WorldWideScience

Sample records for academic hospital perspective

  1. Academic Hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  2. hospital's perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost effectiveness of autologous blood transfusion - A developing country hospital's ... 4Military Hospital, Lagos. Summary. An autologous blood donation program was set up at. National .... risk of infection for autologous patients was 5.06.

  3. Perspectives on academic dishonesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, M J; Lowenstein, A J

    1990-01-01

    Academic dishonest behaviors, such as lying, cheating, and plagiarism, are destructive and must be recognized and addressed early in the development of professional nurses. Faculty must be concerned with the relationship between student integrity in the classroom and clinical or professional behaviors. The authors discuss student motivation and attitudes toward unethical practices, faculty responses, and responsibilities when these incidents arise, and strategies for preventing academic dishonesty.

  4. Roles and methods of performance evaluation of hospital academic leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Yuan, Huikang; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xia; Yi, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly advancing implementation of public hospital reform urgently requires the identification and classification of a pool of exceptional medical specialists, corresponding with incentives to attract and retain them, providing a nucleus of distinguished expertise to ensure public hospital preeminence. This paper examines the significance of academic leadership, from a strategic management perspective, including various tools, methods and mechanisms used in the theory and practice of performance evaluation, and employed in the selection, training and appointment of academic leaders. Objective methods of assessing leadership performance are also provided for reference.

  5. Leveraging on information technology to enhance patient care: a doctor's perspective of implementation in a Singapore academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, B K C

    2002-11-01

    Information technology (IT) can improve the safety of patient care by minimising prescribing errors and organising patient-specific information from diverse databases. Apart from legibility, prescribing safety is enhanced as online access to databases carrying patient drug history, scientific drug information and guideline reference, and patient-specific information is available to the physician. Such specific information includes discharge summaries, surgical procedure summaries, laboratory data and investigation reports. In addition, decision support and prompts can be built in to catch errant orders. For such system implementations to work, the IT backbone must be fast, reliable and simple to use. End-user involvement and ownership of all aspects of development are key to a usable system. However, the hospital leadership must also have the will to mandate and support these development efforts. With such support, the design and implementation team can then map out a strategy where the greatest impact is achieved in both safety and enhanced information flow. The system should not be considered a finished work, but a continual work in progress. The National University Hospital's continuously updated Computerised Patient Support System (CPSS) is an example of an IT system designed to manage information and facilitate prescribing. It is a client-server based, one-point ordering and information access portal for doctors that has widespread adoption for drug prescription at outpatient and discharge medication usage areas. This system has built in safety prompts and rudimentary decision support. It has also become the choice means of accessing patient-related databases that impact on diagnoses and management.

  6. Academic Perspectives on Internationalisation in Three Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertova, Patricie

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the perspectives of senior academics on internationalisation of higher education across three countries: England, Czech Republic and Australia. In particular, it investigates the perspectives and experiences of academics in a range of leadership positions in university faculties and schools. The research utilises a critical…

  7. Academic underachievement: A neurodevelopmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shapiro Bruce, MD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic underachievement is a common presenting symptom and has many different causes. The disorders that describe academic underachievement are based on the child’s function in cognitive, academic, or behavioral domains. The disorders that are associated with academic underachievement are final common pathways that have different etiologies and mechanisms. Multiple disorders are the rule because brain dysfunction in childhood usually affects multiple functions. Consequently, management programs must be individualized, comprehensive and address issues related to the child, school, and family. Treatment plans include parent training, academic accommodations, techniques to maintain self-esteem, and psychopharmacologic approaches. Ongoing monitoring of the management programs is necessary to detect important comorbidities that may emerge, to modify the program to meet the changing academic and social demands that occur as the child ages, and to provide current information. The outcome for children with academic underachievement is most dependent on the underlying disorder. Health providers have multiple roles to play in the prevention, detection, diagnosis and management of children with academic underachievement.

  8. Academic knowing in/through double perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Melin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the cultures and learning practices of four academic schools with an expressed wish to bridge the gap between traditional academic and arts or journalistic practices. Pierre Bourdieu, the French sociologist, termed them allodoxic, in that they challenge the traditional academic way of thinking and doing. Results from two research projects, spanning over 5 years, employing a multitude of methods, have been used in this article. The results show that these challenging bridging attempts create conflictual cultures. First, faculties with different backgrounds are employed and they bring with them their respective habitus and doxa (Bourdieu, which is manifested in their different epistemologies, doxas. Despite a strong will to work interdisciplinarily, conflicts (destructive arise particularly around epistemological and pedagogic issues. Second, I show that students at these schools have had double-perspective learning, through theoretical and practice-based methods, despite little help from their lecturers who have high ideals but little actual knowledge themselves of working in/through a double perspective. In many cases, through trial-and-error processes, students have appropriated embodied knowledge of a double perspective, which has given them surplus value when compared with learning through only traditional academic learning practices. It gives reflexive insights and understandings as well as transferrable skills highly useful in professional life. I finally argue that allodoxic conflictual cultures actually construct new ways of knowing through continuous discussions and meetings between faculties with different competences.

  9. Cultural Diversity in the Curriculum: Perceptions and Attitudes of Irish Hospitality and Tourism Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Frances; Hearns, Niamh; Baum, Tom; Murray, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Academics are facing significant challenges in preparing indigenous students for employment in the multicultural working environment of hospitality and tourism organisations. In dealing with the impact of the new skills and flexibilities demanded by increasing globalisation, the indigenous workforce needs to possess a multicultural perspective and…

  10. Cultural Diversity in the Curriculum: Perceptions and Attitudes of Irish Hospitality and Tourism Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Frances; Hearns, Niamh; Baum, Tom; Murray, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Academics are facing significant challenges in preparing indigenous students for employment in the multicultural working environment of hospitality and tourism organisations. In dealing with the impact of the new skills and flexibilities demanded by increasing globalisation, the indigenous workforce needs to possess a multicultural perspective and…

  11. Specifying the Construct of Academic Vocabulary: Functional and Discursive Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Damián Perales Escudero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Models of academic vocabulary use need to address discursive and functional linguistics perspectives in order to enhance construct validity and authenticity in academic vocabulary assessment, particularly with regard to the testing of word families.Purpose of Study: To provide a clearer picture of academic vocabulary use that can inform the design of academic vocabulary testing by enhancing construct validity and authenticity.Method: A survey of the literature on academic vocabulary has been conducted to present various perspectives and their shortcoming. Then, findings from the functional linguistics and discourse analysis traditions with regard to vocabulary use are discussed. An example of a testing item incorporating functional perspectives on the use of derivatives within a lemma is presented.Conclusion: Incorporating functional and discursive findings related to the discourse-structuring functions of multiple derivatives of a single lemma may lead to more valid and authentic academic vocabulary tests and teaching practices.

  12. Internationalization in German Academic Libraries: Moving beyond North American Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Karen; Rauchmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how internationalization is understood and experienced in German academic libraries. Its main purpose is to move the discussion of internationalization in academic libraries beyond the boundaries of English-speaking North America by investigating a European perspective. Its secondary purpose is to investigate the role of…

  13. The academic environment: the students' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, K; Barlow, P J; Chendea, S A; Cheong, W S; Dounis, A; Dragan, I F; Hamlin, J; Hosseinzadeh, L; Kuin, D; Mitrirattanakul, S; Mo'nes, M; Molnar, N; Perryer, G; Pickup, J; Raval, N; Shanahan, D; Songpaisan, Y; Taneva, E; Yaghoub-Zadeh, S; West, K; Vrazic, D

    2008-02-01

    Dental education is regarded as a complex, demanding and often stressful pedagogical procedure. Undergraduates, while enrolled in programmes of 4-6 years duration, are required to attain a unique and diverse collection of competences. Despite the major differences in educational systems, philosophies, methods and resources available worldwide, dental students' views regarding their education appear to be relatively convergent. This paper summarizes dental students' standpoint of their studies, showcases their experiences in different educational settings and discusses the characteristics of a positive academic environment. It is a consensus opinion that the 'students' perspective' should be taken into consideration in all discussions and decisions regarding dental education. Moreover, it is suggested that the set of recommendations proposed can improve students' quality of life and well-being, enhance their total educational experience and positively influence their future careers as oral health physicians. The 'ideal' academic environment may be defined as one that best prepares students for their future professional life and contributes towards their personal development, psychosomatic and social well-being. A number of diverse factors significantly influence the way students perceive and experience their education. These range from 'class size', 'leisure time' and 'assessment procedures' to 'relations with peers and faculty', 'ethical climate' and 'extra-curricular opportunities'. Research has revealed that stress symptoms, including psychological and psychosomatic manifestations, are prevalent among dental students. Apparently some stressors are inherent in dental studies. Nevertheless, suggested strategies and preventive interventions can reduce or eliminate many sources of stress and appropriate support services should be readily available. A key point for the Working Group has been the discrimination between 'teaching' and 'learning'. It is suggested that

  14. Student stress and academic performance: home hospital program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucha, Carolyn B; Kowalski, Susan; Cross, Chad

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether nursing students assigned to a home hospital experience less stress and improved academic performance. Students were assigned to a home hospital clinical placement (n = 78) or a control clinical placement (n = 79). Stress was measured using the Student Nurse Stress Index (SNSI) and Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory. Academic performance included score on the RN CAT, a standardized mock NCLEX-RN(®)-type test; nursing grade point average; and first attempt pass-fail on the NCLEX-RN. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups for age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, or score on the nurse entrance examination. There were significant changes in SNSI over time but not between groups. Academic load and state anxiety showed an interaction of time by group, with the home hospital group showing reductions over time, compared with the control group.

  15. Medication errors: hospital pharmacist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Colen, Hadewig B B; Kalmeijer, Mathijs D; Hudson, Patrick T W; Teepe-Twiss, Irene M

    2005-01-01

    In recent years medication error has justly received considerable attention, as it causes substantial mortality, morbidity and additional healthcare costs. Risk assessment models, adapted from commercial aviation and the oil and gas industries, are currently being developed for use in clinical pharmacy. The hospital pharmacist is best placed to oversee the quality of the entire drug distribution chain, from prescribing, drug choice, dispensing and preparation to the administration of drugs, and can fulfil a vital role in improving medication safety. Most elements of the drug distribution chain can be optimised; however, because comparative intervention studies are scarce, there is little scientific evidence available demonstrating improvements in medication safety through such interventions. Possible interventions aimed at reducing medication errors, such as developing methods for detection of patients with increased risk of adverse drug events, performing risk assessment in clinical pharmacy and optimising the drug distribution chain are discussed. Moreover, the specific role of the clinical pharmacist in improving medication safety is highlighted, both at an organisational level and in individual patient care.

  16. Stress factors affecting academic physicians at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Sara; Eintrei, Christina; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Research is limited regarding occupational stress in academic physicians; professionals whose work situation includes the three areas of clinical practice, research, and teaching. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of factors experienced as stressful by academic physicians employed by a university hospital. A questionnaire assessing the frequency and intensity of 36 potentially stressful factors was sent to all 157 academic physicians who were employed at the Linköping University Hospital, Sweden. The response rate was 77%. Both a high frequency and intensity of stress was experienced by 66% of the academic physicians in relation to "time pressure" and by almost 50% in connection with both "find time for research" and having "conflict of interest between different work assignments". Moreover, physicians in the higher age group and those who had attained a higher academic position experienced less stress. The female participants experienced more stress than the males due to gender-related problems and to variables associated with relationships at work. More knowledge is needed to determine the consequences of this finding and to identify coping strategies used for handling such stress.

  17. Challenges and perspectives of academic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Inacio P M Bastos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Academic evaluation has been an essential component of modern science since its inception, as science has moved away from personalized patronage toward its contemporary role as an essential enterprise of contemporary, democratic societies. In recent years, Brazil has experienced sustained growth in its scientific output, which is nowadays fully compatible with its status as a high middle-income country striving to become a fully developed, more equitable country in the years to come. Growth usually takes place amidst challenges and dilemmas and, in Brazil as elsewhere, academic evaluation is not exempt from such difficulties. In a large, profoundly heterogeneous country with a national evaluation system and nationwide on-line platforms disseminating information on the most disparate fields of knowledge, the main challenges refer to how to pay attention to detail without losing sight of comprehensiveness and how to handle social and regional diversity while preserving academic excellence as the fundamental benchmark.

  18. Physicians' job satisfaction and motivation in a public academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Vasconcelos Filho, Paulo; de Souza, Miriam Regina; Elias, Paulo Eduardo Mangeon; D'Ávila Viana, Ana Luiza

    2016-12-07

    Physician shortage is a global issue that concerns Brazil's authorities. The organizational structure and the environment of a medical institution can hide a low-quality life of a physician. This study examines the relationship between the hospital work environment and physicians' job satisfaction and motivation when working in a large public academic hospital. The study was restricted to one large, multispecialty Brazil's hospital. Six hundred hospital physicians were invited to participate by e-mail. A short version of the Physician Worklife Survey (PWS) was used to measure working satisfaction. Physicians were also asked for socio-demographic information, medical specialty, and the intention to continue working in the hospital. Data from 141 questionnaires were included in the analyses. Forty-five physicians graduated from the hospital's university, and they did not intend to leave the hospital under any circumstance (affective bond). The motivating factor for beginning the career at the hospital and to continue working there were the connection to the medical school and the hospital status as a "prestigious academic hospital"; the physicians were more satisfied with the career than the specialty. Only 30% completely agreed with the statement "If I had to start my career over again, I would choose my current specialty," while 45% completely agreed with the statement "I am not well compensated given my training and experience." The greater point of satisfaction was the relationship with physician colleagues. They are annoyed about the amount of calls they are requested to take and about how work encroaches on their personal time. No significant differences between medical specialties were found in the analysis. The participants were satisfied with their profession. The fact that they remained at the hospital was related to the academic environment, the relationship with colleagues, and the high prestige in which society holds the institution. The points of

  19. Academic Perspectives on the Outcomes of Outward Student Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Kath

    2015-01-01

    This research project was commissioned by the UK Higher Education International Unit (IU) and the Higher Education Academy (HEA) in June 2014 to explore academic perspectives on the outcomes of outward mobility at undergraduate, postgraduate and research levels for UK domiciled students, and to consider how best to facilitate the take up as well…

  20. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism: Australasian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews nearly 80 published items concerned with promoting academic integrity and reducing plagiarism. Nearly all of them were published in the last seven years and have authors based in Australasia. Most of them have authors from computing departments and many were published in computing journals or presented at computing conferences.…

  1. Academic Procrastination: The Perspective of University Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrzek, Justine; Grunschel, Carola; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antecedents and consequences of academic procrastination in students who frequent university counselling in regard to this issue. To undertake this, semi-structured interviews with 12 experienced university counsellors in German universities were conducted. A qualitative content analysis resulted in…

  2. Academic Corrective Action from a Legal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collura, Frank J.

    1997-01-01

    In cases of cheating, plagiarism, or violations of the law in dental education, a very high level of due process is required. University counsel can help administrators determine whether an accused student is professionally suited to dentistry by characterizing as many corrective actions as possible as academic under the rubric of "suitability to…

  3. Academic Success Factors: An IT Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aimao; Aasheim, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified causal factors for academic success. Factors vary from personal factors, such as cognitive style (McKenzie & Schweitzer, 2001), to social factors, such as culture differences (Aysan, Tanriogen, & Tanriogen, 1996). However, in these studies it is re-searchers who theorized the causal dimensions and…

  4. Universal isolation precautions for patients at an academic hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Maziero,Vanessa Gomes; Vannuchi,Marli Terezinha Oliveira; Vituri,Dagmar Willamourius; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Lourenço; Tada,Cristiane Nakaya

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To apply universal isolation precautions for patients at an academic hospital by a nursing team. METHODS: This descriptive and prospective study used data from advice service of quality control and nursing care that were gathered in observational reports of universal isolation precautions for patients admitted in two surgical inpatient units during 2008 and 2010. RESULTS: The mean general classification for both units was between desirable and adequate in the observational analysis...

  5. Drug repurposing from an academic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Tudor; Bauman, Julie E.; Bologa, Cristian G.

    2011-01-01

    intellectual coverage and issues related to dosing and safety may lead to significant drawbacks. The development of a more streamlined regulatory process worldwide, and the development of precompetitive knowledge transfer systems such as a global healthcare database focused on regulatory and scientific...... information for drugs worldwide, are among the ideas proposed to improve the process of academic drug discovery and repurposing, and to overcome the ‘valley of death’ by bridging basic to clinical sciences....

  6. Inter-hospital transfers from rural hospitals to an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Dilip; Gibbs, Mary M

    2013-01-01

    The need for inter-hospital patient transfers from rural hospitals, especially Critical Access Hospitals, to larger, more urban hospitals is predictable considering the limited resources at rural hospitals. No systematic study of the inter-hospital transfers themselves has been published. The aim of this retrospective descriptive chart review was to provide a preliminary look at inter-hospital transfers from rural hospitals to a more urban, academic medical center in West Virginia. Ultimately, the creation of an agenda for further research was in view. A list of study participants was generated from the academic center's electronic health record database. Study participants were patients who had been transferred for acute care, from November 2011 through June 2012, to the receiving hospital from another acute care hospital and had been under the care of the family medicine teaching service. One hundred and thirty-eight patient transfers were included. Medicare was the most common source of health insurance coverage but over a third of the patients were uninsured. Only five of the twenty-four referring hospitals were Critical Access Hospitals. Four institutions alone initiated 49.3% of transfers. Nineteen specialty services were sought with critical care and neurology accounting for 53.9% of requests. Stroke or stroke-like presentation was the most common transfer diagnosis. 24.6% of transfers were transferred for services that were available at the transferring facility. This study has suggested an agenda for further research that includes replication and analysis of the data with larger study samples as well as qualitative research into the transferring physicians' decision-making process.

  7. Drug Repurposing from an Academic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; Bauman, Julie E; Bologa, Cristian G; Buranda, Tione; Chigaev, Alexandre; Edwards, Bruce S; Jarvik, Jonathan W; Gresham, Hattie D; Haynes, Mark K; Hjelle, Brian; Hromas, Robert; Hudson, Laurie; Mackenzie, Debra A; Muller, Carolyn Y; Reed, John C; Simons, Peter C; Smagley, Yelena; Strouse, Juan; Surviladze, Zurab; Thompson, Todd; Ursu, Oleg; Waller, Anna; Wandinger-Ness, Angela; Winter, Stuart S; Wu, Yang; Young, Susan M; Larson, Richard S; Willman, Cheryl; Sklar, Larry A

    2011-01-01

    Academia and small business research units are poised to play an increasing role in drug discovery, with drug repurposing as one of the major areas of activity. Here we summarize project status for a number of drugs or classes of drugs: raltegravir, cyclobenzaprine, benzbromarone, mometasone furoate, astemizole, R-naproxen, ketorolac, tolfenamic acid, phenothiazines, methylergonovine maleate and beta-adrenergic receptor drugs, respectively. Based on this multi-year, multi-project experience we discuss strengths and weaknesses of academic-based drug repurposing research. Translational, target and disease foci are strategic advantages fostered by close proximity and frequent interactions between basic and clinical scientists, which often result in discovering new modes of action for approved drugs. On the other hand, lack of integration with pharmaceutical sciences and toxicology, lack of appropriate intellectual coverage and issues related to dosing and safety may lead to significant drawbacks. The development of a more streamlined regulatory process world-wide, and the development of pre-competitive knowledge transfer systems such as a global healthcare database focused on regulatory and scientific information for drugs world-wide, are among the ideas proposed to improve the process of academic drug discovery and repurposing, and to overcome the "valley of death" by bridging basic to clinical sciences.

  8. Redefining southern nationalism : a political perspective ; an academic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    O'Malley, Des; Garvin, Tom

    2001-01-01

    A political perspective: Southern Irish nationalism was traditionally aggressive and negative, and tended to view Northern Ireland as a colonial remnant; but economic protectionism and isolationism did little to stem the flow of emigrants out of the country. Evolution under the leadership of Sean Lemass from 1959 onwards led to a more outward-looking Ireland, but the more negative aspects of Irish nationalism began to appear again in the 1970s. The tension between two forms of republicani...

  9. Academic profile of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein medical staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Maria Salles Carneiro-Sampaio

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Based on data from the Medical Registryof Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE, the academic profile of 543physicians responsible for 80% of the admissions (group 1 and 315physicians hired by HIAE (group 2 was assessed; in that, 42professionals belonged to both groups, leading to a study of 816registries. RESULTS: In group 1 there was a higher concentration ofprofessionals dedicated to general surgery and surgical specialties,followed by general internist, gynecologists/obstetricians andpediatricians. In group 2 there was a predominance of generalinternists, followed by specialists in fields that support diagnosis andtreatment (Clinical Pathology, Anatomic pathology, Radiology,Endoscopy, among others, pediatricians and surgeons. Approximatelyhalf of the physicians in both groups graduated at the medical schoolsFaculdade de Medicina da USP (FMUSP and Escola Paulista deMedicina da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp/EPM. Ingroup 1, 66% of the physicians graduated in the 70’s and 80’s, whereas,in group 2, 73% graduated in the 80’s and 90’s. As to medical residence,70% of the professionals in group 2 were trained at Hospital dasClínicas, FMUSP and at Hospital São Paulo, Unifesp/EPM. Manyphysicians trained at Hospital das Clínicas graduated at other medicalschools in the State of São Paulo and in other states. RegardingMaster’s degree, 35% in group 1 and 33% in group 2 hold the title,and in 80% of the cases it was granted by FMUSP and Unifesp/EPM.Fifty-one per cent of the professionals in group 1 and 31% in group 2are PhDs – 90% of them bestowed by FMUSP and Unifesp/EPM, thetwo main public medical schools in the City of São Paulo. Taking intoaccount Master’s degree and/or PhD, 61% of the physicians in group1 and 49% in group 2 hold one or both titles. It was also observed that37% of the physicians in group 1 and 21% in group 2 were trainedabroad and/or were fellows of a foreign institution, mostly

  10. Hospital management contracts: institutional and community perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, J. R.; Zuckerman, H S

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that external management by contract can improve the performance of managed hospitals. This article presents a conceptual framework which develops specific hypotheses concerning improved hospital operating efficiency, increased ability to meet hospital objectives, and increased ability to meet community objectives. Next, changes in the process and structure of management under contractual arrangements, based on observations from two not-for-profit hospital systems,...

  11. Social contract of academic medical centres to the community: Dr Howard Atwood Kelly (1858-1943), a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Academic medical centres have traditionally been bastions of teaching and research. Outreach to the community at large and involvement in community affairs have sometimes been lacking in the overall mission and activities of academic medical centres. This paper provides an historical perspective first on the numerous achievements of a physician and surgeon and then on the topic of involvement in community affairs by reviewing the many contributions of America's pioneer gynaecological surgeon and one of the four physician founders of the Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine in 1889 - Dr Howard Atwood Kelly.

  12. Code R: Redesigning Hospital-wide Peer Review for Academic Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel I; Au, Huy; Fargo, Ramiz; Garrison, Roger C; Thompson, Gary; Yu, Minho; Loo, Lawrence K

    2016-09-01

    In most health care institutions, physician peer review is the primary method for maintaining and measuring physician competency and quality of care issues. However, many teaching hospitals do not have a method of tracking resident trainees' involvement in adverse cases. At the study institution, Code R was introduced as a measure to capture resident trainee involvement in the hospital-wide peer review process. The authors conducted a retrospective review of all peer review cases from January 2008 to December 2011 in an academic medical center and determined the quantity and type of resident errors that occurred compared to attending faculty. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's core competencies served as a framework to categorize quality of care errors. The addition of Code R to the peer review process can be readily adopted by other institutions to help improve resident education, facilitate faculty supervision, and potentially improve patient safety.

  13. Building the National University of Colombia Hospital: Reconciling social and academic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Esteban Sastre-Cifuentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the process of building the National University Hospital, an analysis of the changing epidemiological profile of the population of Bogotá was undertaken, which examined the health care needs of the city, the academic needs of the university and institutional possibilities. It was made an analysis of the demographic and epidemiological profile of the population of Bogotá. It was concluded that there were factors associated with the epidemiological transition of aging, such as a low availability of health services for the elderly and diseases related to that care. Just as in the university, the hospital needs to develop all aspects of patient care to be able to adequately respond to the needs of this demographic from an interdisciplinary perspective, ensuring quality care based on the criteria of timeliness, accessibility, relevance, sufficiency, and continuity. A proposal is outlined concluding that the first phase of the portfolio of services that the University Hospital offers must be geared towards geriatric care and chronic illnesses, due to the aging of the general population as a result of a decline in fertility and mortality. This care would cater towards so-called permanent conditions that result in disability, or not easily reversible physiopathological conditions that require long-term care, as well as special training in secondary prevention and rehabilitation for the patient and the family.

  14. Hospitality Management: Perspectives from Industry Advisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roginsky

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In prior quarterly reports, Pinnacle Advisory Group presented timely updates about the New England lodging industry, which included focused profiles on particular cities. In this issue, the firm offers more general insight about the hospitality industry. Several Pinnacle executives recently participated in a panel discussion about investment, management, and careers in the hospitality industry.

  15. Hospitality Management: Perspectives from Industry Advisor

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Roginsky; Matthew Arrants

    2013-01-01

    In prior quarterly reports, Pinnacle Advisory Group presented timely updates about the New England lodging industry, which included focused profiles on particular cities. In this issue, the firm offers more general insight about the hospitality industry. Several Pinnacle executives recently participated in a panel discussion about investment, management, and careers in the hospitality industry.

  16. Adoption of Library 2.0 Functionalities by Academic Libraries and Users: A Knowledge Management Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Mi; Abbas, June

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the adoption of Library 2.0 functionalities by academic libraries and users through a knowledge management perspective. Based on randomly selected 230 academic library Web sites and 184 users, the authors found RSS and blogs are widely adopted by academic libraries while users widely utilized the bookmark function.…

  17. Social Network Perspectives Reveal Strength of Academic Developers as Weak Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Crampton, Andrea; Hill, Matthew; Johnson, Elizabeth D.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Varsavsky, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Social network perspectives acknowledge the influence of disciplinary cultures on academics' teaching beliefs and practices with implications for academic developers. The contribution of academic developers in 18 scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) projects situated in the sciences are explored by drawing on data from a two-year national…

  18. Adoption of Library 2.0 Functionalities by Academic Libraries and Users: A Knowledge Management Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Mi; Abbas, June

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the adoption of Library 2.0 functionalities by academic libraries and users through a knowledge management perspective. Based on randomly selected 230 academic library Web sites and 184 users, the authors found RSS and blogs are widely adopted by academic libraries while users widely utilized the bookmark function.…

  19. Social Network Perspectives Reveal Strength of Academic Developers as Weak Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Crampton, Andrea; Hill, Matthew; Johnson, Elizabeth D.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Varsavsky, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Social network perspectives acknowledge the influence of disciplinary cultures on academics' teaching beliefs and practices with implications for academic developers. The contribution of academic developers in 18 scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) projects situated in the sciences are explored by drawing on data from a two-year national…

  20. Impact of teaching intensity and academic status on medical resource utilization by teaching hospitals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2012-11-01

    Teaching hospitals require excess medical resources to maintain high-quality care and medical education. To evaluate the appropriateness of such surplus costs, we examined the impact of teaching intensity defined as activities for postgraduate training, and academic status as functions of medical research and undergraduate teaching on medical resource utilization. Administrative data for 47,397 discharges from 40 academic and 12 non-academic teaching hospitals in Japan were collected. Hospitals were classified into three groups according to intern/resident-to-bed (IRB) ratio. Resource utilization of medical services was estimated using fee-for-service charge schedules and normalized with case mix grouping. 15-24% more resource utilization for laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications were observed in hospitals with higher IRB ratios. With multivariate adjustment for case mix and academic status, higher IRB ratios were associated with 10-15% more use of radiological imaging, injections, and medications; up to 5% shorter hospital stays; and not with total resource utilization. Conversely, academic status was associated with 21-33% more laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications; 13% longer hospital stays; and 10% more total resource utilization. While differences in medical resource utilization by teaching intensity may not be associated with indirect educational costs, those by academic status may be. Therefore, academic hospitals may need efficiency improvement and financial compensation.

  1. Outsourcing in public hospitals: a Greek perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschuris, Socrates J; Kondylis, Michael N

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the extent of outsourcing, the decision-making process, the impact of outsourcing, and the future trend of outsourcing in public hospitals in Greece. A survey instrument was designed and mailed to a random sample of 100 public hospitals in Greece and 43 usable questionnaires were received, representing a response rate of 43 percent. The survey instrument focused on the extent to which public hospitals outsource services, the decision-making process for choosing an external service provider, the impact of outsourcing, and the future trend of outsourcing in public healthcare organisations. Public hospitals in Greece outsource a variety of activities. Cost savings and customer satisfaction are the main factors affecting the outsourcing decision. The cooperation with a contract service provider has led to significant improvement in service quality levels. Most users are satisfied with the performance of these companies and believe that there will be an increase in the usage of these services in the future. It provides a decision-making framework regarding outsourcing in public healthcare organisations. This research fills the gap in the area of outsourcing in public hospitals in Greece.

  2. Partial Hospitalization Programs: A Current Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Carolyn A.; Perez, Edgardo L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the historical background, standards, the issue of day treatment versus day care, functional issues, specialization, efficacy and cost effectiveness, utilization issues, and alternative models of care of partial hospitalization programs in North America. Emphasizes issues of relevance when planning alternative programs to inpatient…

  3. Pediatric hospital medicine: historical perspectives, inspired future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Erin Stucky

    2012-05-01

    Pediatric hospital medicine (PHM) is in an accelerated growth phase. Multiple elements have combined to affect the current state of the field. PHM is similar to other geographic specialties such as pediatric emergency medicine and pediatric critical care that deliver general, comprehensive care to patients based on hospital site. Pediatric hospitalists have been molded by changes in medicine, consumer expectations, and training program modifications. The history of PHM dates back for more than 3 decades, when unwitting pediatricians began to focus on delivering care for the hospitalized child. The ensuing years allowed for natural responses to external pressures that resulted in much of the field's initial development. In more recent years, however, pediatric hospitalists have been catalysts for change and driving forces for health care systems' improvements. Simultaneous with this has been the nearly exponential surge of energy focused on targeted initiatives, which have further defined the field and brought attention on a national level. PHM is at a critical but brilliant juncture in development. Further decisions regarding scope and demonstration of competencies are important to make with clarity of purpose. Pediatric hospitalists are advancing child health in the inpatient setting through evidence-based care, research, education, clinical excellence, advocacy, and health care business acumen. With a strong community sense and leadership evident, PHM has a bright future. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inter-hospital transfers from rural hospitals to an academic medical center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nair, Dilip; Gibbs, Mary M

    2013-01-01

    The need for inter-hospital patient transfers from rural hospitals, especially Critical Access Hospitals, to larger, more urban hospitals is predictable considering the limited resources at rural hospitals...

  5. Circumcision: Perspective in a Nigerian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L O Abdur-Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The practice and pattern of male infants circumcised is influenced by culture, religion and socio-economic classification. The debate about the benefits and risks of circumcision has made a hospital-based practice the most acceptable. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the ages, indications, co-morbidity, types and methods of circumcision, usage and mode of anaesthesia and outcome of male circumcision at a tertiary health centre in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of male circumcision in a paediatric surgery unit was done from January 2002 to December 2007. The data was analysed using SPSS software version 15. Results: There were 438 boys with age ranged between 6 days and 10 years (median 28 days, mean 53.6 days standard deviation 74.2. Neonatal circumcision (<29 days was 201 (46% and 318 (72.6% of the children were circumcised by the 3 rd month of live. Religion or tradition were the major indicators in 384 (87.7% patients while phimosis 38 (8.7%, paraphimosis 4 (1%, redundant post circumcision skin 10 (2.3% and defective prepuce in 2 (0.5% were other indications. Plastibel™ (PD was used in 214 (48.9%, classical circumcision 194 (44.2%, guillotine technique (GT and Gomco™ 10 (2.3% cases each while 10 (2.3% had a refashioning/re-excision post previous circumcision. There was an increase in use of PD, drop in the use of GT; and increase in the number of circumcision done over the years. Only 39.7% had anaesthesia administered and complication rate was 6.7%. Conclusion: Neonatal circumcision was highest in the hospital-based circumcision practice, which allowed the expected ideals in the use of devices in a tertiary health centre. However, the low rate of anaesthetic use is unacceptable.

  6. Portuguese Academics' Perceptions of Higher Education Institutions' Governance and Management: A Generational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rui; Carvalho, Teresa; Cardoso, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to analyse academics' perceptions on changes in the governance and management of higher education institutions (HEIs) under a generational perspective. It is empirically based on the analysis of national data resulting from the "Changing Academic Profession" international survey. Findings reveal a general tendency for…

  7. Role of Department Heads in Academic Development: A Leader-Member Exchange and Organizational Resource Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Andre Leonard; du Plessis, Yvonne; Nkomo, Stella

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of leadership in the development of academic talent in higher education from a social exchange and organizational support perspective. Drawing from a sample of academic staff at a large South African university, the study investigates the extent to which a quality leader-member exchange relationship versus a formal…

  8. What Makes an Excellent Lecturer? Academics' Perspectives on the Discourse of "Teaching Excellence" in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Margaret; Su, Feng

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF), we examine academics' perspectives on the discourse of "teaching excellence" based on an empirical study with 16 participants from five post-1992 universities. The article reports the findings on academics' views of the term and concept of "teaching excellence",…

  9. The California Academic Partnership Program: A Case Study of Retrenchment from Two Different Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Michael

    This case study analyzed the management of the retrenchment for the California Academic Partnership Program (CAPP) from two perspectives: the functionalist perspective and the radical structuralist view. CAPP is a program supporting higher education faculty-secondary school teacher partnerships to improve secondary education. The California…

  10. The Implications of Brexit for Libraries: An Academic Librarian’s Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, L.

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the implications of Brexit for British libraries, written from an Academic Librarian's perspective, but outlining sector-wide issues such as budgetary pressures, research trends and access, international copyright arrangements, cultural trends and 'fake news'. This article was written as part of E-International Relations' 'Brexit: A European Perspective' blog series.

  11. Academic Librarians and Research: A Study of Canadian Library Administrator Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Selinda Adelle; Jacobs, Heidi L. M.; Cornwall, Dayna

    2013-01-01

    Within the literature exploring the role of research in academic librarianship, very little attention has been paid to the perspectives of upper library administrators. This perspective is critical because library administrators play a key role in hiring, evaluating, supporting, promoting, and tenuring professional librarians. As a way of bringing…

  12. Re-Framing Student Academic Freedom: A Capability Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The scholarly debate about academic freedom focuses almost exclusively on the rights of academic faculty. Student academic freedom is rarely discussed and is normally confined to debates connected with the politicisation of the curriculum. Concerns about (student) freedom of speech reflect the dominant role of negative rights in the analysis of…

  13. Faculty Prescriptions for Academic Integrity: An Urban Campus Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehman, Patricia Susan

    2009-01-01

    With alarming frequencies students are viewing the acts of academic dishonesty as commonplace. Cheating is now considered an alternative form of academic behavior which is situationally dependent upon the risks involved. Any apparent institutional, faculty, and student indifference to academic dishonesty communicates to students that the values of…

  14. Faculty Prescriptions for Academic Integrity: An Urban Campus Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehman, Patricia Susan

    2009-01-01

    With alarming frequencies students are viewing the acts of academic dishonesty as commonplace. Cheating is now considered an alternative form of academic behavior which is situationally dependent upon the risks involved. Any apparent institutional, faculty, and student indifference to academic dishonesty communicates to students that the values of…

  15. Re-Framing Student Academic Freedom: A Capability Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The scholarly debate about academic freedom focuses almost exclusively on the rights of academic faculty. Student academic freedom is rarely discussed and is normally confined to debates connected with the politicisation of the curriculum. Concerns about (student) freedom of speech reflect the dominant role of negative rights in the analysis of…

  16. Digital Storytelling in Australia: Academic Perspectives and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Robert; Adam, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This project explored the experiences of a small sample (N = 6) of Australian academics with the use of digital storytelling as a pedagogical tool in higher education contexts. This article describes two case studies of academic uses of digital storytelling, along with interpretive analysis of six semi-structured interviews of academics working…

  17. Dishonest Academic Conduct: From the Perspective of the Utility Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Tian, Rui

    Dishonest academic conduct has aroused extensive attention in academic circles. To explore how scholars make decisions according to the principle of maximal utility, the author has constructed the general utility function based on the expected utility theory. The concrete utility functions of different types of scholars were deduced. They are as follows: risk neutral, risk averse, and risk preference. Following this, the assignment method was adopted to analyze and compare the scholars' utilities of academic conduct. It was concluded that changing the values of risk costs, internal condemnation costs, academic benefits, and the subjective estimation of penalties following dishonest academic conduct can lead to changes in the utility of academic dishonesty. The results of the current study suggest that within scientific research, measures to prevent and govern dishonest academic conduct should be formulated according to the various effects of the above four variables.

  18. Optimizing antibiotic usage in hospitals: a qualitative study of the perspectives of hospital managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, A; Gibson, A F; Broom, J; Kirby, E; Yarwood, T; Post, J J

    2016-11-01

    Antibiotic optimization in hospitals is an increasingly critical priority in the context of proliferating resistance. Despite the emphasis on doctors, optimizing antibiotic use within hospitals requires an understanding of how different stakeholders, including non-prescribers, influence practice and practice change. This study was designed to understand Australian hospital managers' perspectives on antimicrobial resistance, managing antibiotic governance, and negotiating clinical vis-à-vis managerial priorities. Twenty-three managers in three hospitals participated in qualitative semi-structured interviews in Australia in 2014 and 2015. Data were systematically coded and thematically analysed. The findings demonstrate, from a managerial perspective: (1) competing demands that can hinder the prioritization of antibiotic governance; (2) ineffectiveness of audit and monitoring methods that limit rationalization for change; (3) limited clinical education and feedback to doctors; and (4) management-directed change processes are constrained by the perceived absence of a 'culture of accountability' for antimicrobial use amongst doctors. Hospital managers report considerable structural and interprofessional challenges to actualizing antibiotic optimization and governance. These challenges place optimization as a lower priority vis-à-vis other issues that management are confronted with in hospital settings, and emphasize the importance of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes that engage management in understanding and addressing the barriers to change. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Service quality of private hospitals: The Iranian Patients' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarei Asghar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly competitive market in the private hospital industry has caused increasing pressure on them to provide services with higher quality. The aim of this study was to determine the different dimensions of the service quality in the private hospitals of Iran and evaluating the service quality from the patients' perspective. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and November 2010 in Tehran, Iran. The study sample was composed of 983 patients randomly selected from 8 private general hospitals. The study questionnaire was the SERVQUAL questionnaire, consisting of 21 items in service quality dimensions. Results The result of factor analysis revealed 3 factors, explaining 69% of the total variance. The total mean score of patients' expectation and perception was 4.91(SD = 0.2 and 4.02(SD = 0.6, respectively. The highest expectation and perception related to the tangibles dimension and the lowest expectation and perception related to the empathy dimension. The differences between perception and expectation were significant (p Conclusion The results showed that SERVQUAL is a valid, reliable, and flexible instrument to monitor and measure the quality of the services in private hospitals of Iran. Our findings clarified the importance of creating a strong relationship between patients and the hospital practitioners/personnel and the need for hospital staff to be responsive, credible, and empathetic when dealing with patients.

  20. Changing from paper to paperless hospitals in busy academic centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelman, Keith

    2008-01-01

    To decide to change from paper to a paperless hospital, one decides to go on a journey. This chapter will outline the destination, the reasons to make the journey and describe the best route to the destination. Becoming paperless is the route taken to the destination.

  1. How Avoidable are Hospitalizations for Children With Medical Complexity? Understanding Parent Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bergen B; Coller, Ryan J; Saenz, Adrianna A; Chung, Paul J; Kaplan, Avery; Lerner, Carlos F; Klitzner, Thomas S

    2016-08-01

    Children with medical complexity (CMC) are a small group that utilizes large amounts of health care resources. Although parents are the primary healthcare decision-makers for their children, little is known from their perspective about why CMC are hospitalized. We sought to understand what parents think about factors leading to hospitalization and whether any recent hospitalizations might have been avoidable. We conducted qualitative, semistructured interviews with 35 parents of hospitalized CMC who receive care in the Pediatric Medical Home Program, a complex care program at University of California, Los Angeles. Interviews were conducted in English and in Spanish, audio-recorded, transcribed and translated, then coded in ATLAS.ti (Scientific Software Development Gmbh, Berlin, Germany) for qualitative analysis. We sorted qualitative codes into groups with shared concepts, to generate emergent themes. Parents described their experiences leading up to their children's hospitalization, but no one suggested that the hospitalization was potentially avoidable. Most parents perceived their children as having higher susceptibility because of underlying conditions, perceived the symptoms they observed as high-risk, and described seeking emergent care only when they no longer were comfortable at home. Decisions about where to seek care were influenced by health care system factors such as accessibility and continuity of care. Most parents expressed a desire to learn more about their children's conditions and how best to care for them at home. Parents of CMC believe that hospitalizations are largely unavoidable because of higher susceptibility and higher risk. Increasing parents' self-efficacy in caring for children at home might influence their decisions to seek emergent care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Academic Freedom and University Autonomy: A Higher Education Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kai; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects upon three seminal articles published in "Higher Education Policy" ("HEP") on academic freedom and university autonomy. The reflections indicate that "HEP" research contributes to a sophisticated and systematic understanding of the complexity of academic freedom, addressing both the original…

  3. Data management in academic settings: an intellectual property perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Intellectual property can be an important asset for academic institutions. Good data management practices are important for capture, development and protection of intellectual property assets. Selected issues focused on the relationship between data management and intellectual property are reviewed and a thesis that academic institutions and scientists should honor their obligations to responsibly manage data.

  4. Parental perspectives on negotiation of their child's care in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Paula; Antunes, Ana; Carvalho, Joana; Casey, Anne

    2013-03-01

    To increase understanding of parents' perspectives on the negotiation of care. A translated and validated questionnaire was completed by 444 parents of children admitted over a 16-month period to one hospital in Portugal. The overwhelming majority of participating parents believed that parents should always stay with their child in hospital and provide basic care, including being woken in the night to do so. However, over one third thought that their participation might disrupt the nurses' routines and a similar percentage felt uncomfortable telling nurses if they did not want to participate in care. Parents with higher levels of education and those aged over 30 were more likely to report good communication with the nursing team. Communication between parents and nurses is essential to partnership in care. Effective negotiation requires a clear definition of nurses' and parents' roles, as well as agreement on the level of participation in care by parents.

  5. Historical evidence for the origin of teaching hospital, medical school and the rise of academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modanlou, H D

    2011-04-01

    Historical progression and the development of current teaching hospitals, medical schools and biomedical research originated from the people of many civilizations and cultures. Greeks, Indians, Syriacs, Persians and Jews, assembled first in Gondi-Shapur during the Sasanian empire in Persia, and later in Baghdad during the Golden Age of Islam, ushering the birth of current academic medicine.

  6. Improving Midwifery Care in Ugandan Public Hospitals: The Midwives’ Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabirye, Rose C.; Beinempaka, Florence; Okene, Cindrella; Groves, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background A serious shortage of nurses and midwives in public hospitals has been reported in Uganda. In addition, over 80% of the nurses and midwives working in public hospitals have been found to have job stress and only 17% to be satisfied on the job. Stress and lack of job satisfaction affect quality of nursing and midwifery care and puts patients’ lives at risk. This is coupled with rampant public outcry about the deteriorating nursing and midwifery care in Ugandan public hospitals. Objective To explore factors that result in poor quality of midwifery care and strategies to improve this care from the perspective of the midwives. Method It was a qualitative exploratory design. Participants were midwives and their supervisors working in four Regional Referral hospitals in Uganda. Data was collected by FGDs and KIIs. Content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed data from the voice recordings. Results Four major themes emerged from the study. They were organizational (poor work environment and lack of materials/equipment), professional (midwives’ attitudes, lack of supervision), public/consumer issues (interference) and policy issues (remuneration, promotion and retirement). Conclusions and implications for Practice Midwives love their work but they need support to provide quality care. Continuous neglect of midwives’ serious concerns will lead to more shortages as more dissatisfied midwives leave service.

  7. Hospital chief executive officer perspective on professional development activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Amir A; Walston, Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to develop understanding of hospital chief executive officers' (CEOs') perspectives concerning importance and impact of professional development activities in US hospitals. It was also intended to reveal CEO preferences for various modalities of professional development including membership in professional societies, attainment of credentials, and coaching by mentors. A mail survey of 582 hospital CEOs made use of a pilot-tested questionnaire with 30 close ended multipart questions. Results showed that most CEOs assigned a high level of importance to professional development and favored conferences, seminars, and networking opportunities, but low priority assigned to online activities such as webinars. They reported lending support to senior managers for participation in these activities by providing financial resources and by allowing time off to engage in these activities. The respondents indicated that the importance of various modalities of professional development has either increased or remained high over the recent 5 years. Conclusions suggest that verifiable quantitative data are needed for understanding of the frequency of participation and resource commitment of health care organizations toward the professional development of CEOs and senior managers. The results of this perceptual study reveal a high level of importance accorded to various forms of professional development activities by the participating CEOs.

