hospitals' perspectives on health information technology outsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Murphy, Alison; McNeese, Nathan; Reddy, Madhu; Purao, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    A survey of rural hospitals was conducted in the spring of 2012 to better understand their perspectives on health information technology (HIT) outsourcing and the role that hospital-to-hospital HIT partnerships (HHPs) can play as an outsourcing mechanism. The survey sought to understand how HHPs might be leveraged for HIT implementation, as well as the challenges with forming them. The results suggest that HHPs have the potential to address rural hospitals' slow rate of HIT adoption, but there are also challenges to creating these partnerships. These issues, as well as avenues for further research, are then discussed.

  8. Hospital administrator's perspectives regarding the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, D R; Little, M W

    1988-01-01

    Based on responses from 52 hospital administrators, four areas of managerial concern have been addressed, including: (1) decision-making factors; (2) hospital service offerings: current and future; (3) marketing strategy and service priorities; and (4) health care industry challenges. Of the total respondents, 35 percent indicate a Director of Marketing has primary responsibility for making marketing-related decisions in their hospital, and 19 percent, a Vice-President of Marketing, thus demonstrating the increased priority of the marketing function. The continued importance of the physician being the primary market target is highlighted by 70 percent of the administrators feeling physician referrals will be more important regarding future admissions than in the past, compared to only two percent feeling the physicians' role will be less important. Of primary importance to patients selecting a hospital, as perceived by the administrators, are the physician's referral, the patient's previous experience, the hospital's reputation, and the courtesy of the staff. The clear majority of the conventional-care hospitals surveyed offer out-patient surgery, a hospital pharmacy, obstetrics/maternity care, and diabetic services. The future emphasis on expanding services is evidenced by some 50 percent of the hospital administrators indicating they either possibly or definitely plan to offer long-term nursing care, out-patient substance abuse programs, and cancer clinics by 1990. In addition, some one-third of the respondents are likely to expand their offerings to include wellness/fitness centers, in-patient substance abuse programs, remote or satellite primary care clinics, and diabetic services. Other areas having priority for future offerings include services geared specifically toward women and the elderly. Perceived as highest in priority by the administrators regarding how their hospital can achieve its goals in the next three years are market development strategies

  9. The Natural Hospital Environment: a Socio-Technical-Material perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Juanita; Dawson, Linda

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces two concepts into analyses of information security and hospital-based information systems-- a Socio-Technical-Material theoretical framework and the Natural Hospital Environment. The research is grounded in a review of pertinent literature with previously published Australian (Victoria) case study data to analyse the way clinicians work with privacy and security in their work. The analysis was sorted into thematic categories, providing the basis for the Natural Hospital Environment and Socio-Technical-Material framework theories discussed here. Natural Hospital Environments feature inadequate yet pervasive computer use, aural privacy shortcomings, shared workspace, meagre budgets, complex regulation that hinders training outcomes and out-dated infrastructure and are highly interruptive. Working collaboratively in many cases, participants found ways to avoid or misuse security tools, such as passwords or screensavers for patient care. Workgroup infrastructure was old, architecturally limited, haphazard in some instances, and was less useful than paper handover sheets to ensure the quality of patient care outcomes. Despite valiant efforts by some participants, they were unable to control factors influencing the privacy of patient health information in public hospital settings. Future improvements to hospital-based organisational frameworks for e-health can only be made when there is an improved understanding of the Socio-Technical-Material theoretical framework and Natural Hospital Environment contexts. Aspects within control of clinicians and administrators can be addressed directly although some others are beyond their control. An understanding and acknowledgement of these issues will benefit the management and planning of improved and secure hospital settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Strategic management of hospitals in France: balance and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crémadez, Michel

    2010-08-01

    The strategic management was introduced in French hospitals in the late 80s, in a context of inefficiency and the need to control healthcare expenditure. This concept has inspired a series of government reforms, the organization and dynamics of hospitals and the mode of regulating the French health system, assuming a real change of professional culture. The changes in the economic context and in the finance of hospitals, the behavior of users, the population aging, the development of chronic diseases and increased competition, are the new challenges to be faced. The involvement of stakeholders is crucial and the strategic management, based on mobilizing these actors, is today, a method of administration particularly well adapted to the health area. This article aims to present the impact of the concept of strategic management in the evolution of French hospitals and the consequences of these developments on the outlook for the dissemination of strategic management in the health sector. To do so, it is examined the evolution of the French context until 2010, the new challenges that French hospitals must face and, finally, the consequences of these challenges on how to design services, manage the relationships between the actors of the health system and organize the operational functioning of hospitals.

  11. Survey on the implementation of the Occupational Health and Safety Act at an academic hospital in Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foromo, Muraga R; Chabeli, Mary; Satekge, Mpho M

    2016-09-28

    Despite the available research findings, recommendations and the South African Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA) (Act 85 of 1993), there are still challenges with regard to the implementation of selected sections and regulations of the OHSA. This is evidenced by the occupational injuries and illness claims registered with the compensation fund (South Africa, Department of Labour 1993). To determine the extent to which the OHSA was implemented at an academic hospital in Johannesburg, from the senior professional nurses and nursing managers' perspective, and to describe recommendations in order to facilitate the implementation of the Act. A contextual, quantitative, exploratory and descriptive survey was conducted. A purposive sampling method was used to select the participants that met the inclusion criteria. A structured Likert-scale questionnaire was used to collect data (Brink 2011). Stata version 12 was used to analyse the data. Cronbach's alpha, with a cut-off point of 0.7 was used to test for internal consistency. Ethical considerations were strictly adhered to. Results are presented in the form of graphs, frequency distributions and tables. The study revealed that overall there is 93.3% non-implementation of the selected sections and regulations of the OHSA. These results have serious implications on the health and safety of employees in the workplace. The study recommends that the replication of the study should be conducted in order to determine the extent of implementation of the selected sections and regulations of the OHSA in other government institutions.

  12. Opening the Black-box of Academic Research: Assessment, Publishing and Critical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Magaudda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean today to take a critical stance on scientific knowledge, its production and its dissemination? And what tactics should one adopt for this purpose? These questions are relevant to all disciplines; but for STS they are crucial, because the processes by which knowledge is produced and institutionalized are among the main themes of the entire STS field of study. This paper tries to answer the above questions by outlining the main features of the scenario in which the production and assessment of scientific knowledge today take place. It then concentrates on a concrete case in the field of open-access scientific publishing in order to show some of the tactics useful for pursuing a critical perspective on both the production and dissemination of knowledge at academic level. 

  13. Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Incompatibility Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La

    2011-01-01

    Some theories have posited that African American youth are academic underachievers because of sociocultural factors. We label this point of view the cultural incompatibility perspective. Ogbu's oppositional culture theory and Steele's stereotype threat theory are selected as popular examples of this viewpoint. A critical review of the literature…

  14. Relations between the development of future time perspective in three life domains, investment in learning, and academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.; van der Veen, I.

    2011-01-01

    Relations between the development of future time perspectives in three life domains (i.e., school and professional career, social relations, and leisure time) and changes in students’ investment in learning and academic achievement were examined in this study. Participants were 584 students in the

  15. Relations between the Development of Future Time Perspective in Three Life Domains, Investment in Learning, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2011-01-01

    Relations between the development of future time perspectives in three life domains (i.e., school and professional career, social relations, and leisure time) and changes in students' investment in learning and academic achievement were examined in this study. Participants were 584 students in the first and 584 in the second year of the lower…

  16. Extent of Implementing the Total Quality Management Principles by Academic Departments Heads at Najran University from Faculty Members' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Din, Hesham Moustafa Kamal; Abouzid, Mohamed Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the implementing degree of Total Quality Management (TQM) principals by Academic Departmental Heads (ADH) at the Najran University from faculty members' perspectives. It also aimed to determine significant differences between the average estimate of sample section of faculty members about the implementing degree of TQM…

  17. Hospital safety climate and safety behavior: A social exchange perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancarani, Alessandro; Di Mauro, Carmela; Giammanco, Maria D

    Safety climate is considered beneficial to the improvement of hospital safety outcomes. Nevertheless, the relations between two of its key constituents, namely those stemming from leader-subordinate relations and coworker support for safety, are still to be fully ascertained. This article uses the theoretical lens of Social Exchange Theory to study the joint impact of leader-member exchange in the safety sphere and coworker support for safety on safety-related behavior at the hospital ward level. Social exchange constructs are further related to the existence of a shame-/blame-free environment, seen as a potential antecedent of safety behavior. A cross-sectional study including 166 inpatients in hospital wards belonging to 10 public hospitals in Italy was undertaken to test the hypotheses developed. Hypothesized relations have been analyzed through a fully mediated multilevel structural equation model. This methodology allows studying behavior at the individual level, while keeping into account the heterogeneity among hospital specialties. Results suggest that the linkage between leader support for safety and individual safety behavior is mediated by coworker support on safety issues and by the creation of a shame-free environment. These findings call for the creation of a safety climate in which managerial efforts should be directed not only to the provision of new safety resources and the enforcement of safety rules but also to the encouragement of teamwork and freedom to report errors as ways to foster the capacity of the staff to communicate, share, and learn from each other.

  18. Perspectives of Academic Social Scientists on Knowledge Transfer and Research Collaborations: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Australian Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Adrian; Head, Brian; Boreham, Paul; Povey, Jenny; Ferguson, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports results from a survey of academic social scientists in Australian universities on their research engagement experience with industry and government partners and end-users of research. The results highlight that while academics report a range of benefits arising from research collaborations, there are also significant impediments…

  19. Auditing of clinical research ethics in a children's and women's academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolussi, Robert; Nicholson, Diann

    2002-06-01

    Canadian and international guidelines for research ethics practices have advocated that research ethics boards (REBs) should implement mechanisms to review and monitor human research. Despite this, few Canadian REBs fulfil this expectation. The objective of this report is to summarize the results of 6 audits of clinical research ethics conducted between 1992 and 2000 in a children's and women's academic hospital in Canada in an effort to guide other academic centres planning a similar process. Research audits were conducted by members of a research audit review committee made up of REB volunteers. With use of random and selective processes, approximately 10% of research protocols were audited through interviews with research investigators and research coordinators and by sampling research records. Predetermined criteria were used to assess evidence of good record keeping, data monitoring, adherence to protocol, consents and the recording of adverse events during the research study. An estimate of time required to undertake an audit was made by recall of participants and records. Thirty-five research studies were reviewed including 16 multicentre clinical trials and 19 single-site clinical studies. Review of record keeping and research practice revealed some deficiencies: researchers failed to maintain original authorization (7%) or renewal documentation (9%); there was 1 instance of improper storage of medication; in 5% of 174 participants for whom consent was reviewed, an outdated consent form had been used, and in 4% the signature of the enrolee was not properly shown. Other deficiencies in consent documentation occurred in less than 2% of cases. Nineteen recommendations were made with respect to deficiencies and process issues. A total of 9 to 20 person-hours are required to review each protocol in a typical audit of this type. Information from research audits has been useful to develop educational programs to correct deficiencies identified through the audits

  20. Key Determinants of Human Resource Management in Hospitals: Stakeholder Perspective

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    Buchelt Beata Irma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, theoretical and empirical research on the various aspects of human resources (HR within the healthcare (HC sector has grown extensively due to its′ strategic importance in the sector. There is a visible tendency among researchers to pursue an effective human resource management (HRM strategies, methods, and tools. Countries implement policies which should increase the amount and competences of employees within healthcare. Providers of HC services (i.e. hospitals tend to enforce modern HRM solutions adapted from business organisations to attract, retain and develop HR. However, these seem not be as effective as they could (Hyde et al., 2013. Because of this, authors approached a researched reality from the point of view of a contextual paradigm, assuming that HRM solutions to be effective should match the reality of HC providers (Pocztowski, 2008. The aim of the research was to detect determinants which might influence the management of medical personnel in hospitals and identify the possible strength of these determinants so a more adjusted organisational and human resource management strategy could be elaborated. The list of possible determinants of hospital operations as the result of meta-analysis was elaborated. The list created the basis for interviews conducted among stakeholders and experts. Respondents were asked to appraise the factors with the usage of numerical scale considering their influence on medical personnel management in hospitals (physicians, nurses and others. In total, there were 28 interviews completed. The general conclusion which can be drawn from the analysis of these data is that hospitals should reorient their HRM practices in such the way that not only the quantitative but also the qualitative aspect of performance would be properly handled. This paper draws from HRM theory (contextual approach, stakeholder theory, and healthcare management theory, adding new insight to each in the context of

  1. Religion, Intersectionality, and Epistemic Habits of Academic Feminism. Perspectives from Global Feminist Theology

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    Elina Vuola

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article pays critical attention to the ways in which academic feminism has regarded religion. Issues related to religion and gender have by and large either been ignored or treated quite stereotypically. I have called this phenomenon a simultaneous under- and overestimation of religion. The phenomenon is not global. Feminists of the global south tend to pay much more and more multi-faceted attention to religion than scholars from the global north. I will illustrate this problem through a close reading of intersectionality in feminist research in religion, especially feminist theology. My argument – which can be supported by evidence from historical records – is that what has been called intersectionality since Kimberlé Crenshaw, has in fact been explicitly present in early feminist theology (1970s-. The reason why feminist liberation theologians stressed the interstructuring of gender, class, and race/ethnicity lies in their practical and theoretical cooperation with liberation and feminist theologians from the global south, for example through the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians (EATWOT. My article is a critical re-reading of the history of feminist theorizing from the perspective of religious feminists, academic feminist theologians and liberation theologians from both the global north and south (including black and womanist theologians from the USA, Latin America and Africa. My aim is to correct a long-held understanding of the history of feminist theorizing as purely “secular”.

  2. PERSPECTIVES OF IMPLEMENTATION OF WELLNESS SERVICES IN HOSPITALITY PROPERTIES: THE CASE OF HOTELS OF VLADIVOSTOK

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Petrovna Ovcharenko; Viktoriya Vladimirovna Chistyak

    2018-01-01

    Wellness tourism is a growing segment in the world tourism market and tourism is not possible without hospitality properties. The popularity of the hotel, its attendance and profit can be significantly increased in case of implementation of wellness services in the hotel. In the article the authors examine perspectives of implementation of wellness services in hospitality properties. The study is held through the example of hotels of Vladivostok. The authors note the diversity of wellness ser...

  3. PERSPECTIVES OF IMPLEMENTATION OF WELLNESS SERVICES IN HOSPITALITY PROPERTIES: THE CASE OF HOTELS OF VLADIVOSTOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Petrovna Ovcharenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wellness tourism is a growing segment in the world tourism market and tourism is not possible without hospitality properties. The popularity of the hotel, its attendance and profit can be significantly increased in case of implementation of wellness services in the hotel. In the article the authors examine perspectives of implementation of wellness services in hospitality properties. The study is held through the example of hotels of Vladivostok. The authors note the diversity of wellness services and their growing popularity among consumers of tourism services and, therefore, the expediency of implementation of wellness services in hospitality properties. Purpose: the study of perspectives of implementation of wellness services in hospitality properties, aimed to evaluate the relevance of such services at the market of hospitality properties of Vladivostok and to find out the different forms of delivering of wellness services. Methodology: comparison method, questionnaire approach, statistical method, literature analysis of the investigated problem. Results: the conclusions on wellness services market in hospitality properties of Vladivostok were made. The preferences of citizens of Primorsky Krai concerning different types of wellness services were discovered. Recommendations on promotion of wellness services in hospitality properties were proposed. Practical implications: the results of the study may be useful for workers of hospitality industry, travel agencies and tour operators, business representatives in the wellness sphere and everybody who are interested in wellness conception.

  4. Protein in the hospital : gaining perspective and moving forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchnia, Adam J.; Teigen, Levi; Nagel, Emily; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien; Mulasi, Urvashi; Weijs, Peter; Earthman, Carrie P.

    Provision of adequate protein is crucial for optimizing outcomes in hospitalized patients. However, the methodologies upon which current recommendations are based have limitations, and little is known about true requirements in any clinical population. In this tutorial, we aim to give clinicians an

  5. The Social Construction of Skills: A Hospitality Sector Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature of skills in service work with specific reference to international tourism and its hospitality subsector. It explores the role of experiential factors (cultural, emotional and aesthetic) in equipping those entering work in the sector. The specific context of work in less developed countries and within migrant labour…

  6. Hospital decentralisation in Romania: stakeholders' perspectives in the newsprint media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Adela Elena

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2010, Romania undertook a process of hospital decentralisation as part of the reform in the healthcare sector. The national newsprint media covered the process thoroughly. This paper is a study of how key stakeholders' views, attitudes, beliefs and attitudes towards decentralisation are represented in print media. 106 articles, published between June and September 2010, retrieved from the online databases of six leading national dailies were analysed. A mixed methodology was used in the data analysis stage. The qualitative data exploration identified five voices belonging to stakeholders involved directly or indirectly in the process: the representatives of central government, the local authorities (district and local councils, municipal mayors), health professionals (managers and physicians in hospitals), the media (journalists, analysts) and finally voices from civil society, professional associations and advocacy groups. These were the main actors negotiating the subjective meanings of the decentralisation process. An imbalance between these key actors were observed in the frequency, content and tone of the messages delivered in media during the four months. Central government and the local authorities were the most active voices, but the respective discourses differed significantly. An analysis of the accounts identified three main themes: the financial problem (hospitals liabilities and future spending), human resource in hospitals (the impact of decentralisation upon it) and the political character of the decentralisation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Patient awareness of breast density and interest in supplemental screening tests: comparison of an academic facility and a county hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Long; Ikeda, Debra M; Miyake, Kanae K; Trinh, Jennifer; Lee, Kevin K; Dave, Haatal; Hanafusa, Kei; Lipson, Jafi

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure women's knowledge of breast density and their attitudes toward supplemental screening tests in the setting of the California Breast Density Notification Law at an academic facility and a county hospital, serving women with higher and lower socioeconomic status, respectively. Institutional review board exemptions were obtained. A survey was administered during screening mammography at two facilities, assessing women's awareness of and interest in knowing their breast density and interest in and willingness to pay for supplemental whole breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CEMG). The results were compared by using Fisher exact tests between groups. A total of 105 of 130 and 132 of 153 women responded to the survey at the academic and county facilities, respectively. Among respondents at the academic and county facilities, 23% and 5% were aware of their breast density, and 94% and 79% wanted to know their density. A majority were interested in supplemental ultrasonography and CEMG at both sites; however, fewer women had a willingness to pay for the supplemental tests at the county hospital compared with those at the academic facility (22% and 70%, respectively, for ultrasound, P women were interested in knowing their breast density and in supplemental screening tests. However, women at the county hospital were less willing to incur out-of-pocket expenses, suggesting a potential for a disparity in health care access for women of lower socioeconomic status after the enactment of breast density notification legislation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. A perspective study on green cleaning for Malaysian public hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, N. A.; Zawawi, E. M.; Arif, N. R. M.; Mahbob, N. S.; Sulaiman, Z.; Zainol, N. N.

    2018-02-01

    Cleaning being a major contributor to the operations and maintenance expenditure and also Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) issues. Improper and ineffective cleaning can harm the environment and poses greatest risk to health. The use of traditional cleaning products presents a variety of human health and ecological concerns; and may contribute to poor IEQ. As an effort to reduce the issue of operations and maintenance costs and IEQ issues in a building, it is important to establish a green cleaning programme to ensure that the buildings are cleaned in a green way. Numbers of scholars has pointed out the factors which had prevented the green cleaning implementation in hospital buildings. Nonetheless, the significance of these factors has yet to be practically explored in the Malaysian context. Hence, the aim of the paper is to identify the most critical factor that prevents the implementation of green cleaning in Malaysian hospital building. A questionnaire survey and personal communication (i.e. interview) was conducted which involved two groups of respondents. They are the hospital maintenance staff (Cleansing Service Department) and cleaning contractors. Frequency and criticality index calculations have been used to rank these factors according to the level of importance. The result showed that an “unclear components and requirements of green cleaning” indicated as the most critical factor that prevent the implementation of green cleaning in Malaysian hospital building. In the concern for a successful implementation of green cleaning, it is hope that the findings of these studies can be enlightenment to the cleaning contractors as well as the hospital maintenance management team in Malaysia.

  9. Process mapping evaluation of medication reconciliation in academic teaching hospitals: a critical step in quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Anne; Bowen, James M; Patel, Harsit; O'Brien, Chris; You, John J; Tahavori, Roshan; Doleweerd, Jeff; Berezny, Tim; Perri, Dan; Nieuwstraten, Carmine; Troyan, Sue; Patel, Ameen

    2016-12-30

    Medication reconciliation (MedRec) has been a mandated or recommended activity in Canada, the USA and the UK for nearly 10 years. Accreditation bodies in North America will soon require MedRec for every admission, transfer and discharge of every patient. Studies of MedRec have revealed unintentional discrepancies in prescriptions but no clear evidence that clinically important outcomes are improved, leading to widely variable practices. Our objective was to apply process mapping methodology to MedRec to clarify current processes and resource usage, identify potential efficiencies and gaps in care, and make recommendations for improvement in the light of current literature evidence of effectiveness. Process engineers observed and recorded all MedRec activities at 3 academic teaching hospitals, from initial emergency department triage to patient discharge, for general internal medicine patients. Process maps were validated with frontline staff, then with the study team, managers and patient safety leads to summarise current problems and discuss solutions. Across all of the 3 hospitals, 5 general problem themes were identified: lack of use of all available medication sources, duplication of effort creating inefficiency, lack of timeliness of completion of the Best Possible Medication History, lack of standardisation of the MedRec process, and suboptimal communication of MedRec issues between physicians, pharmacists and nurses. MedRec as practised in this environment requires improvements in quality, timeliness, consistency and dissemination. Further research exploring efficient use of resources, in terms of personnel and costs, is required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Peripartum hysterectomy: two years experience at Nelson Mandela Academic hospital, Mthatha, Eastern Cape South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandabwa, J N; Businge, C; Longo-Mbenza, B; Mdaka, M L; Kiondo, P

    2013-06-01

    Obstetric haemorrhage is the leading direct cause of maternal mortality in South Africa. To determine the incidence, indications, associations and maternal outcomes of emergency peripartum hysterectomies. A descriptive and retrospective analysis of patients who had peripartum hysterectomy between 1(st) February 2007 and 31(st) January 2009 in Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital at Mthatha city. The incidence of 0.95% of peripartum hysterectomies (n=63 or 9.5/1000 births) increased with the increasing maternal age from 0.121% at age of less than 20 years to 0.5% at age more or equal to 30 years. Similarly the incidence increased with parity from 0.332% for Primiparity to 0.468% at parity of four or more. The indications for the operation were uterine atony 19/63 (30.2%), secondary haemorrhage/puerperal sepsis 17/63 (27%) and ruptured uterus 16/63 (23.4%). The main intra operative complication was haemorrhage 13/63 (20.6%). Repeat laparotomy was done in 10/63 (15%) of patients due to haemorrhage. Admission to intensive care unit was 25/63 (39.7%). The case specific mortality rate was of 19 % (n=12). The main causes of death were hypovolaemic shock and septicemia. The incidence of peripartum hysterectomies was high and was associated with ruptured uterus and puerperal sepsis which are preventable.

  11. Understanding Personal Learning Environment Perspectives of Thai International Tourism and Hospitality Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyong, Siriwan; Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a periodic research conducted in developing a personal learning environment for Thailand's higher education students with English as medium of instruction. The objective of the first phase in this research was to understand the personal learning environment perspectives of Thai International tourism and hospitality higher…

  12. Sexual Harassment in the Dutch Hospitality Industry : From Students' Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Harte, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    The hospitality industry is seen as one of the industries with the highest number of sexual harassment incidents happening at the work floor. Research discussed reasons for its occurrence, stating reasons as power, vulnerability, but also misinterpretation of one party to another based on body language. One may claim that this industry’s image and having the bedroom as work floor are playing important roles as trigger for sexual harassment to happen casually. To add, the division between sexu...

  13. Building new hospitals: a UK infection control perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, J M; Constantine, C E; Orr, K E

    2006-03-01

    Infection control input is vital throughout the planning, design and building stages of a new hospital project, and must continue through the commissioning (and decommissioning) process, evaluation and putting the facility into full clinical service. Many hospitals continue to experience problems months or years after occupying the new premises; some of these could have been avoided by infection control involvement earlier in the project. The importance of infection control must be recognized by the chief executive of the hospital trust and project teams overseeing the development. Clinical user groups and contractors must also be made aware of infection control issues. It is vital that good working relationships are built up between the infection control team (ICT) and all these parties. ICTs need the authority to influence the process. This may require their specific recognition by the Private Finance Initiative National Unit, the Department of Health or other relevant authorities. ICTs need training in how to read design plans, how to write effective specifications, and in other areas with which they may be unfamiliar. The importance of documentation and record keeping is paramount. External or independent validation of processes should be available, particularly in commissioning processes. Building design in relation to infection control needs stricter national regulations, allowing ICTs to focus on more local usage issues. Further research is needed to provide evidence regarding the relationship between building design and the prevalence of infection.

  14. Assessing the Social Responsibility of Tabriz University Educational Hospitals from Managers’ Perspective, 2012

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    Massumeh gholizadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Social responsibility is one of the most important parts of an organization’s existence. The aim of this study was assessing the social responsibility of Tabriz University educational hospitals from managers’ perspective. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2012. 40 managers of educational hospitals have been selected through census sampling method. Data were collected through Ministry of Health and Medical education (MOHME valid and reliable questionnaire and analyzed by spss software package and descriptive statistics. Results : From the managers’ perspective, patients are the most effective group on hospital activities (48.5 percent, international standards are the most important motivation for hospitals (27.5 percent, the implementation of the organization’s legal obligations is the most important definition of social responsibility (27.5 percent. To be ensured a fair and ethical behavior, hospitals have benefited greatly from the workplace and employees (30 percent. Managers (90 percent emphasized that corporate social responsibility activities have a positive effect on hospital financial performance. Conclusion: The findings indicated that managers have no unique definition of social responsibility and it is difficult for them to understand the concept of social responsibility and there is no special policy or process in hospitals to understand this concept. They have introduced social responsibility as compliance with obligations of the organization. ​

  15. Philanthropic Donor Perspectives on Supporting Nursing Excellence in a Community Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickley, Sharon K; Mishler, Ray R; Black, Amelia S; DeGuzman, Pam B

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore donors' perspectives on support of nursing excellence in a community hospital. Philanthropic support is rapidly becoming critical to support nursing excellence in hospitals, including continuing education, nursing research, and professional development. However, no research has examined the experience of private donors who support nursing programs in community hospitals. Structured interviews were conducted with individuals with a history of providing significant financial support (gifts >$50 000) targeted specifically for nursing in a 176- bed community hospital in the southeastern United States. Analysis was performed using descriptive content analysis. Four themes emerged that centered around making a difference, helping nurses meet new challenges, an existing foundation of service, and valuing excellent nursing care received. This research provides specific information that nursing administrators can use when seeking philanthropic gifts to support nursing excellence programs in US community hospitals.

  16. Evaluating hospital design from an operations management perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Leti; Groothuis, Siebren; van Merode, Godefridus G

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes an evaluation method for the assessment of hospital building design from the viewpoint of operations management to assure that the building design supports the efficient and effective operating of care processes now and in the future. The different steps of the method are illustrated by a case study. In the case study an experimental design is applied to assess the effect of used logistical concepts, patient mix and technologies. The study shows that the evaluation method provides a valuable tool for the assessment of both functionality and the ability to meet future developments in operational control of a building design.

  17. [A paradigm change in German academic medicine. Merger and privatization as exemplified with the university hospitals in Marburg and Giessen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisch, Bernhard

    2005-03-01

    1. The intended fusion of the university hospitals Marburg and Giessen in the state of Hessia is "a marriage under pressure with uncalculated risk" (Spiegel 2005). In the present political and financial situation it hardly appears to be avoidable. From the point of the view of the faculty of medicine in Marburg it is difficult to understand, that the profits of this well guided university hospital with a positive yearly budget should go to the neighboring university hospital which still had a fair amount of deficit spending in the last years.2. Both medical faculties suffer from a very low budget from the state of Hessia for research and teaching. Giessen much more than Marburg, have a substantial need for investments in buildings and infrastructure. Both institutions have a similar need for investments in costly medical apparatuses. This is a problem, which many university hospitals face nowadays.3. The intended privatisation of one or both university hospitals will need sound answers to several fundamental questions and problems:a) A privatisation potentially endangers the freedom of research and teaching garanteed by the German constitution. A private company will undoubtedly influence by active or missing additional support the direction of research in the respective academic institution. An example is the priorisation of clinical in contrast to basic research.b) With the privatisation practical absurdities in the separation of research and teaching on one side and hospital care on the other will become obvious with respect to the status of the academic employees, the obligatory taxation (16%) when a transfer of labor from one institution to the other is taken into account. The use of rooms for seminars, lectures and bedside with a double function for both teaching, research and hospital care has to be clarified with a convincing solution in everyday practice.c) The potential additional acquisition of patients, which has been advocated by the Hessian state

  18. Variations in survival after cardiac arrest among academic medical center-affiliated hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Christopher Kurz

    Full Text Available Variation exists in cardiac arrest (CA survival among institutions. We sought to determine institutional-level characteristics of academic medical centers (AMCs associated with CA survival.We examined discharge data from AMCs participating with Vizient clinical database-resource manager. We identified cases using ICD-9 diagnosis code 427.5 (CA or procedure code 99.60 (CPR. We estimated hospital-specific risk-standardized survival rates (RSSRs using mixed effects logistic regression, adjusting for individual mortality risk. Institutional and community characteristics of AMCs with higher than average survival were compared with those with lower survival.We analyzed data on 3,686,296 discharges in 2012, of which 33,700 (0.91% included a CA diagnosis. Overall survival was 42.3% (95% CI 41.8-42.9 with median institutional RSSR of 42.6% (IQR 35.7-51.0; Min-Max 19.4-101.6. We identified 28 AMCs with above average survival (median RSSR 61.8% and 20 AMCs with below average survival (median RSSR 26.8%. Compared to AMCs with below average survival, those with high CA survival had higher CA volume (median 262 vs.119 discharges, p = 0.002, total beds (722 vs. 452, p = 0.02, and annual surgical volume (24,939 vs. 13,109, p<0.001, more likely to offer cardiac catheterization (100% vs. 72%, p = 0.007 or cardiac surgery (93% vs. 61%, p = 0.02 and cared for catchment areas with higher household income ($61,922 vs. $49,104, p = 0.004 and lower poverty rates (14.6% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.03.Using discharge data from Vizient, we showed AMCs with higher CA and surgical case volume, cardiac catheterization and cardiac surgery facilities, and catchment areas with higher socioeconomic status had higher risk-standardized CA survival.

  19. Older people's perspectives on an elderly-friendly hospital environment: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karki S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sushmita Karki,1 Dharma Nand Bhatta,1,2 Umesh Raj Aryal3 1Department of Public Health, Nobel College, Pokhara University, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Faculty of Medicine, Epidemiology Unit, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand; 3Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Many older people are vulnerable with multiple health problems and need of extensive care and support for quality of life. The main objective of this study was to explore the older people's perspectives on an "elderly-friendly" hospital. Methods: Hospital was stratified by four domains including government, semi-government, community, and private. We interviewed 33 hospitalized older patients and four hospital managers between June and December 2014 in Kathmandu, Nepal, using purposive sampling technique. We executed a qualitative content analysis step with extensive review of the interviews. Final name of the theme was given after the agreement between the research team and experts to improve trustworthiness. Elderly-friendly services, expectation from government and hospital, and health policy related to senior citizen were developed as main themes. Results: Most of the participants were satisfied with the behavior of health personnel. However, none of the health personnel were trained with geriatric health care. Elderly-friendly hospital guidelines and policy were not developed by any hospitals. Older people health card, advocacy for older people's health and benefit, and hospital environment were the common expectations of older patients. Government policy and budget constraint were the main obstacles to promote elderly-friendly health care services. Conclusion: Elderly-related health policies, physical environments of hospital, elderly-friendly health manpower, advocacy, and other facilities and benefits should be improved and developed. There are urgent needs to develop elderly-friendly hospital policies and guidelines that

  20. Cost analysis of inpatient treatment of anorexia nervosa in adolescents: hospital and caregiver perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Matthew; Katzman, Debra K.; Akseer, Nadia; Steinegger, Cathleen; Hancock-Howard, Rebecca L.; Coyte, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Admission to hospital is the treatment of choice for anorexia nervosa in adolescent patients who are medically unstable; however, stays are often prolonged and frequently disrupt normal adolescent development, family functioning, school and work productivity. We sought to determine the costs of inpatient treatment in this population from a hospital and caregiver perspective, and to identify determinants of such costs. Methods We used micro-costing methods for this cohort study involving all adolescent patients (age 12–18 yr) admitted for treatment of anorexia nervosa at a tertiary care child and adolescent eating disorder program in Toronto, between Sept. 1, 2011, and Mar. 31, 2013. We used hospital administrative data and Canadian census data to calculate hospital and caregiver costs. Results We included 73 adolescents in our cohort for cost-analysis. We determined a mean total hospital cost in 2013 Canadian dollars of $51 349 (standard deviation [SD] $26 598) and a mean total societal cost of $54 932 (SD $27 864) per admission, based on a mean length of stay of 37.9 days (SD 19.7 d). We found patient body mass index (BMI) to be the only significant negative predictor of hospital cost (p adolescents with anorexia nervosa on hospitals and caregivers is substantial, especially among younger patients and those with lower BMI. Recognizing the symptoms of eating disorders early may preclude the need for admission to hospital altogether or result in admissions at higher BMIs, thereby potentially reducing these costs. PMID:26389097

  1. Care ethics in hospitalized child: a perspective for nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedita Maria Rêgo Deusdará Rodrigues

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Apreender quais são os aspectos éticos que norteiam o cuidado prestado pelo enfermeiro à criança hospitalizada. Método: Estudo qualitativo com enfoque na fenomenologia sociológica de Alfred Schutz. Foram entrevistados 10 enfermeiros lotados nas unidades de internação de um hospital municipal, localizado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, em 2011. A entrevista fenomenológica pautou-se na questão: Quais os aspectos éticos que norteiam o seu cuidado a criança hospitalizada?   Resultados: A análise das falas possibilitou a apreensão de duas categorias discutidas à luz da fenomenologia sociológica que são: Respeito à privacidade da criança e Respeito à família da criança hospitalizada. Conclusões: O estudo permitiu o entendimento de que as ações do enfermeiro no que diz respeito à ética no cuidado à criança hospitalizada perpassam pelo reconhecimento da família como elemento indispensável na assistência de enfermagem. Aponta a necessidade de repensar sobre as práticas em saúde, como um modo ético de cuidar. Descritores: Ética, Saúde da criança, Cuidados de enfermagem.

  2. Ethical issues in hospital clients' satisfaction: a Brazilian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Elyrose S B; Ventura, Carla A A; de Godoy, Simone; Mendes, Isabel A C; Trevizan, Maria A

    2015-03-01

    Health institutions can be considered as complex organizations because they need to be prepared to receive and satisfy patients. This clientele differs from other organizations because the use of hospital services is not a matter of choice. Another motive for this difference is that, most often, the patients do not determine what services and products they will use during their stay. Although they are the clients, usually, health professionals decide which service or product they will consume. Hence, nursing care delivery based on competence, efficiency and ethics represents a challenge. This critical reflection is meant to draw attention to the relevance of the ethical aspects of nurses' actions involving patients' satisfaction with nursing care. This paper highlights the responsibility of nurses to develop ethical actions in their commitment to manage and provide care with quality, commitment and efficiency. Possibilities of actions needed emerged from this discussion, such as the provision of reliable and updated information to clients, respect for standards, routines of care, exams and others, as well as clients' education, in order to further their involvement and participation in decisions concerning the care planned for them. The adoption of this paradigm entails a change in the performance of nurses' management and care roles, which may have to observe attitudes previously disregarded in most services provided. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Education of nurse practitioners in academic nurse-managed centers: student perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Clare L; Pohl, Joanne; Ward, Sheila; Dontje, Kathy

    2003-01-01

    Clinical experiences for advanced practice nurses are increasingly a challenge. Finding settings that demonstrate primary care nursing practice in its finest form can be difficult. This article reports on nurse practitioner (NP) student feedback on clinical placements in the academic nurse-managed centers (ANMCs) associated with four Michigan schools or colleges of nursing. Student feedback was solicited over three years through site and preceptor evaluation tools and focus groups. Students were overwhelmingly satisfied with their experience in ANMCs. Being mentored by an NP preceptor in an ANMC was a valuable experience for students. They valued the role modeling of the NP and the quality of their preceptors' instruction. Students stated that the nursing model of care to which they were exposed was congruent with classroom learning. They reported learning to apply an understanding of their patients' economic, social, and cultural situations to treatment decisions and patient-education efforts and learning to understand the role of community-based care. One limitation of ANMCs from the students' perspective was a relatively low volume of patients, particularly in the initial years. However, the benefit of having time to spend with clients and to reflect on clinical practice was also articulated.

  4. "What kept me going was stubbornness”: Perspectives from Swedish early career women academics in geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Angela Caretta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rise of neoliberalism is creating inequalities for women as they balance their private lives and career trajectories. Geography as a middle sized discipline bridging the social and physical sciences offers insights into the ways neoliberal policies are felt by early career women (ECW. Using a life course model, this study presents the results of a workshop which sought to explore the ways in which women geographers, in Sweden, perceive and experience obstacles in their career advancement and which coping strategies they put in place to overcome those. The results show the blurring of the ECW ´s work and private lives. We find the experiences of ECW in Swedish geography departments are consistent with those of women in other countries. We conclude that ECW carry extra burdens in their career trajectories as academics due to unsupportive working environments, lack of mentorship, and an increasing pressure to produce measurable outputs and precarious employment. We argue that initiatives and programs aimed at retaining women in academia need to take on a broader perspective acknowledging the entanglement of women´s private and public spheres.

  5. Can hospitals prohibit euthanasia? An analysis from a European human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Sylvie

    2011-06-01

    At present, in four European countries euthanasia and/ or physician assisted suicide (PAS) are tolerated under strict legal conditions. However, in practice these patient groups are often deprived of the possibility to undergo such decisions. Particularly Catholic health care institutions have developed policies which restrict the internal application of the law. Yet, the legitimacy of such policies is questionable. From a European human rights perspective it can be defended that the freedom of association allows hospitals to develop policies elaborating their ethical stances on euthanasia and PAS. However, to respect the patient's right to self-determination the concerned hospitals should at least inform current and future patients about the restrictive policy and deal carefully with euthanasia and PAS requests. If a patient's wish remains seriously incompatible with the ethical stances of the hospital, at least reasonable and attainable alternatives (such as a referral to a tolerant regional hospital) should be offered.

  6. Managing diversity in organisations: practitioner and academic perspectives: report from a gender in management special interest group research event

    OpenAIRE

    Beauregard, T. Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This report aims to provide a brief summary of the presentations made by researchers and practitioners at the Gender in Management Special Interest Group’s research event, Managing Diversity in Organisations: Practitioner and Academic Perspectives.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - The research seminar was chaired by Dr. Adelina Broadbridge (University of Stirling) and Dr. Gillian Maxwell (Glasgow Caledonian University), and featured five presentations related to diversity in org...

  7. Academic Training Lectures | Theories of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking: A Post LHC Run-I Perspective | 26, 27 and 29 May

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that our next series of Academic Training Lectures will take place on the 26, 27 and 29 May 2015.   Theories of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking: A Post LHC Run-I Perspective, by James Daniel Wells (University of Michigan (US)) from 11.00 a.m. to 12.00 p.m. in the Council Chamber (503-1-001) https://indico.cern.ch/event/383514/

  8. Comparing Academic Library Spending with Public Libraries, Public K-12 Schools, Higher Education Public Institutions, and Public Hospitals between 1998-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzi, John J.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the overall spending trends and patterns of growth of Academic Libraries with Public Libraries, K-12 schools, higher education institutions, and hospitals in the period of 1998 to 2008. Academic Libraries, while showing a growth of 13% over inflation for the period, far underperformed the growth of the other public institutions…

  9. [The Perspectives and Expectations of New Nursing Graduates Regarding the Hospital-Based Nursing Students Scholarship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ling; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Shao, Jung-Hua; Shyu, Yea-Ing

    2016-10-01

    The hospital-based scholarship is a relatively recent incentive used by hospitals to recruit new nursing graduates. Few studies have explored the impact of these scholarship programs on hospital recruitment. To explore the perspectives and expectations of new nursing graduates on the application of a hospital-based scholarship for nursing students. This study used a qualitative research approach. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 20 new nursing graduates from one university in northern Taiwan in 2013. Content analysis was applied to analyze the data. Two themes were identified by participants who had applied for a hospital-based scholarship: "aspire to be a nursing-scholarship recipient and work towards this aspiration" and "look forward to receiving a nursing-scholarship and imagine possible features of the future life." One theme was identified by participants who had not applied for a hospital-based scholarship: "agree with the policy of hospital-based scholarship but resist the restrictions on their life." Although both groups agreed that the scholarship program helped relieve financial stresses, participants who had applied for the scholarship tended to hold positive and aggressive attitudes towards the nursing scholarship. Conversely, participants who had not applied for the scholarship did so due to the perceived conflicts between the scholarship and their career plans. It is recommended to consider providing career-planning assistance to new graduates and to arrange that students who sign a scholarship contract have their clinical practice in their working unit in order to improve adaptation.

  10. The Franchising Decision: The Perspective Of The Franchisee In The Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Diaz-Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Franchising is a major trend in the hotel industry. Despite the fact that almost two-thirds of branded hotels in the U.S. are franchised, there is a lack of empirical research on franchising in the hospitality industry. In this article, I reviewed one of the most relevant lines of research in franchising literature, usually referred as creating franchising systems, and we have concentrated on analyzing the reasons and motivations to use franchising from franchisee perspective within the hospi...

  11. Evaluating Midwives Communication Skills from the Perspective of Parturient Women Attending to Hospitals for Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Sadat Katebi; Talat Khadivzadeh; Zohre Sepehri Shamloo; Habibolah Esmaily

    2017-01-01

    Background & aim: Communication is a fundamental human need. Medical students and healthcare professionals must be attuned to the needs of patients using effective communication skills. With regards to medical training, currently the focus is on theoretical matters and communication skills are taken for granted. This problem has caused miscommunication with patients referred to teaching hospitals. We conducted this study to assess communication skills of midwives from the perspective of partu...

  12. Using quality measures for quality improvement: the perspective of hospital staff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Aghaei Hashjin

    Full Text Available RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: This study examines the perspectives of a range of key hospital staff on the use, importance, scientific background, availability of data, feasibility of data collection, cost benefit aspects and availability of professional personnel for measurement of quality indicators among Iranian hospitals. The study aims to facilitate the use of quality indicators to improve quality of care in hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted over the period 2009 to 2010. Staff at Iranian hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire eliciting their views on organizational, clinical process, and outcome (clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient centeredness indicators. POPULATION STUDIED: 93 hospital frontline staff including hospital/nursing managers, medical doctors, nurses, and quality improvement/medical records officers in 48 general and specialized hospitals in Iran. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On average, only 69% of respondents reported using quality indicators in practice at their affiliated hospitals. Respondents varied significantly in their reported use of organizational, clinical process and outcome quality indicators. Overall, clinical process and effectiveness indicators were reported to be least used. The reported use of indicators corresponded with their perceived level of importance. Quality indicators were reported to be used among clinical staff significantly more than among managerial staff. In total, 74% of the respondents reported to use obligatory indicators, while this was 68% for voluntary indicators (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: There is a general awareness of the importance and usability of quality indicators among hospital staff in Iran, but their use is currently mostly directed towards external accountability purposes. To increase the formative use of quality indicators, creation of a common culture and feeling of shared ownership, alongside an increased uptake of clinical process and

  13. Older people’s perspectives on an elderly-friendly hospital environment: an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Sushmita; Bhatta, Dharma Nand; Aryal, Umesh Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background Many older people are vulnerable with multiple health problems and need of extensive care and support for quality of life. The main objective of this study was to explore the older people’s perspectives on an “elderly-friendly” hospital. Methods Hospital was stratified by four domains including government, semi-government, community, and private. We interviewed 33 hospitalized older patients and four hospital managers between June and December 2014 in Kathmandu, Nepal, using purposive sampling technique. We executed a qualitative content analysis step with extensive review of the interviews. Final name of the theme was given after the agreement between the research team and experts to improve trustworthiness. Elderly-friendly services, expectation from government and hospital, and health policy related to senior citizen were developed as main themes. Results Most of the participants were satisfied with the behavior of health personnel. However, none of the health personnel were trained with geriatric health care. Elderly-friendly hospital guidelines and policy were not developed by any hospitals. Older people health card, advocacy for older people’s health and benefit, and hospital environment were the common expectations of older patients. Government policy and budget constraint were the main obstacles to promote elderly-friendly health care services. Conclusion Elderly-related health policies, physical environments of hospital, elderly-friendly health manpower, advocacy, and other facilities and benefits should be improved and developed. There are urgent needs to develop elderly-friendly hospital policies and guidelines that focus on older people’s health benefits and friendly services. PMID:26028980

  14. Burden of Clostridium difficile Infections in French Hospitals in 2014 From the National Health Insurance Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Soline; Blein, Cécile; Andremont, Antoine; Bandinelli, Pierre-Alain; Galvain, Thibaut

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the hospital stays of patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and to measure the hospitalization costs of CDI (as primary and secondary diagnoses) from the French national health insurance perspective DESIGN Burden of illness study SETTING All acute-care hospitals in France METHODS Data were extracted from the French national hospitalization database (PMSI) for patients covered by the national health insurance scheme in 2014. Hospitalizations were selected using the International Classification of Diseases, 10 th revision (ICD-10) code for CDI. Hospital stays with CDI as the primary diagnosis or the secondary diagnosis (comorbidity) were studied for the following parameters: patient sociodemographic characteristics, mortality, length of stay (LOS), and related costs. A retrospective case-control analysis was performed on stays with CDI as the secondary diagnosis to assess the impact of CDI on the LOS and costs. RESULTS Overall, 5,834 hospital stays with CDI as the primary diagnosis were included in this study. The total national insurance costs were €30.7 million (US $33,677,439), and the mean cost per hospital stay was €5,267±€3,645 (US $5,777±$3,998). In total, 10,265 stays were reported with CDI as the secondary diagnosis. The total national insurance additional costs attributable to CDI were estimated to be €85 million (US $93,243,725), and the mean additional cost attributable to CDI per hospital stay was €8,295±€17,163, median, €4,797 (US $9,099±$8,827; median, $5,262). CONCLUSION CDI has a high clinical and economic burden in the hospital, and it represents a major cost for national health insurance. When detected as a comorbidity, CDI was significantly associated with increased LOS and economic burden. Preventive approaches should be implemented to avoid CDIs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:906-911.