  8. Improving operating room efficiency in academic children's hospital using Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagge, Edward P; Thirumoorthi, Arul S; Lenart, John; Garberoglio, Carlos; Mitchell, Kenneth W

    2017-06-01

    Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a process improvement methodology that utilizes a collaborative team effort to improve performance by systematically identifying root causes of problems. Our objective was to determine whether application of LSS could improve efficiency when applied simultaneously to all services of an academic children's hospital. In our tertiary academic medical center, a multidisciplinary committee was formed, and the entire perioperative process was mapped, using fishbone diagrams, Pareto analysis, and other process improvement tools. Results for Children's Hospital scheduled main operating room (OR) cases were analyzed, where the surgical attending followed themselves. Six hundred twelve cases were included in the seven Children's Hospital operating rooms (OR) over a 6-month period. Turnover Time (interval between patient OR departure and arrival of the subsequent patient) decreased from a median 41min in the baseline period to 32min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). Turnaround Time (interval between surgical dressing application and subsequent surgical incision) decreased from a median 81.5min in the baseline period to 71min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). These results demonstrate that a coordinated multidisciplinary process improvement redesign can significantly improve efficiency in an academic Children's Hospital without preselecting specific services, removing surgical residents, or incorporating new personnel or technology. Prospective comparative study, Level II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determining the Value of Undergraduate Business Programs from Market vs Academic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Steven; Chi, Robert; Fisher, Dorothy; Kiang, Melody

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to generate an understanding of the value-added to students enrolled in selected undergraduate business programs from an academic and market perspectives. Although there are numerous studies that rank undergraduate colleges and universities, the selection of the "best value" undergraduate business…

  10. Academic Staff's Perspectives upon Student Plagiarism: A Case Study at a University in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan

    2015-01-01

    Much of the previous research concerning student plagiarism has been conducted in Anglo-American settings. The present paper reports a case study of academic staff's perspectives upon student plagiarism at a university in Hong Kong. Based on interviews with 16 instructors, the study focused on the teachers' views and pedagogical practices,…

  11. Determining the Value of Undergraduate Business Programs from Market vs Academic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Steven; Chi, Robert; Fisher, Dorothy; Kiang, Melody

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to generate an understanding of the value-added to students enrolled in selected undergraduate business programs from an academic and market perspectives. Although there are numerous studies that rank undergraduate colleges and universities, the selection of the "best value" undergraduate business…

  12. How to Improve Academic Optimism? an Inquiry from the Perspective of School Resource and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason Hsinchieh; Sheu, Tian-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified many school variables which can have significant effect on academic optimism. However, most of these identified variables are leadership or psychological constructs; thus, it is often too abstract for school administrators to translate into real practice. Therefore, this study adopted the perspective of school…

  13. The Reliability and Validity of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Scores in Academically Talented Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the reliability, structural validity, and concurrent validity of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scores in a group of 815 academically talented adolescents. Reliability estimates of the purported factors' scores were in the low to moderate range. Exploratory factor analysis supported a five-factor…

  14. How to Improve Academic Optimism? an Inquiry from the Perspective of School Resource and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason Hsinchieh; Sheu, Tian-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified many school variables which can have significant effect on academic optimism. However, most of these identified variables are leadership or psychological constructs; thus, it is often too abstract for school administrators to translate into real practice. Therefore, this study adopted the perspective of school…

  15. Prospective Teachers' Future Time Perspective and Professional Plans about Teaching: The Mediating Role of Academic Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the mediating role of prospective teachers' academic optimism in the relationship between their future time perspective and professional plans about teaching. A total of 396 prospective teachers voluntarily participated in the study. Correlation, regression, and structural equation modeling analyses were conducted in…

  16. Stakeholder Perspectives on Creating and Maintaining Trust in Community--Academic Research Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Kim, Mimi; Dave, Gaurav; Cheney, Ann; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Jones, Jennifer; Young, Tiffany L.; Cene, Crystal W.; Varma, Deepthi S.; Schaal, Jennifer; Black, Adina; Striley, Catherine W.; Vassar, Stefanie; Sullivan, Greer; Cottler, Linda B.; Brown, Arleen; Burke, Jessica G.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-01-01

    Community-academic research partnerships aim to build stakeholder trust in order to improve the reach and translation of health research, but there is limited empirical research regarding effective ways to build trust. This multisite study was launched to identify similarities and differences among stakeholders' perspectives of antecedents to…

  17. Academic Staff's Perspectives upon Student Plagiarism: A Case Study at a University in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan

    2015-01-01

    Much of the previous research concerning student plagiarism has been conducted in Anglo-American settings. The present paper reports a case study of academic staff's perspectives upon student plagiarism at a university in Hong Kong. Based on interviews with 16 instructors, the study focused on the teachers' views and pedagogical practices,…

  18. Business intelligence gap analysis: a user, supplier and academic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molensky, L.; Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Koppel, van der H.

    2010-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) takes many different forms, as indicated by the varying definitions of BI that can be found in industry and academia. These different definitions help us understand of what BI issues are important to the main players in the field of BI; users, suppliers and academics. The

  19. Writing the Academic Life: Faculty Careers in Narrative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Steven

    1994-01-01

    This paper argues that faculty career studies have neglected important work in life-span human development and narratives of the academic life. It suggests that such studies should use recent contributions from the behavioral sciences, pay attention to scholarly and scientific biography/autobiography, be discipline specific, and use varied methods…

  20. The Global Education Practicum: Perspectives from Accompanying Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Catherine; Cacciattolo, Marcelle; Kidman, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of international education experiences for students are well documented. The effect on the individual of international experiences has been researched and theorised by authors for at least the last 20 years. In this paper the experiences of three academics who accompanied pre-service teachers on a 3 week international practicum are…

  1. U.S. Academic Libraries: A Snapshot of Priorities & Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    This new report details findings from a study OCLC conducted with libraries in mid-2011 to learn about their priorities, initiatives, thoughts on the future of their service points and the sources they use to keep up with developments in the library field. Most academic library staff: (1) Consider licensed e-collections to be a top priority; (2)…

  2. Strategic Planning for Academic Research: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.; Tamtik, Merli

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical study of research planning in Canadian universities. Drawing on data compiled during interviews with senior administrators from 27 academic units in 10 universities, the paper analyses how strategic planning has been applied to the research mission over the past decade. Findings reveal variability in processes…

  3. Strategic Planning for Academic Research: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.; Tamtik, Merli

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical study of research planning in Canadian universities. Drawing on data compiled during interviews with senior administrators from 27 academic units in 10 universities, the paper analyses how strategic planning has been applied to the research mission over the past decade. Findings reveal variability in processes…

  4. Publishing Academic Texts in English: A Polish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszak, Anna; Lewkowicz, Jo

    2008-01-01

    The language in which to publish is a complex issue for academics in Poland. With the growth of English as the global lingua franca it may appear to be the obvious language of choice. Yet, publishing in English inevitably brings with it linguistic challenges. It also raises concerns of a social and ideological nature. Choosing to publish in Polish…

  5. IELTS and Academic Success in Higher Education: A UAE Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schoepp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the relationship between International English Language Testing System (IELTS entrance scores and academic success as defined by general education program GPA for students at a federal university in the United Arab Emirates in order to reflect upon regional English language proficiency entrance requirements. It focuses on one group of students, direct entry students who have bypassed the English language foundation program with an overall IELTS 6.0 or greater and were admitted straight into the baccalaureate program. Students were grouped according to their IELTS proficiency levels: 6.0, 6.5 or ≥7.0. Measures of central tendency for overall GPA and academic-stream-specific GPA, along with the overall IELTS and the corresponding sub-scores were calculated. To test the statistical significance of any mean score GPA differences that existed between the 3 IELTS groups, a One-Way ANOVA was calculated. Based on the statistical analyses, the IELTS ≥7.0 group appears to have achieved a meaningful threshold for academic success in that they have consistently outperformed the other direct entry students. This finding corresponds to international entrance-requirement standards for non-native speakers of English. Keywords: IELTS, Academic success, Higher Education, United Arab Emirates, English proficiency

  6. An auto-ethnographic perspective on academic entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Morten; Moroz, Peter; Neergaard, Helle

    2010-01-01

    ) why academic entrepreneurship in the social sciences and humanities may differ from the hard sciences.  Our findings illustrate the importance of bridging innovation using twin skills to balance research and commercial goals, the need for codifying knowledge capacities and creating new or changing...

  7. Perspectives on academic misconduct: implications for education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klainberg, Marilyn B; McCrink, Andrea; Eckardt, Patricia; Schecter, Rose; Bongiorno, Anne; Sedhom, Laila

    2014-01-01

    From Harvard to high school, concern related to academic misconduct, specifically cheating and its impact on societal issues, has become a great concern for educational communities. While a significant number of studies on ethical behaviors in practice in other professions such as business have been published, little research exists on registered nurses in practice. Even fewer studies have, for registered nurses, addressed if there is an association between perceived academic misconduct as students and perceived unethical behaviors in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceptions of registered professional nurses' (RNs) current workplace behaviors and the RNs' retrospective perceptions of their academic misconduct as students. A convenience sample of 1 66 RNs enrolled in master's degree programs at four university schools of nursing completed questionnaires regarding their beliefs and behaviors. The outcome of this study was significant. Results revealed a strong relationship between unethical behaviors of the RN in practice and their prior academic misconduct when they were students.

  8. Perspectives on Promoting Hospital Primary Vaginal Birth: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Holly P; Doig, Eleanor; Tillman, Stephanie; Strauss, Amanda; Williams, Beth; Pettker, Christian; Illuzzi, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    One in three women will deliver by cesarean, a procedure that can be life saving, but which also carries short- and long-term risks. There is growing interest in preventing primary cesarean deliveries, while optimizing the health of the mother and infant. The primary aim of this study was to use participatory action strategies and ethnographic interview data collected from diverse stakeholders in birth (caregivers, women, policymakers) about facilitators and barriers to the achievement of primary vaginal birth in first-time mothers in hospital settings. The secondary aim was to use the findings to identify strategies to promote primary vaginal birth and future areas of research. Individual and small group interviews were conducted with caregivers and policymakers (N = 79) and first-time mothers (N = 24) at a northeastern hospital. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using Atlas.ti. Four broad themes were identified: 1) preparation for childbirth, 2) early labor management, 3) caregiver knowledge and practice style, and 4) birth environment (physical, cultural/emotional). The first two were closely linked from caregivers' perspectives. If the woman was not prepared for childbirth, it was perceived she would be more likely to present to the hospital in early labor. Once there, it was hard to prevent admission and interventions. A woman's knowledge and confidence were perceived as powerful mediators for vaginal birth. Caregivers and first-time mothers identified early labor management and childbirth preparation as important factors to promote primary vaginal birth in hospital settings. Both deserve further inquiry as potential strategies to decrease rising cesarean delivery rates. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Service quality of hospital outpatient departments: patients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of patient perceptions of health service quality as an important element in quality assessments has attracted much attention in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to assess the service quality of hospital outpatient departments affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from the patients' perspective. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 in Tehran, Iran. The study samples included 500 patients who were selected by multi-stage random sampling from four hospitals. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of 50 items, and the validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed. For data analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Friedman test, and descriptive statistics were used through LISREL 8.54 and SPSS 18 applications. Eight significant factors were extracted for outpatient service quality, which explained about 67 per cent of the total variance. Physician consultation, information provided to the patient, and the physical environment of the clinic were the three determining factors of the quality of outpatient services. The highest and lowest perceptions were related to physician consultation and perceived waiting time dimension, respectively. The mean score of patients' perception of outpatient service quality was 3.89 (±0.60). About 59.5 per cent of patients assessed the quality of outpatient services as good, 38.2 per cent as moderate, and 2.3 per cent as poor. Practical implications - The instrument developed for this study is valid and reliable, and it can help hospital managers to identify the areas needing improvement and correction. According to the findings of this study, the majority of patients had a positive experience with outpatient departments of teaching hospitals, and the services provided in these centres were of adequate quality, based on patient assessments.

  10. Academic probation and companioning: Three perspectives on experience and support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Arcand *

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explored the process of academic companioning as experienced by five undergraduate probationary students and as supported by two professional resource persons. Data was collected through multiple in-depth interviews and analyzed using a threedimensional narrative inquiry space, which provided a fitting framework for a thematic narrative analysis. A document analysis was also used to determine how the conceptual foundation of the academic companioning program aligned with the students’ experience. Our analysis suggests congruence between the multiple sources of data examined. Key findings shed light on the nature of the companion’s role defined by a specific form of guidance and attendance to students’ self-confidence. Findings also illustrate how the program’s structure caters to students experience by facilitating an acknowledgement their own needs, helping them better understand the university context, and offering personal support.

  11. Academic Librarians' Perceptions on Information Literacy: The Israeli Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Noa; Bronstein, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Information literacy (IL) is a necessary skill crucial for effective functioning in today's knowledge society. This study seeks to explore Israeli librarians' perspectives toward major components of information literacy. Do librarians find there is a need to redefine the concept? Who do they think should teach it? How do they think Web 2.0…

  12. Academic Librarians' Perceptions on Information Literacy: The Israeli Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Noa; Bronstein, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Information literacy (IL) is a necessary skill crucial for effective functioning in today's knowledge society. This study seeks to explore Israeli librarians' perspectives toward major components of information literacy. Do librarians find there is a need to redefine the concept? Who do they think should teach it? How do they think Web 2.0…

  13. Experiencing hospitality: an exploratory study on the experiential dimensions of hospitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls-Hoekstra, Ruth; Groen, Brenda H.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Ad T.H.

    2015-01-01

    What is hospitality? Only few academic articles tap into the meaning of the concept of hospitality. Especially academic investigation of hospitality from a guest perspective is scarce; the combination of ‘hospitality’ and ‘experience’ has received hardly any attention. The present paper describes a

  14. Experiencing hospitality: an exploratory study on the experiential dimensions of hospitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls-Hoekstra, Ruth; Pijls-Hoekstra, Ruth; Groen, Brenda H.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2015-01-01

    What is hospitality? Only few academic articles tap into the meaning of the concept of hospitality. Especially academic investigation of hospitality from a guest perspective is scarce; the combination of ‘hospitality’ and ‘experience’ has received hardly any attention. The present paper describes a

  15. Academic Education in Complementary Medicine: A Tuscan Methodological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Franco Gensini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of complementary medicine (CM involves a large number of persons in Italy, and in the nineties, the percentage of Italian citizens adopting the most frequent and relevant practices of CM almost doubled. Appropriate academic education in CM is an important and fascinating challenge for current didactic systems in the Italian University. Already in 2004, the Joint Italian Conference of the Deans of the Faculties of Medicine and of the Presidents of Medical Degree Courses released an official statement regarding the relationship between CM and health area degree courses. The main teaching objectives embedded in the institutional framework proposed by the Joint Italian Conference are now finding specific implementation modalities in the University of Florence. For many years, the Florence Medical School has had strong and fruitful contacts with institutional bodies in Tuscany and, together with these institutions, has established a continuous dialogue with the world of CM. This exchange has given rise to various teaching activities within the academic setting. With specific reference to the undergraduate curriculum in Medicine and Surgery, a methodological course regarding CM has been designed and conducted, with selective attention being given to the CM practices having an enhanced rate of supportive scientific evidence, such as herbal medicine and acupuncture. With regard to the postgraduate curriculum, a Master degree in Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine and a Master in Clinical Phytotherapy are already active in the University of Florence and are having a remarkable success among the attending health professionals. This high degree of satisfaction well documents the importance, need and feasibility of structured academic education in CM and, in particular, of a methodological didactics such as those currently implemented in the Florence Medical School.

  16. Becoming and being academic women: Perspectives from the Maldives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Maxwell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study aimed at understanding the role of women teaching in a university in the Maldives is a first of its kind. The many studies of academic women in Western countries guided the 20 semi-structured interviews. The data were thematically analysed with the assistance of NVivo. Becoming an academic appeared to be an independent decision for the majority of women. There was little parental influence. A common theme was the women perceived that, in general, they worked harder than men. They perceived little or no work differences, despite the observation that men filled senior positions at the university. Although work/life balance was difficult to maintain, a striking finding was that the majority of the women were quite satisfied. From the point of view of most of the women interviewed, gender was little or not an issue, in that there was no indication of frustration or anger amongst the women interviewed. Several issues are identified for future research.

  17. CONSTRUCTION RISK TAXONOMY: AN INTERNATIONAL CONVERGENCE OF ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRY PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Barlish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is a topic heavily researched and important for industry professionals. Both academic and industry perspectives are critical to advancing this field, especially in risk identification and taxonomy. A unique comparison and convergence of these perspectives is developed in order to understand the most relevant risks for projects and to ensure they are addressed in the risk management process. This comparison is created via a content analysis of the relevant literature and a survey to industry professionals. The differences and similarities among risks are analyzed, revealing that both perspectives emphasize financial/economic risks. The literature tends to focus on political; acts of God classified risks, whereas the industry places emphasis on regulatory risks. An elaboration of variations is performed aiming to improve the literature-based taxonomy taking into account the industry perspective to ensure its risk management process responds to these risks and provides a clearer focus towards future research.

  18. Academic Vocabulary, Writing and English for Academic Purposes: Perspectives from Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxhead, Averil

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on vocabulary and writing at university level from the perspectives of 14 English as an additional language students studying at a New Zealand university. The students individually carried out an integrated reading and writing task and then participated in an interview which focused on their language learning background and…

  19. An architect's perspective on contemporary academic library design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, S M

    1995-07-01

    The making of space and place (architecture) requires cultural and financial consent as to societal value. Standards and values about the academic library of the immediate future are not always shared by librarians and architects; however, architects and librarians do possess several shared perceptions. Among these shared perceptions are that print collections will remain a primary function of libraries for the foreseeable future, flexibility in shelving arrangements are essential, adjacencies must be fluid, floor-to-floor heights should be generous, compact shelving has become commonplace, print and electronic media must coexist, and technology has not reduced library space requirements. Experience reinforces the continuing and increasing significance of the library on college and university campuses.

  20. Academic staff perspectives of formative assessment in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Lai Chan

    2010-07-01

    High quality formative assessment has been linked to positive benefits on learning while good feedback can make a considerable difference to the quality of learning. It is proposed that formative assessment and feedback is intricately linked to enhancement of learning and has to be interactive. Underlying this proposition is the recognition of the importance of staff perspectives of formative assessment and their influence on assessment practice. However, there appears to be a paucity of literature exploring this area relevant to nurse education. The aim of the research was to explore the perspectives of twenty teachers of nurse education on formative assessment and feedback of theoretical assessment. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was adopted. The interview data were analysed and the following themes identified: purposes of formative assessment, involvement of peers in the assessment process, ambivalence of timing of assessment, types of formative assessment and quality of good feedback. The findings offer suggestions which may be of value to teachers facilitating formative assessment. The conclusion is that teachers require changes to the practice of formative assessment and feedback by believing that learning is central to the purposes of formative assessment and regarding students as partners in this process.

  1. Value of Imaging Part I: Perspectives for the Academic Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Bresnahan, Brian; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    With payers and policymakers increasingly scrutinizing the value of medical imaging, opportunities abound for radiologists and radiology health services researchers to meaningfully and rigorously demonstrate value. Part one of this two-part series on the value of imaging explores the concept of value in health care from the perspective of multiple stakeholders and discusses the opportunities and challenges for radiologists and health service researchers to demonstrate value. The current absence of meaningful national value metrics also presents an opportunity for radiologists to take the lead on the discussions of these metrics that may serve as the basis for future value-based payments. As both practitioners and investigators, radiologists should consider the perspectives of multiple stakeholders in all they do-interdisciplinary support and cooperation are essential to the success of value-focused imaging research and initiatives that improve patient outcomes. Radiology departments that align their cultures, infrastructures, and incentives to support these initiatives will greatly increase their chances of being successful in these endeavors.

  2. [The hospital perspective: disease management and integrated health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrappe, Matthias

    2003-06-01

    Disease Management is a transsectoral, population-based form of health care, which addresses groups of patients with particular clinical entities and risk factors. It refers both to an evidence-based knowledge base and corresponding guidelines, evaluates outcome as a continuous quality improvement process and usually includes active participation of patients. In Germany, the implementation of disease management is associated with financial transactions for risk adjustment between health care assurances [para. 137 f, Book V of Social Code (SGB V)] and represents the second kind of transsectoral care, besides a program designed as integrated health care according to para. 140 a ff f of Book V of Social Code. While in the USA and other countries disease management programs are made available by several institutions involved in health care, in Germany these programs are offered by health care insurers. Assessment of disease management from the hospital perspective will have to consider three questions: How large is the risk to compensate inadequate quality in outpatient care? Are there synergies in internal organisational development? Can the risk of inadequate funding of the global "integrated" budget be tolerated? Transsectoral quality assurance by valid performance indicators and implementation of a quality improvement process are essential. Internal organisational changes can be supported, particularly in the case of DRG introduction. The economic risk and financial output depends on the kind of disease being focussed by the disease management program. In assessing the underlying scientific evidence of their cost effectiveness, societal costs will have to be precisely differentiated from hospital-associated costs.

  3. Transforming the Academic Faculty Perspective in Graduate Medical Education to Better Align Educational and Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brian M; Holmboe, Eric S

    2016-04-01

    The current health care delivery model continues to fall short in achieving the desired patient safety and quality-of-care outcomes for patients. And, until recently, an explicit acknowledgment of the role and influence of the clinical learning environment on professional development had been missing from physician-based competency frameworks. In this Perspective, the authors explore the implications of the insufficient integration of education about patient safety and quality improvement by academic faculty into the clinical learning environment in many graduate medical education (GME) programs, and the important role that academic faculty need to play to better align the educational and clinical contexts to improve both learner and patient outcomes. The authors propose a framework that closely aligns the educational and clinical contexts, such that both educational and clinical outcomes are centered around the patient. This will require a reorganization of academic faculty perspective and educational design of GME training programs that recognizes that (1) the dynamic interplay between the faculty, learner, training program, and clinical microsystem ultimately influences the quality of physician that emerges from the training program and environment, and (2) patient outcomes relate to the quality of education and the success of clinical microsystems. To enable this evolution, there is a need to revisit the core competencies expected of academic faculty, implement innovative faculty development strategies, examine closely faculty's current clinical super vision practices, and establish a training environment that supports bridging from clinician to educator, training program to clinical microsystem, and educational outcomes to clinical outcomes that benefit patients.

  4. Getting published in an academic-community hospital: the success of writing groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Lopez, Debbie; Deitrick, Lynn; Mahady, Erica T; Moser, Kathleen; Gertner, Eric J; Sabino, Judith N

    2012-01-01

    Expressed barriers to writing for publication include lack of time, competing demands, anxiety about writing and a lack of knowledge about the submission process. These limitations can be magnified for practitioners in non-university environments in which there are fewer incentives or expectations regarding academic publication productivity. However, as members of professional disciplines, practitioners have both the responsibility and, oftentimes, the insights to make valuable contributions to the professional literature. Collaborative writing groups can be a useful intervention to overcome barriers, provide the necessary skills and encouragement as well as produce publications and conference presentations that make worthy additions to the professional body of knowledge. This article discusses the evolution and outcomes of writing groups at Lehigh Valley Health Network and describes how this strategy can be adopted by other academic community hospitals to promote professional development and publication.

  5. A Cultural Hybridization Perspective: Emerging Academic Subculture among International Students from East Asia in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the emerging academic subculture of international students from East Asia in U.S. academics from the cultural hybridization perspective. In a knowledge-based economy, international education plays a pivotal role in the global educational environment. Advocacy of international student mobility is essential; international…

  6. Towards a Good Practice Model for an Entrepreneurial HEI: Perspectives of Academics, Enterprise Enablers and Graduate Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Perri; Fenton, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an examination of the perspectives of academics, enterprise enablers and graduate entrepreneurs of an entrepreneurial higher education institution (HEI). The research was conducted in Ireland among 30 graduate entrepreneurs and 15 academics and enterprise enablers (enterprise development agency personnel) to provide a…

  7. Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Compatibility Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Several theories suggest that African American culture facilitates academic achievement, but others suggest that identifying with Black culture contributes to the achievement gap by undermining the academic performance among youth. These opposing perspectives are labeled "cultural compatibility theories" and "cultural incompatibility theories,"…

  8. [The Health Technology Assessment Engine of the Academic Hospital of Udine: first appraisal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The Health Technology Assessment Engine (HTAE) of the Academic Hospital of Udine aggregates about one hundred of health technology assessment websites. It was born thanks to Google technology in 2008 and after about four years of testing it became public for everybody from the Homepage of the Italian Society of Health Technology Assessment (SIHTA). In this paper the first results obtained with this resource are reported. The role of the scientific librarian is examined not only as a support specialist in bibliographic search but also as a creative expert in managing new technologies for the community.

  9. Measurement of Quality of Educational Hospital Services by the SERVQUAL Model: The Iranian Patients’ Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Satar; Matin, Behzad Karami; Moradi, Khalil; Bijan, Behroz; Fallahi, Masoud; Shokati, Behnam; Saeidi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The main mission of hospitals in any health system is to deliver high quality healthcare for patients and meet their needs and expectations. The aim of the current study was to assess the quality of the service of educational hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2015, from the perspective of patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the perspectives of 400 patients were assessed about the quality of the services provided by educational hos...

  10. The business of academic medicine is a business like no other: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, Arshag D; Meenrajan, Senthil

    2009-01-01

    The financial challenges facing the academic medical centers and in particular the departments of medicine continue to escalate. In response, many centers have been increasing their expectations of clinical productivity while holding the physician compensation down. This model of capitalization of such centers intuitively makes little sense from a business perspective but has potential advantages in the short run and may be surprisingly sustainable for a variable period, depending on a number of factors; in some instances, it may last long enough to be considered a long-term success. The reason for this counterintuitive notion is that the business of academic medicine is quite different from traditional business. The comparative profiles of the academic medicine business and the other for-profit businesses are discussed. The willingness of many talented faculty members to forgo financial remuneration in exchange for opportunity to pursue scholarly activities can be misinterpreted by business planners as a prospect to muster a physician workforce with modest investments that are below market value. This mind-set fails to acknowledge the costs of creating the academic environment that will be attractive enough to faculty to practice medicine. Perhaps the most important feature that distinguishes academic medicine from the other businesses is that its workforce is medical professionals who have a fiduciary relationship with their customers.

  11. Perceived barriers and facilitators for an academic career in geriatrics: medical students' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Maureen A; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A; Iglewicz, Alana; Reichstadt, Jennifer; Palinkas, Lawrence; Jeste, Dilip V

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing concern about a shortage of physician scientists. This problem is particularly severe in certain subspecialties such as geriatrics in general and geriatric psychiatry in particular. This study sought to obtain medical students' perspectives on barriers and facilitators toward pursuing a career in academics and/or in geriatric psychiatry or geriatic medicine. The study surveyed 27 first-year medical students from six US medical schools, who had demonstrated a clear interest in academic geriatrics by completing a mentored summer research training program in geriatric medicine or geriatric psychiatry, funded by the National Institute on Aging. The survey included open-ended and close-ended questions about likely career choice and factors affecting it. Sixty percent of students reported they were likely to pursue an academic career, 44 % a career in geriatric psychiatry or geriatic medicine, and only 36 % a career in academic geriatrics. The most frequently perceived barriers were a lack of knowledge about academic careers and lack of exposure to geriatrics, financial concerns due to loan debts and low compensation, and negative impressions of research and of working with older adults. Facilitators included positive experiences with or positive impressions of research and research mentors and of older adults, and the growing demand for geriatric care. Attracting capable and motivated medical students to academic careers in fields such as geriatric psychiatry or geriatic medicine should be a priority in seeking to expand the number of physician scientists and to add to the health-care workforce in underserved subspecialty areas. Necessary approaches should include opportunities to work in academic settings; availability of sustained and dedicated mentorship; early, consistent, and positive exposure to older adults; and financial incentives.

  12. Internal and External Perspectives on Quality of Healthcare Services at Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Nopy Diah Sundari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Customer satisfaction is a primary indicator of the quality of public healthcare services. This study investigated internal (hospital staff and external (hospital clients perspectives in order to gain insight into the quality of care at Sanglah General Hospital.Methods: The study used both qualitative and quantitative methodologies with 11 informants and 106 respondents. Qualitative data obtained through in-depth interviews with hospital staff were analyzed thematically. Quantitative data obtained through self-administered questionnaire were analyzed using univariate analysis.Results: Informants from the qualitative data collection stated that Sanglah General Hospital has a relatively high level of service and that existing structures to mitigate issues are in place, which act as reinforcing factors. Data from the quantitative survey indicated that clients were satisfied with the quality of service (ServQual, with an overall percentage of 83.82%.Conclusion: Further efforts could be made in order to improve healthcare provision at Sanglah Hospital, particularly from the perspective of hospital facilities, staff support and increased implementation of clinical governance.Keywords: quality of service, internal perspectives, external perspectives, Sanglah Hospital

  13. Academic, Industry and Student Perspectives on the Inclusion of "Vocational Knowledge" in a "Learning and Teaching Academic Standards Statement" for Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Tina Botwright; Kelder, Jo-Anne; Able, Amanda J.; Guisard, Yann; Bellotti, William D.; McDonald, Glenn; Doyle, Richard; Wormell, Paul; Meinke, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the perspective of industry stakeholders in a national project to develop a Learning and Teaching Academic Standards (LTAS) Statement for the Agriculture discipline. The AgLTAS Statement will be aligned with the Science LTAS Statement published in 2011 and comprise a discourse on the nature and extent of the Agriculture…

  14. Academic hospital staff compliance with a fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgia Vlachonikolou; Paraskevas Gkolfakis; Athanasios D Sioulas; Ioannis S Papanikolaou; Anastasia Melissaratou; Giannis-Aimant Moustafa; Eleni Xanthopoulou; Gerasimos Tsilimidos; Ioanna Tsironi; Paraskevas Filippidis; Chrysoula Malli; George D Dimitriadis; Konstantinos Triantafyllou

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To measure the compliance of an Academic Hospital staff with a colorectal cancer(CRC) screening program using fecal immunochemical test(FIT).METHODS: All employees of "Attikon" University General Hospital aged over 50 years were thoroughly informed by a team of physicians and medical students about the study aims and they were invited to undergo CRC screening using two rounds of FIT(DyoniFOB~ Combo H, DyonMed SA, Athens, Greece). The tests were provided for free and subjects tested positive were subsequently referred for colonoscopy. One year after completing the two rounds, participants were asked to be re-screened by means of the same test.RESULTS: Among our target population consisted of 211 employees, 59(27.9%) consented to participate, but only 41(19.4%) and 24(11.4%) completed the first and the second FIT round, respectively. Female gender was significantly associated with higher initial participation(P = 0.005) and test completion- first and second round-(P = 0.004 and P = 0.05) rates, respectively. Phy sician’s(13.5% vs 70.2%, P < 0.0001) participation and test completion rates(7.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.0001 for the first and 2.3% vs 34%, P < 0.0001 for the second round) were significantly lower compared to those of the administrative/technical staff. Similarly, nurses participated(25.8% vs 70.2%, P = 0.0002) and completed the first test round(19.3% vs 57.6%, P = 0.004) in a significant lower rate than the administrative/technical staff. One test proved false positive. No participant repeated the test one year later.CONCLUSION: Despite the well-organized, guided and supervised provision of the service, the compliance of the Academic Hospital personnel with a FIT-based CRC screening program was suboptimal, especially among physicians.

  15. Roles of publishers, subscription agents, and institutional subscribers in the academic journal business : Opinions after reading the “Series: Perspectives on serials crisis and scholarly communication practice”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Nobuyuki

    Roles of publishers, subscription agents, and institutional subscribers in the academic journal business : Opinions after reading the “Series: Perspectives on serials crisis and scholarly communication practice”

  16. LGBT Trainee and Health Professional Perspectives on Academic Careers--Facilitators and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Nelson F; Rankin, Susan; Callahan, Edward; Ng, Henry; Holaday, Louisa; McIntosh, Kadian; Poll-Hunter, Norma; Sánchez, John Paul

    2015-12-01

    Diversity efforts in the academic medicine workforce have often neglected the identification and inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health professionals. Many of these professionals have served as educators, researchers, administrators, and leaders at their academic institutions, but their perspectives on the barriers to and facilitators of pursuing academic careers, as well as the perspectives of trainees, have not been explored. We applied a purposeful convenience sampling strategy to collect quantitative and qualitative data among LGBT health care professionals (HCP) and trainees. The authors identified trends in data using bivariate analyses and consensual qualitative research methods. We analyzed data from 252 surveys completed by HCPs and trainees and a subset of 41 individuals participated in 8 focus groups. Among survey participants, 100% identified as lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) or queer; 4.5% identified along the trans-spectrum; 31.2% identified as a racial or ethnic minority; 34.1% identified as faculty; and 27.4% as trainees. Eighty-one percent of trainees were interested in academia and 47% of HCPs held faculty appointments. Overall, 79.4% were involved in LGBT-related educational, research, service, or clinical activities. Facilitators of academic careers included engagement in scholarly activities, mentorship, LGBT-specific networking opportunities, personal desire to be visible, campus opportunities for involvement in LGBT activities, and campus climate inclusive of LGBT people. Barriers included poor recognition of LGBT scholarship, a paucity of concordant mentors or LGBT networking opportunities, and hostile or non-inclusive institutional climates. LGBT trainees and HCPs contribute significantly to services, programs, and scholarship focused on LGBT communities. LGBT individuals report a desire for a workplace environment that encourages and supports diversity across sexual orientation and gender identities

  17. Scheduling, revenue management, and fairness in an academic-hospital radiology division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Richard; Bertsimas, Dimitris; Kallus, Nathan

    2014-10-01

    Physician staff of academic hospitals today practice in several geographic locations including their main hospital. This is referred to as the extended campus. With extended campuses expanding, the growing complexity of a single division's schedule means that a naive approach to scheduling compromises revenue. Moreover, it may provide an unfair allocation of individual revenue, desirable or burdensome assignments, and the extent to which the preferences of each individual are met. This has adverse consequences on incentivization and employee satisfaction and is simply against business policy. We identify the daily scheduling of physicians in this context as an operational problem that incorporates scheduling, revenue management, and fairness. Noting previous success of operations research and optimization in each of these disciplines, we propose a simple unified optimization formulation of this scheduling problem using mixed-integer optimization. Through a study of implementing the approach at the Division of Angiography and Interventional Radiology at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, which is directed by one of the authors, we exemplify the flexibility of the model to adapt to specific applications, the tractability of solving the model in practical settings, and the significant impact of the approach, most notably in increasing revenue by 8.2% over previous operating revenue while adhering strictly to a codified fairness and objectivity. We found that the investment in implementing such a system is far outweighed by the large potential revenue increase and the other benefits outlined. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Implementing PDA technology in a medical library: experiences in a hospital library and an academic medical center library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgen, Evelyn Breck

    2003-01-01

    Personal digital assistants (PDAs) have grown from being a novelty in the late 1990s to an essential tool for healthcare professionals in the 2000s. This paper describes the experiences of a librarian who implemented PDA technology first in a hospital library, and then at an academic medical center library. It focuses on the role of the library in supporting PDA technology and resources. Included are programmatic issues such as training for library staff and clinicians, and technical issues such as Palm and Windows operating systems. This model could be used in either a hospital or academic health sciences library.

  19. Quality Improvement Practices in Academic Emergency Medicine: Perspectives from the Chairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DelliFraine, Jami L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess academic emergency medicine (EM chairs’ perceptions of quality improvement (QI training programs.Methods: A voluntary anonymous 20 item survey was distributed to a sample of academic chairs of EM through the Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine. Data was collected to assess the percentage of academic emergency physicians who had received QI training, the type of training they received, their perception of the impact of this training on behavior, practice and outcomes, and any perceived barriers to implementing QI programs in the emergency department.Results: The response rate to the survey was 69% (N = 59. 59.3% of respondents report that their hospital has a formal QI program for physicians. Chairs received training in a variety of QI programs. The type of QI program used by respondents was perceived as having no impact on goals achieved by QI (χ2 = 12.382; p = 0.260, but there was a statistically significant (χ2 = 14.383; p = 0.006 relationship between whether or not goals were achieved and academic EM chairs’ perceptions about return on investment for QI training. Only 22% of chairs responded that they have already made changes as a result of the QI training. 78.8% of EM chairs responded that quality programs could have a significant positive impact on their practice and the healthcare industry. Chairs perceived that QI programs had the most potential value in the areas of understanding and reducing medical errors and improving patient flow and throughput. Other areas of potential value of QI include improving specific clinical indicators and standardizing physician care.Conclusion: Academic EM chairs perceived that QI programs were an effective way to drive needed improvements. The results suggest that there is a high level of interest in QI but a low level of adoption of training and implementation.[West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:479-485.

  20. Adherence to informed consent standards in Shiraz hospitals: matrons' perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohsenian Sisakht, Alireza; Karamzade Ziarati, Najme; Kouchak, Farideh; Askarian, Mehrdad

    ...) to informed consent standards defined by Joint Commission International (JCI) Accreditation, USA. The questionnaire was designed using the Delphi method and then filled out by hospital matrons...

  1. A survey of rural hospitals' perspectives on health information technology outsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Murphy, Alison; McNeese, Nathan; Reddy, Madhu; Purao, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    A survey of rural hospitals was conducted in the spring of 2012 to better understand their perspectives on health information technology (HIT) outsourcing and the role that hospital-to-hospital HIT partnerships (HHPs) can play as an outsourcing mechanism. The survey sought to understand how HHPs might be leveraged for HIT implementation, as well as the challenges with forming them. The results suggest that HHPs have the potential to address rural hospitals' slow rate of HIT adoption, but there are also challenges to creating these partnerships. These issues, as well as avenues for further research, are then discussed.

  2. The evolution of urban mobility: The interplay of academic and policy perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban mobility in Western countries has evolved substantially over the past fifty years, from an early interest in catering for growing car ownership and use through major road expansion, to the current emphasis on reducing car use and cutting back on road provision, encouraging sustainable travel and promoting liveable cities with a high quality of life. This can be observed in the changing patterns of car use in many European cities over time (i.e. a rapid increase followed by stabilisation and now decline. This evolution can be related to changes in the transport policy paradigm, which has been heavily influenced by the involvement of an increasing range of academic disciplines, many of which have contributed to modifying the supporting data collection, modelling and appraisal methodologies. The paper explores the varying interplay over time between academic/applied research and policy practice, and the methodological legacy left by earlier perspectives on urban mobility. It highlights a recent reinterpretation of mobility provided through taking a 'socio-technical perspective', and speculates on how policy thinking on urban mobility might further evolve over the next forty years.

  3. An Exploration of Practice Surrounding Student Writing in the Disciplines in UK Higher Education from the Perspectives of Academic Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims to contribute to our understanding of academic literacies in the UK context by exploring the practices of subject-based academic teachers around student writing through the lens of teachers’ experiences. Empirical work has yielded a great deal of insight in recent years into students’ experience of writing in higher education; less attention has been paid to student writing from the perspective of discipline-based teachers. This thesis aims to explore the complex lived realit...

  4. Adherence to Informed Consent Standards in Shiraz Hospitals: Matrons Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mohsenian Sisakht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Informed consent is an important part of the patients’ rights and hospitals are assigned to obtain informed consent before any diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Obtaining an informed consent enables patients to accept or reject their care or treatments and prevent future contentions among patients and medical staff. Methods This survey was carried out during 2011-2. We assessed adherence of 33 Shiraz hospitals (governmental and non-governmental to informed consent standards defined by Joint Commission International (JCI Accreditation, USA. The questionnaire was designed using the Delphi method and then filled out by hospital matrons. We calculated valid percent frequency for each part of the questionnaire and compared these frequencies in governmental and nongovernmental hospitals using analytical statistics. Results Considering 63% of the hospitals that filled out the questionnaire, no statistically significant difference was observed between the governmental and non-governmental hospitals in adherence to informed consent standards. Conclusion This study shows a relatively acceptable adherence to standards about informed consent in Shiraz hospitals but the implementation seems not to be as satisfactory.

  5. A new perspective on hospital financial ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, T L; Stanko, B B; Cleverley, W O

    1997-11-01

    Using audit financial data in a study of 2,189 not-for-profit hospitals for the period 1989-1992, six financial characteristics of performance were defined. These characteristics are profitability factor, fixed-asset efficiency, capital structure, fixed-asset age, working capital efficiency, and liquidity. The statistical output also shows the specific sets of financial ratios that can be used to measure the six characteristics of hospital performance. The results of this study can be beneficial to healthcare financial managers, hospital boards, policy groups, and other relevant entities because it affords them a clear understanding of an institution's financial performance.

  6. Private hospitals in Latin America - An investor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaton-Jones, Ioan P

    2015-01-01

    Private hospitals are expanding in Latin America, but the industry is less developed in this region than in some other emerging markets. Groups of hospitals are emerging in countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Colombia and Peru. However, they haven't reached the size of hospital groups in Malaysia, India and South Africa. They also remain domestically focused, while companies from the aforementioned three emerging markets outside Latin America have expanded to multiple other countries and have listed on stock exchanges to access more capital to finance their expansion. It is very likely that these trends seen in other emerging markets will manifest in Latin America as it continues to develop.

  7. An Investigation of Verticality in Tertiary Students’ Academic Writing Texts: A Systemic Functional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasemaca T. Ledua Alifereti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study, identifies, discusses and recommends specific linguistic features that can be explored by Non-Native English (NNE students studying at the University of the South Pacific (USP in Fiji to improve their academic writing texts. Firstly, the status of academic writing in relation to NNE speakers both globally and in Fiji is discussed. Secondly, two concepts ‘abstract and metaphorical’ mentioned to be lacking in USP student texts are described followed by an explanation of how the two concepts are acquired if viewed from three different perspectives. Thirdly, previous studies conducted that had explored the importance of building verticality in writing are presented. Although a number of studies have explored verticality, there are no records to show how it is represented in circumstantial elements. Next the Transitivity system which is the theoretical framework adopted by the study is discussed with a particular emphasis on Relational processes. It is claimed that abstract and metaphorical relations are made in Relational processes. Moreover, certain linguistic features closely associated with verticality are identified to elicit data. Additionally results are presented and discussed according to research questions asked. Findings prove that indeed circumstances are mostly incongruently realized in Relational clauses. In order to build verticality in tertiary students’ academic writing texts, one has to be able to understand abstract and metaphorical concepts and how they are linguistically realized in writing texts.Keywords: horizontal and vertical knowledge structures, abstract and metaphorical concepts, grammatical metaphor,  nominalization, rankshifted clauses

  8. Stakeholder Perspectives on Creating and Maintaining Trust in Community-Academic Research Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Kim, Mimi; Dave, Gaurav; Cheney, Ann; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Jones, Jennifer; Young, Tiffany L; Cene, Crystal W; Varma, Deepthi S; Schaal, Jennifer; Black, Adina; Striley, Catherine W; Vassar, Stefanie; Sullivan, Greer; Cottler, Linda B; Brown, Arleen; Burke, Jessica G; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-02-01

    Community-academic research partnerships aim to build stakeholder trust in order to improve the reach and translation of health research, but there is limited empirical research regarding effective ways to build trust. This multisite study was launched to identify similarities and differences among stakeholders' perspectives of antecedents to trust in research partnerships. In 2013-2014, we conducted a mixed-methods concept mapping study with participants from three major stakeholder groups who identified and rated the importance of different antecedents of trust on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Study participants were community members ( n = 66), health care providers ( n = 38), and academic researchers ( n = 44). All stakeholder groups rated "authentic communication" and "reciprocal relationships" the highest in importance. Community members rated "communication/methodology to resolve problems" ( M = 4.23, SD = 0.58) significantly higher than academic researchers ( M = 3.87, SD = 0.67) and health care providers ( M = 3.89, SD = 0.62; p importance of issues related to "sustainability." The importance of communication and relationships across stakeholders indicates the importance of colearning processes that involve the exchange of knowledge and skills. The differences uncovered suggest specific areas where attention and skill building may be needed to improve trust within partnerships. More research on how partnerships can improve communication specific to problem solving and sustainability is merited.

  9. Hospital administrator's perspectives regarding the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, D R; Little, M W

    1988-01-01

    Based on responses from 52 hospital administrators, four areas of managerial concern have been addressed, including: (1) decision-making factors; (2) hospital service offerings: current and future; (3) marketing strategy and service priorities; and (4) health care industry challenges. Of the total respondents, 35 percent indicate a Director of Marketing has primary responsibility for making marketing-related decisions in their hospital, and 19 percent, a Vice-President of Marketing, thus demonstrating the increased priority of the marketing function. The continued importance of the physician being the primary market target is highlighted by 70 percent of the administrators feeling physician referrals will be more important regarding future admissions than in the past, compared to only two percent feeling the physicians' role will be less important. Of primary importance to patients selecting a hospital, as perceived by the administrators, are the physician's referral, the patient's previous experience, the hospital's reputation, and the courtesy of the staff. The clear majority of the conventional-care hospitals surveyed offer out-patient surgery, a hospital pharmacy, obstetrics/maternity care, and diabetic services. The future emphasis on expanding services is evidenced by some 50 percent of the hospital administrators indicating they either possibly or definitely plan to offer long-term nursing care, out-patient substance abuse programs, and cancer clinics by 1990. In addition, some one-third of the respondents are likely to expand their offerings to include wellness/fitness centers, in-patient substance abuse programs, remote or satellite primary care clinics, and diabetic services. Other areas having priority for future offerings include services geared specifically toward women and the elderly. Perceived as highest in priority by the administrators regarding how their hospital can achieve its goals in the next three years are market development strategies

  10. Succession planning: perspectives of chief executive officers in US hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the perceptions of chief executive officers in US hospitals regarding the origins of leadership and how they felt about internally developed successors versus externally recruited successors. Furthermore, the study examined how this group of executives utilizes the succession planning process, what factors impact successor identification, what positions are applicable for succession planning activities, and who is ultimately held responsible for leadership continuity within the hospital industry.

  11. [Strategic management of hospitals in France: balance and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crémadez, Michel

    2010-08-01

    The strategic management was introduced in French hospitals in the late 80s, in a context of inefficiency and the need to control healthcare expenditure. This concept has inspired a series of government reforms, the organization and dynamics of hospitals and the mode of regulating the French health system, assuming a real change of professional culture. The changes in the economic context and in the finance of hospitals, the behavior of users, the population aging, the development of chronic diseases and increased competition, are the new challenges to be faced. The involvement of stakeholders is crucial and the strategic management, based on mobilizing these actors, is today, a method of administration particularly well adapted to the health area. This article aims to present the impact of the concept of strategic management in the evolution of French hospitals and the consequences of these developments on the outlook for the dissemination of strategic management in the health sector. To do so, it is examined the evolution of the French context until 2010, the new challenges that French hospitals must face and, finally, the consequences of these challenges on how to design services, manage the relationships between the actors of the health system and organize the operational functioning of hospitals.

  12. [Learning from mistakes in hospitals. A system perspective on errors and incident reporting systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofinger, G

    2009-06-01

    Analysis of incidents and near-incidents is an important factor for continuous improvement in patient safety in hospitals and for the promotion of organizational learning. From a system perspective, accidents occur when decision-making at several levels of a working system is faulty and the safety barriers fail. Human error is inevitable but accidents are not. Errors can be used as an opportunity for organizational learning and this is especially true for incidents when patients come to no harm. Starting with explanations of a system perspective on errors, this paper deals with the prerequisites for organizational learning and general rules for establishing incident reporting systems in hospitals.

  13. Incidence of surgical site infections in children: active surveillance in an Italian academic children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi Degli Atti, M L; Serino, L; Piga, S; Tozzi, A E; Raponi, M

    2017-01-01

    Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) account for 16-34% of all health-care associated infections. This study aimed to assess the incidence rate of SSIs in children who underwent surgical procedures in an academic children's hospital in Italy. Prospective cohort study. We actively followed-up 0-17 year old children at 30 days of surgical procedures without implants conducted during one index week per quarter, from the second quarter of 2014, to the first quarter of 2016 (8 index weeks in total). Follow up data were collected by telephone interview, or derived by clinical records if patients were still hospitalized. SSIs were defined according to case definitions of Centers for Diseases Control, Atlanta, USA. We calculated cumulative incidence of SSIs per 100 surgical procedures, by patient characteristics, procedure characteristics, and quarter. To investigate variables associated with SSIs, we compared characteristics of procedures with SSIs with those of procedures without SSIs. Over the study period, SSI incidence was 1.0% (19 cases/1,830 surgical procedures). SSI incidence was significantly lower after ear, nose and throat procedures compared to all other procedures, and significantly decreased over time. Duration of surgery was a risk factor for SSIs; patients with SSIs had a significantly longer total length of stay (LOS), due to a prolonged post-operative LOS. As reported in adults, this study confirms that SSIs are associated with longer hospitalizations in children. Active surveillance of SSIs is an important component of the overall strategy to reduce the incidence of these infections in children.

  14. Interprofessional education in the Arabic-speaking Middle East: Perspectives of pharmacy academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awaisi, Alla; Saffouh El Hajj, Maguy; Joseph, Sundari; Diack, Lesley

    2016-11-01

    The current status of interprofessional education (IPE) in Arabic Middle Eastern countries is largely unexamined and there is a need to assess IPE and collaborative practice in these countries. As faculty attitudes towards IPE are believed to be one of the main factors that affect the successful integration of IPE into the different healthcare curricula, this article aims to explore the attitudes and views of pharmacy academics in Arabic-speaking Middle Eastern countries towards IPE and collaborative practice. The findings from this article are part of a larger study investigating pharmacy's perspectives of IPE and collaborative practice in Qatar and the Middle East. An online survey which included three validated scales was used to gather information from pharmacy academics at 89 pharmacy schools in 14 countries. The response rate was 107 out of 334 (32%) and the majority of the respondents were from Jordan, Qatar, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. Statistical analysis was completed descriptively as well as inferentially using a series of independent t-tests. Overall pharmacy academics had positive attitudes towards IPE. The majority of the respondents, 90.8% (n = 99), perceived IPE to be important. Age, likelihood to engage in IPE, and years of IPE experience were the factors that were related to faculty members' attitudes towards IPE. Highly perceived barriers for implementing IPE included cultural challenges for each profession, scheduling common courses, and activities in addition to limited resources. The study findings indicated that pharmacy academics in the Middle East are ready to pursue IPE. These results can serve as impetus for implementing IPE in Middle Eastern countries.

  15. Medical learning in a private hospital: patients' and companions' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur de Carvalho Jatobá e Sousa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Contact with patients has important implications for medical students' education. Previous studies have shown that patients in teaching hospitals have positive views about medical education. The aim here was to assess the acceptability of medical education among patients and their companions in a non-teaching private hospital that is planning to implement a medical teaching program in the near future. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a 200-bed tertiary-care private hospital in Brasília. METHODS: Between March and April 2005, patients and their companions in three different sections of the hospital (intensive care unit, ward and emergency waiting room were surveyed using a questionnaire. RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 209 volunteers. The majority of the volunteers (178; 85% said that they would allow a student to be present during consultations. Of these, 102 (57% said that they would like to have a student present. Acceptance of the presence of students was higher among males (males 93%; females 81%; P = 0.026. Intensive care unit respondents said that they would like medical students to be present more frequently than the other two groups said this (ward 48%; emergency room 49%; intensive care unit 74%; P = 0.011. CONCLUSIONS: Not only were medical students well accepted but also their presence during consultations was desired by many patients and their companions. These findings may be of great value for plans to implement medical teaching programs in private hospitals.

  16. Perspective: Academic obstetrics-gynecology departments in the city of Philadelphia: are the wheels coming off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Damien J

    2011-03-01

    Maternity care in Philadelphia is in an unprecedented and precarious situation, as all the community hospitals that once provided maternity care services have either closed completely or stopped providing maternity services. Six academic medical centers (AMCs) in the city of Philadelphia now provide care to a population of 1.5 million requiring increasingly complex and expensive maternity care, at the same time as insurance premiums and the malpractice crisis in Pennsylvania peaked. The AMCs are able to continue providing maternity care to this population that includes a large proportion of poor, minority, and un- or underinsured patients thanks to government subsidization of resident education, the services provided by resident physicians, and the influx of government and industry research funds, but the financial outlook of academic obstetrics-gynecology departments in this city is dire. Obstetric academic medicine in Philadelphia has come to more closely resemble a "big wheel" tricycle than Flexner's "three-legged stool." Clinical medicine is the driver (the large front wheel and pedal) pulling along education and research, the two smaller wheels in the back. A maternity care alliance is needed in Philadelphia allowing area AMCs to pool and trade resources, reduce costs, improve quality and innovation, and share risks. Philadelphia may serve as an early warning for other cities and AMCs around the country and has the opportunity to serve as a model for how to overcome these serious challenges.

  17. TQM implementation strategies in hospitals: an empirical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringelson, L S; Basappa, L S

    1998-01-01

    This article reports an analysis of the effectiveness of Total Quality Management (TQM) programs. The objective of the study was gain a better understanding of how hospitals implement TQM and quality improvement initiatives. Results show that some hospital staffs have not realized that they are implementing TQM, even though they report to be using the strategies for quality improvement. On the other hand, some hospitals said that they were involved in quality programs, though not practically implementing TQM strategies. These results suggest two major conclusions about the implementation of TQM programs. First, data indicate that TQM programs may not be as effective as promised, due to a lack of understanding about TQM by the people within the organization. Second, implementation strategies that are statistically correlated are identified. These conclusions may be helpful for successful TQM implementation in from healthcare organizations as well as other service industries.

  18. The Social Construction of Skills: A Hospitality Sector Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature of skills in service work with specific reference to international tourism and its hospitality subsector. It explores the role of experiential factors (cultural, emotional and aesthetic) in equipping those entering work in the sector. The specific context of work in less developed countries and within migrant labour…

  19. Making Their Voices Count: Using Students' Perspectives to Inform Literacy Instruction for Striving Middle Grade Readers with Academic Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of lack of reading and poor reading skills are problematic for all students, regardless of background; however, for middle grade striving readers with academic difficulties these problems can lead to lower self-efficacy and motivation to engage in literacy tasks. Using the perspectives of urban, middle grade special education…

  20. Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Incompatibility Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La

    2011-01-01

    Some theories have posited that African American youth are academic underachievers because of sociocultural factors. We label this point of view the cultural incompatibility perspective. Ogbu's oppositional culture theory and Steele's stereotype threat theory are selected as popular examples of this viewpoint. A critical review of the literature…

  1. Extent of Implementing the Total Quality Management Principles by Academic Departments Heads at Najran University from Faculty Members' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Din, Hesham Moustafa Kamal; Abouzid, Mohamed Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the implementing degree of Total Quality Management (TQM) principals by Academic Departmental Heads (ADH) at the Najran University from faculty members' perspectives. It also aimed to determine significant differences between the average estimate of sample section of faculty members about the implementing degree of TQM…

  2. [Reception in the hospital environment: perspectives of companions of hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnow, Adelina Giacomelli; dos Santos, José Luis Guedes; Pradebon, Vania Marta; Schimith, Maria Denise

    2009-03-01

    Reception procedures are one of the main guidelines concerning the health care production, even though the studies on this subject are focused upon primary health care. This paper aimed to understand the way reception is experienced by the companions of hospitalized patients and discuss their difficulties while accompanying the patients in a hospital environment. This is a qualitative study, conducted with 77 companions of patients hospitalized in a university hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected through interviews and examined by the content analysis. According to the companions' perceptions, the reception procedure is associated to clarifying rules and routines, as well as meals delivery; the main difficulties were related to the physical structure and the noise in the hospital environment. A need for reconsidering the established models for health assistance is pointed, as well as the importance of improving health care practices based on light technology.

  3. Understanding Personal Learning Environment Perspectives of Thai International Tourism and Hospitality Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyong, Siriwan; Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a periodic research conducted in developing a personal learning environment for Thailand's higher education students with English as medium of instruction. The objective of the first phase in this research was to understand the personal learning environment perspectives of Thai International tourism and hospitality higher…

  4. Using quality measures for quality improvement: The perspective of hospital staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Hashjin (Asgar Aghaei); H. Ravaghi (Hamid); D.S. Kringos (Dionne); U.C. Ogbu (Uzor); C. Fischer (Claudia); S.R. Azami (Saeid Reza); N.S. Klazinga (Niek)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractResearch objective: This study examines the perspectives of a range of key hospital staff on the use, importance, scientific background, availability of data, feasibility of data collection, cost benefit aspects and availability of professional personnel for measurement of quality indica

  5. Perspectives of academic web content managers on the effectiveness of web publishing and web hosting policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica F. McGowan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of policy to handle the increasingly diverse issues that arise from web content management is becoming a concern for academic institutions. An exploratory investigation that seeks institutional web content manager perspectives from higher educational settings on current web publishing and hosting policy and issues is presented as a mixed-method research design, using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, to investigate how field factors influence policy creation. A web-based version of a survey instrument was designed, piloted, and implemented for this investigation, and data is presented, and discussed in relation to current field literature. Findings indicate that web hosting and publishing policies increasingly fall under the purview of institutional Communications or Public Relations departments and that policy elements concerning web content do not yet match field recommendations in several key areas.

  6. Strategies to Reduce Hospitalizations of Children With Medical Complexity Through Complex Care: Expert Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Ryan J; Nelson, Bergen B; Klitzner, Thomas S; Saenz, Adrianna A; Shekelle, Paul G; Lerner, Carlos F; Chung, Paul J

    Interventions to reduce disproportionate hospital use among children with medical complexity (CMC) are needed. We conducted a rigorous, structured process to develop intervention strategies aiming to reduce hospitalizations within a complex care program population. A complex care medical home program used 1) semistructured interviews of caregivers of CMC experiencing acute, unscheduled hospitalizations and 2) literature review on preventing hospitalizations among CMC to develop key drivers for lowering hospital utilization and link them with intervention strategies. Using an adapted version of the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method, an expert panel rated each model for effectiveness at impacting each key driver and ultimately reducing hospitalizations. The complex care program applied these findings to select a final set of feasible intervention strategies for implementation. Intervention strategies focused on expanding access to familiar providers, enhancing general or technical caregiver knowledge and skill, creating specific and proactive crisis or contingency plans, and improving transitions between hospital and home. Activities aimed to facilitate family-centered, flexible implementation and consideration of all of the child's environments, including school and while traveling. Tailored activities and special attention to the highest utilizing subset of CMC were also critical for these interventions. A set of intervention strategies to reduce hospitalizations among CMC, informed by key drivers, can be created through a structured, reproducible process. Both this process and the results may be relevant to clinical programs and researchers aiming to reduce hospital utilization through the medical home for CMC. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Process mapping evaluation of medication reconciliation in academic teaching hospitals: a critical step in quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Anne; Bowen, James M; Patel, Harsit; O'Brien, Chris; You, John J; Tahavori, Roshan; Doleweerd, Jeff; Berezny, Tim; Perri, Dan; Nieuwstraten, Carmine; Troyan, Sue; Patel, Ameen

    2016-01-01

    Background Medication reconciliation (MedRec) has been a mandated or recommended activity in Canada, the USA and the UK for nearly 10 years. Accreditation bodies in North America will soon require MedRec for every admission, transfer and discharge of every patient. Studies of MedRec have revealed unintentional discrepancies in prescriptions but no clear evidence that clinically important outcomes are improved, leading to widely variable practices. Our objective was to apply process mapping methodology to MedRec to clarify current processes and resource usage, identify potential efficiencies and gaps in care, and make recommendations for improvement in the light of current literature evidence of effectiveness. Methods Process engineers observed and recorded all MedRec activities at 3 academic teaching hospitals, from initial emergency department triage to patient discharge, for general internal medicine patients. Process maps were validated with frontline staff, then with the study team, managers and patient safety leads to summarise current problems and discuss solutions. Results Across all of the 3 hospitals, 5 general problem themes were identified: lack of use of all available medication sources, duplication of effort creating inefficiency, lack of timeliness of completion of the Best Possible Medication History, lack of standardisation of the MedRec process, and suboptimal communication of MedRec issues between physicians, pharmacists and nurses. Discussion MedRec as practised in this environment requires improvements in quality, timeliness, consistency and dissemination. Further research exploring efficient use of resources, in terms of personnel and costs, is required. PMID:28039294

  8. Assessing the Social Responsibility of Tabriz University Educational Hospitals from Managers’ Perspective, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massumeh gholizadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Social responsibility is one of the most important parts of an organization’s existence. The aim of this study was assessing the social responsibility of Tabriz University educational hospitals from managers’ perspective. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2012. 40 managers of educational hospitals have been selected through census sampling method. Data were collected through Ministry of Health and Medical education (MOHME valid and reliable questionnaire and analyzed by spss software package and descriptive statistics. Results : From the managers’ perspective, patients are the most effective group on hospital activities (48.5 percent, international standards are the most important motivation for hospitals (27.5 percent, the implementation of the organization’s legal obligations is the most important definition of social responsibility (27.5 percent. To be ensured a fair and ethical behavior, hospitals have benefited greatly from the workplace and employees (30 percent. Managers (90 percent emphasized that corporate social responsibility activities have a positive effect on hospital financial performance. Conclusion: The findings indicated that managers have no unique definition of social responsibility and it is difficult for them to understand the concept of social responsibility and there is no special policy or process in hospitals to understand this concept. They have introduced social responsibility as compliance with obligations of the organization. ​

  9. 学术创新的教育学解读%The Understanding of Academic Innovation from Pedagogical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹卫平

    2013-01-01

    Academic innovation is the life of academics, while there are many factors affecting academic innovation. Look from the perspective of pedagogy, the factors affecting academic innovation include academic freedom factors, tal-ent personalized quality factors, as well as factors of the evaluation model. From the meaning of academic freedom to ex-plore the necessity of academic freedom for academic innovation; from the requirements of academic innovation to explore the importance of to reshape talent personalized quality; from academic innovation power to explore the urgency of re-form of the. In summary, the basic education in talent training and selection is the background education in university academic innovation.%  学术创新是学术的生命,而学术创新的影响因素甚多。从教育学的角度看,影响学术创新的有学术自由因素、人才个性品质的因素,还有评价模式的因素。从学术自由的内涵上探讨学术自由对学术创新的必要性,从学术创新的要求上探讨重塑人才个性品质的重要性,从学术创新的动力上探讨评价模式改革的紧迫性。概言之,基础教育在人才培养和选拔上是大学学术创新的底色教育。

  10. Teaching undergraduate academic writing in Sweden: Notes on a new book with developmental and sociolinguistic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Falk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thinking and Writing in Academic Contexts: A University Companion (Falk, 2011, is designed to help students, especially those with L2 (or incipient L2 English, increase their proficiency levels in composing essays and short research papers in English. The book also aims to raise students’ awareness of the typical expectations academic readers have when they consider the quality level of a text. This research note first provides a brief description of the language proficiency levels of incoming undergraduate students who study English in Sweden. Spoken proficiency in English usually ranges from satisfactory to excellent among incoming Swedish students, but these undergraduates typically need support and feedback on their texts so that their writing gains sophistication in language, structure, and content. The theoretical portion of this research note highlights some sociolinguistic perspectives concerning the linguistic development of young adults relating to the “developmental imperative” (Eckert, 2000, the “linguistic market” or “marketplace dialect” (Chambers, 2009, and the dynamic continuum of standard English (Wolfram & Schilling-Estes, 2006; see also Karstadt, 2002; Falk, 2005. The second half of the research note provides a brief synopsis of the chapters in the book; it also mentions some of the approaches that are taken to share advice with readers.

  11. Clinically significant anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients in a South African academic hospital: antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, S; Perovic, O; Richards, G A; Duse, A G

    2011-09-27

    BACKGROUND. Increasing resistance to some antimicrobial agents among anaerobic bacteria has made susceptibility patterns less predictable. METHOD. This was a prospective study of the susceptibility data of anaerobic organisms isolated from clinical specimens from patients with suspected anaerobic infections from June 2005 until February 2007. Specimens were submitted to the microbiology laboratory at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, where microscopy, culture and susceptibility testing were performed the using E test® strip minimum inhibitory concentration method. Results were interpreted with reference to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines for amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, metronidazole, penicillin, ertapenem, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and piperacillin-tazobactam. RESULTS. One hundred and eighty anaerobic isolates were submitted from 165 patients. The most active antimicrobial agents were chloramphenicol (100% susceptible), ertapenem (97.2%), piperacillin-tazobactam (99.4%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (96.7%). Less active were metronidazole (89.4%), cefoxitin (85%), clindamycin (81.7%), ceftriaxone (68.3%) and penicillin (33.3%). CONCLUSION. Susceptibility testing should be performed periodically to identify emerging trends in resistance and to modify empirical treatment of anaerobic infections.

  12. The prevalence and effects of urinary incontinence in women working in the Universitas Academic Hospital, Bloemfontein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique C. Bailey

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary incontinence affects 30% of women by the time they reach 50 years of age and continues to increase thereafter. Symptoms vary in severity and adversely impact on the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of affected individuals. By means of a self-administered questionnaire, the study investigated the prevalence of urinary incontinence and its effects on the quality of life in women working at the Universitas Academic Hospital in Bloemfontein in 2007. Pregnant women were not included in the study. One hundred and nine questionnaires were analysed. Participants were 24–62 years of age (mean age 44.4 years. Of these, 27.5% reported symptoms of urinary incontinence. Only one affected individual was younger than 30 years. Three-quarters of affected women rated their symptoms as light to moderate. In 34.6% of the affected women, the condition did not interfere with everyday activities at all, but 11.5% reported severe interference. Information regarding urinary incontinence, precautionary measures, such as Kegel exercises, and its associated psychosocial consequences, should be disseminated to women of all ages.

  13. [A paradigm change in German academic medicine. Merger and privatization as exemplified with the university hospitals in Marburg and Giessen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisch, Bernhard

    2005-03-01

    1. The intended fusion of the university hospitals Marburg and Giessen in the state of Hessia is "a marriage under pressure with uncalculated risk" (Spiegel 2005). In the present political and financial situation it hardly appears to be avoidable. From the point of the view of the faculty of medicine in Marburg it is difficult to understand, that the profits of this well guided university hospital with a positive yearly budget should go to the neighboring university hospital which still had a fair amount of deficit spending in the last years.2. Both medical faculties suffer from a very low budget from the state of Hessia for research and teaching. Giessen much more than Marburg, have a substantial need for investments in buildings and infrastructure. Both institutions have a similar need for investments in costly medical apparatuses. This is a problem, which many university hospitals face nowadays.3. The intended privatisation of one or both university hospitals will need sound answers to several fundamental questions and problems:a) A privatisation potentially endangers the freedom of research and teaching garanteed by the German constitution. A private company will undoubtedly influence by active or missing additional support the direction of research in the respective academic institution. An example is the priorisation of clinical in contrast to basic research.b) With the privatisation practical absurdities in the separation of research and teaching on one side and hospital care on the other will become obvious with respect to the status of the academic employees, the obligatory taxation (16%) when a transfer of labor from one institution to the other is taken into account. The use of rooms for seminars, lectures and bedside with a double function for both teaching, research and hospital care has to be clarified with a convincing solution in everyday practice.c) The potential additional acquisition of patients, which has been advocated by the Hessian state

  14. Older people's perspectives on an elderly-friendly hospital environment: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karki S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sushmita Karki,1 Dharma Nand Bhatta,1,2 Umesh Raj Aryal3 1Department of Public Health, Nobel College, Pokhara University, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Faculty of Medicine, Epidemiology Unit, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand; 3Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Many older people are vulnerable with multiple health problems and need of extensive care and support for quality of life. The main objective of this study was to explore the older people's perspectives on an "elderly-friendly" hospital. Methods: Hospital was stratified by four domains including government, semi-government, community, and private. We interviewed 33 hospitalized older patients and four hospital managers between June and December 2014 in Kathmandu, Nepal, using purposive sampling technique. We executed a qualitative content analysis step with extensive review of the interviews. Final name of the theme was given after the agreement between the research team and experts to improve trustworthiness. Elderly-friendly services, expectation from government and hospital, and health policy related to senior citizen were developed as main themes. Results: Most of the participants were satisfied with the behavior of health personnel. However, none of the health personnel were trained with geriatric health care. Elderly-friendly hospital guidelines and policy were not developed by any hospitals. Older people health card, advocacy for older people's health and benefit, and hospital environment were the common expectations of older patients. Government policy and budget constraint were the main obstacles to promote elderly-friendly health care services. Conclusion: Elderly-related health policies, physical environments of hospital, elderly-friendly health manpower, advocacy, and other facilities and benefits should be improved and developed. There are urgent needs to develop elderly-friendly hospital policies and guidelines that

  15. The value of the hospital-based nurse practitioner role: development of a team perspective framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlock-Chorostecki, Christina; Forchuk, Cheryl; Orchard, Carole; Reeves, Scott; van Soeren, Mary

    2013-11-01

    There is a need to understand nurse practitioner (NP) interprofessional practice within hospital teams to inform effective role integration and evolution. To begin this understanding a supplementary analysis of 30 hospital team member focus groups was carried out using constructivist grounded theory methodology. This conceptual rendering of the team members' shared perspective of NP actions provides insight into the meaning and importance of the NP role. Participants emphasized three hospital-based (HB) NP practice foci as the meaning of role value; easing others' workload, holding patient care together and evolving practice. Trust emerged as a pre-requisite condition for HB NP role efficacy. A team member perspective framework of HB NP practice is presented as the first stage in developing a model of HB NP interprofessional practice within hospitals. The framework provides multiple perspectives to the meaning and value of the HB NP role beyond basic role description. The framework may be used by healthcare professionals, operational leaders, academia and HB NPs to enhance role respect and understanding.

  16. Academic freedom and academic duty to teach social justice: a perspective and pedagogy for public health nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Taylor, Janette Y; Kneipp, Shawn M; Canales, Mary K

    2007-01-01

    Public health nursing practice is rooted in the core value of social justice. Nursing faculty whose expertise is in public health are often the content experts responsible for teaching this essential, yet potentially controversial, value. Contemporary threats to academic freedom remind us that the disciplinary autonomy and academic duty to teach social justice may be construed as politically ideological. These threats are of particular concern when faculty members guide students through a scientific exploration of sociopolitical factors that lead to health-related social injustices and encourage students to improve and transform injustices in their professional careers. This article (a) reviews recent challenges to academic freedom that influence social justice education, (b) explores academic freedom and duty to teach social justice within the discipline of nursing, and (c) proposes a praxis-based approach to social justice education, which is grounded in transformative pedagogy.

  17. Care provider perspectives on medical travel: A three-country study of destination hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Andrew N; Johnson, Tricia J; Lynch, Elizabeth B; Satjapot, Siriporn

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the current and potential role of medical travel in U.S. patient care, very little research has been conducted on clinician and other provider organizations' perspectives on providing international patient care. The present study sought to gain formative insights about medical travel from the providers' perspectives, by conducting structured interviews and focus groups in six hospitals from three countries catering to patients traveling from the United States. Findings highlighted the surprising role of international events and policies in the evolution of medical travel, as well as both the desire and need for more transparent quality standards.

  18. The Effect of Availability of Manpower on Trauma Resuscitation Times in a Tertiary Academic Hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Xin Zhong Tan

    Full Text Available For trauma patients, delays to assessment, resuscitation, and definitive care affect outcomes. We studied the effects of resuscitation area occupancy and trauma team size on trauma team resuscitation speed in an observational study at a tertiary academic institution in Singapore.From January 2014 to January 2015, resuscitation videos of trauma team activated patients with an Injury Severity Score of 9 or more were extracted for review within 14 days by independent reviewers. Exclusion criteria were patients dead on arrival, inter-hospital transfers, and up-triaged patients. Data captured included manpower availability (trauma team size and resuscitation area occupancy, assessment (airway, breathing, circulation, logroll, interventions (vascular access, imaging, and process-of-care time intervals (time to assessment/intervention/adjuncts, time to imaging, and total time in the emergency department. Clinical data were obtained by chart review and from the trauma registry.Videos of 70 patients were reviewed over a 13-month period. The median time spent in the emergency department was 154.9 minutes (IQR 130.7-207.5 and the median resuscitation team size was 7, with larger team sizes correlating with faster process-of-care time intervals: time to airway assessment (p = 0.08 and time to disposition (p = 0.04. The mean resuscitation area occupancy rate (RAOR was 1.89±2.49, and the RAOR was positively correlated with time spent in the emergency department (p = 0.009.Our results suggest that adequate staffing for trauma teams and resuscitation room occupancy are correlated with faster trauma resuscitation and reduced time spent in the emergency department.

  19. Can hospitals prohibit euthanasia? An analysis from a European human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Sylvie

    2011-06-01

    At present, in four European countries euthanasia and/ or physician assisted suicide (PAS) are tolerated under strict legal conditions. However, in practice these patient groups are often deprived of the possibility to undergo such decisions. Particularly Catholic health care institutions have developed policies which restrict the internal application of the law. Yet, the legitimacy of such policies is questionable. From a European human rights perspective it can be defended that the freedom of association allows hospitals to develop policies elaborating their ethical stances on euthanasia and PAS. However, to respect the patient's right to self-determination the concerned hospitals should at least inform current and future patients about the restrictive policy and deal carefully with euthanasia and PAS requests. If a patient's wish remains seriously incompatible with the ethical stances of the hospital, at least reasonable and attainable alternatives (such as a referral to a tolerant regional hospital) should be offered.

  20. Care ethics in hospitalized child: a perspective for nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedita Maria Rêgo Deusdará Rodrigues

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Apreender quais são os aspectos éticos que norteiam o cuidado prestado pelo enfermeiro à criança hospitalizada. Método: Estudo qualitativo com enfoque na fenomenologia sociológica de Alfred Schutz. Foram entrevistados 10 enfermeiros lotados nas unidades de internação de um hospital municipal, localizado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, em 2011. A entrevista fenomenológica pautou-se na questão: Quais os aspectos éticos que norteiam o seu cuidado a criança hospitalizada?   Resultados: A análise das falas possibilitou a apreensão de duas categorias discutidas à luz da fenomenologia sociológica que são: Respeito à privacidade da criança e Respeito à família da criança hospitalizada. Conclusões: O estudo permitiu o entendimento de que as ações do enfermeiro no que diz respeito à ética no cuidado à criança hospitalizada perpassam pelo reconhecimento da família como elemento indispensável na assistência de enfermagem. Aponta a necessidade de repensar sobre as práticas em saúde, como um modo ético de cuidar. Descritores: Ética, Saúde da criança, Cuidados de enfermagem.

  1. Hospital based superconducting cyclotron for neutron therapy: Medical physics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudelev, M.; Burmeister, J.; Blosser, E.; Maughan, R. L.; Kota, C.

    2001-12-01

    The neutron therapy facility at the Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center, Harper University Hospital in Detroit has been operational since September 1991. The d(48.5)+Be beam is produced in a gantry mounted superconducting cyclotron designed and built at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). Measurements were performed in order to obtain the physical characteristics of the neutron beam and to collect the data necessary for treatment planning. This included profiles of the dose distribution in a water phantom, relative output factors and the design of various beam modifiers, i.e., wedges and tissue compensators. The beam was calibrated in accordance with international protocol for fast neutron dosimetry. Dosimetry and radiobiology intercomparions with three neutron therapy facilities were performed prior to clinical use. The radiation safety program was established in order to monitor and reduce the exposure levels of the personnel. The activation products were identified and the exposure in the treatment room was mapped. A comprehensive quality assurance (QA) program was developed to sustain safe and reliable operation of the unit at treatment standards comparable to those for conventional photon radiation. The program can be divided into three major parts: maintenance of the cyclotron and related hardware; QA of the neutron beam dosimetry and treatment delivery; safety and radiation protection. In addition the neutron beam is used in various non-clinical applications. Among these are the microdosimetric characterization of the beam, the effects of tissue heterogeneity on dose distribution, the development of boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy and variety of radiobiology experiments.

  2. Comparing Academic Library Spending with Public Libraries, Public K-12 Schools, Higher Education Public Institutions, and Public Hospitals between 1998-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzi, John J.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the overall spending trends and patterns of growth of Academic Libraries with Public Libraries, K-12 schools, higher education institutions, and hospitals in the period of 1998 to 2008. Academic Libraries, while showing a growth of 13% over inflation for the period, far underperformed the growth of the other public institutions…

  3. Comparing Academic Library Spending with Public Libraries, Public K-12 Schools, Higher Education Public Institutions, and Public Hospitals between 1998-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzi, John J.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the overall spending trends and patterns of growth of Academic Libraries with Public Libraries, K-12 schools, higher education institutions, and hospitals in the period of 1998 to 2008. Academic Libraries, while showing a growth of 13% over inflation for the period, far underperformed the growth of the other public institutions…

  4. [Does ethics pay off? Need and perspectives of value management in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckmann, Georg; Maschmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The economic pressure on German hospitals has increased considerably over the last years, mainly because of the introduction of a flat-rate payment system, and it will most likely further increase under the current demographic and political conditions. The growing dominance of economics in the inpatient sector increases the pressure on hospital staff and results in an increased volume of care (with sometimes inappropriate overtreatment) and uncontrolled rationing and a continuous struggle to maintain the quality of patient care. This development is not only alarming from an ethical perspective, but also impairs the hospital's economic performance. To counter the increasing economic pressure with "more ethics" does--according to the line of reasoning adopted in this article--not appear to be very successful. Rather, central ethical values in inpatient care have to become an integral part of hospital management. This value management first requires a clear definition of the normative standards, e.g. within a mission statement. Second, the realisation of the normative standards in routine inpatient care has to be systematically assessed, evaluated and managed. Since normative standards are difficult to measure objectively and on a quantitative scale, (repeated) surveys among hospital staff are the central instrument to secure the "internal quality" of the hospital. It appears very likely that more ethics in the hospital will pay off by improving its economic performance. The empirical proof for this conceptually extremely plausible hypothesis has yet to be provided.

  5. Nurses' perspectives on problems of hospitalized PCP patients: implications for the development of a nursing taxonomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, S. B.; Holzemer, W. L.; Reilly, C A

    1991-01-01

    The phenomena of interest in nursing informatics research are the data, information and knowledge related to nursing. This study presents nurses' perspectives on the problems of patients hospitalized for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia from four data sources: nurse interview, intershift report, care plan, and nurses' notes. Even within this narrowly specified sample, patient problems showed variation across sources of data. The results of this study demonstrate the difficulties inherent in dev...

  6. Measles Cases in Children Requiring Hospital Access in an Academic Pediatric Hospital in Italy, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta; Filia, Antonietta; Bella, Antonino; Sisto, Annamaria; Barbieri, Maria Antonietta; Reale, Antonino; Raponi, Massimiliano

    2017-09-01

    The Lazio region is one of the Italian regions where sustained measles transmission continues to occur. We investigated measles cases reported by the emergency department (ED) of the largest pediatric hospital in Italy, located in Lazio. We reviewed clinical records of all measles cases from 0 to 18 years of age evaluated in the ED in 2008-2013. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics of patients admitted to the inpatient setting with those of patients discharged home to assess possible determinants of hospital admission. Of 248 patients with measles evaluated in the ED, 113 (45.6%) were admitted as inpatients. The number of measles cases peaked in 2011 (N = 122; 49.2%), when epidemics were reported in Lazio. Median age was 2.7 years (range: 21 days to 17.9 years), and 31 patients (13%) had an underlying chronic illness. The strongest independent predictor of hospitalization was having an underlying chronic illness [adjusted odd ratio (OR): 9.87; 95% confidence interval: 3.13-31.13]. Other factors independently and significantly associated with higher risk of hospitalization were taking medications at the time of ED visit, being younger than 1 year of age and having altered liver enzyme values. Eighty-five percent of children >15 months of age who were hospitalized were not vaccinated. One hundred six hospitalized children (94%) had at least 1 measles complication; 1 child required intensive care for respiratory insufficiency. Hospitalizations of children with measles continue to occur in European areas where elimination has not been achieved. Children with chronic diseases represent a vulnerable population that is at higher risk of hospitalization.

  7. Using quality measures for quality improvement: the perspective of hospital staff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Aghaei Hashjin

    Full Text Available RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: This study examines the perspectives of a range of key hospital staff on the use, importance, scientific background, availability of data, feasibility of data collection, cost benefit aspects and availability of professional personnel for measurement of quality indicators among Iranian hospitals. The study aims to facilitate the use of quality indicators to improve quality of care in hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted over the period 2009 to 2010. Staff at Iranian hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire eliciting their views on organizational, clinical process, and outcome (clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient centeredness indicators. POPULATION STUDIED: 93 hospital frontline staff including hospital/nursing managers, medical doctors, nurses, and quality improvement/medical records officers in 48 general and specialized hospitals in Iran. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On average, only 69% of respondents reported using quality indicators in practice at their affiliated hospitals. Respondents varied significantly in their reported use of organizational, clinical process and outcome quality indicators. Overall, clinical process and effectiveness indicators were reported to be least used. The reported use of indicators corresponded with their perceived level of importance. Quality indicators were reported to be used among clinical staff significantly more than among managerial staff. In total, 74% of the respondents reported to use obligatory indicators, while this was 68% for voluntary indicators (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: There is a general awareness of the importance and usability of quality indicators among hospital staff in Iran, but their use is currently mostly directed towards external accountability purposes. To increase the formative use of quality indicators, creation of a common culture and feeling of shared ownership, alongside an increased uptake of clinical process and

  8. Burden of Clostridium difficile Infections in French Hospitals in 2014 From the National Health Insurance Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Soline; Blein, Cécile; Andremont, Antoine; Bandinelli, Pierre-Alain; Galvain, Thibaut

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the hospital stays of patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and to measure the hospitalization costs of CDI (as primary and secondary diagnoses) from the French national health insurance perspective DESIGN Burden of illness study SETTING All acute-care hospitals in France METHODS Data were extracted from the French national hospitalization database (PMSI) for patients covered by the national health insurance scheme in 2014. Hospitalizations were selected using the International Classification of Diseases, 10 th revision (ICD-10) code for CDI. Hospital stays with CDI as the primary diagnosis or the secondary diagnosis (comorbidity) were studied for the following parameters: patient sociodemographic characteristics, mortality, length of stay (LOS), and related costs. A retrospective case-control analysis was performed on stays with CDI as the secondary diagnosis to assess the impact of CDI on the LOS and costs. RESULTS Overall, 5,834 hospital stays with CDI as the primary diagnosis were included in this study. The total national insurance costs were €30.7 million (US $33,677,439), and the mean cost per hospital stay was €5,267±€3,645 (US $5,777±$3,998). In total, 10,265 stays were reported with CDI as the secondary diagnosis. The total national insurance additional costs attributable to CDI were estimated to be €85 million (US $93,243,725), and the mean additional cost attributable to CDI per hospital stay was €8,295±€17,163, median, €4,797 (US $9,099±$8,827; median, $5,262). CONCLUSION CDI has a high clinical and economic burden in the hospital, and it represents a major cost for national health insurance. When detected as a comorbidity, CDI was significantly associated with increased LOS and economic burden. Preventive approaches should be implemented to avoid CDIs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:906-911.

  9. Academic Training Lectures | Theories of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking: A Post LHC Run-I Perspective | 26, 27 and 29 May

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that our next series of Academic Training Lectures will take place on the 26, 27 and 29 May 2015.   Theories of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking: A Post LHC Run-I Perspective, by James Daniel Wells (University of Michigan (US)) from 11.00 a.m. to 12.00 p.m. in the Council Chamber (503-1-001) https://indico.cern.ch/event/383514/

  10. Reimbursement in hospital-based vascular surgery: Physician and practice perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Jennifer L; Zwolak, Robert M; Goodney, Philip P; Rutherford, Gretchen A; Powell, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine change in value of a vascular surgery division to the health care system during 6 years at a hospital-based academic practice and to compare physician vs hospital revenue earned during this period. Total revenue generated by the vascular surgery service line at an academic medical center from 2010 through 2015 was evaluated. Total revenue was measured as the sum of physician (professional) and hospital (technical) net revenue for all vascular-related patient care. Adjustments were made for work performed, case complexity, and inflation. To reflect the effect of these variables, net revenue was indexed to work relative value units (wRVUs), case mix index, and consumer price index, which adjusted for work, case complexity, and inflation, respectively. Differences in physician and hospital net revenue were compared over time. Physician work, measured in RVUs per year, increased by 4%; case complexity, assessed with case mix index, increased by 10% for the 6-year measurement period. Despite stability in payer mix at 64% to 69% Medicare, both physician and hospital vascular-related revenue/wRVU decreased during this period. Unadjusted professional revenue/wRVU declined by 14.1% (P = .09); when considering case complexity, physician revenue/wRVU declined by 20.6% (P = .09). Taking into account both case complexity and inflation, physician revenue declined by 27.0% (P = .04). Comparatively, hospital revenue for vascular surgery services decreased by 13.8% (P = .07) when adjusting for unit work, complexity, and inflation. At medical centers where vascular surgeons are hospital based, vascular care reimbursement decreased substantially from 2010 to 2015 when case complexity and inflation were considered. Physician reimbursement (professional fees) decreased at a significantly greater rate than hospital reimbursement for vascular care. This trend has significant implications for salaried vascular surgeons in hospital

  11. We Want to Know: Eliciting Hospitalized Patients' Perspectives on Breakdowns in Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kimberly; Smith, Kelly; Gallagher, Thomas; Burns, Laura; Morales, Crystal; Mazor, Kathleen

    2017-08-01

    There is increasing recognition that patients have critical insights into care experiences, including breakdowns in care. Harnessing patient perspectives for hospital improvement requires an in-depth understanding of the types of breakdowns patients identify and the impact of these events. We interviewed a broad sample of patients during hospitalization and postdischarge to elicit patient perspectives on breakdowns in care. Through an iterative process, we developed a categorization of patient-perceived breakdowns called the Patient Experience Coding Tool. Of 979 interviewees, 386 (39.4%) believed they had experienced at least one breakdown in care. The most common reported breakdowns involved information exchange (n = 158, 16.1%), medications (n = 120, 12.3%), delays in admission (n = 90, 9.2%), team communication (n = 65, 6.6%), providers' manner (n = 62, 6.3%), and discharge (n = 56, 5.7%). Of the 386 interviewees who reported a breakdown, 140 (36.3%) perceived associated harm. Patient- perceived harms included physical (eg, pain), emotional (eg, distress, worry), damage to relationship with providers, need for additional care or prolonged hospital stay, and life disruption. We found higher rates of reporting breakdowns among younger ( patients (45.4% vs 34.5%, patient (53.4% vs 37.8%, = 0.002). When asked directly, almost 4 out of 10 hospitalized patients reported a breakdown in their care. Patient- perceived breakdowns in care are frequently associated with perceived harm, illustrating the importance of detecting and addressing these events.

  12. ‘AN INCREDIBLY STEEP HILL:’ HOW GENDER, RACE, AND CLASS SHAPE PERSPECTIVES ON ACADEMIC CAREERS AMONG BEGINNING BIOMEDICAL PHD STUDENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christine V.; Campbell, Patricia B.; McGee, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes perspectives on academic careers among 60 beginning PhD students in the biomedical sciences. It presents seven perspectives on academic careers articulated by the students in the sample and explains the way that race/ethnicity, gender, and students’ family education backgrounds are tied to those perspectives. The findings show that traditionally underrepresented students find the academic career path less navigable than students from well-represented groups. Among underrepresented students, even those from higher family education backgrounds, experiences related to race/ethnicity and gender often inform perceptions of the academic career even before they start their graduate research training. As the composition of the graduate population changes to include more women and underrepresented racial and ethnic minority men, it is important to note that not all graduate students enter with the same perspectives and views of the academic career and that there are meaningful differences in perspectives across demographic lines. Graduate programs can play a critical role in providing information and support for graduate students as they navigate their career choices, particularly at the earliest stages of training. By becoming sensitive to students’ perspectives on career options, and understanding how differences in perspectives arise, mentors and others can align advising strategies with the experiences and views of students. PMID:28239250

  13. Can Academic Autonomy Survive in the Knowledge Society? A Perspective from Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyses the challenges posed to the principle of academic autonomy by the knowledge society and new conceptions of the state. It argues that these signify the breaking down of boundaries that have been critical for the justification of academic rights to self-government and freedom of inquiry. The ideal of academe as a sovereign,…

  14. Academic Perspectives and Experiences of Knowledge Translation: A Qualitative Study of Public Health Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Alex; Zardo, Pauline; McKenzie, Donna Margaret; Ellis, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the views and experiences of knowledge translation of 14 Australian public health academics. Capacity to engage in knowledge translation is influenced by factors within the academic context and the interaction of the academic and policy environments. Early and mid-career researchers reported a different set of experiences and…

  15. New roles: professional staff sharing between a hospital and an academic library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Melissa L

    2003-01-01

    Childrens Hospital Los Angeles is a pediatric hospital and research institute affiliated with the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California (USC). Historically, the library at Childrens Hospital was staffed by a hospital-employed librarian. In 1999, the library position was outsourced to USC's Norris Medical Library. The new position is staffed by a librarian who divides her time equally between two locations: the Childrens Hospital Library and the Norris Medical Library. This staff sharing arrangement has three primary goals: increase the collaboration between the libraries; improve access to resources and library staff expertise; and provide faster document delivery service to the Childrens Hospital library. This paper presents the details of the position, and addresses the pros and cons for both libraries and the librarian.