  15. Academic Development and Educational Developers: Perspectives from Different European Higher Education Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Roberto; Fry, Heather; Frenay, Mariane; Verhesschen, Piet; Verburgh, An

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports research in five European universities, in four countries between 2004 and 2008. The research explored and compared institutional contexts for academic development and the interpretations and reflections of a number of academic developers on the organizational position and role of academic development, and of…

  16. Academic Careers from a European Perspective. The Declining Desirability of the Faculty Position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jeroen; de Weert, Egbert; Bartelse, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Internationally, the fault lines of an uncertain academic career are becoming increasingly apparent. Despite extensive preparation, young academics confront restricted opportunities to become regular members of the academic community. Many of them are on a temporary contract, often with poor working

  17. Academic Perspectives and Experiences of Knowledge Translation: A Qualitative Study of Public Health Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Alex; Zardo, Pauline; McKenzie, Donna Margaret; Ellis, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the views and experiences of knowledge translation of 14 Australian public health academics. Capacity to engage in knowledge translation is influenced by factors within the academic context and the interaction of the academic and policy environments. Early and mid-career researchers reported a different set of experiences and…

  18. Modified Early Warning System improves patient safety and clinical outcomes in an academic community hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Mathukia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Severe adverse events such as cardiac arrest and death are often heralded by abnormal vital signs hours before the event. This necessitates an organized track and trigger approach of early recognition and response to subtle changes in a patient's condition. The Modified Early Warning System (MEWS is one of such systems that use temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, and level of consciousness with each progressive higher score triggering an action. Root cause analysis for mortalities in our institute has led to the implementation of MEWS in an effort to improve patient outcomes. Here we discuss our experience and the impact of MEWS implementation on patient care at our community academic hospital. Methods: MEWS was implemented in a protocolized manner in June 2013. The following data were collected from non-ICU wards on a monthly basis from January 2010 to June 2014: 1 number of rapid response teams (RRTs per 100 patient-days (100PD; 2 number of cardiopulmonary arrests ‘Code Blue’ per 100PD; and 3 result of each RRT and Code Blue (RRT progressed to Code Blue, higher level of care, ICU transfer, etc.. Overall inpatient mortality data were also analyzed. Results: Since the implementation of MEWS, the number of RRT has increased from 0.24 per 100PD in 2011 to 0.38 per 100PD in 2013, and 0.48 per 100PD in 2014. The percentage of RRTs that progressed to Code Blue, an indicator of poor outcome of RRT, has been decreasing. In contrast, the numbers of Code Blue in non-ICU floors has been progressively decreasing from 0.05 per 100PD in 2011 to 0.02 per 100PD in 2013 and 2014. These improved clinical outcomes are associated with a decline of overall inpatient mortality rate from 2.3% in 2011 to 1.5% in 2013 and 1.2% in 2014. Conclusions: Implementation of MEWS in our institute has led to higher rapid response system utilization but lower cardiopulmonary arrest events; this is associated with a lower mortality

  19. The link between research, development and demonstration and stakeholder confidence: the perspective of an academic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, Ghislain de

    2006-01-01

    The author contributed to the discussion by providing a presentation from the perspective of an academic. In reviewing the role of science, the author focused on the important roles of science and R and D following a siting process. Science and R and D is essential for understanding the physical systems, displaying and demonstrating processes involved, measuring key parameters, and assessing areas of residual uncertainty. He outlined a number of factors that are key to making a strong case to stakeholders, to demonstrate that the system is well understood: - explaining the past history of the site; - explaining unexpected features or occurrences (such as seismic anomalies); - ensuring the capacity to observe and note unexpected features; - having the capacity to introduce new measurements that can inform the system; - deriving scientific validation of theory (noting the example of WIPP); - maintaining the capacity to be at the frontier of science; and - having the ability to answer unexpected questions from any party. It was suggested that credibility and stakeholder confidence is linked, in part, to credibility of the research in the eyes of the scientific community. The scientific community must be engaged to address questions of interest to the public. The role of peer review is essential in establishing the credibility of researchers, and within academic circles, publications in the scientific literature is highly valued. It is important for both implementers and regulators to retain their own capabilities and competence to be credible in the eyes of stakeholders. The experience of Andra was noted, in underscoring the importance of having high-level scientists internal to the implementing organization to ensure momentum and institutional knowledge. Thesis students also offer ways of promoting science in areas of interest concerning radioactive waste management. Demonstration plays an essential and distinct role from R and D. It offers tangible insight to

  20. ‘AN INCREDIBLY STEEP HILL:’ HOW GENDER, RACE, AND CLASS SHAPE PERSPECTIVES ON ACADEMIC CAREERS AMONG BEGINNING BIOMEDICAL PHD STUDENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christine V.; Campbell, Patricia B.; McGee, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes perspectives on academic careers among 60 beginning PhD students in the biomedical sciences. It presents seven perspectives on academic careers articulated by the students in the sample and explains the way that race/ethnicity, gender, and students’ family education backgrounds are tied to those perspectives. The findings show that traditionally underrepresented students find the academic career path less navigable than students from well-represented groups. Among underrepresented students, even those from higher family education backgrounds, experiences related to race/ethnicity and gender often inform perceptions of the academic career even before they start their graduate research training. As the composition of the graduate population changes to include more women and underrepresented racial and ethnic minority men, it is important to note that not all graduate students enter with the same perspectives and views of the academic career and that there are meaningful differences in perspectives across demographic lines. Graduate programs can play a critical role in providing information and support for graduate students as they navigate their career choices, particularly at the earliest stages of training. By becoming sensitive to students’ perspectives on career options, and understanding how differences in perspectives arise, mentors and others can align advising strategies with the experiences and views of students. PMID:28239250

  1. Policies to Optimize Physician Billing Data in Academic Alternative Relationship Payment Plans: Practices and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceara Tess Cunningham

    2017-04-01

    According to the majority of our respondents, financial disincentives (i.e. income at risk, financial clawbacks appear to be most effective as a mechanism to motivate physicians within an academic APP to submit their billings. However, key barriers to successful implementation and delivery of academic APPs include a lack of alignment between government stakeholders, academic leadership and APP physician members and differences in the organizational and accountability structures of APP plans between academic facilities. It is necessary in moving forward to achieve commonly defined standards and frameworks between the various APP models across provinces and academic institutions.

  2. Reimbursement in hospital-based vascular surgery: Physician and practice perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Jennifer L; Zwolak, Robert M; Goodney, Philip P; Rutherford, Gretchen A; Powell, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine change in value of a vascular surgery division to the health care system during 6 years at a hospital-based academic practice and to compare physician vs hospital revenue earned during this period. Total revenue generated by the vascular surgery service line at an academic medical center from 2010 through 2015 was evaluated. Total revenue was measured as the sum of physician (professional) and hospital (technical) net revenue for all vascular-related patient care. Adjustments were made for work performed, case complexity, and inflation. To reflect the effect of these variables, net revenue was indexed to work relative value units (wRVUs), case mix index, and consumer price index, which adjusted for work, case complexity, and inflation, respectively. Differences in physician and hospital net revenue were compared over time. Physician work, measured in RVUs per year, increased by 4%; case complexity, assessed with case mix index, increased by 10% for the 6-year measurement period. Despite stability in payer mix at 64% to 69% Medicare, both physician and hospital vascular-related revenue/wRVU decreased during this period. Unadjusted professional revenue/wRVU declined by 14.1% (P = .09); when considering case complexity, physician revenue/wRVU declined by 20.6% (P = .09). Taking into account both case complexity and inflation, physician revenue declined by 27.0% (P = .04). Comparatively, hospital revenue for vascular surgery services decreased by 13.8% (P = .07) when adjusting for unit work, complexity, and inflation. At medical centers where vascular surgeons are hospital based, vascular care reimbursement decreased substantially from 2010 to 2015 when case complexity and inflation were considered. Physician reimbursement (professional fees) decreased at a significantly greater rate than hospital reimbursement for vascular care. This trend has significant implications for salaried vascular surgeons in hospital

  3. House of healing, house of disrespect: a Kantian perspective on disrespectful behaviour among hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Mark; Fundner, Rita

    2002-01-01

    Respect toward patients is one of the most fundamental and central tenets guiding both modern bioethical practice and the everyday behaviour of all healthcare professionals. However, similar courtesy and respect is often breached in day-to-day interactions between hospital workers. Many examples are relatively minor, while egregious examples such as gender discrimination and physical abuse do occur. The more egregious transgressions may be handled by formal processes, even legal proceedings. However, the innumerable smaller examples of disrespectful behaviour are ubiquitous and insidious in their erosion of a productive collaborative approach to patient care and other aspects of functioning within the institution. The authors briefly summarize some of the pertinent literature on this subject and analyze the problem of disrespect in the hospital with special focus on the issue as seen from the perspective of the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant. Some simple recommendations for improving disrespectful behaviour amongst hospital workers are offered.

  4. Acinetobacter baumannii: Epidemiological and Beta-Lactamase Data From Two Tertiary Academic Hospitals in Tshwane, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lowe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that is increasingly responsible for hospital-acquired infections. The increasing prevalence of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii has left clinicians with limited treatment options. Last line antimicrobials (i.e., polymyxins and glycylcyclines are often used as treatment options. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected β-lactamase genes from A. baumannii isolates obtained from patients with hospital-acquired infections and to determine the genetic relationship and epidemiological profiles among clinical A. baumannii isolates collected from two tertiary academic hospitals in the Tshwane region, South Africa (SA. Multiplex-PCR (M-PCR assays were performed to detect selected resistance genes. The collected isolates’ genetic relatedness was determined by using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. The acquired oxacillinase (OXA genes, notably blaOXA-23-like were prevalent in the A. baumannii isolates. The M-PCR assays showed that the isolates collected from hospital A contained the OXA-23-like (96%; n = 69/72 genes and the isolates collected from hospital B contained the OXA-23-like (91%; n = 63/69 and OXA-58-like (4%; n = 3/69 genes. Colistin resistance was found in 1% of the isolates (n = 2/141 and tigecycline intermediate resistance was found in 6% of the isolates (n = 8/141. The A. baumannii isolates were genetically diverse. Molecular epidemiological data showed that specific sequence types (STs (ST106, ST229, ST258 and ST208 were established in both hospitals, while ST848 was established in hospital A and ST502, ST339 and the novel ST1552 were established in hospital B. ST848 (established in hospital A was predominately detected in ICU wards whereas ST208, ST339 and the novel ST1552 (established in hospital B were detected in ICUs and the general wards. The origin of the A. baumannii isolates in the hospitals may be due to

  5. Longitudinal relationship between social skills and academic achievement in a gender perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsen, Ann Margareth

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies found that girls have higher academic achievement than boys in most school subjects. Teachers’ grading of academic achievement seems to be based not only on students’ knowledge but also their social skills, and teachers tend to assess girls as having better social skills than boys. The main aim of this study was to examine through multilevel analysis the extent to which teacher-rated social skills predicted teacher-rated academic achievement in Norwegian, mathematics and Engl...

  6. A longitudinal study on time perspectives: relations with academic delay of gratification and learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.; Schuitema, J.; van der Veen, I.

    2012-01-01

    After they start secondary school (at age 12 in the Netherlands), students' time perspectives on school and professional career and self-regulated learning decrease, while their perspectives on leisure increase. We aimed to investigate relations in the developments in time perspectives and delay of

  7. Universal isolation precautions for patients at an academic hospital Precauciones universales en el aislamiento de pacientes en un hospital universitario Precauções universais em isolamentos de pacientes em hospital universitário

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Gomes Maziero; Marli Terezinha Oliveira Vannuchi; Dagmar Willamourius Vituri; Maria do Carmo Lourenço Haddad; Cristiane Nakaya Tada

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To apply universal isolation precautions for patients at an academic hospital by a nursing team. METHODS: This descriptive and prospective study used data from advice service of quality control and nursing care that were gathered in observational reports of universal isolation precautions for patients admitted in two surgical inpatient units during 2008 and 2010. RESULTS: The mean general classification for both units was between desirable and adequate in the observational analysis...

  8. Measurement of Quality of Educational Hospital Services by the SERVQUAL Model: The Iranian Patients' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Satar; Matin, Behzad Karami; Moradi, Khalil; Bijan, Behroz; Fallahi, Masoud; Shokati, Behnam; Saeidi, Hamid

    2016-03-01

    The main mission of hospitals in any health system is to deliver high quality healthcare for patients and meet their needs and expectations. The aim of the current study was to assess the quality of the service of educational hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2015, from the perspective of patients. In this cross-sectional study, the perspectives of 400 patients were assessed about the quality of the services provided by educational hospitals in Kermanshah (western Iran) in 2015. The quality was assessed by the SERVQUAL questionnaire with five dimensions, i.e., tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. In addition, the Wilcoxon test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to explore any association between the dependent variable and explanatory variables. The data were analyzed using Stata V.12 software. There were negative gaps in all five dimensions. The highest and lowest gaps in the mean score were found in the assurance (-0.88) and responsiveness (-0.56) dimensions. The patients ranked responsiveness as the most important dimension of the quality of healthcare. There were gaps between the patients' perceptions and their expectation about the five dimensions that were studied based on the SERVQUAL model. Also, it is recommended that improving the quality of healthcare is possible by various policies, such as good responsiveness, access to health workers, and delivering healthcare in less time.

  9. Measurement of Quality of Educational Hospital Services by the SERVQUAL Model: The Iranian Patients’ Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Satar; Matin, Behzad Karami; Moradi, Khalil; Bijan, Behroz; Fallahi, Masoud; Shokati, Behnam; Saeidi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The main mission of hospitals in any health system is to deliver high quality healthcare for patients and meet their needs and expectations. The aim of the current study was to assess the quality of the service of educational hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2015, from the perspective of patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the perspectives of 400 patients were assessed about the quality of the services provided by educational hospitals in Kermanshah (western Iran) in 2015. The quality was assessed by the SERVQUAL questionnaire with five dimensions, i.e., tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. In addition, the Wilcoxon test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to explore any association between the dependent variable and explanatory variables. The data were analyzed using Stata V.12 software. Results There were negative gaps in all five dimensions. The highest and lowest gaps in the mean score were found in the assurance (−0.88) and responsiveness (−0.56) dimensions. The patients ranked responsiveness as the most important dimension of the quality of healthcare. Conclusion There were gaps between the patients’ perceptions and their expectation about the five dimensions that were studied based on the SERVQUAL model. Also, it is recommended that improving the quality of healthcare is possible by various policies, such as good responsiveness, access to health workers, and delivering healthcare in less time. PMID:27123218

  10. To Achieve or Not To Achieve: A Self-Regulation Perspective on Adolescents' Academic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David C.; Byrnes, James P.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of the self-regulation model of decision making for explaining and predicting adolescents' academic decision making. Measures included an assessment of decision-making skill; academic goals; select scales of Learning and Study Strategies Inventory; and teacher ratings of achievement behavior. Adolescents'…

  11. Academic Libraries and High-Impact Practices for Student Retention: Library Deans' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies on retention have highlighted the role of student engagement in influencing students' withdrawal decisions. This study seeks to address how academic libraries affect student retention by examining the perception of academic library deans or directors on the alignment between library services and resources with ten nationally…

  12. Making Sense of an Elusive Concept: Academics' Perspectives of Quality in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabaho, Lazarus; Aguti, Jessica Norah; Oonyu, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Since the 1990s studies on how stakeholders in higher education perceive quality have burgeoned. Nevertheless, the majority of studies on perception of quality in higher education focus on students and employers. The few studies on academics' perceptions of quality in higher education treat academics as a homogeneous group and,…

  13. Longitudinal Relationship between Social Skills and Academic Achievement in a Gender Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Ann Margareth

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies found that girls have higher academic achievement than boys in most school subjects. Teachers' grading of academic achievement seems to be based not only on students' knowledge but also their social skills, and teachers tend to assess girls as having better social skills than boys. The main aim of this study was to examine through…

  14. Academic Inbreeding: Exploring Its Characteristics and Rationale in Japanese Universities Using a Qualitative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Hugo; Sato, Machi; Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses why and how academic inbreeding as a recruitment practice continues to prevail in Japan, a country with a mature higher education system, where high rates of academic inbreeding endure in most of the research-oriented universities in spite of several higher education reforms. Based on a qualitative analysis, we disclose three…

  15. Understanding Relationships between Academic Staff and Administrators: An Organisational Culture Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hui-Min

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to advance the understanding of relationships between university academic staff and administrators through information in interviews with 18 academic staff members and 18 administrators at a large public research university in the United States. Through exploring the first-hand insights and perceptions of interviewees from an…

  16. The challenges of attracting an retaining academic talent. Central and Eastern European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Rose, Anna-Lena

    2016-01-01

    Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries are currently facing strong imperatives to increase incoming academic staff mobility. In this article, we focus on barriers and facilitators of academic mobility. We provide examples of Lithuanian and Czech higher education systems that are based on

  17. Implications of Socioeconomic Status on Academic Competence: A Perspective for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, Luis F.; Martínez-Arias, Rosario; Bueno, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that socioeconomic status is a strong predictor of academic achievement. This theoretical paper proposes that despite the fact that low-socioeconomic status represents a risk factor that seems to undermine attentional skills and thus academic achievement, emerging evidence suggests the potential of new approaches, interventions and…

  18. Academic Career Development Stress and Mental Health of Higher Secondary Students--An Indian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anjali; Halder, Santoshi; Goswami, Nibedita

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored the mental health of students with their academic career-related stressors collecting data from 400 students of different schools of Eastern part of India by using; namely General Information Schedule (GIS), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the Academic Career Development Stress Scale. The data was subjected to t…

  19. Magnets and Seekers: A Network Perspective on Academic Integration inside Two Residential Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Residential learning communities aim to foster increased academic and social integration, ideally leading to greater student success. However, the concept of academic integration is often conceptualized and measured at the individual level, rather than the theoretically more consistent community level. Network analysis provides a paradigm and…

  20. Strategic Planning Effectiveness in Jordanian Universities: Faculty Members' and Academic Administrators' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Salameh, Kayed M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore the faculty and academic administrators' perception of strategic planning effectiveness (SPE) in a reform environment, measuring the impact of university type, gender, and job role. A total of 338 faculty members and 183 academic administrators who enrolled during the first semester of the 2007-08 term at a public and a…

  1. Exploring the contribution of formal and informal learning to academic staff member employability: A Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, Marcel; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van Rooij, Shahron Williams

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Little attention has been paid to the employability of academic staff and the extent to which continuous learning contributes to academic career success. The purpose of this paper is to explore the contribution of formal and informal learning to employability. Design/methodology/approach –

  2. Expectations and Influencing Factors of IS Graduates and Education in Thailand: A Perspective of the Students, Academics and Business Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teay Shawyun Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As academic we have always been entrusted with developing the knowledge, skills, and capability of our IS students. In the strive for excellence in education, there is always the question of what has been implemented is appropriate and finally achieves its ultimate goals of delivering quality, capable and intellectual students as workforce for the business. To this end, this exploratory research tries to discover what knowledge, skills and capability are expected of an IS graduate, the facilities expected to develop these qualities and what influencing factors make the students go for an IS education. The research will be based on the perspectives of the student, academic and business community. The major findings highlight the overall tendency of higher mean expectation of the business community in most of the fundamental expectations of the type of knowledge, skills and capability and the facilities essential to the development of these attributes. The academics are normally supportive of the business community’s perspectives except in the dimensions of skill expectation and attitudinal factors. Overall, it also appears that the students show a lower average means on most attributes as compared to the academics and business community. Based on this research, there appears to be distinctive expectations of an IS graduate. Based on the balanced technology approach of looking at the development of the IS graduate from degree of sophistication of the Technoware (T, Humaware (H, Inforware (I and Orgaware (O, it is hoped that the following can be achieved: 1. A newly revised and revamped IS curriculum, 2. A linkage of the THIO to develop the IS graduate and 3. A linkage of the academia-industry THIO linkage to develop the IS graduate.

  3. Experiential Learning in Hospitality Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, Paul George

    2017-01-01

    The research study recognized that, although the knowledge obtained from academic textbooks and traditional classes are important to post-secondary hospitality management curriculum as they provide numerous insights and perspectives of different methods to manage a particular avenue within the hospitality industry; it is not the only aspect of the…

  4. The implementation of DRG-based hospital reimbursement in Switzerland: A population-based perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, André; von Below, Georg

    2010-10-16

    Switzerland introduces a DRG (Diagnosis Related Groups) based system for hospital financing in 2012 in order to increase efficiency and transparency of Swiss health care. DRG-based hospital reimbursement is not simultaneously realized in all Swiss cantons and several cantons already implemented DRG-based financing irrespective of the national agenda, a setting that provides an opportunity to compare the situation in different cantons. Effects of introducing DRGs anticipated for providers and insurers are relatively well known but it remains less clear what effects DRGs will have on served populations. The objective of the study is therefore to analyze differences of volume and major quality indicators of care between areas with or without DRG-based hospital reimbursement from a population based perspective. Small area analysis of all hospitalizations in acute care hospitals and of all consultations reimbursed by mandatory basic health insurance for physicians in own practice during 2003-2007. The results show fewer hospitalizations and a relocation of resources to outpatient care in areas with DRG reimbursement. Overall burden of disease expressed as per capita DRG cost weights was almost identical between the two types of hospital reimbursement and no distinct temporal differences were detected in this respect. But the results show considerably higher 90-day rehospitalization rates in DRG areas. The study provides evidence of both desired and harmful effects related to the implementation of DRGs. Systematic monitoring of outcomes and quality of care are therefore essential elements to maintain in the Swiss health system after DRG's are implemented on a nationwide basis in 2012.

  5. Participation of the family in hospital-based palliative cancer care: perspective of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Miranda da Silva

    Full Text Available The objective was to understand the perspective of nurses about the participation of the family in palliative cancer care and to analyze the nursing care strategies to meet their needs. Descriptive and qualitative research, conducted at the National Cancer Institute between January and March 2013, with 17 nurses. Elements of the Roy Adaptation Model were used for the interpretation of the data. Two categoriesemergedfrom the thematic analysis: perspective of nurses about the presence and valuation of family in the hospital; and appointing strategies to encourage family participation in care and meet their needs. This participation is essentialand represents a training opportunity for the purpose of homecare. Nurses create strategies to encourage it and seek to meet the needs. The results contribute to promote the family adaptation and integrity, in order to balance the dependent and independent behaviors, aimingfor quality of life and comfort. Further studies are neededdue to the challenges of the specialty.

  6. Modern Challenges and Perspectives in Development of Academic Staff in Higher Schools and Peculiarities of Military Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neno Hristov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Current paper presents a book review made by Colonel Assoc. Prof. Neno Hristov, D.Sc. on the monograph “Modern challenges and perspectives in development of academic staff in higher schools and peculiarities of military education system” – an edition of Innovations and Sustainability Academy – Bulgaria authored by Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Natural History Prof. Dr. Eng. Venelin Terziev and Colonel Assoc. Prof. Dr. Eng. Georgi Georgiev from Vasil Levski National Military University – Veliko Tarnovo.

  7. Nurses' Perspectives on Interprofessional Communication in the Prevention of Functional Decline in Hospitalized Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jeffrey I; Fox, Mary T

    2018-03-22

    Older people present with complex health issues on admission to hospital and are at high risk for functional decline and related complications. Thus, they require the services of diverse health-care professionals working in concert to support their functioning. Despite nurses' central role in caring for this patient population, and evidence indicating that interprofessional communication is a persistent challenge for nurses in acute-care settings, little is known about nurses' views on interprofessional communication in care preserving functioning in acutely admitted older people. To fill this knowledge gap, we gathered acute-care staff nurses' perspectives on interprofessional communication in a function-focused, interprofessional approach to hospital care for older adults. Thirteen focus groups were conducted with a purposeful, criterion-based sample of 57 nurses working in acute-care hospitals. Thematic analysis revealed two overarching themes capturing nurses' perspectives on key factors shaping interprofessional communication in a function-focused interprofessional approach to care (1) context of direct communication and (2) context of indirect communication. The first theme demonstrates that nurses preferred synchronous modes of communication, but some ascribed greater importance to unstructured forms of direct information-sharing, while others stressed structured direct communication, particularly interprofessional rounds. The second theme also documents divergence in nurses' views on asynchronous communication, with some emphasizing information technology and others analog tools. Perceptions of some modes of interprofessional communication were found to vary by practice setting. Theoretical and pragmatic conclusions are drawn that can be used to optimize interprofessional communication processes supporting hospitalized older people's functioning.

  8. Development of a Hospital-based Massage Therapy Course at an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Liza J; Cutshall, Susanne M; Rodgers, Nancy J; Hauschulz, Jennifer L; Dreyer, Nikol E; Thomley, Barbara S; Bauer, Brent

    2015-03-01

    Massage therapy is offered increasingly in US medical facilities. Although the United States has many massage schools, their education differs, along with licensure and standards. As massage therapy in hospitals expands and proves its value, massage therapists need increased training and skills in working with patients who have various complex medical concerns, to provide safe and effective treatment. These services for hospitalized patients can impact patient experience substantially and provide additional treatment options for pain and anxiety, among other symptoms. The present article summarizes the initial development and description of a hospital-based massage therapy course at a Midwest medical center. A hospital-based massage therapy course was developed on the basis of clinical experience and knowledge from massage therapists working in the complex medical environment. This massage therapy course had three components in its educational experience: online learning, classroom study, and a 25-hr shadowing experience. The in-classroom study portion included an entire day in the simulation center. The hospital-based massage therapy course addressed the educational needs of therapists transitioning to work with interdisciplinary medical teams and with patients who have complicated medical conditions. Feedback from students in the course indicated key learning opportunities and additional content that are needed to address the knowledge and skills necessary when providing massage therapy in a complex medical environment. The complexity of care in medical settings is increasing while the length of hospital stay is decreasing. For this reason, massage provided in the hospital requires more specialized training to work in these environments. This course provides an example initial step in how to address some of the educational needs of therapists who are transitioning to working in the complex medical environment.

  9. Coordinated hospital-home care for kidney patients on hemodialysis from the perspective of nursing personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Tejada-Tayabas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine, from the nursing perspective, the needs and challenges of coordinated hospital-home care for renal patients on hemodialysis. METHODS: A qualitative analysis was conducted with an ethnographic approach in a hemodialysis unit in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nine nurses, selected by purposeful sampling. Structured content analysis was used. RESULTS: Nurses recounted the needs and challenges involved in caring for renal patients. They also identified barriers that limit coordinated patient care in the hospital and the home, mainly the work overload at the hemodialysis unit and the lack of a systematic strategy for education and lifelong guidance to patients, their families and caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the importance and necessity of establishing a strategy that goes beyond conventional guidance provided to caregivers of renal patients, integrating them into the multidisciplinary group of health professionals that provide care for these patients in the hospital to establish coordinated hospital-home care that increases therapeutic adherence, treatment substitution effectiveness and patient quality of life.

  10. Providing quality nutrition care in acute care hospitals: perspectives of nutrition care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H H; Vesnaver, E; Davidson, B; Allard, J; Laporte, M; Bernier, P; Payette, H; Jeejeebhoy, K; Duerksen, D; Gramlich, L

    2014-04-01

    Malnutrition is common in acute care hospitals worldwide and nutritional status can deteriorate during hospitalisation. The aim of the present qualitative study was to identify enablers and challenges and, specifically, the activities, processes and resources, from the perspective of nutrition care personnel, required to provide quality nutrition care. Eight hospitals participating in the Nutrition Care in Canadian Hospitals study provided focus group data (n = 8 focus groups; 91 participants; dietitians, dietetic interns, diet technicians and menu clerks), which were analysed thematically. Five themes emerged from the data: (i) developing a nutrition culture, where nutrition practice is considered important to recovery of patients and teams work together to achieve nutrition goals; (ii) using effective tools, such as screening, evidence-based protocols, quality, timely and accurate patient information, and appropriate and quality food; (iii) creating effective systems to support delivery of care, such as communications, food production and delivery; (iv) being responsive to care needs, via flexible food systems, appropriate menus and meal supplements, up to date clinical care and including patient and family in the care processes; and (v) uniting the right person with the right task, by delineating roles, training staff, providing sufficient time to undertake these important tasks and holding staff accountable for their care. The findings of the present study are consistent with other work and provide guidance towards improving the nutrition culture in hospitals. Further empirical work on how to support successful implementation of nutrition care processes is needed. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Postnatal gestational diabetes mellitus follow-up: Perspectives of Australian hospital clinicians and general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Catherine; Bogossian, Fiona Elizabeth; Callaway, Leonie; Gallois, Cindy

    2018-05-04

    The reasons for low postnatal screening rates for women with gestational diabetes mellitus are not well understood. Multiple care providers, settings and changes to diagnostic criteria, may contribute to confusion over postnatal care. Quality of communication between clinicians may be an important influence for the completion of postnatal gestational diabetes mellitus follow-up. Describe and analyse communication processes between hospital clinicians (midwives, medical, allied staff) and general practitioners who provide postnatal gestational diabetes mellitus care. Purposive sampling and convergent interviews explored participants' communication experiences providing gestational diabetes mellitus postnatal follow-up. Data were analysed with Leximancer automated content analysis software; interpretation was undertaken using Communication Accommodation Theory. Clinicians who provided maternity care at a tertiary referral hospital (n=13) in Queensland, Australia, and general practitioners (n=16) who provided maternity shared care with that hospital between December 2012 and July 2013. Thematic analysis identified very different perspectives between the experiences of General Practitioners and hospital clinicians; six themes emerged. General practitioners were concerned about themes relating to discharge summaries and follow-up guidelines. In contrast, hospital clinicians were more concerned about themes relating to gestational diabetes mellitus antenatal care and specialist clinics. Two themes, gestational diabetes mellitus women and postnatal checks were shared. Gestational diabetes mellitus follow-up is characterised by communication where general practitioners appear to be information seekers whose communication needs are not met by hospital clinicians. Midwives are ideally placed to assist in improving communication and postnatal gestational diabetes mellitus follow-up. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Peri-operative morbidity associated with radical cystectomy in a multicenter database of community and academic hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke T Lavallée

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize the frequency and timing of complications following radical cystectomy in a cohort of patients treated at community and academic hospitals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Radical cystectomy patients captured from NSQIP hospitals from January 1 2006 to December 31 2012 were included. Baseline information and complications were abstracted by study surgical clinical reviewers through a validated process of medical record review and direct patient contact. We determined the incidence and timing of each complication and calculated their associations with patient and operative characteristics. RESULTS: 2303 radical cystectomy patients met inclusion criteria. 1115 (48% patients were over 70 years old and 1819 (79% were male. Median hospital stay was 8 days (IQR 7-13 days. 1273 (55.3% patients experienced at least 1 post-operative complication of which 191 (15.6% occurred after hospital discharge. The most common complication was blood transfusion (n = 875; 38.0%, followed by infectious complications with 218 (9.5% urinary tract infections, 193 (8.4% surgical site infections, and 223 (9.7% sepsis events. 73 (3.2% patients had fascial dehiscence, 82 (4.0% developed a deep vein thrombosis, and 67 (2.9% died. Factors independently associated with the occurrence of any post-operative complication included: age, female gender, ASA class, pre-operative sepsis, COPD, low serum albumin concentration, pre-operative radiotherapy, pre-operative transfusion >4 units, and operative time >6 hours (all p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Complications remain common following radical cystectomy and a considerable proportion occur after discharge from hospital. This study identifies risk factors for complications and quality improvement needs.

  13. Perspective: The missing link in academic career planning and development: pursuit of meaningful and aligned work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieff, Susan J

    2009-10-01

    Retention of faculty in academic medicine is a growing challenge. It has been suggested that inattention to the humanistic values of the faculty is contributing to this problem. Professional development should consider faculty members' search for meaning, purpose, and professional fulfillment and should support the development of an ability to reflect on these issues. Ensuring the alignment of academic physicians' inner direction with their outer context is critical to professional fulfillment and effectiveness. Personal reflection on the synergy of one's strengths, passions, and values can help faculty members define meaningful work so as to enable clearer career decision making. The premise of this article is that an awareness of and the pursuit of meaningful work and its alignment with the academic context are important considerations in the professional fulfillment and retention of academic faculty. A conceptual framework for understanding meaningful work and alignment and ways in which that framework can be applied and taught in development programs are presented and discussed.

  14. The role of selective attention on academic foundations: A cognitive neuroscience perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Courtney; Bavelier, Daphné

    2012-01-01

    To the extent that selective attention skills are relevant for academic foundations and amenable to training, they represent an important focus for the field of education. Here, drawing on research on the neurobiology of attention, we review hypothesized links between selective attention and processing across three domains important to early academic skills. First, we provide a brief review of the neural bases of selective attention, emphasizing the effects of selective attention on neural pr...

  15. Importance of intellectual property generated by biomedical research at universities and academic hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heus, Joris J; de Pauw, Elmar S; Leloux, Mirjam; Morpurgo, Margherita; Hamblin, Michael R; Heger, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Biomedical research has many different facets. Researchers and clinicians study disease biology and biochemistry to discover novel therapeutic targets, unravel biochemical pathways and identify biomarkers to improve diagnosis, or devise new approaches to clinically manage diseases more effectively. In all instances, the overall goal of biomedical research is to ensure that results thereof (such as a therapy, a device, or a method which may be broadly referred to as "inventions") are clinically implemented. Most of the researchers' efforts are centered on the advance of technical and scientific aspects of an invention. The development and implementation of an invention can be arduous and very costly. Historically, it has proven to be crucial to protect intellectual property rights (IPR) to an invention (i.e., a patent) to ensure that companies can obtain a fair return on their investment that is needed to develop an academic invention into a product for the benefit of patients. However, the importance of IPR is not generally acknowledged among researchers at academic institutions active in biomedical research. Therefore this paper aims to (1) raise IP awareness amongst clinical and translational researchers; (2) provide a concise overview of what the patenting trajectory entails; and (3) highlight the importance of patenting for research and the researcher. Adequate patent protection of inventions generated through biomedical research at academic institutions increases the probability that patients will benefit from these inventions, and indirectly enables the financing of clinical studies, mainly by opening up funding opportunities (e.g. specific grants aimed at start-ups, pre-seed and seed capital) that otherwise would not be accessible. As a consequence, patented inventions are more likely to become clinically tested and reach the market, providing patients with more treatment options.

  16. The role of an academic library in research: researchers’ perspectives at a South African University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Hart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic libraries typically identify research support as a central pillar in their mission. But they need to examine how their mission statements relate to the perspectives of researchers themselves, especially in view of reported changes in researchers’ information seeking and sharing in the online environment. By means of a questionnaire survey of 102 full time academic staff at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, the project examined how researchers use their institution’s library in their research and what their expectations are. For various historical reasons universities of technology lag behind in terms of their research output and in recent years CPUT has prioritised research. This is reflected in the virtual unanimity among the 102 respondents that research is essential to their job despite their heavy teaching loads. Overall, the study finds that most (over 65% continue to rely on the library for access to print and electronic resources. It finds a heavy emphasis on the traditional functions of an academic library, such as resource and information management. A few gaps emerge between the delivery of library services and researchers’ desires. For example, very few attend the library’s scheduled database training workshops; yet most see database training as one of the library’s key contributions to research. The most pressing desire is to be kept informed of new research in their fields; yet only a minority experience this level of service and less than half express confidence in the discipline knowledge of librarians.

  17. [Influenza vaccination of hospital healthcare staff from the perspective of the employer: a positive balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, Eelko; Knol, Lisanne M; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J

    2010-01-01

    To assess the annual productivity loss among hospital healthcare workers attributable to influenza and to estimate the costs and economic benefits of a vaccination programme from the perspective of the the employer. Cost-benefit analysis. The percentage of work loss due to influenza was determined using monthly age and gender specific figures for productivity loss among healthcare workers of the University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), the Netherlands over the period January 2006-June 2008. Influenza periods were determined on the basis of national surveillance data. The average increase in productivity loss in these periods was estimated by comparison with the periods outside influenza seasons. The direct costs of productivity loss from the perspective of the employer were estimated using the friction cost method. In the sensitivity analyses various modelling parameters were varied, such as the vaccination coverage. In the UMCG, with approximately 9,400 employees, the estimated annual costs associated with productivity loss due to influenza before the introduction of the yearly influenza vaccination program were € 675,242 or on average, € 72 per employee. The economic benefits of the current vaccination program with a vaccination coverage of 24% with a vaccine effectiveness of 71% were estimated at € 89,858 or € 10 per employee. The nett economic benefits of a vaccination program with a target vaccination coverage of 70% with a vaccine effectiveness of 71% were estimated at € 244,325 or € 26 per employee. This modelling study performed from the perspective of the employer showed that an annual influenza vaccination programme for hospital personnel can save costs.

  18. Consumer perspectives of medication-related problems following discharge from hospital in Australia: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eassey, Daniela; Smith, Lorraine; Krass, Ines; McLAchlan, Andrew; Brien, Jo-Anne

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consumer's perspectives and experiences regarding medication related problems (MRPs) following discharge from hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online 80-question survey. Survey participants were recruited through an online market research company. Five hundred and six participants completed the survey. Participants were included if they were aged 50 years or older, taking 5 or more prescription medicines, had been admitted to hospital with a minimum stay of 24 h, admitted to hospital within the last 4 months and discharged from hospital within the last 1 month. The survey comprised questions measuring: health literacy, health status, medication safety (measured by reported MRPs), missed dose(s), role of health professionals, health services and cost, and socio-demographic status. Descriptive and univariate statistics and logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the predictors of experiencing MRPs. Four main risk factors of MRPs emerged as significant: health literacy (P < 0.05), health status (P < 0.05), consumer engagement (P < 0.05) and cost of medicines (P = 0.001). Participants reporting a lack of perceived control over their medicines (OR 6.3; 95% CI: 3.4-11.8) or those who played less of a role in follow-up discussions with their healthcare professionals (OR 7.6; 95% CI: 1.3-45.7) were more likely to experience a self-reported MRP. This study provides insight into consumers' experiences and perceptions of self-reported MRPs following hospital discharge. Results highlight novel findings demonstrating the importance of consumer engagement in developing processes to ensure medication safety on patient discharge. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of patients with a history of penicillin allergy in a large tertiary-care academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Matthieu; Bégin, Philippe; Bouchard, Hugues; Cloutier, Jonathan; Lacombe-Barrios, Jonathan; Paradis, Jean; Des Roches, Anne; Laufer, Brian; Paradis, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Prescribing antibiotics to patients with a history of penicillin allergy is common in clinical practice. Opting for non-beta-lactam antibiotics has its inconveniences and is often unnecessary, because most of these patients are in fact not allergic. This study aimed to determine how physicians in a large Canadian tertiary-care academic hospital without allergists on staff treat patients with a history of penicillin allergy. A retrospective study was conducted during a 1-year period among all patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit, coronary care unit, and internal medicine wards. Files of patients with a record of penicillin allergy were reviewed to assess the need for antibiotics during their hospitalization and the decision-making process underlying the choice of antibiotic. The additional costs of alternative antibiotics were calculated. The files of 1738 patients admitted over a 1-year period were hand reviewed. A history of penicillin allergy was found in 172 patients (9.9%). The allergic reaction was described in only 30% of cases and left unmentioned in 20.7%. Beta-lactam antibiotics were used on 56 occasions despite a history of penicillin allergy. The use of alternative antibiotics in place of the beta-lactam standard of care carried an additional cost of $15,672 Canadian. Alleged penicillin allergy is common among hospitalized patients and leads to substantial additional costs. Poor documentation of penicillin allergy likely reflects a lack of knowledge on this issue in the medical community, which impairs optimal treatment of these patients. Increased education on this matter is needed, and allergists on staff could be part of the solution. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Physician's practices and perspectives regarding tobacco cessation in a teaching hospital in Mysore City, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saud, Mohammed; Madhu, B; Srinath, K M; Ashok, N C; Renuka, M

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco is a leading cause of disease and premature death. Most of the smokers visit a doctor for various health related ailments and thus such clinic visits provide many opportunities for interventions and professional tobacco cessation advice. The primary aim of the following study is to assess the physician practices, perspectives, resources, barriers and education relating to tobacco cessation and their perceived need for training for the same. The secondary aim is to compare the physician's cessation practices from patient's perspective. A descriptive study was conducted in a hospital attached to Medical College in Mysore city, Karnataka. Information about doctor's practices, perspectives and their perceived need for training in tobacco cessation were collected using pre-structured self-administered Questionnaire, which were distributed in person. Patient's practices and perspectives were assessed using a pre-structured Oral Questionnaire. Almost 95% of physicians said that they ask patients about their smoking status and 94% advise them to quit smoking, but only 50% assist the patient to quit smoking and only 28% arrange follow-up visits. Thus, they do not regularly provide assistance to help patients quit, even though 98% of the physicians believed that helping patients to quit was a part of their role. Only 18% and 35% of the physicians said that Undergraduate Medical Education and Post Graduate Medical Education respectively prepared them very well to participate in smoking cessation activities. Tobacco cessation requires repeated and regular assistance. Such assistance is not being provided to patients by attending doctors. Our medical education system is failing to impart the necessary skills to doctors, needed to help patients quit smoking. Reforms in education are needed so as to prepare the physician to effectively address this problem.

  1. An ecological perspective of science and math academic achievement among African American students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Endya Bentley

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), path analytic procedures were performed to test an ecological model of the effects of family, individual and school characteristics on the academic African American students. A distinctive study is the inclusion of school computer use in the model. The study results show that several of the variables directly or indirectly affected 12th grade academic achievement. Furthermore, most of the individual influence variables were directly related to 12 th grade achievement. Two surprising findings from this study were the insignificant effects of family income and school computer use on 12 th grade achievement. Overall, the findings support the notion that family, individual, and school characteristics are important predictors of academic success among African American students.

  2. [Trends and perspectives of nursing administration: a study in the Santa Casa hospital of Belo Horizonte-MG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnol, Carla Aparecida; Ferraz, Clarice Aparecida

    2002-01-01

    The "Santa Casa" Hospital of Belo Horizonte has implemented a new management system that has characterized it as a flexible organization. Based on this context, the authors of this research defined the following objectives: to analyze nursing administration by considering the implementation of the Management System (SIGESC), to describe how the nursing team perceives communication, the decision-making process and interpersonal relationships, to identify possible trends and perspectives present in the administrative practice developed. A time of transition in nursing administration that presents characteristics of classical management and contemporaneous management was shown as well as trends and perspectives that will contribute to the reorganization of nursing work in hospitals.

  3. Positive impact of infection prevention on the management of nosocomial outbreaks at an academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H; Sinha, Bhanu; Lokate, Mariëtte; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; Dinkelacker, Ariane G; Postma, Maarten J; Friedrich, Alexander W

    2016-10-01

    Infection prevention (IP) measures are vital to prevent (nosocomial) outbreaks. Financial evaluations of these are scarce. An incremental cost analysis for an academic IP unit was performed. On a yearly basis, we evaluated: IP measures; costs thereof; numbers of patients at risk for causing nosocomial outbreaks; predicted outbreak patients; and actual outbreak patients. IP costs rose on average yearly with €150,000; however, more IP actions were undertaken. Numbers of patients colonized with high-risk microorganisms increased. The trend of actual outbreak patients remained stable. Predicted prevented outbreak patients saved costs, leading to a positive return on investment of 1.94. This study shows that investments in IP can prevent outbreak cases, thereby saving enough money to earn back these investments.

  4. Validating Student Satisfaction Related to Persistence, Academic Performance, Retention and Career Advancement within ODL Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, Maximus Gorky

    2015-01-01

    Student satisfaction associated with persistence, academic performance, retention, and its relations to career advancement were examined. It was aimed at measuring service quality (Servqual) dimensions as a foundation of satisfaction and how, in what comportments, they were interrelated. The study was conducted under explanatory-design. Data was…

  5. Physical Activity--Academic Achievement: Student and Teacher Perspectives on the "New" Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Doune; Abbott, Rebecca; lisahunter; Hay, Peter; McCuaig, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between physical activity/fitness with cognitive and academic functioning has become a topic of considerable research interest. Increasingly, schooling systems are being expected to respond to these relationships through curricular and extra-curricular interventions. Purpose: This paper reports on the qualitative…

  6. Sentiments and Perspectives of Academics about Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have made a dramatic entry into higher education. Promising to provide an affordable, if not free, education, MOOCs are celebrated for promoting learning in lieu of the physical classroom. This exploratory study employs content analysis to make visible how MOOCs are viewed by academically oriented observers.…

  7. Computer Literacy in Learning Academic English: Iranian EAP Students' and Instructors' Attitudes and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Borzabadi, Davood; Dashtestani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze perceptions of Iranian English for Academic Purposes (EAP) students on their computer literacy levels. A total of 641 undergraduate students of civil engineering and 34 EAP instructors participated in the study. Data collection instruments included questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Findings confirmed that…

  8. Teachers' Perspective on Institutional Barriers to Academic Entrepreneurship--A Case of Uttarakhand State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lalit

    2017-01-01

    The study explores the institutional factors which influence the impact of education in building academic entrepreneurship in higher educational institutes of Uttarakhand state, India. In order to understand the institutional barriers, the author interviewed 68 senior-level educationists, who were working in the capacity of Director General,…

  9. Poor academic performance: A perspective of final year diagnostic radiography students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gqweta, Ntokozo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: A study was conducted on final year diagnostic radiography students at a University of Technology in Durban. The aim of the study was to investigate the final year diagnostic radiography students' opinions and views on academic performance in order to inform teaching and learning methods. The objectives were: •To explore the students' opinions regarding poor performance. •To identify strategies to improve academic performance. Method: A qualitative, interpretive approach was used to explain and understand the students' lived experiences of their academic performances. A short open ended questionnaire was administered to a cohort of final diagnostic radiography students following feedback on a written assessment. Questionnaire responses were then manually captured and analyzed. Results: Five (5) themes were identified that could possibly be associated with poor academic performance. These themes were, poor preparation, lack of independent study, difficulty in understanding learning content and misinterpretation of assessment questions, inefficient studying techniques as well as perceived improvement strategies. Conclusion: Students identified their inadequate preparation and the lack of dedicated independent studying as the main reasons for poor performance. Students preferred to be taught in an assessment oriented manner. However their identified improvement strategies were aligned with the learner centred approach.