  16. Measurement of Quality of Educational Hospital Services by the SERVQUAL Model: The Iranian Patients’ Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Satar; Matin, Behzad Karami; Moradi, Khalil; Bijan, Behroz; Fallahi, Masoud; Shokati, Behnam; Saeidi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The main mission of hospitals in any health system is to deliver high quality healthcare for patients and meet their needs and expectations. The aim of the current study was to assess the quality of the service of educational hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2015, from the perspective of patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the perspectives of 400 patients were assessed about the quality of the services provided by educational hospitals in Kermanshah (western Iran) in 2015. The quality was assessed by the SERVQUAL questionnaire with five dimensions, i.e., tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. In addition, the Wilcoxon test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to explore any association between the dependent variable and explanatory variables. The data were analyzed using Stata V.12 software. Results There were negative gaps in all five dimensions. The highest and lowest gaps in the mean score were found in the assurance (−0.88) and responsiveness (−0.56) dimensions. The patients ranked responsiveness as the most important dimension of the quality of healthcare. Conclusion There were gaps between the patients’ perceptions and their expectation about the five dimensions that were studied based on the SERVQUAL model. Also, it is recommended that improving the quality of healthcare is possible by various policies, such as good responsiveness, access to health workers, and delivering healthcare in less time. PMID:27123218

  17. Interhospital patient transfers between Ontario's academic and large community hospitals increase the risk of Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDiodato, Giulio; McArthur, Leslie

    2017-09-25

    The objective of this study is to determine the impact of interhospital patient transfers on the risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The number of interhospital patient transfers and CDI cases for 11 academic and 40 large community hospitals (LCHs) were available from 2010-2015. These data were used to compute a CDI score for each sending facility as a measure of CDI pressure on the receiving facility. This CDI score was included as a variable in a multilevel mixed-effect Poisson regression model of CDI cases. Other covariates included year, CDI testing strategy, antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP), and criteria used for patient isolation. Hospital-specific random effects were estimated for the baseline rate of CDI (intercept) and ASP effect (slope). The CDI score ranged from 0-103, with a mean score ± SD of 20.4 ± 21.8. Every 10-point increase in the CDI score was associated with a 4.5% increase in the incidence of CDI in the receiving academic hospital (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-8.5) and 3.6% increase in the receiving LCHs (95% CI, 0.3-7). The random components of the model varied significantly, with a strong negative correlation of -0.85 (95% CI, -0.94 to -0.65). Our results suggest interhospital patient transfers increase the risk of CDI. ASPs appear to reduce this risk; however, these ASP effects demonstrate significant heterogeneity across hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Participation of the family in hospital-based palliative cancer care: perspective of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Miranda da Silva

    Full Text Available The objective was to understand the perspective of nurses about the participation of the family in palliative cancer care and to analyze the nursing care strategies to meet their needs. Descriptive and qualitative research, conducted at the National Cancer Institute between January and March 2013, with 17 nurses. Elements of the Roy Adaptation Model were used for the interpretation of the data. Two categoriesemergedfrom the thematic analysis: perspective of nurses about the presence and valuation of family in the hospital; and appointing strategies to encourage family participation in care and meet their needs. This participation is essentialand represents a training opportunity for the purpose of homecare. Nurses create strategies to encourage it and seek to meet the needs. The results contribute to promote the family adaptation and integrity, in order to balance the dependent and independent behaviors, aimingfor quality of life and comfort. Further studies are neededdue to the challenges of the specialty.

  19. Positive impact of infection prevention on the management of nosocomial outbreaks at an academic hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Sinha, Bhanu; Lokate, Mariette; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; Dinkelacker, Ariane G.; Postma, Maarten J.; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Infection prevention (IP) measures are vital to prevent (nosocomial) outbreaks. Financial evaluations of these are scarce. An incremental cost analysis for an academic IP unit was performed. Material & methods: On a yearly basis, we evaluated: IP measures; costs thereof; numbers of patients at

  20. A longitudinal study on time perspectives: relations with academic delay of gratification and learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.; Schuitema, J.; van der Veen, I.

    2012-01-01

    After they start secondary school (at age 12 in the Netherlands), students' time perspectives on school and professional career and self-regulated learning decrease, while their perspectives on leisure increase. We aimed to investigate relations in the developments in time perspectives and delay of

  1. Coordinated hospital-home care for kidney patients on hemodialysis from the perspective of nursing personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Tejada-Tayabas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine, from the nursing perspective, the needs and challenges of coordinated hospital-home care for renal patients on hemodialysis. METHODS: A qualitative analysis was conducted with an ethnographic approach in a hemodialysis unit in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nine nurses, selected by purposeful sampling. Structured content analysis was used. RESULTS: Nurses recounted the needs and challenges involved in caring for renal patients. They also identified barriers that limit coordinated patient care in the hospital and the home, mainly the work overload at the hemodialysis unit and the lack of a systematic strategy for education and lifelong guidance to patients, their families and caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the importance and necessity of establishing a strategy that goes beyond conventional guidance provided to caregivers of renal patients, integrating them into the multidisciplinary group of health professionals that provide care for these patients in the hospital to establish coordinated hospital-home care that increases therapeutic adherence, treatment substitution effectiveness and patient quality of life.

  2. Expectations and Influencing Factors of IS Graduates and Education in Thailand: A Perspective of the Students, Academics and Business Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teay Shawyun Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As academic we have always been entrusted with developing the knowledge, skills, and capability of our IS students. In the strive for excellence in education, there is always the question of what has been implemented is appropriate and finally achieves its ultimate goals of delivering quality, capable and intellectual students as workforce for the business. To this end, this exploratory research tries to discover what knowledge, skills and capability are expected of an IS graduate, the facilities expected to develop these qualities and what influencing factors make the students go for an IS education. The research will be based on the perspectives of the student, academic and business community. The major findings highlight the overall tendency of higher mean expectation of the business community in most of the fundamental expectations of the type of knowledge, skills and capability and the facilities essential to the development of these attributes. The academics are normally supportive of the business community’s perspectives except in the dimensions of skill expectation and attitudinal factors. Overall, it also appears that the students show a lower average means on most attributes as compared to the academics and business community. Based on this research, there appears to be distinctive expectations of an IS graduate. Based on the balanced technology approach of looking at the development of the IS graduate from degree of sophistication of the Technoware (T, Humaware (H, Inforware (I and Orgaware (O, it is hoped that the following can be achieved: 1. A newly revised and revamped IS curriculum, 2. A linkage of the THIO to develop the IS graduate and 3. A linkage of the academia-industry THIO linkage to develop the IS graduate.

  3. Plastic surgeons’ self-reported operative infection rates at a Canadian academic hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Wendy KY; Kaur, Manraj Nirmal; Thoma, Achilleas

    2014-01-01

    The significant morbidity associated with surgical site infections, in addition to increased hospital stays and health care resource utilization, has garnered much attention, especially in the era of cost-conscious health care systems and third-party payers. Although previous studies have investigated hospital-acquired infection rates across all surgical subspecialities, none have focused specifically on plastic surgery procedures. This retrospective study examined surgical site infection dat...

  4. A rural cancer outreach program lowers patient care costs and benefits both the rural hospitals and sponsoring academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, C E; Grasso, M A; McCue, M J; Buonaiuto, D; Grasso, K; Johantgen, M K; Shaw, J E; Smith, T J

    1999-01-01

    The Rural Cancer Outreach Program (RCOP) between two rural hospitals and the Medical College of Virginia's Massey Cancer Center (MCC) was developed to bring state-of-the-art cancer care to medically underserved rural patients. The financial impact of the RCOP on both the rural hospitals and the MCC was analyzed. Pre- and post-RCOP financial data were collected on 1,745 cancer patients treated at the participating centers, two rural community hospitals and the MCC. The main outcome measures were costs (estimated reimbursement from all sources), revenues, contribution margins and profit (or loss) of the program. The RCOP may have enhanced access to cancer care for rural patients at less cost to society. The net annual cost per patient fell from $10,233 to $3,862 associated with more use of outpatient services, more efficient use of resources, and the shift to a less expensive locus of care. The cost for each rural patient admitted to the Medical College of Virginia fell by more than 40 percent compared with only an 8 percent decrease for all other cancer patients. The rural hospitals experienced rapid growth of their programs to more than 200 new patients yearly, and the RCOP generated significant profits for them. MCC benefited from increased referrals from RCOP service areas by 330 percent for cancer patients and by 9 percent for non-cancer patients during the same time period. While it did not generate a major profit for the MCC, the RCOP generated enough revenue to cover costs of the program. The RCOP had a positive financial impact on the rural and academic medical center hospitals, provided state-of-the-art care near home for rural patients and was associated with lower overall cancer treatment costs.

  5. Exploring the contribution of formal and informal learning to academic staff member employability: A Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, Marcel; Heijden, van der Beatrice I.J.M.; Boon, Jo; Rooij, van Shahron Williams

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Little attention has been paid to the employability of academic staff and the extent to which continuous learning contributes to academic career success. The purpose of this paper is to explore the contribution of formal and informal learning to employability. Design/methodology/approac

  6. Academic Inbreeding: Exploring Its Characteristics and Rationale in Japanese Universities Using a Qualitative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Hugo; Sato, Machi; Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses why and how academic inbreeding as a recruitment practice continues to prevail in Japan, a country with a mature higher education system, where high rates of academic inbreeding endure in most of the research-oriented universities in spite of several higher education reforms. Based on a qualitative analysis, we disclose three…

  7. Academic Libraries and High-Impact Practices for Student Retention: Library Deans' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies on retention have highlighted the role of student engagement in influencing students' withdrawal decisions. This study seeks to address how academic libraries affect student retention by examining the perception of academic library deans or directors on the alignment between library services and resources with ten nationally…

  8. The challenges of attracting an retaining academic talent. Central and Eastern European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Rose, Anna-Lena

    2016-01-01

    Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries are currently facing strong imperatives to increase incoming academic staff mobility. In this article, we focus on barriers and facilitators of academic mobility. We provide examples of Lithuanian and Czech higher education systems that are based on liter

  9. The Relationship among Parental Involvement, Learning, and Academic Achievement: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Alison

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this QUAN-qual mixed methods study was to investigate how parents from various ethnicities and socioeconomic status construct their expectations of academic achievement and the impact these expectations have on academic success for the student. Data was gathered by using The Parent Survey of Family and Community Involvement in the…

  10. Strategic Planning Effectiveness in Jordanian Universities: Faculty Members' and Academic Administrators' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Salameh, Kayed M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore the faculty and academic administrators' perception of strategic planning effectiveness (SPE) in a reform environment, measuring the impact of university type, gender, and job role. A total of 338 faculty members and 183 academic administrators who enrolled during the first semester of the 2007-08 term at a public and a…

  11. Magnets and Seekers: A Network Perspective on Academic Integration inside Two Residential Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Residential learning communities aim to foster increased academic and social integration, ideally leading to greater student success. However, the concept of academic integration is often conceptualized and measured at the individual level, rather than the theoretically more consistent community level. Network analysis provides a paradigm and…

  12. Difficulties in Academic Writing: From the Perspective of King Saud University Postgraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Fadda, Hind

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what difficulties King Saud University students encounter when learning to write academic English and to differentiate between students' learning needs and objectives. The sample consisted of 50 postgraduate students enrolled in King Saud University during the academic year 2009-2010. Analysis of the data…

  13. New Academics, New Higher Education Contexts: A Critical Perspective on Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behari-Leak, Kasturi

    2017-01-01

    New academics entering higher education are especially vulnerable if teaching in a post-colonial classroom is not foregrounded as an explicit part of their professional induction. Drawing on a study of a professional development programme for induction to teaching, this paper explicates how six new academics confront specific challenges of…

  14. Academic Career Development Stress and Mental Health of Higher Secondary Students--An Indian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anjali; Halder, Santoshi; Goswami, Nibedita

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored the mental health of students with their academic career-related stressors collecting data from 400 students of different schools of Eastern part of India by using; namely General Information Schedule (GIS), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the Academic Career Development Stress Scale. The data was subjected to t…

  15. Understanding Relationships between Academic Staff and Administrators: An Organisational Culture Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hui-Min

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to advance the understanding of relationships between university academic staff and administrators through information in interviews with 18 academic staff members and 18 administrators at a large public research university in the United States. Through exploring the first-hand insights and perceptions of interviewees from an…

  16. An Evaluation of Academic Training Program (ÖYP) from Professional Socialisation and Identity Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tülübas, Tijen; Göktürk, Söheyda

    2017-01-01

    Academic identity is significant in terms of taking the responsibilities of professional roles and performing them adequately. Identity formation starts from the early socialisation experiences of graduate students and develops on what they have acquired during this process. Therefore, Academic Training Program is significant for determining the…

  17. A pilot study of nursing student's perceptions of academic dishonesty: a generation Y perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhin, Afua O

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the proliferation of technology, academic dishonesty in colleges and universities is becoming a major global problem of higher education. Unfortunately, it is documented in published research that today's student appears to normalize academic dishonest behaviors. This paper reports on a pilot study that tested an instrument that explored the perceptions of cheating in undergraduate nursing students. The instrument explored scenarios that represented dishonest behaviors in examination situations; dishonest behaviors relevant to classroom assignments; and scenarios that represented dishonest behaviors towards practical laboratory experiences. The participants in this study were quite clear on the definition of academic dishonesty in examination situations but had difficulty identifying academic dishonest behaviors during classroom and laboratory assignments. This paper further discusses these findings from the unique point of view of the characteristics of Generation Yers and the resulting implications for successful strategies that may curtail academic dishonesty.

  18. Kanturk Community Hospital, Kanturk, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-06-01

    The report presents findings and recommendations from the largest survey of bereaved relatives undertaken by two adult acute hospitals in Ireland in conjunction with their academic partners TCD and UCD. The findings provide significant insight into the quality of care delivered at end of life from the perspective of bereaved relatives. This report will be of interest to all healthcare staff involved in improving end-of-life care in acute hospitals and other healthcare settings.

  19. Prophylactic Antibiotic Management of Surgical Patients Noted as "Allergic" to Penicillin at Two Academic Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Jacques, Paul St; Wanderer, Jonathan P; Bombulie, Mark R; Agarwalla, Niraj

    2016-05-01

    We studied prophylactic antibiotics administered at 2 academic medical centers during a 6-year period where a cephalosporin was indicated but an "allergy" to penicillin was noted. Another drug (typically vancomycin or clindamycin) was substituted approximately 80% of the time; this occurred frequently even when symptoms unrelated to acute hypersensitivity were listed. In >50% of cases, the reaction was either omitted or vague (e.g., simply "rash"). Given the estimated 1% cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins with similar R1 side chains, many of these patients could have received either the prescribed cephalosporin or another cephalosporin with a different R1 side chain.

  20. The fragmented discourse of the 'knowledgeable doer': nursing academics' and nurse managers' perspectives on a master's education for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Jonathan; Hyde, Abbey

    2009-05-01

    There has been a proliferation of taught masters' degrees for nurses in recent years, and like masters' programmes in other disciplines, the aspirations of such educational endeavours are far from unanimous. This article reports on part of a wider study, and focuses on a qualitative analysis of the perspectives of two key sets of stakeholders, namely academic education providers, and senior clinical nursing personnel, on masters' education for nurses. Fifteen participants were interviewed in depth, and data were subjected to a qualitative content analysis. Findings indicated that while both sets of participants invoked the discourse of the 'knowledgeable doer', that is, the notion of amalgamating a high level of theoretical knowledge with practical know how, there were also differences in how each group deployed this discourse. Academics tended to emphasise the 'knowing that' or theoretical aspect of the discourse, whereas those in senior clinical roles adduced the practical component more strongly. We argue that the discourse of the 'knowledgeable doer' is far from stable, unified and universally agreed, but rather comprises competing elements with some emphasised over others according to the subject position of the particular individual. We locate the diverse perspectives of the two sets of stakeholders within debates about the status of masters' programmes in relation to vocational and liberal education.

  1. Assigning a team-based pager for on-call physicians reduces paging errors in a large academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Lisa; Chi, Jeffrey; Kulik, Carol; Momeni, Arash; Shelton, Andrew; DePorte, Cynthia; Hopkins, Joseph

    2014-02-01

    As complexity of care of hospitalized patients has increased, the need for communication and collaboration among members of the team caring for the patient has become increasingly important. This often takes the form of a nurse's need to contact a patient's physician to discuss some aspect of care and modify treatment plans. Errors in communication delay care and can pose risk to patients. This report describes the successful implementation of a standardized team-based paging system at an academic center. Results showed a substantial improvement in nurses' perceptions of knowing how to contact the correct physician when discussion of the patient's care is needed. This improvement was found across multiple medical and surgical specialties and was particularly effective for services with the greatest communication problems.

  2. A midwifery-led in-hospital birth center within an academic medical center: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdion, Karen; Lesser, Rebecca; Hirsch, Jennifer; Barger, Mary; Kelly, Thomas F; Moore, Thomas R; Lacoursiere, D Yvette

    2013-01-01

    The University of California San Diego Community Women's Health Program (CWHP) has emerged as a successful and sustainable coexistence model of women's healthcare. The cornerstone of this midwifery practice is California's only in-hospital birth center. Located within the medical center, this unique and physically separate birth center has been the site for more than 4000 births. With 10% cesarean delivery and 98% breast-feeding rates, it is an exceptional example of low-intervention care. Integrating this previously freestanding birth center into an academic center has brought trials of mistrust and ineffectual communication. Education, consistent leadership, and development of multidisciplinary guidelines aided in overcoming these challenges. This collaborative model provides a structure in which residents learn to be respectful consultants and appreciate differences in medical practice. The CWHP and its Birth Center illustrates that through persistence and flexibility a collaborative model of maternity services can flourish and not only positively influence new families but also future generations of providers.

  3. The Shifting Boundaries of the Academic Profession: The Malaysian Professoriate in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILLIAM G. TIERNEY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author looks at the changing nature of academic work by analysing a survey of Malaysian faculty in public universities. The Changing Academic Professions project is a first attempt to delineate the opinions and backgrounds of the Malaysian professoriate. The study is part of a larger cross-national project that involves 22 nations. The article first provides literature pertaining to academic work, and then discusses the methodology for the study. The author outlines five topics yielded from the data: (1 faculty mobility, (2 faculty satisfaction, (3 teaching satisfaction, (4 faculty power, and (5 academic freedom. The article then explores the methodological problems of the data and considers how these problems might be overcome in order to provide robust information about the changing professoriate in Malaysia.

  4. Perspective: The missing link in academic career planning and development: pursuit of meaningful and aligned work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieff, Susan J

    2009-10-01

    Retention of faculty in academic medicine is a growing challenge. It has been suggested that inattention to the humanistic values of the faculty is contributing to this problem. Professional development should consider faculty members' search for meaning, purpose, and professional fulfillment and should support the development of an ability to reflect on these issues. Ensuring the alignment of academic physicians' inner direction with their outer context is critical to professional fulfillment and effectiveness. Personal reflection on the synergy of one's strengths, passions, and values can help faculty members define meaningful work so as to enable clearer career decision making. The premise of this article is that an awareness of and the pursuit of meaningful work and its alignment with the academic context are important considerations in the professional fulfillment and retention of academic faculty. A conceptual framework for understanding meaningful work and alignment and ways in which that framework can be applied and taught in development programs are presented and discussed.

  5. The role of selective attention on academic foundations: A cognitive neuroscience perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Courtney; Bavelier, Daphné

    2012-01-01

    To the extent that selective attention skills are relevant for academic foundations and amenable to training, they represent an important focus for the field of education. Here, drawing on research on the neurobiology of attention, we review hypothesized links between selective attention and processing across three domains important to early academic skills. First, we provide a brief review of the neural bases of selective attention, emphasizing the effects of selective attention on neural pr...

  6. In search of relevance: Perspectives on the contribution of academic-practitioner networks

    OpenAIRE

    Knights, D.; Scarbrough, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper contributes to the current debate on the relevance of academic research to organizational practice but departs from the conventional view of perceiving the problem as one of improving the diffusion of knowledge from research to practice. Two theoretical lenses - Mode 2 and actor network theory - are drawn upon to examine case vignettes of the authors' involvement in academic-practitioner collaborations. The resulting analysis assists us in understanding the production of knowledge ...

  7. Appropriateness of gastrointestinal consultations for hospitalized patients in an academic medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consultation of experts in the internal medicine or surgery subspecialties is needed in the hospitalized population according to decisions of the house staff. Sometimes the referrals are not justified, consuming time and money without a significant change in the patient outcome. Objectives: The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate justification of consecutive referrals of hospitalized patients for gastroenterology consultation. Materials and Methods: Request for consultation was deemed not justified when at least one of the following parameters was found: No contribution to case management, discharge before consultation, cancellation at the last minute, and a recommendation for ambulatory management or surgery. Results: In August-September 2006, there were 232 requests for gastroenterology consultations. Of them 127 (54.7% were men. The average age was 64.13±20.33 years. Ninety-four (40.2% of the cases had been hospitalized because of other reasons than the consultation issue. Consultation was not justified in 60 patients (25.9%. Ambulatory management was a possibility in 151 cases (65.0%. Request for colonoscopy and gastrointestinal background disease were the only significant predictive factors for justification of consultation, P < 0.0001 for both. Conclusions: In one fourth of the cases, gastroenterology consultation was not justified according to our strict criteria.

  8. Perceptions of Yoga Therapy Embedded in Two Inpatient Rehabilitation Hospitals: Agency Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Miller, Kristine K.; Dickes, Lori A.; Schmid, Arlene A.

    2015-01-01

    Inpatient medical rehabilitation has maintained a typical medical-model focus and structure for many years. However, as integrative therapies, such as yoga therapy, emerge as treatments which can enhance the physical and mental health of its participants, it is important to determine if they can be easily implemented into the traditional rehabilitation structure and milieu. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of key agency personnel on the feasibility and utility of yoga therapy implemented in inpatient rehabilitation. This study reports the results of focus groups and an individual interview with key stakeholders (administrators and rehabilitation therapists) from two rehabilitation hospitals following the implementation of yoga therapy. Results focused on several key themes: feasibility from the therapist and administrator perspectives, challenges to implementation, and utility and benefit. Overall, the implementation and integration of yoga therapy were positive; however, some programmatic and policy and organizational considerations remain. Implications for practice and future research are provided. PMID:26491457

  9. Perceptions of Yoga Therapy Embedded in Two Inpatient Rehabilitation Hospitals: Agency Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Van Puymbroeck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inpatient medical rehabilitation has maintained a typical medical-model focus and structure for many years. However, as integrative therapies, such as yoga therapy, emerge as treatments which can enhance the physical and mental health of its participants, it is important to determine if they can be easily implemented into the traditional rehabilitation structure and milieu. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of key agency personnel on the feasibility and utility of yoga therapy implemented in inpatient rehabilitation. This study reports the results of focus groups and an individual interview with key stakeholders (administrators and rehabilitation therapists from two rehabilitation hospitals following the implementation of yoga therapy. Results focused on several key themes: feasibility from the therapist and administrator perspectives, challenges to implementation, and utility and benefit. Overall, the implementation and integration of yoga therapy were positive; however, some programmatic and policy and organizational considerations remain. Implications for practice and future research are provided.

  10. Comparing the perspectives of managers and employees of teaching hospitals about job motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbifar, Rafat; Zakaria Kiaei, Mohammad; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Mohseni, Mohammad

    2014-07-15

    Recognition of career motivators and understanding of managers and employees in prioritizing them, in order to plan incentives for this understanding, can play an important role in increasing productivity and creating harmony between the goals of the organization and staff. This study was done to survey the importance of career motivating factors from perspective of employees and managers in educational hospitals of Iran. In this study 269 from a total of 1843 employees of educational hospitals in Qazvin province of Iran were selected through Quota-Random sampling and studied along with all 49 Managers. Lawrence Lindale questionnaire with 10 factors where used in order to determine motivational priorities. The results indicated that among the 10 studied motivational factors, from employees' viewpoint; "Good wages", "Good Working Conditions" and "Job Security" have the greatest roles in motivating employees. In the context of perspective agreement amongst employees and managers, the results showed 20 percent agreement. In this study, results of "Independent T" test showed a significant difference in comparison, between prioritizing employees' view and prediction of managers in the factors of "Job Security" (p = 0/031) and "Interesting Work" (p = 0/001). With respect to increase disagreement in the views of managers and employees as compared to previous studies, Managers need to pay more attention to cognition of motivational factors and make their viewpoints closer to actual motivational need of their employees. Attention to this fact can be a great help to the growth and productivity of the organization, making the organizational and individual goals closer and also keeping managers safe from execution of constant and undue motivational patterns.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Staphylococcus species isolated from cats presented at a veterinary academic hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qekwana, Daniel Nenene; Sebola, Dikeledi; Oguttu, James Wabwire; Odoi, Agricola

    2017-09-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in both human and veterinary medicine. This study investigated the proportion of antimicrobial resistant samples and resistance patterns of Staphylococcus isolates from cats presented at a veterinary teaching hospital in South Africa. Records of 216 samples from cats that were submitted to the bacteriology laboratory of the University of Pretoria academic veterinary hospital between 2007 and 2012 were evaluated. Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 drugs using the disc diffusion method. Chi square and Fisher's exact tests were used to assess simple associations between antimicrobial resistance and age group, sex, breed and specimen type. Additionally, associations between Staphylococcus infection and age group, breed, sex and specimen type were assessed using logistic regression. Staphylococcus spp. isolates were identified in 17.6% (38/216) of the samples submitted and 4.6% (10/216) of these were unspeciated. The majority (61.1%,11/18) of the isolates were from skin samples, followed by otitis media (34.5%, 10/29). Coagulase Positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) comprised 11.1% (24/216) of the samples of which 7.9% (17/216) were S. intermedius group and 3.2% (7/216) were S. aureus. Among the Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (1.9%, 4/216), S. felis and S. simulans each constituted 0.9% (2/216). There was a significant association between Staphylococcus spp. infection and specimen type with odds of infection being higher for ear canal and skin compared to urine specimens. There were higher proportions of samples resistant to clindamycin 34.2% (13/25), ampicillin 32.4% (2/26), lincospectin 31.6% (12/26) and penicillin-G 29.0% (11/27). Sixty three percent (24/38) of Staphylococcus spp. were resistant to one antimicrobial agent and 15.8% were multidrug resistant (MDR). MDR was more common among S. aureus 28.6% (2/7) than S. intermedius group isolates 11.8% (2

  12. Faculty and Academic Responsiveness in a Period of Decline: An Organizational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Marvin W.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of maintaining the moral and institutional loyalty of remaining faculty during a period of retrenchment is discussed. Areas discussed are institutional perspective, decline strategy, slack resources and priorities, program reviews and planning, and professional development. (Author/LC)

  13. Protecting and promoting mental health of nurses in the hospital setting: Is it cost-effective from an employer’s perspective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Noben

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nurses are at elevated risk of burnout, anxiety and depressive disorders, and may then become less productive. This begs the question if a preventive intervention in the work setting might be cost-saving from a business perspective. Material and Methods: A cost-benefit analysis was conducted to evaluate the balance between the costs of a preventive intervention among nurses at elevated risk of mental health complaints and the cost offsets stemming from improved productivity. This evaluation was conducted alongside a cluster-randomized trial in a Dutch academic hospital. The control condition consisted of screening without feedback and unrestricted access to usual care (N = 206. In the experimental condition screen-positive nurses received personalized feedback and referral to the occupational physician (N = 207. Results: Subtracting intervention costs from the cost offsets due to reduced absenteeism and presenteeism resulted in net-savings of 244 euros per nurse when only absenteeism is regarded, and 651 euros when presenteeism is also taken into account. This corresponds to a return-on-investment of 5 euros up to 11 euros for every euro invested. Conclusions: Within half a year, the cost of offering the preventive intervention was more than recouped. Offering the preventive intervention represents a favorable business case as seen from the employer’s perspective.

  14. Oral and maxillofacial malignancies: An analysis of 77 cases seen at an academic medical hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Aremu Ibikunle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral and maxillofacial malignancies (OMMs consist of a wide range of lesions, which constitute varying proportions of the total incidence of malignancies in the human population. Available epidemiological data vary across racial, geographical, gender, and occupational divides. They are often associated with significant impairment of patients' quality of life. Materials and Methods: A review of hospital records of patients with histologically diagnosed primary OMM, who presented to the Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, over a 5-year period, was done. Data including age, gender, site, and type of tumor, and histological grade of tumor were retrieved and analyzed with the SPSS version 20.0. Results: A total of 77 cases of OMMs were identified with a male/female ratio of 1:1.03. The mean (±standard deviation age was 50.1 (17.8 years. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequently seen epithelial malignancy constituting 35.1% of all malignancies, with most patients in advanced stages of the disease. Osteosarcoma was the most frequently diagnosed sarcoma, constituting 11.7% of all malignancies seen. Salivary gland malignancies constituted 29 (37.7%. Other malignancies seen include, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, leiomyosarcoma, and malignant melanoma. Conclusion: OMMs constitute a significant health burden in our region. Thus, adequate resources should be allocated toward improving awareness among the populace. Policy shifts and regular dental visits which may increase the likelihood of early intervention should be instituted.

  15. Evaluating Midwives Communication Skills from the Perspective of Parturient Women Attending to Hospitals for Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Katebi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Communication is a fundamental human need. Medical students and healthcare professionals must be attuned to the needs of patients using effective communication skills. With regards to medical training, currently the focus is on theoretical matters and communication skills are taken for granted. This problem has caused miscommunication with patients referred to teaching hospitals. We conducted this study to assess communication skills of midwives from the perspective of parturient women. Methods: In this descriptive study, we evaluated 50 midwives working in maternity wards of Ghaem, Imam Reza, Omolbanin, and Hasheminejad hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. Three parturient women were selected per one midwife in a maternity ward. The parturient women participating in this study were in labor, delivery, admission or postpartum stages and completed the Interpersonal Communication Skills inventory by interview. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation were performed, using SPSS 16. Results: The mean scores of communication behaviors of midwives with parturient in delivery, admission, and postpartum stages were 92.61±10.81, 93.31±10.59, and 94.19±8.26, respectively. Between the previous delivery of parturient, with communication behavior of midwives in the stage of admiss­ion or post-partum (P=0.015 and satisfaction of pregnancy with communication behavior of midwife in labor stage (P

  16. Opportunities for quality improvement in bereavement care at a children's hospital: assessment of interdisciplinary staff perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contro, Nancy; Sourkes, Barbara M

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the current state of bereavement care at a university-based children's hospital from the perspective of the interdisciplinary staff. In all, 60 staff members from multiple disciplines participated in in-depth interviews. In at least two-thirds of the interviews, issues related to the bereavement experience of both staff and families emerged and were consistently identified. Themes included: disparities in bereavement care based on relationship factors; logistics of time and space; geographical distances; the different cultures and languages of families; continuity in family follow-up; needs of siblings and other family members; staff communication, cooperation, and care coordination; staff suffering; and education, mentoring, and support for staff. This evidence-based needs assessment furnishes an empirical basis for the design and implementation of bereavement services for both families and staff. It can serve as a template for evaluation at other children's hospitals and thus contribute to the sound and creative development of the field of pediatric palliative care.

  17. Predictors of Academic Performance and School Engagement--Integrating Persistence, Motivation and Study Skills Perspectives Using Person-Centered and Variable-Centered Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Dias, Paulo; Vaz, Filipa Machado; Vaz, Joao Machado

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need for the integration of various theoretical perspectives on academic performance, especially the theories on educational persistence, and motivational theories. Recent models of students' engagement with school incorporate different dimensions of students, family and school. However, some authors are arguing that academic…

  18. Do Reasons for Attending College Affect Academic Outcomes?: A Test of a Motivational Model from a Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiffrida, Douglas A.; Lynch, Martin F.; Wall, Andrew F.; Abel, Darlene S.

    2013-01-01

    A survey of 2,520 college students was conducted to test relationships between academic success and college student motivational orientation, conceptualized from a self-determination theory (SDT) perspective, while also considering the moderating effects of background characteristics such as gender, socioeconomic status, race/ ethnicity, and…

  19. Should the "in situ" simulation become the new way in Belgium? Experience of an academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiech, A; Lois, F; Van Dyck, M; Kahn, D; De Kock, M

    2013-01-01

    The place of simulation in medical education, particularly in anesthesia, appears to be more and more evident. However, the history of simulation in Belgium showed that the associated costs remain a barrier. The use of 'in situ' simulation, defined as the practice of simulation in the usual workplace, could solve the problem of providing access to this educational tool. Indeed, it allows reducing equipment and manpower costs: the needed equipment comes from the hospital, and supervision and organization are provided by staff members. It also provides access to simulation for a larger number of individuals on site. The environment is more realistic because the participants operate in their usual workplace, with their customary equipment and team. Furthermore, 'in situ' simulation allows participation of the paramedical staff. This allows developing skills related to teamwork and communication. Despite those numerous advantages, several difficulties persist. The associated logistic and organizational constraints can be cumbersome.

  20. Parental Influences on the Academic Motivation of Gifted Students: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    The home environment that parents provide their gifted children can have a significant impact on academic motivation, yet limited research has focused on this topic. Self-determination theory, a comprehensive framework of motivation, was used in the current study to explore two research questions: (a) What attitudes do parents of gifted students…

  1. A perspective on problems and prospects for academic publishing in Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meadows, M.; Dietz, A.J.; Vandermotten, C.

    2016-01-01

    This commentary highlights problems of inequity in academic publishing in geography that arise from the increasing use of metrics as a measure of research quality. In so doing, we examine patterns in the ranking of geographical journals in the major global databases (e.g. Web of Science, Scopus) and

  2. Determining the Effects of LMS Learning Behaviors on Academic Achievement in a Learning Analytic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS, which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this purpose, the participating students’ online learning behaviors in LMS were examined by using learning analytics for 14 weeks, and the relationship between students’ behaviors and their academic achievements was analyzed, followed by an analysis of their views about the influence of LMS on their academic achievement. The present study, in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected, was carried out with the explanatory mixed method. A total of 71 undergraduate students participated in the study. The results revealed that the students used LMSs as a support to face-to-face education more intensively on course days (at the beginning of the related lessons and at nights on course days and that they activated the content elements the most. Lastly, almost all the students agreed that LMSs helped increase their academic achievement only when LMSs included such features as effectiveness, interaction, reinforcement, attractive design, social media support, and accessibility.

  3. The Relationships among School Types, Teacher Efficacy Beliefs, and Academic Climate: Perspective from Asian Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Wan Har; Klassen, Robert M.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella; Kates, Allison Diane

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored how prior student achievement, through school types, predicted teacher self- and collective efficacy and perceived academic climate of 222 middle school teachers in Singapore. Teachers assigned to high-track and regular middle schools differed in their perception of self- and collective efficacy to promote organizational…

  4. The Internationalization of the Academic Profession in Japan: A Quantitative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2009-01-01

    This article mainly deals with the nature and extent of the changes in the internationalization of higher education experienced by the academic profession of Japanese higher education institutions over the period from 1992 to 2007 and shown through the two national surveys. In addition to the statistics concerning the internationalization of…

  5. Spatial Experiences of High Academic Achievers: Insights from a Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckbacher, Lisa Marie; Okamoto, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between types of spatial experiences and spatial abilities among 13- to 14-year-old high academic achievers. Each participant completed two spatial tasks and a survey assessing favored spatial activities across five categories (computers, toys, sports, music, and art) and three developmental periods (early…

  6. Investigating the Relationship between Vocabulary Knowledge and Academic Reading Performance: An Assessment Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, David D.

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted in the context of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) research to conceptually validate the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in reading comprehension in academic settings and to empirically evaluate a test measuring three elements of the depth dimension of vocabulary knowledge, including,…

  7. Perspectives on Academic Staff Involvement in the Acquisition and Implementation of Educational Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Laurence; Johannesen, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study using both quantitative and qualitative data to uncover the extent and nature of the involvement of academic staff in the processes of acquisition and implementation of educational technologies. Actor-network theory (ANT) is used to inform the design of the study and the analysis of the data. Three main…

  8. An Investigation into Academic Burnout among Taiwanese Adolescents from the Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempted to explore the relations among Taiwanese eighth graders' perceptions of teachers' autonomy support versus psychological control, satisfaction of need for autonomy, work engagement, and academic burnout. Four hundred and seven eighth-grade Taiwanese students completed a self-reported survey assessing the variables…

  9. Academic Drift in Dutch Non-University Higher Education Evaluated: A Staff Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Didi M. E.; de Jong, Uulkje

    2013-01-01

    In the context of a European knowledge economy, the Dutch non-university institutions systematically develop research activities at a higher frequency than before. With this development, they have been accused of academic drift, of striving to receive a status comparable to traditional universities. This study considers the perceptions of both…

  10. Studying the Impact of Academic Mobility on Intercultural Competence: A Mixed-Methods Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cots, Josep M.; Aguilar, Marta; Mas-Alcolea, Sònia; Llanes, Àngels

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the study of the impact of academic mobility on the development of students' intercultural competence (IC). Following Byram, IC is seen as comprising the three components of knowledge, behaviour and attitude. The study adopts a mixed-methods approach, analysing the results of a quantitative pre-stay post-stay survey…

  11. Spatial Experiences of High Academic Achievers: Insights from a Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckbacher, Lisa Marie; Okamoto, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between types of spatial experiences and spatial abilities among 13- to 14-year-old high academic achievers. Each participant completed two spatial tasks and a survey assessing favored spatial activities across five categories (computers, toys, sports, music, and art) and three developmental periods (early…

  12. Understanding the Changing Role of Academic Librarians from a Psychological Perspective: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Ellen I.; Pung, Stephanie K.

    2011-01-01

    Although issues related to the role of librarians have long been discussed in the literature on academic librarianship, there has been little attempt to incorporate the extensive psychological theory and research on role-related issues. In the current article we review the empirical literature on the role of librarians, with a particular focus on…

  13. Validating Student Satisfaction Related to Persistence, Academic Performance, Retention and Career Advancement within ODL Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, Maximus Gorky

    2015-01-01

    Student satisfaction associated with persistence, academic performance, retention, and its relations to career advancement were examined. It was aimed at measuring service quality (Servqual) dimensions as a foundation of satisfaction and how, in what comportments, they were interrelated. The study was conducted under explanatory-design. Data was…

  14. An Investigation into Academic Burnout among Taiwanese Adolescents from the Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempted to explore the relations among Taiwanese eighth graders' perceptions of teachers' autonomy support versus psychological control, satisfaction of need for autonomy, work engagement, and academic burnout. Four hundred and seven eighth-grade Taiwanese students completed a self-reported survey assessing the variables…

  15. Teachers' Perspective on Institutional Barriers to Academic Entrepreneurship--A Case of Uttarakhand State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lalit

    2017-01-01

    The study explores the institutional factors which influence the impact of education in building academic entrepreneurship in higher educational institutes of Uttarakhand state, India. In order to understand the institutional barriers, the author interviewed 68 senior-level educationists, who were working in the capacity of Director General,…

  16. Parental Influences on the Academic Motivation of Gifted Students: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    The home environment that parents provide their gifted children can have a significant impact on academic motivation, yet limited research has focused on this topic. Self-determination theory, a comprehensive framework of motivation, was used in the current study to explore two research questions: (a) What attitudes do parents of gifted students…

  17. Academic Motherhood: Mid-Career Perspectives and the Ideal Worker Norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kelly; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores how mid-career tenured women faculty, who are mothers and academics, manage multiple roles. The women represent faculty at a variety of institutional types and in a variety of disciplines. The chapter looks at these experiences in light of ideal worker norms.

  18. Difficulties of Academic Achievement in Principles of Accounting Courses from the Student Perspective: Evidence from Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailab, Mohamed M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies by researchers and accounting educators explore various factors associated with the success or failure of accounting majors in college level accounting courses. This paper identifies and summarizes the main obstacles associated with low student academic achievement in introductory courses in the College of Accounting at Al-Jabal…

  19. Capacity Levels of Academic Staff in a Malaysian Public University: Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Muhammad Jawad; Ghani, Muhammad Faizal A.; Siraj, Saedah; Saifuldin, Mohd Helmi Firdaus; Kenayatulla, Husaina Banu; Elham, Faisol

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to develop a competency model for staff of higher education institutions in Malaysia. The model involves the listing of the main features and implementation strategy for the development of academic competence. Specifically, this research aims to achieve the following research objectives: a) to identify if there is any…

  20. Exploring Barriers and Solutions to Academic Writing: Perspectives from Students, Higher Education and Further Education Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itua, Imose; Coffey, Margaret; Merryweather, David; Norton, Lin; Foxcroft, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Staff and student perceptions of what constitutes good academic writing in both further and higher education often differ. This is reflected in written assignments which frequently fall below the expected standard. In seeking to develop the writing skills of students and propose potential solutions to writing difficulties, a study was conducted in…

  1. Saudi English-Major Undergraduates' Academic Writing Problems: A Taif University Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khairy, Mohamed Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate Saudi English-major undergraduates studying at Taif University to identify a) the types of academic writing Saudi English-major undergraduates carry out at English departments, b) Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems, c) the reasons behind Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems and…

  2. Communication Disorders in the School: Perspectives on Academic and Social Success an Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Karen L.; Fletcher, Kathryn; Decker, Blair

    2008-01-01

    The critical role of communication in schools cannot be understated. Communication skills are a necessity both in the academic and social atmosphere of the school environment. Unfortunately, there are a large number of children in the schools today identified with speech and language disorders. This special edition of "Psychology in the Schools"…

  3. Homeland Security Education: Managerial versus Nonmanagerial Market Perspectives of an Academic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Daniel; Henley, Russ; McElreath, David; Lackey, Hilliard; Jones, Don; Gokaraju, Balakrishna; Sumrall, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors discuss the findings of a market study that preceded the offering of an academic program in homeland security. The university disseminated a mail survey to gain data for analysis of variance testing of several hypotheses regarding market perceptions of the intended homeland security program offering. Stratification involved segregating…

  4. Sentiments and Perspectives of Academics about Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have made a dramatic entry into higher education. Promising to provide an affordable, if not free, education, MOOCs are celebrated for promoting learning in lieu of the physical classroom. This exploratory study employs content analysis to make visible how MOOCs are viewed by academically oriented observers.…

  5. Predicting Academic Success and Technological Literacy in Secondary Education: A Learning Styles Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsec, Stanislav; Szewczyk-Zakrzewska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the predictive validity of learning styles on academic achievement and technological literacy (TL). For this purpose, secondary school students were recruited (n = 150). An empirical research design was followed where the TL test was used with a learning style inventory measuring learning orientation, processing…

  6. Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This database contains locations of Hospitals for 50 states and Washington D.C. , Puerto Rico and US territories. The dataset only includes hospital facilities and...

  7. Academic Training Lectures | Black Holes from a Particle Physics Perspective | 18-19 November

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Black Holes from a Particle Physics Perspective by Georgi Dvali   Tuesday 18 and Wednesday 19 November 2014 from 11 am to 12 noon at CERN ( 40-S2-A01 - Salle Anderson ) Description: We will review the physics of black holes, both large and small, from a particle physicist's perspective, using particle physics tools for describing concepts such as entropy, temperature and quantum information processing. We will also discuss microscopic pictures of black hole formation in high energy particle scattering, potentially relevant for high-energy accelerator experiments, and some differences and similarities with the signatures of other BSM physics. See the Indico page here.

  8. Academic-Hospital Partnership: Conducting a Community Health Needs Assessment as a Service Learning Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumwiede, Kelly A; Van Gelderen, Stacey A; Krumwiede, Norma K

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this service learning project were to trial nursing student application of the Community-Based Collaborative Action Research (CBCAR) framework while conducting a community health needs assessment and to assess the effectiveness of the CBCAR framework in providing real-world learning opportunities for enhancing baccalaureate nursing students' public health knowledge. In this case study analysis, the CBCAR framework linked service learning and community health needs assessment with public health nursing core competencies. Fifteen nursing students partnered with collaborative members. Student observational field notes and narrative reflections were analyzed qualitatively for fidelity to the CBCAR framework and to evaluate student public health knowledge. Students successfully employed the CBCAR framework in collaboration with the critical access hospital and community stakeholders to design and conduct the community health needs assessment. Service learning themes were real-world solutions, professional development, community collaboration, and making a difference. Students developed skills in six of the eight domains of the Quad Council's core competencies for public health nurses. Community-Based Collaborative Action Research facilitates collaborative partnerships and relationships throughout the research process. Students benefited by applying what they have learned from their education to a real community who lacks resources. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparative analysis of acute toxic poisoning in 2003 and 2011: analysis of 3 academic hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hak-Soo; Kim, Jung-Youn; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Hong, Yun-Sik; Lee, Sung-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Social factors may affect the available sources of toxic substances and causes of poisoning; and these factors may change over time. Additionally, understanding the characteristics of patients with acute toxic poisoning is important for treating such patients. Therefore, this study investigated the characteristics of patients with toxic poisoning. Patients visiting one of 3 hospitals in 2003 and 2011 were included in this study. Data on all patients who were admitted to the emergency departments with acute toxic poisoning were retrospectively obtained from medical records. Total 939 patients were analyzed. The average age of patients was 40.0 ± 20 yr, and 335 (36.9%) patients were men. Among the elements that did not change over time were the facts that suicide was the most common cause, that alcohol consumption was involved in roughly 1 of 4 cases, and that there were more women than men. Furthermore, acetaminophen and doxylamine remained the most common poisoning agents. In conclusion, the average patient age and psychotic drug poisoning has increased over time, and the use of lavage treatment has decreased.