  10. An Investigation into Academic Burnout among Taiwanese Adolescents from the Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempted to explore the relations among Taiwanese eighth graders' perceptions of teachers' autonomy support versus psychological control, satisfaction of need for autonomy, work engagement, and academic burnout. Four hundred and seven eighth-grade Taiwanese students completed a self-reported survey assessing the variables…

  11. Determining the Effects of LMS Learning Behaviors on Academic Achievement in a Learning Analytic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS, which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this purpose, the participating students’ online learning behaviors in LMS were examined by using learning analytics for 14 weeks, and the relationship between students’ behaviors and their academic achievements was analyzed, followed by an analysis of their views about the influence of LMS on their academic achievement. The present study, in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected, was carried out with the explanatory mixed method. A total of 71 undergraduate students participated in the study. The results revealed that the students used LMSs as a support to face-to-face education more intensively on course days (at the beginning of the related lessons and at nights on course days and that they activated the content elements the most. Lastly, almost all the students agreed that LMSs helped increase their academic achievement only when LMSs included such features as effectiveness, interaction, reinforcement, attractive design, social media support, and accessibility.

  12. Insecurity of Tenure and Academic Freedom in Adult Education: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldhouse, Roger

    1987-01-01

    This article examines the system under which lecturers were employed in British adult education before the Second World War, when the responsible agencies relied heavily on "full-time part-time tutors" who had no official status or employment security and were thus subject to pressures infringing on their academic freedom. (Author/PGD)

  13. Motivational Perspectives on Student Cheating: Toward an Integrated Model of Academic Dishonesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Tamera B.; Anderman, Eric M.

    2006-01-01

    This article uses theoretical concepts from self-efficacy theory, goal theory, expectancy value, and intrinsic motivation theory as a way to organize the vast and largely atheoretical literature on academic cheating. Specifically, it draws on 3 particular questions that students encounter when deciding whether to cheat: (a) What is my purpose?,…

  14. Predicting Academic Success and Technological Literacy in Secondary Education: A Learning Styles Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsec, Stanislav; Szewczyk-Zakrzewska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the predictive validity of learning styles on academic achievement and technological literacy (TL). For this purpose, secondary school students were recruited (n = 150). An empirical research design was followed where the TL test was used with a learning style inventory measuring learning orientation, processing…

  15. A Psychological Autopsy of the Suicide of an Academically Gifted Student: Researchers' and Parents' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.; Gust-Brey, Karyn; Ball, P. Bonny

    2002-01-01

    A case study of an academically gifted college student who committed suicide resulted in three sets of findings: those that reflected exclusively on the subject's life, those that compared his life with 3 previous psychological autopsies conducted, and those that reflected the parents' observations and experiences of his life. (Contains…

  16. Difficulties of Academic Achievement in Principles of Accounting Courses from the Student Perspective: Evidence from Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailab, Mohamed M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies by researchers and accounting educators explore various factors associated with the success or failure of accounting majors in college level accounting courses. This paper identifies and summarizes the main obstacles associated with low student academic achievement in introductory courses in the College of Accounting at Al-Jabal…

  17. Goal Orientations, Locus of Control and Academic Achievement in Prospective Teachers: An Individual Differences Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulus, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the prospective teachers' locus of control in goal orientations and of both orientations in academic achievement. The participants were 270 undergraduate students studying in different majors at the Faculty of Education in Pamukkale University. Goal Orientations and Locus of Control Scales were…

  18. Self-regulation of learning from the student's perspective and it relatedness with academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation of learning is an important concept for understanding and enhancing the learning process. Self-regulation skills are often associated with the student's academic achievements. The paper offers different approaches and models of learning self-regulation and stresses the most important characteristics of the process of learning self-regulation. The empirical research was aimed at establishing the connectedness of some components of self-regulation and academic achievement. The Motivation and Self-regulation of Learning Scale, based on Pintrich's model of learning self-regulation (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 was adapted for our research. The sample included 111 students from two elementary and two secondary schools. The results show that academic achievement is most positively linked with self-efficiency as a motivational factor of self-regulation, and two more factors of self-regulation, cognitive strategies and social factors showed significant correlations with academic achievement. Based on the accepted model of self-regulation of learning and the obtained results relevant pedagogic implications are discussed.

  19. Studying the Impact of Academic Mobility on Intercultural Competence: A Mixed-Methods Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cots, Josep M.; Aguilar, Marta; Mas-Alcolea, Sònia; Llanes, Àngels

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the study of the impact of academic mobility on the development of students' intercultural competence (IC). Following Byram, IC is seen as comprising the three components of knowledge, behaviour and attitude. The study adopts a mixed-methods approach, analysing the results of a quantitative pre-stay post-stay survey…

  20. Spatial Experiences of High Academic Achievers: Insights from a Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckbacher, Lisa Marie; Okamoto, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between types of spatial experiences and spatial abilities among 13- to 14-year-old high academic achievers. Each participant completed two spatial tasks and a survey assessing favored spatial activities across five categories (computers, toys, sports, music, and art) and three developmental periods (early…

  1. Parental Influences on the Academic Motivation of Gifted Students: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    The home environment that parents provide their gifted children can have a significant impact on academic motivation, yet limited research has focused on this topic. Self-determination theory, a comprehensive framework of motivation, was used in the current study to explore two research questions: (a) What attitudes do parents of gifted students…

  2. Perspectives on Academic Staff Involvement in the Acquisition and Implementation of Educational Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Laurence; Johannesen, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study using both quantitative and qualitative data to uncover the extent and nature of the involvement of academic staff in the processes of acquisition and implementation of educational technologies. Actor-network theory (ANT) is used to inform the design of the study and the analysis of the data. Three main…

  3. Communication Disorders in the School: Perspectives on Academic and Social Success an Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Karen L.; Fletcher, Kathryn; Decker, Blair

    2008-01-01

    The critical role of communication in schools cannot be understated. Communication skills are a necessity both in the academic and social atmosphere of the school environment. Unfortunately, there are a large number of children in the schools today identified with speech and language disorders. This special edition of "Psychology in the Schools"…

  4. A perspective on problems and prospects for academic publishing in Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meadow, M.; Dietz, A.J.; Vandermotten, C.

    2016-01-01

    This commentary highlights problems of inequity in academic publishing in geography that arise from the increasing use of metrics as a measure of research quality. In so doing, we examine patterns in the ranking of geographical journals in the major global databases (e.g. Web of Science, Scopus) and

  5. The Debate Begins: The Rise of Alternate Perspectives in Academic Advising Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Shannon Lynn

    2016-01-01

    With the addition of history to the title of the Theory, Philosophy, and History of Advising Commission of NACADA: The Global Community for Academic Advising, the time has come to reflect on this growing commission as a means to track and record the growth and development of the theoretical debates and questions regarding the field of academic…

  6. Academic Work from a Comparative Perspective: A Survey of Faculty Working Time across 13 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Peter James; Kyvik, Svein

    2012-01-01

    Sociological institutional theory views universities as model driven organizations. The world's stratification system promotes conformity, imitation and isomorphism towards the "best" university models. Accordingly, academic roles may be locally shaped in minor ways, but are defined and measured explicitly in global terms. We test this proposition…

  7. Campus Free Speech, Academic Freedom, and the Problem of the BDS Movement. Perspectives on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Polarizing political beliefs are nothing new on campus, but the tactics employed by supporters of the Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions (BDS) movement create new cause for concern, from the politicization of curricula and academic associations to efforts to silence Israeli speakers to overtly anti-Semitic behavior on campus. In a new essay, the…

  8. Homeland Security Education: Managerial versus Nonmanagerial Market Perspectives of an Academic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Daniel; Henley, Russ; McElreath, David; Lackey, Hilliard; Jones, Don; Gokaraju, Balakrishna; Sumrall, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors discuss the findings of a market study that preceded the offering of an academic program in homeland security. The university disseminated a mail survey to gain data for analysis of variance testing of several hypotheses regarding market perceptions of the intended homeland security program offering. Stratification involved segregating…

  9. Understanding the Changing Role of Academic Librarians from a Psychological Perspective: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Ellen I.; Pung, Stephanie K.

    2011-01-01

    Although issues related to the role of librarians have long been discussed in the literature on academic librarianship, there has been little attempt to incorporate the extensive psychological theory and research on role-related issues. In the current article we review the empirical literature on the role of librarians, with a particular focus on…

  10. Economic costs of hospitalized diarrheal disease in Bangladesh: a societal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Ali, Nausad; Huda, Tanvir M; Salim Uzzaman, M; Haider, Sabbir; Rahman, Hafizur; Islam, Ziaul; Khan, Jahangir A M; Van Der Meer, Robert; Morton, Alec

    2018-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a major threat to human health and still represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the burden of the diarrheal diseases is much lower in developed countries, it is a significant public health problem in low and middle-income countries like Bangladesh. Though diarrhea is preventable and managed with low-cost interventions, it is still the leading cause of morbidity according to the patient who sought care from public hospitals in Bangladesh indicating that significant resources are consumed in treating those patients. The aim of the study is to capture the inpatients and outpatient treatment cost of diarrheal disease and to measure the cost burden and coping mechanisms associated with diarrheal illness. This study was conducted in six randomly selected district hospitals from six divisions (larger administrative units) in Bangladesh. The study was performed from the societal perspective which means all types of costs were identified, measured and valued no matter who incurred them. Cost analysis was estimated using the guideline proposed by the World Health Organization for estimating the economic burden of diarrheal diseases. The study adopted quantitative techniques to collect the household and hospital level data including structured and semi-structured questionnaires, observation checklists, analysis of hospital database, telephone interviews and compilation of service statistics. The average total societal cost of illness per episode was BDT 5274.02 (US $ 67.18) whereas the average inpatient and outpatient costs were BDT 8675.09 (US $ 110.51) and BDT 1853.96 (US $ 23.62) respectively. The cost burden was significantly highest for poorest households, 21.45% of household income, compared to 4.21% of the richest quintile. Diarrheal diseases continue to be an overwhelming problem in Bangladesh. The economic impact of any public health interventions (either preventive or promotive) that can reduce the prevalence

  11. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Staphylococcus species isolated from cats presented at a veterinary academic hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qekwana, Daniel Nenene; Sebola, Dikeledi; Oguttu, James Wabwire; Odoi, Agricola

    2017-09-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in both human and veterinary medicine. This study investigated the proportion of antimicrobial resistant samples and resistance patterns of Staphylococcus isolates from cats presented at a veterinary teaching hospital in South Africa. Records of 216 samples from cats that were submitted to the bacteriology laboratory of the University of Pretoria academic veterinary hospital between 2007 and 2012 were evaluated. Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 drugs using the disc diffusion method. Chi square and Fisher's exact tests were used to assess simple associations between antimicrobial resistance and age group, sex, breed and specimen type. Additionally, associations between Staphylococcus infection and age group, breed, sex and specimen type were assessed using logistic regression. Staphylococcus spp. isolates were identified in 17.6% (38/216) of the samples submitted and 4.6% (10/216) of these were unspeciated. The majority (61.1%,11/18) of the isolates were from skin samples, followed by otitis media (34.5%, 10/29). Coagulase Positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) comprised 11.1% (24/216) of the samples of which 7.9% (17/216) were S. intermedius group and 3.2% (7/216) were S. aureus. Among the Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (1.9%, 4/216), S. felis and S. simulans each constituted 0.9% (2/216). There was a significant association between Staphylococcus spp. infection and specimen type with odds of infection being higher for ear canal and skin compared to urine specimens. There were higher proportions of samples resistant to clindamycin 34.2% (13/25), ampicillin 32.4% (2/26), lincospectin 31.6% (12/26) and penicillin-G 29.0% (11/27). Sixty three percent (24/38) of Staphylococcus spp. were resistant to one antimicrobial agent and 15.8% were multidrug resistant (MDR). MDR was more common among S. aureus 28.6% (2/7) than S. intermedius group isolates 11.8% (2

  12. Perceptions of Yoga Therapy Embedded in Two Inpatient Rehabilitation Hospitals: Agency Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Van Puymbroeck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inpatient medical rehabilitation has maintained a typical medical-model focus and structure for many years. However, as integrative therapies, such as yoga therapy, emerge as treatments which can enhance the physical and mental health of its participants, it is important to determine if they can be easily implemented into the traditional rehabilitation structure and milieu. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of key agency personnel on the feasibility and utility of yoga therapy implemented in inpatient rehabilitation. This study reports the results of focus groups and an individual interview with key stakeholders (administrators and rehabilitation therapists from two rehabilitation hospitals following the implementation of yoga therapy. Results focused on several key themes: feasibility from the therapist and administrator perspectives, challenges to implementation, and utility and benefit. Overall, the implementation and integration of yoga therapy were positive; however, some programmatic and policy and organizational considerations remain. Implications for practice and future research are provided.

  13. Mental health nurses' perspective of workplace violence in Jordanian mental health hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azzam, Manar; Al-Sagarat, Ahmad Yahya; Tawalbeh, Loai; Poedel, Robin J

    2017-10-27

    The purpose was to assess the mental health nurses' perspectives of workplace violence in mental health departments in Jordan. A cross-sectional correlation study was utilized to address the study's purposes. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires from nurses working in governmental mental health departments in Jordan. The findings indicated that 80% of the respondents were victims of at least one violent act in the last 2 years. Verbal abuse was the most indicated type of violence. Patients were considered the main source of violence. Policies and legislations addressing workplace violence should be implemented, and nurses should be trained on using such policies. Hospital managers should create a safe work environment by enforcing effective security measures and maintaining adequate staffing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Intracranial suppuration: Review of an 8-year experience at Umtata General Hospital and Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwary, M A

    2015-09-21

    Intracranial suppuration (ICS) is a life-threatening condition caused by various disease processes and consisting of brain abscess and extradural and subdural empyema. The major causes have changed over the decades. To the author's knowledge, the incidence of ICS in South Africa (SA) has not been established. To determine the incidence of ICS, overall and according to age and gender, and to identify the source and distribution of ICS. The archive of the radiology departments at Umtata General Hospital and Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital in the Transkei region, Eastern Cape Province, SA, was searched retrospectively for computed tomography (CT) reports of patients diagnosed with ICS. Cases in which the CT images, patients' clinical information and CT reports were available for an uninterrupted period of at least 1 year were included. Five time frames were established, encompassing 8 years of data. The first time frame established an incidence of ICS of 1/100,000/year for the Transkei region. All the time frames were utilised to determine the incidence according to gender and age, and the source and distribution of ICS. The incidence of ICS was higher among males than females, and highest in the age groups 0-10 and 11-20 years. A seasonal variation in the incidence of sinusitis- and meningitis-related ICS was noted. Numbers of cases declined during the last 3 years of the study period. Sinusitis, head trauma, ear infection and meningitis were the major sources of ICS. A pulmonary source was not a major feature. In the last 4 years, trauma became the commonest source of ICS. A steady decline in ear infection- and meningitis-related ICS was noted.

  15. Comparing the perspectives of managers and employees of teaching hospitals about job motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbifar, Rafat; Zakaria Kiaei, Mohammad; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Mohseni, Mohammad

    2014-07-15

    Recognition of career motivators and understanding of managers and employees in prioritizing them, in order to plan incentives for this understanding, can play an important role in increasing productivity and creating harmony between the goals of the organization and staff. This study was done to survey the importance of career motivating factors from perspective of employees and managers in educational hospitals of Iran. In this study 269 from a total of 1843 employees of educational hospitals in Qazvin province of Iran were selected through Quota-Random sampling and studied along with all 49 Managers. Lawrence Lindale questionnaire with 10 factors where used in order to determine motivational priorities. The results indicated that among the 10 studied motivational factors, from employees' viewpoint; "Good wages", "Good Working Conditions" and "Job Security" have the greatest roles in motivating employees. In the context of perspective agreement amongst employees and managers, the results showed 20 percent agreement. In this study, results of "Independent T" test showed a significant difference in comparison, between prioritizing employees' view and prediction of managers in the factors of "Job Security" (p = 0/031) and "Interesting Work" (p = 0/001). With respect to increase disagreement in the views of managers and employees as compared to previous studies, Managers need to pay more attention to cognition of motivational factors and make their viewpoints closer to actual motivational need of their employees. Attention to this fact can be a great help to the growth and productivity of the organization, making the organizational and individual goals closer and also keeping managers safe from execution of constant and undue motivational patterns.

  16. Academic Training Lectures | Black Holes from a Particle Physics Perspective | 18-19 November

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Black Holes from a Particle Physics Perspective by Georgi Dvali   Tuesday 18 and Wednesday 19 November 2014 from 11 am to 12 noon at CERN ( 40-S2-A01 - Salle Anderson ) Description: We will review the physics of black holes, both large and small, from a particle physicist's perspective, using particle physics tools for describing concepts such as entropy, temperature and quantum information processing. We will also discuss microscopic pictures of black hole formation in high energy particle scattering, potentially relevant for high-energy accelerator experiments, and some differences and similarities with the signatures of other BSM physics. See the Indico page here.

  17. Predictors of Academic Performance and School Engagement--Integrating Persistence, Motivation and Study Skills Perspectives Using Person-Centered and Variable-Centered Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Dias, Paulo; Vaz, Filipa Machado; Vaz, Joao Machado

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need for the integration of various theoretical perspectives on academic performance, especially the theories on educational persistence, and motivational theories. Recent models of students' engagement with school incorporate different dimensions of students, family and school. However, some authors are arguing that academic…

  18. Validating Student Satisfaction Related to Persistence, Academic Performance, Retention and Career Advancement within ODL Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximus Gorky Sembiring

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Student satisfaction associated with persistence, academic performance, retention, and its relations to career advancement were examined. It was aimed at measuring service quality (Servqual dimensions as a foundation of satisfaction and how, in what comportments, they were interrelated. The study was conducted under explanatory-design. Data was collected proportionally and purposively followed by congregating them through unified interviews. Population was 1,814 Universitas Terbuka students domiciled overseas; 350 questionnaires were dispersed, 169 completed. Satisfaction was assessed by examining Servqual dimensions. Importance-performance analysis (IPA and customer-satisfaction index (CSI were applied to measure satisfaction and the level of its importance. Structural equation model (SEM was then employed to examine influencing variables. Nine hypotheses developed were all validated by the analysis. Responsiveness, assurance, tangible, reliability, and empathy were in harmony to satisfaction. Career advancement, retention, academic performance, and persistence were influenced by satisfaction. Qualitative inquiry implemented afterwards was basically coherent with the quantitative findings.

  19. Determining the Effects of LMS Learning Behaviors on Academic Achievement in a Learning Analytic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-01-01

    Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS), which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this pur...

  20. A Comparison of Three Major Academic Rankings for World Universities: From a Research Evaluation Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces three current major university ranking systems. The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities by Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT Ranking) emphasizes both the quality and quantity of research and current research performance. The Academic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiao Tung University (ARWU) focuses on outstanding performance of universities with indicators such as Nobel Prize winners. The QS Wo...

  1. Explaining the Increase in Publication Productivity among Academic Staff: A Generational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyvik, Svein; Aksnes, Dag W.

    2015-01-01

    In Norwegian research universities, a large individual increase has taken place in scientific and scholarly publishing over the last 30 years. The purpose of this article is to explain the reasons for this growth in a generational perspective. We put forward six hypotheses that can be illuminated by cross-sectional data drawn from five surveys to…

  2. Perspectives of Community Co-Researchers About Group Dynamics and Equitable Partnership Within a Community-Academic Research Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Lisa M; Jacquez, Farrah; Zhen-Duan, Jenny

    2018-04-01

    Equitable partnership processes and group dynamics, including individual, relational, and structural factors, have been identified as key ingredients to successful community-based participatory research partnerships. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the key aspects of group dynamics and partnership from the perspectives of community members serving as co-researchers. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 Latino immigrant co-researchers from an intervention project with Latinos Unidos por la Salud (LU-Salud), a community research team composed of Latino immigrant community members and academic investigators working in a health research partnership. A deductive framework approach guided the interview process and qualitative data analysis. The LU-Salud co-researchers described relationships, personal growth, beliefs/identity motivation (individual dynamics), coexistence (relational dynamics), diversity, and power/resource sharing (structural dynamics) as key foundational aspects of the community-academic partnership. Building on existing CBPR and team science frameworks, these findings demonstrate that group dynamics and partnership processes are fundamental drivers of individual-level motivation and meaning making, which ultimately sustain efforts of community partners to engage with the research team and also contribute to the achievement of intended research outcomes.

  3. The treatment of ‘difficult’ patients in a secure unit of a specialized psychiatric hospital: the patient's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Gamel; B. Koekkoek; prof Berno van Meijel; M. Bos; Nienke Kool

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain insight, from a patient's perspective, into the results and essential components of treatment in specialist settings for so-called ‘difficult’ patients in mental health care. In cases where usual hospital treatment is not successful, a temporary transfer to

  4. The treatment of 'difficult' patients in a secure unit of a specialized psychiatric hospital : The patient's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kool-Goudzwaard; Bauke van Koekkoek; C.J. Gamel; M. Bos; B. Meijel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain insight, from a patient's perspective, into the results and essential components of treatment in specialist settings for so-called 'difficult' patients in mental health care. In cases where usual hospital treatment is not successful, a temporary transfer to

  5. The role of selective attention on academic foundations: A cognitive neuroscience perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Bavelier, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    To the extent that selective attention skills are relevant for academic foundations and amenable to training, they represent an important focus for the field of education. Here, drawing on research on the neurobiology of attention, we review hypothesized links between selective attention and processing across three domains important to early academic skills. First, we provide a brief review of the neural bases of selective attention, emphasizing the effects of selective attention on neural processing, as well as the neural systems important to deploying selective attention and managing response conflict. Second, we examine the developmental time course of selective attention. It is argued that developmental differences in selective attention are related to the neural systems important for deploying selective attention and managing response conflict. In contrast, once effectively deployed, selective attention acts through very similar neural mechanisms across ages. In the third section, we relate the processes of selective attention to three domains important to academic foundations: language, literacy, and mathematics. Fourth, drawing on recent literatures on the effects of video-game play and mind-brain training on selective attention, we discuss the possibility of training selective attention. The final section examines the application of these principles to educationally-focused attention-training programs for children. PMID:22682909

  6. The role of selective attention on academic foundations: a cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Bavelier, Daphne

    2012-02-15

    To the extent that selective attention skills are relevant for academic foundations and amenable to training, they represent an important focus for the field of education. Here, drawing on research on the neurobiology of attention, we review hypothesized links between selective attention and processing across three domains important to early academic skills. First, we provide a brief review of the neural bases of selective attention, emphasizing the effects of selective attention on neural processing, as well as the neural systems important to deploying selective attention and managing response conflict. Second, we examine the developmental time course of selective attention. It is argued that developmental differences in selective attention are related to the neural systems important for deploying selective attention and managing response conflict. In contrast, once effectively deployed, selective attention acts through very similar neural mechanisms across ages. In the third section, we relate the processes of selective attention to three domains important to academic foundations: language, literacy, and mathematics. Fourth, drawing on recent literatures on the effects of video-game play and mind-brain training on selective attention, we discuss the possibility of training selective attention. The final section examines the application of these principles to educationally-focused attention-training programs for children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tinto's Theoretical Perspective and Expectancy-Value Paradigm: A confrontation to explain freshmen's academic achievement

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    Sandrine Neuville

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, success in postsecondary education has preoccupied psychological and educational researchers. In this respect, Tinto's student integration model (1982, 1997 is one of the most frequently cited models. Tinto proposed that students' background characteristics, initial intentions and aspirations towards college influence their academic and social integration, which in turn affect their persistence. Unfortunately, although this model is an integrative one, it does not take motivational variables such as students' self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997; Bong & Skaalvik, 2003 and students' subjective value of academic tasks (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Neuville, 2004 into account although their impact on learning has been widely demonstrated (Robbins, Lauver, Le, Davis, & Langley, 2004. The purpose of this study, conducted with 2637 first-year university students from all the Bachelor's degree programs of a Belgian university, is to compare, through structural equation models, the explanatory power of these two research traditions (students' integration, on the one hand, and a motivational paradigm, on the other hand in predicting students' academic performance.

  8. Evaluating Midwives Communication Skills from the Perspective of Parturient Women Attending to Hospitals for Delivery

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    Maryam Sadat Katebi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Communication is a fundamental human need. Medical students and healthcare professionals must be attuned to the needs of patients using effective communication skills. With regards to medical training, currently the focus is on theoretical matters and communication skills are taken for granted. This problem has caused miscommunication with patients referred to teaching hospitals. We conducted this study to assess communication skills of midwives from the perspective of parturient women. Methods: In this descriptive study, we evaluated 50 midwives working in maternity wards of Ghaem, Imam Reza, Omolbanin, and Hasheminejad hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. Three parturient women were selected per one midwife in a maternity ward. The parturient women participating in this study were in labor, delivery, admission or postpartum stages and completed the Interpersonal Communication Skills inventory by interview. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation were performed, using SPSS 16. Results: The mean scores of communication behaviors of midwives with parturient in delivery, admission, and postpartum stages were 92.61±10.81, 93.31±10.59, and 94.19±8.26, respectively. Between the previous delivery of parturient, with communication behavior of midwives in the stage of admiss­ion or post-partum (P=0.015 and satisfaction of pregnancy with communication behavior of midwife in labor stage (P

  9. The impact of ED nurse manager leadership style on staff nurse turnover and patient satisfaction in academic health center hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, Glenn H

    2008-10-01

    Nurse managers with effective leadership skills are an essential component to the solution for ending the nursing shortage. Empirical studies of existing ED nurse manager leadership styles and their impact on key nurse management outcomes such as staff nurse turnover and patient satisfaction have not been performed. The specific aims of this study were to determine what types of leadership styles were used by ED nurse managers in academic health center hospitals and examine their influence on staff nurse turnover and patient satisfaction. ED nurse managers were asked to complete the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and a 10-item researcher defined nurse manager role and practice demographics survey. Completed surveys (15 managers and 30 staff nurses) representing 15 out of 98 possible U.S. academic health centers were obtained. Fisher's exact test with 95% confidence intervals were used to analyze the data. The sample percentage of managers who exhibited Transformational leadership styles and demographic findings of nurse manager age, total years experience and length of time in current position matched current reports in the literature. A trend of lower staff nurse turnover with Transformational leadership style compared to non-Trasformational leadership styles was identified. However, the type of leadership style did not appear to have an effect on patient satisfaction. The ED is an ever-changing, highly regulated, critical-care environment. Effective ED nurse manager leadership strategies are vital to maintaining the standards of professional emergency nursing practice to create an environment that can produce management outcomes of decreased staff nurse turnover, thereby enhancing staff nurse retention and potentially impacting patient satisfaction.

  10. Protecting and promoting mental health of nurses in the hospital setting: Is it cost-effective from an employer’s perspective?

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    Cindy Noben

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nurses are at elevated risk of burnout, anxiety and depressive disorders, and may then become less productive. This begs the question if a preventive intervention in the work setting might be cost-saving from a business perspective. Material and Methods: A cost-benefit analysis was conducted to evaluate the balance between the costs of a preventive intervention among nurses at elevated risk of mental health complaints and the cost offsets stemming from improved productivity. This evaluation was conducted alongside a cluster-randomized trial in a Dutch academic hospital. The control condition consisted of screening without feedback and unrestricted access to usual care (N = 206. In the experimental condition screen-positive nurses received personalized feedback and referral to the occupational physician (N = 207. Results: Subtracting intervention costs from the cost offsets due to reduced absenteeism and presenteeism resulted in net-savings of 244 euros per nurse when only absenteeism is regarded, and 651 euros when presenteeism is also taken into account. This corresponds to a return-on-investment of 5 euros up to 11 euros for every euro invested. Conclusions: Within half a year, the cost of offering the preventive intervention was more than recouped. Offering the preventive intervention represents a favorable business case as seen from the employer’s perspective.

  11. Going Beyond Academic Integrity Might Broaden our Understanding of Plagiarism in Science Education: A Perspective from a Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Christiane C; Santos, Patrícia S Dos; Sant'ana, Maurício C; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Barboza, Monica B; Vasconcelos, Sonia M R

    2017-05-01

    Fostering innovation and creativity is a priority in the science and education policy agenda of most countries, which have advocated that innovative minds and processes will boost scientific and economic growth. While our knowledge society has embraced this view, fostering creativity is among the major challenges faced by educators and policymakers. For example, plagiarism, which may be considered a form of imitation and repetition, is a global concern at schools and universities. However, most discussions focus on academic integrity, which, we believe, leaves some gaps in the approach to the problem. As part of an ongoing project on plagiarism, science and education policy, we show results from a survey sent to 143 high-school science teachers at one of the most highly regarded federal schools in Brazil. Among respondents (n=42), about 50% admit that students plagiarize in assignments. Additionally, many of these educators suggest that the way biology, chemistry and physics are taught at school stimulates more repetition than creativity. Our findings are consistent with the need for a broader perspective on plagiarism and with initiatives to stimulate creativity and critical thinking among students. Although we offer a perspective from Brazil, it may illuminate current discussions on plagiarism, particularly in emerging countries.

  12. Going Beyond Academic Integrity Might Broaden our Understanding of Plagiarism in Science Education: A Perspective from a Study in Brazil

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    CHRISTIANE C. SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fostering innovation and creativity is a priority in the science and education policy agenda of most countries, which have advocated that innovative minds and processes will boost scientific and economic growth. While our knowledge society has embraced this view, fostering creativity is among the major challenges faced by educators and policymakers. For example, plagiarism, which may be considered a form of imitation and repetition, is a global concern at schools and universities. However, most discussions focus on academic integrity, which, we believe, leaves some gaps in the approach to the problem. As part of an ongoing project on plagiarism, science and education policy, we show results from a survey sent to 143 high-school science teachers at one of the most highly regarded federal schools in Brazil. Among respondents (n=42, about 50% admit that students plagiarize in assignments. Additionally, many of these educators suggest that the way biology, chemistry and physics are taught at school stimulates more repetition than creativity. Our findings are consistent with the need for a broader perspective on plagiarism and with initiatives to stimulate creativity and critical thinking among students. Although we offer a perspective from Brazil, it may illuminate current discussions on plagiarism, particularly in emerging countries.

  13. NEONATAL SURGERY, A STUDY OF TWO YEARS AT NELSON MANDELA ACADEMIC HOSPITAL, MTHATHA, EASTERN CAPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A; Cejas, A; Bangasa, D

    2017-09-01

    Advances in diagnostic techniques and perioperative care have greatly improved the outcome of neonatal surgery. Despite this, disparity still exists in the outcome of neonatal surgery between developed and developing countries. We performed a prospective study of neonates admitted and treated due to surgical congenital diseases and other conditions in our hospital from April 2015 to April 2017. There were 19 (28,7%) females and 47 (70,3%) males in this group. It was found that 41 neonates had 7 days after birth or less by a 62% and 25 with more than 7 days by 38%. The Anorectal malformations (ARM) were the most frequent congenital anomaly in 21 patients (47%), followed by Gastroquises with 7 neonates (10,6%), Omphalocele with 8 (12%), and Oesophagus Atresia in 5 neonates (7,5%). Intestinal Malrotation with midgut volvulus, Pyloric Stenoses and Duodenal Atresia in 4 neonates (6,2 % each). Others alterations such as, Ileal Atresia, Strangulated Inguinal Hernia, Limb Gangrene, Necrotizing Enterocolitis, Sacro Coxigeal Theratoma, Megacolon Aganglionic, Colon perforation, Gastric perforation and Hydromethrocolpus accounted in 13 neonates by 19,7% from the total of patients. Ten babies died (15%). We conclude that Anorectal Malformations, Gastroquises and Omphalocele were the most frequent malformations. Considering the mortality is above the average of developed countries this could be improved by increasing the knowledge about the neonatal surgery characteristics among medical doctors and improving the necessary facilities and back up.

  14. A Growing Opportunity: Community Gardens Affiliated with US Hospitals and Academic Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Hanson, Ryan; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    Community gardens can reduce public health disparities through promoting physical activity and healthy eating, growing food for underserved populations, and accelerating healing from injury or disease. Despite their potential to contribute to comprehensive patient care, no prior studies have investigated the prevalence of community gardens affiliated with US healthcare institutions, and the demographic characteristics of communities served by these gardens. In 2013, national community garden databases, scientific abstracts, and public search engines (e.g., Google Scholar) were used to identify gardens. Outcomes included the prevalence of hospital-based community gardens by US regions, and demographic characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, education, household income, and obesity rates) of communities served by gardens. There were 110 healthcare-based gardens, with 39 in the Midwest, 25 in the South, 24 in the Northeast, and 22 in the West. Compared to US population averages, communities served by healthcare-based gardens had similar demographic characteristics, but significantly lower rates of obesity (27% versus 34%, p gardens are located in regions that are demographically representative of the US population, and are associated with lower rates of obesity in communities they serve.

  15. Needs of relatives of critically ill patients in an academic hospital in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Fortunatti, C; Rojas-Silva, N; Amthauer-Rojas, M; Molina-Muñoz, Y

    To identify the importance of the needs of family members of patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). Descriptive, comparative and cross-sectional study based on a secondary data analysis of 251 relatives of ICU patients at a university hospital in Santiago, Chile. Using non-random sampling, the 'Critical Care Family Needs Inventory' was used to establish the family needs, as well as a sociodemographic questionnaire that included: age, gender, educational level, patient relationship and previous ICU experience. A descriptive statistical analysis, Student's T test and ANOVA were performed. The most important family needs related to the dimensions of 'security' (mean=3.90) and 'information' (mean=3.76), while those of minor importance with 'support' (mean=3.09). In the latter, differences were observed at an older age (P<.05), an educational level (P<.001) and relationship with the patient (P<.05). The most relevant needs for family members in the ICU are related to safety and information. Less important needs are influenced by certain sociodemographic variables. Identifying the degree of importance of family needs will allow the health team to improve its relationship with families in ICUs. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Stakeholder perspectives and reactions to "academic" cognitive enhancement: Unsuspected meaning of ambivalence and analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric

    2012-07-01

    The existence of diverging discourses in the media and academia on the use of prescription medications to improve cognition in healthy individuals, i.e. "cognitive enhancement" (CE) creates the need to better understand perspectives from stakeholders. This qualitative focus-group study examined perspectives from students, parents and healthcare providers on CE. Stakeholders expressed ambivalence regarding CE (i.e. reactions to, definitions of, risks, and benefits). They were reluctant to adopt analogies to performance-enhancing steroids and caffeine though these analogies were useful in discussing concepts common to the use of different performance-enhancing substances. Media coverage of CE was criticized for lack of scientific rigor, ethical clarity, and inadvertent promotion of CE. Ambivalence of stakeholders suggests fundamental discomfort with economic and social driving forces of CE. Forms of public dialogue that voice the unease and ambivalence of stakeholders should be pursued to avoid opting hastily for permissive or restrictive health policies for CE.

  17. Readability of pediatric otolaryngology information by children's hospitals and academic institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Levi, Jessica R

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate the readability of pediatric otolaryngology-related patient education materials from leading online sources. Cross-sectional analysis. All pediatric otolaryngology-related articles from the online patient health libraries of the top 10 US News & World Report-ranked children's hospitals, top 5 Doximity-ranked pediatric otolaryngology fellowships, and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery were collected. Each article was copied in plain text format into a blank document. Web page navigation, appointment information, references, author information, appointment information, acknowledgements, and disclaimers were removed. Follow-up editing was also performed to remove paragraph breaks, colons, semicolons, numbers, percentages, and bullets. Readability grade was calculated using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease Score, Gunning-Fog Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were assessed. A total of 502 articles were analyzed. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were both excellent, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 and 0.96, respectively. The average readability grade across all authorships and readability assessments exceeded the reading ability of the average American adult. Only 142 articles (28.3%) were written at or below the reading ability of the average American adult, whereas the remaining 360 articles (71.7%) were written above the reading level of the average adult. Current online health information related to pediatric otolaryngology may be too difficult for the average reader to understand. Revisions may be necessary for current materials to benefit a larger readership. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E138-E144, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Reasons for inpatients not to seek clarity at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria

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    Langalibalele H. Mabuza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare practitioners should provide patients with information regarding their clinical conditions. Patients should also feel free to seek clarity on information provided. However, not all patients seek this clarity. Objectives: To explore the reasons inpatients gave for not seeking clarity on information that was received but not understood. Methods: This was a qualitative arm of a larger study, titled ‘Are inpatients aware of the admission reasons and management plans of their clinical conditions? A survey at a tertiary hospital in South Africa’, conducted in 2010. Of the 264 inpatients who participated in the larger study, we extracted the unstructured responses from those participants (n = 152 who had indicated in the questionnaire that there was information they had not understood during their encounter with healthcare practitioners, but that they had nonetheless not sought clarity.Data were analysed thematically. Results: Themes that emerged were that inpatients did not ask for clarity as they perceived healthcare practitioners to be ‘too busy’, aloof, non-communicators and sometimes uncertain about patients’ conditions. Some inpatients had unquestioning trust in healthcare practitioners,whilst others had experiences of bad treatment. Inpatients had poor self-esteem, incapacitating clinical conditions, fear of bad news and prior knowledge of their clinical conditions. Some inpatients stated that they had no reason for not seeking clarity. Conclusion: The reasons for not seeking clarity were based on patients’ experiences with the healthcare practitioners and their perceptions of the latter and of themselves. A programme should be developed in order to educate inpatients on effective communication with their healthcare practitioners.

  19. Letramento acadêmico: uma perspectiva etramento portuguesa = Academic literacy: a Portuguese perspective

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    Adriana Fischer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Os modos de constituição letrada de alunos universitários, no meio acadêmico, é foco deste trabalho, realizado em Portugal, no ano de 2006. Os dados que integram as análises advêm de entrevistas orais semiestruturadas realizadas com alunos do curso de Letras da Universidade do Minho. São selecionadas as falas de quatro alunas, a fim de se proceder a discussões específicas e coerentes ao objetivo proposto: analisar como alunos constituem-se sujeitos letrados no meio acadêmico. A teoria do letramento como prática social direciona as discussões e análises dos resultados advindos das falas vivas das alunas. Em acréscimo, abordagens relativas ao letramento acadêmico são decisivas para a compreensão das práticas letradas nesse contexto social. Na perspectiva das quatro alunas/sujeitos da pesquisa, experiências anteriores ao ingresso no curso de Letras e,principalmente, as diversas formas de interação no meio acadêmico interferem no uso, no domínio da linguagem e na formação como professoras. Das falas das alunas emerge uma tensão constante entre ser aluno e ser professor, o que indica uma constituição letrada emconflito, no que tange ao ensino de língua em Letras.Current analysis deals with modes of literate constituency of undergraduate students in an academic environment. Study hasbeen undertaken in Portugal in 2006. Data for analysis hailed from half-structured interviews with students in a Language and Literature graduation course at the University of Minho, Portugal. Samples of responses by four students were selected for specific discussions and with the proposed objective of this study, or rather, to analyze the way students constitute themselves as literate subjects in the academic environment. Literacy theory as social practice guided thediscussions and analyses of results from the interviews. Approaches related to academic literacy are crucial for the understanding of the literate practices in this social

  20. Barcode Technology Acceptance and Utilization in Health Information Management Department at Academic Hospitals According to Technology Acceptance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehteshami, Asghar

    2017-03-01

    Nowdays, due to the increasing importance of quality care, organizations focuse on the improving provision, management and distribution of health. On one hand, incremental costs of the new technologies and on the other hand, increased knowledge of health care recipients and their expectations for high quality services have doubled the need to make changes in order to respond to resource constraints (financial, human, material). For this purpose, several technologies, such as barcode, have been used in hospitals to improve services and staff productivity; but various factors effect on the adoption of new technologies and despite good implementation of a technology and its benefits, sometimes personnel don't accept and don't use it. This is an applied descriptive cross-sectional study in which all the barcode users in health information management department of the three academic hospitals (Feiz, Al-Zahra, Ayatollah Kashani) affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were surveyed by the barcode technology acceptance questionnaire, in six areas as following: barcode ease of learning, capabilities, perception of its usefulness and its ease of use, users attitudes towards its using, and users intention. The finding showed that barcode technology total acceptance was relatively desirable (%76.9); the most compliance with TAM model was related to the user perceptions about the ease of use of barcode technology and the least compliance was related to the ease of learning barcode technology (respectively %83.7 and %71.5). Ease of learning and barcode capability effect of usefulness and perceived ease of barcode technology. Users perceptions effect their attitudes toward greater use of technology and their attitudes have an effect on their intention to use the technology and finally, their intention makes actual use of the technology (acceptance). Therefore, considering the six elements related to technology implementation can be important in the barcode

  1. Why New Hybrid Organizations are Formed: Historical Perspectives on Epistemic and Academic Drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiserfeld, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    By comparing three types of hybrid organizations-18th-century scientific academies, 19th-century institutions of higher vocational education, and 20th-century industrial research institutes-it is the purpose here to answer the question of why new hybrid organizations are continuously formed. Traditionally, and often implicitly, it is often assumed that emerging groups of potential knowledge users have their own organizational preferences and demands influencing the setup of new hybrid organizations. By applying the concepts epistemic and academic drift, it will be argued here, however, that internal organizational dynamics are just as important as changing historical conjunctures in the uses of science when understanding why new hybrid organizations are formed. Only seldom have older hybrid organizations sought to make themselves relevant to new categories of knowledge users as the original ones have been marginalized. Instead, they have tended to accede to ideals supported by traditional academic organizations with higher status in terms of knowledge management, primarily universities. Through this process, demand has been generated for the founding of new hybrid organizations rather than the transformation of existing ones. Although this study focuses on Swedish cases, it is argued that since Sweden strove consistently to implement existing international policy trends during the periods in question, the observations may be generalized to apply to other national and transnational contexts.

  2. Segregation and Socialization: Academic Segregation and Citizenship Attitudes of Adolescents in Comparative Perspective?

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    Dimokritos Kavadias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is a tendency to assess educational systems in terms of their efficiency in gaining high scores on cognitive skills. Schools perform, however, also a socializing function. The whole policy debate tends to ignore the impact of educational systems on attitudes or democratic values. This contribution focuses on the impact of the organization of education in European societies on the civic attitudes of adolescents. Design/methodology/approach: We explore the impact of academic segregation – the practice of segregating children on the basis of their scholastic achievement – on attitudes of adolescents living in different educational systems. We use the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (2009 relying on multilevel models. Findings: Pupils differ in their outlook on fellow citizens, according to the ways in which educational systems select and differentiate throughout school careers. More specifically, there is a negative impact of academic segregation on the attitudes towards immigrants and ethnic minorities. Research limitations/implications: The experience of adolescents based on their educational achievement seems to affect how they perceive other people. We have not answered the question why this is the case. We hope to have provided a minimal indication of the impact of inequality on social outcomes.

  3. A Retrospective Analysis of Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital Soweto South Africa

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    V Nicolaou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThyroid diseases in pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes for mother and fetus.No studies have been reported examining the spectrum and nature of such disorders in the Black population of South Africa.AimsTo examine thyroid disorders in pregnancy at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Soweto, by assessing the causes, management and outcomes.MethodsA retrospective review of thyroid disorders was undertaken in 88 patients, attending the Antenatal Endocrine Clinic over a four-year period. All underwent initial and follow-up clinical and biochemical assessments.Maternal delivery records and thyroid function tests of the neonates 48 hours or later following delivery were reviewed.ResultsFifty-eight (66% were hyperthyroid, 23(26% hypothyroid, and 7(8% had euthyroid colloid goiters. Forty-eight (83% hyperthyroid patients had Graves’ disease, whilst had gestational hyperthyroidism. Regarding the hypothyroid patients, more than half followed I131 ablation for Graves’ disease. Eighty-seven percent of the hyperthyroid and 83% of the hypothyroid patients were euthyroid prior to delivery. One fatal maternal outcome, due to uterine rupture and six intra-partum fetal losses occurred. Amongst neonates, there was one case of a tracheo-esophageal fistula and one of neonatal thyrotoxicosis.ConclusionThis is the first report in sub-Saharan Africa detailing thyroid diseases in pregnancy.

  4. An investigation of diverticular disease among black patients undergoing colonoscopy at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vally, M; Koto, M Z; Govender, M

    2017-01-30

    Diverticular disease was previously thought to be non-existent in the black African population. Studies over the past four decades, however, have shown a steady increase in the prevalence of the disease. To report on the profile and current prevalence of diverticular disease in the black South African (SA) population at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, SA. A retrospective descriptive study was performed in black SA patients who were diagnosed with diverticular disease by colonoscopy between 1 January and 31 December 2015. Of 348 patients who had undergone colonoscopies and who were eligible for inclusion in this study, 47 were diagnosed with diverticular disease - a prevalence of 13.50% (95% confidence interval 10.30 - 17.50). The greatest number of patients diagnosed were in their 7th and 8th decades, with an age range of 46 - 86 (mean 67) years. There was a female predominance of 57.45%. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common (65.96%) indication for colonoscopy. The left colon was most commonly involved (72.34%), followed by the right colon (55.31%). A substantial number of patients had pancolonic involvement (27.65%). This retrospective study suggests that there has been a considerable increase in the prevalence of diverticular disease among black South Africans, possibly owing to changes in dietary habits and socioeconomic status.

  5. An investigation of diverticular disease among black patients undergoing colonoscopy at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vally

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diverticular disease was previously thought to be non-existent in the black African population. Studies over the past four decades, however, have shown a steady increase in the prevalence of the disease. Objective. To report on the profile and current prevalence of diverticular disease in the black South African (SA population at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, SA. Methods. A retrospective descriptive study was performed in black SA patients who were diagnosed with diverticular disease by colonoscopy between 1 January and 31 December 2015. Results. Of 348 patients who had undergone colonoscopies and who were eligible for inclusion in this study, 47 were diagnosed with diverticular disease – a prevalence of 13.50% (95% confidence interval 10.30 - 17.50. The greatest number of patients diagnosed were in their 7th and 8th decades, with an age range of 46 - 86 (mean 67 years. There was a female predominance of 57.45%. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common (65.96% indication for colonoscopy. The left colon was most commonly involved (72.34%, followed by the right colon (55.31%. A substantial number of patients had pancolonic involvement (27.65%. Conclusion. This retrospective study suggests that there has been a considerable increase in the prevalence of diverticular disease among black South Africans, possibly owing to changes in dietary habits and socioeconomic status.