  10. Barcode Technology Acceptance and Utilization in Health Information Management Department at Academic Hospitals According to Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehteshami, Asghar

    2017-01-01

    Nowdays, due to the increasing importance of quality care, organizations focuse on the improving provision, management and distribution of health. On one hand, incremental costs of the new technologies and on the other hand, increased knowledge of health care recipients and their expectations for high quality services have doubled the need to make changes in order to respond to resource constraints (financial, human, material). For this purpose, several technologies, such as barcode, have been used in hospitals to improve services and staff productivity; but various factors effect on the adoption of new technologies and despite good implementation of a technology and its benefits, sometimes personnel don’t accept and don’t use it. Methods: This is an applied descriptive cross-sectional study in which all the barcode users in health information management department of the three academic hospitals (Feiz, Al-Zahra, Ayatollah Kashani) affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were surveyed by the barcode technology acceptance questionnaire, in six areas as following: barcode ease of learning, capabilities, perception of its usefulness and its ease of use, users attitudes towards its using, and users intention. Results: The finding showed that barcode technology total acceptance was relatively desirable (%76.9); the most compliance with TAM model was related to the user perceptions about the ease of use of barcode technology and the least compliance was related to the ease of learning barcode technology (respectively %83.7 and %71.5). Conclusion: Ease of learning and barcode capability effect of usefulness and perceived ease of barcode technology. Users perceptions effect their attitudes toward greater use of technology and their attitudes have an effect on their intention to use the technology and finally, their intention makes actual use of the technology (acceptance). Therefore, considering the six elements related to technology implementation can be

  11. The characteristics of HIV and AIDS patients with deep vein thrombosis at Dr. George Mukhari Academic Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiran Govender

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is 10 times more prevalent in HIV and AIDS patients than in the general population and is more common in patients with severe immune suppression (CD4 < 200 cells/mL. Opportunistic infections render HIV and AIDS patients susceptible to a hypercoaguable state, including lower protein S levels. Aim and setting: To present the profile of HIV and AIDS patients who developed DVT in the primary care wards of Dr. George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH, Garankuwa. Methods: Cross-sectional study of clinical records of admitted HIV and AIDS patients without DVT to the primary care wards, DGMAH, from 01 February 2010 to 31 January 2011. Results: Two hundred and twenty-nine patients were admitted and 17 (7.4% developed DVT. Of those that developed DVT, eight (47% had infection with tuberculosis (TB, four (24% had pneumonia and four (24% had gastroenteritis. The risk of developing DVT was 8/94 (8.5% in those with TB, 4/53 (7.5% in those with gastroenteritis and 4/75 (5.3% in those with pneumonia. The mean duration of stay was 14.1 days in those with DVT versus 4.0 days in those without. Conclusion: HIV (and AIDS is a hypercoaguable state and the risk of DVT is relatively high in patients with opportunistic infections. HIV and AIDS patients who are admitted to hospital with opportunistic infections may benefit from anti-thrombotic prophylaxis and further studies are needed to evaluate this.

  12. Validating Student Satisfaction Related to Persistence, Academic Performance, Retention and Career Advancement within ODL Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximus Gorky Sembiring

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Student satisfaction associated with persistence, academic performance, retention, and its relations to career advancement were examined. It was aimed at measuring service quality (Servqual dimensions as a foundation of satisfaction and how, in what comportments, they were interrelated. The study was conducted under explanatory-design. Data was collected proportionally and purposively followed by congregating them through unified interviews. Population was 1,814 Universitas Terbuka students domiciled overseas; 350 questionnaires were dispersed, 169 completed. Satisfaction was assessed by examining Servqual dimensions. Importance-performance analysis (IPA and customer-satisfaction index (CSI were applied to measure satisfaction and the level of its importance. Structural equation model (SEM was then employed to examine influencing variables. Nine hypotheses developed were all validated by the analysis. Responsiveness, assurance, tangible, reliability, and empathy were in harmony to satisfaction. Career advancement, retention, academic performance, and persistence were influenced by satisfaction. Qualitative inquiry implemented afterwards was basically coherent with the quantitative findings.

  13. Responding to the Challenges of KM Education in the LIS Sector: Some Academic and Professional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeri, Afsaneh; Martin, Bill

    2009-01-01

    As a newly emerging field of study, KM education is faced with significant challenges which continue to evolve. Informed by wider organisational perspectives, this paper presents the findings of recent research into this field. The first part of the research was in the form of an online survey canvassing the views of the wider LIS community on the…

  14. Academic Librarians' Perceptions on Information Literacy: The Israeli Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Noa; Bronstein, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Information literacy (IL) is a necessary skill crucial for effective functioning in today's knowledge society. This study seeks to explore Israeli librarians' perspectives toward major components of information literacy. Do librarians find there is a need to redefine the concept? Who do they think should teach it? How do they think Web…

  15. ADHD and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: Adult Student Perspectives on Learning Needs and Academic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study is to understand, from their own perspective, the learning needs of adult college students with comorbid attention deficits and psychiatric disabilities, and to identify services and practices that support their success in the college environment. Adult students with comorbid attention deficits and psychiatric disorders…

  16. Students' Perspectives on Academic Writing in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study brings together three student comments and three theoretical constructs taken from Bakhtin's (1981) collection of essays "The Dialogic Imagination", written in the 1930s. Bakhtin's concepts of the chronotope, interanimation and the monologic provide lenses on a shifting student perspective on authoritative writing in…

  17. Students' Perspectives on Academic Writing in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study brings together three student comments and three theoretical constructs taken from Bakhtin's (1981) collection of essays "The Dialogic Imagination", written in the 1930s. Bakhtin's concepts of the chronotope, interanimation and the monologic provide lenses on a shifting student perspective on authoritative writing in…

  18. Reasons for inpatients not to seek clarity at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langalibalele H. Mabuza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare practitioners should provide patients with information regarding their clinical conditions. Patients should also feel free to seek clarity on information provided. However, not all patients seek this clarity.Objectives: To explore the reasons inpatients gave for not seeking clarity on information that was received but not understood.Methods: This was a qualitative arm of a larger study, titled ‘Are inpatients aware of the admission reasons and management plans of their clinical conditions? A survey at a tertiary hospital in South Africa’, conducted in 2010. Of the 264 inpatients who participated in the larger study, we extracted the unstructured responses from those participants (n = 152 who had indicated in the questionnaire that there was information they had not understood during their encounter with healthcare practitioners, but that they had nonetheless not sought clarity.Data were analysed thematically.Results: Themes that emerged were that inpatients did not ask for clarity as they perceived healthcare practitioners to be ‘too busy’, aloof, non-communicators and sometimes uncertain about patients’ conditions. Some inpatients had unquestioning trust in healthcare practitioners,whilst others had experiences of bad treatment. Inpatients had poor self-esteem, incapacitating clinical conditions, fear of bad news and prior knowledge of their clinical conditions. Some inpatients stated that they had no reason for not seeking clarity.Conclusion: The reasons for not seeking clarity were based on patients’ experiences with the healthcare practitioners and their perceptions of the latter and of themselves. A programme should be developed in order to educate inpatients on effective communication with their healthcare practitioners.

  19. Readability of pediatric otolaryngology information by children's hospitals and academic institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Levi, Jessica R

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate the readability of pediatric otolaryngology-related patient education materials from leading online sources. Cross-sectional analysis. All pediatric otolaryngology-related articles from the online patient health libraries of the top 10 US News & World Report-ranked children's hospitals, top 5 Doximity-ranked pediatric otolaryngology fellowships, and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery were collected. Each article was copied in plain text format into a blank document. Web page navigation, appointment information, references, author information, appointment information, acknowledgements, and disclaimers were removed. Follow-up editing was also performed to remove paragraph breaks, colons, semicolons, numbers, percentages, and bullets. Readability grade was calculated using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease Score, Gunning-Fog Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were assessed. A total of 502 articles were analyzed. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were both excellent, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 and 0.96, respectively. The average readability grade across all authorships and readability assessments exceeded the reading ability of the average American adult. Only 142 articles (28.3%) were written at or below the reading ability of the average American adult, whereas the remaining 360 articles (71.7%) were written above the reading level of the average adult. Current online health information related to pediatric otolaryngology may be too difficult for the average reader to understand. Revisions may be necessary for current materials to benefit a larger readership. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E138-E144, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Going Beyond Academic Integrity Might Broaden our Understanding of Plagiarism in Science Education: A Perspective from a Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Christiane C; Santos, Patrícia S Dos; Sant'ana, Maurício C; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Barboza, Monica B; Vasconcelos, Sonia M R

    2017-05-01

    Fostering innovation and creativity is a priority in the science and education policy agenda of most countries, which have advocated that innovative minds and processes will boost scientific and economic growth. While our knowledge society has embraced this view, fostering creativity is among the major challenges faced by educators and policymakers. For example, plagiarism, which may be considered a form of imitation and repetition, is a global concern at schools and universities. However, most discussions focus on academic integrity, which, we believe, leaves some gaps in the approach to the problem. As part of an ongoing project on plagiarism, science and education policy, we show results from a survey sent to 143 high-school science teachers at one of the most highly regarded federal schools in Brazil. Among respondents (n=42), about 50% admit that students plagiarize in assignments. Additionally, many of these educators suggest that the way biology, chemistry and physics are taught at school stimulates more repetition than creativity. Our findings are consistent with the need for a broader perspective on plagiarism and with initiatives to stimulate creativity and critical thinking among students. Although we offer a perspective from Brazil, it may illuminate current discussions on plagiarism, particularly in emerging countries.

  1. Going Beyond Academic Integrity Might Broaden our Understanding of Plagiarism in Science Education: A Perspective from a Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIANE C. SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fostering innovation and creativity is a priority in the science and education policy agenda of most countries, which have advocated that innovative minds and processes will boost scientific and economic growth. While our knowledge society has embraced this view, fostering creativity is among the major challenges faced by educators and policymakers. For example, plagiarism, which may be considered a form of imitation and repetition, is a global concern at schools and universities. However, most discussions focus on academic integrity, which, we believe, leaves some gaps in the approach to the problem. As part of an ongoing project on plagiarism, science and education policy, we show results from a survey sent to 143 high-school science teachers at one of the most highly regarded federal schools in Brazil. Among respondents (n=42, about 50% admit that students plagiarize in assignments. Additionally, many of these educators suggest that the way biology, chemistry and physics are taught at school stimulates more repetition than creativity. Our findings are consistent with the need for a broader perspective on plagiarism and with initiatives to stimulate creativity and critical thinking among students. Although we offer a perspective from Brazil, it may illuminate current discussions on plagiarism, particularly in emerging countries.

  2. The role of selective attention on academic foundations: a cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Bavelier, Daphne

    2012-02-15

    To the extent that selective attention skills are relevant for academic foundations and amenable to training, they represent an important focus for the field of education. Here, drawing on research on the neurobiology of attention, we review hypothesized links between selective attention and processing across three domains important to early academic skills. First, we provide a brief review of the neural bases of selective attention, emphasizing the effects of selective attention on neural processing, as well as the neural systems important to deploying selective attention and managing response conflict. Second, we examine the developmental time course of selective attention. It is argued that developmental differences in selective attention are related to the neural systems important for deploying selective attention and managing response conflict. In contrast, once effectively deployed, selective attention acts through very similar neural mechanisms across ages. In the third section, we relate the processes of selective attention to three domains important to academic foundations: language, literacy, and mathematics. Fourth, drawing on recent literatures on the effects of video-game play and mind-brain training on selective attention, we discuss the possibility of training selective attention. The final section examines the application of these principles to educationally-focused attention-training programs for children.

  3. Tinto's Theoretical Perspective and Expectancy-Value Paradigm: A confrontation to explain freshmen's academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Neuville

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, success in postsecondary education has preoccupied psychological and educational researchers. In this respect, Tinto's student integration model (1982, 1997 is one of the most frequently cited models. Tinto proposed that students' background characteristics, initial intentions and aspirations towards college influence their academic and social integration, which in turn affect their persistence. Unfortunately, although this model is an integrative one, it does not take motivational variables such as students' self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997; Bong & Skaalvik, 2003 and students' subjective value of academic tasks (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Neuville, 2004 into account although their impact on learning has been widely demonstrated (Robbins, Lauver, Le, Davis, & Langley, 2004. The purpose of this study, conducted with 2637 first-year university students from all the Bachelor's degree programs of a Belgian university, is to compare, through structural equation models, the explanatory power of these two research traditions (students' integration, on the one hand, and a motivational paradigm, on the other hand in predicting students' academic performance.

  4. Perspective: Malpractice in an academic medical center: a frequently overlooked aspect of professionalism education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Mark S; Seib, Carolyn D; Berman, Russell S; Kalet, Adina L; Zabar, Sondra R; Pachter, H Leon

    2011-03-01

    Understanding how medical malpractice occurs and is resolved is important to improving patient safety and preserving the viability of a physician's career in academic medicine. Every physician is likely to be sued by a patient, and how the physician responds can change his or her professional life. However, the principles of medical malpractice are rarely taught or addressed during residency training. In fact, many faculty at academic medical centers know little about malpractice.In this article, the authors propose that information about the inciting causes of malpractice claims and their resolution should be incorporated into residency professionalism curricula both to improve patient safety and to decrease physician anxiety about a crucial aspect of medicine that is not well understood. The authors provide information on national trends in malpractice litigation and residents' understanding of malpractice, then share the results of their in-depth review of surgical malpractice claims filed during 2001-2008 against their academic medical center. The authors incorporated those data into an evidence-driven curriculum for residents, which they propose as a model for helping residents better understand the events that lead to malpractice litigation, as well as its process and prevention.

  5. Clinical Profile, Predictors of Mortality, and Treatment of Patients after Myocardial Infarction, in an Academic Medical Center Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornoff Leonardo A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical profiles, predictors of 30-day mortality, and the adherence to international recommendations for the treatment of myocardial infarction in an academic medical center hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 172 patients with acute myocardial infarction, admitted in the intensive care unit from January 1992 to December 1997. RESULTS: Most patients were male (68%, white (97%, and over 60 years old (59%. The main risk factor for coronary atherosclerotic disease was systemic blood hypertension (63%. Among all the variables studied, reperfusion therapy, smoking, hypertension, cardiogenic shock, and age were the predictors of 30-day mortality. Most commonly used medications were: acetylsalicylic acid (71%, nitrates (61%, diuretics (51%, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (46%, thrombolytic therapy (39%, and beta-blockers (35%. CONCLUSION: The absence of reperfusion therapy, smoking status, hypertension, cardiogenic shock, and advanced age are predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. In addition, some medications that are undoubtedly beneficial have been under-used after acute myocardial infarction.

  6. Recommendations on pre-hospital & early hospital management of acute heart failure: a consensus paper from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, the European Society of Emergency Medicine and the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebazaa, Alexandre; Yilmaz, M Birhan; Levy, Phillip; Ponikowski, Piotr; Peacock, W Frank; Laribi, Said; Ristic, Arsen D; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Masip, Josep; Riley, Jillian P; McDonagh, Theresa; Mueller, Christian; deFilippi, Christopher; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Thiele, Holger; Piepoli, Massimo F; Metra, Marco; Maggioni, Aldo; McMurray, John; Dickstein, Kenneth; Damman, Kevin; Seferovic, Petar M; Ruschitzka, Frank; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Bellou, Abdelouahab; Anker, Stefan D; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Acute heart failure is a fatal syndrome. Emergency physicians, cardiologists, intensivists, nurses and other health care providers have to cooperate to provide optimal benefit. However, many treatment decisions are opinion-based and few are evidenced-based. This consensus paper provides guidance to practicing physicians and nurses to manage acute heart failure in the pre-hospital and hospital setting. Criteria of hospitalization and of discharge are described. Gaps in knowledge and perspectives in the management of acute heart failure are also detailed. This consensus paper on acute heart failure might help enable contiguous practice.

  7. [Quality in the anesthesia department of San Cecilio Hospital from the professionals' perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danet-Danet, A; Palacios-Córdoba, A; March-Cerdá, J C

    To evaluate the quality of the services provided by the anaesthesia department of the San Cecilio Clinical University Hospital, from the health professionals' point of view. Location: Andalusia. 134 health professionals in contact with the hospital anaesthesia department. Tool: self-administered questionnaire, measuring: accessibility, personal treatment, comfort, scientific and technical quality (scale 1 to 5), overall satisfaction (scale 0 to 10), and suggestions for improvement. A descriptive statistical and correlation analysis were performed, including mean differences (by sex, frequency of contact with the anaesthesia department, and unit), as well as a regression model. The quality of personal treatment received a mean of 4.2 points (SD 0.651), the scientific and technical quality 4.00 points (SD 0.532), accessibility 3.3 (SD 0.795), professional comfort 3.30 (SD 0.988), and patient comfort 2.62 points (SD 1.051). Overall satisfaction obtained a mean of 7.1 points (0 to 10 scale). Women and professionals working in units with less than 10 people had a better general evaluation of the anaesthesia department. The worse perspective was that of staff with daily contact with the anaesthesia department. Among the suggestions for improvement there were: Reducing waiting lists, creating special rooms to give information to families, improving working conditions, training and work satisfaction for staff, and achieving better communication and collaboration between health professionals. The internal evaluation shows the need for training strategies and organisational interventions in the anaesthesia department, in order to achieve a better quality and satisfaction for both professionals and patients. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Stakeholder perspectives and reactions to "academic" cognitive enhancement: Unsuspected meaning of ambivalence and analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric

    2012-07-01

    The existence of diverging discourses in the media and academia on the use of prescription medications to improve cognition in healthy individuals, i.e. "cognitive enhancement" (CE) creates the need to better understand perspectives from stakeholders. This qualitative focus-group study examined perspectives from students, parents and healthcare providers on CE. Stakeholders expressed ambivalence regarding CE (i.e. reactions to, definitions of, risks, and benefits). They were reluctant to adopt analogies to performance-enhancing steroids and caffeine though these analogies were useful in discussing concepts common to the use of different performance-enhancing substances. Media coverage of CE was criticized for lack of scientific rigor, ethical clarity, and inadvertent promotion of CE. Ambivalence of stakeholders suggests fundamental discomfort with economic and social driving forces of CE. Forms of public dialogue that voice the unease and ambivalence of stakeholders should be pursued to avoid opting hastily for permissive or restrictive health policies for CE.

  9. Letramento acadêmico: uma perspectiva etramento portuguesa = Academic literacy: a Portuguese perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Fischer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Os modos de constituição letrada de alunos universitários, no meio acadêmico, é foco deste trabalho, realizado em Portugal, no ano de 2006. Os dados que integram as análises advêm de entrevistas orais semiestruturadas realizadas com alunos do curso de Letras da Universidade do Minho. São selecionadas as falas de quatro alunas, a fim de se proceder a discussões específicas e coerentes ao objetivo proposto: analisar como alunos constituem-se sujeitos letrados no meio acadêmico. A teoria do letramento como prática social direciona as discussões e análises dos resultados advindos das falas vivas das alunas. Em acréscimo, abordagens relativas ao letramento acadêmico são decisivas para a compreensão das práticas letradas nesse contexto social. Na perspectiva das quatro alunas/sujeitos da pesquisa, experiências anteriores ao ingresso no curso de Letras e,principalmente, as diversas formas de interação no meio acadêmico interferem no uso, no domínio da linguagem e na formação como professoras. Das falas das alunas emerge uma tensão constante entre ser aluno e ser professor, o que indica uma constituição letrada emconflito, no que tange ao ensino de língua em Letras.Current analysis deals with modes of literate constituency of undergraduate students in an academic environment. Study hasbeen undertaken in Portugal in 2006. Data for analysis hailed from half-structured interviews with students in a Language and Literature graduation course at the University of Minho, Portugal. Samples of responses by four students were selected for specific discussions and with the proposed objective of this study, or rather, to analyze the way students constitute themselves as literate subjects in the academic environment. Literacy theory as social practice guided thediscussions and analyses of results from the interviews. Approaches related to academic literacy are crucial for the understanding of the literate practices in this social

  10. Hospital acquisitions, parenting styles and management accounting change: An institutional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, Andrea; Lecci, Francesca; Longo, Francesco; Morelli, Marco

    2017-02-01

    Many healthcare scholars have applied institutional theories to the study of management accounting systems (MAS) change. However, little attention has been devoted to MAS change within groups. Kostova et al. highlight the limitations of traditional institutional frameworks in studying groups since they are characterised not only by the existence of external institutional environments but also by intra-organisational (meso-level) ones. Given this background, the research question is: how does the meso-level institutional environment affect MAS change in healthcare groups? We use a longitudinal multiple-case study design to understand the role of headquarters in shaping local MAS change. We would expect companies to adopt similar MAS. However, we argue that the relationship between external institutions and MAS change cannot be wholly understood without taking into consideration the role of headquarters. Our analysis shows how hospitals facing the same external institutional environment implement different MAS as a consequence of different parenting styles. From a scientific perspective, our article contributes to broaden traditional institutional theoretical frameworks.

  11. [Institutional violence, medical authority, and power relations in maternity hospitals from the perspective of health workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Janaina Marques de; d'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas; Schraiber, Lilia Blima

    2013-11-01

    The current article discusses institutional violence in maternity hospitals from the health workers' perspective, based on data from a study in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Eighteen health workers from the public and private sectors were interviewed, including obstetricians, nurses, and nurse technicians. A semi-structured interview was used with questions on professional experience and the definition of violence. The analysis revealed that these health workers acknowledged the existence of discriminatory and disrespectful practices against women during prenatal care, childbirth, and the postpartum. Examples of such practices cited by interviewees included the use of pejorative slang as a form of "humor", threats, reprimands, and negligence in the management of pain. Such practices are not generally viewed by health workers as violent, but rather as the exercise of professional authority in what is considered a "difficult" context. The institutional violence is thus trivialized, disguised as purportedly good practice (i.e., "for the patient's own good"), and rendered invisible in the daily routine of care provided by maternity services.

  12. The incidence of gastroenteritis diagnosis among sick dogs presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital correlated with meteorological data : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of sick dogs diagnosed with and without gastroenteritis presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital situated north of Pretoria is reported from counts extracted from the records of the Outpatients clinic for 6 years, 1988 to 1993. The average percentage of sick dogs diagnosed with gastroenteritis was 11.51 % and the average percentage of sick dogs that were admitted to the parvovirus isolation hospital ward was 2.8 %. A strong correlation exists between the number of dogs admitted to the parvovirus ward and average monthly wind speed and inverse humidity values.

  13. Perceptions of pre-clerkship medical students and academic advisors about sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance: a cross-sectional perspective from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlFakhri, Lama; Sarraj, Jumana; Kherallah, Shouq; Kuhail, Khulood; Obeidat, Akef; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Background The medical student population is believed to be at an increased risk for sleep deprivation. Little is known about students’ perceptions towards sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance. The aim of study is to explore the perceptions of medical students and their academic advisors about sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance. Methods The study took place at Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An online, anony...

  14. Coordinated hospital-home care for kidney patients on hemodialysis from the perspective of nursing personnel1

    OpenAIRE

    Luz María Tejada-Tayabas; Karla Lizbeth Partida-Ponce; Luis Eduardo Hernández-Ibarra

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine, from the nursing perspective, the needs and challenges of coordinated hospital-home care for renal patients on hemodialysis. METHODS: A qualitative analysis was conducted with an ethnographic approach in a hemodialysis unit in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nine nurses, selected by purposeful sampling. Structured content analysis was used. RESULTS: Nurses recounted the needs and challenges involved in caring for renal patients. Th...

  15. Otolaryngological, head and neck manifestations in HIV-infected patients seen at Steve Biko Academic Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshifularo, M; Govender, L; Monama, G

    2013-05-16

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of HIV infection. According to recent census statistics, 5.6 million people in South Africa (SA) are HIV-positive, the highest number of infected individuals worldwide. Over 80% of HIV-infected individuals will present with ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations. Previous studies show that oral diseases seem to be the most common ENT-related manifestation, reported in about 40 - 50% of HIV-infected patients. In SA, there is lack of local information regarding the otolaryngological and head and neck manifestations in HIV-infected individuals. To ascertain our local trends of ENT and head and neck manifestations in HIV-infected patients seen at our specialised ENT-HIV Clinic, Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria, Gauteng Province, SA. A 1-year prospective study involving 153 HIV-infected patients was conducted in the clinic from January to December 2011. Patient history was taken and examinations were performed based on the World Health Organization (WHO) HIV/AIDS classification system. Data analysis was performed using Epi Info 7 software. The most common manifestations were adenoid hypertrophy/hyperplasia followed by cervical lymphadenopathy, chronic suppurative otitis media, otitis media with effusion and sensory-neural hearing loss. Patients typically presented with early manifestations during symptomatic WHO stages I and II in contrast to results reported in similar developing world studies from Iran, Nigeria and India. A possible explanation may lie in the SA government HIV Counselling and Testing campaign and the antiretroviral rollout programme, the effectiveness of which is becoming evident.

  16. Comparison between students’ academic performance and their abilities in written English language skills: A Tanzanian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotco Claudius Komba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the study which sought to compare between the students’ academic performance and their abilities in written English Language Skills. The study was conducted at the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA, Tanzania. The respondents were 358 finalists from six degree programmes selected randomly out of the 20 degree programmes at the university. The findings indicated that there was a statistically significant positive relationship between the students’ abilities in the English Writing Skills Test (EWST and their University GPAs (r=314, p< 0.01. However, the content analysis of the EWST essays showed that the students had serious problems in spelling, using appropriate forms of adjectives, punctuation marks, simple present tense, recognizing passive voice and using relative pronouns and prepositions.

  17. Academic Globalization: Universality of Cross-Cultural And Cross-Disciplinary LMR Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szabo White

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of this paper suggests that previous research underscoring cross-cultural differences may be misleading, when in fact it is cross-professional rather than cross-cultural differences that should be emphasized. Employing the LMR framework, this paper concludes that business or non-business predisposition has a more direct impact on one's individual cultural profile than does nationality. Regardless of culture, persons involved in business are characterized primarily by linear-active modes of communication, and persons not involved in business typically employ less linear and more multi-active/hybrid modes of communication. The linkages among individual characteristics, communication styles, work behaviors, and the extent to which the LMR constructs can facilitate and predict leadership, negotiating styles, individual behaviors, etc. are central to academic globalization and preparing global business leaders.

  18. Perceived parental social support and academic achievement: an attachment theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, C E; Cole, V; Colangelo, N; Assouline, S G; Russell, D W

    1994-02-01

    The study tested the extent to which parental social support predicted college grade point average among undergraduate students. A sample of 418 undergraduates completed the Social Provisions Scale--Parent Form (C.E. Cutrona, 1989) and measures of family conflict and achievement orientation. American College Testing Assessment Program college entrance exam scores (ACT; American College Testing Program, 1986) and grade point average were obtained from the university registrar. Parental social support, especially reassurance of worth, predicted college grade point average when controlling for academic aptitude (ACT scores), family achievement orientation, and family conflict. Support from parents, but not from friends or romantic partners, significantly predicted grade point average. Results are interpreted in the context of adult attachment theory.

  19. hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of congenital orthopaedic malformations in an African teaching hospital ... malformation in this environment while congenital hip dislocation (CDH) is rare when .... malformations of radial dysplasia and other congenital malformations.

  20. An Analysis on Academic Misconduct in Perspective of Historical Institutionalism%历史制度主义视角下的学术不端分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童小娟

    2015-01-01

    近年来,学术不端行为时有发生,引发了社会对这一问题的关注。从历史制度主义视角观察,我国缺乏对学术不端行为清晰的识别制度,科学的学术评价制度,有力的惩罚机制。由于制度的路径依赖,学术不端的治理呈现无效率的状态。为此,欲有效治理学术不端行为,应建立治理学术不端行为的行政法律制度,建立科学合理的学术考核机制,改革科研管理制度。%In recent years, academic misconducts occur every now and then, which have attracted much social attention. In a perspective of historical institutionalism, there lack clear identification systems, scientific evaluation systems and forceful punishment systems for academic misconducts in China. Due to path dependence of systems, the governance for academic misconducts is still inefficient. Thus some administrative legal systems for controlling academic misconducts, scientific academic evaluation systems should be timely established, while the scientific research system is reformed, so as to effectively wipe out the academic misconducts.

  1. Moving away from a cultural deficit to a holistic perspective: Traditional gender role values, academic attitudes, and educational goals for Mexican descent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Watson, Brandy; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Dornhecker, Marianela; Martinez, Ashley J; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2016-04-01

    Latina/o youth lag behind Asian American and non-Latina/o White youth in many academic areas. Previous research has taken a deficit approach to understand the factors that affect academic outcomes for Latina/o youth often neglecting to highlight both the potential positive and negative contributions of gender role values. The present study took a holistic perspective to understand the affect of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., marianismo, machismo, and caballerismo) on the academic attitudes and educational goals of Mexican descent youth. Structural equation models were tested to examine the associations of "positive" and "negative" gender role values on educational goals using 524 Mexican descent adolescents from a mid-sized city in southern Texas. We hypothesized that positive aspects of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., "positive marianismo" and caballerismo) would be associated with more positive attitudes toward academics and higher educational goals. We further expected negative gender role values (i.e., "negative marianismo" and machismo) to have the opposite effect. Additionally, based on the theory of planned behavior and gender schema theory, academic attitudes were hypothesized to mediate the relation between gender role values and educational goals. An alternative model was tested in which educational goals mediated the relation between gender roles and academic attitudes. Results indicated that both models fit the data well, and recommendations are made for future longitudinal research aimed at disentangling the directionality of the relations in the model. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  2. Hearing the patient’s voice: The patient’s perspective as outcome measure in monitoring the quality of hospital care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    The overall theme of this thesis is to contribute to the knowledge of how to use the patient’s perspective for monitoring the quality of hospital care. The patient’s perspective is measured with patient satisfaction questionnaires and with a patient rating website. Our studies showed that valid and

  3. The Role of the Curator in Modern Hospitals: A Transcontinental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Hilary; O'Neill, Desmond

    2016-12-13

    This paper explores the role of the curator in hospitals. The arts play a significant role in every society; however, recent studies indicate a neglect of the aesthetic environment of healthcare. This international study explores the complex role of the curator in modern hospitals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten arts specialists in hospitals across five countries and three continents for a qualitative, phenomenological study. Five themes arose from the data: (1) Patient involvement and influence on the arts programme in hospital (2) Understanding the role of the curator in hospital (3) Influences on arts programming in hospital (4) Types of arts programmes (5) Limitations to effective curation in hospital. Recommendations arising from the research included recognition of the specialised role of the curator in hospitals; building positive links with clinical staff to effect positive hospital arts programmes and increasing formal involvement of patients in arts planning in hospital. Hospital curation can be a vibrant arena for arts development, and the role of the hospital curator is a ground-breaking specialist role that can bring benefits to hospital life. The role of curator in hospital deserves to be supported and developed by both the arts and health sectors.

  4. A Life Course Perspective on Child Health, Academic Experiences and Occupational Skill Qualifications in Adulthood: Evidence from a British Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margot I

    2010-01-01

    Existing research rarely examines the social consequences of poor childhood health from a longitudinal perspective. Using data from the British National Child Development Study, I follow a cohort from before birth through middle age to examine whether children's health limitations before and during the educational process predict occupational skill qualifications in mid-adulthood, and whether any negative consequences are strongest for children in persistently poor health. I also examine whether differences in achievement explain the observed associations, and at what point during the schooling process performance begins to play a large explanatory role. Poor health is strongly negatively related to qualifications in adulthood, particularly for children in persistently poor health. These associations are largely explained by differences in performance early in children's academic careers, before the first important transition point. The relationship between prenatal maternal smoking and mid-adulthood qualifications is more persistent. This paper demonstrates that a static conceptualization of childhood health is inadequate to fully understand the dynamic process through which social status and health over the course of childhood have long-run consequences for the adult life course.

  5. Reciprocal effects between academic self-concept, self-esteem, achievement, and attainment over seven adolescent years: unidimensional and multidimensional perspectives of self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; O'Mara, Alison

    2008-04-01

    In their influential review, Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, and Vohs (2003) concluded that self-esteem--the global component of self-concept--has no effect on subsequent academic performance. In contrast, Marsh and Craven's (2006) review of reciprocal effects models from an explicitly multidimensional perspective demonstrated that academic self-concept and achievement are both a cause and an effect of each other. Ironically, both reviews cited classic Youth in Transition studies in support of their respective claims. In definitive tests of these counter claims, the authors reanalyze these data-including self-esteem (emphasized by Baumeister et al.), academic self-concept (emphasized by Marsh & Craven), and postsecondary educational attainment-using stronger statistical methods based on five waves of data (grade 10 through 5 years after graduation; N=2,213). Integrating apparently discrepant findings under a common theoretical framework based on a multidimensional perspective, academic self-concept had consistent reciprocal effects with both achievement and educational attainment, whereas self-esteem had almost none.

  6. Perspective: Strategies for Developing Biostatistics Resources in an Academic Health Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Leah J.; Carter, Rickey E.; Finkelstein, Dianne; Harrell, Frank E.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Macaluso, Maurizio; Mazumdar, Madhu; Nietert, Paul J.; Oster, Robert A.; Pollock, Brad H.; Roberson, Paula K.; Ware, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Biostatistics—the application of statistics to understanding health and biology—provides powerful tools for developing research questions, designing studies, refining measurements, analyzing data, and interpreting findings. Biostatistics plays an important role in health-related research, yet biostatistics resources are often fragmented, ad hoc, or oversubscribed within academic health centers (AHCs). Given the increasing complexity and quantity of health-related data, the emphasis on accelerating clinical and translational science, and the importance of conducting reproducible research, the need for the thoughtful development of biostatistics resources within AHCs is growing. In this article, the authors identify strategies for developing biostatistics resources in three areas: (1) recruiting and retaining biostatisticians; (2) efficiently using biostatistics resources; and (3) improving biostatistical contributions to science. AHCs should consider these three domains in building strong biostatistics resources, which they can leverage to support a broad spectrum of research. For each of the three domains, the authors describe the advantages and disadvantages of AHCs creating centralized biostatistics units rather than dispersing such resources across clinical departments or other research units. They also address the challenges biostatisticians face in contributing to research without sacrificing their individual professional growth or the trajectory of their research team. The authors ultimately recommend that AHCs create centralized biostatistics units, as this approach offers distinct advantages both to investigators who collaborate with biostatisticians as well as to the biostatisticians themselves, and it is better suited to accomplish the research and education missions of AHCs. PMID:23425984

  7. A Comparison of Three Major Academic Rankings for World Universities: From a Research Evaluation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces three current major university ranking systems. The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities by Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT Ranking emphasizes both the quality and quantity of research and current research performance. The Academic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiao Tung University (ARWU focuses on outstanding performance of universities with indicators such as Nobel Prize winners. The QS World University Ranking (2004-2009 by Times Higher Education (THE-QS emphasizes on peer review with high weighting in evaluation. This paper compares the 2009 ranking results from the three ranking systems. Differences exist in the top 20 universities in three ranking systems except the Harvard University, which scored top one in all of the three rankings. Comparisons also revealed that the THE-QS favored UK universities. Further, obvious differences can be observed between THE-QS and the other two rankings when ranking results of some European countries (Germany, UK, Netherlands, & Switzerland and Chinese speaking regions were compared.

  8. Van Gogh and lithium. Creativity and bipolar disorder: perspective of an academic psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M

    1999-12-01

    Meg Smith experienced her first serious depressive episode during the final years of her Bachelor of Arts degree. The experience of depressive illness and good counselling interested her in counselling so she switched from a potential career as an English teacher to the study of psychology and counselling. After completing a master's degree in clinical psychology, she worked as a counsellor at a women's health centre until she experienced a manic episode in 1980. After recovering from the episode and the experience of being an involuntary patient, she began to explore the implications of the diagnosis of 'manic depressive illness'. Meg is currently a senior lecturer in social policy at the Bankstown campus of the University of Western Sydney Macarthur. She finds that her position as an academic has enabled her to speak out about social policy and legislation in the area of mental illness. She is currently president of the NSW Association for Mental Health and active in the development of support groups and information resources for people who experience mood disorder.

  9. 学术生态视角下研究生学术道德失范问题研究%The Research on Anomie of Academic Morality among Graduate Students from perspective of Academic Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2016-01-01

    The academic moral anomie has become a serious phenomenon that is prevalent on campus. In perspective of aca-demic ecology, causes of moral abnormality are discussed in two aspects:academic principal and academic environment. So-ciety, colleges and universities, along with graduate students endeavor to keep balance in academic ecology. Moral cognition and rational attitude have a direct effect on misconduct in academy. Only if self-discipline and other-imposed discipline can actualize, we can resolve the problem of academic moral anomie much better.%在高校的人才培养中,研究生学术道德失范问题值得关注。以学术生态视角为切入点,从学术主体、学术环境两个方面分析学术生态失衡情况下研究生学术道德失范的原因。为了维持学术生态的动态平衡,社会和学校要为研究生提供良好的学术环境。学校要加强学术道德教育,弘扬学术精神,健全学术诚信体系建设。研究生应认真学习学术规范基本知识,做到知情意行相统一。只有切实提高研究生的培养质量,重视研究生的学术道德教育,才能更好地解决学术道德失范问题。

  10. Perspective: A grand challenge to academic medicine: speak out on gay rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrenwend, Anne

    2009-06-01

    Social responsibility, a dearly held value in the medical community, requires that medicine use its influence to end discrimination and to reduce barriers that affect access to care. Although the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) population has been identified as suffering from health care disparities and oppression, the medical community and its affiliated organizations have done little to lobby in defense of the GLBT population. And with regard to the specific issue of gay marriage, medicine has yet to raise its voice in that debate, even if only to correct unscientific, capricious, and slanderous depictions of GLBT relationships. Closer to home, in medical schools and residencies, GLBT faculty and students are not provided with a safe and equal environment in which to work and learn. No credentialing provisions require residencies and their affiliate hospitals to include GLBT status in their nondiscrimination policies or to offer GLBT faculty and residents equal benefits. There is no assurance that those in power at peer-reviewed journals will use reviewers who are familiar with the research on sexual minorities to review manuscripts on GLBT topics, a situation that likely contributes to the community's status as an understudied population. Medicine cannot fulfill its obligation to GLBT patients, students, and faculty without a considerable and determined commitment to change. Some of the suggested remedies would require amending policy at the level of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Association of American Medical Colleges.

  11. Unpacking (In)formal Learning in an Academic Development Programme: A Mixed-Method Social Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Hosein, Anesa

    2015-01-01

    How and with whom academics develop and maintain formal and informal networks for reflecting on their teaching practice has received limited attention even though academic development (AD) programmes have become an almost ubiquitous feature of higher education. The primary goal of this mixed-method study is to unpack how 114 academics in an AD…

  12. Implementing hospital innovation in Taiwan: the perspectives of institutional theory and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop an innovation model for hospital organisations. For this purpose, this study explores and examines the determinants, capabilities and performance in the hospital sector. First, this discusses three categories of determinants that affect hospitals' innovative capability studies: (1) knowledge stock; (2) social ties; and (3) institutional pressures. Then, this study examines the idea of innovative hospital capabilities, defined as the ability of the hospital organisation to innovate their knowledge. Finally, the hospital evaluation rating, which identifies performance in the hospital sector, was examined. This study empirically tested the theoretical model at the organisation level. The findings suggest that a hospital's innovative capabilities are influenced by its knowledge stock, social ties, institutional pressures and the impact of hospital performance. However, in attempts to keep hospitals aligned with their highly institutionalised environments, it may prove necessary for hospital administrators to pay more attention to both existing knowledge stock and the process of innovation if the institutions are to survive. Finally, implications for theory and practitioners complete this study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Development of a tripolar model of technology acceptance: Hospital-based physicians' perspective on EHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglaryan, Mher; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Bunker, Edward

    2017-06-01

    In health care, information technologies (IT) hold a promise to harness an ever-increasing flow of health related information and bring significant benefits including improved quality of care, efficiency, and cost containment. One of the main tools for collecting and utilizing health data is the Electronic Health Record (EHR). EHRs implementation can face numerous barriers to acceptance including attitudes and perceptions of potential users, required effort attributed to their implementation and usage, and resistance to change. Various theories explicate different aspects of technology deployment, implementation, and acceptance. One of the common theories is the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which helps to study the implementation of different healthcare IT applications. The objectives of this study are: to understand the barriers of EHR implementation from the perspective of physicians; to identify major determinants of physicians' acceptance of technology; and develop a model that explains better how EHRs (and technologies in general) are accepted by physicians. The proposed model derives from a cross-sectional survey of physicians selected through multi-stage cluster sampling from the hospitals of Yerevan, Armenia. The study team designed the survey instrument based on a literature review on barriers of EHR implementation. The analysis employed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) with a robust weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator for categorical indicators. The analysis progressed in two steps: appraisal of the measurement model and testing of the structural model. The derived model identifies the following factors as direct determinants of behavioral intention to use a novel technology: projected collective usefulness; personal innovativeness; patient influence; and resistance to change. Other factors (e.g., organizational change, professional relationships, administrative monitoring, organizational support and computer anxiety) exert their

  14. Co-occurrences between adolescent substance use and academic performance: school context influences a multilevel-longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernando H

    2014-08-01

    A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use.

  15. Comparing the Current Situation versus Desirable Perspective of Academic Libraries in Yazd University in Implementation of Total Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathemeh Makkizadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available : Implementation of total quality management plays an important role as a progressive phenomenon in educational and cultural organizations. The main objective of this study is to compare the current situation versus desirable perspective of academic libraries in Yazd University in implementation of total quality management evaluated by managers and staff of the libraries. Independent t-test results suggested the managers have estimated the situation (M= 3.33. The independent t-test results to assess the difference in employees' attitudes about the desirable situation, was obtained as 4.33, compared with that of the managers which was 4.22. Apparently, the employees have higher expectations over the desirable situation rather than the managers. The dependent t-test results to assess the difference in managers’ attitudes about the current versus desirable situation, showed a meaningful difference of (p<0.01. The employees’ attitude towards the desirable situation (s= 0.39, M= 4.15 had a meaningful difference with their attitudes towards the current situation (s= 0.65, M= 3.04. People’s attitudes towards the current and desirable situation, had a high meaningfulness among all the eleven principles of quality management (p< 0.01. Meaningful differences were observed in multivariate analysis of variance aiming at assessing the effects of position and qualifications on the current eleven principles (p< 0.05. The results of multivariate analysis of variance to assess the effects of position and qualifications on the current eleven principles suggested that the effect of position on the components of desirable situation was not meaningful. Meanwhile, the results in effects of qualification suggested that individuals with different qualifications and university degrees had diverse attitudes towards the principles regarding the desirable situation.

  16. Social efficiency of hospital care delivery: frontier analysis from the consumer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, Patrick M; Moises, James; Valdmanis, Vivian Grace

    2011-02-01

    The efficiency of hospital services and patients' access to hospitals are both important health care policy issues. In the past, research has relied on studying these topics separately. In this article, we measure both efficiency and access at the same time using data envelopment analysis (DEA). By including both the technically efficient use of resources, as well as the patients' travel distances, we found increases in social efficiency when patients' travel distances were taken into account. When compared with patients with nonurgent conditions, we found that patients suffering from conditions requiring urgent attention were treated at closer hospitals, increasing the social efficiency. Insurance coverage and hospital ownership were also examined. Our findings corroborated past literature in the hospital and travel distance literature and set out a framework for future research. Perhaps most important, we demonstrate the techniques needed to incorporate broader measures of social costs into studies of hospital efficiency.

  17. The construction of cultural environment in hospitals of TCM from the perspective of physicians’ quality education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-yan PENG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The hospitals of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM are the place to apply TCM to do clinical practice. The cultural environment of TCM hospitals should be constructed on the basis of TCM culture. The most important way of cultural environment construction is to cultivate and elevate the physicians’ quality education. The paper holds that the physicians in TCM hospitals should be benevolent, erudite, full of affinity, calm and equanimity.

  18. The key to health services in Turkey: new perspectives on leadership and hospital management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Alper A

    2014-01-01

    Health services are one of the most important criteria for making a country function. Turkey has mobilized all of its resources to provide high-quality, easily accessible and patient-friendly services for its population. To achieve this aim, the Turkish health care system has been undergoing a significant transformation through its Health Transformation Programme begun in 2005. The reforms focus on the introduction of a general health insurance system, changing hospital health services, improvements in hospital management and transformational leadership skills. Firstly, all state-run hospitals in the country were merged under the same umbrella, giving millions of people covered by the national security agency access to all of these hospitals. Secondly, all drugs and medical equipment used by patients were made free of charge. Thanks to these developments, hospitals were modernized, and this modernization process in the health sector is still continuing swiftly. On the other hand, for Turkish hospitals to survive, they need to modernize further and become closer to European models, and produce new leaders with new paradigms. In this new and changing health system, hospital leaders and executive officers should be visionaries and strategists advising when to change direction. Following this doctrine, most Turkish hospitals are now run by two top executives: the hospital manager and the chief executive officer who is in charge of business functions. These executives should clearly be the leaders of high-quality, health care organizations.

  19. Feeling at hospitals: perspective-taking, empathy and personal distress among professional nurses and nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Belén; Ambrona, Tamara; Gregory, Jennifer; Stocks, Eric; Oceja, Luis

    2013-04-01

    When facing a person in need, professional nurses will tend to adopt an objective perspective compared to nursing students who, instead, will tend to adopt an imagine-other perspective. Consequently, professional nurses will show lower vicarious emotional reaction such as empathy and distress. Using samples from Spain (Studies 1 and 2) and United states (Study 3), we compared perspective taking strategies and the emotional responses of nurses and nursing students when perceiving a sick child (Study 1) and a sick adult (Studies 2 and 3). Taken together, the results supported our hypotheses. We discuss the applied value of considering the relationship between perspective-taking and its emotional consequences for the nursing profession.