  6. Perceptions of pre-clerkship medical students and academic advisors about sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance: a cross-sectional perspective from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlFakhri, Lama; Sarraj, Jumana; Kherallah, Shouq; Kuhail, Khulood; Obeidat, Akef; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Background The medical student population is believed to be at an increased risk for sleep deprivation. Little is known about students? perceptions towards sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance. The aim of study is to explore the perceptions of medical students and their academic advisors about sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance. Methods The study took place at Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An online, anony...

  7. Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This database contains locations of Hospitals for 50 states and Washington D.C. , Puerto Rico and US territories. The dataset only includes hospital facilities and...

  8. Academic Globalization: Universality of Cross-Cultural And Cross-Disciplinary LMR Perspectives

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    Marta Szabo White

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of this paper suggests that previous research underscoring cross-cultural differences may be misleading, when in fact it is cross-professional rather than cross-cultural differences that should be emphasized. Employing the LMR framework, this paper concludes that business or non-business predisposition has a more direct impact on one's individual cultural profile than does nationality. Regardless of culture, persons involved in business are characterized primarily by linear-active modes of communication, and persons not involved in business typically employ less linear and more multi-active/hybrid modes of communication. The linkages among individual characteristics, communication styles, work behaviors, and the extent to which the LMR constructs can facilitate and predict leadership, negotiating styles, individual behaviors, etc. are central to academic globalization and preparing global business leaders.

  9. Sources of self-efficacy in academic contexts: A longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P; Ngu, Bing H

    2016-12-01

    The formation of self-efficacy, according to Bandura's (1997) social-cognitive theory, is an important area of inquiry. This theoretical tenet posits the importance of enactive learning experience, followed by lesser influences of vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional and physiological states. Quantitative research, predominantly, has produced clear and consistent evidence that supports this position. We argue that the elementary school years may indicate differently, whereby children's limited cognitive maturity and learning experiences could compel them to rely on other psychosocial informational sources. To date and to our knowledge, very few studies, if any, have explored the sustained influence of enactive learning experience across time. In this study, consequently, we tested a sequential predictive model that involved the differential influences of the 4 major informational sources on self-efficacy and then self-efficacy on academic achievement. Three time points of data (N = 328, Year 6) were collected across the calendar year, and Mplus 7.3 (Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2012) was used to assist us in our structural modeling testing. At Time 1, only enactive learning experience and vicarious experience positively influenced self-efficacy. At Time 2, after controlling for prior variance of Time 1 corresponding factors, only enactive learning experience remained significant. At Time 3, after controlling for autoregressive paths, enactive learning experience remained significant, and both verbal persuasion and emotional and physiological states positively influenced self-efficacy. The impact of self-efficacy on academic achievement was significant across the 3 occasions (βs = .20-.46). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Understanding readmission to psychiatric hospital in Australia from the service users' perspective: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhig, Michael; Gunasekara, Imani; Patterson, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Inpatient care is integral to balanced mental health systems, contributing to containment of risk associated with psychiatric crises and affording opportunities for treatment. However, psychiatric wards are not always safe and service users are often dissatisfied with the experience. Hence, and because inpatient care is the most costly component of mental health systems, minimising duration of admission and reducing risk of readmission are clinical and strategic priorities internationally. With (primarily quantitative) research to date focused on explaining readmission in terms of characteristics of individuals and services, understanding of the 'revolving door phenomenon' remains limited. Considering verstehen critical to addressing this messy problem, we examined readmission from the service users' perspective. Using grounded theory techniques, we inductively analysed data from interviews with 13 people readmitted to inpatient care within 28 days of discharge. Participants, including eight men, were recruited in 2013 from three psychiatric wards at a metropolitan hospital in Australia. Analysis supported description of readmission as a process, fundamentally related to insufficiency of internal, interpersonal and/or environmental resources to maintain community tenure. For the people in this study, admission to hospital was either the default coping mechanism or the culmination of counter-productive attempts to manage stressful circumstances. Readmission can appropriately be understood as one representation of a fundamental social malaise and the struggle of some people to survive in an apparently inhospitable world. The findings indicate that neither locating the 'problem of readmission' within an individual and promoting self-governance/self-control/self-regulation, nor identifying failures of specific services or sectors are likely to support the economic and ethical imperative of reducing psychiatric admissions. The findings of the study and limitations

  11. End-of-life care in the general wards of a Singaporean hospital: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Jason; Kee, Adrian Chin-Leong; Tan, Adeline; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; See, Kay Choong; Aung, Ngu Wah; Seah, Angeline S T; Lim, Tow Keang

    2011-12-01

    Despite international differences in cultural perspectives on end-of-life issues, little is known of the care for the dying in the general wards of acute hospitals in Asia. We performed a retrospective medical chart review of all 683 adult patients who died without intensive care unit (ICU) admission in our Singaporean hospital in 2007. We first evaluated the prevalence of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders and orders for or against life-sustaining therapies; second, if such orders were discussed with the patients and/or family members; and third, the actual treatments provided before death. There were DNR orders for 66.2% of patients and neither commitment for DNR nor cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for 28.1%. Orders to limit life-sustaining therapies, including ICU admission, intubation, and vasopressors/inotropes were infrequent. Only 6.2% of the alert and conversant patients with DNR orders were involved in discussions on these orders. In contrast, such discussions with their family members occurred 82.9% of the time. Interventions in the last 24 hours of life included CPR (9.4%), intubation (6.4%), vasopressors/inotropes (14.8%), tube feeding (24.7%), and antibiotics (44.9%). Analgesia was provided in 29.1% of patients. There was a lack of commitment by doctors on orders for DNR/CPR and to limit life-sustaining therapies, infrequent discussions with patients on end-of-life decisions, and excessive burdensome interventions with inadequate palliative care for the dying. These findings may reflect certain Asian cultural biases. More work is required to improve our quality of end-of-life care.

  12. Perceptions of pre-clerkship medical students and academic advisors about sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance: a cross-sectional perspective from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFakhri, Lama; Sarraj, Jumana; Kherallah, Shouq; Kuhail, Khulood; Obeidat, Akef; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    The medical student population is believed to be at an increased risk for sleep deprivation. Little is known about students' perceptions towards sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance. The aim of study is to explore the perceptions of medical students and their academic advisors about sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance. The study took place at Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An online, anonymous, cross-sectional, self-rating survey was administered to first-, third-year students and their academic advisors. Two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the mean 5-point Likert scale responses between students according to gender, academic year and cumulative grade point average (cGPA). A total of 259 students and 21 academic advisors participated in the survey (response rates: 70.6 and 84%, respectively). The vast majority of students agreed that sleep deprivation negatively affects academic performance (78.8%) and mood (78.4%). Around 62.2 and 73.7% of students agreed that the demanding medical curriculum and stress of final exams lead to sleep deprivation, respectively. While 36.7% of students voiced the need for incorporation of curricular separate courses about healthy sleep patterns into medical curriculum, a much greater proportion of students (45.9%) expressed interest in extracurricular activities about healthy sleep patterns. Interestingly, only 13.5% of students affirmed that they were counselled about sleep patterns and academic performance by their academic advisors. There were several statistically significant differences of means of students' perceptions according to gender, academic year and cGPA. Despite almost all academic advisors (95.5%) asserted the importance of sleep patterns to academic performance, none (0%) inquired about sleep patterns when counselling students. Nineteen academic advisors (90.5%) recommended incorporation of sleep patterns related

  13. Hospital leadership perspectives on the contributions of Ronald McDonald Houses. Results from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M; Rubin, Nicole; Mauery, D Richard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an international survey of hospital executives and administrators' perspectives on the contributions of their affiliation with a Ronald McDonald House (RMH) as an example of accommodation in family-centered care to the hospital's mission, operations and patient experience. RMHs worldwide provided the names and e-mail addresses of the people holding key leadership positions in their main hospital partner, who in turn were invited to complete an internet-based survey (530 participants; response rate of 54.5 percent). Hospital leaders reported very positive opinions about the contributions of their RMHs affiliation to their ability to serve seriously ill children and their families. This included such important outcomes as increasing family integrity and family participation in care decisions; and decreasing psychosocial stress and hospital social work resource burdens associated with lodging, food, transportation and sibling support. Hospital chief executive offices (CEOs) and medical directors reported very strong and positive opinions regarding the value-added of their RMHs affiliation in many areas, including enhanced marketing of hospital specialty services and reduced length of stay. Survey response bias is a limitation, although the results are still useful in terms of identifying multiple ways in which RMHs are perceived as contributing to hospitals' operations and provision of family-centered care. Overall, the results suggest that, internationally, hospital leaders believe that RMHs play a key and valued role in their provision of family-centered care to seriously ill children and their families. Family accommodation is more than the simple provision of lodging and plays an integral role how hospitals approach family-centered care. This international study contributes to the general literature on the role of family accommodation in hospitals' provision of family-centered care and the specific and very sparse

  14. Hospital acquisitions, parenting styles and management accounting change: An institutional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, Andrea; Lecci, Francesca; Longo, Francesco; Morelli, Marco

    2017-02-01

    Many healthcare scholars have applied institutional theories to the study of management accounting systems (MAS) change. However, little attention has been devoted to MAS change within groups. Kostova et al. highlight the limitations of traditional institutional frameworks in studying groups since they are characterised not only by the existence of external institutional environments but also by intra-organisational (meso-level) ones. Given this background, the research question is: how does the meso-level institutional environment affect MAS change in healthcare groups? We use a longitudinal multiple-case study design to understand the role of headquarters in shaping local MAS change. We would expect companies to adopt similar MAS. However, we argue that the relationship between external institutions and MAS change cannot be wholly understood without taking into consideration the role of headquarters. Our analysis shows how hospitals facing the same external institutional environment implement different MAS as a consequence of different parenting styles. From a scientific perspective, our article contributes to broaden traditional institutional theoretical frameworks.

  15. [Institutional violence, medical authority, and power relations in maternity hospitals from the perspective of health workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Janaina Marques de; d'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas; Schraiber, Lilia Blima

    2013-11-01

    The current article discusses institutional violence in maternity hospitals from the health workers' perspective, based on data from a study in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Eighteen health workers from the public and private sectors were interviewed, including obstetricians, nurses, and nurse technicians. A semi-structured interview was used with questions on professional experience and the definition of violence. The analysis revealed that these health workers acknowledged the existence of discriminatory and disrespectful practices against women during prenatal care, childbirth, and the postpartum. Examples of such practices cited by interviewees included the use of pejorative slang as a form of "humor", threats, reprimands, and negligence in the management of pain. Such practices are not generally viewed by health workers as violent, but rather as the exercise of professional authority in what is considered a "difficult" context. The institutional violence is thus trivialized, disguised as purportedly good practice (i.e., "for the patient's own good"), and rendered invisible in the daily routine of care provided by maternity services.

  16. The incidence of gastroenteritis diagnosis among sick dogs presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital correlated with meteorological data : research communication

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    A.S. Shakespeare

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of sick dogs diagnosed with and without gastroenteritis presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital situated north of Pretoria is reported from counts extracted from the records of the Outpatients clinic for 6 years, 1988 to 1993. The average percentage of sick dogs diagnosed with gastroenteritis was 11.51 % and the average percentage of sick dogs that were admitted to the parvovirus isolation hospital ward was 2.8 %. A strong correlation exists between the number of dogs admitted to the parvovirus ward and average monthly wind speed and inverse humidity values.

  17. Pattern of Frequent But Nontargeted Pharmacologic Thromboprophylaxis for Hospitalized Patients With Cancer at Academic Medical Centers: A Prospective, Cross-Sectional, Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Jeffrey I.; Rojan, Adam; Campigotto, Federico; Rehman, Nadia; Funches, Renee; Connolly, Gregory; Webster, Jonathan; Aggarwal, Anita; Mobarek, Dalia; Faselis, Charles; Neuberg, Donna; Rickles, Frederick R.; Wun, Ted; Streiff, Michael B.; Khorana, Alok A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hospitalized patients with cancer are considered to be at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Despite strong recommendations in numerous clinical practice guidelines, retrospective studies have shown that pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is underutilized in hospitalized patients with cancer. Patients and Methods We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study of hospitalized patients with cancer at five academic hospitals to determine prescription rates of thromboprophylaxis and factors influencing its use during hospitalization. Results A total of 775 patients with cancer were enrolled across five academic medical centers. Two hundred forty-seven patients (31.9%) had relative contraindications to pharmacologic prophylaxis. Accounting for contraindications to anticoagulation, the overall rate of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis was 74.2% (95% CI, 70.4% to 78.0%; 392 of 528 patients). Among the patients with cancer without contraindications for anticoagulation, individuals hospitalized with nonhematologic malignancies were significantly more likely to receive pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis than those with hematologic malignancies (odds ratio [OR], 2.34; 95% CI, 1.43 to 3.82; P = .007). Patients with cancer admitted for cancer therapy were significantly less likely to receive pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis than those admitted for other reasons (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.61; P < .001). Sixty-three percent of patients with cancer classified as low risk, as determined by the Padua Scoring System, received anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis. Among the 136 patients who did not receive anticoagulation, 58.8% were considered to be high risk by the Padua Scoring System. Conclusion We conclude that pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is frequently administered to hospitalized patients with cancer but that nearly one third of patients are considered to have relative contraindications for prophylactic anticoagulation. Pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in

  18. Hospital process orientation from an operations management perspective: development of a measurement tool and practical testing in three ophthalmic practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Pedro D; Hagenbeek, Marie Louise; Vissers, Jan M H

    2013-11-13

    Although research interest in hospital process orientation (HPO) is growing, the development of a measurement tool to assess process orientation (PO) has not been very successful yet. To view a hospital as a series of processes organized around patients with a similar demand seems to be an attractive proposition, but it is hard to operationalize this idea in a measurement tool that can actually measure the level of PO. This research contributes to HPO from an operations management (OM) perspective by addressing the alignment, integration and coordination of activities within patient care processes. The objective of this study was to develop and practically test a new measurement tool for assessing the degree of PO within hospitals using existing tools. Through a literature search we identified a number of constructs to measure PO in hospital settings. These constructs were further operationalized, using an OM perspective. Based on five dimensions of an existing questionnaire a new HPO-measurement tool was developed to measure the degree of PO within hospitals on the basis of respondents' perception. The HPO-measurement tool was pre-tested in a non-participating hospital and discussed with experts in a focus group. The multicentre exploratory case study was conducted in the ophthalmic practices of three different types of Dutch hospitals. In total 26 employees from three disciplines participated. After filling in the questionnaire an interview was held with each participant to check the validity and the reliability of the measurement tool. The application of the HPO-measurement tool, analysis of the scores and interviews with the participants resulted in the possibility to identify differences of PO performance and the areas of improvement--from a PO point of view--within each hospital. The result of refinement of the items of the measurement tool after practical testing is a set of 41 items to assess the degree of PO from an OM perspective within hospitals. The

  19. Oiling the gate: a mobile application to improve the admissions process from the emergency department to an academic community hospital inpatient medicine service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Russell; Hyde, Jensen Hart; Davis, Mike

    2018-01-01

    The process of admitting patients from the emergency department (ED) to an academic internal medicine (AIM) service in a community teaching hospital is one fraught with variability and disorder. This results in an inconsistent volume of patients admitted to academic versus private hospitalist services and results in frustration of both ED and AIM clinicians. We postulated that implementation of a mobile application (app) would improve provider satisfaction and increase admissions to the academic service. The app was designed and implemented to be easily accessible to ED physicians, regularly updated by academic residents on call, and a real-time source of the number of open AIM admission spots. We found a significant improvement in ED and AIM provider satisfaction with the admission process. There was also a significant increase in admissions to the AIM service after implementation of the app. We submit that the implementation of a mobile app is a viable, cost-efficient, and effective method to streamline the admission process from the ED to AIM services at community-based hospitals.

  20. The Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario (CAHO) Adopting Research to Improve Care (ARTIC) Program: Reach, Sustainability, Spread and Lessons Learned from an Implementation Funding Model

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Julia E.; Grouchy, Michelle; Graham, Ian D.; Shandling, Maureen; Doyle, Winnie; Straus, Sharon E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence on what works in healthcare, there is a significant gap in the time it takes to bring research into practice. The Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario's Adopting Research to Improve Care program addresses this research-to-practice gap by incorporating the following components into its funding program: strategic selection of evidence for implementation, education and training for implementation, implementation supports, executive champions and governance, and evaluation. F...

  1. Impact of poster presentations on academic knowledge transfer from the oncologist perspective in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Deniz; Koca, Timur; Tastekin, Didem; Basaran, Hamit; Bozcuk, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Currently poster presentations offer a common visual medium for knowledge transfer by a wide range of health professionals. Our study aimed to determine the scientific importance of poster presentations for Medical and Radiation Oncologists. A survey form including 40 questions was distributed to a total of 131 oncologists experienced in poster presentations. One hundred completed survey forms were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and modified thematic analyses were performed on the responses. Overall 64% of the participants agreed that posters were a good medium for knowledge transfer. Some 88% agreed that concise and clear styled presentations would increase appealing interests for poster contents. Visual appearance was cited more influential than content of the subject; 70% of participants agreed that appearances of posters could help to draw more viewer attention. Of respondents, 63% believed that posters accompanied by their author were more attractive for congress attendees, and 33% of them declared that the halo effect of the poster presenter was also important. The present study indicated that intelligibility, appearance and visuality of posters are most important factors from the aspect of oncologist participants. Presenters must take into account these important points when preparing their academic posters.

  2. A Comparison of Three Major Academic Rankings for World Universities: From a Research Evaluation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces three current major university ranking systems. The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities by Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT Ranking emphasizes both the quality and quantity of research and current research performance. The Academic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiao Tung University (ARWU focuses on outstanding performance of universities with indicators such as Nobel Prize winners. The QS World University Ranking (2004-2009 by Times Higher Education (THE-QS emphasizes on peer review with high weighting in evaluation. This paper compares the 2009 ranking results from the three ranking systems. Differences exist in the top 20 universities in three ranking systems except the Harvard University, which scored top one in all of the three rankings. Comparisons also revealed that the THE-QS favored UK universities. Further, obvious differences can be observed between THE-QS and the other two rankings when ranking results of some European countries (Germany, UK, Netherlands, & Switzerland and Chinese speaking regions were compared.

  3. Outcomes in a Community-Based Intensive Cardiac Rehabilitation Program: Comparison with Hospital-Based and Academic Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenberg, Charles; Silva, Edna; Young, M Jean; Gilles, Greg

    2018-04-13

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a community-based intensive cardiac rehabilitation program could produce positive changes in risk factor profile and outcomes in an at-risk population. Participants seeking either primary or secondary coronary artery disease prevention voluntarily enrolled in the 12-week intensive cardiac rehabilitation program. Data were obtained at baseline and 6-12 months after completion of the program. A total of 142 individuals, mean age 69 years, completed the Heart Series between 2012 and 2016. Follow-up data were available in 105 participants (74%). Participants showed statistically significant improvements in mean weight (165 to 162 lbs, P = .0005), body mass index (26 to 25 kg/m 2 , P = .001), systolic blood pressure (126 to 122 mm Hg, P = .01), diastolic blood pressure (73 to 70 mm Hg, P = .0005), total cholesterol (175 to 168 mg/dL, P = .03), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (100 to 93 mg/dL, P = .005), LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (1.8 to 1.6, P = .005), and cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (3.2 to 3.0, P = .003). Changes in HDL-C, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose did not reach statistical significance, but all trended in favorable directions. Adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes were rare (one stent placement, no deaths). A total of 105 participants completed our 12-week community-based intensive cardiac rehabilitation program and showed significant positive changes in several measures of cardiac risk, with only 1 adverse event. These results compare favorably with those of hospital-based and academic institutional programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perspective of midwives working at hospitals affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences regarding medical errors

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    Mahboubeh Valiani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Based on the results of this study on the perspectives of participants, among the three factors of medical errors (human factors, structural factors, and management factors, human factors are the biggest threat in committing medical errors. Modification in the pattern of teaching by the midwifery professors and their presence in the hospitals, creating a no-blame culture, and sharing of alerts in medical errors are among appropriate actions in the dimensions of human, structural, and managerial factors.

  5. Gender trends in authorship of spine-related academic literature-a 39-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, David C; Jain, Deeptee; Ouyang, David

    2017-11-01

    Despite recent advances in gender equity in medicine, the representation of women in orthopedic and neurosurgery remains particularly low. Furthermore, compared with their male colleagues, female faculty members are less likely to publish research, limiting opportunities in the academic promotion process. Understanding disparities in research productivity provides insight into the "gender gap" in the spine surgeon workforce. This study aims to determine the representation and longevity of female physician-investigators among the authors of five spine-related research journals from 1978 to 2016. This is a retrospective bibliometric review. The authors of original research articles from five prominent spine-related journals (European Spine Journal, The Spine Journal, Spine, Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, and Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine) were extracted from PubMed. For authors with a complete first name listed, gender was determined by matching first name using an online database containing 216,286 distinct names across 79 countries and 89 languages. The proportion of female first and senior authors was determined during the time periods 1978 to 1994, 1995 to 1999, 2000 to 2004, 2005 to 2009, and 2010 to 2016. The authors who had their first paper published between 2000 and 2009 were included in additional analyses for publication count and longevity (whether additional articles were published 5 years after first publication). Student t test, chi-square analysis, and Cochran-Armitage trend test were used to determine significance between groups. From 1978 to 2016, 28,882 original research articles were published in the five spine-related journals. A total of 24,334 abstracts (90.9%) had first names listed, identifying 120,723 authors, in total of which 100,286 were successfully matched to a gender. A total of 33,480 unique authors were identified (female authors: 31.8%). Female representation increased for first and senior authors from 6.5% and 4

  6. Immediate Symptom Relief After a First Session of Massage Therapy or Reiki in Hospitalized Patients: A 5-year Clinical Experience from a Rural Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergo, Maxwell T; Pinkson, Briane M; Broglio, Kathleen; Li, Zhongze; Tosteson, Tor D

    2018-04-05

    There is an increasing demand for and use of alternative and complementary therapies, such as reiki and massage therapy, in hospital-based settings. Most controlled studies and practice-based reports include oncology and surgical patient populations; thus the effect in a more heterogeneous hospitalized patient population is hard to estimate. We examined the immediate symptom relief from a single reiki or massage session in a hospitalized population at a rural academic medical center. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on demographic, clinical, process, and quality of life for hospitalized patients receiving massage therapy or reiki. A 396-bed rural academic and tertiary medical center in the United States. Hospitalized patients requesting or referred to the healing arts team who received either a massage or reiki session and completed both a pre- and post-therapy symptom questionnaire. First session of routine reiki or massage therapy during a hospital stay. Differences between pre- and postsession patient-reported scores in pain, nausea, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and overall well-being using an 11-point Likert scale. Patients reported symptom relief with both reiki and massage therapy. Analysis of the reported data showed reiki improved fatigue (-2.06 vs. -1.55 p massage therapy and did not vary based on age, gender, length of session, and baseline symptoms. Reiki and massage clinically provide similar improvements in pain, nausea, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and overall well-being while reiki improved fatigue and anxiety more than massage therapy in a heterogeneous hospitalized patient population. Controlled trials should be considered to validate the data.

  7. Does diabetes mellitus comorbidity affect in-hospital mortality and length of stay? Analysis of administrative data in an Italian Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Francesca; Tonutti, Laura; Grimaldi, Franco

    2017-12-01

    Hospitalized patients with comorbid diabetes mellitus may have worse outcomes than the others. We conducted a study to assess whether comorbid diabetes affects in-hospital mortality and length of stay. For this population-based study, we analyzed the administrative databases of the Regional Health Information System of the Region Friuli Venezia Giulia, where the Hospital of Udine is located. Hospital discharge data were linked at the individual patient level with the regional Diabetes Mellitus Registry to identify diabetic patients. For each 3-digit ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis code, we assessed the difference in length of stay and in-hospital mortality between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. We conducted both univariate and multivariate analyses, adjusted for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity score, and urgency of hospitalization, through linear and logistic regression models. After adjusting for potential confounders, diabetes significantly increased the risk of in-hospital death among patients hospitalized for bacterial pneumonia (OR = 1.94) and intestinal obstruction (OR = 4.23) and length of stay among those admitted for several diagnoses, including acute myocardial infarction and acute renal failure. Admission glucose blood level was associated with in-hospital death in patients with pneumonia and intestinal obstruction, and increased length of stay for several conditions. Patients with diabetes mellitus who are hospitalized for other health problems may have increased risk of in-hospital death and longer hospital stay. For this reason, diabetes should be promptly recognized upon admission and properly managed.

  8. Barriers to Observance of the Codes of Professional Ethics in Clinical Care: Perspectives of Nurses and Midwifery of Hospitals Affiliated with Qom University of Medical Sciences in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaneh khaki

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, individual care-related factors were among the most important barriers to observing professional ethics from the perspectives of nurses and midwives working in hospitals.  

  9. Thematic Analysis of Women's Perspectives on the Meaning of Safety During Hospital-Based Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, Audrey; Malana, Jennifer; Hedli, Laura C; Sherman, Jules; Lee, Henry C

    2018-05-01

    To explore women's birth experiences to develop an understanding of their perspectives on patient safety during hospital-based birth. Qualitative description using thematic analysis of interview data. Seventeen women ages 29 to 47 years. Women participated in individual or small group interviews about their birth experiences, the physical environment, interactions with clinicians, and what safety meant to them in the context of birth. An interdisciplinary group of five investigators from nursing, medicine, product design, and journalism analyzed transcripts thematically to examine how women experienced feeling safe or unsafe and identify opportunities for improvements in care. Participants experienced feelings of safety on a continuum. These feelings were affected by confidence in providers, the environment and organizational factors, interpersonal interactions, and actions people took during risk moments of rapid or confusing change. Well-organized teams and sensitive interpersonal interactions that demonstrated human connection supported feelings of safety, whereas some routine aspects of care threatened feelings of safety. Physical and emotional safety are inextricably embedded in the patient experience, yet this connection may be overlooked in some inpatient birth settings. Clinicians should be mindful of how the birth environment and their behaviors in it can affect a woman's feelings of safety during birth. Human connection is especially important during risk moments, which represent a liminal space at the intersection of physical and emotional safety. At least one team member should focus on the provision of emotional support during rapidly changing situations to mitigate the potential for negative experiences that can result in emotional harm. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nursing students' perceptions of hospital learning environments--an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dominic S

    2004-01-01

    Clinical education is a vital component in the curricula of pre-registration nursing courses and provides student nurses with the opportunity to combine cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skills. Various studies have suggested that not all practice settings are able to provide nursing students with a positive learning environment. In order to maximize nursing students' clinical learning outcomes, there is a need to examine the clinical learning environment. The purpose of this study was to assess pre-registration nursing students' perceptions of hospital learning environments during clinical field placement. Quantitative and qualitative methodology was used. One hundred and eight students provided quantitative data through completion of the survey instrument, the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (Actual and Preferred forms). Each form is a 5-point Likert-type questionnaire, made up of 35 items consisted of 5 scales with 7 items per scale. Qualitative data, obtained through semi-structured interview of 21 students from the same cohort, were used to explain and support the quantitative findings. There were significant differences between students' actual and preferred perceptions of the clinical learning environments. Generally students preferred a more positive and favourable clinical environment than they perceived as being actually present. Since participants consisted of nursing students from just one university nursing school in South Australia, the findings may not be representative of all nursing students in general with respect to their clinical placement. However, the value of this study lies in the resulting implication for nursing education and future research. A better understanding of what constitutes quality clinical education from the students' perspective would be valuable in providing better educational experiences.

  11. A Structural Model of Self-Concept, Autonomous Motivation and Academic Performance in Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Wondimu; Bruinsma, Marjon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a motivational model of performance by integrating constructs from self-concept and self-determination theories and to explore cultural group differences in the model. To this end, self-report measures of global self-esteem, academic self-concept, academic motivation and academic performance were…

  12. Unpacking (In)formal Learning in an Academic Development Programme: A Mixed-Method Social Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Hosein, Anesa

    2015-01-01

    How and with whom academics develop and maintain formal and informal networks for reflecting on their teaching practice has received limited attention even though academic development (AD) programmes have become an almost ubiquitous feature of higher education. The primary goal of this mixed-method study is to unpack how 114 academics in an AD…

  13. The "gender gap" in authorship of academic medical literature--a 35-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Guancial, Elizabeth A; Worobey, Cynthia Cooper; Henault, Lori E; Chang, Yuchiao; Starr, Rebecca; Tarbell, Nancy J; Hylek, Elaine M

    2006-07-20

    Participation of women in the medical profession has increased during the past four decades, but issues of concern persist regarding disparities between the sexes in academic medicine. Advancement is largely driven by peer-reviewed original research, so we sought to determine the representation of female physician-investigators among the authors of selected publications during the past 35 years. Original articles from six prominent medical journals--the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), the Annals of Internal Medicine (Ann Intern Med), the Annals of Surgery (Ann Surg), Obstetrics & Gynecology (Obstet Gynecol), and the Journal of Pediatrics (J Pediatr)--were categorized according to the sex of both the first and the senior (last listed) author. Sex was also determined for the authors of guest editorials in NEJM and JAMA. Data were collected for the years 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2004. The analysis was restricted to authors from U.S. institutions holding M.D. degrees. The sex was determined for 98.5 percent of the 7249 U.S. authors of original research with M.D. degrees. The proportion of first authors who were women increased from 5.9 percent in 1970 to 29.3 percent in 2004 (P<0.001), and the proportion of senior authors who were women increased from 3.7 percent to 19.3 percent (P<0.001) during the same period. The proportion of authors who were women increased most sharply in Obstet Gynecol (from 6.7 percent of first authors and 6.8 percent of senior authors in 1970 to 40.7 percent of first authors and 28.0 percent of senior authors in 2004) and J Pediatr (from 15.0 percent of first authors and 4.3 percent of senior authors in 1970 to 38.9 percent of first authors and 38.0 percent of senior authors in 2004) and remained low in Ann Surg (from 2.3 percent of first authors and 0.7 percent of senior authors in 1970 to 16.7 percent of first authors and 6.7 percent of senior authors in 2004). In 2004, 11

  14. Interactional aspects of care during hospitalization: perspectives of family caregivers of psychiatrically ill in a tertiary care setting in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakaran, P; Mehrotra, Seema; Bharath, Srikala

    2014-12-01

    There are very few studies on user-perspectives about mental health care services that explore perspectives of family caregivers in India. An exploratory study was undertaken to understand the perceived importance of various aspects of interactions with mental health service providers during hospitalization, from the perspectives of family caregivers. In addition, it also aimed at documenting their actual experience of interactional aspects of care during the hospitalization of their relatives. The study was conducted on fifty family caregivers of patients with varied psychiatric diagnoses hospitalized in a tertiary psychiatric care setting in South India. Measures of Interactional aspects of care were developed to assess perceived importance of six different interactional domains of care and the actual experience of care in these domains. Provision of informational inputs and addressing of concerns raised emerged as the domains of care given highest importance. The item pertaining to 'sharing with the caregiver about different alternatives for treatment' received negative ratings in terms of actual experience by maximum number of participants (18%). Significant differences on perceived importance of four domains of interactional aspects of care (dignity, confidentiality and fairness, addressing concerns raised, informational inputs and prompt attention and consistent care) emerged between caregiver subgroups based on educational level of the caregiver, socio-economic status, hospitalization history and broad diagnostic categories. In addition, the care givers of patients with psychoses assigned significantly more positive ratings on actual experience for all the domains of interactional aspects of care. The findings have implications for further research and practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Novel Service-Oriented Professional Development Program for Research Assistants at an Academic Hospital: A Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Robert Li; Koleoglou, Kyle John; Holland, Jennifer Elysia; Hutchinson, Eliza Haapaniemi; Nang, Quincy Georgdie; Mehta, Clare Marie; Tran, Chau Minh; Fishman, Laurie Newman

    2015-11-02

    Research assistants (RAs) are hired at academic centers to staff the research and quality improvement projects that advance evidence-based medical practice. Considered a transient population, these young professionals may view their positions as stepping-stones along their path to graduate programs in medicine or public health. To address the needs of these future health professionals, a novel program-Program for Research Assistant Development and Achievement (PRADA)-was developed to facilitate the development of desirable professional skill sets (ie, leadership, teamwork, communication) through participation in peer-driven service and advocacy initiatives directed toward the hospital and surrounding communities. The authors hope that by reporting on the low-cost benefits of the program that other institutions might consider the utility of implementing such a program and recognize the importance of acknowledging the professional needs of the next generation of health care professionals. In 2011, an anonymous, Web-based satisfaction survey was distributed to the program membership through a pre-established email distribution list. The survey was used to evaluate demographics, level of participation and satisfaction with the various programming, career trajectory, and whether the program's goals were being met. Upon the completion of the survey cycle, a 69.8% (125/179) response rate was achieved with the majority of respondents (94/119, 79.0%) reporting their 3-year goal to be in medical school (52/119, 43.7%) or nonmedical graduate school (42/119, 35.3%). Additionally, most respondents agreed or strongly agreed that PRADA had made them feel more a part of a research community (88/117, 75.2%), enhanced their job satisfaction (66/118, 55.9%), and provided career guidance (63/117, 53.8%). Overall, 85.6% of respondents (101/118) agreed or strongly agreed with recommending PRADA to other research assistants. High response rate and favorable outlook among respondents

  16. Co-occurrences Between Adolescent Substance Use and Academic Performance: School Context Inuences a Multilevel-Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernando H.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use. PMID:25057764

  17. Role of strategic human resource management in crisis management in Australian greenfield hospital sites: a crisis management theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Madeleine Iris; Bartram, Timothy; Cavanagh, Jillian; Burgess, John

    2017-11-20

    Objective This study examined strategic human resource management (SHRM) activities in two case hospitals relative to their approach to greenfield site success. Methods A comparative case study analysis approach was used, with documents sourced from public, open-access sites. The theoretical framework of crisis management theory's (CMT) proactive management and open communication channels was used to examine the documents, which were annual reports addressing both hospitals' first year of performance, union publications and transcripts of relevant parliamentary inquiries. Results The hospital that effectively used CMT in its first 12 months was demonstratively more 'successful' than the hospital that reported to not have effectively used CMT. 'Success' in this project was articulated as the hospital's ability to consolidate operations, without ongoing negative media attention, after 12 months. Conclusion This study provided an identification of how the use of CMT in a hospital's greenfield stage can increase the hospital's chances of 'success'. What is known about the topic? Journal and media articles illustrated a gap in greenfield human resource management (HRM) regarding successful consolidation, especially the healthcare context. Although manufacturing firms are addressed in academic literature in a greenfield context, there is a lack of knowledge concerning successful greenfield HRM in a healthcare context. What does this paper add? This study is among the first to identify the role of CMT in successful greenfield site establishment by identifying its presence in management activities. What are the implications for practitioners? The findings of this study suggest a potential link between the implementation of CMT and greenfield site success. This could allow future greenfield healthcare sites to operate with less cost and risk. The lack of stakeholder participation in the present study limits the applicability of its findings. However, archival document

  18. Use of drawings in children with pervasive developmental disorder during hospitalization: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanatou, Athena

    2008-12-01

    The level and nature of emotional upheaval and relationship to developmental stage was studied in children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) hospitalized for head injury. The sample consisted of 25 hospitalized children aged 5-12 years. Children were asked to make the drawing of a ;person in hospital'. The drawings were evaluated by Koppitz's emotional indicators. Punishment and persecution were the main cognitive constructs of children in order to explain hospitalization.

  19. What justifies a hospital admission at the end of life? A focus group study on perspectives of family physicians and nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyniers, T.; Houttekieri, D.; Cohen, J.; Pasman, H.R.; Deliens, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite a majority preferring not to die in hospital and health policies aimed at increasing home death, the proportion of hospital deaths remains high. Gaining insight into professional caregiver perspectives about what justifies them could be helpful in understanding the persistently

  20. Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The challenge could be briefly seen in these terms: hospitals as places for treatment where there’s a technology focus and hospitals for healing where there’s a human focus. In the 60s - 70s wave of new hospital building, an emphasis on technology can be seen. It’s time to move from the technology...... focus. It is not enough to consider only the factors of function within architecture, hygiene, economy and logistics. We also need to look at aspects of aesthetics, bringing nature into the building, art, color, acoustics, volume and space as we perceive them. Contemporary methods and advances...... placed, accessible, provided with plenty of greenery, and maximize sensory impressions, providing sounds, smells, sight and the possibility to be touched. This is a very well documented area I can say. Hygiene, in terms of architecture can give attention to hand wash facilities and their positioning...

  1. An Examination of Principals' Leadership Practices: Perspectives of Those Who Teach the Academically Gifted and the Academically Challenged in Inclusion Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Cassell, LaUanah

    2013-01-01

    Today, President Obama's "Blueprint for Education Reform" places the principal as the key player in raising academic standards and improving learning for all students. Research has been done on the role of the school principal in school effectiveness and school improvement at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. However, very…

  2. Implementing hospital innovation in Taiwan: the perspectives of institutional theory and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop an innovation model for hospital organisations. For this purpose, this study explores and examines the determinants, capabilities and performance in the hospital sector. First, this discusses three categories of determinants that affect hospitals' innovative capability studies: (1) knowledge stock; (2) social ties; and (3) institutional pressures. Then, this study examines the idea of innovative hospital capabilities, defined as the ability of the hospital organisation to innovate their knowledge. Finally, the hospital evaluation rating, which identifies performance in the hospital sector, was examined. This study empirically tested the theoretical model at the organisation level. The findings suggest that a hospital's innovative capabilities are influenced by its knowledge stock, social ties, institutional pressures and the impact of hospital performance. However, in attempts to keep hospitals aligned with their highly institutionalised environments, it may prove necessary for hospital administrators to pay more attention to both existing knowledge stock and the process of innovation if the institutions are to survive. Finally, implications for theory and practitioners complete this study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Development of a tripolar model of technology acceptance: Hospital-based physicians' perspective on EHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglaryan, Mher; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Bunker, Edward

    2017-06-01

    In health care, information technologies (IT) hold a promise to harness an ever-increasing flow of health related information and bring significant benefits including improved quality of care, efficiency, and cost containment. One of the main tools for collecting and utilizing health data is the Electronic Health Record (EHR). EHRs implementation can face numerous barriers to acceptance including attitudes and perceptions of potential users, required effort attributed to their implementation and usage, and resistance to change. Various theories explicate different aspects of technology deployment, implementation, and acceptance. One of the common theories is the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which helps to study the implementation of different healthcare IT applications. The objectives of this study are: to understand the barriers of EHR implementation from the perspective of physicians; to identify major determinants of physicians' acceptance of technology; and develop a model that explains better how EHRs (and technologies in general) are accepted by physicians. The proposed model derives from a cross-sectional survey of physicians selected through multi-stage cluster sampling from the hospitals of Yerevan, Armenia. The study team designed the survey instrument based on a literature review on barriers of EHR implementation. The analysis employed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) with a robust weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator for categorical indicators. The analysis progressed in two steps: appraisal of the measurement model and testing of the structural model. The derived model identifies the following factors as direct determinants of behavioral intention to use a novel technology: projected collective usefulness; personal innovativeness; patient influence; and resistance to change. Other factors (e.g., organizational change, professional relationships, administrative monitoring, organizational support and computer anxiety) exert their

  4. Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers at Academic Medical Centers in the United States, 2008-2012: Tracking Changes Since the CMS Nonpayment Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Makic, Mary Beth F; Wald, Heidi L; Campbell, Jonathan D; Nair, Kavita V; Mishra, Manish K; Valuck, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    In 2007, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) announced its intention to no longer reimburse hospitals for costs associated with hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) and a list of other hospital-acquired conditions (HACs), which was followed by enactment of the nonpayment policy in October 2008. This study was conducted to define changes in HAPU incidence and variance since 2008. In a retrospective observational study, HAPU cases were identified at 210 University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) academic medical centers in the United States. HAPU incidence rates were calculated as a ratio of HAPU cases to the total number of UHC inpatients between the first quarter of 2008 and the second quarter of 2012. HAPU cases were defined by multiple criteria: not present on admission (POA); coded for stage III or IV pressure ulcers; and a length of stay greater than four days. Among the UHC hospitals between 2008 and June 2012, 10,386 HAPU cases were identified among 4.08 million inpatients. The HAPU incidence rate decreased significantly from 11.8 cases per 1,000 inpatients in 2008 to 0.8 cases per 1,000 in 2012 (p CMS non-payment policy as a significant covariate of changing trends in HAPU incidence rates. HAPU incidence rates decreased significantly among 210 UHC AMCs after the enactment of the CMS nonpayment policy. The hospitals appeared to be reacting efficiently to economic policy incentives by improving prevention efforts.

  5. Relationships between Self-Efficacy and the Academic Procrastination Behaviour among University Students in Malaysia: A General Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainudin Abu Bakar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination behaviour is a common phenomenon among people. In educational setting it always related to the student academic performance. Past studies have shown that the tendency of student to procrastinate could affect their academic life. For example, studying in the last minute is a procrastination behaviour committed by the students. This study is conducted to explore the association between academic procrastination, self-efficacy and academic performance among university students in Malaysia. The finding showed that most students are prone to procrastinate in their academic life. However in most cases it appears that the procrastination behaviour does not affect the student’s academic performance. A similar situation also recorded where the self-efficacy does not affect the tendency for student to procrastinate in their academic activities. It is suggested that in improving the student performance at the university the direct and indirect factors should be addressed including the academic procrastination behaviours. It was concluded that the student’s academic performance is influenced not directly by procrastination behaviour but by other factors. Several suggestions and recommendations are also presented.

  6. Academic Capitalism and Academic Culture: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pilar; Berger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this…

  7. Moving away from a cultural deficit to a holistic perspective: Traditional gender role values, academic attitudes, and educational goals for Mexican descent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Watson, Brandy; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Dornhecker, Marianela; Martinez, Ashley J; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2016-04-01

    Latina/o youth lag behind Asian American and non-Latina/o White youth in many academic areas. Previous research has taken a deficit approach to understand the factors that affect academic outcomes for Latina/o youth often neglecting to highlight both the potential positive and negative contributions of gender role values. The present study took a holistic perspective to understand the affect of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., marianismo, machismo, and caballerismo) on the academic attitudes and educational goals of Mexican descent youth. Structural equation models were tested to examine the associations of "positive" and "negative" gender role values on educational goals using 524 Mexican descent adolescents from a mid-sized city in southern Texas. We hypothesized that positive aspects of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., "positive marianismo" and caballerismo) would be associated with more positive attitudes toward academics and higher educational goals. We further expected negative gender role values (i.e., "negative marianismo" and machismo) to have the opposite effect. Additionally, based on the theory of planned behavior and gender schema theory, academic attitudes were hypothesized to mediate the relation between gender role values and educational goals. An alternative model was tested in which educational goals mediated the relation between gender roles and academic attitudes. Results indicated that both models fit the data well, and recommendations are made for future longitudinal research aimed at disentangling the directionality of the relations in the model. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Comparison of tissue plasminogen activator administration management between Telestroke Network hospitals and academic stroke centers: the Telemedical Pilot Project for Integrative Stroke Care in Bavaria/Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Heinrich J; Kukla, Christian; Vatankhah, Bijan; Gotzler, Berthold; Schenkel, Johannes; Hofer, Stephan; Fürst, Andrea; Haberl, Roman L

    2006-07-01

    Systemic thrombolysis is the only therapy proven to be effective for ischemic stroke. Telemedicine may help to extend its use. However, concerns remain whether management and safety of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration after telemedical consultation are equivalent in less experienced hospitals compared with tPA administration in academic stroke centers. During the second year of the ongoing Telemedical Pilot Project for Integrative Stroke Care, all systemic thrombolyses in stroke patients of the 12 regional clinics and the 2 stroke centers were recorded prospectively. Patients' demographics, stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale), frequency of administration, time management, protocol violations, and safety were included in the analysis. In 2004, 115 of 4727 stroke or transient ischemic attack patients (2.4%) in the community hospitals and 110 of 1889 patients in the stroke centers (5.8%) received systemic thrombolysis. Prehospital latencies were shorter in the regional hospitals despite longer distances. Door to needle times were shorter in the stroke centers. Although blood pressure was controlled more strictly in community hospitals, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage rate (7.8%) was higher (P=0.14) than in stroke centers (2.7%) but still within the range of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke trial. In-hospital mortality rate was low in community hospitals (3.5%) and in stroke centers (4.5%). Although with a lower rate of systemic thrombolysis, there was no evidence of lower treatment quality in the remote hospitals. With increasing numbers of tPA administration and growing training effects, the telestroke concept promises better coverage of systemic thrombolysis in nonurban areas.

  9. Social efficiency of hospital care delivery: frontier analysis from the consumer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, Patrick M; Moises, James; Valdmanis, Vivian Grace

    2011-02-01

    The efficiency of hospital services and patients' access to hospitals are both important health care policy issues. In the past, research has relied on studying these topics separately. In this article, we measure both efficiency and access at the same time using data envelopment analysis (DEA). By including both the technically efficient use of resources, as well as the patients' travel distances, we found increases in social efficiency when patients' travel distances were taken into account. When compared with patients with nonurgent conditions, we found that patients suffering from conditions requiring urgent attention were treated at closer hospitals, increasing the social efficiency. Insurance coverage and hospital ownership were also examined. Our findings corroborated past literature in the hospital and travel distance literature and set out a framework for future research. Perhaps most important, we demonstrate the techniques needed to incorporate broader measures of social costs into studies of hospital efficiency.

  10. The key to health services in Turkey: new perspectives on leadership and hospital management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Alper A

    2014-01-01

    Health services are one of the most important criteria for making a country function. Turkey has mobilized all of its resources to provide high-quality, easily accessible and patient-friendly services for its population. To achieve this aim, the Turkish health care system has been undergoing a significant transformation through its Health Transformation Programme begun in 2005. The reforms focus on the introduction of a general health insurance system, changing hospital health services, improvements in hospital management and transformational leadership skills. Firstly, all state-run hospitals in the country were merged under the same umbrella, giving millions of people covered by the national security agency access to all of these hospitals. Secondly, all drugs and medical equipment used by patients were made free of charge. Thanks to these developments, hospitals were modernized, and this modernization process in the health sector is still continuing swiftly. On the other hand, for Turkish hospitals to survive, they need to modernize further and become closer to European models, and produce new leaders with new paradigms. In this new and changing health system, hospital leaders and executive officers should be visionaries and strategists advising when to change direction. Following this doctrine, most Turkish hospitals are now run by two top executives: the hospital manager and the chief executive officer who is in charge of business functions. These executives should clearly be the leaders of high-quality, health care organizations.

  11. Connections, Productivity and Funding: An Examination of Factors Influencing Scientists' Perspectives on the Market Orientation of Academic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Emily Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…

  12. Academic Procrastination in Linking Motivation and Achievement-Related Behaviours: A Perspective of Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Fan, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships among college students' achievement motivation (subjective task value and academic self-efficacy), academic procrastination (delay and missing deadlines) and achievement-related behaviours (effort and persistence). More specifically, the study investigated the mediating role…

  13. An Investigation of Perspectives of Respite Admission Among People Living With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and the Hospitals That Support Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Michiko; Narita, Yugo; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2017-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive disease with rapid degeneration. Respite care is an essential service for improving the well-being of both patients with this disease and their family caregivers, but accessibility of respite services is limited. This study investigates perspectives on respite admission among people living with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the hospitals supporting them. We conducted semistructured interviews among 3 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 12 family members, exploring demographic information and their awareness and experience of respite admission. We also interviewed 16 representatives from hospitals about awareness of and preparation for respite admission for patients with this disease, the role of regional networks for intractable diseases, and knowledge about communication support schemes. We found significant differences in the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale between patients who had and had not received respite admission. Qualitative analysis of the data indicated that respite admission was a contributory factor in continuing and stabilizing home care. Limited provision of social services and hospital care quality were barriers to respite admission. Respite admission was essential to continued home care for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Severe-stage patients were eligible for respite admission. Its accessibility, however, was limited, especially for patients living in rural areas. Supporting hospitals had limited capacity to respond to patients' needs. Individualized care and communication were internal barriers to respite admission.

  14. Stakeholder perspectives on handovers between hospital staff and general practitioners: An evaluation through the microsystems lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobel, B.; Zwart, D. De; Hesselink, G.J.; Pijnenborg, L.; Barach, P.; Kalkman, C.J.; Johnson, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much of the research on improving patient handovers has focused on enhancing communication within the hospital system, but there have been relatively few efforts aimed at addressing the challenges at the interface between the hospital and the primary care setting. METHODS: A qualitative

  15. Shifting hospital-hospice boundaries: historical perspectives on the institutional care of the dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse, Guenter B; Balboni, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Social forces have continually framed how hospitals perceive their role in care of the dying. Hospitals were originally conceived as places of hospitality and spiritual care, but by the 18th century illness was an opponent, conquered through science. Medicalization transformed hospitals to places of physical cure and scientific prowess. Death was an institutional liability. Equipped with new technologies, increased public demand, and the establishment of Medicare in 1965, modern hospitals became the most likely place for Americans to die--increasing after the 1940s and spiking in the 1990s. Medicare's 1983 hospice benefit began to reverse this trend. Palliative care has more recently proliferated, suggesting an institutional shift of alignment with traditional functions of care toward those facing death.

  16. Are Evidence-based Practices Associated With Effective Prevention of Hospital-acquired Pressure Ulcers in US Academic Medical Centers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Gibbons, Robert D; Valuck, Robert J; Makic, Mary B F; Mishra, Manish K; Pronovost, Peter J; Meltzer, David O

    2016-05-01

    In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) established nonpayment policies resulting from costliness of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) to hospitals. This prompted hospitals to adopt quality improvement (QI) interventions that increase use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for HAPU prevention. To evaluate the longitudinal impact of CMS policy and QI adoption on HAPU rates. We characterized longitudinal adoption of 25 QI interventions that support EBPs through hospital leadership, staff, information technology, and performance and improvement. Quarterly counts of HAPU incidence and inpatient characteristics were collected from 55 University HealthSystem Consortium hospitals between 2007 and 2012. Mixed-effects regression models tested the longitudinal association of CMS policy, HAPU coding, and QI on HAPU rates. The models assumed level-2 random intercepts and random effects for CMS policy and EBP implementation to account for between-hospital variability in HAPU incidence. Controlling for all 25 QI interventions, specific updates to EBPs for HAPU prevention had a significant, though modest reduction on HAPU rates (-1.86 cases/quarter; P=0.002) and the effect of CMS nonpayment policy on HAPU prevention was much greater (-11.32 cases/quarter; P<0.001). HAPU rates were significantly lower after changes in CMS reimbursement. Reductions are associated with hospital-wide implementation of EBPs for HAPU prevention. Given that administrative data were used, it remains unknown whether these improvements were due to changes in coding or improved quality of care.

  17. Mentoring perception, scientific collaboration and research performance: is there a 'gender gap' in academic medicine? An Academic Health Science Centre perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Thanos; Patel, Vanash; Garas, George; Ashrafian, Hutan; Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick; Harding, Sian; Darzi, Ara; Paroutis, Sotirios

    2016-10-01

    The 'gender gap' in academic medicine remains significant and predominantly favours males. This study investigates gender disparities in research performance in an Academic Health Science Centre, while considering factors such as mentoring and scientific collaboration. Professorial registry-based electronic survey (n=215) using bibliometric data, a mentoring perception survey and social network analysis. Survey outcomes were aggregated with measures of research performance (publications, citations and h-index) and measures of scientific collaboration (authorship position, centrality and social capital). Univariate and multivariate regression models were constructed to evaluate inter-relationships and identify gender differences. One hundred and four professors responded (48% response rate). Males had a significantly higher number of previous publications than females (mean 131.07 (111.13) vs 79.60 (66.52), p=0.049). The distribution of mentoring survey scores between males and females was similar for the quality and frequency of shared core, mentor-specific and mentee-specific skills. In multivariate analysis including gender as a variable, the quality of managing the relationship, frequency of providing corrective feedback and frequency of building trust had a statistically significant positive influence on number of publications (all presearch to investigate the relationship between mentoring perception, scientific collaboration and research performance in the context of gender. It presents a series of initiatives that proved effective in marginalising the gender gap. These include the Athena Scientific Women's Academic Network charter, new recruitment and advertisement strategies, setting up a 'Research and Family Life' forum, establishing mentoring circles for women and projecting female role models. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Co-occurrences between adolescent substance use and academic performance: school context influences a multilevel-longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernando H

    2014-08-01

    A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Knowledge and Performance about Nursing Ethic Codes from Nurses' and Patients' Perspective in Tabriz Teaching Hospitals, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajjel-Aghdam, Alireza; Hassankhani, Hadi; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Khameneh, Saied; Moghaddam, Sara

    2013-09-01

    Nursing profession requires knowledge of ethics to guide performance. The nature of this profession necessitates ethical care more than routine care. Today, worldwide definition of professional ethic code has been done based on human and ethical issues in the communication between nurse and patient. To improve all dimensions of nursing, we need to respect ethic codes. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge and performance about nursing ethic codes from nurses' and patients' perspective. A descriptive study Conducted upon 345 nurses and 500 inpatients in six teaching hospitals of Tabriz, 2012. To investigate nurses' knowledge and performance, data were collected by using structured questionnaires. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive and analytic statistics, independent t-test and ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient, in SPSS13. Most of the nurses were female, married, educated at BS degree and 86.4% of them were aware of Ethic codes also 91.9% of nurses and 41.8% of patients represented nurses respect ethic codes. Nurses' and patients' perspective about ethic codes differed significantly. Significant relationship was found between nurses' knowledge of ethic codes and job satisfaction and complaint of ethical performance. According to the results, consideration to teaching ethic codes in nursing curriculum for student and continuous education for staff is proposed, on the other hand recognizing failures of the health system, optimizing nursing care, attempt to inform patients about Nursing ethic codes, promote patient rights and achieve patient satisfaction can minimize the differences between the two perspectives.

  20. Universal isolation precautions for patients at an academic hospital Precauciones universales en el aislamiento de pacientes en un hospital universitario Precauções universais em isolamentos de pacientes em hospital universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gomes Maziero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To apply universal isolation precautions for patients at an academic hospital by a nursing team. METHODS: This descriptive and prospective study used data from advice service of quality control and nursing care that were gathered in observational reports of universal isolation precautions for patients admitted in two surgical inpatient units during 2008 and 2010. RESULTS: The mean general classification for both units was between desirable and adequate in the observational analysis of universal precaution. A borderline effect was observed only in November 2008 at the Men's Surgical Unit. The units assessed had compromised biosecurity, however, as time advanced data showed an improvement on their performance. CONCLUSION: The effective involvement of nurses in the unit is critical to prevent and control nosocomial infections.OBJETIVO: Utilización de las precauciones universales por el equipo de Enfermería en el aislamiento de pacientes en un Hospital Universitario. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, prospectivo. Fueron utilizados datos de la Asesoría de Control de Calidad de la Asistencia de Enfermería, correspondientes a los informes de las observaciones respecto a las precauciones universales en el aislamiento de pacientes en dos unidades de internamiento Médico - Quirúrgico, en el período comprendido entre 2008 y 2010. RESULTADOS: Las dos unidades de la institución presentaron un promedio general de clasificación, del análisis observacional de precaución universal, entre deseable y adecuada, siendo limítrofe apenas en noviembre del 2008 en la unidad Médico-Quirúrgica Masculina. Las unidades evaluadas, respecto a la adhesión a las precauciones universales, presentaron compromiso con la bioseguridad, y los datos exhibidos se mostraron mejores en cada año descrito. CONCLUSIÓN: La participación activa del enfermero responsable por la unidad es importante en la prevención y control de infecciones hospitalarias

  1. Hospitality and Collegial Community: An Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Explains a collegial ethic of hospitality as a cardinal academic virtue and suggests a way of building a "collegium," the covenantal community of academe. Discusses how academicians can develop hospitable teaching, hospitable scholarship, and hospitable service. (Author/SLD)

  2. Service Quality Of Diagnostic Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology In A Tertiary Care Hospital Of Lahore (Process Measure As Patient's Perspective).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Zainab; Usmani, Rabia Arshed; Rizvi, Amna; Wazir, Salim; Zahra, Taskeen; Rasool, Hafza

    2017-01-01

    Quality of any service is the most important aspect for the manufacturer as well as the consumer. The primary objective of any nation's health system is to provide supreme quality health care services to its patients. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of diagnostic fine needle aspiration cytology service in a tertiary care hospital. As Patient's perspectives provide valuable information on quality of process, therefore, patient's perception in terms of satisfaction with the service was measured. In this cross sectional analytical study, 291 patients undergoing fine needle aspiration cytology in Mayo Hospital were selected by systematic sampling technique. Information regarding satisfaction of patients with four dimensions of service quality process, namely "procedure, sterilization, conduct and competency of doctor" was collected through interview on questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed on SERVQUAL model, a measurement tool, for quality assessment of services provided to patients. All items were assessed on 2- point likert scale (0=dissatisfied, 1=satisfied). Frequencies and percentages of satisfied and dissatisfied patients were recorded for each item and all items in each dimension were scored. If the percentage of sum of all item scores of a dimension was ≥60, the dimension was 'good quality'. Whereas quality' dimension. Data was analysed using epi-info-3.5.1. Fisher test was applied to check statistical significance. (p-value service quality process, Procedure (48.8%), Sterilization (51.5%) and practitioner conduct (50.9%) were perceived as 'poor' by the patients. Only practitioner competency (67.4%) was perceived as 'good'. Comparison of dimensions of service quality scoring with overall level of patient satisfaction revealed that all 4 dimensions were significantly related to patient dissatisfaction (pservice quality of therapeutic and diagnostic procedures in public hospitals should be routinely monitored from the patients

  3. Addressing the risk of bacterial contamination in platelets: a hospital economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Justin W; Brecher, Mark E; Jacobson, Jessica L; Harm, Sarah K; Chen, Dorothy; El-Gamil, Audrey; Dobson, Al; Mintz, Paul D

    2017-10-01

    Bacterially contaminated platelets (PLTs) remain a serious risk. The Food and Drug Administration has issued draft guidance recommending hospitals implement secondary testing or transfuse PLTs that have been treated with pathogen reduction technology (PRT). The cost implications of these approaches are not well understood. We modeled incurred costs when hospitals acquire, process, and transfuse PLTs that are PRT treated with INTERCEPT (Cerus Corp.) or secondary tested with the PLT PGD Test (Verax Biomedical). Hospitals will spend $221.27 (30.0%) more per PRT-treated apheresis PLT unit administered compared to a Zika-tested apheresis PLT unit that is irradiated and PGD tested in hospital. This difference is reflected in PRT PLT units having: 1) a higher hospital purchase price ($100.00 additional charge compared to an untreated PLT); 2) lower therapeutic effectiveness than untreated PLTs among hematologic-oncologic patients, which contributes to additional transfusions ($96.05); or 3) fewer PLT storage days, which contributes to higher outdating cost from expired PLTs ($67.87). Only a small portion of the incremental costs for PRT-treated PLTs are offset by costs that may be avoided, including primary bacterial culture, secondary bacterial testing ($26.65), hospital irradiation ($8.50), Zika testing ($4.47), and other costs ($3.03). The significantly higher cost of PRT-treated PLTs over PGD-tested PLTs should interest stakeholders. For hospitals that outdate PLTs, savings associated with expiration extension to 7 days by adding PGD testing will likely be substantially greater than the cost of implementing PGD-testing. Our findings might usefully inform a hospital's decision to select a particular blood safety approach. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  4. Enhancing board oversight on quality of hospital care: an agency theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H Joanna; Lockee, Carlin; Fraser, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Community hospitals in the United States are almost all governed by a governing board that is legally accountable for the quality of care provided. Increasing pressures for better quality and safety are prompting boards to strengthen their oversight function on quality. In this study, we aimed to provide an update to prior research by exploring the role and practices of governing boards in quality oversight through the lens of agency theory and comparing hospital quality performance in relation to the adoption of those practices. Data on board practices from a survey conducted by The Governance Institute in 2007 were merged with data on hospital quality drawn from two federal sources that measured processes of care and mortality. The study sample includes 445 public and private not-for-profit hospitals. We used factor analysis to explore the underlying dimensions of board practices. We further compared hospital quality performance by the adoption of each individual board practice. Consistent with the agency theory, the 13 board practices included in the survey appear to center around enhancing accountability of the board, management, and the medical staff. Reviewing the hospital's quality performance on a regular basis was the most common practice. A number of board practices, not examined in prior research, showed significant association with better performance on process of care and/or risk-adjusted mortality: requiring major new clinical programs to meet quality-related criteria, setting some quality goals at the "theoretical ideal" level, requiring both the board and the medical staff to be as involved as management in setting the agenda for discussion on quality, and requiring the hospital to report its quality/safety performance to the general public. Hospital governing boards should examine their current practices and consider adopting those that would enhance the accountability of the board itself, management, and the medical staff.

  5. Electronic medical record systems in critical access hospitals: leadership perspectives on anticipated and realized benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Troy R; Vavroch, Jared; Bahensky, James A; Ward, Marcia M

    2010-04-01

    The growth of electronic medical records (EMRs) is driven by the belief that EMRs will significantly improve healthcare providers' performance and reduce healthcare costs. Evidence supporting these beliefs is limited, especially for small rural hospitals. A survey that focused on health information technology (HIT) capacity was administered to all hospitals in Iowa. Structured interviews were conducted with the leadership at 15 critical access hospitals (CAHs) that had implemented EMRs in order to assess the perceived benefits of operational EMRs. The results indicate that most of the hospitals implemented EMRs to improve efficiency, timely access, and quality. Many CAH leaders also viewed EMR implementation as a necessary business strategy to remain viable and improve financial performance. While some reasons reflect external influences, such as perceived future federal mandates, other reasons suggest that the decision was driven by internal forces, including the hospital's culture and the desires of key leaders to embrace HIT. Anticipated benefits were consistent with goals; however, realized benefits were rarely obvious in terms of quantifiable results. These findings expand the limited research on the rationale for implementing EMRs in critical access hospitals.

  6. Health professional perspectives on lifestyle behaviour change in the paediatric hospital setting: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Laura; Powell, Jane; Wordsworth, Sharon; Cummins, Carole

    2014-03-13

    Research exists examining the challenges of delivering lifestyle behaviour change initiatives in practice. However, at present much of this research has been conducted with primary care health professionals, or in acute adult hospital settings. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators associated with implementing routine lifestyle behaviour change brief advice into practice in an acute children's hospital. Thirty-three health professionals (nurses, junior doctors, allied health professionals and clinical support staff) from inpatient and outpatient departments at a UK children's hospital were interviewed about their attitudes and beliefs towards supporting lifestyle behaviour change in hospital patients and their families. Responses were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Health professionals identified a range of barriers and facilitators to supporting lifestyle behaviour change in a children's hospital. These included (1) personal experience of effectiveness, (2) constraints associated with the hospital environment, (3) appropriateness of advice delivery given the patient's condition and care pathway and (4) job role priorities, and (5) perceived benefits of the advice given. Delivery of lifestyle behaviour change advice was often seen as an educational activity, rather than a behaviour change activity. Factors underpinning the successful delivery of routine lifestyle behaviour change support must be understood if this is to be implemented effectively in paediatric acute settings. This study reveals key areas where paediatric health professionals may need further support and training to achieve successful implementation.

  7. Social, emotional, and behavioral functioning of secondary school students with low academic and language performance: perspectives from students, teachers, and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Victoria L; Black, Emma

    2012-10-01

    Adolescence is a time of transition when young people with language difficulties are at increased risk of experiencing social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). Most studies of social, emotional, and behavioral functioning (SEBF) in individuals with language difficulties focus on children with a clinical diagnosis of language impairment. This study explores SEBF in a nonclinical group of 12-year-old students with low educational and language performance from their own perspectives and those of their parents and teachers. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ( Goodman, 1997) was given to 352 mainstream secondary school students who were underperforming academically and had poor language performance. Two hundred and twenty-five of their parents and 230 of their teachers also completed the questionnaire. Students with low educational attainment and poor language showed significantly greater SEBD than a normative sample as reported by themselves, their parents, and their teachers. Significant differences were found across informants, with students identifying more overall difficulties than parents or teachers. Secondary school students with low academic and language performance are more vulnerable to experiencing SEBD compared to typically developing peers. The extent of their difficulties varied depending on the informant, emphasizing the importance of gaining views from multiple perspectives.

  8. Patient safety trilogy: perspectives from clinical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieras, Izabella; Sherman, Paul; Minsent, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the role a clinical engineering or healthcare technology management (HTM) department can play in promoting patient safety from three different perspectives: a community hospital, a national government health system, and an academic medical center. After a general overview, Izabella Gieras from Huntington Hospital in Pasadena, CA, leads off by examining the growing role of human factors in healthcare technology, and describing how her facility uses clinical simulations in medical equipment evaluations. A section by Paul Sherman follows, examining patient safety initiatives from the perspective of the Veterans Health Administration with a focus on hazard alerts and recalls. Dennis Minsent from Oregon Health & Science University writes about patient safety from an academic healthcare perspective, and details how clinical engineers can engage in multidisciplinary safety opportunities.

  9. Triumph of hope over experience: learning from interventions to reduce avoidable hospital admissions identified through an Academic Health and Social Care Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Victoria; de Lusignan, Simon; Mughal, Shakeel; Head, Graham; Debar, Safia; Desombre, Terry; Hilton, Sean; Al Sharifi, Houda

    2012-06-10

    Internationally health services are facing increasing demands due to new and more expensive health technologies and treatments, coupled with the needs of an ageing population. Reducing avoidable use of expensive secondary care services, especially high cost admissions where no procedure is carried out, has become a focus for the commissioners of healthcare. We set out to identify, evaluate and share learning about interventions to reduce avoidable hospital admission across a regional Academic Health and Social Care Network (AHSN). We conducted a service evaluation identifying initiatives that had taken place across the AHSN. This comprised a literature review, case studies, and two workshops. We identified three types of intervention: pre-hospital; within the emergency department (ED); and post-admission evaluation of appropriateness. Pre-hospital interventions included the use of predictive modelling tools (PARR - Patients at risk of readmission and ACG - Adjusted Clinical Groups) sometimes supported by community matrons or virtual wards. GP-advisers and outreach nurses were employed within the ED. The principal post-hoc interventions were the audit of records in primary care or the application of the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) within the admission ward. Overall there was a shortage of independent evaluation and limited evidence that each intervention had an impact on rates of admission. Despite the frequency and cost of emergency admission there has been little independent evaluation of interventions to reduce avoidable admission. Commissioners of healthcare should consider interventions at all stages of the admission pathway, including regular audit, to ensure admission thresholds don't change.

  10. Phlebotomy skills expected of career entry CLS/CLT graduates: a Missouri hospital perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstead, C

    2000-01-01

    To determine how much, what type, and what proficiency of phlebotomy experience CLS/CLT students should have during the training program to be prepared to meet the needs of the majority of Missouri hospital employers. Survey to determine the role healthcare professionals, inside and outside the laboratory, play in today's blood collection patterns and phlebotomy management. The Missouri Organization of Clinical Laboratory Science mailed 204 surveys to the Missouri Hospital Association member laboratories. MAIN OUTCOMES/CONCLUSIONS: This research examined the need for modifying phlebotomy skills of clinical laboratory science students. Data gathered from employers support the premise that entry-level competencies of CLS/CLT graduates will vary according to clinical facility size. CLS/CLT programs may use data from this study to plan phlebotomy practicums. It can be extrapolated that Missouri employers who are most likely to employ career entry graduates expect them to draw blood from 9.3 patients within one hour. Fifty-three percent of 40 to 400 bed hospitals expect graduates to perform difficult draws in at least eight types of hospital units. Laboratories are the major managers of hospital wide phlebotomy services; thus, CLS/CLT curricula should include phlebotomy management methods.

  11. A technology ecosystem perspective on hospital management information systems: lessons from the health literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Christopher A; Standing, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Hospital managers have a large range of information needs including quality metrics, financial reports, access information needs, educational, resourcing and decision support needs. Currently these needs involve interactions by managers with numerous disparate systems, both electronic such as SAP, Oracle Financials, PAS' (patient administration systems) like HOMER, and relevant websites; and paper-based systems. Hospital management information systems (HMIS) can be thought of sitting within a Technology Ecosystem (TE). In addition, Hospital Management Information Systems (HMIS) could benefit from a broader and deeper TE model, and the HMIS environment may in fact represents its own TE (the HMTE). This research will examine lessons from the health literature in relation to some of these issues, and propose an extension to the base model of a TE.

  12. An assessment of the effects of casemix funding on hospital utilisation: a Northern Territory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J; Lee, A; Vemuri, S R; Beaver, C

    2000-01-01

    This article is concerned with the methodological issues of assessing the effects of casemix funding on hospital utilisation. Time-series analysis and intervention analysis are proposed to ascertain the effects. It was found there had been a decline in average length of stay and number of bed-days, an increase in weighted separations for teaching and non-teaching hospitals, and no apparent increase of costliness in terms of a comprehensive casemix index. No evidence of decline in quality of care can be established in terms of readmission rates. The long-term effects of casemix funding, and specific issues in terms of the funding model used, patients and cost shifting between hospital services and community health services, remain to be studied.

  13. [Highlights of hospital-based internal medicine in 2010: chief residents' perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Marc; Burnard, Jérôme; Cosma Rochat, Monica; Gabus, Vincent; Micheloud, Valérie Geiser; Gobin, Niels; Laurent, Jean-Christophe; Marino, Laura; Méan, Marie; Merz, Laurent; Regamey, Julien; Stadelmann, Raphaël

    2011-02-02

    Applying knowledge acquired from recent medical studies to patient care poses a daily challenge to physicians. Chief residents from the Department of Internal Medicine at the University Hospital of Lausanne carried out a review of some of the issues they considered important. The conclusions of these various publications may have a significant impact on the daily practice of hospital-based internal medicine. Modern medicine based on scientific studies is a reminder that in spite of the essential importance of clinical experience, it is crucial to confront it with the results of relevant publications from the medical literature.

  14. Patient Safety Culture Status From The Perspective Medical Staff Of Yasuj Hospitals In 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: One of the most important problems in the health sector, particularly in clinical centers, is the quality of healthcare. Patient safety is one of the most important elements in creating health care quality due to the fact that it is a critical component to the quality of health care and many errors are present in patient care and treatment practices..                                                               Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the status of the patient safety culture and its relationship with events reported in Yasuj hospitals. Methods: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 361 medical staff of Yasuj hospitals. The data were collected through a hospital survey on patient safety culture. The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS statistics soft ware version 21, using Descriptive methods, Pearson Coefficient, ANOVA, and T-Test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the teamwork among hospital units (71/89percent, with expectations and management measures (66/38% in the case of safety obtained the most score and non-punitive response to errors (48/79% and manager support (55/88 percent obtained the least score. 73/7% of employees of three hospitals in the past 12 months did not report any event. In addition, there was a meaningful statistical relationship between the total score of safety culture and reporting the events. In this study, 15.5 % of respondents assess their safety culture in work as good, 44.3 % as acceptable and 30.5 percent reported poor. The overall safety culture among the three studied hospitals was 61.81 %. Results confirmed that the culture safety of patient in studied hospitals was average. Conclusions: The hospitals may rely on their strong points in terms of patient safety culture and try to remove their weak points to form a safe environment and appropriate

  15. A qualitative study into the impact of fasting within a large tertiary hospital in Australia--the patients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sharon K; Conchin, Simone; Bloomfield-Stone, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This qualitative study aims to explore the physical and emotional impact of fasting from the patients' perspective. Fasting patients in hospital is common practice and generally viewed as necessary for symptom management or for safety of healthcare provision. Negative impacts of repeated or prolonged fasting on nutritional status have been well researched, but little is documented as to how fasting impacts an individual patient's psyche. Qualitative descriptive design within a tertiary hospital in Sydney, Australia. Twelve patients having had prolonged periods of continuous or intermittent fasting were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview between January-September 2012. Questions for interview explored each patient's experience of fasting, including physical and emotional impacts, interpretation of communication regarding fasting and the process of recommencing on fluids or foods. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used. Analyses showed six main themes: physical impacts; emotional impacts; food as structure; nil by mouth as jargon; fear of food re-introduction; and dissatisfaction regarding unnecessary fasting. Overwhelmingly, thirst was reported as the worst physical effect of fasting. In the first few days of fasting, patients became emotionally fixated on food. This quickly dissipated leading to a lack of appetite and fear of starting to eat again. Discomfort experienced by patients coupled with lack of appetite resulting from prolonged fasting and difficulty with food re-introduction strengthens the argument for reducing fasting times in hospital. When patients are fasted, proper hydration and establishing alternate routes of medication administration should be a priority. It is well recognised that fasting for prolonged periods is detrimental to health outcomes, but this study also shows the distress that fasting can cause. Inadequate hospital systems and out-dated practices need to be replaced with evidence-based, patient

  16. Facilitators and barriers of implementing enhanced recovery in colorectal surgery at a safety net hospital: A provider and patient perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawadi, Zeinab M; Leal, Isabel; Phatak, Uma R; Flores-Gonzalez, Juan R; Holihan, Julie L; Karanjawala, Burzeen E; Millas, Stefanos G; Kao, Lillian S

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) pathways are known to decrease complications and duration of stay in colorectal surgery patients. However, it is unclear whether an ERAS pathway would be feasible and effective at a safety-net hospital. The aim of this study was to identify local barriers and facilitators before the adoption of an ERAS pathway for patients undergoing colorectal operations at a safety-net hospital. Semistructured interviews were conducted to assess the perceived barriers and facilitators before ERAS adoption. Stratified purposive sampling was used. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis. Analytic and investigator triangulation were used to establish credibility. Interviewees included 8 anesthesiologists, 5 surgeons, 6 nurses, and 18 patients. Facilitators identified across the different medical professions were (1) feasibility and alignment with current practice, (2) standardization of care, (3) smallness of community, (4) good teamwork and communication, and (5) caring for patients. The barriers were (1) difficulty in adapting to change, (2) lack of coordination between different departments, (3) special needs of a highly comorbid and socioeconomically disadvantaged patient population, (4) limited resources, and (5) rotating residents. Facilitators identified by the patients were (1) welcoming a speedy recovery, (2) being well-cared for and satisfied with treatment, (3) adequate social support, (4) welcoming early mobilization, and (5) effective pain management. The barriers were (1) lack of quiet and private space, (2) need for more patient education and counseling, and (3) unforeseen complications. Although limited hospital resources are perceived as a barrier to ERAS implementation at a safety-net hospital, there is strong support for such pathways and multiple factors were identified that may facilitate change. Inclusion of patient perspectives is critical to identifying challenges and

  17. Procedural Portfolio Planning in Plastic Surgery, Part 2: Collaboration Between Surgeons and Hospital Administrators to Develop a Funds Flow Model for Procedures Performed at an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Charles Scott

    2016-06-01

    Although plastic surgeons make important contributions to the clinical, educational, and research missions of academic medical centers (AMCs), determining the financial value of a plastic surgery service can be difficult, due to complex cost accounting systems. We analyzed the financial impact of plastic surgery on an AMC, by examining the contribution margins and operating income of surgical procedures. We collaborated with hospital administrators to implement 3 types of strategic changes: (1) growth of areas with high contribution margin, (2) curtailment of high-risk procedures with negative contribution margin, (3) improved efficiency of mission-critical services with high resource consumption. Outcome measures included: facility charges, hospital collections, contribution margin, operating margin, and operating room times. We also studied the top 50 Current Procedural Terminology codes (total case number × charge/case), ranking procedures for profitability, as determined by operating margin. During the 2-year study period, we had no turnover in faculty; did not pursue any formal marketing; did not change our surgical fees, billing system, or payer mix; and maintained our commitment to indigent care. After rebalancing our case mix, through procedural portfolio planning, average hospital operating income/procedure increased from $-79 to $+816. Volume and diversity of cases increased, with no change in payer mix. Although charges/case decreased, both contribution margin and operating margin increased, due to improved throughput and decreased operating room times. The 5 most profitable procedures for the hospital were hernia repair, mandibular osteotomy, hand skin graft, free fibula flap, and head and neck flap, whereas the 5 least profitable were latissimus breast reconstruction, craniosynostosis repair, free-flap breast reconstruction, trunk skin graft, and cutaneous free flap. Total operating income for the hospital, from plastic surgery procedures, increased

  18. [Requirements for the organization of pain therapy in hospitals: interdepartmental comparison for pain management from the employees' perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlenwein, J; Ufer, G; Hecke, A; Pfingsten, M; Bauer, M; Petzke, F

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, the focus of pain management in hospitals was the organization and quality of control of postoperative pain, although there is a similar demand in nonsurgical departments. The aim of this study was to assess the employees' perspective on problems and corresponding solutions in pain management in a university hospital and to further clarify whether the implementation of concepts and tools of pain management across disciplines is feasible. Physicians and nursing staff of all inpatient departments of the University Hospital Göttingen were asked about problems in pain management and the importance of various established instruments using a standardized questionnaire. Ratings were recorded on a numeric rating scale (0-10). The analysis was primarily descriptive, the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test were used when appropriate. In all, 149 medical and 501 nursing employees were included. The quality of pain management was perceived as better in surgical departments than in the conservative and pediatric departments. In all areas, the lack of an adequate order for baseline- and rescue-analgesic, and accordingly the nursing staff's limited ability to act was rated as problematic. In contrast to the conservative and pediatric departments, the predominant problem of surgical departments was the lack of availability of physicians on the ward. As a solution, the advice provided by pain consultation services was rated highly by the staff in all areas. The importance of implementation of standardized analgesic concepts was also supported equally in all areas. The evaluation of the quality of pain management was related to the employee's estimation of their ability to actively treat pain. Physicians rated problems in quality and organization lower compared to nursing stuff. The results demonstrate that from the employee's perspective problems in pain management in surgical and nonsurgical departments are very similar. Transferring concepts and structures

  19. A historical perspective of the effect of the great recession on hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Janet

    2014-08-01

    At 18 months, the Great Recession of December 2007 to June 2009 is the longest recession since World War II. The recession led to soaring unemployment, resulting in loss of employment-based health insurance for millions of people. In addition to seeing increases in uninsured patients, hospitals experienced losses in their investment portfolios, which in turn increased bad debt, charity care, and uncompensated care nationwide. Hospital executives began to devise cost-cutting strategies to balance the rising debt, such as standardizing medical equipment, cutting staff positions, and delaying construction projects and capital expenditures as well as implementing value analysis strategies. The recession is officially over, and, although economic recovery has been slow and unemployment continues to be an issue, hospitals' net revenue started improving as of 2009 and hospital construction started increasing in 2010. Still, caution is warranted in the postrecession climate, because it is unknown what effects will be seen when the Baby Boomer generation begins using Medicare. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Through doctors' eyes: A qualitative study of hospital doctor perspectives on their working conditions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, Yvonne

    2013-03-11

    BACKGROUND: Hospital doctors face significant challenges in the current health care environment, working with staff shortages and cutbacks to health care expenditure, alongside increased demand for health care and increased public expectations. OBJECTIVE: This article analyses challenges faced by junior hospital doctors, providing insight into the experiences of these frontline staff in delivering health services in recessionary times. DESIGN: A qualitative methodology was chosen. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 doctors from urban Irish hospitals. Interviews were recorded via note taking. Full transcripts were analysed thematically using NVivo software. RESULTS: Dominant themes included the following: (1) unrealistic workloads: characterised by staff shortages, extended working hours, irregular and frequently interrupted breaks; (2) fatigue and its impact: the quality of care provided to patients while doctors were sleep-deprived was questioned; however, little reflection was given to any impact this may have had on junior doctors own health; (3) undervalued and disillusioned: insufficient training, intensive workloads and a perceived lack of power to influence change resulted in a sense of detachment among junior doctors. They appeared immune to their surroundings. CONCLUSION: Respondents ascribed little importance to the impact of current working conditions on their own health. They felt their roles were underappreciated and undervalued by policy makers and hospital management. Respondents were concerned with the lack of time and opportunity for training. This study highlighted several \\'red flags\\

  1. Pharmaceutical policies and access to medicines : a hospital-pharmacy perspective from Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, D.

    2017-01-01

    Access to quality medicines is a universal human right which featured prominently on the agenda of the World Health Organisation (WHO) over the past decades. Hospital pharmacists play a pivotal role in ensuring that treatment outcomes are optimal. This thesis studied pharmaceutical policies and

  2. Academic motivation, self-concept, engagement, and performance in high school: key processes from a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jasmine; Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J; Colmar, Susan; Marsh, Herbert W; McInerney, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    The study tested three theoretically/conceptually hypothesized longitudinal models of academic processes leading to academic performance. Based on a longitudinal sample of 1866 high-school students across two consecutive years of high school (Time 1 and Time 2), the model with the most superior heuristic value demonstrated: (a) academic motivation and self-concept positively predicted attitudes toward school; (b) attitudes toward school positively predicted class participation and homework completion and negatively predicted absenteeism; and (c) class participation and homework completion positively predicted test performance whilst absenteeism negatively predicted test performance. Taken together, these findings provide support for the relevance of the self-system model and, particularly, the importance of examining the dynamic relationships amongst engagement factors of the model. The study highlights implications for educational and psychological theory, measurement, and intervention. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario (CAHO) Adopting Research to Improve Care (ARTIC) Program: Reach, Sustainability, Spread and Lessons Learned from an Implementation Funding Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Julia E; Grouchy, Michelle; Graham, Ian D; Shandling, Maureen; Doyle, Winnie; Straus, Sharon E

    2016-05-01

    Despite evidence on what works in healthcare, there is a significant gap in the time it takes to bring research into practice. The Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario's Adopting Research to Improve Care program addresses this research-to-practice gap by incorporating the following components into its funding program: strategic selection of evidence for implementation, education and training for implementation, implementation supports, executive champions and governance, and evaluation. Funded projects have been sustained (76% reported full sustainability) and spread to over 200 new sites. Lessons learned include the following: assess readiness, develop tailored implementation materials, consider characteristics of implementation supports, protect champion time and consider evaluation feasibility. Copyright © 2016 Longwoods Publishing.

  4. A comparison of clinicians' access to online knowledge resources using two types of information retrieval applications in an academic hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sevgin; Cimino, James J; Koziol, Deloris E

    2013-01-01

    The research studied whether a clinician's preference for online health knowledge resources varied with the use of two applications that were designed for information retrieval in an academic hospital setting. The researchers analyzed a year's worth of computer log files to study differences in the ways that four clinician groups (attending physicians, housestaff physicians, nurse practitioners, and nurses) sought information using two types of information retrieval applications (health resource links or Infobutton icons) across nine resources while they reviewed patients' laboratory results. From a set of 14,979 observations, the authors found statistically significant differences among the 4 clinician groups for accessing resources using the health resources application (Pinformation-seeking behavior of clinicians may vary in relation to their role and the way in which the information is presented. Studying these behaviors can provide valuable insights to those tasked with maintaining information retrieval systems' links to appropriate online knowledge resources.

  5. Restructuring within an academic health center to support quality and safety: the development of the Center for Quality and Safety at the Massachusetts General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmer, Richard M J; Bloom, Jonathan D; Mort, Elizabeth A; Demehin, Akinluwa A; Meyer, Gregg S

    2009-12-01

    Recent focus on the need to improve the quality and safety of health care has created new challenges for academic health centers (AHCs). Whereas previously quality was largely assumed, today it is increasingly quantifiable and requires organized systems for improvement. Traditional structures and cultures within AHCs, although well suited to the tripartite missions of teaching, research, and clinical care, are not easily adaptable to the tasks of measuring, reporting, and improving quality. Here, the authors use a case study of Massachusetts General Hospital's efforts to restructure quality and safety to illustrate the value of beginning with a focus on organizational culture, using a systematic process of engaging clinical leadership, developing an organizational framework dependent on proven business principles, leveraging focus events, and maintaining executive dedication to execution of the initiative. The case provides a generalizable example for AHCs of how applying explicit management design can foster robust organizational change with relatively modest incremental financial resources.

  6. Knowledge and Performance about Nursing Ethic Codes from Nurses' and Patients' Perspective in Tabriz Teaching Hospitals, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Moghaddam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing profession requires knowledge of ethics to guide performance. The nature of this profession necessitates ethical care more than routine care. Today, worldwide definition of professional ethic code has been done based on human and ethical issues in the communication between nurse and patient. To improve all dimensions of nursing, we need to respect ethic codes. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge and performance about nursing ethic codes from nurses' and patients' perspective.Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study Conducted upon 345 nurses and 500 inpatients in six teaching hospitals of Tabriz, 2012. To investigate nurses' knowledge and performance, data were collected by using structured questionnaires. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive and analytic statistics, independent t-test and ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient, in SPSS13.Results: Most of the nurses were female, married, educated at BS degree and 86.4% of them were aware of Ethic codes also 91.9% of nurses and 41.8% of patients represented nurses respect ethic codes. Nurses' and patients' perspective about ethic codes differed significantly. Significant relationship was found between nurses' knowledge of ethic codes and job satisfaction and complaint of ethical performance. Conclusion: According to the results, consideration to teaching ethic codes in nursing curriculum for student and continuous education for staff is proposed, on the other hand recognizing failures of the health system, optimizing nursing care, attempt to inform patients about Nursing ethic codes, promote patient rights and achieve patient satisfaction can minimize the differences between the two perspectives.

  7. Retaining nurses and other hospital workers: an intergenerational perspective of the work climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Melanie; Paquet, Maxime; Duchesne, Marie-Anick; Santo, Anelise; Gavrancic, Ana; Courcy, François; Gagnon, Serge

    2010-12-01

    This article describes and compares work climate perceptions and intentions to quit among three generations of hospital workers and nurses. Never before in history has the workplace comprised such a span of generations. The current workforce includes three main generations: Baby Boomers (born between 1946 and 1963), Generation X (born between 1964 and 1980), and Generation Y (born between 1981 and 2000). However, very little research has linked turnover among nurses and other healthcare workers to their generational profile. A quantitative study with a correlational descriptive design was used. 1,376 hospital workers of the three generations (with 42.1% nurses, 15.6% support staff, 20.1% office employees, and 22.1% health professionals or technicians), employed in a university-affiliated hospital, completed a self-administered questionnaire. They answered the Psychological Climate Questionnaire and a measure of turnover intention. Generation Y hospital workers obtained a significantly lower score on the "Challenge" scale than did Baby Boomers. On the "Absence of Conflict" and "Warmth" scales, the opposite occurred, with Baby Boomers obtaining a significantly lower score than Generation Y respondents. If the nurse job category is taken separately, Generation Y nurses expressed a negative perception of the "Goal Emphasis" scale, compared with Baby Boomers. The proportion of Generation Y nurses who intend to quit is almost three times higher than that of other hospital workers from Generation Y. The main reason given by workers from Generations Y and X who intend to quit the organization is their own career advancement. The main reason given by Baby Boomers who intend to quit is retirement. Retention strategies that focus on improving the work climate are beneficial to all generations of hospital workers and nurses. If generation-specific retention strategies are developed, these should focus on the three areas identified to have intergenerational differences

  8. Accelerating Best Care in Pennsylvania: adapting a large academic system's quality improvement process to rural community hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydar, Ziad; Gunderson, Julie; Ballard, David J; Skoufalos, Alexis; Berman, Bettina; Nash, David B

    2008-01-01

    Industrial quality improvement (QI) methods such as continuous quality improvement (CQI) may help bridge the gap between evidence-based "best care" and the quality of care provided. In 2006, Baylor Health Care System collaborated with Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University to conduct a QI demonstration project in select Pennsylvania hospitals using CQI techniques developed by Baylor. The training was provided over a 6-month period and focused on methods for rapid-cycle improvement; data system design; data management; tools to improve patient outcomes, processes of care, and cost-effectiveness; use of clinical guidelines and protocols; leadership skills; and customer service skills. Participants successfully implemented a variety of QI projects. QI education programs developed and pioneered within large health care systems can be adapted and applied successfully to other settings, providing needed tools to smaller rural and community hospitals that lack the necessary resources to establish such programs independently.

  9. A perspective from clinical and business ethics on adverse events in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J T; Meier, C; Higdon, T

    1997-11-01

    Adverse events occur in a significant, but undetermined, number of hospitalized patients. These types of patient injuries are more often the result of faulty systems than human maleficence. A culture exists among health care providers that discourages the reporting of such events and resists the implementation of formal efforts to eliminate them. This resistance serves to perpetuate the problem. Both business and clinical ethics argue that sound reasons exist for hospitals to reduce, if not eliminate, adverse events. To do so is cost effective, particularly in a managed care environment. It is also at the heart of responsible professional behavior. Physicians are afforded an opportunity to be at the forefront in this quality improvement effort.

  10. Trust and Work Place Spirituality on Knowledge Sharing Behaviour: Perspective from Non-Academic Staff of Higher Learning Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Osmangani, Aahad M; Daud, Nuraihan Mat; Chowdhury, Abdul Hannan; Hassan, Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This empirical research aims to add value in the existing research on knowledge sharing, investigate the antecedents of knowledge-sharing behaviour by embedding trust and workplace spirituality variable on non-academic staff from higher learning institution in Malaysia. The role of trust, perceived risk and workplace spirituality towards…

  11. Perspectives and Practices of Academics and Students of English Language Teaching Post-Graduate Programs within the Mediation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmali, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    Due to unsatisfactory number of researches investigating ELT post-graduate programs, and perceptions of academics and students in these programs regarding mediation theory of Feuerstein, this study attempted to investigate the aspects of this theory in doctorate and master programs in ELT department of a state university. Methodologically, this…

  12. Seventh Graders' Academic Achievement, Creativity, and Ability to Construct a Cross-Domain Concept Map--A Brain Function Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Chu

    2004-01-01

    This study proposes an interactive model of "cross-domain" concept mapping with an emphasis on brain functions, and it further investigates the relationships between academic achievement, creative thinking, and cross-domain concept mapping. Sixty-nine seventh graders participated in this study which employed two 50-minute instructional…

  13. [Strategies to ensure careers of young academics in plastic surgery - analysis of the current situation and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, R E; Vogt, P M; Schaller, H E; Stark, G B; Lehnhardt, M; Kneser, U; Giunta, R E

    2013-08-01

    Recruitment problems in surgical disciplines have become an increasingly debated topic. On the one hand current career prospects appear to be less attractive than those were seen for the previous generation. On the other hand the demands for a so-called "work-life balance" have changed and the proportion of female students and colleagues in medicine has risen and will continue to increase. Although Plastic Surgery currently seems to be less affected by these problems than other surgical disciplines, securing a qualified supply of young academics in Plastic Surgery is a prerequisite for the further development of this discipline. The traditional model of mentoring is discussed and the role of coaching in a sense of helping the mentorees examine what they are doing in the light of their intentions and goals is reflected. The present article tries to analyze the current status of academic Plastic Surgery from the viewpoint of German university senior surgeons in academic plastic surgery, and aims to highlight the specific prospects for young academics against the backdrop of an often one-sided and superficial perception of this profession. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and influence…

  15. A Strategic Plan of Academic Management System as Preparation for EAC Accreditation Visit--From UKM Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab-Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi; Yusoff, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Abdul, Nasrul Amir; Hipni, Afiq

    2015-01-01

    Development of a robust platform is important to ensure that the engineering accreditation process can run smoothly, completely and the most important is to fulfill the criteria requirements. In case of Malaysia, the preparation for EAC (Engineering Accreditation Committee) assessment required a good strategic plan of academic management system…

  16. Higher Education Perspectives: The Role Magic the Gathering Plays in Whole-Person, Academic, and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Bob Ellsworth

    2016-01-01

    Games contribute to the whole-person, academic, and career development of college-aged individuals (Alderman, 2015). However, many higher-education institutions do not sponsor gaming as a collegiate extracurricular activity, thereby possibly eliminating the opportunity of an all-inclusive environment (Alderman, 2015). To elucidate the problem,…

  17. Profile of senior high school students’ creative thinking skills on biology material in low, medium, and high academic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhamidah, D.; Masykuri, M.; Dwiastuti, S.