  20. An Investigation of Perspectives of Respite Admission Among People Living With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and the Hospitals That Support Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Michiko; Narita, Yugo; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2017-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive disease with rapid degeneration. Respite care is an essential service for improving the well-being of both patients with this disease and their family caregivers, but accessibility of respite services is limited. This study investigates perspectives on respite admission among people living with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the hospitals supporting them. We conducted semistructured interviews among 3 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 12 family members, exploring demographic information and their awareness and experience of respite admission. We also interviewed 16 representatives from hospitals about awareness of and preparation for respite admission for patients with this disease, the role of regional networks for intractable diseases, and knowledge about communication support schemes. We found significant differences in the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale between patients who had and had not received respite admission. Qualitative analysis of the data indicated that respite admission was a contributory factor in continuing and stabilizing home care. Limited provision of social services and hospital care quality were barriers to respite admission. Respite admission was essential to continued home care for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Severe-stage patients were eligible for respite admission. Its accessibility, however, was limited, especially for patients living in rural areas. Supporting hospitals had limited capacity to respond to patients' needs. Individualized care and communication were internal barriers to respite admission.

  1. Coordinated hospital-home care for kidney patients on hemodialysis from the perspective of nursing personnel1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Tayabas, Luz María; Partida-Ponce, Karla Lizbeth; Hernández-Ibarra, Luis Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine, from the nursing perspective, the needs and challenges of coordinated hospital-home care for renal patients on hemodialysis. METHODS: A qualitative analysis was conducted with an ethnographic approach in a hemodialysis unit in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nine nurses, selected by purposeful sampling. Structured content analysis was used. RESULTS: Nurses recounted the needs and challenges involved in caring for renal patients. They also identified barriers that limit coordinated patient care in the hospital and the home, mainly the work overload at the hemodialysis unit and the lack of a systematic strategy for education and lifelong guidance to patients, their families and caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the importance and necessity of establishing a strategy that goes beyond conventional guidance provided to caregivers of renal patients, integrating them into the multidisciplinary group of health professionals that provide care for these patients in the hospital to establish coordinated hospital-home care that increases therapeutic adherence, treatment substitution effectiveness and patient quality of life. PMID:26039292

  2. Perceptions of community-based participatory research in the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative: an academic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura Hall; Castellanos, Diana Cuy; Yadrick, Kathy; Avis-Williams, Amanda; Graham-Kresge, Susan; Bogle, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic-community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been used to develop sustainable nutrition intervention strategies. Focus groups were conducted with 22 faculty and staff members from the academic partners on the project to document their perceptions of community-based participatory processes in a federally funded, multi-academic-community partnership spanning a decade. Focus groups were conducted to glean insights or lessons from the experiences of academic personnel. Focus groups were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Two researchers analyzed each transcript independently and reached consensus on the consistent themes. Participants candidly shared their experiences of working with community members to devise research plans, implement programs, and evaluate outcomes. The majority of faculty and staff members were attracted to this project by an excitement for conducting a more egalitarian and potentially more successful type of research. Yet each academic partner voiced that there was an underlying disconnect between community practices and research procedures during the project. Additional barriers to collaboration and action, located in communities and academic institutions, were described. Academic partners stressed the importance of open and ongoing communication, collective decision-making strategies, and techniques that support power sharing between all parties involved in the project. Findings from this research can inform academic-community partnerships and hopefully improve the community-based participatory research process implemented by academic institutions and communities.

  3. Why frailty needs vulnerability: A care ethical perspective on hospital care for older patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, H. van der; Olthuis, G.J.; Leget, C.

    2015-01-01

    The vulnerability of older hospital patients is increasingly understood in physical terms, often referred to as frailty. This reduces their vulnerability to the functioning body regardless of the psycho-socio-cultural context they are in, and it ignores the role of the hospital environment. This pap

  4. [The meaning of hospitalization from the perspective of the caregiver: A qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrujo-Pérez, Karina Jazmín; Berumen-Burciaga, Luz Verónica; Mejía-Mejía, Yadira; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    Knowing the meaning of hospitalization for the family caregiver of the hospitalized sick person. Qualitative study using grounded theory. Participants were included if they met the following criteria: a) being part of the family; b) the sick person was admitted into a hospital in the state of Chihuahua; and c) the hospitalized person was over 18 years old. Sampling was applied by purpose. Data collection was conducted through in-depth interviews with an opening question. Similarly, memos were applied in the process of gathering. The analysis applied was based on grounded theory, with an open, axial and selective coding, identifying the categories and subcategories. During the analysis process the method of constant comparison was applied. Eighteen participants were included; 16 of whom were female. The mean age was 48.11 years old. The core category was identified: "the naked soul", formed by the categories; "I deal with the disease" which describes the situations experienced by the caregiver during and after the hospitalization process; "wartime" makes reference to the family problems that develop or worsen during the hospitalization process; and "dancing in the storm" focuses on all the positive changes occurring in the primary caregiver. Hospitalization causes uncertainty in the caregiver. Nurses help facilitate the adaptation of the caregiver at baseline and identify their own strengths. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Universal isolation precautions for patients at an academic hospital Precauciones universales en el aislamiento de pacientes en un hospital universitario Precauções universais em isolamentos de pacientes em hospital universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gomes Maziero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To apply universal isolation precautions for patients at an academic hospital by a nursing team. METHODS: This descriptive and prospective study used data from advice service of quality control and nursing care that were gathered in observational reports of universal isolation precautions for patients admitted in two surgical inpatient units during 2008 and 2010. RESULTS: The mean general classification for both units was between desirable and adequate in the observational analysis of universal precaution. A borderline effect was observed only in November 2008 at the Men's Surgical Unit. The units assessed had compromised biosecurity, however, as time advanced data showed an improvement on their performance. CONCLUSION: The effective involvement of nurses in the unit is critical to prevent and control nosocomial infections.OBJETIVO: Utilización de las precauciones universales por el equipo de Enfermería en el aislamiento de pacientes en un Hospital Universitario. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, prospectivo. Fueron utilizados datos de la Asesoría de Control de Calidad de la Asistencia de Enfermería, correspondientes a los informes de las observaciones respecto a las precauciones universales en el aislamiento de pacientes en dos unidades de internamiento Médico - Quirúrgico, en el período comprendido entre 2008 y 2010. RESULTADOS: Las dos unidades de la institución presentaron un promedio general de clasificación, del análisis observacional de precaución universal, entre deseable y adecuada, siendo limítrofe apenas en noviembre del 2008 en la unidad Médico-Quirúrgica Masculina. Las unidades evaluadas, respecto a la adhesión a las precauciones universales, presentaron compromiso con la bioseguridad, y los datos exhibidos se mostraron mejores en cada año descrito. CONCLUSIÓN: La participación activa del enfermero responsable por la unidad es importante en la prevención y control de infecciones hospitalarias

  6. Service Quality Of Diagnostic Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology In A Tertiary Care Hospital Of Lahore (Process Measure As Patient's Perspective).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Zainab; Usmani, Rabia Arshed; Rizvi, Amna; Wazir, Salim; Zahra, Taskeen; Rasool, Hafza

    2017-01-01

    Quality of any service is the most important aspect for the manufacturer as well as the consumer. The primary objective of any nation's health system is to provide supreme quality health care services to its patients. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of diagnostic fine needle aspiration cytology service in a tertiary care hospital. As Patient's perspectives provide valuable information on quality of process, therefore, patient's perception in terms of satisfaction with the service was measured. In this cross sectional analytical study, 291 patients undergoing fine needle aspiration cytology in Mayo Hospital were selected by systematic sampling technique. Information regarding satisfaction of patients with four dimensions of service quality process, namely "procedure, sterilization, conduct and competency of doctor" was collected through interview on questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed on SERVQUAL model, a measurement tool, for quality assessment of services provided to patients. All items were assessed on 2- point likert scale (0=dissatisfied, 1=satisfied). Frequencies and percentages of satisfied and dissatisfied patients were recorded for each item and all items in each dimension were scored. If the percentage of sum of all item scores of a dimension was ≥60, the dimension was 'good quality'. Whereas quality' dimension. Data was analysed using epi-info-3.5.1. Fisher test was applied to check statistical significance. (p-value service quality process, Procedure (48.8%), Sterilization (51.5%) and practitioner conduct (50.9%) were perceived as 'poor' by the patients. Only practitioner competency (67.4%) was perceived as 'good'. Comparison of dimensions of service quality scoring with overall level of patient satisfaction revealed that all 4 dimensions were significantly related to patient dissatisfaction (pservice quality of therapeutic and diagnostic procedures in public hospitals should be routinely monitored from the patients

  7. Patient safety trilogy: perspectives from clinical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieras, Izabella; Sherman, Paul; Minsent, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the role a clinical engineering or healthcare technology management (HTM) department can play in promoting patient safety from three different perspectives: a community hospital, a national government health system, and an academic medical center. After a general overview, Izabella Gieras from Huntington Hospital in Pasadena, CA, leads off by examining the growing role of human factors in healthcare technology, and describing how her facility uses clinical simulations in medical equipment evaluations. A section by Paul Sherman follows, examining patient safety initiatives from the perspective of the Veterans Health Administration with a focus on hazard alerts and recalls. Dennis Minsent from Oregon Health & Science University writes about patient safety from an academic healthcare perspective, and details how clinical engineers can engage in multidisciplinary safety opportunities.

  8. Keynote lecture: perspective of infection control and prevention in hospitals-importance of antisepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroyoshi

    2002-01-01

    Since the end of the 20th century, precautions of hospital infection have been re-evaluated with rationalization. Evidence-based precautions are proposed to be discussed. Problems of hospital infection in the early 21st century are highlighted as follows: (1) infections in compromised patients; (2) emergence of resistant bacteria; (3) terminal infection; (4) bloodborne virus infection; (5) neonatal infections; (6) emerging and re-emerging diseases. In the near future, it will be possible to lower the hospital infection rate by increasing medical in place of surgical treatments, the development of low invasive surgeries and/or progress of immunotherapy instead of chemotherapy. Strategies for hospital infection control and prevention in the early 21st century are based on evidence-based precautions, effective organization, accurate surveillance, compliance of precautions, risk management, outcome evaluation and feedback, economical evaluation, sterility assurance and peer review for these strategies.

  9. A historical perspective of the effect of the great recession on hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Janet

    2014-08-01

    At 18 months, the Great Recession of December 2007 to June 2009 is the longest recession since World War II. The recession led to soaring unemployment, resulting in loss of employment-based health insurance for millions of people. In addition to seeing increases in uninsured patients, hospitals experienced losses in their investment portfolios, which in turn increased bad debt, charity care, and uncompensated care nationwide. Hospital executives began to devise cost-cutting strategies to balance the rising debt, such as standardizing medical equipment, cutting staff positions, and delaying construction projects and capital expenditures as well as implementing value analysis strategies. The recession is officially over, and, although economic recovery has been slow and unemployment continues to be an issue, hospitals' net revenue started improving as of 2009 and hospital construction started increasing in 2010. Still, caution is warranted in the postrecession climate, because it is unknown what effects will be seen when the Baby Boomer generation begins using Medicare.

  10. [Hospital based internal medicine: the year 2009 in review (I). The perspective of chief residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tâche, Frédéric; Pantet, Olivier; Joly, Céleste; Pasquier, Mathieu; Maillard-Dewarrat, Géraldine; Méan, Marie; Cosma-Rochat, Monica; Deriaz, Sandra; Donzé, Jacques; Pasche, Antoine; Burnier, Coralie; Stadelmann, Raphaël

    2010-02-03

    Internists must regularly adjust their patients care according to recent relevant publications. The chief residents from the Department of Internal Medicine of a university hospital present some major themes of internal medicine treated during the year 2009. Emphasis will be placed primarily on changes in the daily hospital practice induced by these recent studies. This variety of topics illustrates both the broad spectrum of the current internal medicine, and the many uncertainties associated with modern medical practice based on evidence.

  11. Addressing the risk of bacterial contamination in platelets: a hospital economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Justin W; Brecher, Mark E; Jacobson, Jessica L; Harm, Sarah K; Chen, Dorothy; El-Gamil, Audrey; Dobson, Al; Mintz, Paul D

    2017-10-01

    Bacterially contaminated platelets (PLTs) remain a serious risk. The Food and Drug Administration has issued draft guidance recommending hospitals implement secondary testing or transfuse PLTs that have been treated with pathogen reduction technology (PRT). The cost implications of these approaches are not well understood. We modeled incurred costs when hospitals acquire, process, and transfuse PLTs that are PRT treated with INTERCEPT (Cerus Corp.) or secondary tested with the PLT PGD Test (Verax Biomedical). Hospitals will spend $221.27 (30.0%) more per PRT-treated apheresis PLT unit administered compared to a Zika-tested apheresis PLT unit that is irradiated and PGD tested in hospital. This difference is reflected in PRT PLT units having: 1) a higher hospital purchase price ($100.00 additional charge compared to an untreated PLT); 2) lower therapeutic effectiveness than untreated PLTs among hematologic-oncologic patients, which contributes to additional transfusions ($96.05); or 3) fewer PLT storage days, which contributes to higher outdating cost from expired PLTs ($67.87). Only a small portion of the incremental costs for PRT-treated PLTs are offset by costs that may be avoided, including primary bacterial culture, secondary bacterial testing ($26.65), hospital irradiation ($8.50), Zika testing ($4.47), and other costs ($3.03). The significantly higher cost of PRT-treated PLTs over PGD-tested PLTs should interest stakeholders. For hospitals that outdate PLTs, savings associated with expiration extension to 7 days by adding PGD testing will likely be substantially greater than the cost of implementing PGD-testing. Our findings might usefully inform a hospital's decision to select a particular blood safety approach. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  12. Perspectives of hospital-based nurses on breastfeeding initiation best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddig, Jennifer; Baker, Susan S; Auld, Garry

    2011-01-01

    To assess the variation in breastfeeding knowledge and practices of registered nurses in hospital women and family-care units and the informal and formal hospital policies related to the initiation and support of breastfeeding. This qualitative study employed a focus group approach to solicit perceptions of hospital-based nurses regarding breastfeeding best practices. Eight state hospitals stratified by socioeconomic status (SES) and size served as settings to recruit participants for this study. Forty female registered nurses from labor and delivery (n=9), postpartum (n=13), labor and delivery/recovery/postpartum care (LDRP) (n=12) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (n=6) constituted eight focus groups. The majority of nurses reported being knowledgeable of evidence-based best practices related to breastfeeding initiation. However, in non-Baby Friendly/Baby Friendly Intent (non-BF/BFI) settings, nurses' knowledge often was not in accordance with current best practices in breastfeeding initiation, and reported hospital policies were not based upon evidence-based practices. Barriers to best practices in breastfeeding initiation included hospital lactation policies (formal and informal), nurses' limited education in breastfeeding initiation best practices, high rates of surgical delivery, and lack of continuity of care with the transition of responsibility from one nurse to another from labor and delivery to transition care to postpartum care. A significant disparity between nurses' intention to support breastfeeding and their knowledge suggests a need for education based on the World Health Organization Baby Friendly standards for nurses at non-BF/BFI hospitals. A significant barrier to supporting breastfeeding is lack of hospital policy and inappropriate or outdated policy. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  13. Academic Procrastination in Linking Motivation and Achievement-Related Behaviours: A Perspective of Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Fan, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships among college students' achievement motivation (subjective task value and academic self-efficacy), academic procrastination (delay and missing deadlines) and achievement-related behaviours (effort and persistence). More specifically, the study investigated the mediating role…

  14. Connections, Productivity and Funding: An Examination of Factors Influencing Scientists' Perspectives on the Market Orientation of Academic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Emily Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…

  15. Electronic medical record systems in critical access hospitals: leadership perspectives on anticipated and realized benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Troy R; Vavroch, Jared; Bahensky, James A; Ward, Marcia M

    2010-04-01

    The growth of electronic medical records (EMRs) is driven by the belief that EMRs will significantly improve healthcare providers' performance and reduce healthcare costs. Evidence supporting these beliefs is limited, especially for small rural hospitals. A survey that focused on health information technology (HIT) capacity was administered to all hospitals in Iowa. Structured interviews were conducted with the leadership at 15 critical access hospitals (CAHs) that had implemented EMRs in order to assess the perceived benefits of operational EMRs. The results indicate that most of the hospitals implemented EMRs to improve efficiency, timely access, and quality. Many CAH leaders also viewed EMR implementation as a necessary business strategy to remain viable and improve financial performance. While some reasons reflect external influences, such as perceived future federal mandates, other reasons suggest that the decision was driven by internal forces, including the hospital's culture and the desires of key leaders to embrace HIT. Anticipated benefits were consistent with goals; however, realized benefits were rarely obvious in terms of quantifiable results. These findings expand the limited research on the rationale for implementing EMRs in critical access hospitals.

  16. Teamwork in the operating room: frontline perspectives among hospitals and operating room personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, J Bryan; Makary, Martin A; Tersigni, Anthony R; Pryor, David; Hendrich, Ann; Thomas, Eric J; Holzmueller, Christine G; Knight, Andrew P; Wu, Yun; Pronovost, Peter J

    2006-11-01

    The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations is proposing that hospitals measure culture beginning in 2007. However, a reliable and widely used measurement tool for the operating room (OR) setting does not currently exist. OR personnel in 60 US hospitals were surveyed using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. The teamwork climate domain of the survey uses six items about difficulty speaking up, conflict resolution, physician-nurse collaboration, feeling supported by others, asking questions, and heeding nurse input. To justify grouping individual-level responses to a single score at each hospital OR level, the authors used a multilevel confirmatory factor analysis, intraclass correlations, within-group interrater reliability, and Cronbach's alpha. To detect differences at the hospital OR level and by caregiver type, the authors used multivariate analysis of variance (items) and analysis of variance (scale). The response rate was 77.1%. There was robust evidence for grouping individual-level respondents to the hospital OR level using the diverse set of statistical tests, e.g., Comparative Fit Index = 0.99, root mean squared error of approximation = 0.05, and acceptable intraclasss correlations, within-group interrater reliability values, and Cronbach's alpha = 0.79. Teamwork climate differed significantly by hospital (F59, 1,911 = 4.06, P teamwork climate is possible using this psychometrically sound teamwork climate scale. This tool and initial benchmarks allow others to compare their teamwork climate to national means, in an effort to focus more on what excellent surgical teams do well.

  17. Avoidability of hospital transfers of nursing home residents: perspectives of frontline staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Gerri; Tappen, Ruth; Diaz, Sanya; Herndon, Laurie; Ouslander, Joseph G

    2011-09-01

    To describe nursing home (NH) staff perceptions of avoidability of hospital transfers of NH residents. Mixed methods qualitative and quantitative analysis of 1,347 quality improvement (QI) review tools completed by staff at 26 NHs and transcripts of conference calls. Twenty-six NHs in three states participating in the Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers (INTERACT II) QI project. Site coordinators and staff who participated in project orientation and conference calls and completed QI tools. NH and hospitalization data collected for the INTERACT II project. An interprofessional team coded and quantified reasons for hospital transfer on 1,347 QI review tools. Staff rated 76% of the transfers in the QI review tools as not avoidable. Common reasons for transfers rated as unavoidable were acute change in resident status, family insistence, and physician order for transfer. These same reasons were given for transfers rated as avoidable. Avoidable ratings were associated with a broader set of reasons and recommendations for improvement, including earlier identification and management of changes in clinical status, earlier discussion with family members about advance directives, and more-comprehensive communication with physicians. NHs that were more actively engaged in the INTERACT II interventions rated more transfers as avoidable. Percentage of transfers rated avoidable was not correlated with change in hospitalization rates. NH staff rated fewer hospital transfers as avoidable than published estimates. Greater attention to the complex array of reasons that staff provide for hospital transfer should be considered in strategies to reduce avoidable hospitalizations of NH residents. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Determinants of telemedicine acceptance in selected public hospitals in Malaysia: clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zailani, Suhaiza; Gilani, Mina Sayyah; Nikbin, Davoud; Iranmanesh, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the determinants of telemedicine acceptance in selected public hospitals in Malaysia and to investigate the effect of health culture on the relationship between these determinants and telemedicine acceptance. Data were gathered by means of a survey of physicians and nurses as the main group of users of telemedicine technology from hospitals that are currently using telemedicine technology. The results indicated that government policies, top management support, perception of usefulness and computer self-efficiency have a positive and significant impact on telemedicine acceptance by public hospitals in Malaysia. The results also confirmed the moderating role of health culture on the relationship between government policies as well as perceived usefulness on telemedicine acceptance by Malaysian hospitals. The results are useful for decision-makers as well as managers to recognize the potential role of telemedicine and assist in the process of implementation, adoption and utilization, and, therefore, spread the usage of telemedicine technology in more hospitals in the country.

  19. Mentoring perception, scientific collaboration and research performance: is there a 'gender gap' in academic medicine? An Academic Health Science Centre perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Thanos; Patel, Vanash; Garas, George; Ashrafian, Hutan; Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick; Harding, Sian; Darzi, Ara; Paroutis, Sotirios

    2016-10-01

    The 'gender gap' in academic medicine remains significant and predominantly favours males. This study investigates gender disparities in research performance in an Academic Health Science Centre, while considering factors such as mentoring and scientific collaboration. Professorial registry-based electronic survey (n=215) using bibliometric data, a mentoring perception survey and social network analysis. Survey outcomes were aggregated with measures of research performance (publications, citations and h-index) and measures of scientific collaboration (authorship position, centrality and social capital). Univariate and multivariate regression models were constructed to evaluate inter-relationships and identify gender differences. One hundred and four professors responded (48% response rate). Males had a significantly higher number of previous publications than females (mean 131.07 (111.13) vs 79.60 (66.52), p=0.049). The distribution of mentoring survey scores between males and females was similar for the quality and frequency of shared core, mentor-specific and mentee-specific skills. In multivariate analysis including gender as a variable, the quality of managing the relationship, frequency of providing corrective feedback and frequency of building trust had a statistically significant positive influence on number of publications (all pscientific collaboration and research performance in the context of gender. It presents a series of initiatives that proved effective in marginalising the gender gap. These include the Athena Scientific Women's Academic Network charter, new recruitment and advertisement strategies, setting up a 'Research and Family Life' forum, establishing mentoring circles for women and projecting female role models. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Expenses related to hospital admissions for the elderly in Brazil: perspectives of a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Rodrigo Eurípedes da; Santos, Alvaro da Silva; Sousa, Mariana Campos de; Monteiro, Taciana Silva Alves

    2013-12-01

    To describe the profile of morbidities and expenses related to hospitalization of the elderly compared to the adult population (20 to 59 years). A descriptive, cross-sectional investigation of hospitalizations of the elderly (60 years or older) in Brazil during the period from 2002 to 2011, with data from DATASUS and based on ICD-10. Although the highest number of hospitalizations were in the adult age range, the expenses were greater with the elderly, and in this case especially with mental and behavioral disorders, musculoskeletal and connective tissue diseases, followed by circulatory diseases and external causes. The results suggest the adoption of more comprehensive policies and increased investment in health promotion, disease prevention, and appropriate and suitable treatment for the most prevalent diseases in the elderly, particularly in primary care.

  1. A qualitative study into the impact of fasting within a large tertiary hospital in Australia--the patients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sharon K; Conchin, Simone; Bloomfield-Stone, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This qualitative study aims to explore the physical and emotional impact of fasting from the patients' perspective. Fasting patients in hospital is common practice and generally viewed as necessary for symptom management or for safety of healthcare provision. Negative impacts of repeated or prolonged fasting on nutritional status have been well researched, but little is documented as to how fasting impacts an individual patient's psyche. Qualitative descriptive design within a tertiary hospital in Sydney, Australia. Twelve patients having had prolonged periods of continuous or intermittent fasting were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview between January-September 2012. Questions for interview explored each patient's experience of fasting, including physical and emotional impacts, interpretation of communication regarding fasting and the process of recommencing on fluids or foods. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used. Analyses showed six main themes: physical impacts; emotional impacts; food as structure; nil by mouth as jargon; fear of food re-introduction; and dissatisfaction regarding unnecessary fasting. Overwhelmingly, thirst was reported as the worst physical effect of fasting. In the first few days of fasting, patients became emotionally fixated on food. This quickly dissipated leading to a lack of appetite and fear of starting to eat again. Discomfort experienced by patients coupled with lack of appetite resulting from prolonged fasting and difficulty with food re-introduction strengthens the argument for reducing fasting times in hospital. When patients are fasted, proper hydration and establishing alternate routes of medication administration should be a priority. It is well recognised that fasting for prolonged periods is detrimental to health outcomes, but this study also shows the distress that fasting can cause. Inadequate hospital systems and out-dated practices need to be replaced with evidence-based, patient

  2. Respect for privacy by nurses from the perspective of the elderly hospitalized in internal and surgical wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Zihaghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respect for privacy is the right of all patients, including the elderly, and lack of respect for patients could be associated with increased anxiety, stress, lack of confidence in hospital personnel, refusal of physical examination, and impaired recovery. This study aimed to evaluate respect for privacy by nurses from the perspective of the elderly hospitalized in internal and surgical wards. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the elderly hospitalized in internal and surgical wards of hospitals affiliated to Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran, in 2015. In total, 132 patients were selected through convenience sampling. Data was collected using the researcher-made questionnaire of respect for privacy, reliability and validity of which were confirmed. Data analysis was performed in SPSS, version 16, using descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results: In this study, mean score of respect for privacy of patients by nurses was favorable in 70.4% of the cases. In terms of physical and psycho-social dimensions of privacy, 81.1% and 73.4% of the cases were at an acceptable level, respectively. Regarding information dimension of privacy, 84.8% of the cases were at a moderate level. A higher level of respect for privacy was reported by elderly female patients (104.24±13.7, compared to male elderlies (109.13±60.62; P=0.013. Moreover, a negative significant correlation was observed between age of the elderly and respect for privacy by nurses (P<0.001, r=-0.37. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, respect for the elderly was reported to be at a favorable level for physical and psycho-social dimensions. Nevertheless, information dimension of privacy was not acceptable. Therefore, it is recommended that necessary educational programs be performed for nurses.

  3. [Highlights of hospital-based internal medicine in 2010: chief residents' perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Marc; Burnard, Jérôme; Cosma Rochat, Monica; Gabus, Vincent; Micheloud, Valérie Geiser; Gobin, Niels; Laurent, Jean-Christophe; Marino, Laura; Méan, Marie; Merz, Laurent; Regamey, Julien; Stadelmann, Raphaël

    2011-02-02

    Applying knowledge acquired from recent medical studies to patient care poses a daily challenge to physicians. Chief residents from the Department of Internal Medicine at the University Hospital of Lausanne carried out a review of some of the issues they considered important. The conclusions of these various publications may have a significant impact on the daily practice of hospital-based internal medicine. Modern medicine based on scientific studies is a reminder that in spite of the essential importance of clinical experience, it is crucial to confront it with the results of relevant publications from the medical literature.

  4. Patient Safety Culture Status From The Perspective Medical Staff Of Yasuj Hospitals In 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: One of the most important problems in the health sector, particularly in clinical centers, is the quality of healthcare. Patient safety is one of the most important elements in creating health care quality due to the fact that it is a critical component to the quality of health care and many errors are present in patient care and treatment practices..                                                               Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the status of the patient safety culture and its relationship with events reported in Yasuj hospitals. Methods: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 361 medical staff of Yasuj hospitals. The data were collected through a hospital survey on patient safety culture. The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS statistics soft ware version 21, using Descriptive methods, Pearson Coefficient, ANOVA, and T-Test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the teamwork among hospital units (71/89percent, with expectations and management measures (66/38% in the case of safety obtained the most score and non-punitive response to errors (48/79% and manager support (55/88 percent obtained the least score. 73/7% of employees of three hospitals in the past 12 months did not report any event. In addition, there was a meaningful statistical relationship between the total score of safety culture and reporting the events. In this study, 15.5 % of respondents assess their safety culture in work as good, 44.3 % as acceptable and 30.5 percent reported poor. The overall safety culture among the three studied hospitals was 61.81 %. Results confirmed that the culture safety of patient in studied hospitals was average. Conclusions: The hospitals may rely on their strong points in terms of patient safety culture and try to remove their weak points to form a safe environment and appropriate

  5. Succession planning: trends regarding the perspectives of Chief Executive Officers in US hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K; McKinnies, Richard C; Matthews, Eric; Collins, Kevin S

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to revisit the perceptions of chief executive officers in US hospitals regarding the origin of leadership and how they felt about internally developed successors versus externally recruited successors. Furthermore, the study sought to develop understanding of how this group of executives utilizes the succession planning process, what factors impact successor identification, what positions are applicable for succession planning activities, and who is ultimately held responsible for leadership continuity within the hospital industry. The results of this 2012 study were compared with a previous study conducted in 2007 to determine if the perceptions had changed over time.

  6. Pharmaceutical policies and access to medicines : a hospital-pharmacy perspective from Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, D.

    2017-01-01

    Access to quality medicines is a universal human right which featured prominently on the agenda of the World Health Organisation (WHO) over the past decades. Hospital pharmacists play a pivotal role in ensuring that treatment outcomes are optimal. This thesis studied pharmaceutical policies and acce

  7. Through doctors' eyes: A qualitative study of hospital doctor perspectives on their working conditions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, Yvonne

    2013-03-11

    BACKGROUND: Hospital doctors face significant challenges in the current health care environment, working with staff shortages and cutbacks to health care expenditure, alongside increased demand for health care and increased public expectations. OBJECTIVE: This article analyses challenges faced by junior hospital doctors, providing insight into the experiences of these frontline staff in delivering health services in recessionary times. DESIGN: A qualitative methodology was chosen. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 doctors from urban Irish hospitals. Interviews were recorded via note taking. Full transcripts were analysed thematically using NVivo software. RESULTS: Dominant themes included the following: (1) unrealistic workloads: characterised by staff shortages, extended working hours, irregular and frequently interrupted breaks; (2) fatigue and its impact: the quality of care provided to patients while doctors were sleep-deprived was questioned; however, little reflection was given to any impact this may have had on junior doctors own health; (3) undervalued and disillusioned: insufficient training, intensive workloads and a perceived lack of power to influence change resulted in a sense of detachment among junior doctors. They appeared immune to their surroundings. CONCLUSION: Respondents ascribed little importance to the impact of current working conditions on their own health. They felt their roles were underappreciated and undervalued by policy makers and hospital management. Respondents were concerned with the lack of time and opportunity for training. This study highlighted several \\'red flags\\

  8. Pharmaceutical policies and access to medicines : a hospital-pharmacy perspective from Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, D.

    2017-01-01

    Access to quality medicines is a universal human right which featured prominently on the agenda of the World Health Organisation (WHO) over the past decades. Hospital pharmacists play a pivotal role in ensuring that treatment outcomes are optimal. This thesis studied pharmaceutical policies and

  9. Pharmaceutical policies and access to medicines : a hospital-pharmacy perspective from Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, D.

    2017-01-01

    Access to quality medicines is a universal human right which featured prominently on the agenda of the World Health Organisation (WHO) over the past decades. Hospital pharmacists play a pivotal role in ensuring that treatment outcomes are optimal. This thesis studied pharmaceutical policies and acce

  10. Knowledge and Performance about Nursing Ethic Codes from Nurses' and Patients' Perspective in Tabriz Teaching Hospitals, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Moghaddam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing profession requires knowledge of ethics to guide performance. The nature of this profession necessitates ethical care more than routine care. Today, worldwide definition of professional ethic code has been done based on human and ethical issues in the communication between nurse and patient. To improve all dimensions of nursing, we need to respect ethic codes. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge and performance about nursing ethic codes from nurses' and patients' perspective.Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study Conducted upon 345 nurses and 500 inpatients in six teaching hospitals of Tabriz, 2012. To investigate nurses' knowledge and performance, data were collected by using structured questionnaires. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive and analytic statistics, independent t-test and ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient, in SPSS13.Results: Most of the nurses were female, married, educated at BS degree and 86.4% of them were aware of Ethic codes also 91.9% of nurses and 41.8% of patients represented nurses respect ethic codes. Nurses' and patients' perspective about ethic codes differed significantly. Significant relationship was found between nurses' knowledge of ethic codes and job satisfaction and complaint of ethical performance. Conclusion: According to the results, consideration to teaching ethic codes in nursing curriculum for student and continuous education for staff is proposed, on the other hand recognizing failures of the health system, optimizing nursing care, attempt to inform patients about Nursing ethic codes, promote patient rights and achieve patient satisfaction can minimize the differences between the two perspectives.

  11. Detection of blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M antibiotic resistance genes in randomly selected bacterial pathogens from the Steve Biko Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Marthie M; Veldsman, Chrisna; Makgotlho, Eddy P; Dove, Michael G; Hoosen, Anwar A; Kock, Marleen M

    2009-08-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are considered to be one of the most important antibiotic resistance mechanisms. This study reported the ESBL-producing genes in 53 randomly selected clinical bacterial isolates from the Steve Biko Academic Hospital. The presence of the bla(SHV), bla(TEM) and bla(CTX-M) genes was determined, and the overall prevalence of these genes detected in this study was 87% (46/53) in comparison with the literature; these results were higher when compared with 33% for Escherichia coli in Europe and 0.8% in Denmark for similar pathogens. These research findings indicated that it is crucial to routinely monitor the prevalence of these resistance genes.

  12. Investigating Public Facility Characteristics from a Spatial Interaction Perspective: A Case Study of Beijing Hospitals Using Taxi Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Kong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Services provided by public facilities are essential to people’s lives and are closely associated with human mobility. Traditionally, public facility access characteristics, such as accessibility, equity issues and service areas, are investigated mainly based on static data (census data, travel surveys and particular records, such as medical records. Currently, the advent of big data offers an unprecedented opportunity to obtain large-scale human mobility data, which can be used to study the characteristics of public facilities from the spatial interaction perspective. Intuitively, spatial interaction characteristics and service areas of different types and sizes of public facilities are different, but how different remains an open question, so we, in turn, examine this question. Based on spatial interaction, we classify public facilities and explore the differences in facilities. In the research, based on spatial interaction extracted from taxi data, we introduce an unsupervised classification method to classify 78 hospitals in 6 districts of Beijing, and the results better reflect the type of hospital. The findings are of great significance for optimizing the spatial configuration of medical facilities or other types of public facilities, allocating public resources reasonably and relieving traffic pressure.

  13. Evaluation of care for leukemia and lymphoma patients during their last hospitalization from the perspective of the bereaved family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Yuki; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Kawa, Masako; Motokura, Toru; Sano, Fumiaki; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Oshimi, Kazuo; Kazuma, Keiko

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate care for leukemia and lymphoma patients during their last hospitalization from the perspective of the bereaved family. Questionnaires were sent to the bereaved family members of adult leukemia and lymphoma patients. We used the Care Evaluation Scale (CES) and asked the bereaved family members about care satisfaction and "good death" factors during the patient's last week of life or last admission period. We distributed 177 questionnaires and were able to analyze 103 (58.2%) responses. Compared with the results of a previous study of palliative care units in Japan, the CES scores were significantly lower in 9 out of 10 domains. Assessment of the "good death" components revealed that only 33% of respondents agreed that the patient had been relieved as far as possible of pain and physical distress during the last week of life. Only 21.4% of respondents agreed that the patient had been relieved as far as possible of psychological distress, and 57% of caregivers were not satisfied with the level of care. During the last hospitalizations of leukemia or lymphoma patients, their care was insufficient and a good death was not often achieved. Improvement of end-of-life care for leukemia and lymphoma patients is needed.

  14. Documentation of clinical care in hospital patients' medical records: A qualitative study of medical students' perspectives on clinical documentation education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Stella; Coverdale, Steven; Callen, Joanne

    2016-12-01

    Clinical documentation is essential for communication between health professionals and the provision of quality care to patients. To examine medical students' perspectives of their education in documentation of clinical care in hospital patients' medical records. A qualitative design using semi-structured interviews with fourth-year medical students was undertaken at a hospital-based clinical school in an Australian university. Several themes reflecting medical students' clinical documentation education emerged from the data: formal clinical documentation education using lectures and tutorials was minimal; most education occurred on the job by junior doctors and student's expressed concerns regarding variation in education between teams and receiving limited feedback on performance. Respondents reported on the importance of feedback for their learning of disease processes and treatments. They suggested that improvements could be made in the timing of clinical documentation education and they stressed the importance of training on the job. On-the-job education with feedback in clinical documentation provides a learning opportunity for medical students and is essential in order to ensure accurate, safe, succinct and timely clinical notes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Differing perspectives on parent access to their child's electronic medical record during neonatal intensive care hospitalization: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Rebecca K; Kim, Una Olivia; Basir, Mir Abdul

    2017-04-10

    To improve informed medical decision-making, principles for family-centered neonatal care recommend that parents have access to their child's medical record on an ongoing basis during neonatal intensive unit care (NICU) hospitalization. Currently, many NICUs do not allow independent parent access to their child's electronic medical record (EMR) during hospitalization. We undertook a cross-sectional survey pilot study of medical professionals and parents to explore opinions regarding this practice. Inclusion criteria: 18-years old, English-literate, legal guardian of patients admitted to the NICU for 14 days. NICU medical professionals included physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, and respiratory therapists. Medical professionals believed parent access would make their work more difficult, increase time documenting and updating families, making them more liable to litigation and hesitant to chart sensitive information. However, parents felt that they lacked control over their child's care and desired direct access to the EMR. Parents believed this would improve accuracy of their child's medical chart, and increase advocacy and understanding of their child's illness. NICU parents and medical professionals have differing perspectives on independent parental access to their child's EMR. More research is needed to explore the potential of independent parental EMR access to further improve family-centered neonatal care.

  16. Effect of final evaluation on job motivation from the perspective of nurses in Ahvaz Hospitals in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji Khiavi, F; Amiri, E; Ghobadian, S; Roshankar, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing nurses' motivation is among the most important and complex nursing duties. Performance evaluation system could be used as a means to improve the quantity and quality of the human resources. Therefore, current research objected to evaluate the effect of final evaluation on job motivation from the perspective of nurses in Ahvaz hospitals according to Herzberg scheme. Methods: This investigation conducted in 2012. Research population included nurses in Ahvaz educational hospitals. The sample size was calculated 120 and sampling was performed based on classification and random sampling. Research instrument was a self-made questionnaire with confirmed validity through content analysis and Cronbach's alpha calculated at 0.94. Data examined utilizing ANOVA, T-Test, and descriptive statistics. Results: The nurses considered the final evaluation on management policy (3.2 ± 1.11) and monitoring (3.15 ± 1.15) among health items and responsibility (3.15 ± 1.15) and progress (3.06 ± 1.24) among motivational factors relatively effective. There was a significant association between scores of nurses' views in different age and sex groups (P = 0.01), but there was no significant association among respondents in educational level and marital status. Conclusion: Experienced nurses believed that evaluation has little effect on job motivation. If annual assessment of the various job aspects are considered, managers could use it as an efficient tool to motivate nurses.

  17. Good Samaritan Hospital and its department of surgery: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Scott R; Welling, Richard E

    2010-05-01

    At the end of the Revolutionary War, the United States government acquired the Northwest Territory, including the city of Cincinnati. Given the city's position on the Ohio River, and the subsequent development and introduction of steamboats in the early 1800s, Cincinnati became a major center for commerce and trade. With a population of over 115,000 in 1850, Cincinnati was the sixth largest city in the United States--larger even than St. Louis and Chicago-the first major city west of the Allegheny Mountains, and the largest inland city in the nation. The city's growth and importance is mirrored by the history of one if its prized institutions, Good Samaritan Hospital--the oldest, largest, and busiest private teaching and specialty-care hospital in Greater Cincinnati and a national leader in many surgical fields.

  18. A perspective from clinical and business ethics on adverse events in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J T; Meier, C; Higdon, T

    1997-11-01

    Adverse events occur in a significant, but undetermined, number of hospitalized patients. These types of patient injuries are more often the result of faulty systems than human maleficence. A culture exists among health care providers that discourages the reporting of such events and resists the implementation of formal efforts to eliminate them. This resistance serves to perpetuate the problem. Both business and clinical ethics argue that sound reasons exist for hospitals to reduce, if not eliminate, adverse events. To do so is cost effective, particularly in a managed care environment. It is also at the heart of responsible professional behavior. Physicians are afforded an opportunity to be at the forefront in this quality improvement effort.

  19. Care in psychiatric hospital under the perspective of a nursing team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mara de Melo Tavares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at describing the perception of the nursing team concerning the care in a psychiatric hospital. The research used a qualitative approach, exploratory type, using focus group technique, with five participants, in August 2011, in Niteroi, RJ, Brazil. From the data analysis five categories emerged, covering: sensitive listening; personal availability; therapeutic projects; human issues of the team; Traditional Psychiatry vs. Psychosocial Paradigm tension. It was concluded that despite the research, the subjects were still working at the hospital model. It was possible to bring awareness in a human, comprehensive and complete manner. But this perception of care has frailties once it does not bring any evidence of scientific basis of nursing. It is recommended that the professional nursing team invest in their role of caring in the context of the Psychiatric Reform, in the pursuit of an approach centered on the subject and in his way of living.

  20. Boundaryless Career Attitudes, Employability and Employee Turnover: Perspective from Malaysian Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Wai Sei Chan; Ong Lin Dar

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to develop a research framework for examining the relationship between boundary less career attitudes and employee turnover intentions and whether employability mediates these relationships. From the literature reviews, the authors found a notable gap in the boundary less career literature and established employability as a mediating variable between boundary less career attitudes and employee turnover intentions. High employee turnover within the hospitality industry has beco...

  1. Edit Change in the Hospitality Industry: New Paradigms, Frames, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oshins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 15-20 years, changes in hotel ownership and management, the growth and development of online reservation systems and the proliferation of lodging alternatives have altered the hospitality landscape, bringing new complexity to the industry. Dr. Oshins shares examples that highlight the ways one can learn to be more successful in thinking about and capitalizing on the opportunities presented by change.

  2. Service quality assessment of a referral hospital in Southern Iran with SERVQUAL technique: patients’ perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing services to patients according to their expectations and needs is necessary for the success of an organization in order to remain in the competitive market. Recognizing these needs and expectations is an important step in offering high quality services. This study was designed to determine the service quality gap of the main hospital of Hormozgan province. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bandar Abbas ShahidMohammadi Hospital in the south of Iran. All 96 participants of this study were provided by SERVQUAL questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Service quality gaps were seen in all five service quality dimensions and the overall quality of service. The mean of quality perception score and quality expectation score was 3.44 ± 0.693 and 4.736 ± 0.34, respectively. The highest perception was in assurance dimension and the highest expectation was in Responsiveness and assurance dimensions. Also, the lowest perception was in responsiveness dimension and the lowest expectation was about empathy. In this study, 56.1% of participants defined the quality of services as average. Conclusion According to the results, this hospital was not able to meet patients’ expectations completely. Therefore, action must be taken to decrease the gap between the perception and expectation of the patients. PMID:25064475

  3. Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Preventing RSV Hospitalization in High Risk Children: A Real-World Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Homaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups.

  4. Service quality assessment of a referral hospital in southern Iran with SERVQUAL technique: patients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamolaei, Teamur; Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Rafati, Shideh; Kahnouji, Kobra; Ahangari, Shamsieh; Shahrzad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kahnouji, Ataollah; Hoseini, Seyedeh Hamideh

    2014-07-27

    Providing services to patients according to their expectations and needs is necessary for the success of an organization in order to remain in the competitive market. Recognizing these needs and expectations is an important step in offering high quality services. This study was designed to determine the service quality gap of the main hospital of Hormozgan province. This cross sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bandar Abbas ShahidMohammadi Hospital in the south of Iran. All 96 participants of this study were provided by SERVQUAL questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Service quality gaps were seen in all five service quality dimensions and the overall quality of service. The mean of quality perception score and quality expectation score was 3.44 ± 0.693 and 4.736 ± 0.34, respectively. The highest perception was in assurance dimension and the highest expectation was in Responsiveness and assurance dimensions. Also, the lowest perception was in responsiveness dimension and the lowest expectation was about empathy. In this study, 56.1% of participants defined the quality of services as average. According to the results, this hospital was not able to meet patients' expectations completely. Therefore, action must be taken to decrease the gap between the perception and expectation of the patients.

  5. Accelerating Best Care in Pennsylvania: adapting a large academic system's quality improvement process to rural community hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydar, Ziad; Gunderson, Julie; Ballard, David J; Skoufalos, Alexis; Berman, Bettina; Nash, David B

    2008-01-01

    Industrial quality improvement (QI) methods such as continuous quality improvement (CQI) may help bridge the gap between evidence-based "best care" and the quality of care provided. In 2006, Baylor Health Care System collaborated with Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University to conduct a QI demonstration project in select Pennsylvania hospitals using CQI techniques developed by Baylor. The training was provided over a 6-month period and focused on methods for rapid-cycle improvement; data system design; data management; tools to improve patient outcomes, processes of care, and cost-effectiveness; use of clinical guidelines and protocols; leadership skills; and customer service skills. Participants successfully implemented a variety of QI projects. QI education programs developed and pioneered within large health care systems can be adapted and applied successfully to other settings, providing needed tools to smaller rural and community hospitals that lack the necessary resources to establish such programs independently.