    2018-04-01

    Creative thinking is one of the most important skills of the 21st Century. Students are demanded not only be able to solve the cognitive problems but also to face the life problems. The aim of this study is to determine students’ creative thinking skills in biology class for XI grade of three Senior High Schools in Ngawi regency. The approach used to categorised the three schools into low, medium and high academic rank was a norm-referenced test. The study involved 92 students who completed a test. Guilford's alternative uses task was used to measure the level of students’ creative thinking skills. The results showed that in the school of high academic rank, 89,74% of students had low creative thinking skills and 10,25% of them are in moderate category. In the medium academic rank school, 85,71% of students had low creative thinking skills and 14,29% of them are moderate. In the school of low academic rank, 8% of students had very low creative thinking skills, 88% are low, and 4% are moderate. Based on the finding of the research, the creative thinking skills of students in the three school was categorised as low level, therefore the learning design should be developed which can improve the students’ creative thinking skills.

  18. Edit Change in the Hospitality Industry: New Paradigms, Frames, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oshins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 15-20 years, changes in hotel ownership and management, the growth and development of online reservation systems and the proliferation of lodging alternatives have altered the hospitality landscape, bringing new complexity to the industry. Dr. Oshins shares examples that highlight the ways one can learn to be more successful in thinking about and capitalizing on the opportunities presented by change.

  19. Tracheal intubation in the emergency department: the Scottish district hospital perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, A G M; Graham, C A; Hall, R; Korsah, P; McGuffie, A C

    2007-06-01

    Tracheal intubation is the accepted gold standard for emergency department (ED) airway management. It may be performed by both anaesthetists and emergency physicians (EPs), with or without drugs. To characterise intubation practice in a busy district general hospital ED in Scotland over 40 months between 2003 and 2006. Crosshouse Hospital, a 450-bed district general hospital serving a mixed urban and rural population; annual ED census 58,000 patients. Prospective observational study using data collection sheets prepared by the Scottish Trauma Audit Group. Proformas were completed at the time of intubation and checked by investigators. Rapid-sequence induction (RSI) was defined as the co-administration of an induction agent and suxamethonium. 234 intubations over 40 months, with a mean of 6 per month. EPs attempted 108 intubations (46%). Six patients in cardiac arrest on arrival were intubated without drugs. 29 patients were intubated after a gas induction or non-RSI drug administration. RSI was performed on 199 patients. Patients with trauma constituted 75 (38%) of the RSI group. 29 RSIs (15%) were immediate (required on arrival at the ED) and 154 (77%) were urgent (required within 30 min of arrival at the ED). EPs attempted RSI in 88 (44%) patients and successfully intubated 85 (97%). Anaesthetists attempted RSI in 111 (56%) patients and successfully intubated 108 (97%). Anaesthetists had a higher proportion of good views at first laryngoscopy and there was a trend to a higher rate of successful intubation at the first attempt for anaesthetists. Complication rates were comparable for the two specialties. Tracheal intubations using RSI in the ED are performed by EPs almost as often as by anaesthetists in this district hospital. Overall success and complication rates are comparable for the two specialties. Laryngoscopy training and the need to achieve intubation at the first (optimum) attempt needs to be emphasised in EP airway training.

  20. Technology and communication in hospital care for chronically ill patients from the Habermasian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rich-Ruiz, Manuel; Martins, Maria-Manuela; Rodríguez-Borrego, María-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe situations involving instrumental and communicative actions that take place in nursing and to explore the difficulties in communicative action. It was an ethnographic study conducted among nurses from two large hospitals in Spain and Portugal. Data collection took place through participant observation and semi-structured interviews. It was then followed up by a survey. A discourse analysis and quantitative analysis were performed (on the survey). T...

  1. Assessment of nurse retention challenges and strategies in Lebanese hospitals: the perspective of nursing directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Merhi, Mirvat; Jamal, Diana; Dumit, Nuhad; Mouro, Gladys

    2009-05-01

    Assess nurse retention challenges and strategies as perceived by nursing directors in Lebanese hospitals. The Kampala Health Workforce Declaration stressed the importance of retaining an effective, responsive and equitably distributed health workforce, particularly nurses. Little is known about nurse retention challenges and strategies in Lebanon. Nursing directors of 76 hospitals participated and were sent a two-page survey on perceived retention challenges and hospital-based retention strategies. Retention challenges included unsatisfactory salary, unsuitable shifts and working hours, as well as better opportunities in other areas within or outside Lebanon. Retention strategies included implementing financial rewards and benefits, a salary scale, staff development, praise and improving work environment. Nursing directors did not address all perceived challenges in their strategies. To better manage the nursing workforce, nursing directors should regularly measure and monitor nurse turnover rates and also their causes and predictors. Nursing directors should develop, implement and evaluate retention strategies. More information is needed on the management and leadership capacities of nursing directors in addition to their span of control. Nursing directors are facing challenges in retaining their nurses. If these problems are not addressed, Lebanon will continue to lose competent and skilled nurses.

  2. Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Preventing RSV Hospitalization in High Risk Children: A Real-World Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Homaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups.

  3. Service quality assessment of a referral hospital in Southern Iran with SERVQUAL technique: patients’ perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing services to patients according to their expectations and needs is necessary for the success of an organization in order to remain in the competitive market. Recognizing these needs and expectations is an important step in offering high quality services. This study was designed to determine the service quality gap of the main hospital of Hormozgan province. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bandar Abbas ShahidMohammadi Hospital in the south of Iran. All 96 participants of this study were provided by SERVQUAL questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Service quality gaps were seen in all five service quality dimensions and the overall quality of service. The mean of quality perception score and quality expectation score was 3.44 ± 0.693 and 4.736 ± 0.34, respectively. The highest perception was in assurance dimension and the highest expectation was in Responsiveness and assurance dimensions. Also, the lowest perception was in responsiveness dimension and the lowest expectation was about empathy. In this study, 56.1% of participants defined the quality of services as average. Conclusion According to the results, this hospital was not able to meet patients’ expectations completely. Therefore, action must be taken to decrease the gap between the perception and expectation of the patients. PMID:25064475

  4. Service quality assessment of a referral hospital in southern Iran with SERVQUAL technique: patients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamolaei, Teamur; Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Rafati, Shideh; Kahnouji, Kobra; Ahangari, Shamsieh; Shahrzad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kahnouji, Ataollah; Hoseini, Seyedeh Hamideh

    2014-07-27

    Providing services to patients according to their expectations and needs is necessary for the success of an organization in order to remain in the competitive market. Recognizing these needs and expectations is an important step in offering high quality services. This study was designed to determine the service quality gap of the main hospital of Hormozgan province. This cross sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bandar Abbas ShahidMohammadi Hospital in the south of Iran. All 96 participants of this study were provided by SERVQUAL questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Service quality gaps were seen in all five service quality dimensions and the overall quality of service. The mean of quality perception score and quality expectation score was 3.44 ± 0.693 and 4.736 ± 0.34, respectively. The highest perception was in assurance dimension and the highest expectation was in Responsiveness and assurance dimensions. Also, the lowest perception was in responsiveness dimension and the lowest expectation was about empathy. In this study, 56.1% of participants defined the quality of services as average. According to the results, this hospital was not able to meet patients' expectations completely. Therefore, action must be taken to decrease the gap between the perception and expectation of the patients.

  5. Effect of final evaluation on job motivation from the perspective of nurses in Ahvaz Hospitals in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji Khiavi, F; Amiri, E; Ghobadian, S; Roshankar, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing nurses' motivation is among the most important and complex nursing duties. Performance evaluation system could be used as a means to improve the quantity and quality of the human resources. Therefore, current research objected to evaluate the effect of final evaluation on job motivation from the perspective of nurses in Ahvaz hospitals according to Herzberg scheme. Methods: This investigation conducted in 2012. Research population included nurses in Ahvaz educational hospitals. The sample size was calculated 120 and sampling was performed based on classification and random sampling. Research instrument was a self-made questionnaire with confirmed validity through content analysis and Cronbach's alpha calculated at 0.94. Data examined utilizing ANOVA, T-Test, and descriptive statistics. Results: The nurses considered the final evaluation on management policy (3.2 ± 1.11) and monitoring (3.15 ± 1.15) among health items and responsibility (3.15 ± 1.15) and progress (3.06 ± 1.24) among motivational factors relatively effective. There was a significant association between scores of nurses' views in different age and sex groups (P = 0.01), but there was no significant association among respondents in educational level and marital status. Conclusion: Experienced nurses believed that evaluation has little effect on job motivation. If annual assessment of the various job aspects are considered, managers could use it as an efficient tool to motivate nurses.

  6. Investigating Public Facility Characteristics from a Spatial Interaction Perspective: A Case Study of Beijing Hospitals Using Taxi Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Kong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Services provided by public facilities are essential to people’s lives and are closely associated with human mobility. Traditionally, public facility access characteristics, such as accessibility, equity issues and service areas, are investigated mainly based on static data (census data, travel surveys and particular records, such as medical records. Currently, the advent of big data offers an unprecedented opportunity to obtain large-scale human mobility data, which can be used to study the characteristics of public facilities from the spatial interaction perspective. Intuitively, spatial interaction characteristics and service areas of different types and sizes of public facilities are different, but how different remains an open question, so we, in turn, examine this question. Based on spatial interaction, we classify public facilities and explore the differences in facilities. In the research, based on spatial interaction extracted from taxi data, we introduce an unsupervised classification method to classify 78 hospitals in 6 districts of Beijing, and the results better reflect the type of hospital. The findings are of great significance for optimizing the spatial configuration of medical facilities or other types of public facilities, allocating public resources reasonably and relieving traffic pressure.

  7. Ethical issues associated with in-hospital emergency from the Medical Emergency Team's perspective: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrini, Luca; Giannini, Alberto; Pintaudi, Margherita; Semeraro, Federico; Radeschi, Giulio; Borga, Sara; Landoni, Giovanni; Troiano, Herbert; Luchetti, Marco; Pellis, Thomas; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Minoja, Giulio; Mazzon, Davide; Alampi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Medical Emergency Teams (METs) are frequently involved in ethical issues associated to in-hospital emergencies, like decisions about end-of-life care and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. MET involvement offers both advantages and disadvantages, especially when an immediate decision must be made. We performed a survey among Italian intensivists/anesthesiologists evaluating MET's perspective on the most relevant ethical aspects faced in daily practice. A questionnaire was developed on behalf of the Italian scientific society of anesthesia and intensive care (SIAARTI) and administered to its members. Decision making criteria applied by respondents when dealing with ethical aspects, the estimated incidence of conflicts due to ethical issues and the impact on the respondents' emotional and moral distress were explored. The questionnaire was completed by 327 intensivists/anesthesiologists. Patient life-expectancy, wishes, and the quality of life were the factors most considered for decisions. Conflicts with ward physicians were reported by most respondents; disagreement on appropriateness of ICU admission and family unpreparedness to the imminent patient death were the most frequent reasons. Half of respondents considered that in case of conflicts the final decision should be made by the MET. Conflicts were generally recognized as causing increased and moral distress within the MET members. Few respondents reported that dedicated protocols or training were locally available. Italian intensivists/anesthesiologists reported that ethical issues associated with in-hospital emergencies are occurring commonly and are having a significant negative impact on MET well-being. Conflicts with ward physicians happen frequently. They also conveyed that hospitals don't offer ethics training and have no protocols in place to address ethical issues.

  8. The Attitudes of Physicians, Nurses, Physical Therapists, and Midwives Toward Complementary Medicine for Chronic Pain: A Survey at an Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveni, Eléonore; Bauer, Brent; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Kottelat, Yolande; Decosterd, Isabelle; Finti, Guillaume; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Bonvin, Eric; Rodondi, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    To assess the attitudes of physicians, nurses, physical therapists, and midwives toward complementary medicine (CM) at a Swiss academic hospital and toward its use for treating chronic pain. The cross-sectional survey took place from October to December 2013. An e-mail sent to 4925 healthcare professionals (1969 physicians, 2372 nurses, 145 physical therapists, and 111 midwives) working at Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland, invited them to answer a web-based questionnaire. The questionnaire was answered by 1247 healthcare professionals (response rate: 25.3%). Of these, 96.1% strongly agreed or agreed that CM could be useful for the treatment of chronic pain, with more nurses (96.7%) and midwives (100%) than physicians (93.8%) agreeing that CM could be useful (P chronic pain. Respondents listed migraine (74.7%), tension headaches (70.6%), and low back pain (70.1%) as three main conditions for which they would refer patients for acupuncture. The three therapies with which respondents were the most unfamiliar were neuraltherapy (57.2%), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) (54.1%), and biofeedback (51.9%). Over half of respondents, 58.3%, had never referred a patient to a CM practitioner. A total of 84.3% of the respondents felt that they lacked the knowledge to inform their patients about CM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Addition of generic medication vouchers to a pharmacist academic detailing program: effects on the generic dispensing ratio in a physician-hospital organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Vinay; Greg, Mark E; Shields, Mark C

    2010-01-01

    Generic dispensing ratio (GDR) is an important measure of efficiency in pharmacy benefit management. A few studies have examined the effects of academic detailing or generic drug samples on GDR. On July 1, 2007, a physician-hospital organization (PHO) with a pay-for-performance incentive for generic utilization initiated a pilot generic medication voucher program that augmented its existing pharmacist-led academic detailing efforts. No published studies have examined the role of generic medication vouchers in promoting generic drug utilization. To determine if supplementing an existing academic detailing initiative in a PHO with a generic medication voucher program would be more effective in increasing the GDR compared with academic detailing alone. The intervention took place over the 9-month period from July 1, 2007, through March 31, 2008. Vouchers provided patients with the first fill of a 30-day supply of a generic drug at no cost to the patient for 8 specific generic medications obtained through a national community pharmacy chain. The study was conducted in a PHO composed of 7 hospitals and approximately 2,900 physicians (900 primary care providers [PCPs] and 2,000 specialists). Of the approximately 300 PCP practices, 21 practices with at least 2 physicians each were selected on the basis of high prescription volume (more than 500 pharmacy claims for the practice over a 12-month pre-baseline period) and low GDR (practice GDR less than 55% in the 12-month pre-baseline period). These 21 practices were then randomized to a control group of academic detailing alone or the intervention group that received academic detailing plus generic medication vouchers. One of 10 intervention groups declined to participate, and 2 of 11 control groups dropped out of the PHO. GDR was calculated monthly for all pharmacy claims including the 8 voucher medications. GDR was defined as the ratio of the total number of paid generic pharmacy claims divided by the total number of paid

  10. Budget impact analysis of pemetrexed introduction: case study from a teaching hospital perspective, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjaruporn, Farsai; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Sooksriwong, Cha-oncin; Kaojarern, Sming

    2011-09-01

    Thailand does not currently require Budget Impact Analysis (BIA) assessment. The present study aimed to estimate the annual drug cost and the incremental impact on the hospital pharmaceutical budget of the introduction of pemetrexed to a Thai teaching hospital. The budget impact model was conducted in accordance with the Guidelines for preparing submissions to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC). The model variables consisted of number of patients, growth rate of lung cancer, uptake rate of pemetrexed over time, unit prices of drugs, and the length and cost of treatment. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine changes in budgetary impact due to variation of parameters or assumptions in the model. The introduction of pemetrexed was estimated to cause considerable costs for the teaching hospital. In the base-case analysis, the incremental costs were estimated at 8,553,984 Baht in the first year increasing to 12, 118, 144 Baht, 17,820,800 Baht and 17,820,800 Baht in the following years. The 4-year net budgetary impact was 20,154,480 Baht or approximately 127,560 Baht per patient. Sensitivity analyses found that number of treatment cycles andproportion of patients assumed to be treated with pemetrexed were the two most important influencing factors in the model. New costly innovative interventions should be evaluated using the BIA model to determine whether they are affordable. The Thai government should consider requiring the BIA study as one of the requirements for drug submission to assist in the determination of listing and subsidizing decision for medicines.

  11. The Learning Process of Students of Tourism and Hospitality under the Perspective Andragogical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jammilly Mikaela Fagundes Brandão

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Children , teenagers and adults have different ways of learning to use specific approaches in their learning processes, making it necessary .Considering the level of maturity and self-direction that adults tend to have in that it will be developing and living experiences, we realized the need for an approach to consider these individual differences in the learning process, giving rise to andragogy - the art and science aimed at helping adults to learn and understand the process of learning. Indeed, this study is mainly aimed to analyze the perceptions of tourism and hospitality students about his role in their learning process, based on the andragogical model developed by Knowles, Holton and Seanson (2011. We sought to investigate the profile of students of bachelor degree in tourism and hospitality and analyze the level of self-directedness (autonomy and independence of these students in their learning process based on andragogical principles. The methodological procedures, carried out a survey with 60 students of hospitality and tourism courses at the Federal University of Paraíba - UFPB, using as a scale of 5 points that dealt with these students assimilate the agreement in relation to the items. Data base theory of light were analyzed. As results, it is evident that students who have participated in this research, the perception thereof, characteristics such as autonomy, self-direction and present levels of independence as subjects in training and skills development process, which shows the need to rethink vocational training to better leverage these features. Finally, we highlight the importance of using a teaching method that allows students to opening suit your learning process to their particular way to study and learn.

  12. [Anaesthesia education at german university hospitals: the teachers' perspective -- results of a nationwide survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, K; Steinfeldt, T; Wulf, H

    2006-04-01

    The principle purpose of this study was to collect data on the conditions and practice of anaesthesia education as well as the teaching qualification of consultants at German university hospitals. Based upon the collected data, areas of weakness and strength as well as measures required to improve anaesthesia training are described. A questionnaire containing 26 items was mailed to 607 consultants employed at 41 German university hospitals in June 2003. A total of 255 questionnaires was analysed (response rate: 43 %). Genuine training activities account for 14 % of the working hours of the participating consultants. On average, at the institutions of participating consultants, novices work for a duration of 1 month together with a consultant anaesthetist before they give anaesthetics without direct and constant supervision. When asked to describe the predominant method of training at their institution 71 % indicated "case-oriented teaching"; however, 53 % chose "see one, do one, teach one" and 49 % "learning by doing" as method of training as well (multiple choice). According to 63 % of respondents, departmental educational activities usually happen after their regular working hours. "Daily workload" (96 %), "time pressure" (96 %), "lack of time" (96 %) and "lack of personnel" (90 %) were indicated as the main obstacles of teaching. According to 80 % of respondents, a dedicated financial budget for education does not exist; instead, financial resources of third parties (industry) (58 %), of the state (for research und undergraduate education) (60 %) and of patients service (66 %) are used to ensure training of anaesthesia residents. Due to a lack of a dedicated financial budget for resident training and an increasing economic pressure, "lack of time" and "lack of personnel" are the main factors leading to the situation at German university hospitals that consultants can only spend 14 % of their working hours for teaching purposes despite of sufficient qualification

  13. Early hospital discharge of the healthy term neonate: the Italian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, E; Mansi, G; Tosco, A; Capasso, L; Migliaro, F; Umbaldo, A; Romano, A; Paludetto, R; Raimondi, F

    2008-06-01

    An appropriate timing of hospital discharge of the healthy, term neonate represents a balance between birth medicalization and surveillance of immediate health hazards. In the absence of European recommendations, the authors have conducted a broad national survey on the current policies of neonatal discharge. A 13-item questionnaire was sent to 136 Italian birth centers. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean+/-range. Qualitative variables were expressed as frequencies. chi squared test was used for variables comparison. Mean age at discharge for a vaginally delivered neonate was 72 hours. Twelve percent of centres would not schedule a follow-up appointment. Neonates born after a cesarean section were discharged at a mean age of 97 hours. Almost all centres (95/98) would discharge an healthy infant without risk factors for hyperbilirubinemia with a total serum bilirubin (TSB) of 13 mg/dL at 72 hours but 14.7% of these centers would not recheck TSB. The same healthy neonate would be discharged at the age of 45 hours with a TSB=10 mg/dL in 67/98 centers and in 11.9% of cases would not be rechecked. Most Italian hospitals discharge healthy, term neonates born after spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) at over 72 hours of age. This policy should protect from missed diagnoses of clinical importance (e.g. hyperbilirubinemia). On the other hand, a prolonged hospitalization tends to increase maternal discomfort and medical costs. Implementing a protocol of home visits/clinic follow-up appointments after an earlier discharge may minimize health hazards and medical costs and optimizing the patient's feedback.

  14. Teleradiology from the provider's perspective-cost analysis for a mid-size university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Christian; Kroos, Kristin; Rosenberg, Britta; Hosten, Norbert; Flessa, Steffen

    2013-08-01

    Real costs of teleradiology services have not been systematically calculated. Pricing policies are not evidence-based. This study aims to prove the feasibility of performing an original cost analysis for teleradiology services and show break-even points to perform cost-effective practice. Based on the teleradiology services provided by the Greifswald University Hospital in northeastern Germany, a detailed process analysis and an activity-based costing model revealed costs per service unit according to eight examination categories. The Monte Carlo method was used to simulate the cost amplitude and identify pricing thresholds. Twenty-two sub-processes and four staff categories were identified. The average working time for one unit was 55 (x-ray) to 72 min (whole-body CT). Personnel costs were dominant (up to 68 %), representing lower limit costs. The Monte Carlo method showed the cost distribution per category according to the deficiency risk. Avoiding deficient pricing by a likelihood of 90 % increased the cost of a cranial CT almost twofold as compared with the lower limit cost. Original cost analysis is possible when providing teleradiology services with complex statutory requirements in place. Methodology and results provide useful data to help enhance efficiency in hospital management as well as implement realistic reimbursement fees. • Analysis of original costs of teleradiology is possible for a providing hospital • Results discriminate pricing thresholds and lower limit costs to perform cost-effective practice • The study methods represent a managing tool to enhance efficiency in providing facilities • The data are useful to help represent telemedicine services in regular medical fee schedules.

  15. The Undesirable Behaviors of Students in Academic Classrooms, and the Discipline Strategies Used by Faculty Members to Control Such Behaviors from the Perspective of the College of Education Students in King Saud University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qahtani, Norah Saad Sultan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the undesirable students' behaviors in academic classrooms, and the disciplinary, preventive and therapeutic strategies that will be used by faculty members to control those behaviors from the perspective of the College of Education's students in King Saud University. The results of the study has shown that the…

  16. Doctors' perspectives on the barriers to appropriate prescribing in older hospitalized patients: A qualitative study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullinan, S

    2014-11-18

    Older patients commonly suffer from multimorbidites and take multiple medications. As a result, these patients are more vulnerable to potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP). PIP in older patients may result in adverse drug events and hospitalisations. However, little has been done to identify why PIP occurs. The objectives of this study were; (1) to identify hospital doctors\\' perceptions as to why PIP occurs, (2) to identify the barriers to addressing the issues identified, and (3) to determine which intervention types would be best suited to improving prescribing.

  17. Fibreoptic gastro-intestinal endoscopy at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Kofi N; Archampong, Emmanuel Q

    2017-12-01

    Fibreoptic (or Flexible) endoscopy has revolutionized and completely transformed practice of gastroenterology, and many other medical specialties, over the past half century or so. At the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra the development of this facility has evolved gradually, especially involving specialists from the Departments of Medicine and Surgery since the 1970s. This article is an attempt to trace and record this journey and to highlight some of the problems and challenges yet to be overcome. It is an anecdotal account based on the authors' recollection with attempts at verification of important dates.

  18. A Dyadic Perspective on Determinants of Entry Choices in the Global Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the firm-level determinants of international hotels’ foreign markets entry choices, contrasting acquisition with management and franchise contracts, based on a resource-dependency perspective and appropriability theory. It points out that brand equity, relatedness of products and market segmentation, partner-specific knowledge of hotels, international experience, and the duration of proprietary knowledge impact hotels’ decisions on how to enter a foreign market. In addition, the paper suggests the existence of entry choices sequence favorable to acquisition probability after the end of management contract when the franchisors’ or management companies’ proprietary knowledge attenuates. Contract activity is likely to be renewed after the acquisition, once the management company has established a new form or a higher level of proprietary knowledge.

  19. Ten-Year Trends and Independent Risk Factors for Unplanned Readmission Following Elective Total Joint Arthroplasty at a Large Urban Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varacallo, Matthew A; Herzog, Leah; Toossi, Nader; Johanson, Norman A

    2017-06-01

    Total joint arthroplasty procedures continue to provide consistent, long-term success and high patient satisfaction scores. However, early unplanned readmission to the hospital imparts significant financial risks to individual institutions as we shift away from the traditional fee-for-service payment model. Using a combination of our hospital's administrative database and retrospective chart reviews, we report the 30-day and 90-day readmission rates and all causes of readmission following all unilateral, primary elective total hip and knee arthroplasty procedures at a large, urban, academic hospital from 2004 to 2013. In total, 1165 primary total hip (511) and knee (654) arthroplasty procedures were identified, and the 30-day and 90-day unplanned readmission rates were 4.6% and 7.3%, respectively. A multivariate regression model controlled for a variety of potential clinical and surgical confounders. Increasing body mass index levels, an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of ≥3, and discharge to an inpatient rehab facility each independently correlated with risk of both 30-day and 90-day unplanned readmission to our institution. Additionally, use of general anesthesia during the procedure independently correlated with risk of readmission at 30 days only, while congestive heart failure independently correlated with risk of 90-day unplanned readmission. Readmissions related directly to the surgical site accounted for 47% of the cases, and collectively totaled more than any single medical or clinical complication leading to unplanned readmission within the 90-day period. Increasing body mass index values, general anesthesia, an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of ≥3, and discharge to an inpatient rehab facility each were independent risk factors for early unplanned readmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Triumph of hope over experience: learning from interventions to reduce avoidable hospital admissions identified through an Academic Health and Social Care Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodhams Victoria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally health services are facing increasing demands due to new and more expensive health technologies and treatments, coupled with the needs of an ageing population. Reducing avoidable use of expensive secondary care services, especially high cost admissions where no procedure is carried out, has become a focus for the commissioners of healthcare. Method We set out to identify, evaluate and share learning about interventions to reduce avoidable hospital admission across a regional Academic Health and Social Care Network (AHSN. We conducted a service evaluation identifying initiatives that had taken place across the AHSN. This comprised a literature review, case studies, and two workshops. Results We identified three types of intervention: pre-hospital; within the emergency department (ED; and post-admission evaluation of appropriateness. Pre-hospital interventions included the use of predictive modelling tools (PARR – Patients at risk of readmission and ACG – Adjusted Clinical Groups sometimes supported by community matrons or virtual wards. GP-advisers and outreach nurses were employed within the ED. The principal post-hoc interventions were the audit of records in primary care or the application of the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP within the admission ward. Overall there was a shortage of independent evaluation and limited evidence that each intervention had an impact on rates of admission. Conclusions Despite the frequency and cost of emergency admission there has been little independent evaluation of interventions to reduce avoidable admission. Commissioners of healthcare should consider interventions at all stages of the admission pathway, including regular audit, to ensure admission thresholds don’t change.

  1. Perspective: Adopting an Asset Bundle Model to Support and Advance Minority Students’ Careers in Academic Medicine and the Scientific Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The authors contend that increasing diversity in the scientific pipeline (e.g., academic medicine, science, technology, engineering and mathematics) requires a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity continge...

  2. Budget impact analysis of trastuzumab in early breast cancer: a hospital district perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purmonen, Timo T; Auvinen, Päivi K; Martikainen, Janne A

    2010-04-01

    Adjuvant trastuzumab is widely used in HER2-positive (HER2+) early breast cancer, and despite its cost-effectiveness, it causes substantial costs for health care. The purpose of the study was to develop a tool for estimating the budget impact of new cancer treatments. With this tool, we were able to estimate the budget impact of adjuvant trastuzumab, as well as the probability of staying within a given budget constraint. The created model-based evaluation tool was used to explore the budget impact of trastuzumab in early breast cancer in a single Finnish hospital district with 250,000 inhabitants. The used model took into account the number of patients, HER2+ prevalence, length and cost of treatment, and the effectiveness of the therapy. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis and alternative case scenarios were performed to ensure the robustness of the results. Introduction of adjuvant trastuzumab caused substantial costs for a relatively small hospital district. In base-case analysis the 4-year net budget impact was 1.3 million euro. The trastuzumab acquisition costs were partially offset by the reduction in costs associated with the treatment of cancer recurrence and metastatic disease. Budget impact analyses provide important information about the overall economic impact of new treatments, and thus offer complementary information to cost-effectiveness analyses. Inclusion of treatment outcomes and probabilistic sensitivity analysis provides more realistic estimates of the net budget impact. The length of trastuzumab treatment has a strong effect on the budget impact.

  3. The telematic network of referee hospital "V. Monaldi" in Naples: state of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, A; Colasanate, A; Rossi, A

    2001-01-01

    The new advances in I.T. both in Hardware (wideband network) and in Software are rapidly changing the Health Information Systems scenario. In many hospitals of Campania Region this leads in many case to rebuild, starting from zero, both infrastructure and applications. Ericsson Enterprise has recently developed for the A.O. Monaldi and Integrated information System which consists of an advanced LAN (Local Area Network), a number of software infrastructures and some application systems as WEB site, Dicom PACS, E-mail server, Streaming Video from Operating Theatres, Internal TV Network. This integrated system represents the starting point for modern health information systems, which is compliant with new standards. The start-up of such systems represents always a problem for the organization and management point of view, therefore a number of problems concerning: training, education, security, privacy, operative procedures, co-ordination with existing applications, system management at the start-up and after. This paper deals with the technical aspects of this information system and discusses the problem met in introducing these IT products in a big and important hospital of Campania Region in Italy, in order to suggest a model, useful for other similar experiences.

  4. International Education Management: Implications of Relational Perspectives and Ethnographic Insights to Nurture International Students' Academic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, S. M. Riad

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: International students, who have a non-English speaking background (NESB), encounter many difficulties, in comparison to their local fellows of an English-speaking country. Literature demonstrates that leveraging various relational perspectives in a multicultural teaching environment has favourable implications to manage the NESB…

  5. THE ROLE OF THE UNIVERSITY IN THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY: ETHICAL PERSPECTIVES ON ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN THE AGE OF CORPORATE SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CERNAT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge society lies on the ruins of national culture that thought people to function in a single universal form of science. This type of society is tightly related to a post-national multicultural world that nourishes the erosion of classical (Kantian and Humboldian cultural and scientific foundations of the university. We are now witnessing it’s transformation into a “multiversity” dominated by the competitive international academic market for students and scholars and “commodified” knowledge. The fiscal crisis of publicly financed universities forced them to constantly pursue other forms of income, the industry being the most obvious solution. In the place of universities of reason and culture the drastic decrease of public funding generated the commercialization of the universities. This is because there is an “asymmetric convergence”: while universities are adopting corporate values and principles the industry itself is not influenced by the academic values and norms. The pursuit of knowledge for mere intellectual curiosity and also the conception of the knowledge as a public good have been abandoned in favor of applied research serving corporate interests. The resulting academic capitalism is far from being the best solution to budget cuts and this study is trying to highlight some of advantages but also the most important shortcomings of this present trend in our universities.

  6. Relationship of Teaching Efficiency with Academic Self-Efficacy and Self-Directed Learning among English Language Students: University Students’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shohoudi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-directed learning is originated from adult education which has currently gained a special place in educational systems and is influenced by many variables such as teaching self-efficacy and self-directed learning. This research investigated the relationship of teachers’ teaching with academic self-efficacy and self-directed learning from English language students' perspectives. Methods: The study population comprised of all bachelor, master and Ph.D. English language students of Allameh Tabataba’i University (2014-2015 who had passed at least one semester. A total of 159 students were selected as study sample using Cochran formula and proportional stratified sampling. The data were collected through three standard questionnaires with confirmed validity and reliability. Data were analyzed by one-sample t-test, Pearson correlation and multiple regression. Results: With regard to teaching efficiency, content presentation, learning evaluation and class management skills were higher than average and lesson planning and control over content skills were at an average level. Also, all dimensions of academic self-efficacy and self-directed learning were significantly higher than average. The correlation between teaching efficiency and self-efficacy (r=0.367 and self-directed learning (r=0.571, and between self-efficacy and self-directed learning (r=0.523 was statistically significant (P<0.01. Moreover, a combination of teaching efficiency dimensions could predict different dimensions of self-efficacy and all components of self-directed learning. Furthermore, self-efficacy dimensions were good predictors of self-directed learning. Conclusion: Success in the realm of academia and organizational learning depends on the learners’ updated knowledge and skills and self-directed learning. Also, it seems teachers’ efficient teaching affects students’ academic self-efficacy, orienting them toward self-directed learning.

  7. Hospital-acquired symptomatic urinary tract infection in patients admitted to an academic stroke center affects discharge disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifejika-Jones, Nneka L; Peng, Hui; Noser, Elizabeth A; Francisco, Gerard E; Grotta, James C

    2013-01-01

    To test the role of hospital-acquired symptomatic urinary tract infection (SUTI) as an independent predictor of discharge disposition in the acute stroke patient. A retrospective study of data collected from a stroke registry service. The registry is maintained by the Specialized Programs of Translational Research in Acute Stroke Data Core. The Specialized Programs of Translational Research in Acute Stroke is a national network of 8 centers that perform early phase clinical projects, share data, and promote new approaches to therapy for acute stroke. A single university-based hospital. We performed a data query of the fields of interest from our university-based stroke registry, a collection of 200 variables collected prospectively for each patient admitted to the stroke service between July 2004 and October 2009, with discharge disposition of home, inpatient rehabilitation, skilled nursing facility, or long-term acute care. Baseline demographics, including age, gender, ethnicity, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, were collected. Cerebrovascular disease risk factors were used for independent risk assessment. Interaction terms were created between SUTI and known covariates, such as age, NIHSS, serum creatinine level, history of stroke, and urinary incontinence. Because patients who share discharge disposition tend to have similar length of hospitalization, we analyzed the effect of SUTI on the median length of stay for a correlation. Days in the intensive care unit and death were used to evaluate morbidity and mortality. By using multivariate logistic regression, the data were analyzed for differences in poststroke disposition among patients with SUTI. Of 4971 patients admitted to the University of Texas at Houston Stroke Service, 2089 were discharged to home, 1029 to inpatient rehabilitation, 659 to a skilled nursing facility, and 226 to a long-term acute care facility. Patients with an SUTI were 57% less likely to be discharged home

  8. The postgraduate hospital educational environment measure (PHEEM questionnaire identifies quality of instruction as a key factor predicting academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Edson Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the reliability of the PHEEM questionnaire translated into Portuguese. We present the results of PHEEM following distribution to doctors in three different medical residency programs at a university hospital in Brazil. INTRODUCTION: Efforts to understand environmental factors that foster effective learning resulted in the development of a questionnaire to measure medical residents' perceptions of the level of autonomy, teaching quality and social support in their programs. METHODS: The questionnaire was translated using the modified Brislin back-translation technique. Cronbach's alpha test was used to ensure good reliability and ANOVA was used to compare PHEEM results among residents from the Surgery, Anesthesiology and Internal Medicine departments. The Kappa coefficient was used as a measure of agreement, and factor analysis was employed to evaluate the construct strength of the three domains suggested by the original PHEEM questionnaire. RESULTS: The PHEEM survey was completed by 306 medical residents and the resulting Cronbach's alpha was 0.899. The weighted Kappa was showed excellent reliability. Autonomy was rated most highly by Internal Medicine residents (63.7% ± 13.6%. Teaching was rated highest in Anesthesiology (66.7% ± 15.4%. Residents across the three areas had similar perceptions of social support (59.0% ± 13.3% for Surgery; 60.5% ± 13.6% for Internal Medicine; 61.4% ± 14.4% for Anesthesiology. Factor analysis suggested that nine factors explained 58.9% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that PHEEM is a reliable instrument for measuring the quality of medical residency programs at a Brazilian teaching hospital. The results suggest that quality of teaching was the best indicator of overall response to the questionnaire.

  9. Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Diabetic Foot Infections in a Large Academic Hospital: Implications for Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Reveles

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot infections (DFIs are the leading cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations in the United States. Antimicrobials active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are recommended in patients with associated risk factors; however, limited data exist to support these recommendations. Due to the changing epidemiology of MRSA, and the consequences of unnecessary antibiotic therapy, guidance regarding the necessity of empirical MRSA coverage in DFIs is needed. We sought to 1 describe the prevalence of MRSA DFIs at our institution and compare to the proportion of patients who receive MRSA antibiotic coverage and 2 identify risk factors for MRSA DFI.This was a retrospective cohort study of all adult, culture-positive DFI patients managed at University Hospital, San Antonio, TX between January 1, 2010 and September 1, 2014. Patient eligibility included a principal ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis code for foot infection and a secondary diagnosis of diabetes. The primary outcome was MRSA identified in the wound culture. Independent variables assessed included patient demographics, comorbidities, prior hospitalization, DFI therapies, prior antibiotics, prior MRSA infection, and laboratory values. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for MRSA DFI.Overall, 318 patients met inclusion criteria. Patients were predominantly Hispanic (79% and male (69%. Common comorbidities included hypertension (76%, dyslipidemia (52%, and obesity (49%. S. aureus was present in 46% of culture-positive DFIs (MRSA, 15%. A total of 273 patients (86% received MRSA antibiotic coverage, resulting in 71% unnecessary use. Male gender (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.37-7.99 and bone involvement (OR 1.93, 1.00-3.78 were found to be independent risk factors for MRSA DFI.Although MRSA was the causative pathogen in a small number of DFI, antibiotic coverage targeted against MRSA was unnecessarily high.

  10. Promotion of flu vaccination among healthcare workers in an Italian academic hospital: An experience with tailored web tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Alessandro; Quattrin, Rosanna; Filiputti, Elisa; Cocconi, Roberto; Arnoldo, Luca; Tricarico, Pierfrancesco; Delendi, Mauro; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2016-10-02

    Influenza causes significant mortality particularly among the elderly and high-risk groups. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of occupational exposure due to contact with patients. Aims of this study was to promote flu shot among HCWs through a multimedia campaign in a large North-Eastern Italian Hospital. The 2013/2014 flu vaccination multimedia campaign addressed to HCWs was developed by maintaining pre-existing tools (letters in pay slip and poster displayed in wards) and creating 4 on-line spots (30") delivered trough the hospital intranet. Campaign effectiveness was assessed in terms of changes in knowledge, attitude and practice comparing data of pre (10 items) and post test (20 items) survey on a randomized sample of HCWs. Response rates were 92.6% (464/501) in pre-test and 83.2% (417/501) in post-test. 93.8% (391/417) of HCWs reported to awareness of the campaign to promote vaccination. Spots were seen by 59.6% (233/391) of HCWs. Some reasons for vaccine denial, "not believing in vaccine efficacy" (34.7% to 14.9%), "not considering flu as a serious problem" (from 24% to 12.6%), "thinking not to get sick" (28.7% to 18.2%) or "being against the vaccine" (32.7% to 21%), showed a statistically significant reduction after the exposure to the campaign. The "intention to get vaccinated in the next year" instead, raised effectively (13.1% to 36.6%). Vaccinated HCWs rate in 2013-2014 season was 7.6% (221/2910), and 5.6% (164/2910) in 2012-2013 (pweb tools deserve to be better studied as effective approach to convey health information among HCWs.

  11. Collective and decentralized management model in public hospitals: perspective of the nursing team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Andrea; Cecilio, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira; Evora, Yolanda Dora Martinez; Gabriel, Carmen Silvia; Carvalho, Mariana Bernardes de

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to present the implementation of the collective and decentralized management model in functional units of a public hospital in the city of Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, according to the view of the nursing staff and the health technical assistant. This historical and organizational case study used qualitative thematic content analysis proposed by Bardin for data analysis. The institution started the decentralization of its administrative structure in 1999, through collective management, which permitted several internal improvements, with positive repercussion for the care delivered to users. The top-down implementation of the process seems to have jeopardized workers adherence, although collective management has intensified communication and the sharing of power and decision. The study shows that there is still much work to be done to concretize this innovative management proposal, despite the advances regarding the quality of care.

  12. Achieving glycemic control in special populations in hospital: perspectives in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice Y Y

    2014-04-01

    Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The trials, tribulations, and relative success of the ongoing clinical merger of two large academic hospital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J R; Dowling, M; Gallagher, J S

    2001-07-01

    The North Shore Health System and the Long Island Jewish Medical Center merged in 1997 and now form the third largest not-for-profit academic health care system in the United States. The authors analyze the specific factors responsible for the relative success of the clinical merger, review their merger's initial failures and how they crafted a more pragmatic and appropriate set of guiding principles to continue the merger, and discuss the future of their institution's clinical integration strategy. In 2000, clinical integration of the 19 clinical departments at the two merged institutions was surveyed across five broad areas: conferences, residency programs, common faculty and support staff, finances, and research. Extents of clinical integration ranged from 20% to 72%. Six departments had more than 50% clinical integration, and overall clinical integration was 42%. Not surprisingly, clinical integration had occurred most frequently with conferences (50%) and least with finances (25%). The single-chairperson model for department leadership has been most successful in achieving significant clinical integration of the formerly separate departments. The relative success of the clinical merger has been guided by the principle that no clinical service should be integrated simply for the sake of merging, but rather that integration should be encouraged where and when it makes sense to achieve specific program goals. In addition, the merger would not have proceeded without constant communication among the leadership and staff, flexibility in building leadership models, patience in having events progress over a time course that developed trust among the senior leaders, and the presence of a senior executive structure whose authority to make decisions is accepted. The most important factor for achieving a reasonable level of clinical integration is the ability of the clinical leaders to collaborate and lead the change process.

  14. [Vitamin D Insufficiency in a Hospital Population: A Photograph from the Laboratory Perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Joana; Fernandes, Vera; Garcia, Fernando Mota

    2015-01-01

    Although vitamin D deficiency is increasingly recognized around the world, there are few studies on the Portuguese reality. This study aims to analyse vitamin D levels in the assays performed in our hospital and their relationship with age, genre, requesting specialty and moment of sample collection. Cross-sectional study of measurements of 25(HO)D performed in our Hospital between June 2012 and November 2014. Included variables: gender, age, requesting specialty, month of sample collection. Vitamin D status classified as: 'Deficiency' (≤ 20 ng/mL), 'Insufficiency' (21 - 29 ng/ml) and 'Sufficiency' (≥ 30 ng/mL). We included 5 439 assays; 55.0% from women; the median age was 64.0 years. Sixty per cent had 'Deficiency', 20.7% 'Insufficiency' and 18.9% 'Sufficiency'. We found a negative correlation between age and vitamin D level (p vitamin D levels between genres. Nine specialties requested 98% of the assays, namely Nephrology (56.2%). We found differences between specialties based on age and vitamin D level (p Vitamin D levels changed throughout the year, with higher levels in the summer, followed by autumn, spring and winter (p vitamin D sufficiency was only present in a minority of assays (27.8% in summer and 9.2% in winter). Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in this population, affects individuals of all ages and is not offset by the seasonal variation of sunlight. Vitamin D deficiency is a real and prevalent problem in our population that needs further attention and action, given its clinical implications.

  15. Using stakeholder perspectives to develop an ePrescribing toolkit for NHS Hospitals: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lisa; Cresswell, Kathrin; Slee, Ann; Slight, Sarah P; Coleman, Jamie; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate how an online toolkit may support ePrescribing deployments in National Health Service hospitals, by assessing the type of knowledge-based resources currently sought by key stakeholders. Questionnaire-based survey of attendees at a national ePrescribing symposium. 2013 National ePrescribing Symposium in London, UK. Eighty-four delegates were eligible for inclusion in the survey, of whom 70 completed and returned the questionnaire. Estimate of the usefulness and type of content to be included in an ePrescribing toolkit. Interest in a toolkit designed to support the implementation and use of ePrescribing systems was high (n = 64; 91.4%). As could be expected given the current dearth of such a resource, few respondents (n = 2; 2.9%) had access or used an ePrescribing toolkit at the time of the survey. Anticipated users for the toolkit included implementation (n = 62; 88.6%) and information technology (n = 61; 87.1%) teams, pharmacists (n = 61; 87.1%), doctors (n = 58; 82.9%) and nurses (n = 56; 80.0%). Summary guidance for every stage of the implementation (n = 48; 68.6%), planning and monitoring tools (n = 47; 67.1%) and case studies of hospitals' experiences (n = 45; 64.3%) were considered the most useful types of content. There is a clear need for reliable and up-to-date knowledge to support ePrescribing system deployments and longer term use. The findings highlight how a toolkit may become a useful instrument for the management of knowledge in the field, not least by allowing the exchange of ideas and shared learning.

  16. An audit of adherence to heart failure guidelines in an Australian hospital: A pharmacist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Viviane; Danninger, Melanie; Wang, Wei; Khalil, Hanan

    2017-12-01

    The Australian National Heart Foundation Guidelines have been developed to guide clinicians on how to best manage chronic heart failure (CHF) patients according to the current best available evidence. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the proportion of patients prescribed evidence-based therapy (EBT) for CHF on discharge at this Australian metropolitan hospital and factors affecting its prescribing. The secondary aims are to examine the proportion of patients prescribed EBT on discharge on cardiac wards compared to medical wards and to explore the role of the pharmacist in the management of these patients. A retrospective audit of patients' medical notes who were admitted consecutively for CHF management was conducted over 6 months to examine their management. The results showed at discharge, a total of 52% of patients were discharged on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, 49% were discharged on β-blockers, 15% were on Aldosterone receptor antagonists, 90% were discharged on diuretics, and 29% were discharged on Digoxin. The main determinants of prescribing EBT on discharge were the presence of prescribing contraindications and patients' comorbidities. Patients discharged from cardiac wards were more likely to be prescribed EBT than if discharged on medical wards. Furthermore, in the subset of the cohort who was reviewed by a pharmacist during admission, a higher percentage of patients were discharged on EBT compared with those who did not have a pharmaceutical input. This study highlighted existing gaps between the National CHF Guidelines and clinical prescribing practice in this hospital. Patients who were discharged from cardiac wards were more likely to be prescribed medications concordant with the guidelines, and there is further opportunity for pharmacists to assist in closing gaps in prescribing practice by the promotion of adherence to these guidelines. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Dimensions of hospital service quality: a critical review: perspective of patients from global studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yogesh P; Chary, Satyanarayana T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the service quality dimensions established in various studies conducted across the world specifically applied to health care. Studies conducted on quality of care selected from literature databases - Ebsco, Emerald Insight, ABI/Inform - was subjected to a comprehensive in-depth content analysis. Service quality has been extensively studied with considerable efforts taken to develop survey instruments for measuring purposes. The number of dimensional structure varies across the studies. Self-administered questionnaire dominates in terms of mode of administration adopted in the studies, with respondents ranging from 18 to 85 years. Target sample size ranged from 84-2,000 respondents in self-administered questionnaires and for mail administration ranged from 300-2,600 respondents. Studies vary in terms of the scores used ranging from four to ten-point scale. A total of 27 of the studies have used EFA, 11 studies have used structural equation modelling and eight studies used gap scores. Cronbach's alpha is the most commonly used measure of scale reliability. There is variation in terms of measuring the content, criteria and construct validation among the studies. The literature offers dimensions used in assessing patient perceived service quality. The review reveals diversity and a plethora of dimensions and methodology to develop the construct discussed. The reported study describes and contrasts a large number of service-quality measurement constructs and highlights the usage of dimensions. The findings are valuable to academics in terms of dimensions and methodology used, approach for analysis; whereas findings are of value to practitioners in terms of the dimensions found in the research and to identify the gap in their setting.

  18. Use of a Hands Free, Instantaneous, Closed-Loop Communication Device Improves Perception of Communication and Workflow Integration in an Academic Teaching Hospital: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Daniel Z; Patil, Teja; Belitskaya-Levy, Ilana; Yeung, Marianne; Posley, Keith; Allaudeen, Nazima

    2017-11-17

    Efficient and effective communication between providers is critical to quality patient care within a hospital system. Hands free communication devices (HFCD) allow instantaneous, closed-loop communication between physicians and other members of a multidisciplinary team, providing a communication advantage over traditional pager systems. HFCD have been shown to decrease emergency room interruptions, improve nursing communication, improve speed of information flow, and eliminate health care waste. We evaluated the integration of an HFCD with an existing alphanumeric paging system on an acute inpatient medicine service. We conducted a prospective, observational, survey-based study over twenty-four weeks in an academic tertiary care center with attending physicians and residents. Our intervention involved the implementation of an HFCD alongside the existing paging system. Fifty-six pre and post surveys evaluated the perception of improvement in communication and the integration of the HFCD into existing workflow. We saw significant improvements in the ability of an HFCD to help physicians communicate thoughts clearly, communicate thoughts effectively, reach team members, reach ancillary staff, and stay informed about patients. Physicians also reported better workflow integration during admissions, rounds, discharge, and teaching sessions. Qualitative data from post surveys demonstrated that the greatest strengths of the HFCD included the ability to reach colleagues and staff quickly, provide instant access to individuals of the care team, and improve overall communication. Integration of an instantaneous, hands free, closed loop communication system alongside the existing pager system can provide improvements in the perceptions of communication and workflow integration in an academic medicine service. Future studies are needed to correlate these subjective findings with objective measures of quality and safety.

  19. Acute Stroke Through the Perspective of a County Hospital: Problems and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atay Vural

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stroke is one of the most important public health issues worldwide, and ranks as the second highest cause of mortality in our country. Regular follow-up of stroke statistics and taking necessary precautions upon determining deficits by countries themselves constitute the most important way of improving prognosis and survival after stroke incidents. To achieve this goal, statistical studies should be performed at various levels of healthcare services. Tertiary care hospitals are the most suitable centers to perform these studies. However, the majority of the population receives service at secondary care centers where the actual statistics remain unknown. The objective of this study was to examine all patients with acute stroke who presented to a county hospital over a one-year period and obtain related data, discuss deficits, and provide solutionbased recommendations. Materials and Methods: All patients diagnosed as having acute stroke between July 2013-July 2014 were included in the study. Demographic, clinical, and radiologic data, in addition to the timing of presentation and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores were recorded retrospectively, and patients were classified by the type of stroke. All patients were followed up for at least one year after the stroke incident and cumulative survival scores were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Hemorrhagic stroke was determined in four out of 49 patients with acute stroke; the 45 patients diagnosed as having ischemic stroke were included in the study. Among these, 44.4% (n=20 of the patients presented within the first three hours of onset of clinical symptoms, 4.4% (n=2 presented at 3.-4.5 hours. Baseline NIHSS was 1-4 (mild stroke in 50% (n=10 of patients who presented in the first three hours, and >5 (moderate or severe stroke in 50% (n=10 of the remaining patients. The etiologic cause was embolic in 37.1% (n=13, large artery atherosclerosis

  20. What Does ePrescribing Mean for Patients? A Case Study of the Perspectives of Hospital Renal Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospital ePrescribing systems are expected to improve quality of care for patients, yet the perspectives of patients themselves have seldom been explored in the context of ePrescribing deployments.OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand the significance of ePrescribing for patients through a case study of renal in-patients on a hospital ward, before and after the introduction of an ePrescribing system.METHODS: Three data sources were drawn on as part of the case study: interviews with representatives from national patient groups (n = 10, in-patients on a renal ward (n = 11 pre-implementation; n = 12 post-implementation and fieldnotes (n = 25 of observations made on the case study ward. Data were analysed thematically focusing on: (1 perceived benefits of ePrescribing; (2 patient awareness and understanding of the medications prescribed and (3 patient views on medicines reconciliation at admission and discharge.RESULTS: While ePrescribing was viewed positively overall, its implementation in the case study site failed to address the lack of patient involvement in the prescribing process and poor medication counselling upon discharge. Importantly, the limited impact of the ePrescribing system in these particular areas appeared to be the result of institutional and cultural practices rather than solely technological factors.CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of ePrescribing systems offers new opportunities to improve sharing of knowledge and communication with all those involved in the patient’s care pathways, including patients, carers and healthcare professionals across diverse care settings. Achieving this will, first and foremost, require significant cultural and policy shifts in how the patient’s role is perceived by clinicians in relation to medicines management.

  1. Accommodation set in a university hospital: postpartum depression in nurses’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Rodrigues de Freitas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conhecer o entendimento dos enfermeiros do alojamento conjunto sobre depressão pós-parto; e identificar a percepção desses enfermeiros relativa à importância das orientações sobre depressão pós-parto às puérperas. Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, exploratória, de natureza qualitativa, com 5 enfermeiros do Alojamento Conjunto de um Hospital da cidade de Niterói/RJ, no ano de 2011. Os dados foram coletados por entrevistas semiestruturadas e tratados de acordo com os preceitos da análise de conteúdo, obedecendo à Técnica de Análise Temática, após aprovação do projeto de pesquisa pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Faculdade de Medicina/HUAP/UFF, CAAE n. 0215.0.258.000-11, mediante parecer favorável n° 206/11. Resultados: Os enfermeiros encontram dificuldades em prestar uma assistência especifica e qualificada à puérpera por falta de conhecimentos sobre esse transtorno. Conclusão: O enfermeiro precisa ter o conhecimento sobre a depressão pós-parto para facilitar a abordagem e os cuidados à puérpera e a família.

  2. The effect of health payment reforms on cost containment in Taiwan hospitals: the agency theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether the Taiwanese government's implementation of new health care payment reforms (the National Health Insurance with fee-for-service (NHI-FFS) and global budget (NHI-GB)) has resulted in better cost containment. Also, the question arises under the agency theory whether the monitoring system is effective in reducing the risk of information asymmetry. This study uses panel data analysis with fixed effects model to investigate changes in cost containment at Taipei municipal hospitals before and after adopting reforms from 1989 to 2004. The results show that the monitoring system does not reduce information asymmetry to improve cost containment under the NHI-FFS. In addition, after adopting the NHI-GB system, health care costs are controlled based on an improved monitoring system in the policymaker's point of view. This may suggest that the NHI's fee-for-services system actually causes health care resource waste. The GB may solve the problems of controlling health care costs only on the macro side.

  3. Retention of Underrepresented Minority Faculty: Strategic Initiatives for Institutional Value Proposition Based on Perspectives from a Range of Academic Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Joseph A; Montgomery, Beronda L; Martinez Acosta, Veronica G

    2015-01-01

    The student and faculty make-up of academic institutions does not represent national demographics. Racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionately underrepresented nationally, and particularly at predominantly white institutions (PWIs). Although significant efforts and funding have been committed to increasing points of access or recruitment of under-represented minority (URM) students and faculty at PWIs, these individuals have not been recruited and retained at rates that reflect their national proportions. Underrepresentation of URMs is particularly prevalent in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. This reality represents a national crisis given a predicted shortage of workers in STEM disciplines based on current rates of training of all individuals, majority and URM, and the intersection of this limitation with persistent challenges in the recruitment, training, retention and advancement of URMs who will soon represent the largest pool of future trainees. An additional compounding factor is the increasingly disproportionate underrepresentation of minorities at higher professorial and administrative ranks, thus limiting the pool of potential mentors who are correlated with successful shepherding of URM students through STEM training and development. We address issues related to improving recruitment and retention of URM faculty that are applicable across a range of academic institutions. We describe challenges with recruitment and retention of URM faculty and their advancement through promotion in the faculty ranks and into leadership positions. We offer specific recommendations, including identifying environmental barriers to diversity and implementing strategies for their amelioration, promoting effective and innovative mentoring, and addressing leadership issues related to constructive change for promoting diversity.

  4. Pathogenic factors associated with development of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) in a tertiary academic hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Elizabeth S; Mayne, Anthony L H; Louw, Susan J

    2018-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is a thrombotic microangiopathy arising from consumption of both coagulation factors and platelets. DIC is triggered by a number of clinical conditions including severe infection, trauma and obstetric complications. Early diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition is paramount. A high clinical index of suspicion is needed to ensure that patients at risk of developing DIC are appropriately investigated. In order to establish the clinical conditions most frequently associated with DIC, we reviewed all DIC screens received at a tertiary hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa over a 1 year period. The commonest clinical condition associated with DIC in our population was infection with 84% of patients infected with an identified pathogen. The most frequently diagnosed pathogen was HIV followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial infections. In the majority of cases, bacteria were isolated from blood cultures. In 47 patients, HIV was the only pathogen which could be isolated. A relative risk ratio of 2.73 and an odds ratio of 29.97 was attributed to HIV for development of a DIC. A malignancy was present in 51 of the patients of which approximately 60% had co-existing infection. No cause could be attributed in 30 patients. Infection was identified in the majority of the patients diagnosed with DIC in this study. HIV showed the highest relative risk ratio of all pathogens although previous studies have not suggested that HIV was strongly associated with DIC. In almost half of the HIV infected patients, there was no other pathogen isolated despite extensive investigation. This suggests that HIV has a strong association with the development of DIC, warranting further research into the relationship between HIV and disseminated microvascular thrombosis.

  5. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term "systems omics."...

  6. Personal and professional challenges confronted by hospital staff following hurricane sandy: a qualitative assessment of management perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Andrea M; Ricci, Karen A; Griffin, Anne R; Heslin, Kevin C; Dobalian, Aram

    2016-05-05

    Adequate hospital staffing during and after a disaster is critical to meet increased health care demands and to ensure continuity of care and patient safety. However, when a disaster occurs, staff may become both victim and responder, decreasing their ability and willingness to report for work. This qualitative study assessed the personal and professional challenges that affected staff decisions to report to work following a natural disaster and examined the role of management in addressing staff needs and concerns. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals who filled key management roles in the United States Department of Veterans Affairs New York Harbor Healthcare System's response to Superstorm Sandy and during the facility's initial recovery phase. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Three major themes were identified: 1) Barriers to reporting ("Barriers"), 2) Facilitators to reporting ("Facilitators"), and 3) Responses to staff needs and concerns ("Responses"). Atlas.ti 7.1.6 software program was used for the management and analysis of the transcripts. Results indicated that staff encountered several barriers that impeded their ability to report to work at mobile vans at the temporarily nonoperational Manhattan campus or at two other VA facilities in Brooklyn and the Bronx in the initial post-Sandy period including transportation problems, personal property damage, and communication issues. In addition, we found evidence of facilitators to reporting as expressed through descriptions of professional duty. Our findings also revealed that management was aware of the challenges that staff was facing and made efforts to reduce barriers and accommodate staff affected by the storm. During and after a disaster event, hospital staff is often confronted with challenges that affect decisions to report for work and perform effectively under potentially harsh conditions. This study examined barriers and facilitators that hospital staff

  7. Perspectives of hospital emergency department staff on trauma-informed care for injured children: An Australian and New Zealand analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoysted, Claire; Babl, Franz E; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Landolt, Markus A; Jobson, Laura; Curtis, Sarah; Kharbanda, Anupam B; Lyttle, Mark D; Parri, Niccolò; Stanley, Rachel; Alisic, Eva

    2017-09-01

    To examine Australian and New Zealand emergency department (ED) staff's training, knowledge and confidence regarding trauma-informed care for children after trauma, and barriers to implementation. ED staff's perspectives on trauma-informed care were assessed using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Participants included 468 ED staff (375 nursing and 111 medical staff) from hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, χ 2 tests and multiple regressions. Over 90% of respondents had not received training in trauma-informed care and almost all respondents (94%) wanted training in this area. While knowledge was associated with a respondent's previous training and profession, confidence was associated with the respondent's previous training, experience level and workplace. Dominant barriers to the implementation of trauma-informed care were lack of time and lack of training. There is a need and desire for training and education of Australian and New Zealand ED staff in trauma-informed care. This study demonstrates that experience alone is not sufficient for the development of knowledge of paediatric traumatic stress reactions and trauma-informed care practices. Existing education materials could be adapted for use in the ED and to accommodate the training preferences of Australian and New Zealand ED staff. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Awareness of radiation protection and dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiography students, and radiology residents at an academic hospital: Results of a comprehensive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggioni, Lorenzo; Paolicchi, Fabio; Bastiani, Luca; Guido, Davide; Caramella, Davide

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the awareness of radiation protection issues and the knowledge of dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiology residents, and radiography students at an academic hospital. A total of 159 young doctors and students (including 60 radiology residents, 56 medical students, and 43 radiography students) were issued a questionnaire consisting of 16 multiple choice questions divided into three separated sections (i.e., demographic data, awareness about radiation protection issues, and knowledge about radiation dose levels of common radiological examinations). Medical students claimed to have at least a good knowledge of radiation protection issues more frequently than radiology residents and radiography students (94.4% vs 55% and 35.7%, respectively; Pradiological procedures was significantly worse among medical students than radiology residents and radiography students (Pradiology residents as to knowledge of radiation protection issues (PRadiology residents, radiography students and medical students have a limited awareness about radiation protection, with a specific gap of knowledge concerning real radiation doses of daily radiological examinations. Both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching needs to be effectively implemented with radiation safety courses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using an evidence-based approach for system selection at a large academic medical center: lessons learned in selecting an ambulatory EMR at Mount Sinai Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannry, Joseph; Mukani, Sonia; Myers, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The experience of Mount Sinai Hospital is representative of the challenges and problems facing large academic medical centers in selecting an ambulatory EMR. The facility successfully revived a stalled process in a challenging financial climate, using a framework of science and rigorous investigation. The process incorporated several innovations: 1) There was a thorough review of medical informatics literature to develop a mission statement, determine practical objectives and guide the demonstration process; 2) The process involved rigorous investigation of vendor statements, industry statements and other institution's views of vendors; 3) The initiative focused on user-centric selection, and the survey instrument was scientifically and specifically designed to assess user feedback; 4) There was scientific analysis of validated findings and survey results at all steering meetings; 5) The process included an assessment of vendors' ability to support research by identifying funded and published research; 6) Selection involved meticulous total cost of ownership analysis to assess and compare real costs of implementing a vendor solution; and finally, 7) There were iterative meetings with stakeholders, executives and users to understand needs, address concerns and communicate the vision.

  10. Certified quality management according to DIN ISO 9001 in a radiology department at a university hospital. Measurable changes in academic quality indicators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, Joern; Habermann, C.; Weber, C.; Adam, G.; Koops, A.; Utler, C.; Grzyska, U.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the changes in academic quality indicators after implementation of a quality management system according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. Materials and methods: after implementation and certification of a quality management system, the actual state based on quality indicators from the fields of student teaching, research, continuing education and the satisfaction of referring physician was determined. After implementation of an action plan for the individual areas, the temporal changes in the ratios were documented in the follow-up. Results: the evaluation of teaching performance obtained by questionnaire among the students of the radiology course showed a steady increase in satisfaction (mean value 2003: 2.7; 2007: 3.9). In the field of research an increase in scientific output was achieved based on the number of an internal publication score (2002: 99 points; 2006: 509). Repeated opinion surveys among our referring physicians found improvements in indicators for the appointment of investigations, consulting service and waiting times for the investigation, while the waiting times for internal transport service did not improve. Exemplary measurements of the success of the advanced training of the staff demonstrated the need for continuing education for quality improvement. Conclusion: the evaluation of quality indicators showed over time a measurable positive impact on processes of a radiological Univ. Hospital after implementation of a QM system according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. (orig.)

  11. Integrating Quality Improvement and Continuing Professional Development at an Academic Medical Center: A Partnership Between Practice Plan, Hospital, and Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Barbara; England, Dawn; Riley, William; Jacobs-Halsey, Ginny; Webb, Corinne; Daniels, Bobbi

    2016-01-01

    While quality improvement (QI) initiatives can be a highly effective means for improving health care delivery in academic medical centers (AMCs), many health care professionals are not formally trained in basic QI methodology, engaging clinicians in QI activities can be challenging, and there is often a lack of integration and coordination among QI functions (eg, Departments of Quality and Safety, Continuing Professional Development). In our AMC, we undertook a collaborative approach to achieve better vertical and horizontal integration of our QI education efforts. This article provides a case example describing our organizational context, what was done, and with what effect and makes our example and lessons learned available to others. We developed a new educational QI program that was jointly planned and implemented by a group comprising major QI stakeholders. This project was intended to create horizontal organizational linkages between continuing professional development, clinicians, the hospital, and QI department and produce QI activities that aligned with the strategic objectives of senior management. The group developed and implemented a curriculum based on Lean methodology and concepts from the Institute for Health Care Improvement Model for Improvement. Two cohorts (27 teams) completed the training and planned and implemented QI projects. All projects were aligned with organizational quality, safety, and patient experience goals. The majority of projects met their aim statements. This case description provides an example of successful horizontal integration of an AMCs' QI functions to disseminate knowledge and implement meaningful QI aligned with strategic objectives (vertical integration).

  12. Application of the balanced scorecard to an academic medical center in Taiwan: the effect of warning systems on improvement of hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Hou, Ying-Hui; Chang, Ray-E

    2012-10-01

    The balanced scorecard (BSC) is considered to be a useful tool for management in a variety of business environments. The purpose of this article is to utilize the experimental data produced by the incorporation and implementation of the BSC in hospitals and to investigate the effects of the BSC red light tracking warning system on performance improvement. This research was designed to be a retrospective follow-up study. The linear mixed model was applied for correcting the correlated errors. The data used in this study were secondary data collected by repeated measurements taken between 2004 and 2010 by 67 first-line medical departments of a public academic medical center in Taipei, Taiwan. The linear mixed model of analysis was applied for multilevel analysis. Improvements were observed with various time lags, from the subsequent month to three months after red light warning. During follow-up, the red light warning system more effectively improved controllable costs, infection rates, and the medical records completion rate. This further suggests that follow-up management promotes an enhancing and supportive effect to the red light warning. The red light follow-up management of BSC is an effective and efficient tool where improvement depends on ongoing and consistent attention in a continuing effort to better administer medical care and control costs. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. [Certified quality management according to DIN ISO 9001 in a radiology department at a university hospital: measurable changes in academic quality indicators?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, J; Habermann, C; Utler, C; Grzyska, U; Weber, C; Adam, G; Koops, A

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the changes in academic quality indicators after implementation of a quality management system according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. After implementation and certification of a quality management system, the actual state based on quality indicators from the fields of student teaching, research, continuing education and the satisfaction of referring physician was determined. After implementation of an action plan for the individual areas, the temporal changes in the ratios were documented in the follow-up. The evaluation of teaching performance obtained by questionnaire among the students of the radiology course showed a steady increase in satisfaction (mean value 2003: 2.7; 2007: 3.9). In the field of research an increase in scientific output was achieved based on the number of an internal publication score (2002: 99 points; 2006: 509). Repeated opinion surveys among our referring physicians found improvements in indicators for the appointment of investigations, consulting service and waiting times for the investigation, while the waiting times for internal transport service did not improve. Exemplary measurements of the success of the advanced training of the staff demonstrated the need for continuing education for quality improvement. The evaluation of quality indicators showed over time a measurable positive impact on processes of a radiological University Hospital after implementation of a QM system according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  14. Burden and predictors of Staphylococcus aureus and S. pseudintermedius infections among dogs presented at an academic veterinary hospital in South Africa (2007–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Qekwana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Staphylococci are commensals of the mucosal surface and skin of humans and animals, but have been implicated in infections such as otitis externa, pyoderma, urinary tract infections and post-surgical complications. Laboratory records provide useful information to help investigate these infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the burdens of these infections and use multinomial regression to examine the associations between various Staphylococcus infections and demographic and temporal factors among dogs admitted to an academic veterinary hospital in South Africa. Methods Records of 1,497 clinical canine samples submitted to the bacteriology laboratory at a veterinary academic hospital between 2007 and 2012 were included in this study. Proportions of staphylococcal positive samples were calculated, and a multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of staphylococcal infections. Results Twenty-seven percent of the samples tested positive for Staphylococcus spp. The species of Staphylococcus identified were S. pseudintermedius (19.0%, S. aureus (3.8%, S. epidermidis (0.7% and S. felis (0.1%. The remaining 2.87% consisted of unspeciated Staphylococcus. Distribution of the species by age of dog showed that S. pseudintermedius was the most common (25.6% in dogs aged 2–4 years while S. aureus was most frequent (6.3% in dogs aged 5–6 years. S. pseudintermedius (34.1% and S. aureus (35.1% were the most frequently isolated species from skin samples. The results of the multivariable multinomial logistic regression model identified specimen, year and age of the dog as significant predictors of the risk of infection with Staphylococcus. There was a significant temporal increase (RRR = 1.17; 95% CI [1.06–1.29] in the likelihood of a dog testing positive for S. pseudintermedius compared to testing negative. Dogs ≤ 8 years of age were significantly more likely to test positive for S

  15. Recasting the Academic Workforce: Why the Attractiveness of the Academic Profession Needs to Be Increased and Eight Possible Strategies for How to Go about This from an Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Hamish; Goedegebuure, Leo

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses academic work and the academic workforce in the context of current dynamics and likely futures. It discusses the significance of academic work, reviews workforce characteristics, and analyses tensions and pressures. Prevailing conceptualisations, it is argued, do not reflect the current situation in which the profession finds…

  16. Difficult decisions: A qualitative exploration of the statistical decision making process from the perspectives of psychology students and academics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter James Allen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative research methods are essential to the development of professional competence in psychology. They are also an area of weakness for many students. In particular, students are known to struggle with the skill of selecting quantitative analytical strategies appropriate for common research questions, hypotheses and data types. To begin understanding this apparent deficit, we presented nine psychology undergraduates (who had all completed at least one quantitative methods course with brief research vignettes, and asked them to explicate the process they would follow to identify an appropriate statistical technique for each. Thematic analysis revealed that all participants found this task challenging, and even those who had completed several research methods courses struggled to articulate how they would approach the vignettes on more than a very superficial and intuitive level. While some students recognized that there is a systematic decision making process that can be followed, none could describe it clearly or completely. We then presented the same vignettes to 10 psychology academics with particular expertise in conducting research and/or research methods instruction. Predictably, these ‘experts’ were able to describe a far more systematic, comprehensive, flexible and nuanced approach to statistical decision making, which begins early in the research process, and pays consideration to multiple contextual factors. They were sensitive to the challenges that students experience when making statistical decisions, which they attributed partially to how research methods and statistics are commonly taught. This sensitivity was reflected in their pedagogic practices. When asked to consider the format and features of an aid that could facilitate the statistical decision making process, both groups expressed a preference for an accessible, comprehensive and reputable resource that follows a basic decision tree logic. For the academics in

  17. Difficult Decisions: A Qualitative Exploration of the Statistical Decision Making Process from the Perspectives of Psychology Students and Academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter J; Dorozenko, Kate P; Roberts, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative research methods are essential to the development of professional competence in psychology. They are also an area of weakness for many students. In particular, students are known to struggle with the skill of selecting quantitative analytical strategies appropriate for common research questions, hypotheses and data types. To begin understanding this apparent deficit, we presented nine psychology undergraduates (who had all completed at least one quantitative methods course) with brief research vignettes, and asked them to explicate the process they would follow to identify an appropriate statistical technique for each. Thematic analysis revealed that all participants found this task challenging, and even those who had completed several research methods courses struggled to articulate how they would approach the vignettes on more than a very superficial and intuitive level. While some students recognized that there is a systematic decision making process that can be followed, none could describe it clearly or completely. We then presented the same vignettes to 10 psychology academics with particular expertise in conducting research and/or research methods instruction. Predictably, these "experts" were able to describe a far more systematic, comprehensive, flexible, and nuanced approach to statistical decision making, which begins early in the research process, and pays consideration to multiple contextual factors. They were sensitive to the challenges that students experience when making statistical decisions, which they attributed partially to how research methods and statistics are commonly taught. This sensitivity was reflected in their pedagogic practices. When asked to consider the format and features of an aid that could facilitate the statistical decision making process, both groups expressed a preference for an accessible, comprehensive and reputable resource that follows a basic decision tree logic. For the academics in particular, this aid

  18. Difficult Decisions: A Qualitative Exploration of the Statistical Decision Making Process from the Perspectives of Psychology Students and Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter J.; Dorozenko, Kate P.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative research methods are essential to the development of professional competence in psychology. They are also an area of weakness for many students. In particular, students are known to struggle with the skill of selecting quantitative analytical strategies appropriate for common research questions, hypotheses and data types. To begin understanding this apparent deficit, we presented nine psychology undergraduates (who had all completed at least one quantitative methods course) with brief research vignettes, and asked them to explicate the process they would follow to identify an appropriate statistical technique for each. Thematic analysis revealed that all participants found this task challenging, and even those who had completed several research methods courses struggled to articulate how they would approach the vignettes on more than a very superficial and intuitive level. While some students recognized that there is a systematic decision making process that can be followed, none could describe it clearly or completely. We then presented the same vignettes to 10 psychology academics with particular expertise in conducting research and/or research methods instruction. Predictably, these “experts” were able to describe a far more systematic, comprehensive, flexible, and nuanced approach to statistical decision making, which begins early in the research process, and pays consideration to multiple contextual factors. They were sensitive to the challenges that students experience when making statistical decisions, which they attributed partially to how research methods and statistics are commonly taught. This sensitivity was reflected in their pedagogic practices. When asked to consider the format and features of an aid that could facilitate the statistical decision making process, both groups expressed a preference for an accessible, comprehensive and reputable resource that follows a basic decision tree logic. For the academics in particular, this aid

  19. Transitioning from health librarianship to academic librarianship

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Steven

    2016-01-01

    A presentation delivered at the Health Libraries Inc 2016 Conference in Melbourne, providing an early career librarian's perspective on the bridge between health librarianship and academic (research) librarianship

  20. Children admitted to hospital following unintentional injury: perspectives of health service providers in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death and hospitalisation among New Zealand children, with indigenous Māori and ethnic minority Pacific children significantly over represented in these statistics. International research has shown that many children hospitalised for injury, as well as their families experience high levels of stress, and ethnic disparities in the quality of trauma care are not uncommon. The research on which this paper is based sought to identify key issues and concerns for New Zealand's multi-ethnic community following hospitalisation for childhood injury in order to inform efforts to improve the quality of trauma services. This paper reports on service providers' perspectives complementing previously published research on the experiences of families of injured children. Methods A qualitative research design involving eleven in-depth individual interviews and three focus groups was used to elicit the views of 21 purposefully selected service provider key informants from a range of professional backgrounds involved in the care and support of injured children and their families in Auckland, New Zealand. Interviews were transcribed and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Key issues identified by service providers included limited ability to meet the needs of children with mild injuries, particularly their emotional needs; lack of psychological support for families; some issues related to Māori and Pacific family support services; lack of accessible and comprehensive information for children and families; poor staff continuity and coordination; and poor coordination of hospital and community services, including inadequacies in follow-up plans. There was considerable agreement between these issues and those identified by the participant families. Conclusions The identified issues and barriers indicate the need for interventions for service improvement at systemic, provider and patient levels. Of particular

  1. Children admitted to hospital following unintentional injury: perspectives of health service providers in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiasiga Lanuola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death and hospitalisation among New Zealand children, with indigenous Māori and ethnic minority Pacific children significantly over represented in these statistics. International research has shown that many children hospitalised for injury, as well as their families experience high levels of stress, and ethnic disparities in the quality of trauma care are not uncommon. The research on which this paper is based sought to identify key issues and concerns for New Zealand's multi-ethnic community following hospitalisation for childhood injury in order to inform efforts to improve the quality of trauma services. This paper reports on service providers' perspectives complementing previously published research on the experiences of families of injured children. Methods A qualitative research design involving eleven in-depth individual interviews and three focus groups was used to elicit the views of 21 purposefully selected service provider key informants from a range of professional backgrounds involved in the care and support of injured children and their families in Auckland, New Zealand. Interviews were transcribed and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Key issues identified by service providers included limited ability to meet the needs of children with mild injuries, particularly their emotional needs; lack of psychological support for families; some issues related to Māori and Pacific family support services; lack of accessible and comprehensive information for children and families; poor staff continuity and coordination; and poor coordination of hospital and community services, including inadequacies in follow-up plans. There was considerable agreement between these issues and those identified by the participant families. Conclusions The identified issues and barriers indicate the need for interventions for service improvement at systemic, provider and

  2. Corpora and corpus technology for translation purposes in professional and academic environments. Major achievements and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Frérot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The “use” of corpora and concordancers in translation teaching has grown increasingly attractive since the mid1990s’ with an abundant literature advocating their use and promoting their benefits in the translation classroom. In translator training, efforts are being made to incorporate the use of corpora and concordancers in masters’ programmes and to offer specific modules on corpora for translation as the use of translation memory (TM systems within Computer-Aided Translation (CAT courses still dominates. In the translation profession, while TM systems are part of the everyday working environment, the same cannot be said of corpora and concordancers even though the most recent surveys show that professional translators would like to learn more about the potential of corpora for translation. Overall, the “usefulness” of corpora and corpus technology at the different stages of the translation process remains poorly documented in translation but a growing number of empirical studies has started to show concern as it has now become of paramount importance to assess the extent to which corpora are of added value for translation quality in both professional and academic environments.

  3. Corpora and corpus technology for translation purposes in professional and academic environments. Major achievements and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Frérot

    2016-04-01

    The “use” of corpora and concordancers in translation teaching has grown increasingly attractive since the mid1990s’ with an abundant literature advocating their use and promoting their benefits in the translation classroom. In translator training, efforts are being made to incorporate the use of corpora and concordancers in masters’ programmes and to offer specific modules on corpora for translation as the use of translation memory (TM systems within Computer-Aided Translation (CAT courses still dominates. In the translation profession, while TM systems are part of the everyday working environment, the same cannot be said of corpora and concordancers even though the most recent surveys show that professional translators would like to learn more about the potential of corpora for translation. Overall, the “usefulness” of corpora and corpus technology at the different stages of the translation process remains poorly documented in translation but a growing number of empirical studies has started to show concern as it has now become of paramount importance to assess the extent to which corpora are of added value for translation quality in both professional and academic environments.

  4. Perspective: adopting an asset bundles model to support and advance minority students' careers in academic medicine and the scientific pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2012-11-01

    The authors contend that increasing diversity in academic medicine, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics requires the adoption of a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students as they navigate the scientific pipeline. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support to continue toward careers in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status). The authors define "asset bundles" as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach.

  5. Perspective: Adopting an Asset Bundle Model to Support and Advance Minority Students’ Careers in Academic Medicine and the Scientific Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The authors contend that increasing diversity in the scientific pipeline (e.g., academic medicine, science, technology, engineering and mathematics) requires a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support in order to continue toward a career in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, or socioeconomic status). The authors define “asset bundles” as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach. PMID:23018329

  6. Need for cognition and cognitive performance from a cross-cultural perspective: examples of academic success and solving anagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülgöz, S

    2001-01-01

    The cross-cultural validity of the Need for Cognition Scale and its relationship with cognitive performance were investigated in two studies. In the first study, the relationships between the scale and university entrance scores, course grades, study skills, and social desirability were examined. Using the short form of the Turkish version of the Need for Cognition Scale (S. Gülöz & C. J. Sadowski, 1995) no correlation with academic performance was found but there was significant correlation with a study skills scale and a social desirability scale created for this study. When regression analysis was used to predict grade point average, the Need for Cognition Scale was a significant predictor. In the second study, participants low or high in need for cognition solved multiple-solution anagrams. The instructions preceding the task set the participants' expectations regarding task difficulty. An interaction between expectation and need for cognition indicated that participants with low need for cognition performed worse when they expected difficult problems. Results of the two studies showed that need for cognition has cross-cultural validity and that its effect on cognitive performance was mediated by other variables.

  7. Educational project “Mathematics for secondary education (MATEM”, your academic task during the year 2012: participants´ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucía Alfaro Arce

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available "MATEM" is a university outreach project. Among its objectives is to improve the mathematics education at the high school level and to accomplish it public universities work together with high school´s teachers and students. The study´s aim was to research various aspects of MATEM Project to order to evaluate its development and consider recommendations for making decisions. This paper summarizes the perceptions of high school students enrolled during 2012 in courses Precalculus and Calculus, moreover the opinion of mathematics teachers. The main results were that MATEM is an academic activity attractive for math teachers and student population from different regions of the country, although sometimes are not available the necessary conditions to develop it in their respective institutions, to have passed a university course, get more practice for the standard test at the end of high school, increase their math skills and prepare for college courses were the aspects that motivate students to enroll in the project, however the development of reasoning skills and abilities were more frequently pointed by respondents.

  8. Desafios e perspectivas futuras dos hospitais universitários no Brasil University hospitals in Brazil: challenges and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Pinto Machado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A mudança das instituições hospitalares verificada internacionalmente envolve particularmente os Hospitais Universitários (HU. O presente artigo objetiva promover uma reflexão acerca de desafios dos HU brasileiros. O texto atém-se à análise daqueles hospitais vinculados às Instituições Federais de Ensino Superior. Há substantiva heterogeneidade entre os HU, envolvendo desde os perfis assistenciais, porte e modelos de gestão. No Brasil, os HU são agentes nucleares de duas políticas de Estado - educa��ão e saúde. É no âmbito dos HU que se manifestam os tensionamentos inerentes à complexidade de articulação de tais políticas. Os HU têm sido incitados a oferecer respostas a problemas que transcendem sua capacidade. Cabe fortalecer a sustentabilidade organizacional dos HU, incluindo a capacidade de implantação de mecanismos de saneamento financeiro, de indicadores de avaliação e gestão, a incorporação das questões afetas à qualidade dos serviços prestados, a transparência e a responsabilidade social. Aos HU cabem melhorar as condições de saúde da população. A efetivação desses papéis é mais ampla do que conceber os HU somente como instituições prestadoras de serviços. O futuro e a afirmação dos HU dependerá da sua capacidade de contribuir para ações integradoras nas políticas de Estado para a saúde e educação.The changing process of health care services affects the University Hospitals (UH in a particular manner. This paper aims to analyse the challenges and future perspectives of the Brazilian UH. In order to do so, only the UH affiliated to the Brazilian Federal Teaching Institutions were analysed. There is a substantial heterogeneity amongst UH in Brazil, in terms of size and organizational structure as well as in the type of health care provided. Brazilian UH represent core elements of two State policies: Education and Health. Consequently, the existing tensions between these two

  9. EVALUATION OF THORACOSCOPY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF DIAPHRAGMATIC INJURIES IN PENETRATING THORACOABDOMINAL TRAUMA WITHOUT LUNG DEFLATION AT DR GEORGE MUKHARI ACADEMIC HOSPITAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsakala, L

    2017-06-01

    With a mortality estimated at 25% when missed, diaphragmatic injuries due to penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma present a diagnostic challenge for both the radiologist and the surgeon. In the current literature, chest x-ray has a sensitivity of 27-60% for left-sided injuries and only 17% for right-sided injuries while, CT scan has a sensitivity of 14-61% and a specificity of 76-99%. Thoracoscopy using a single lung ventilation is one of the modalities of choice for the diagnosis of these injuries with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 87.5%. This was a prospective study; all stable trauma patients with penetrating thoracoabdominal injury aged 18 years and above admitted to the trauma unit at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital during the period of the study were included. All patients with penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma who were unstable, or necessitating prompt management and all paediatric patients were excluded from the study. In theatre, under general anaesthesia, we first performed thoracoscopy without single lung ventilation followed by laparoscopy as control on each patient. Data was collected using a standard proforma by the attending surgeon and was analysed by a statistician using IBM SPSS 22 software. A total of 32 patients met the inclusion criteria of which 4 were female (12.5%) and 28 male (87.5%) with the median age of 29 years. Of the 32 patients, 27 had thoracoabdominal stab wounds (84.3%) and 5 had gunshot wounds (15.6%). Fourteen patients (43.75%) had left sided injury and 18 patients (56.25%) had injury to the right side. The incidence of diaphragmatic injury was 37.5% (n = 12). No injuries were missed on thoracoscopy; there was no mortality or morbidity. Thoracoscopy without single lung ventilation is safe and comparable to thoracoscopy with single lung ventilation as a diagnostic tool for diaphragmatic injuries in stable patients with penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma.

  10. Awareness of radiation protection and dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiography students, and radiology residents at an academic hospital: Results of a comprehensive survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faggioni, Lorenzo; Paolicchi, Fabio; Bastiani, Luca; Guido, Davide; Caramella, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Medical students tend to overstate their knowledge of radiation protection (RP). • Overall RP knowledge of young doctors and students is suboptimal. • RP teaching to undergraduates and postgraduates needs to be substantially improved. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the awareness of radiation protection issues and the knowledge of dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiology residents, and radiography students at an academic hospital. Material and methods: A total of 159 young doctors and students (including 60 radiology residents, 56 medical students, and 43 radiography students) were issued a questionnaire consisting of 16 multiple choice questions divided into three separated sections (i.e., demographic data, awareness about radiation protection issues, and knowledge about radiation dose levels of common radiological examinations). Results: Medical students claimed to have at least a good knowledge of radiation protection issues more frequently than radiology residents and radiography students (94.4% vs 55% and 35.7%, respectively; P < 0.05), with no cases of perceived excellent knowledge among radiography students. However, the actual knowledge of essential radiation protection topics such as regulations, patient and tissue susceptibility to radiation damage, professional radiation risk and dose optimisation, as well as of radiation doses delivered by common radiological procedures was significantly worse among medical students than radiology residents and radiography students (P < 0.05). Those latter significantly outperformed radiology residents as to knowledge of radiation protection issues (P < 0.01). Overall, less than 50% of survey respondents correctly answered all questions of the survey. Conclusions: Radiology residents, radiography students and medical students have a limited awareness about radiation protection, with a specific gap of knowledge concerning real radiation doses of daily radiological

  11. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in very-low-birth-weight infants at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Ghoor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL contribute to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Low birth weight and gestational age are among the risk factors for IVH and cPVL. Objectives. To assess how many very low birth weight (VLBW infants had cranial ultrasound screening at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH and to determine the prevalence of cranial ultrasound abnormalities. To compare the characteristics and risk factors of those VLBW infants with cranial ultrasound abnormalities to those with normal cranial ultrasound findings. Methods. This was a retrospective case-controlled study of infants <1 500 g admitted to CMJAH from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Cases were identified as infants with IVH or cPVL. Controls were matched 1:2 based on birth weight and gender. Results. Only 55% (856/1 562 of VLBW infants had undergone cranial ultrasound screening. The final sample included 803 VLBW infants. IVH was identified in 26.7% of cases (n=215; 95% confidence interval (CI 23.8 - 29.9 and 0.9% had cPVL (n=8; 95% CI 0.5 - 1.9. A total of 197 cases were identified and matched with 394 controls. Antenatal care attendance was lower in the cases (71% v. 79%; p=0.039. Sepsis, ventilation, metabolic acidosis and patent ductus arteriosus were all significantly higher in the cases. The use of antenatal steroids was significantly higher in the grades I - II IVH/no-IVH group v. grades III - IV IVH group (44% v. 25%; p=0.017. Conclusion. The prevalence of IVH in our setting was consistent with that of developed countries. Improving antenatal care, infection control, and adequate early resuscitation could decrease the incidence of IVH and cPVL. All VLBW infants should undergo cranial ultrasound screening

  12. Awareness of radiation protection and dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiography students, and radiology residents at an academic hospital: Results of a comprehensive survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faggioni, Lorenzo, E-mail: lfaggioni@sirm.org [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa (Italy); Paolicchi, Fabio [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa (Italy); Bastiani, Luca [Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124, Pisa (Italy); Guido, Davide [Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Via Forlanini 2, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Caramella, Davide [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Medical students tend to overstate their knowledge of radiation protection (RP). • Overall RP knowledge of young doctors and students is suboptimal. • RP teaching to undergraduates and postgraduates needs to be substantially improved. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the awareness of radiation protection issues and the knowledge of dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiology residents, and radiography students at an academic hospital. Material and methods: A total of 159 young doctors and students (including 60 radiology residents, 56 medical students, and 43 radiography students) were issued a questionnaire consisting of 16 multiple choice questions divided into three separated sections (i.e., demographic data, awareness about radiation protection issues, and knowledge about radiation dose levels of common radiological examinations). Results: Medical students claimed to have at least a good knowledge of radiation protection issues more frequently than radiology residents and radiography students (94.4% vs 55% and 35.7%, respectively; P < 0.05), with no cases of perceived excellent knowledge among radiography students. However, the actual knowledge of essential radiation protection topics such as regulations, patient and tissue susceptibility to radiation damage, professional radiation risk and dose optimisation, as well as of radiation doses delivered by common radiological procedures was significantly worse among medical students than radiology residents and radiography students (P < 0.05). Those latter significantly outperformed radiology residents as to knowledge of radiation protection issues (P < 0.01). Overall, less than 50% of survey respondents correctly answered all questions of the survey. Conclusions: Radiology residents, radiography students and medical students have a limited awareness about radiation protection, with a specific gap of knowledge concerning real radiation doses of daily radiological

  13. Academic capitalism and academic culture: A case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mendoza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this department and they consider industrial sponsorship as a highly effective vehicle for enhancing the quality of education of students and pursuing their scientific interests. This study provides valuable insights to federal and institutional policiescreated to foster industry-academia partnerships and commercialization of academic research.

  14. Relocalising academic literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Nana; Holm, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to the continuing discussion about academic literacy in international higher education. Approaching international study programmes as temporary educational contact zones, marked by a broad diversity in students’ educational and discursive experiences, we examine the negot......This article contributes to the continuing discussion about academic literacy in international higher education. Approaching international study programmes as temporary educational contact zones, marked by a broad diversity in students’ educational and discursive experiences, we examine...... the negotiation and relocalisation of academic literacy among students of the international master’s programme, Anthropology of Education and Globalisation (AEG), University of Aarhus, Denmark. The article draws on an understanding of academic literacy as a local practice situated in the social and institutional...... contexts in which it appears. Based on qualitative interviews with eleven AEG-students, we analyse students’ individual experiences of, and perspectives on, the academic literacy practices of this study programme. Our findings reveal contradictory understandings of internationalism and indicate a learning...

  15. Evaluating Patient Perspectives of Provider Professionalism on Twitter in an Academic Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic: Patient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, R Brent; Opipari, AnneMarie; Hammoud, Maya M

    2018-01-01

    Background One-third of Americans use social media websites as a source of health care information. Twitter, a microblogging site that allows users to place 280-character posts—or tweets—on the Web, is emerging as an important social media platform for health care. However, most guidelines on medical professionalism on social media are based on expert opinion. Objective This study sought to examine if provider Twitter profiles with educational tweets were viewed as more professional than profiles with personal tweets or a mixture of the two, and to determine the impact of provider gender on perceptions of professionalism in an academic obstetrics and gynecology clinic. Methods This study randomized obstetrics and gynecology patients at the University of Michigan Von Voigtlander Clinic to view one of six medical provider Twitter profiles, which differed in provider gender and the nature of tweets. Each participant answered 10 questions about their perception of the provider’s professionalism based on the Twitter profile content. Results The provider profiles with educational tweets alone received higher mean professionalism scores than profiles with personal tweets. Specifically, the female and male provider profiles with exclusively educational tweets had the highest and second highest overall mean professionalism ratings at 4.24 and 3.85, respectively. In addition, the female provider profiles received higher mean professionalism ratings than male provider profiles with the same content. The female profile with mixed content received a mean professionalism rating of 3.38 compared to 3.24 for the male mixed-content profile, and the female profile with only personal content received a mean professionalism rating of 3.68 compared to 2.68 for the exclusively personal male provider profile. Conclusions This study showed that in our obstetrics and gynecology clinic, patients perceived providers with educational profiles as more professional than those with a

  16. Academic interventions for academic procrastination: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacks, Shlomo; Hen, Meirav

    2018-01-01

    Procrastination is a widespread phenomenon in academic settings. It has been studied from many different theoretical angles, and a variety of causes and consequences have been suggested. Recent studies support the notion that academic procrastination can be seen from a situational perspective and as a failure in learning self-regulation. It suggests that interventions should address situational as well as deficits in self-regulation to help students overcome their procrastinating tendencies. The present review examined the recent literature on causes and consequences of academic procrastination and the limited number of studies of academic interventions for academic procrastination. Findings of this review strengthen the need to further study the topic of academic interventions for academic procrastination and to develop effective interventions. At the end of this review, several suggestions for the development of academic interventions are outlined.