  6. The Attitudes of Physicians, Nurses, Physical Therapists, and Midwives Toward Complementary Medicine for Chronic Pain: A Survey at an Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveni, Eléonore; Bauer, Brent; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Kottelat, Yolande; Decosterd, Isabelle; Finti, Guillaume; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Bonvin, Eric; Rodondi, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    To assess the attitudes of physicians, nurses, physical therapists, and midwives toward complementary medicine (CM) at a Swiss academic hospital and toward its use for treating chronic pain. The cross-sectional survey took place from October to December 2013. An e-mail sent to 4925 healthcare professionals (1969 physicians, 2372 nurses, 145 physical therapists, and 111 midwives) working at Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland, invited them to answer a web-based questionnaire. The questionnaire was answered by 1247 healthcare professionals (response rate: 25.3%). Of these, 96.1% strongly agreed or agreed that CM could be useful for the treatment of chronic pain, with more nurses (96.7%) and midwives (100%) than physicians (93.8%) agreeing that CM could be useful (P pain. Respondents listed migraine (74.7%), tension headaches (70.6%), and low back pain (70.1%) as three main conditions for which they would refer patients for acupuncture. The three therapies with which respondents were the most unfamiliar were neuraltherapy (57.2%), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) (54.1%), and biofeedback (51.9%). Over half of respondents, 58.3%, had never referred a patient to a CM practitioner. A total of 84.3% of the respondents felt that they lacked the knowledge to inform their patients about CM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Academic motivation, self-concept, engagement, and performance in high school: key processes from a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jasmine; Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J; Colmar, Susan; Marsh, Herbert W; McInerney, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    The study tested three theoretically/conceptually hypothesized longitudinal models of academic processes leading to academic performance. Based on a longitudinal sample of 1866 high-school students across two consecutive years of high school (Time 1 and Time 2), the model with the most superior heuristic value demonstrated: (a) academic motivation and self-concept positively predicted attitudes toward school; (b) attitudes toward school positively predicted class participation and homework completion and negatively predicted absenteeism; and (c) class participation and homework completion positively predicted test performance whilst absenteeism negatively predicted test performance. Taken together, these findings provide support for the relevance of the self-system model and, particularly, the importance of examining the dynamic relationships amongst engagement factors of the model. The study highlights implications for educational and psychological theory, measurement, and intervention.

  8. Implementing the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus admission care (ETAT+) clinical practice guidelines to improve quality of hospital care in Rwandan district hospitals: healthcare workers' perspectives on relevance and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hategeka, Celestin; Mwai, Leah; Tuyisenge, Lisine

    2017-04-07

    An emergency triage, assessment and treatment plus admission care (ETAT+) intervention was implemented in Rwandan district hospitals to improve hospital care for severely ill infants and children. Many interventions are rarely implemented with perfect fidelity under real-world conditions. Thus, evaluations of the real-world experiences of implementing ETAT+ are important in terms of identifying potential barriers to successful implementation. This study explored the perspectives of Rwandan healthcare workers (HCWs) on the relevance of ETAT+ and documented potential barriers to its successful implementation. HCWs enrolled in the ETAT+ training were asked, immediately after the training, their perspective regarding (i) relevance of the ETAT+ training to Rwandan district hospitals; (ii) if attending the training would bring about change in their work; and (iii) challenges that they encountered during the training, as well as those they anticipated to hamper their ability to translate the knowledge and skills learned in the ETAT+ training into practice in order to improve care for severely ill infants and children in their hospitals. They wrote their perspectives in French, Kinyarwanda, or English and sometimes a mixture of all these languages that are official in the post-genocide Rwanda. Their notes were translated to (if not already in) English and transcribed, and transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis. One hundred seventy-one HCWs were included in our analysis. Nearly all these HCWs stated that the training was highly relevant to the district hospitals and that it aligned with their work expectation. However, some midwives believed that the "neonatal resuscitation and feeding" components of the training were more relevant to them than other components. Many HCWs anticipated to change practice by initiating a triage system in their hospital and by using job aids including guidelines for prescription and feeding. Most of the challenges stemmed

  9. The Learning Process of Students of Tourism and Hospitality under the Perspective Andragogical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jammilly Mikaela Fagundes Brandão

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Children , teenagers and adults have different ways of learning to use specific approaches in their learning processes, making it necessary .Considering the level of maturity and self-direction that adults tend to have in that it will be developing and living experiences, we realized the need for an approach to consider these individual differences in the learning process, giving rise to andragogy - the art and science aimed at helping adults to learn and understand the process of learning. Indeed, this study is mainly aimed to analyze the perceptions of tourism and hospitality students about his role in their learning process, based on the andragogical model developed by Knowles, Holton and Seanson (2011. We sought to investigate the profile of students of bachelor degree in tourism and hospitality and analyze the level of self-directedness (autonomy and independence of these students in their learning process based on andragogical principles. The methodological procedures, carried out a survey with 60 students of hospitality and tourism courses at the Federal University of Paraíba - UFPB, using as a scale of 5 points that dealt with these students assimilate the agreement in relation to the items. Data base theory of light were analyzed. As results, it is evident that students who have participated in this research, the perception thereof, characteristics such as autonomy, self-direction and present levels of independence as subjects in training and skills development process, which shows the need to rethink vocational training to better leverage these features. Finally, we highlight the importance of using a teaching method that allows students to opening suit your learning process to their particular way to study and learn.

  10. Pain issues from the palliative perspective: a survey among doctors in Hospital Melaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, G A W C

    2006-10-01

    This survey was intended to gauge the management of pain in palliative cancer patients by the doctors in Melaka Hospital. It also sought to identify possible barriers to adequate pain management among doctors and gauge their response to the adequacy of medical school teaching on cancer pain issues. A 39 item survey was used to cover the issues involved. Overall, the doctors displayed a lack of systematic approach to cancer pain management with inadequate knowledge of analgesia handling. Medical school exposure to cancer pain issues was lacking. Formulation of accepted clinical practice guidelines and new education strategies can improve cancer pain management.

  11. Doctors' perspectives on the barriers to appropriate prescribing in older hospitalized patients: A qualitative study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullinan, S

    2014-11-18

    Older patients commonly suffer from multimorbidites and take multiple medications. As a result, these patients are more vulnerable to potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP). PIP in older patients may result in adverse drug events and hospitalisations. However, little has been done to identify why PIP occurs. The objectives of this study were; (1) to identify hospital doctors\\' perceptions as to why PIP occurs, (2) to identify the barriers to addressing the issues identified, and (3) to determine which intervention types would be best suited to improving prescribing.

  12. Achieving glycemic control in special populations in hospital: perspectives in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice Y Y

    2014-04-01

    Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly.

  13. Quality of diabetes care and health insurance coverage: a retrospective study in an outpatient academic public hospital in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Yves; Lozano Becerra, Juan Carlos; Carpentier, Marc

    2016-10-03

    Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with an increased risk of adverse diabetes outcomes. In Switzerland, a country with theoretical universal healthcare coverage, people without health insurance face barriers in accessing to and in receiving standard quality care. The Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) have implemented policies aiming at reducing these gaps. We compared quality of diabetes care and ambulatory healthcare services utilization among insured and uninsured diabetic patients. This retrospective study linked health and administrative data of type 2 diabetic outpatients with at least one HbA1c test performed in 2012-2013 at HUG. Quality of care evaluation relied on processes (annual serum HbA1c, cholesterol and microalbuminuria tesing) and outcomes (HbA1c) assessment. Healthcare utilization was assessed by the number of ambulatory clinical and laboratory visits. Results were stratified by disease course (newly diagnosed versus prevalent diabetes). Of the 198 patients included, 80 (40.4 %) were uninsured. Both groups underwent annual testing of HbA1c, cholesterol, kidney function and microalbuminuria at comparably high rates and numbers of ambulatory visits did not significantly differ. After adjustments for age and sex, there were no significant differences in serum HbA1c between groups both in those with prevalent or with newly diagnosed diabetes. Initial medical intervention entailed comparable glycaemic improvement after 6 months in incident diabetes among insured and uninsured patients. This study did not find any difference in quality of diabetes care between insured and uninsured patients in a public hospital enforcing health-equity policies for access to and for delivery of standard diabetes care. It highlights the frontline role of public hospitals in contributing to care delivery equity even in countries with theoretical universal healthcare coverage.

  14. Triumph of hope over experience: learning from interventions to reduce avoidable hospital admissions identified through an Academic Health and Social Care Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodhams Victoria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally health services are facing increasing demands due to new and more expensive health technologies and treatments, coupled with the needs of an ageing population. Reducing avoidable use of expensive secondary care services, especially high cost admissions where no procedure is carried out, has become a focus for the commissioners of healthcare. Method We set out to identify, evaluate and share learning about interventions to reduce avoidable hospital admission across a regional Academic Health and Social Care Network (AHSN. We conducted a service evaluation identifying initiatives that had taken place across the AHSN. This comprised a literature review, case studies, and two workshops. Results We identified three types of intervention: pre-hospital; within the emergency department (ED; and post-admission evaluation of appropriateness. Pre-hospital interventions included the use of predictive modelling tools (PARR – Patients at risk of readmission and ACG – Adjusted Clinical Groups sometimes supported by community matrons or virtual wards. GP-advisers and outreach nurses were employed within the ED. The principal post-hoc interventions were the audit of records in primary care or the application of the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP within the admission ward. Overall there was a shortage of independent evaluation and limited evidence that each intervention had an impact on rates of admission. Conclusions Despite the frequency and cost of emergency admission there has been little independent evaluation of interventions to reduce avoidable admission. Commissioners of healthcare should consider interventions at all stages of the admission pathway, including regular audit, to ensure admission thresholds don’t change.

  15. HOW HAVE NURSES PRACTICED PATIENT ADVOCACY IN THE HOSPITAL CONTEXT? - A FOUCAULTIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Geri Tomaschewski-Barlem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer cómo los enfermeros están practicando la defensa del paciente en el contexto del hospital. Se realizó una investigación cualitativa, exploratorio- descriptiva, en un hospital universitario en el sur de Brasil. Los encuestados fueron 16 enfermeros, seleccionados mediante muestreo no probalístico, del tipo bola de nieve. Para recopilar los datos, fueron realizadas encuestas semi-estructuradas, grabadas y transcritas, analizadas mediante análisis textual discursivo y referencial teórico foucaultiano. Como resultados, emergieron dos categorías: el coraje de verdad: el ejercicio de la defensa mediada por el diálogo franco; estrategias de resistencias para el ejercicio de la defensa de los pacientes. Se concluye que la estabilidad profesional y el apoyo de la institución contribuyen para que los enfermeros se sientan encorajados a practicar la defensa, mismo en situaciones difíciles de enfrentamiento, utilizándose de la parresia y de estrategias de resistencia para asegurar la defensa efectiva de los intereses de los pacientes.

  16. Strategies used by hospital nurses to cope with a national crisis: a manager's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, T; Fish, M; Aboudi, S

    2000-12-01

    This article explores the anxiety level of, and coping strategies used by, hospital nurses, during a national state of emergency. The study was guided by a stress and coping framework, developed by Lazarus & Folkman, and was conducted at a large teaching hospital, located in the centre of Israel, during the Iraqi crisis in January and February, 1998. Data were collected from a sample of 100 female nurses, and a descriptive correlational design was used. The findings indicated that approximately 33% of the nurses expressed feelings of stress, tension and a sense of discomfort. The dominant coping strategy used by the nurses was direct-active, which was found to be the most effective strategy. As they were unable to remove or control the stressor, stress management intervention by nursing managers focused mainly on communicating with staff and providing social support - informational and emotional--to buffer the stressful experience. Providing support and help in finding practical solutions is important for maintaining emotional stability of staff, thereby helping them to improve their nursing interventions in assisting people to cope with stressful situations.

  17. The telematic network of referee hospital "V. Monaldi" in Naples: state of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, A; Colasanate, A; Rossi, A

    2001-01-01

    The new advances in I.T. both in Hardware (wideband network) and in Software are rapidly changing the Health Information Systems scenario. In many hospitals of Campania Region this leads in many case to rebuild, starting from zero, both infrastructure and applications. Ericsson Enterprise has recently developed for the A.O. Monaldi and Integrated information System which consists of an advanced LAN (Local Area Network), a number of software infrastructures and some application systems as WEB site, Dicom PACS, E-mail server, Streaming Video from Operating Theatres, Internal TV Network. This integrated system represents the starting point for modern health information systems, which is compliant with new standards. The start-up of such systems represents always a problem for the organization and management point of view, therefore a number of problems concerning: training, education, security, privacy, operative procedures, co-ordination with existing applications, system management at the start-up and after. This paper deals with the technical aspects of this information system and discusses the problem met in introducing these IT products in a big and important hospital of Campania Region in Italy, in order to suggest a model, useful for other similar experiences.

  18. The Undesirable Behaviors of Students in Academic Classrooms, and the Discipline Strategies Used by Faculty Members to Control Such Behaviors from the Perspective of the College of Education Students in King Saud University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qahtani, Norah Saad Sultan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the undesirable students' behaviors in academic classrooms, and the disciplinary, preventive and therapeutic strategies that will be used by faculty members to control those behaviors from the perspective of the College of Education's students in King Saud University. The results of the study has shown that the…

  19. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and…

  20. Leadership in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Perspectives of Academics in Non-Formal Leadership Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyer, Anne; Sheingold, Brenda Helen; Klopper, Hester C.; Warland, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Developing leaders and leadership are key factors to improve learning and teaching in higher education. Despite the abundance of literature concerning developing formal leadership, fewer studies have been conducted with academics in non-formal leadership roles that focus on how they develop their leadership in learning and teaching. Publication…

  1. Trust and Work Place Spirituality on Knowledge Sharing Behaviour: Perspective from Non-Academic Staff of Higher Learning Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Osmangani, Aahad M; Daud, Nuraihan Mat; Chowdhury, Abdul Hannan; Hassan, Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This empirical research aims to add value in the existing research on knowledge sharing, investigate the antecedents of knowledge-sharing behaviour by embedding trust and workplace spirituality variable on non-academic staff from higher learning institution in Malaysia. The role of trust, perceived risk and workplace spirituality towards…

  2. A Strategic Plan of Academic Management System as Preparation for EAC Accreditation Visit--From UKM Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab-Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi; Yusoff, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Abdul, Nasrul Amir; Hipni, Afiq

    2015-01-01

    Development of a robust platform is important to ensure that the engineering accreditation process can run smoothly, completely and the most important is to fulfill the criteria requirements. In case of Malaysia, the preparation for EAC (Engineering Accreditation Committee) assessment required a good strategic plan of academic management system…

  3. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and influence…

  4. Discharging patients: A perspective from speech-language pathologists working in public hospitals in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Kartini

    2010-08-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) practising in Malaysia face similar dilemmas as their counterparts in more developed countries when it comes to deciding on discharge/termination of services for their patients. Furthermore, discharge dilemmas appear to be a frequent and inevitable part of their everyday practice. In an interview conducted for the purpose of this paper, it was clear that many SLPs found it difficult to articulate or justify the process they took to reach a decision on whether or not to terminate their services or discharge their patients. Much of the difficulty is anchored on the need to be realistic and function within the confines of limited resources. Malaysian SLPs were aware of the ideals that had to be abandoned along the way but had not allowed guilt to dissuade or discourage them from providing what they perceived as the next best available service. The not-so ideal decisions made by these SLPs may be frowned upon by international standards but must be examined within the local historical perspective of the development of the SLP profession in Malaysia. The dilemma will continue until the country produces SLPs in sufficient numbers but the profession is reminded that less-than-ideal practices may perpetuate over time into unhealthy traditions that will require major efforts to be undone.

  5. Academics explore humidity's benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Dave

    2008-11-01

    The effects of humidification on hospital superbugs are being explored by some of the UK's top academics, in what Dave Mortimer, national sales manager for Vapac Humidity Control, explains are the UK's first such studies.

  6. Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Diabetic Foot Infections in a Large Academic Hospital: Implications for Antimicrobial Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert J.; Hand, Elizabeth O.; Howell, Crystal K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are the leading cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations in the United States. Antimicrobials active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are recommended in patients with associated risk factors; however, limited data exist to support these recommendations. Due to the changing epidemiology of MRSA, and the consequences of unnecessary antibiotic therapy, guidance regarding the necessity of empirical MRSA coverage in DFIs is needed. We sought to 1) describe the prevalence of MRSA DFIs at our institution and compare to the proportion of patients who receive MRSA antibiotic coverage and 2) identify risk factors for MRSA DFI. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of all adult, culture-positive DFI patients managed at University Hospital, San Antonio, TX between January 1, 2010 and September 1, 2014. Patient eligibility included a principal ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis code for foot infection and a secondary diagnosis of diabetes. The primary outcome was MRSA identified in the wound culture. Independent variables assessed included patient demographics, comorbidities, prior hospitalization, DFI therapies, prior antibiotics, prior MRSA infection, and laboratory values. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for MRSA DFI. Results Overall, 318 patients met inclusion criteria. Patients were predominantly Hispanic (79%) and male (69%). Common comorbidities included hypertension (76%), dyslipidemia (52%), and obesity (49%). S. aureus was present in 46% of culture-positive DFIs (MRSA, 15%). A total of 273 patients (86%) received MRSA antibiotic coverage, resulting in 71% unnecessary use. Male gender (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.37–7.99) and bone involvement (OR 1.93, 1.00–3.78) were found to be independent risk factors for MRSA DFI. Conclusions Although MRSA was the causative pathogen in a small number of DFI, antibiotic coverage targeted against MRSA was unnecessarily

  7. The postgraduate hospital educational environment measure (PHEEM questionnaire identifies quality of instruction as a key factor predicting academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Edson Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the reliability of the PHEEM questionnaire translated into Portuguese. We present the results of PHEEM following distribution to doctors in three different medical residency programs at a university hospital in Brazil. INTRODUCTION: Efforts to understand environmental factors that foster effective learning resulted in the development of a questionnaire to measure medical residents' perceptions of the level of autonomy, teaching quality and social support in their programs. METHODS: The questionnaire was translated using the modified Brislin back-translation technique. Cronbach's alpha test was used to ensure good reliability and ANOVA was used to compare PHEEM results among residents from the Surgery, Anesthesiology and Internal Medicine departments. The Kappa coefficient was used as a measure of agreement, and factor analysis was employed to evaluate the construct strength of the three domains suggested by the original PHEEM questionnaire. RESULTS: The PHEEM survey was completed by 306 medical residents and the resulting Cronbach's alpha was 0.899. The weighted Kappa was showed excellent reliability. Autonomy was rated most highly by Internal Medicine residents (63.7% ± 13.6%. Teaching was rated highest in Anesthesiology (66.7% ± 15.4%. Residents across the three areas had similar perceptions of social support (59.0% ± 13.3% for Surgery; 60.5% ± 13.6% for Internal Medicine; 61.4% ± 14.4% for Anesthesiology. Factor analysis suggested that nine factors explained 58.9% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that PHEEM is a reliable instrument for measuring the quality of medical residency programs at a Brazilian teaching hospital. The results suggest that quality of teaching was the best indicator of overall response to the questionnaire.

  8. What Does ePrescribing Mean for Patients? A Case Study of the Perspectives of Hospital Renal Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospital ePrescribing systems are expected to improve quality of care for patients, yet the perspectives of patients themselves have seldom been explored in the context of ePrescribing deployments.OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand the significance of ePrescribing for patients through a case study of renal in-patients on a hospital ward, before and after the introduction of an ePrescribing system.METHODS: Three data sources were drawn on as part of the case study: interviews with representatives from national patient groups (n = 10, in-patients on a renal ward (n = 11 pre-implementation; n = 12 post-implementation and fieldnotes (n = 25 of observations made on the case study ward. Data were analysed thematically focusing on: (1 perceived benefits of ePrescribing; (2 patient awareness and understanding of the medications prescribed and (3 patient views on medicines reconciliation at admission and discharge.RESULTS: While ePrescribing was viewed positively overall, its implementation in the case study site failed to address the lack of patient involvement in the prescribing process and poor medication counselling upon discharge. Importantly, the limited impact of the ePrescribing system in these particular areas appeared to be the result of institutional and cultural practices rather than solely technological factors.CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of ePrescribing systems offers new opportunities to improve sharing of knowledge and communication with all those involved in the patient’s care pathways, including patients, carers and healthcare professionals across diverse care settings. Achieving this will, first and foremost, require significant cultural and policy shifts in how the patient’s role is perceived by clinicians in relation to medicines management.

  9. Relationship of Teaching Efficiency with Academic Self-Efficacy and Self-Directed Learning among English Language Students: University Students’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shohoudi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-directed learning is originated from adult education which has currently gained a special place in educational systems and is influenced by many variables such as teaching self-efficacy and self-directed learning. This research investigated the relationship of teachers’ teaching with academic self-efficacy and self-directed learning from English language students' perspectives. Methods: The study population comprised of all bachelor, master and Ph.D. English language students of Allameh Tabataba’i University (2014-2015 who had passed at least one semester. A total of 159 students were selected as study sample using Cochran formula and proportional stratified sampling. The data were collected through three standard questionnaires with confirmed validity and reliability. Data were analyzed by one-sample t-test, Pearson correlation and multiple regression. Results: With regard to teaching efficiency, content presentation, learning evaluation and class management skills were higher than average and lesson planning and control over content skills were at an average level. Also, all dimensions of academic self-efficacy and self-directed learning were significantly higher than average. The correlation between teaching efficiency and self-efficacy (r=0.367 and self-directed learning (r=0.571, and between self-efficacy and self-directed learning (r=0.523 was statistically significant (P<0.01. Moreover, a combination of teaching efficiency dimensions could predict different dimensions of self-efficacy and all components of self-directed learning. Furthermore, self-efficacy dimensions were good predictors of self-directed learning. Conclusion: Success in the realm of academia and organizational learning depends on the learners’ updated knowledge and skills and self-directed learning. Also, it seems teachers’ efficient teaching affects students’ academic self-efficacy, orienting them toward self-directed learning.

  10. [Vitamin D Insufficiency in a Hospital Population: A Photograph from the Laboratory Perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Joana; Fernandes, Vera; Garcia, Fernando Mota

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Apesar da hipovitaminose D ser cada vez mais reconhecida em todo o mundo, existem poucos estudos sobre a realidade portuguesa. Este trabalho pretende analisar o nível de vitamina D nos doseamentos realizados no nosso hospital e sua relação com idade, sexo, especialidade requisitante e momento da colheita. Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional dos doseamentos de 25(OH)D realizados no nosso Hospital entre junho de 2012 e novembro de 2014. Variáveis estudadas: sexo, idade, especialidade requisitante, mês de colheita. O status de vitamina D foi classificado como: 'Deficiência' (≤ 20 ng/mL), 'Insuficiência' (21 ' 29 ng/mL) e 'Suficiência' (≥ 30 ng/mL). Resultados: Incluímos 5 439 doseamentos; 55,0% pertenciam a mulheres; a idade mediana foi 64,0 anos. Sessenta por cento apresentavam 'Deficiência', 20,7% 'Insuficiência' e 18,9% 'Suficiência'. Encontrámos uma correlação negativa entre idade e nível de vitamina D (p vitamina D (p vitamina D variou ao longo do ano, com níveis superiores no verão, seguido do outono, primavera e inverno (p vitamina D foi sempre minoritária, sendo de 27,8% no Verão e 9,2% no Inverno. Discussão: A carência de vitamina D nesta população é elevada, transversal a todas as idades e não compensada pela variação sazonal da exposição solar.Conclusão: A hipovitaminose D é um problema real, prevalente e merecedor de atuação na nossa população, atendendo às suas implicações clínicas.

  11. Exemplary, New Teachers' Perspectives on Teaching Second-Language Learners and Developing Academic Language: An Embodied Understanding of Practice Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Maria-Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, longitudinal study examines the perspectives on professional development of a group of exemplary, new secondary teachers of English Language Arts and Spanish (n = 4). This study explores the teachers' development through the lens of the "embodied understanding of practice" (EUP), a novel theoretical framework of…

  12. Experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: significant others' lifeworld perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Anders; Dahlberg, Karin; Sandman, Lars

    2009-10-01

    When patients suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA), significant others find themselves with no choice about being there. After the event they are often left with unanswered questions about the life-threatening circumstances, or the patient's death, or emergency treatment and future needs. When it is unclear how the care and the event itself will affect significant others' well-being, prehospital emergency personnel face ethical decisions. In this article we describe the experiences of significant others present at OHCA, focusing on ethical aspects and values. Using a lifeworld phenomenological approach, 7 significant others were interviewed. The essence of the phenomenon of OHCA can be stated as unreality in the reality, which is characterized by overwhelming responsibility. The significant others experience inadequacy and limitation, they move between hope and hopelessness, and they struggle with ethical considerations and an insecurity about the future.The study findings show how significant others' sense of an OHCA situation, when life is trembling, can threaten values deemed important for a good life.

  13. Induced abortion in Thailand: current situation in public hospitals and legal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warakamin, Suwanna; Boonthai, Nongluk; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2004-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Thailand unless the woman's health is at risk or pregnancy is due to rape. This study, carried out in 1999 in 787 government hospitals, examined the magnitude and profile of abortion in Thailand, using data collected prospectively through a review of 45,990 case records (of which 28.5% were classified as induced and 71.5% as spontaneous abortions) and face-to-face interviews with a sub-set of 1854 women patients. The estimated induced abortion ratio was 19.5 per 1000 live births. Almost half the induced abortions were in young women under 25 years of age, many of whom had little or no access to contraception. Socio-economic reasons accounted for 60.2% of abortions. Serious complications were observed in almost a third of cases, especially following abortions performed by non-health personnel. Government physicians' current provision of induced abortion went beyond the provisions of the law in almost half of cases, most commonly for intrauterine death and for congenital anomalies. The paper proposes a framework for policy discussions of the grey areas of maternal and fetal indications leading to legal reform, in order to facilitate safe abortion. A recommendation to amend the abortion law has been proposed to the Ministry of Public Health and the Thai Medical Council.

  14. An importance-performance analysis of hospital information system attributes: A nurses' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jason F; Coleman, Emma; Kangethe, Matheri J

    2016-02-01

    Health workers have numerous concerns about hospital IS (HIS) usage. Addressing these concerns requires understanding the system attributes most important to their satisfaction and productivity. Following a recent HIS implementation, our objective was to identify priorities for managerial intervention based on user evaluations of the performance of the HIS attributes as well as the relative importance of these attributes to user satisfaction and productivity outcomes. We collected data along a set of attributes representing system quality, data quality, information quality, and service quality from 154 nurse users. Their quantitative responses were analysed using the partial least squares approach followed by an importance-performance analysis. Qualitative responses were analysed using thematic analysis to triangulate and supplement the quantitative findings. Two system quality attributes (responsiveness and ease of learning), one information quality attribute (detail), one service quality attribute (sufficient support), and three data quality attributes (records complete, accurate and never missing) were identified as high priorities for intervention. Our application of importance-performance analysis is unique in HIS evaluation and we have illustrated its utility for identifying those system attributes for which underperformance is not acceptable to users and therefore should be high priorities for intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Accommodation set in a university hospital: postpartum depression in nurses’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Rodrigues de Freitas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conhecer o entendimento dos enfermeiros do alojamento conjunto sobre depressão pós-parto; e identificar a percepção desses enfermeiros relativa à importância das orientações sobre depressão pós-parto às puérperas. Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, exploratória, de natureza qualitativa, com 5 enfermeiros do Alojamento Conjunto de um Hospital da cidade de Niterói/RJ, no ano de 2011. Os dados foram coletados por entrevistas semiestruturadas e tratados de acordo com os preceitos da análise de conteúdo, obedecendo à Técnica de Análise Temática, após aprovação do projeto de pesquisa pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Faculdade de Medicina/HUAP/UFF, CAAE n. 0215.0.258.000-11, mediante parecer favorável n° 206/11. Resultados: Os enfermeiros encontram dificuldades em prestar uma assistência especifica e qualificada à puérpera por falta de conhecimentos sobre esse transtorno. Conclusão: O enfermeiro precisa ter o conhecimento sobre a depressão pós-parto para facilitar a abordagem e os cuidados à puérpera e a família.

  16. The effect of health payment reforms on cost containment in Taiwan hospitals: the agency theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether the Taiwanese government's implementation of new health care payment reforms (the National Health Insurance with fee-for-service (NHI-FFS) and global budget (NHI-GB)) has resulted in better cost containment. Also, the question arises under the agency theory whether the monitoring system is effective in reducing the risk of information asymmetry. This study uses panel data analysis with fixed effects model to investigate changes in cost containment at Taipei municipal hospitals before and after adopting reforms from 1989 to 2004. The results show that the monitoring system does not reduce information asymmetry to improve cost containment under the NHI-FFS. In addition, after adopting the NHI-GB system, health care costs are controlled based on an improved monitoring system in the policymaker's point of view. This may suggest that the NHI's fee-for-services system actually causes health care resource waste. The GB may solve the problems of controlling health care costs only on the macro side.

  17. NUCLEUS OF PERMANENT EDUCATION IN NURSING: PERSPECTIVES IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Trivisiol Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever como os enfermeiros percebem o Núcleo de Educação Permanente em Enfermagem. MÉTODO: Pesquisa de natureza descritiva com abordagem qualitativa realizada em um hospital de ensino do sul do país, com 17 enfermeiros locados nas unidades de internação e de apoio. O projeto de pesquisa foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio grande do Sul, sob protocolo CAAE: 0111.0.243.000-09. RESULTADOS: Emergiram dois núcleos temáticos: O NEPE como dispositivo da implementação da Educação Permanente em Saúde e o NEPE como dificuldades sentida pelos enfermeiros para efetivação da Educação Permanente em Saúde. CONCLUSÃO: Há possibilidades de transformação do NEPE em Política Institucional no HUSM, sustentado pela Política Nacional de Educação Permanente, como referência nas ações educativas voltadas a reflexão das práticas cotidianas, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento profissional, na melhoria da qualidade da assistência de enfermagem e na satisfação dos usuários.

  18. THE ROLE OF THE UNIVERSITY IN THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY: ETHICAL PERSPECTIVES ON ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN THE AGE OF CORPORATE SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CERNAT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge society lies on the ruins of national culture that thought people to function in a single universal form of science. This type of society is tightly related to a post-national multicultural world that nourishes the erosion of classical (Kantian and Humboldian cultural and scientific foundations of the university. We are now witnessing it’s transformation into a “multiversity” dominated by the competitive international academic market for students and scholars and “commodified” knowledge. The fiscal crisis of publicly financed universities forced them to constantly pursue other forms of income, the industry being the most obvious solution. In the place of universities of reason and culture the drastic decrease of public funding generated the commercialization of the universities. This is because there is an “asymmetric convergence”: while universities are adopting corporate values and principles the industry itself is not influenced by the academic values and norms. The pursuit of knowledge for mere intellectual curiosity and also the conception of the knowledge as a public good have been abandoned in favor of applied research serving corporate interests. The resulting academic capitalism is far from being the best solution to budget cuts and this study is trying to highlight some of advantages but also the most important shortcomings of this present trend in our universities.

  19. Perspective: Prospective health care and the role of academic medicine: lead, follow, or get out of the way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyderman, Ralph; Yoediono, Ziggy

    2008-08-01

    The authors contend that the crisis facing the U.S. health care system is in large part a consequence of that system's disease-oriented, reactive, and sporadic approach to care, and they suggest that a prospective approach to health care, which emphasizes personalized medicine and strategic health planning, would be a more rational way to prevent disease and maximize health. During recent years, personalized, predictive, preventive, and participatory medicine--that is, prospective care--has been receiving increasing attention as a solution to the U.S. health care crisis. Advocacy has been mainly from industry, government, large employers, and private insurers. However, academic medicine, as a whole, has not played a leading role in this movement. The authors believe that academic medicine has the opportunity and responsibility to play a far greater role in the conception and development of better models to deliver health care. In doing so, it could lead the transformation of today's dysfunctional system of medical care to that of a prospective approach that emphasizes personalization, prediction, prevention, and patient participation. Absent contributing to improving how care is delivered, academic medicine's leadership in our nation's health will be bypassed.

  20. Contributions of Saudi Institutions in Applied Linguistics’ Journals Indexed in SSCI: Perspectives from Academics and Journals’ Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Mohsen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a new tendency for institutions to augment their publications in journals indexed in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI. Non-native English researchers may find it hard to get their submissions published in applied linguistics journals that are solely indexed in SSCI, which are known for their high rate of rejection. This could minimize the opportunity for researchers to get their manuscripts accepted for publication. This paper aims to collect data for academics’ perceptions of Saudi institutions to see their attitudes towards submitting and publishing in these journals. The article also aims to check the perceptions of journals’ editors on the submissions affiliated to Saudi universities to check the rate of rejection and the main reasons that lie behind the rejection. Thirty seven academics responded to an online survey designed to gauge their perceptions about submitting and publishing in applied linguistics journals indexed in SSCI. Academics perceive that publishing in such journals is difficult due to the high rate of rejection, long time of turnaround review, and a stringent peer review. Editors—those who responded to another survey—reported that a combination of outdated issues being investigated, poor research design and the lack of generalizability of research findings are the main reasons for rejecting submissions from Saudi academic institutions. On the bases of the study findings, limitations and tips for future studies are highlighted.

  1. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  2. Perspective of Health Care Professionals in Two Teaching Hospitals Regarding Hand Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghotbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Adherence to hand hygiene (HH by health care professional (HCP is crucial to prevent nosocomial infections; adequate knowledge and a positive attitude are needed for optimal compliance. Objectives The current study aimed to assess the knowledge and the attitudes of the HCPs regarding HH. Materials and Methods Questionnaires were distributed to HCPs in two university affiliated hospitals. After completion, members of the study team analyzed the collected data. Results Two-hundred fifty-five personnel completed the questionnaires; 143 (56.1% physicians and 112 (43.9% nursing personnel. Hands of health care personnel were named as the major source of transmission of infection and hand washing as the most effective way to prevent transmission by 88.6% and 94.5% of participants respectively. Hand washing was recognized as HH by 81.6% of the HCP, alcohol hand rubs by 64.3% and disposable gloves by 23.9%. Reasons to perform HH included prevention of nosocomial infection by 85.1% along with self-protection by 64.3%; 25.9% had received formal training. Lack of knowledge, poor accessibility to alcohol hand rubs and concerns about skin damage were regarded as barriers to HH by 71.4%, 54.1% and 41.2% of participants, respectively. Suggestions for improving compliance to hand hygiene: continued education, 67.1%; increasing number/accessibility to hand rubs, 63.5%; putting up posters 54.5% and camera control, 15.7%. Conclusions The findings indicate that hand hygiene should be included in the formal curriculum, continuous education and supervision are necessary to ensure compliance.

  3. Complete-genome sequencing elucidates outbreak dynamics of CA-MRSA USA300 (ST8-spa t008) in an academic hospital of Paramaribo, Republic of Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Artur J; Hermelijn, Sandra M; Akkerboom, Viktoria; Juliana, Amadu; Degener, John E; Grundmann, Hajo; Friedrich, Alexander W

    2017-01-20

    We report the investigation of an outbreak situation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that occurred at the Academic Hospital Paramaribo (AZP) in the Republic of Suriname from April to May 2013. We performed whole genome sequencing with complete gap closure for chromosomes and plasmids on all isolates. The outbreak involved 12 patients and 1 healthcare worker/nurse at the AZP. In total 24 isolates were investigated. spa typing, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, ad hoc whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST), stable core genome MLST (cgMLST) and in silico PFGE were used to determine phylogenetic relatedness and to identify transmission. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) showed that all isolates were members of genomic variants of the North American USA300 clone. However, WGS revealed a heterogeneous population structure of USA300 circulating at the AZP. We observed up to 8 SNPs or up to 5 alleles of difference by wgMLST when the isolates were recovered from different body sites of the same patient or if direct transmission between patients was most likely. This work describes the usefulness of complete genome sequencing of bacterial chromosomes and plasmids providing an unprecedented level of detail during outbreak investigations not being visible by using conventional typing methods.

  4. Awareness of radiation protection and dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiography students, and radiology residents at an academic hospital: Results of a comprehensive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggioni, Lorenzo; Paolicchi, Fabio; Bastiani, Luca; Guido, Davide; Caramella, Davide

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the awareness of radiation protection issues and the knowledge of dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiology residents, and radiography students at an academic hospital. A total of 159 young doctors and students (including 60 radiology residents, 56 medical students, and 43 radiography students) were issued a questionnaire consisting of 16 multiple choice questions divided into three separated sections (i.e., demographic data, awareness about radiation protection issues, and knowledge about radiation dose levels of common radiological examinations). Medical students claimed to have at least a good knowledge of radiation protection issues more frequently than radiology residents and radiography students (94.4% vs 55% and 35.7%, respectively; Pradiological procedures was significantly worse among medical students than radiology residents and radiography students (Pradiology residents as to knowledge of radiation protection issues (PRadiology residents, radiography students and medical students have a limited awareness about radiation protection, with a specific gap of knowledge concerning real radiation doses of daily radiological examinations. Both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching needs to be effectively implemented with radiation safety courses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Certified quality management according to DIN ISO 9001 in a radiology department at a university hospital: measurable changes in academic quality indicators?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, J; Habermann, C; Utler, C; Grzyska, U; Weber, C; Adam, G; Koops, A

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the changes in academic quality indicators after implementation of a quality management system according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. After implementation and certification of a quality management system, the actual state based on quality indicators from the fields of student teaching, research, continuing education and the satisfaction of referring physician was determined. After implementation of an action plan for the individual areas, the temporal changes in the ratios were documented in the follow-up. The evaluation of teaching performance obtained by questionnaire among the students of the radiology course showed a steady increase in satisfaction (mean value 2003: 2.7; 2007: 3.9). In the field of research an increase in scientific output was achieved based on the number of an internal publication score (2002: 99 points; 2006: 509). Repeated opinion surveys among our referring physicians found improvements in indicators for the appointment of investigations, consulting service and waiting times for the investigation, while the waiting times for internal transport service did not improve. Exemplary measurements of the success of the advanced training of the staff demonstrated the need for continuing education for quality improvement. The evaluation of quality indicators showed over time a measurable positive impact on processes of a radiological University Hospital after implementation of a QM system according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  6. Complete-genome sequencing elucidates outbreak dynamics of CA-MRSA USA300 (ST8-spa t008) in an academic hospital of Paramaribo, Republic of Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Artur J.; Hermelijn, Sandra M.; Akkerboom, Viktoria; Juliana, Amadu; Degener, John E.; Grundmann, Hajo; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2017-01-01

    We report the investigation of an outbreak situation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that occurred at the Academic Hospital Paramaribo (AZP) in the Republic of Suriname from April to May 2013. We performed whole genome sequencing with complete gap closure for chromosomes and plasmids on all isolates. The outbreak involved 12 patients and 1 healthcare worker/nurse at the AZP. In total 24 isolates were investigated. spa typing, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, ad hoc whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST), stable core genome MLST (cgMLST) and in silico PFGE were used to determine phylogenetic relatedness and to identify transmission. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) showed that all isolates were members of genomic variants of the North American USA300 clone. However, WGS revealed a heterogeneous population structure of USA300 circulating at the AZP. We observed up to 8 SNPs or up to 5 alleles of difference by wgMLST when the isolates were recovered from different body sites of the same patient or if direct transmission between patients was most likely. This work describes the usefulness of complete genome sequencing of bacterial chromosomes and plasmids providing an unprecedented level of detail during outbreak investigations not being visible by using conventional typing methods. PMID:28106148

  7. Safe medication management and use of narcotics in a Joint Commission International-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xu; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Xia, Ping; Chen, Meng; Zhou, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Safe medication management and use of high-alert narcotics should arouse concern. Risk management experiences in this respect in a large-scale Joint Commission International (JCI)-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People's Republic of China during 2011-2015, focusing on organizational, educational, motivational, and information technological measures in storage, prescribing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring of medication are summarized. The intensity of use of meperidine in hospitalized patients in 2015 was one-fourth that in 2011. A 100% implementation rate of standard storage of narcotics has been achieved in the hospital since December 2012. A "Plan, Do, Check, Act" cycle was efficient because the ratio of number of inappropriate narcotics prescriptions to total number of narcotics prescriptions for inpatients decreased from August 2014 to December 2014 (28.22% versus 2.96%, P=0.0000), and it was controlled below 6% from then on. During the journey to good pain management ward accreditation by the Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China, (April 2012-October 2012), the medical oncology ward successfully demonstrated an increase in the pain screening rate at admission from 43.5% to 100%, cancer pain control rate from 85% to 96%, and degree of satisfaction toward pain nursing from 95.4% to 100% (all P-values <0.05). Oral morphine equivalent dosage in the good pain management ward increased from 2.3 mg/patient before June 2012 to 54.74 mg/patient in 2014. From 2011 to 2015, the oral morphine equivalent dose per discharged patient increased from 8.52 mg/person to 20.36 mg/person. A 100% implementation rate of independent double-check prior to narcotics dosing has been achieved since January 2013. From 2014 to 2015, the ratio of number of narcotics-related medication errors to number of discharged patients significantly decreased (6.95% versus 0.99%, P=0.0000). Taken together, continuous quality improvements have been

  8. Management of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in non-academic hospitals in France: The Observational French SyndromEs of TakoTsubo (OFSETT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayehd, Komlavi; N'da, N'kenon W; Belle, Loïc; Bataille, Vincent; Hanssen, Michel; Leddet, Pierre; Aupetit, Jean-François; Commeau, Philippe; Filippi, Emmanuelle; Georges, Jean-Louis; Albert, Franck; Rangé, Grégoire; Meimoun, Patrick; Marcaggi, Xavier; Baleynaud, Serge; Nallet, Olivier; Dibie, Alain; Barnay, Claude; Jouve, Bernard; Legrand, Maud; Cattan, Simon; Mulak, Geneviève; Simon, Tabassome; Danchin, Nicolas; Dujardin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a rare condition characterized by a sudden temporary weakening of the heart. TTC can mimic acute myocardial infarction and is associated with a minimal release of myocardial biomarkers in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. To provide an extensive description of patients admitted to hospital for TTC throughout France and to study the management and outcomes of these patients. In 14 non-academic hospitals, we collected clinical, electrocardiographic, biological, psychological and therapeutic data in patients with a diagnosis of TTC according to the Mayo Clinic criteria. Of 117 patients, 91.5% were women, mean ± SD age was 71.4 ± 12.1 years and the prevalence of risk factors was high (hypertension: 57.9%, dyslipidaemia: 33.0%, diabetes: 11.5%, obesity: 11.5%). The most common initial symptoms were chest pain (80.5%) and dyspnoea (24.1%). A triggering psychological event was detected in 64.3% of patients. ST-segment elevation was found in 41.7% of patients and T-wave inversion in 71.6%. Anterior leads were most frequently associated with ST-segment elevation, whereas T-wave inversion was more commonly associated with lateral leads, and Q-waves with septal leads. The ratio of peak B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal prohormone BNP (NT-proBNP) level to peak troponin level was 1.01. No deaths occurred during the hospital phase. After 1 year of follow-up, 3 of 109 (2.8%) patients with available data died, including one cardiovascular death. Rehospitalizations occurred in 17.4% of patients: 2.8% due to acute heart failure and 14.7% due to non-cardiovascular causes. There was no recurrence of TTC. This observational study of TTC included primarily women with atherosclerotic risk factors and mental stress. T-wave inversion was more common than ST-segment elevation. There were few adverse cardiovascular outcomes in these patients after 1-year follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Burden and predictors of Staphylococcus aureus and S. pseudintermedius infections among dogs presented at an academic veterinary hospital in South Africa (2007-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qekwana, Daniel N; Oguttu, James Wabwire; Sithole, Fortune; Odoi, Agricola

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococci are commensals of the mucosal surface and skin of humans and animals, but have been implicated in infections such as otitis externa, pyoderma, urinary tract infections and post-surgical complications. Laboratory records provide useful information to help investigate these infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the burdens of these infections and use multinomial regression to examine the associations between various Staphylococcus infections and demographic and temporal factors among dogs admitted to an academic veterinary hospital in South Africa. Records of 1,497 clinical canine samples submitted to the bacteriology laboratory at a veterinary academic hospital between 2007 and 2012 were included in this study. Proportions of staphylococcal positive samples were calculated, and a multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of staphylococcal infections. Twenty-seven percent of the samples tested positive for Staphylococcus spp. The species of Staphylococcus identified were S. pseudintermedius (19.0%), S. aureus (3.8%), S. epidermidis (0.7%) and S. felis (0.1%). The remaining 2.87% consisted of unspeciated Staphylococcus. Distribution of the species by age of dog showed that S. pseudintermedius was the most common (25.6%) in dogs aged 2-4 years while S. aureus was most frequent (6.3%) in dogs aged 5-6 years. S. pseudintermedius (34.1%) and S. aureus (35.1%) were the most frequently isolated species from skin samples. The results of the multivariable multinomial logistic regression model identified specimen, year and age of the dog as significant predictors of the risk of infection with Staphylococcus. There was a significant temporal increase (RRR = 1.17; 95% CI [1.06-1.29]) in the likelihood of a dog testing positive for S. pseudintermedius compared to testing negative. Dogs ≤ 8 years of age were significantly more likely to test positive for S. aureus than those >8 years of age. Similarly

  10. Cancer Imaging at the Crossroads of Precision Medicine: Perspective From an Academic Imaging Department in a Comprehensive Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Abbeele, Annick D; Krajewski, Katherine M; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Fennessy, Fiona M; DiPiro, Pamela J; Nguyen, Quang-Dé; Harris, Gordon J; Jacene, Heather A; Lefever, Greg; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2016-04-01

    The authors propose one possible vision for the transformative role that cancer imaging in an academic setting can play in the current era of personalized and precision medicine by sharing a conceptual model that is based on experience and lessons learned designing a multidisciplinary, integrated clinical and research practice at their institution. The authors' practice and focus are disease-centric rather than imaging-centric. A "wall-less" infrastructure has been developed, with bidirectional integration of preclinical and clinical cancer imaging research platforms, enabling rapid translation of novel cancer drugs from discovery to clinical trial evaluation. The talents and expertise of medical professionals, scientists, and staff members have been coordinated in a horizontal and vertical fashion through the creation of Cancer Imaging Consultation Services and the "Adopt-a-Radiologist" campaign. Subspecialized imaging consultation services at the hub of an outpatient cancer center facilitate patient decision support and management at the point of care. The Adopt-a-Radiologist campaign has led to the creation of a novel generation of imaging clinician-scientists, fostered new collaborations, increased clinical and academic productivity, and improved employee satisfaction. Translational cancer research is supported, with a focus on early in vivo testing of novel cancer drugs, co-clinical trials, and longitudinal tumor imaging metrics through the imaging research core laboratory. Finally, a dedicated cancer imaging fellowship has been developed, promoting the future generation of cancer imaging specialists as multidisciplinary, multitalented professionals who are trained to effectively communicate with clinical colleagues and positively influence patient care.