  17. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  18. "I have nine specialists. They need to swap notes!" Australian patients' perspectives of medication-related problems following discharge from hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eassey, Daniela; McLachlan, Andrew J; Brien, Jo-Anne; Krass, Ines; Smith, Lorraine

    2017-10-01

    Research has shown that patients are most susceptible to medication-related problems (MRPs) when transitioning from hospital to home. Currently, the literature in this area focuses on interventions, which are mainly orientated around the perspective of the health-care professional and do not take into account patient perspectives and experiences. To capture the experiences and perceptions of Australian patients regarding MRPs following discharge from hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire collecting quantitative and qualitative data. Thematic analysis was conducted of the qualitative data. Survey participants were recruited through The Digital Edge, an online market research company. Five hundred and six participants completed the survey. A total of 174 participants self-reported MRPs. Two concepts and seven subthemes emerged from the analysis. The first concept was types of MRPs and patient experiences. Three themes were identified: unwanted effects from medicines, confusion about medicines and unrecognized medicines. The second concept was patient engagement in medication management, of which four themes emerged: informing patients, patient engagement, communication amongst health-care professionals and conflicting advice. This study provides an important insight into patients' experiences and perceptions of MRPs following discharge from hospital. Future direction for practice and research should look into implementing patient-centred care at the time of hospital discharge to ensure the provision of clear and consistent information, and developing ways to support and empower patients to ensure a smooth transition post-discharge from hospital. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Church Bridge Project: An Academic-Community Perspective of a Church-Based Weight Management Pilot Intervention among Young Adult African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemacks, Jennifer L; James, Robert E; Abbott, Laurie; Choi, Hwanseok; Parker, Ashley; Bryant, Ashley; Ralston, Penny A; Rigsby, Annither Gilner; Gilner, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Churches are effective community partners and settings to address weight management among African Americans. There is limited information on the use of churches to reach young adult populations and church collaborations with primary care clinics. The Church Bridge Project represents a community-academic partnership that presents the recruitment process of a church-based weight management intervention and describes baseline data of participants recruited from churches and primary care providers. We also discuss research contributions, challenges and limitations, study applicability, and practice implications from an academic and community perspective. Church leaders were involved in the entire research process. The theory-driven intervention included 12 diabetes prevention program-adapted education and motivational interviewing (MI)-guided sessions. Participants were recruited through primary care providers and church leaders. Demographics, medical and weight history, stage of change for weight loss, social support, and self-efficacy for diet and physical activity, weight, and girth circumferences were measured. Baseline descriptive data were analyzed. Of 64 potential participants, 42 (65.6%) were enrolled in the study and 16 (25.0%) completed baseline data collection. No participants were recruited through primary care providers. Recruited participants were similar to the target population except for being all obese and mostly female. The mean ± SD age of participants was 34.31 ± 8.86 years with most reporting having more than a high school education (n = 14 [87.5%]), individual yearly income of less than $59,000 (n = 12 [75.0%]), and been married or living with a partner (n = 9 [56.3%]). Most reported a history of hypertension and an immediate family history of diabetes and hypertension. Most participants were classified as class III obesity. Young adults and primary care providers are difficult to engage in church-based interventions. Church leaders were

  20. Emetogenicity-risk procedures in same day surgery center of an academic university hospital in United States: a retrospective cost-audit of postoperative nausea vomiting management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Haber, Halim

    2014-06-01

    Despite the variable results of published studies, it is imperative for ambulatory surgery centers to self-audit local cost-implications for post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) management. Our retrospective cost-audit assessed if there were comparative peri-anesthesia care cost-trends among patients who had undergone Low-Emetogenicity-Risk Procedures (LERP), Moderate-Emetogenicity-Risk Procedures (MERP) and Severe-Emetogenicity-Risk Procedures (SERP). This study was a review of Same Day Surgery Center practices in an academic university hospital setting during a three-year period (2010-2012). The patient lists were accessed from CIS and CITRIX App Bar for time audit and OR (operating room) schedule reports. Subsequently, OR pharmacy department ran a search for peri-operative anti-emetics and opioids that were billed for the patients at Same Day Surgery Center for the review period. The primary outcomes were the comparative costs/charges of these medications and comparative durations/ charges for these patients' stay in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Secondary outcomes analyzed in the study included peri-anesthesia durations. A total of 8,657 patient records were analyzed. Almost all analyzed variables revealed statistically significant inter-variable positive correlations. The patients' age was significantly (P < 0.001) different among LERP/MERP/SERP patients (LERP: 48.8 +/- 14.7 years; MERP: 61.8 +/- 14.6 years; SERP: 51.3 +/- 14.5 years). In regards to primary and secondary outcomes, the statistical significant differences among LERP/MERP/SERP patients (after correcting for both patients' age as well as patients' sex) were only achieved for preoperative times (P = 0.002; Power = 0.9), operating room recovery times (P = 0.003; Power = 0.9), PACU stay times (P < 0.001; Power = 1.0), and PACU charges (P < 0.001; Power = 1.0). PACU stay times and PACU charges were significantly higher in patients who had undergone SERP as compared to patients who had

  1. Patterns and predictors of antimicrobial resistance among Staphylococcus spp. from canine clinical cases presented at a veterinary academic hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qekwana, Daniel N; Oguttu, James W; Sithole, Fortune; Odoi, Agricola

    2017-04-28

    Antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci, often associated with treatment failure, is increasingly reported in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate patterns and predictors of antimicrobial resistance among Staphylococcus spp. isolates from canine samples submitted to the bacteriology laboratory at the University of Pretoria academic veterinary hospital between 2007 and 2012. Retrospective data of 334 Staphylococcus isolates were used to calculate the proportion of samples resistant to 15 antimicrobial agents. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to investigate temporal trends and logistic regression models were used to investigate predictors of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Results show that 98.2% (55/56) of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to at least one drug while 42.9% were multidrug resistant. Seventy-seven percent (214/278) of the S. pseudintermedius isolates were resistant to at least one drug and 25.9% (72/278) were multidrug resistant. Resistance to lincospectin was more common among S. aureus (64.3%) than S. pseudintermedius (38.9%). Similarly, resistance to clindamycin was higher in S. aureus (51.8%) than S. pseudintermedius (31.7%) isolates. There was a significant (p = 0.005) increase in S. aureus resistance to enrofloxacin over the study period. Similarly, S. pseudintermedius exhibited significant increasing temporal trend in resistance to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (p = 0.004), clindamycin (p = 0.022) and orbifloxacin (p = 0.042). However, there was a significant decreasing temporal trend in the proportion of isolates resistant to doxycycline (p = 0.041), tylosin (p = 0.008), kanamycin (p = 0.017) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (p = 0.032). High levels of multidrug resistance and the increasing levels of resistance to sulphonamides, lincosamides and fluoroquinolones among Staphylococcus spp. isolates in this study are concerning. Future

  2. Hotel architecture from the perspective of sustainability and space hospitality : a study on the application of the concepts of sustainability and hospitality space in hotel projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josildete Pereira Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This present study aims to discuss the concept of both sustainability and hospitality into the context of city contemporary architecture which, in a certain way had been reinterpreted or asked in what is concerned to the concept of environmental sustainability. In this sense, the main goal of the research was to analyze two hotel projects in Santa Catarina, Brazil, been one of them configured as a small sized one and the other as a big hotel, where all the mentioned conditions had been manifested in a tight way and even had not been systematized into one of the hotel architecture samples, as a reference of sustainable and hospitable architecture. The methodology characterized by an initial bibliographic study, as well as documentary study, followed by a field research characterized by an intensive direct observation, as well as a group and systematic one, also considered both observation and questionnaires application (Marconi & Lakatos, 2006 and it tried to rescue the history of hotel architecture in order to identify environmental sustainability contents, as well as hospitality ones, concerned to the constructed spaces, so that it would be possible, in a following moment, to analyze the hotel samples selected, which do manifest all the mentioned conditions. It was realized that considering its realities and sizes, both studied hotels do count with actions and elements that may be considered sustainable, as well as friendly environmental actions, what, doubtless, do provide hospitality in a certain way. Similarly, both hotels still have potentialities to be developed.

  3. Economic impact of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients with acute ischemic stroke: a hospital perspective of the PREVAIL trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Graham; Lin, Jay; Stern, Lee; Subrahmanian, Tarun; Annemans, Lieven

    2012-03-01

    The PREVAIL (Prevention of VTE [venous thromboembolism] after acute ischemic stroke with LMWH [low-molecular-weight heparin] and UFH [unfractionated heparin]) study demonstrated a 43% VTE risk reduction with enoxaparin versus UFH in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). A 1% rate of symptomatic intracranial and major extracranial hemorrhage was observed in both groups. To determine the economic impact, from a hospital perspective, of enoxaparin versus UFH for VTE prophylaxis after AIS. A decision-analytic model was constructed and hospital-based costs analyzed using clinical information from PREVAIL. Total hospital costs were calculated based on mean costs in the Premier™ database and from wholesalers acquisition data. Costs were also compared in patients with severe stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score ≥14) and less severe stroke (NIHSS score <14). The average cost per patient due to VTE or bleeding events was lower with enoxaparin versus UFH ($422 vs $662, respectively; net savings $240). The average anticoagulant cost, including drug-administration cost per patient, was lower with UFH versus enoxaparin ($259 vs $360, respectively; net savings $101). However, when both clinical events and drug-acquisition costs were considered, the total hospital cost was lower with enoxaparin versus UFH ($782 vs $922, respectively; savings $140). Hospital cost-savings were greatest ($287) in patients with NIHSS scores ≥14. The higher drug cost of enoxaparin was offset by the reduction in clinical events as compared to the use of UFH for VTE prophylaxis after an AIS, particularly in patients with severe stroke. Copyright © 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  4. History and perspectives of medical research at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramharter, Michael; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Agnandji, Selidji T.; Matsiegui, Pierre Blaise; Grobusch, Martin P.; Winkler, Stefan; Graninger, Wolfgang; Krishna, Sanjeev; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Lell, Bertrand; Missinou, Michel A.; Mavoungou, Elie; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    In 1913 Albert Schweitzer founded one of the first modern hospitals in Africa dedicated to the health of the local population. The Albert Schweitzer Hospital is located in Lambaréné, a small town in Gabon. In 1981 a research department--the Medical Research Unit--was established with the aim to

  5. Academic Motivation: Concepts, Strategies, and Counseling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Lonnie; Hong, Eunsook

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is an important foundation of academic development in students. This article discusses academic motivation; its various component concepts in areas such as beliefs, goals, and values; and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. It also presents major, widely studied theoretical perspectives of academic motivation and briefly illustrates…

  6. Challenges and Perspectives for Tertiary Level Hospitals in Bolivia: The case of Santa Cruz de La Sierra Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, André

    2015-01-01

    Current legislation transferred public tertiary hospitals in Bolivia from the Municipalities to the Regional Level. However, the Regional Governments are experiencing technical and financial constraints to reform infrastructure, modernize equipment and introduce reforms to allow better governance, management and sustainability of these hospitals. This articles summarizes the recent experience of the Government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Bolivia where five tertiary hospitals and blood bank (most of them in precarious working conditions) has been transferred in 2012 from the Municipal Government of Santa Cruz (the capital) to the Regional Government of Santa Cruz. To face the challenges, the Regional Government of Santa Cruz implement several improvements, such as contract new clinical and administrative personal, increases hospital budgetary autonomy, outsource hospitals' auxiliary services, take measures to eliminate waiting lists and make several new investments to modernize and equip the hospitals. The World Bank was contracted to evaluated the future financial sustainability of these investments and to advice the Government to propose changes to increase the hospitals' management performance. The article describes the remaining challenges in these hospitals and the proposals from the World Bank Study. In the area of quality of care, the main challenge is to improve client satisfaction and continuous outcomes monitoring and evaluation according quality standards. In the area of financing, the challenge is how to assure the sustainability of these hospitals with the current level of health financing and the insufficient financial transfers from the National Government. In the area of Governance, reforms to streamline and simplify internal processes need to be introduced in order to establish mechanisms to increase transparency and accountability, allowing the hospital to have a good administration and adequate participation of the main actors in the guidance of

  7. Nurses' Perspectives on the Geriatric Nursing Practice Environment and the Quality of Older People's Care in Ontario Acute Care Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary T; Sidani, Souraya; Butler, Jeffrey I; Tregunno, Deborah

    2017-06-01

    Background Cultivating hospital environments that support older people's care is a national priority. Evidence on geriatric nursing practice environments, obtained from studies of registered nurses (RNs) in American teaching hospitals, may have limited applicability to Canada, where RNs and registered practical nurses (RPNs) care for older people in predominantly nonteaching hospitals. Purpose This study describes nurses' perceptions of the overall quality of care for older people and the geriatric nursing practice environment (geriatric resources, interprofessional collaboration, and organizational value of older people's care) and examines if these perceptions differ by professional designation and hospital teaching status. Methods A cross-sectional survey, using Dillman's tailored design, that included Geriatric Institutional Assessment Profile subscales, was completed by 2005 Ontario RNs and registered practical nurses to assess their perceptions of the quality of care and geriatric nursing practice environment. Results Scores on the Geriatric Institutional Assessment Profile subscales averaged slightly above the midpoint except for geriatric resources which was slightly below. Registered practical nurses rated the quality of care and geriatric nursing practice environment higher than RNs; no significant differences were found by hospital teaching status. Conclusions Nurses' perceptions of older people's care and the geriatric nursing practice environment differ by professional designation but not hospital teaching status. Teaching and nonteaching hospitals should both be targeted for geriatric nursing practice environment improvement initiatives.

  8. Let him not be alone: perspectives of older British South Asian minority ethnic patients on dying in acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasalu, Munikumar Ramasamy

    2017-09-02

    To investigate older British South Asians' views on dying at acute hospitals. Older people, including those from ethnic minorities prefer 'home as a haven' for their last days of life; however, they are more likely to die in hospital. Constructive grounded theory was used as a methodological approach that informed data collection to data analysis. Open meetings with 11 local South Asian community organisations enabled the researchers to recruit a total of 55 older South Asians in this study. Data were collected using gender-based focus groups (n=5) and in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n=29). Transcripts were analysed using Nvivo 9. Three key themes were identified: 'mistrust', 'let him not be alone' and 'family as a protective shield'. The theme 'mistrust' is explored through examination of beliefs, attitudes and expectations about 'hospital' as a place in the care of the dying. The theme of 'let him not be alone' draws the family's preferences and concerns in relation to leaving their older dying relative alone in the hospital. The final theme of 'family as a protective shield' describes the element of family care as a protective shield for their older one to have peaceful end-of-life care moments in the hospital. Allowing older relatives to die in hospital seems to evoke feelings of missed filial responsibilities and guilt among family carers among older ethnic minorities. The presence of cultural paranoia and mistrust often led minorities to experience sub-standard end-of-life care in acute hospitals.

  9. Changing patient safety culture in China: a case study of an experimental Chinese hospital from a comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu XP

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Ping Xu,* Dong Ning Deng,* Yong Hong Gu, Chui Shan Ng, Xiao Cai, Jun Xu, Xin Shi Zhang, Dong Ge Ke, Qian Hui Yu, Chi Kuen Chan Clinical Service Department, The University of Hong Kong - Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The World Health Organization highlights that patient safety interventions are not lacking but that the local context affects their successful implementation. Increasing attention is being paid to patient safety in Mainland China, yet few studies focus on patient safety in organizations with mixed cultures. This paper evaluates the current patient safety culture in an experimental Chinese hospital with a Hong Kong hospital management culture, and it aims to explore the application of Hong Kong’s patient safety strategies in the context of Mainland China. Methods: A quantitative survey of 307 hospital staff members was conducted using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. The findings were compared with a similar study on general Chinese hospitals and were appraised with reference to the Manchester Patient Safety Framework. Results: Lower scores were observed among participants with the following characteristics: males, doctors, those with more work experience, those with higher education, and those from the general practice and otolaryngology departments. However, the case study hospital achieved better scores in management expectations, actions and support for patient safety, incident reporting and communication, and teamwork within units. Its weaknesses were related to non-punitive responses to errors, teamwork across units, and staffing. Conclusions: The case study hospital contributes to a changing patient safety culture in Mainland China, yet its patient safety culture remains mostly bureaucratic. Further efforts could be made to deepen the staff’s patient safety culture mind-set, to realize a

  10. Perspectives on academic veterinary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S

    2001-09-15

    It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.

  11. The IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose quality audits for radiotherapy: a perspective of dosimetry practices at hospitals in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, Joanna; Andreo, Pedro; Vatnitsky, Stanislav; Shortt, Ken R.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: The IAEA/WHO TLD postal programme for external audits of the calibration of high-energy photon beams used in radiotherapy has been in operation since 1969. This work presents a survey of the 1317 TLD audits carried out during 1998-2001. The TLD results are discussed from the perspective of the dosimetry practices in hospitals in developing countries, based on the information provided by the participants in their TLD data sheets. Materials and methods: A detailed analysis of the TLD data sheets is systematically performed at the IAEA. It helps to trace the source of any discrepancy between the TLD measured dose and the user stated dose, and also provides information on equipment, dosimetry procedures and the use of codes of practice in the countries participating in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits. Result: The TLD results are within the 5% acceptance limit for 84% of the participants. The results for accelerator beams are typically better than for Co-60 units. Approximately 75% of participants reported dosimetry data, including details on their procedure for dose determination from ionisation chamber measurements. For the remaining 25% of hospitals, who did not submit these data, the results are poorer than the global TLD results. Most hospitals have Farmer type ionisation chambers calibrated in terms of air kerma by a standards laboratory. Less than 10% of the hospitals use new codes of practice based on standards of absorbed dose to water. Conclusion: Despite the differences in dosimetry equipment, traceability to different standards laboratories and uncertainties arising from the use of various dosimetry codes of practice, the determination of absorbed dose to water for photon beams typically agrees within 2% among hospitals. Correct implementation of any of the dosimetry protocols should ensure that significant errors in dosimetry are avoided

  12. Protecting and Promoting Mental Health of Nurses in the Hospital Setting: Is It Cost-Effective from An Employer'S Perspective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noben, C.; evers, s.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Ketelaar, S.; Gartner, F.; Sluiter, J.; Smit, H.F.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Nurses are at elevated risk of burnout, anxiety and depressive disorders, and may then become less productive. This begs the question if a preventive intervention in the work setting might be cost-saving from a business perspective. Material and Methods: A cost-benefit analysis was

  13. Changing patient safety culture in China: a case study of an experimental Chinese hospital from a comparative perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yong Hong; Ng, Chui Shan; Cai, Xiao; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xin Shi; Ke, Dong Ge; Yu, Qian Hui; Chan, Chi Kuen

    2018-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization highlights that patient safety interventions are not lacking but that the local context affects their successful implementation. Increasing attention is being paid to patient safety in Mainland China, yet few studies focus on patient safety in organizations with mixed cultures. This paper evaluates the current patient safety culture in an experimental Chinese hospital with a Hong Kong hospital management culture, and it aims to explore the application of Hong Kong’s patient safety strategies in the context of Mainland China. Methods A quantitative survey of 307 hospital staff members was conducted using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. The findings were compared with a similar study on general Chinese hospitals and were appraised with reference to the Manchester Patient Safety Framework. Results Lower scores were observed among participants with the following characteristics: males, doctors, those with more work experience, those with higher education, and those from the general practice and otolaryngology departments. However, the case study hospital achieved better scores in management expectations, actions and support for patient safety, incident reporting and communication, and teamwork within units. Its weaknesses were related to non-punitive responses to errors, teamwork across units, and staffing. Conclusions The case study hospital contributes to a changing patient safety culture in Mainland China, yet its patient safety culture remains mostly bureaucratic. Further efforts could be made to deepen the staff’s patient safety culture mind-set, to realize a “bottom-up” approach to cultural change, to build up a comprehensive and integrated incident management system, and to improve team building and staffing for patient safety. PMID:29750061

  14. Evaluation of hygienic-sanitary conditions of hospital nutrition and dietary services from the perspectives of internal and external auditors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lize Stangarlin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of hospital nutrition and dietary services using external and internal auditors. Eleven hospitals were evaluated for their nutrition and dietary services using an evaluation checklist based on food safety requirements in the current legislation. The checklist was applied by an internal auditor (a technical supervisor and an external auditor (a professional with experience in food services between August and October 2011. According to the number of items on the evaluation checklist that were considered adequate, the hospital facilities were ranked as excellent, good, regular, bad, or very bad. The results obtained by the auditors were compared. According to these results, it can be said that most of the hospital nutrition and dietary services were rated as good for overall quality by the internal auditor, while the external auditor classified them as Regular. There was a clear difference between the evaluations of the auditors, both in terms of the number of items considered adequate and the overall requirements' average score. It can be concluded that hospital nutrition and dietary services should meet safety requirements in order to provide food. These facilities should have external audits conducted as a way to prevent routine problems from being perpetuated.

  15. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  16. Impact of nursing home residence on hospital epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a perspective from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrall, A; Merchant, R; Dillon, J; Ying, D; Fisher, D

    2013-03-01

    In a Singapore hospital practising meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) admission screening, the relative risk for MRSA colonization for those admitted from nursing homes was 6.89 (95% confidence interval: 5.74-8.26; 41% of 190 vs 6.0% of 14,849). However, the MRSA burden on admission attributable to nursing home residence was low (6.9%). Risk factors independently associated with MRSA colonization in patients admitted from nursing homes were previous hospital admissions, broken skin, prior use of antibiotics and Chinese ethnicity. Low rates of nursing home use means that the overall impact of nursing home residence on MRSA in our hospital is low. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Academic writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  18. Perspectives of staff nurses of the reasons for and the nature of patient-initiated call lights: an exploratory survey study in four USA hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng Huey-Ming

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has been done on patient call light use and staff response time, which were found to be associated with inpatient falls and satisfaction. Nurses' perspectives may moderate or mediate the aforementioned relationships. This exploratory study intended to understand staff's perspectives about call lights, staff responsiveness, and the reasons for and the nature of call light use. It also explored differences among hospitals and identified significant predictors of the nature of call light use. Methods This cross-sectional, multihospital survey study was conducted from September 2008 to January 2009 in four hospitals located in the Midwestern region of the United States. A brief survey was used. All 2309 licensed and unlicensed nursing staff members who provide direct patient care in 27 adult care units were invited to participate. A total of 808 completed surveys were retrieved for an overall response rate of 35%. The SPSS 16.0 Window version was used. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results The primary reasons for patient-initiated calls were for toileting assistance, pain medication, and intravenous problems. Toileting assistance was the leading reason. Each staff responded to 6 to 7 calls per hour and a call was answered within 4 minutes (estimated. 49% of staff perceived that patient-initiated calls mattered to patient safety. 77% agreed that that these calls were meaningful. 52% thought that these calls required the attention of nursing staff. 53% thought that answering calls prevented them from doing the critical aspects of their role. Staff's perceptions about the nature of calls varied across hospitals. Junior staff tended to overlook the importance of answering calls. A nurse participant tended to perceive calls as more likely requiring nursing staff's attention than a nurse aide participant. Conclusions If answering calls was a high priority among nursing tasks, staff

  19. Performance evaluation of Al-Zahra academic medical center based on Iran balanced scorecard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhsh, Roghayeh Mohammadi; Gangi, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Growth and development in any country's national health system, without an efficient evaluation system, lacks the basic concepts and tools necessary for fulfilling the system's goals. The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a technique widely used to measure the performance of an organization. The basic core of the BSC is guided by the organization's vision and strategies, which are the bases for the formation of four perspectives of BSC. The goal of this research is the performance evaluation of Al-Zahra Academic Medical Center in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, based on Iran BSC model. This is a combination (quantitative-qualitative) research which was done at Al-Zahra Academic Medical Center in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The research populations were hospital managers at different levels. Sampling method was purposive sampling in which the key informed personnel participated in determining the performance indicators of hospital as the BSC team members in focused discussion groups. After determining the conceptual elements in focused discussion groups, the performance objectives (targets) and indicators of hospital were determined and sorted in perspectives by the group discussion participants. Following that, the performance indicators were calculated by the experts according to the predetermined objectives; then, the score of each indicator and the mean score of each perspective were calculated. Research findings included development of the organizational mission, vision, values, objectives, and strategies. The strategies agreed upon by the participants in the focus discussion group included five strategies, which were customer satisfaction, continuous quality improvement, development of human resources, supporting innovation, expansion of services and improving the productivity. Research participants also agreed upon four perspectives for the Al-Zahra hospital BSC. In the patients and community perspective (customer), two objectives and

  20. Path Analysis on the Factors Influencing Learning Outcome for Hospitality Interns--From the Flow Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Tai; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Learning outcome is an important indicator for educators in evaluating curriculum design. The focus of this study has been to examine the factors within internship programs, recognizing the complex nature of knowledge application in a practical industry environment. Flow theory was adopted to explain the psychological state of hospitality students…

  1. Identifying factors significant to continuity in basic palliative hospital care-from the perspective of patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelver, Lisbeth; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Oestergaard, Birte

    2014-01-01

    Based on the research method grounded theory and semistructured patient interviews at home following hospitalization, the aim was to provide information on issues relating to the identification and alleviation of patients' physical and emotional problems, understood as continuity in palliative ca...

  2. Implementing an intensified antibiotic stewardship programme targeting daptomycin use in orthopaedic surgery: a cost-benefit analysis from the hospital perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borde, Johannes P; Nussbaum, Sarah; Hauser, Stefanie; Hehn, Philip; Hübner, Johannes; Sitaru, Gabriela; Köller, Sebastian; Schweigert, Bruno; deWith, Katja; Kern, Winfried V; Kaier, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Hospital antibiotic stewardship (ABS) programmes offer several evidence-based tools to control prescription rates of antibiotics in different settings, influence the incidence of nosocomial infections and to contain the development of multi-drug-resistant bacteria. In the context of endoprosthetic surgery, however, knowledge of core antibiotic stewardship strategies, comparisons of costs and benefits of hospital ABS programmes are still lacking. We identified a high daptomycin use for the treatment of methicillin-sensitive staphylococcal infections as a potential target for our ABS intervention. In addition, we endorsed periprosthetic tissue cultures for the diagnosis of PJI. Monthly antibiotic use data were obtained from the hospital pharmacy and were expressed as WHO-ATC defined daily doses (DDD) and dose definitions adapted to local guidelines (recommended daily doses, RDD), normalized per 1000 patient days. The pre-intervention period was defined from February 2012 through January 2014 (24 months). The post-intervention period included monthly time points from February 2014 to April 2015 (15 months). For a basic cost-benefit analysis from the hospital perspective, three cost drivers were taken into account: (1) the cost savings due to changes in antimicrobial prescribing; (2) costs associated with the increase in the number of cultured tissue samples, and (3) the appointment of an infectious disease consultant. Interrupted time-series analysis (ITS) was applied. Descriptive analysis of the usage data showed a decline in overall use of anti-infective substances in the post-intervention period (334.9 vs. 221.4 RDDs/1000 patient days). The drug use density of daptomycin dropped by -75 % (51.7 vs. 12.9 RDD/1000 patient days), whereas the utilization of narrow-spectrum penicillins, in particular flucloxacillin, increased from 13.8 to 33.6 RDDs/1000 patient days. ITS analysis of the consumption dataset showed significant level changes for overall prescriptions, as

  3. A study on task-analysis of clinical pathologists as medical consultants in Nihon University Hospital--a Japanese perspective by comparison with current status in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumasaka, K; Yanai, M; Hosokawa, N; Iwasaki, Y; Hoshino, T; Arashima, Y; Hayashi, K; Murakami, J; Tsuchiya, T; Kawano, K

    2000-07-01

    To identify our role and the customers' satisfaction, the on-call consultation service records of the Department of Clinical Pathology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi Hospital (NUIH), were analyzed. Between 1995 and 1998, 1,789 consultation services were recorded, and approximately 40% were from physicians, and 50% were from medical technologists. During office hours, many physicians made contact with us at the office of clinical pathology, the clinical laboratory and other places in the hospital by various means. They asked us to interpret multidisciplinary laboratory data, and to provide the specific information that might affect clinical management. Medical technologists asked for clinical information of patients with extreme measured values and requested that we contact with physicians. In contrast, on weekends/holidays or after routine working hours, physicians sometimes requested non-automated laboratory tests such as peripheral blood smears/bone marrow smears or Gram stains. The major contents of our responses to medical technologists were concerned with blood banking and handling of instruments not to be operated in routine work. These results reconfirm that we are still required to have clinical competence for common laboratory procedures and to have the capability of interpretation of multidisciplinary laboratory data in the university hospital. Traditionally, most Japanese clinical pathologists have been focused their attention on bench work in research laboratories. However, the present study shows that the clinical pathologists need to bridge the real gap between laboratory technology and patient care. Our on-call service system can enhance the education of clinical pathologists, and improve not only laboratory quality assurance but also patient care. In addition, in response to a need for customer access to this service with a shortage of clinical pathologists, a more effective method would be to set up a proactive systemic approach in

  4. ٍEffective factors on the Incidence of medication errors from the nursing staff perspective in various department of Fasa Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Bizhani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Objective: The incidence of medical errors is deemed one of the unavoidable cases of serious threats to the health and safety of patients. This study aimed to determine the factors influencing medication errors from the perspective of the nursing staff. Materials and Methods: This descriptive -analytic study recruited 80 nurses working in various wards in Fasa Hospital. The nurses were selected via the availability sampling method, and their perspective on factors affecting medication errors was gathered using a questionnaire designed for this study. The data were analyzed with SPSS-15 software.   Results: The most important causes of medication errors were work fatigue, low nurse-to-patient ratio, long working hours, high density of work in units, and doing other tasks. Other variables such as age and gender as well as factors effective on the incidence of medication errors are mentioned in the full text. Conclusion: From the nurses’ standpoint, workload and the patient-to-nurse ratio were the most significant factors leading to medication errors.

  5. History and perspectives of medical research at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramharter, Michael; Adegnika, Ayola A; Agnandji, Selidji T; Matsiegui, Pierre Blaise; Grobusch, Martin P; Winkler, Stefan; Graninger, Wolfgang; Krishna, Sanjeev; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Lell, Bertrand; Missinou, Michel A; Mavoungou, Elie; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G

    2007-01-01

    In 1913 Albert Schweitzer founded one of the first modern hospitals in Africa dedicated to the health of the local population. The Albert Schweitzer Hospital is located in Lambaréné, a small town in Gabon. In 1981 a research department--the Medical Research Unit--was established with the aim to perform research in the field of infectious diseases ( www.lambarene.org ). The main focus lies on clinical research on malaria and other parasitic diseases. Studies on the molecular biology and immunology of parasitic diseases are fostered since the inauguration of a novel building dedicated for basic science. A training program in clinical research in tropical diseases for African scientists has been set up recently.

  6. The anti-hepatitis drug use effect and inventory management optimization from the perspective of hospital drug supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanyu

    2017-09-01

    By analyzing the current hospital anti hepatitis drug use, dosage, indications and drug resistance, this article studied the drug inventory management and cost optimization. The author used drug utilization evaluation method, analyzed the amount and kind distribution of anti hepatitis drugs and made dynamic monitoring of inventory. At the same time, the author puts forward an effective scheme of drug classification management, uses the ABC classification method to classify the drugs according to the average daily dose of drugs, and implements the automatic replenishment plan. The design of pharmaceutical services supply chain includes drug procurement platform, warehouse management system and connect to the hospital system through data exchange. Through the statistical analysis of drug inventory, we put forward the countermeasures of drug logistics optimization. The results showed that drug replenishment plan can effectively improve drugs inventory efficiency.

  7. Working Hours of Surgical Residence: Perspective of a Group of Surgeons in a Regional Hospital in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Siu-Fai; Spurgeon, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and European working time directive have restricted residents' workweek to 80 and 48 hours, respectively. Impacts on resident's training and health services are under evaluation in western countries. However, relevant studies are deficient in Hong Kong. Methods: Surgeons in a regional hospital of Hong Kong were recruited. Opinions were collected by semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Response rate was 82%. Most respondents agr...

  8. Personal and professional challenges confronted by hospital staff following hurricane sandy: a qualitative assessment of management perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Andrea M.; Ricci, Karen A.; Griffin, Anne R.; Heslin, Kevin C.; Dobalian, Aram

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate hospital staffing during and after a disaster is critical to meet increased health care demands and to ensure continuity of care and patient safety. However, when a disaster occurs, staff may become both victim and responder, decreasing their ability and willingness to report for work. This qualitative study assessed the personal and professional challenges that affected staff decisions to report to work following a natural disaster and examined the role of management in a...

  9. Changing patient safety culture in China: a case study of an experimental Chinese hospital from a comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Xu XP; Deng DN; Gu YH; Ng CS; Cai X; Xu J; Zhang XS; Ke DG; Yu QH; Chan CK

    2018-01-01

    Xiao Ping Xu,* Dong Ning Deng,* Yong Hong Gu, Chui Shan Ng, Xiao Cai, Jun Xu, Xin Shi Zhang, Dong Ge Ke, Qian Hui Yu, Chi Kuen Chan Clinical Service Department, The University of Hong Kong - Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The World Health Organization highlights that patient safety interventions are not lacking but that the local context affects their successful implementation. Increasing att...

  10. Working with local nurses to promote hospital-nursing care during humanitarian assignments overseas: experiences from the perspectives of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoflåt, Ingrid; Karlsen, Bjørg; Saetre Hansen, Britt

    2016-06-01

    To describe how Norwegian expatriate nurses engaged in humanitarian assignments overseas experience working with the local nurses promoting nursing care in the hospital ward. Western countries have a long tradition of providing nurses with expert knowledge in nursing care for humanitarian projects and international work overseas. Studies from humanitarian mission revealed that health workers rarely acknowledge or use the local knowledge. However, there is a lack of studies highlighting expatriate nurses' experiences working with local nurses to promote nursing care in the hospital ward. This study applies a descriptive explorative qualitative design. The data were collected in 2013 by means of seven semi-structured interviews and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The data analyses revealed three themes related to the expatriate nurses' experiences of working with the local nurses to promote nursing care in the hospital ward: (1) Breaking the code, (2) Colliding worlds and (3) Challenges in sharing knowledge. The findings reflect different challenges when working with the local nurses. Findings indicate valuable knowledge gained about local nursing care and the local health and educational system. They also demonstrate challenges for the expatriate nurses related to the local nursing standard in the wards and using the local nurses' experiences and knowledge when working together. The findings can inform nurses, humanitarian organisations and institutions working overseas regarding the recruitment and the preparation of nurses who want to work cross- culturally or in humanitarian missions overseas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 'Spiritual care is not the hospital's business': a qualitative study on the perspectives of patients about the integration of spirituality in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Nicolas; Jobin, Guy; Beloucif, Sadek

    2016-08-24

    Several studies have investigated the relationship between spirituality and health. They claim the need to develop spiritual care to answer patients' spiritual suffering and to promote spiritual well-being. However, the present study critically analyses the following idea: we ought to take care of the spiritual dimension of patients. Does this interest for spirituality not come from healthcare professionals' desire more than from the patients themselves? To answer this question, we explored the perspectives of individuals with cancer regarding the integration of spirituality in the healthcare setting. Qualitative design using semistructured interviews to focus on subjective experience. One of the major public hospitals of Paris, France. 20 participants (n=11 men and n=9 women) with advanced cancer (stage IV). Age ranges from 37 to 80 years with a mean age of 58.7 years. Findings demonstrated that participants do not expect help from the hospital to handle spiritual issues but they wish for their spiritual dimension to be simply recognised as a part of their identity and dignity. Findings invite us to view the question of spirituality not as a new dimension of care but as a new challenge for healthcare institutions to recognise that the persons they are working for are not just 'patients' but human beings with a precious interior life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Cost effectiveness of enoxaparin as prophylaxis against venous thromboembolic complications in acutely ill medical inpatients: modelling study from the hospital perspective in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädlich, Peter K; Kentsch, Michael; Weber, Manfred; Kämmerer, Wolfgang; Brecht, Josef Georg; Nadipelli, Vijay; Huppertz, Eduard

    2006-01-01

    To estimate, from the hospital perspective in Germany, the cost effectiveness of the low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium 40 mg once daily (ENOX) relative to no pharmacological prophylaxis (NPP) and relative to subcutaneous unfractionated heparin (UFH) 5,000 IU three times daily (low-dose UFH [LDUFH]). Each is used in addition to elastic bandages/compression stockings and physiotherapy in the prevention of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in immobilised acutely ill medical inpatients without impaired renal function or extremes of body weight. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of the 'additional cost for ENOX per clinical VTE avoided versus NPP' and 'additional cost for ENOX per episode of major bleeding avoided versus LDUFH' were chosen as target variables. The target variables were quantified using a modelling approach based on the decision-tree technique. Resource use during thromboprophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of VTEs, episode of major bleeding and secondary pneumonia after pulmonary embolism (PE) was collected from a hospital survey. Costs were exclusively those to hospitals incurred by staff expenses, drugs, devices, disposables, laboratory tests and equipment for diagnostic procedures. These costs were determined by multiplying utilised resource items by the price or tariff of each item as of the first quarter of 2003. Safety and efficacy values of the comparators were taken from the MEDENOX (prophylaxis in MEDical patients with ENOXaparin) and the THE-PRINCE (THromboEmbolism-PRevention IN Cardiac or respiratory disease with Enoxaparin) trials and from a meta-analysis. The evaluation encompassed 8 (6-14) days of thromboprophylaxis plus time to treat VTE and episode of major bleeding in hospital. Point estimates of all model parameters were applied exclusively in the base-case analysis. There were incremental costs of euro 1,106 for ENOX per clinical VTE avoided versus NPP (1 euro approximately equals 1

  13. 'Practice what you preach': Nurses' perspectives on the Code of Ethics and Service Pledge in five South African hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Janine; Phakoe, Maureen; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2015-01-01

    A recent focus of the global discourse on the health workforce has been on its quality, including the existence of codes of ethics. In South Africa, the importance of ethics and value systems in nursing was emphasised in the 2011 National Nursing Summit. The study explored hospital nurses' perceptions of the International Code of Ethics for Nurses; their perceptions of the South African Nurses' Pledge of Service; and their views on contemporary ethical practice. Following university ethics approval, the study was done at a convenience sample of five hospitals in two South African provinces. In each hospital, all day duty nurses in paediatric, maternity, adult medical, and adult surgical units were requested to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on their perceptions of the Code of Ethics and the Pledge, using a seven-point Likert scale. STATA(®) 13 and NVIVO 10 were used to analyse survey data and open-ended responses, respectively. The mean age of survey participants (n=69) was 39 years (SD=9.2), and the majority were female (96%). The majority agreed with a statement that they will promote the human rights of individuals (98%) and that they have a duty to meet the health and social needs of the public (96%). More nuanced responses were obtained for some questions, with 60% agreeing with a statement that too much emphasis is placed on patients' rights as opposed to nurses' rights and 32% agreeing with a statement that they would take part in strike action to improve nurses' salaries and working conditions. The dilemmas of nurses to uphold the Code of Ethics and the Pledge in face of workplace constraints or poor working conditions were revealed in nurses' responses to open-ended questions. Continuing education in ethics and addressing health system deficiencies will enhance nurses' professional development and their ethical decision-making and practice.

  14. [Career perspectives of hospital health workers after maternity and paternity leave: survey and observational study in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, C; Grote, G; Miemietz, B; Vaske, B; Geyer, S

    2015-02-01

    A term of maternity and paternity (parental) leave becomes frequent on the career paths of medical personnel. Hospitals are highly competitive environments. The question employees universally face is how such a leave will alter their personal work situation and prospects upon return. We questioned 709 leave-takers and 88 department heads of a German university hospital (2009-12; full data sets: n = 406 and n = 63) about their experiences. This data was validated by epidemiology data extraction and expert interviews, also in a Swiss and in a Norwegian institution. Parental leave elicited high emotionality (score: 4.0 +/- 2 out of 5). Superiors' appraisal of employees' parental leave was more positive than negative (p leave takers doubled to 39 %; 51 % of leave-takers experienced significant task profile changes. 58 % of doctors thought about changing their employer and 17 % of leave-taking executives lost status after return. Employees' "power" and "influence" dropped significantly (p leave. The Swiss and Norwegian comparators appeared to have more liberal substitution and part-time schemes than the German institution. A competitive hospital environment can effectively demote leave-taking medical employees in their jobs. Despite sufficient financial arrangements high-commitment staff will only take parental leave of adequate length when an institutional framework protects their status. Data support four requirements: 1. Formal recognition of the leave taker's status pre-leave. 2. Establishment of a written ("claimable") return policy. 3. Substitution scheme for each individual, preferably by a locum. 4. Redirection of funds to facilitate part-time work schemes temporarily after return. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Healthcare professionals' perspectives on delivering end-of-life care within acute hospital trusts: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Colette; Gibbins, Jane; Bloor, Sophia; Burcombe, Melanie; McCoubrie, Rachel; Forbes, Karen

    2015-12-01

    The quality of end-of-life (EOL) care in acute hospitals is variable and interventions to improve this care, such as EOL care pathways, are not always used. The underlying reasons for this variability are not fully understood. We explored healthcare professionals' views on delivering EOL care within an acute hospital trust in the South West of England. We employed qualitative methods (focus groups, in-depth interviews and questerviews) within a study investigating the impact of a simple EOL tool on the care of dying patients. We invited a range of staff of all grades with experience in caring for dying patients from medicine, surgery and care of the elderly teams to participate. Six focus groups, seven interviews and five questerviews were conducted. Two main themes emerged: (a) delays (difficulties and avoidance) in diagnosing dying and (b) the EOL tool supporting staff in caring for the dying. Staff acknowledged that the diagnosis of dying was often made late; this was partly due to prognostic uncertainty but compounded by a culture that did not acknowledge death as a possible outcome until death was imminent. Both the medical and nursing staff found the EOL tool useful as a means of communicating ceilings of care, ensuring appropriate prescribing for EOL symptoms, and giving nurses permission to approach the bedside of a dying patient. The culture of avoiding death and dying in acute hospitals remains a significant barrier to providing EOL care, even when EOL tools are available and accepted by staff. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Stroke rehabilitation: assistive technology devices and environmental modifications following primary rehabilitation in hospital--a therapeutic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne Vinkel; Lendal, Susie; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the need for assistive devices and environmental modifications among long-living stroke survivors and to investigate if the need is continued and growing over time. The study sample of 155 consecutive stroke patients with stroke-related impairment, discharged...... home from three hospitals in Copenhagen from 1996 through 1998, constituted 20% of the total population of stroke survivors in this area. The results showed that 75% of these patients were provided with assistive devices and/or environmental modifications at discharge. Six months after discharge...... be required in order to target stroke survivors' changing needs for assistive devices and environmental modifications....

  17. Supervisors' perspective on medical thesis projects and dropout rates: survey among thesis supervisors at a large German university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Elif; Richter, Felicitas; Valchanova, Ralitsa; Dewey, Marc

    2016-10-14

    To identify underlying causes for failure of medical thesis projects and the constantly high drop-out rate in Germany from the supervisors' perspective and to compare the results with the students' perspective. Cross-sectional survey. Online questionnaire for survey of medical thesis supervisors among the staff of Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Published, earlier longitudinal survey among students for comparison. 1069 thesis supervisors participated. Data are presented using descriptive statistics, and the χ 2 test served to compare the results among supervisors with the earlier data from the longitudinal survey of doctoral students. Not applicable. This survey is an observational study. Of 3653 potential participants, 1069 (29.3%) supervising 3744 doctoral candidates participated in the study. Supervisors considered themselves to be highly motivated and to offer adequate supervision. On the other hand, 87% stated that they did not feel well prepared for thesis supervision. Supervisors gave lack of timeliness of doctoral students and personal differences (p=0.024 and p=0.001) as the main reasons for terminating thesis projects. Doctoral students predominantly mentioned methodological problems and difficult subjects as critical issues (p=0.001 and pthesis supervisors and medical students feel ill prepared for their roles in the process of a medical dissertation. Contradictory reasons for terminating medical thesis projects based on supervisors' and students' self-assessment suggest a lack of communication and true scientific collaboration between supervisors and doctoral students as the major underlying issue that requires resolution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Excess Hospitalization Expenses Attributable to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, May Ee; Yoong, Joanne; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chia, Kee Seng

    2018-04-20

    To estimate the excess hospitalization expenses attributable to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a high-income Asian country from the health system perspective and the patient perspective. Electronic medical records from a tertiary academic hospital in Singapore from 2012 to 2013 were used to create propensity score-matched cohorts with and without T2DM on the basis of their entry characteristics. A two-part model was then used to control for remaining differences between the cohorts. Excess cost due to diabetes was defined as the difference in hospital expenses between a patient with diabetes and a matched patient without diabetes. As part of the sensitivity analysis, a two-part model without matching and different matching algorithms were used to obtain the range of hospitalization expenses attributable to patients with T2DM. Balance of covariates after matching was investigated. All costs were presented in 2013 US dollars. Mean adjusted excess hospital expense of one hospital visit attributable to diabetes was approximately $1007 and $113 from the health system perspective and the patient perspective, respectively. For the cohort of patients with T2DM in Singapore, this amounts to a total average expenditure of $117 million and $13 million from the health system perspective and the patient perspective, respectively. Hospitalization expenses from diabetes result in a significant cost to the health care system in Singapore. Nevertheless, the excess burden of hospitalization on patients is mitigated significantly by cost sharing, which may reduce financial incentives to avert admissions through preventative care, which is largely out-of-pocket. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. How can hospitals better protect the privacy of electronic medical records? Perspectives from staff members of health information management departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Ming-Ling; Talley, Paul C; Cheng, Tain-Junn; Kuo, Kuang-Ming

    2017-05-01

    The adoption of electronic medical records (EMR) is expected to better improve overall healthcare quality and to offset the financial pressure of excessive administrative burden. However, safeguarding EMR against potentially hostile security breaches from both inside and outside healthcare facilities has created increased patients' privacy concerns from all sides. The aim of our study was to examine the influencing factors of privacy protection for EMR by healthcare professionals. We used survey methodology to collect questionnaire responses from staff members in health information management departments among nine Taiwanese hospitals active in EMR utilisation. A total of 209 valid responses were collected in 2014. We used partial least squares for analysing the collected data. Perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy and cues to action were found to have a significant association with intention to protect EMR privacy, while perceived susceptibility and perceived severity were not. Based on the findings obtained, we suggest that hospitals should provide continuous ethics awareness training to relevant staff and design more effective strategies for improving the protection of EMR privacy in their charge. Further practical and research implications are also discussed.

  20. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…