  11. Retention of Underrepresented Minority Faculty: Strategic Initiatives for Institutional Value Proposition Based on Perspectives from a Range of Academic Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Joseph A.; Montgomery, Beronda L.; Martinez Acosta, Veronica G.

    2015-01-01

    The student and faculty make-up of academic institutions does not represent national demographics. Racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionately underrepresented nationally, and particularly at predominantly white institutions (PWIs). Although significant efforts and funding have been committed to increasing points of access or recruitment of under-represented minority (URM) students and faculty at PWIs, these individuals have not been recruited and retained at rates that reflect their national proportions. Underrepresentation of URMs is particularly prevalent in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. This reality represents a national crisis given a predicted shortage of workers in STEM disciplines based on current rates of training of all individuals, majority and URM, and the intersection of this limitation with persistent challenges in the recruitment, training, retention and advancement of URMs who will soon represent the largest pool of future trainees. An additional compounding factor is the increasingly disproportionate underrepresentation of minorities at higher professorial and administrative ranks, thus limiting the pool of potential mentors who are correlated with successful shepherding of URM students through STEM training and development. We address issues related to improving recruitment and retention of URM faculty that are applicable across a range of academic institutions. We describe challenges with recruitment and retention of URM faculty and their advancement through promotion in the faculty ranks and into leadership positions. We offer specific recommendations, including identifying environmental barriers to diversity and implementing strategies for their amelioration, promoting effective and innovative mentoring, and addressing leadership issues related to constructive change for promoting diversity. PMID:26240521

  12. Perspective: the negativity bias, medical education, and the culture of academic medicine: why culture change is hard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haizlip, Julie; May, Natalie; Schorling, John; Williams, Anne; Plews-Ogan, Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Despite ongoing efforts to improve working conditions, address well-being of faculty and students, and promote professionalism, many still feel the culture of academic medicine is problematic. Depression and burnout persist among physicians and trainees. The authors propose that culture change is so challenging in part because of an evolutionary construct known as the negativity bias that is reinforced serially in medical education. The negativity bias drives people to attend to and be more greatly affected by the negative aspects of experience. Some common teaching methods such as simulations, pimping, and instruction in clinical reasoning inadvertently reinforce the negativity bias and thereby enhance physicians' focus on the negative. Here, the authors examine the concept of negativity bias in the context of academic medicine, arguing that culture is affected by serially emphasizing the inherent bias to recognize and remember the negative. They explore the potential role of practices rooted in positive psychology as powerful tools to counteract the negativity bias and aid in achieving desired culture change.

  13. Documentation and communication of nutritional care for elderly hospitalized patients: perspectives of nurses and undergraduate nurses in hospitals and nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Kristin; Eide, Helene Kjøllesdal; Sortland, Kjersti; Almendingen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional care is a basic human right for all people. Nevertheless, undernourishment is known to be a frequent and serious health care problem among elderly hospitalized patients in Western Europe. Nutritional documentation contributes to ensuring proper nutritional treatment and care. Only a few studies have explored how nurses document nutritional care in hospitals, and between hospitals and nursing homes. Available research suggests that documentation practices are unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to explore how nurses document nutritional treatment and care for elderly patients in hospitals and how nurses and undergraduate nurses communicate information about patients' nutritional status when elderly patients are transferred between hospital and nursing homes. A qualitative study was conducted using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Data was collected in focus group interviews with 16 nurses in one large university hospital, and 11 nurses and 16 undergraduate nurses in five nursing homes associated with the university hospital. Participants from the university hospital represented a total of seven surgical and medical wards, all of which transferred patients to the associated nursing homes. The catchment area of the hospital and the nursing homes represented approximately 10% of the Norwegian population in heterogenic urban and rural municipalities. Data were coded and analysed thematically within the three contexts: self-understanding, critical common sense, and theoretical understanding. The results were summarized under three main themes 1) inadequate documentation of nutritional status on hospital admission, 2) inadequate and unsystematic documentation of nutritional information during hospital stay, 3) limited communication of nutritional information between hospital and nursing homes. The three main themes included seven sub-themes, which reflected the lack of nutritional screening and unsystematic documentation on admission and during

  14. Safe medication management and use of narcotics in a Joint Commission International-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang X

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Xu Fang,1,2 Ling-ling Zhu,3 Sheng-dong Pan,4 Ping Xia,4 Meng Chen,5 Quan Zhou51Office of Hospital Administration, 2Office of Party and Administration Council, 3Geriatric VIP Care Ward, Division of Nursing, 4Division of Medical Administration, 5Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Safe medication management and use of high-alert narcotics should arouse concern. Risk management experiences in this respect in a large-scale Joint Commission International (JCI-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People’s Republic of China during 2011–2015, focusing on organizational, educational, motivational, and information technological measures in storage, prescribing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring of medication are summarized. The intensity of use of meperidine in hospitalized patients in 2015 was one-fourth that in 2011. A 100% implementation rate of standard storage of narcotics has been achieved in the hospital since December 2012. A “Plan, Do, Check, Act” cycle was efficient because the ratio of number of inappropriate narcotics prescriptions to total number of narcotics prescriptions for inpatients decreased from August 2014 to December 2014 (28.22% versus 2.96%, P=0.0000, and it was controlled below 6% from then on. During the journey to good pain management ward accreditation by the Ministry of Health, People’s Republic of China, (April 2012–October 2012, the medical oncology ward successfully demonstrated an increase in the pain screening rate at admission from 43.5% to 100%, cancer pain control rate from 85% to 96%, and degree of satisfaction toward pain nursing from 95.4% to 100% (all P-values <0.05. Oral morphine equivalent dosage in the good pain management ward increased from 2.3 mg/patient before June 2012 to 54.74 mg/patient in 2014. From 2011 to 2015, the oral morphine

  15. Hospitality within hospital meals –

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2016-01-01

    Hospital meals and their role in nutritional care have been studied primarily from a life and natural science perspective. This article takes a different approach and explores the idea of hospitality inspired by Jacques Derrida’s work on the ontology of hospitality. By drawing on ethnographic...... fieldwork in a Danish hospital, hospitality practices were studied using a socio-material assemblage approach. The study showed that rethinking the meal event could change the wards into temporary “pop-up-restaurants,” transcending the hospital context and providing a scene for shifting host...... and management involved in hospital food service and in nutritional care to work more systematically with the environment for improved hospital meal experiences in the future...

  16. Children admitted to hospital following unintentional injury: perspectives of health service providers in Aotearoa/New Zealand

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    Asiasiga Lanuola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death and hospitalisation among New Zealand children, with indigenous Māori and ethnic minority Pacific children significantly over represented in these statistics. International research has shown that many children hospitalised for injury, as well as their families experience high levels of stress, and ethnic disparities in the quality of trauma care are not uncommon. The research on which this paper is based sought to identify key issues and concerns for New Zealand's multi-ethnic community following hospitalisation for childhood injury in order to inform efforts to improve the quality of trauma services. This paper reports on service providers' perspectives complementing previously published research on the experiences of families of injured children. Methods A qualitative research design involving eleven in-depth individual interviews and three focus groups was used to elicit the views of 21 purposefully selected service provider key informants from a range of professional backgrounds involved in the care and support of injured children and their families in Auckland, New Zealand. Interviews were transcribed and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Key issues identified by service providers included limited ability to meet the needs of children with mild injuries, particularly their emotional needs; lack of psychological support for families; some issues related to Māori and Pacific family support services; lack of accessible and comprehensive information for children and families; poor staff continuity and coordination; and poor coordination of hospital and community services, including inadequacies in follow-up plans. There was considerable agreement between these issues and those identified by the participant families. Conclusions The identified issues and barriers indicate the need for interventions for service improvement at systemic, provider and

  17. Perceptions of Hospital-Dependent Patients on Their Needs for Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Kiwak, Eliza; Tinetti, Mary E

    2017-06-01

    In the United States, older adults account for a significant proportion of hospitalizations, and a subset become hospital-dependent, for reasons that are unclear. We conducted a qualitative study to explore these individuals' perspectives on their need for hospitalizations. Twenty patients hospitalized at an academic medical center underwent semistructured qualitative interviews. Criteria for selection included age 65 and older, at least three hospitalizations over six months, admission to the medical service at the time of the study, did not meet criteria for chronic critical illness, was not comfort measures only, and did not have a conservator. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and inductively analyzed. The major themes derived were the necessity and inevitability of hospitalizations ("You have to bring me in here"), feeling safe in the hospital ("It makes me feel more secure"), patients hospitalized despite having outside medical and social support ("I have everything"), and inadequate goals-of-care discussions ("It just doesn't occur to me"). Results suggested that candid discussions about health trajectories are needed to ensure hospitalization is consistent with the patient's realistic health priorities. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2017;12:450-453. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  18. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  19. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue...

  20. Identifying and priority setting indicators of integration and integrable units in hospitals of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from the perspective of health experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yalda mousazadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospitals face major challenges such as lack of resources, increase in costs, and particularly severelimitations by sanctions that lead to integration in hospitals. This study was conducted to identify and prioritize theindicators of integration and integrable hospital units based on the experts' perspective. METHODS: The present study was a three phase qualitative, applied survey. The first phase included a review of thefundamental concepts. The second phase included three focus group discussions with presence of experts to identifynecessary indicators for the implementation of integration strategy and the hospital units that can be integrated based onindicators. In the third phase, Delphi's questionnaire was prepared based on Likert's scale for prioritizing and choosingthe indicators and hospital units. RESULTS: 9 indicators and 29 hospital units were identified during focus group discussions. Consensus was achievedon 9 indicators and 23 units out of 29 units based on the three stages of Delphi's questionnaire. The most importantindicators were cost and parallelism in tasks (consensus = 95.2%. Service availability and responsibility(consensus = 71.4% were the least important indicators. The supporting units had the greatest potential (45.45% oftotal units of merging. Emergency, inpatient wards, management, and chairmanship units were not candidates forintegration according to the viewpoint of experts. CONCLUSIONS: Integration will lead to efficiency in resources management, avoids parallelism in tasks, increasesservice availability, and reduces costs. Integration capability exists in many parts of the hospital; therefore, it can beused in the hospitals. Furthermore, it is necessary to define clear indicators for measuring the success of this strategy.

  1. Multi-View Interaction Modelling of human collaboration processes: a business process study of head and neck cancer care in a Dutch academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuit, Marco; Wortmann, Hans; Szirbik, Nick; Roodenburg, Jan

    2011-12-01

    In the healthcare domain, human collaboration processes (HCPs), which consist of interactions between healthcare workers from different (para)medical disciplines and departments, are of growing importance as healthcare delivery becomes increasingly integrated. Existing workflow-based process modelling tools for healthcare process management, which are the most commonly applied, are not suited for healthcare HCPs mainly due to their focus on the definition of task sequences instead of the graphical description of human interactions. This paper uses a case study of a healthcare HCP at a Dutch academic hospital to evaluate a novel interaction-centric process modelling method. The HCP under study is the care pathway performed by the head and neck oncology team. The evaluation results show that the method brings innovative, effective, and useful features. First, it collects and formalizes the tacit domain knowledge of the interviewed healthcare workers in individual interaction diagrams. Second, the method automatically integrates these local diagrams into a single global interaction diagram that reflects the consolidated domain knowledge. Third, the case study illustrates how the method utilizes a graphical modelling language for effective tree-based description of interactions, their composition and routing relations, and their roles. A process analysis of the global interaction diagram is shown to identify HCP improvement opportunities. The proposed interaction-centric method has wider applicability since interactions are the core of most multidisciplinary patient-care processes. A discussion argues that, although (multidisciplinary) collaboration is in many cases not optimal in the healthcare domain, it is increasingly considered a necessity to improve integration, continuity, and quality of care. The proposed method is helpful to describe, analyze, and improve the functioning of healthcare collaboration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision histology results in sarcoma: experience at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Kitela Ghislain; Hale, Martin J; Kruger, Deirdre; Luvhengo, Thifhelimbilu Emmanuel

    2014-06-06

    Tumour size, grade and subtype are the main prognostic factors in adult patients presenting with soft-tissue sarcoma. Planning for appropriate management, including the need for additional staging investigations and neoadjuvant therapy, is dependent on reliable preoperative histopathological results. To determine whether there is agreement between preoperative and post-excision histological findings in patients presenting with soft-tissue sarcoma, and whether the agreement is influenced by the subtypes of sarcomas. Records of adult patients who had soft-tissue sarcomas excised were reviewed. Kaposi's sarcoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumours were excluded. Data were retrieved from the Department of Anatomical Pathology of the National Health Laboratory Service and theatre records at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, and included patient demography, tumour sites and size, HIV status, biopsy types and post-excision histological findings. Records of 153 patients were found (median age 44 years). The majority of the sarcomas were >5 cm in diameter, deep seated and localised in extremities. The commonest subtype, irrespective of HIV status, was dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results were inaccurate in determining the malignant nature, grade and subtype of sarcoma. Rates of accurate tumour subtype classification following core needle and incision biopsies when compared with post-excision histological findings were 73.1% and 78.3%, respectively. FNAB should not be used in the primary evaluation of soft-tissue tumours. A report of spindle cells on the FNAB smear should be followed by core needle or incision biopsy. Incision biopsy is superior to core needle biopsy in the classification of sarcomas by subtype.

  3. Academic capitalism and academic culture: A case study.

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    Pilar Mendoza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this department and they consider industrial sponsorship as a highly effective vehicle for enhancing the quality of education of students and pursuing their scientific interests. This study provides valuable insights to federal and institutional policiescreated to foster industry-academia partnerships and commercialization of academic research.

  4. Difficult Decisions: A Qualitative Exploration of the Statistical Decision Making Process from the Perspectives of Psychology Students and Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter J.; Dorozenko, Kate P.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative research methods are essential to the development of professional competence in psychology. They are also an area of weakness for many students. In particular, students are known to struggle with the skill of selecting quantitative analytical strategies appropriate for common research questions, hypotheses and data types. To begin understanding this apparent deficit, we presented nine psychology undergraduates (who had all completed at least one quantitative methods course) with brief research vignettes, and asked them to explicate the process they would follow to identify an appropriate statistical technique for each. Thematic analysis revealed that all participants found this task challenging, and even those who had completed several research methods courses struggled to articulate how they would approach the vignettes on more than a very superficial and intuitive level. While some students recognized that there is a systematic decision making process that can be followed, none could describe it clearly or completely. We then presented the same vignettes to 10 psychology academics with particular expertise in conducting research and/or research methods instruction. Predictably, these “experts” were able to describe a far more systematic, comprehensive, flexible, and nuanced approach to statistical decision making, which begins early in the research process, and pays consideration to multiple contextual factors. They were sensitive to the challenges that students experience when making statistical decisions, which they attributed partially to how research methods and statistics are commonly taught. This sensitivity was reflected in their pedagogic practices. When asked to consider the format and features of an aid that could facilitate the statistical decision making process, both groups expressed a preference for an accessible, comprehensive and reputable resource that follows a basic decision tree logic. For the academics in particular, this aid

  5. Difficult decisions: A qualitative exploration of the statistical decision making process from the perspectives of psychology students and academics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter James Allen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative research methods are essential to the development of professional competence in psychology. They are also an area of weakness for many students. In particular, students are known to struggle with the skill of selecting quantitative analytical strategies appropriate for common research questions, hypotheses and data types. To begin understanding this apparent deficit, we presented nine psychology undergraduates (who had all completed at least one quantitative methods course with brief research vignettes, and asked them to explicate the process they would follow to identify an appropriate statistical technique for each. Thematic analysis revealed that all participants found this task challenging, and even those who had completed several research methods courses struggled to articulate how they would approach the vignettes on more than a very superficial and intuitive level. While some students recognized that there is a systematic decision making process that can be followed, none could describe it clearly or completely. We then presented the same vignettes to 10 psychology academics with particular expertise in conducting research and/or research methods instruction. Predictably, these ‘experts’ were able to describe a far more systematic, comprehensive, flexible and nuanced approach to statistical decision making, which begins early in the research process, and pays consideration to multiple contextual factors. They were sensitive to the challenges that students experience when making statistical decisions, which they attributed partially to how research methods and statistics are commonly taught. This sensitivity was reflected in their pedagogic practices. When asked to consider the format and features of an aid that could facilitate the statistical decision making process, both groups expressed a preference for an accessible, comprehensive and reputable resource that follows a basic decision tree logic. For the academics in

  6. Difficult Decisions: A Qualitative Exploration of the Statistical Decision Making Process from the Perspectives of Psychology Students and Academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter J; Dorozenko, Kate P; Roberts, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative research methods are essential to the development of professional competence in psychology. They are also an area of weakness for many students. In particular, students are known to struggle with the skill of selecting quantitative analytical strategies appropriate for common research questions, hypotheses and data types. To begin understanding this apparent deficit, we presented nine psychology undergraduates (who had all completed at least one quantitative methods course) with brief research vignettes, and asked them to explicate the process they would follow to identify an appropriate statistical technique for each. Thematic analysis revealed that all participants found this task challenging, and even those who had completed several research methods courses struggled to articulate how they would approach the vignettes on more than a very superficial and intuitive level. While some students recognized that there is a systematic decision making process that can be followed, none could describe it clearly or completely. We then presented the same vignettes to 10 psychology academics with particular expertise in conducting research and/or research methods instruction. Predictably, these "experts" were able to describe a far more systematic, comprehensive, flexible, and nuanced approach to statistical decision making, which begins early in the research process, and pays consideration to multiple contextual factors. They were sensitive to the challenges that students experience when making statistical decisions, which they attributed partially to how research methods and statistics are commonly taught. This sensitivity was reflected in their pedagogic practices. When asked to consider the format and features of an aid that could facilitate the statistical decision making process, both groups expressed a preference for an accessible, comprehensive and reputable resource that follows a basic decision tree logic. For the academics in particular, this aid

  7. 上海某三级医院学科带头人胜任力素质评价研究%Study on evaluation for characteristic items of the competency of academic leaders in a tertiary hospital in shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玮; 费健; 杨伟国; 沈柏用; 李国红

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解上海某三级医院学科带头人的现状,为学科发展、人才梯队建设提供参考建议。方法:采用文献学习、专家访谈、行为事件访谈法、问卷调查等方式研究学科带头人胜任力的有关核心因素,形成学科带头人胜任力问卷,获得有关胜任力特征项数据。结果:学科带头人在不同胜任力特征项得分具有显著性差异(P<0.05)。与其他胜任力特征项相比,弹性与适应、培养他人、全局观念得分较高,而追求卓越、激励他人得分较低。上海某三级医院学科带头人胜任力处于中等水平,与绩优水平的学科带头人还有一定距离。结论:学科带头人往往不缺乏其专业素质,真正影响其学科发展程度、效率、效果的是处于冰山模型下深层次特质。学科带头人胜任力特征要素研究对提升学科带头人的科学性,改善其综合能力,为医院未来发展具有较强的指导意义。%Objectives: To investigate the current status of academic leaders in a tertiary hospital in shanghai area, and put forward some proposals about subject development, staff rundle construction for reference. Methods: Core elements of competency of the academic leaders were investigated by literature reviews, expert interviews, behavioral event interview, and questionnaires. The questionnaire of the competency of academic leaders was prepared and the data relevant to characteristic items of the competency were obtained. Results: The data relevant to characteristic items of the competency among the academic leaders have significant difference (P<0.05). Compared with the other items of competency, elasticity and adaptation, training others, concept of overall situation were higher, but pursue excellence, motivating others were significantly lower. Compared with the high achievement academic leaders, Academic leaders of a tertiary hospital in Shanghai area have some distance, and the

  8. Dimension of Management of Graduate Training in Academic Norm from the Perspective of Quality Culture%基于质量文化的研究生学术规范培养的管理维度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史万兵; 林媛媛; 董应虎

    2014-01-01

    从质量文化的视角探究研究生学术规范的教育与养成,对于提升我国的研究生教育质量有重要价值与意义。运用文献研究法以及维度分析法,界定研究生教育质量文化及研究生学术规范的基本内涵,论证研究生学术失范的表征、成因及政策规制,在此基础上,从高等教育内部的质量文化管理角度,提出高等学校及导师对研究生学术规范育成的管理维度。%Investigations into graduate training in academic norm from the perspective of a quality culture are significant to the improvement of the quality of graduate education in China .By defining the quality culture and academic norms of graduate education ,this study analyzes the phenomena of students' academic dishonesty , their causes and relevant regulations . In addition ,from the perspective of a quality culture within higher education , a discussion is made on the dimension of management in relation to the graduate training in academic norm by teachers in particular and by institutions on the whole .

  9. Corpora and corpus technology for translation purposes in professional and academic environments. Major achievements and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Frérot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The “use” of corpora and concordancers in translation teaching has grown increasingly attractive since the mid1990s’ with an abundant literature advocating their use and promoting their benefits in the translation classroom. In translator training, efforts are being made to incorporate the use of corpora and concordancers in masters’ programmes and to offer specific modules on corpora for translation as the use of translation memory (TM systems within Computer-Aided Translation (CAT courses still dominates. In the translation profession, while TM systems are part of the everyday working environment, the same cannot be said of corpora and concordancers even though the most recent surveys show that professional translators would like to learn more about the potential of corpora for translation. Overall, the “usefulness” of corpora and corpus technology at the different stages of the translation process remains poorly documented in translation but a growing number of empirical studies has started to show concern as it has now become of paramount importance to assess the extent to which corpora are of added value for translation quality in both professional and academic environments.

  10. Educational project “Mathematics for secondary education (MATEM”, your academic task during the year 2012: participants´ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucía Alfaro Arce

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available "MATEM" is a university outreach project. Among its objectives is to improve the mathematics education at the high school level and to accomplish it public universities work together with high school´s teachers and students. The study´s aim was to research various aspects of MATEM Project to order to evaluate its development and consider recommendations for making decisions. This paper summarizes the perceptions of high school students enrolled during 2012 in courses Precalculus and Calculus, moreover the opinion of mathematics teachers. The main results were that MATEM is an academic activity attractive for math teachers and student population from different regions of the country, although sometimes are not available the necessary conditions to develop it in their respective institutions, to have passed a university course, get more practice for the standard test at the end of high school, increase their math skills and prepare for college courses were the aspects that motivate students to enroll in the project, however the development of reasoning skills and abilities were more frequently pointed by respondents.

  11. College students' self-discrepancy on the Internet, from the perspectives of desktop practices, self-control, and academic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Jeng-Yi

    2010-10-01

    The self-discrepancy theory argues that perceived discrepancy between one's actual self and ideal self may induce anxiety, and that this in turn may motivate people to reduce or eliminate this perceived discrepancy by changing their behaviors. Based on this theory, this study investigated how college students perceived discrepancies between their actual and their reported ideal uses of the Internet. Their Internet use was examined on three levels: the grand level (i.e., hours spent online per week), the activity level (i.e., hours spent engaging in certain online activities per week), and the tool level (i.e., hours spent using certain Internet tools per week). Three particular factors were also selected for investigation: the participants' different desktop practices, levels of academic training, and exertions of self-control. The results indicate that the participants' perceptions of actual versus ideal discrepancies were shaped by the different levels (i.e., grand, activity, tool) of their Internet use. Additionally, this study shows that perceived self-discrepancy relating to the time that college students spend on the Internet may not be a problem in itself, but it may symbolize more profound psychological or behavioral factors that need to be addressed.

  12. Perspective: adopting an asset bundles model to support and advance minority students' careers in academic medicine and the scientific pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2012-11-01

    The authors contend that increasing diversity in academic medicine, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics requires the adoption of a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students as they navigate the scientific pipeline. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support to continue toward careers in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status). The authors define "asset bundles" as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach.

  13. Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bishop

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Interview with Bennie van der Walt A footpath through reality – philosophical memoirs How does a philosopher come into being? By employing the metaphor of a foot-path through life and its realities, Professor B.J. (Bennie van der Walt traces his own intellectual development, indicating the many people and different circumstances during the previous century that influenced his shaping into a Christian philosopher. These memoirs are done not in the traditional, typical academic curriculum vitae style, but simply in telling his personal story about understanding reality. His journey through different seasons develops from his early childhood up to the age of 70. He also provides a brief evaluation of his own publications. In his review of the past he recognises the hand of his Father in heaven. He now hands over the torch of reformational philosophy to the present generation. Finally he looks ahead, expecting another journey (that will be both continuous and discontinuous compared to the present on a new earth.

  14. Digitisation Perspectives

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    Rikowski, R

    2011-01-01

    This book examines various views and perspectives on digitisation. Topics covered include electronic theses, search engine technology, digitisation in Africa, citation indexing, reference services, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, new media, and scholarly publishing. The final chapter explores virtual libraries, and poses some interesting questions for possible futures. The book will be of particular interest to information professionals, educators, librarians, academics and I.T. and knowledge experts.

  15. Assessment of educational criteria in academic promotion: Perspectives of faculty members of medical sciences universities in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootoonchi, Mina; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh; Taleghani, Fariba; Mohammadzadeh, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    One of the important criteria in the promotion of faculty members is in the scope of their educational roles and duties. The purpose of this study was the assessment of reasonability and attainability of educational criteria for scientific rank promotion from the perspective of the faculty members of Medical Sciences Universities in Iran. This descriptive study was conducted in 2011 in 13 Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Through stratified sampling method, 350 faculty members were recruited. A questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to investigate the reasonability and attainability of educational criteria with scores from 1 to 5. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed and collected at each university. The mean and standard deviation of reasonability and attainability scores were calculated and reported by using the SPSS software version 16. Faculty members considered many criteria of educational activities reasonable and available (with a mean score of more than 3). The highest reasonability and attainability have been obtained by the quantity and quality of teaching with the mean scores (3.93 ± 1.15 and 3.82 ± 1.17) and (3.9 ± 1.22 and 4.13 ± 1.06) out of five, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of total scores of reasonability of educational activities were 50.91 ± 14.22 and its attainability was 60.3 ± 13.72 from the total score of 90. The faculty members of the Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran considered the educational criteria of promotion moderately reasonable and achievable. It is recommended to revise these criteria and adapt them according to the mission and special conditions of medical universities. Furthermore, providing feedback of evaluations, running educational researches, and implementing faculty development programs are suggested.

  16. The economic impact of battery longevity in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for cardiac resynchronization therapy: the hospital and healthcare system perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolina, Maurizio; Morani, Giovanni; Curnis, Antonio; Vado, Antonello; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Bianchi, Valter; Stabile, Giuseppe; Crosato, Martino; Petracci, Barbara; Ceriotti, Carlo; Bontempi, Luca; Morosato, Martina; Ballari, Gian Paolo; Gasparini, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    Patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-Ds) are likely to undergo one or more device replacements, mainly for battery depletion. We assessed the economic impact of battery depletion on the overall cost of CRT-D treatment from the perspectives of the healthcare system and the hospital. We also compared devices of different generations and from different manufacturers in terms of therapy cost. We analysed data on 1792 CRT-Ds implanted in 1399 patients in 9 Italian centres. We calculated the replacement probability and the total therapy cost over 6 years, stratified by device generation and manufacturer. Public tariffs from diagnosis-related groups were used together with device prices and hospitalization costs. Generators were from 3 manufacturers: Boston Scientific (667, 37%), Medtronic (973, 54%), and St Jude Medical (152, 9%). The replacement probability at 6 years was 83 and 68% for earlier- and recent-generation devices, respectively. The need for replacement increased total therapy costs by more than 50% over the initial implantation cost for hospitals and by more than 30% for healthcare system. The improved longevity of recent-generation CRT-Ds reduced the therapy cost by ∼6% in both perspectives. Among recent-generation CRT-Ds, the replacement probability of devices from different manufacturers ranged from 12 to 70%. Consequently, the maximum difference in therapy cost between manufacturers was 40% for hospitals and 19% for the healthcare system. Differences in CRT-D longevity strongly affect the overall therapy cost. While the use of recent-generation devices has reduced the cost, significant differences exist among currently available systems.

  17. Device-associated infection rates and bacterial resistance in six academic teaching hospitals of Iran: Findings from the International Nocosomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani-Sherafat, Somayeh; Razaghi, Maryam; Rosenthal, Victor D; Tajeddin, Elahe; Seyedjavadi, Simasadat; Rashidan, Marjan; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Rostampour, Maryam; Haghi, Arezo; Sayarbayat, Masoumeh; Farazmandian, Somayeh; Yarmohammadi, Tahere; Arshadi, Fardokht K; Mansouri, Nahid; Sarbazi, Mohammad R; Vilar, Mariano; Zali, Mohammad R

    2015-01-01

    Device-associated health care-acquired infections (DA-HAIs) pose a threat to patient safety, particularly in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, few data regarding DA-HAI rates and their associated bacterial resistance in ICUs from Iran are available. A DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted in six adult and pediatric ICUs in academic teaching hospitals in Tehran using CDC/NHSN definitions. We collected prospective data regarding device use, DA-HAI rates, and lengths of stay from 2584 patients, 16,796 bed-days from one adult ICU, and bacterial profiles and bacterial resistance from six ICUs. Among the DA-HAIs, there were 5.84 central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABs) per 1000 central line-days, 7.88 ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs) per 1000 mechanical ventilator-days and 8.99 catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) per 1000 urinary catheter-days. The device utilization ratios were 0.44 for central lines, 0.42 for mechanical ventilators and 1.0 for urinary catheters. The device utilization ratios of mechanical ventilators and urinary catheters were higher than those reported in the ICUs of the INICC and the CDC's NHSN reports, but central line use was lower. The DA-HAI rates in this study were higher than the CDC's NHSN report. However, compared with the INICC report, the VAP rate in our study was lower, while the CLAB rate was similar and the CAUTI rate was higher. Nearly 83% of the samples showed a mixed-type infection. The most frequent pathogens were Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterococcus spp. In the S. aureus isolates, 100% were resistant to oxacillin. Overall resistances of A. baumannii and K. pneumonia to imipenem were 70.5% and 76.7%, respectively. A multiple drug resistance phenotype was detected in 68.15% of the isolates. The DA-HAI rates in Iran were shown to be higher than the CDC-NHSN rates and similar to the INICC rates

  18. "I want to know everything": a qualitative study of perspectives from patients with chronic diseases on sharing health information during hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham-Hutchins, Marge; Staggers, Nancy; Mackert, Michael; Johnson, Alisha H; deBronkart, Dave

    2017-08-04

    Patient-centered care promotes the inclusion of the most prominent and important member of the health care team, the patient, as an active participant in information exchange and decision making. Patient self-management of a chronic disease requires the patient to bridge the gap between multiple care settings and providers. Hospitalizations often disrupt established self-management routines. Access to medical information during hospitalization reflects patients' rights to partner in their own care and has the potential to improve self-management as well as promote informed decision making during and after hospitalization. The objectives of this study were to elicit the perspectives of patients with chronic disease about desired medical information content and access during hospitalization. This exploratory study incorporated a qualitative approach. The online survey included the research team created open and limited response survey, demographic and hospital characteristic questions, and the Patient Activation Measurement instrument (PAM®). Convenience and social media snowball sampling were used to recruit participants through patient support groups, email invitations, listservs, and blogs. The research team employed descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis techniques. The study sample (n = 34) ranged in age from 20 to 76 (μ = 48; SD = 16.87), Caucasian (91%, n = 31), female (88%, n = 30) and very highly educated (64%, n = 22 were college graduates). The PAM® survey revealed a highly activated sample. Qualitative analysis of the open-ended question responses resulted in six themes: Caring for myself; I want to know everything; Include me during handoff and rounds; What I expect; You're not listening; and Tracking my health information. This study revealed that hospitalized patients want to be included in provider discussions, such as nursing bedside handoff and medical rounds. Only a few participants had smooth transitions from

  19. 上海三级医院临床学科带头人胜任力模型研究%Study on the competency model of academic leaders in tertiary hospitals in shanghai area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玮; 费健; 俞郁萍; 杨伟国; 李国红

    2016-01-01

    Objective This research puts the academic leader under the competency background to investigate the current status of academic leaders in tertiary hospitals in Shanghai,combines the theories a-nalysis with practice on the Correlative Research,takes evaluation of academic leaders as the target to deep into the discussion,studies the application value and special significance of the competency model on culti-vation,introduction and evaluation of academic leaders in tertiary hospitals in Shanghai area.Methods Core elements of competency of the academic leaders were investigated by literature reviews,expert inter-views,behavioral event interview,and questionnaires.The questionnaire of the competency of academic leaders was prepared and the numbers and induction relevant to characteristic items of the competency were obtained.Results The notion of six feature families is proposed by study of the competency model which composed 18 relative characteristic items.Six feature families are leadership,organization team with coordi-nation,innovation and implement of project,strategic thinking and overall outlook,self-control and self-management,pursuit excellence and development.Conclusions The academic leader not being lack of professional quality,it is the deep characteristics under the Iceberg Model that influenced the development degree,efficiency,effects of subjects.The study on the competency of the academic leader is helpful for e-valuation of academic leaders'comprehensive abilities and put forward some proposal about stuff rundle con-struction for reference in hospital.%目的:调查上海三级医院学科带头人现状,结合理论分析与实证调查,以评价学科带头人为目标进行相关研究及深入讨论,研究胜任力模型在上海三级医院的学科带头人培养、引进、评价等方面的应用价值和特殊意义。方法采用文献学习、专家咨询、行为事件访谈法、问卷调查等方式研究临床学科带头人胜

  20. Academic Motivation: Concepts, Strategies, and Counseling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Lonnie; Hong, Eunsook

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is an important foundation of academic development in students. This article discusses academic motivation; its various component concepts in areas such as beliefs, goals, and values; and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. It also presents major, widely studied theoretical perspectives of academic motivation and briefly illustrates…

  1. Academic Motivation: Concepts, Strategies, and Counseling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Lonnie; Hong, Eunsook

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is an important foundation of academic development in students. This article discusses academic motivation; its various component concepts in areas such as beliefs, goals, and values; and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. It also presents major, widely studied theoretical perspectives of academic motivation and briefly illustrates…

  2. The Development Course and Academic Perspective of Youth Research%青年研究的发展历程和学术视野

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江洪

    2012-01-01

    Through the combing of the academic history of youth research in the worldwide and its accumulations, and the review of youth research development as one of social science disciplines in our country, this article analyzes the discipline category and research perspective of contemporary youth research. In Chinese classification of social sciences, youth research belongs to the scope of sociology. Today's youth research workers should to establish a sense of mission and responsibility, to maintain the courage to theory explore, in-depth practical research and development on the basis of inheritance, to achieve the innovation of research oaradigm, research tools and research methods, broaden the research field.%通过对世界范围内青年研究学术历史积淀的梳理,以及对青年研究在我国作为社会科学的一个学科领域的发展历程的回顾,分析了当代青年研究的学术范畴和研究视野。在我国社会科学的分类中,青年研究属于社会学学科范畴。当今的青年研究工作者要树立使命感和责任感,保持理论探索的勇气,深入实际调查研究,在继承的基础上发展,实现研究范式、研究工具和研究方法的创新,拓宽研究领域,丰富研究成果。

  3. Challenges and Perspectives for Tertiary Level Hospitals in Bolivia: The case of Santa Cruz de La Sierra Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, André

    2015-01-01

    Current legislation transferred public tertiary hospitals in Bolivia from the Municipalities to the Regional Level. However, the Regional Governments are experiencing technical and financial constraints to reform infrastructure, modernize equipment and introduce reforms to allow better governance, management and sustainability of these hospitals. This articles summarizes the recent experience of the Government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Bolivia where five tertiary hospitals and blood bank (most of them in precarious working conditions) has been transferred in 2012 from the Municipal Government of Santa Cruz (the capital) to the Regional Government of Santa Cruz. To face the challenges, the Regional Government of Santa Cruz implement several improvements, such as contract new clinical and administrative personal, increases hospital budgetary autonomy, outsource hospitals' auxiliary services, take measures to eliminate waiting lists and make several new investments to modernize and equip the hospitals. The World Bank was contracted to evaluated the future financial sustainability of these investments and to advice the Government to propose changes to increase the hospitals' management performance. The article describes the remaining challenges in these hospitals and the proposals from the World Bank Study. In the area of quality of care, the main challenge is to improve client satisfaction and continuous outcomes monitoring and evaluation according quality standards. In the area of financing, the challenge is how to assure the sustainability of these hospitals with the current level of health financing and the insufficient financial transfers from the National Government. In the area of Governance, reforms to streamline and simplify internal processes need to be introduced in order to establish mechanisms to increase transparency and accountability, allowing the hospital to have a good administration and adequate participation of the main actors in the guidance of

  4. A Study of Employability between Higher Technical and Vocational Education and Employer in Tourism and Hospitality: A Stakeholder perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yi Tsai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between tourism and hospitality education and work in terms of employability development as well as to discuss how higher education can contribute to such a development. To begin with, as a background, the relation between higher education and work has been described based on the already mentioned discrepancy discussion. Later, the concept of employability will be explored and discussed in general terms as well as regarding the tourism and hospitality. Finally, different ways of integrating employability in higher education curricula are discussed. Based on this discussion, we have some suggestions regarding the employability development within the tourism and hospitality industry.

  5. [New perspective in liaison psychiatry. Experience at the Pediatric Hospital of the National Medical Center Siglo XXI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauceda García, J M; Maldonado Durán, J M; Angel Montoya Cabrera, M

    1994-01-01

    In hospitalized and chronically ill children, the prevalence of psychopathology is very high. It is necessary that in its prevention, diagnosis and treatment not only professionals of the mental health disciplines intervene but also that the pediatricians, nurses and the family of the patient himself participate actively. Consultation Liaison Child Psychiatry activities at the Pediatric Hospital of the National Medical Center "Siglo XXI" are described. Its goal is to incorporate the mental health professional to the team of hospital care and promote that pediatricians gain a greater conscience of psychological and social factors that are crucial for the sick child.

  6. [The new medical treatment procedure of the German Statutory Accident Insurance: From the perspective of BG hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühren, V; Perl, M

    2016-11-01

    The Hospital Group of the Statutory Accident Insurance (BG hospitals) was affected by the new requirements for severe injury procedures (SAV) in the same manner as all other maximum care hospitals. Simultaneously, the BG clinics were merged to form a centrally organized hospital group. A substantial need for adjustment existed for specialties, such as neurosurgery and visceral surgery at some sites. Needless to say, all trauma victims benefit from the high standards required by the Statutory Accident Insurance regardless of their insurance status. The provision of medical treatment with respect to its implementation into routine practice must be further optimized and additions, e.g. for the occurrence of complications are necessary.

  7. The Research on the Academic Anomie of the Graduate Students from Government Regulation Perspective%政府规制视角下研究生学术失范治理策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原芳

    2015-01-01

    At present ,academic anomie of the graduate students has drawn attention to the government administration ,the academic institution and the social public opinion .This paper analysis the source of ac‐ademic anomie of the graduate students ,and puts forward the management strategy from the government regulation perspective .%当前,日益蔓延的研究生学术失范现象引起了政府管理部门、学术机构和社会舆论的高度关注。本文在分析了研究生学术失范现象产生根源的基础上,从政府规制的视角,探索研究生学术失范的治理策略,以期为我国研究生学术失范的有效治理拓展思路。

  8. English for Specific Purposes and Academic Literacies: Eclecticism in Academic Writing Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lisa; Kaufhold, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Academic Literacies and English for Specific Purposes perspectives on the teaching of academic writing tend to be positioned as dichotomous and ideologically incompatible. Nonetheless, recent studies have called for the integration of these two perspectives in the design of writing programmes in order to meet the needs of students in the…

  9. English for Specific Purposes and Academic Literacies: Eclecticism in Academic Writing Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lisa; Kaufhold, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Academic Literacies and English for Specific Purposes perspectives on the teaching of academic writing tend to be positioned as dichotomous and ideologically incompatible. Nonetheless, recent studies have called for the integration of these two perspectives in the design of writing programmes in order to meet the needs of students in the…

  10. The role ofprivate hospitals in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DepartInent ofConnnunity Health, University ofthe. Witwatersrand, Johannesburg ... ing the efficiency of the private hospital sector, ... mended that a system of hospital accreditation be developed to .... in the case of academic hospitals. Doctors' ...

  11. Evaluation of hygienic-sanitary conditions of hospital nutrition and dietary services from the perspectives of internal and external auditors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lize Stangarlin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of hospital nutrition and dietary services using external and internal auditors. Eleven hospitals were evaluated for their nutrition and dietary services using an evaluation checklist based on food safety requirements in the current legislation. The checklist was applied by an internal auditor (a technical supervisor and an external auditor (a professional with experience in food services between August and October 2011. According to the number of items on the evaluation checklist that were considered adequate, the hospital facilities were ranked as excellent, good, regular, bad, or very bad. The results obtained by the auditors were compared. According to these results, it can be said that most of the hospital nutrition and dietary services were rated as good for overall quality by the internal auditor, while the external auditor classified them as Regular. There was a clear difference between the evaluations of the auditors, both in terms of the number of items considered adequate and the overall requirements' average score. It can be concluded that hospital nutrition and dietary services should meet safety requirements in order to provide food. These facilities should have external audits conducted as a way to prevent routine problems from being perpetuated.

  12. [The new treatment procedure of the German statutory accident insurance: From the perspective of a community hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, F; Goepel, M; Bula, P

    2016-11-01

    The requirements of the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) for the new treatment procedure were presented on 1 January 2013 in a new catalogue. The implementation of the certification of hospitals for the very severe injury procedure (SAV) by the DGUV should have been completed by 2014. These requirements placed high demands on trauma-oriented hospitals because of the high structural and personnel prerequisites. The background to the new organization was the wish of the DGUV for quality improvement in patient treatment in hospitals for patients with very severe occupational and occupation-related trauma by placement in qualified centers with high case numbers. No increase in income was planned for the hospitals to cope with the necessary improvements in quality. After 2 years of experience with the SAV we can confirm for a community hospital that the structural requirements could be improved (e.g. establishment of departments of neurosurgery, plastic surgery and thoracic surgery) but the high requirements for qualification and attendance of physicians on duty are a continuous problem and are also costly. The numbers of severely injured trauma patients have greatly increased, particularly in 2015. The charges for the complex treatment are not adequately reflected in the German diagnosis-related groups system and no extra flat rate funding per case is explicitly planned in the DRG remuneration catalogue. The invoicing of a center surcharge in addition to the DRG charges has not been introduced.

  13. Implementing a collaborative framework for academic support for registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Debra; Ugboma, Debra; Knight, Jessica

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the collaboration between a national health service acute hospital trust and a higher education institution, to implement a framework for academic support for registered nurses undertaking learning beyond registration. A small percentage of the educational budget was utilised to fund two academic staff (0.6 whole time equivalent) to work within the trusts' own learning and development department. The initial aim of the project was to maximise the utilisation of the funding available for learning beyond registration study. The focus of the project was at both a strategic level and with individual staff. Embedding within the culture of the trust was important for the academic staff to understand and gain the service/user perspective to some of the barriers or issues concerning learning beyond registration. Following a scoping exercise, the multiplicity of issues that required action led to the creation of an academic support framework. This framework identified potential for intervention in 4 phases: planning for study, application and access to learning, during study and outcome of study. Interventions were identified that were complimentary and adjuncts to the academic support provided by the higher education institution. New resources and services were also developed such as pathway planning support and study skill workshops. One important resource was a dedicated point of contact for staff. A "live" database also proved useful in tracking and following-up students.

  14. Planning and Designing Academic Library Learning Spaces: Expert Perspectives of Architects, Librarians, and Library Consultants. Project Information Literacy Research Report. The Practitioner Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Alison J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies approaches, challenges, and best practices related to planning and designing today's academic library learning spaces. As part of the Project Information Literacy (PIL) Practitioner Series, qualitative data is presented from 49 interviews conducted with a sample of academic librarians, architects, and library consultants.…

  15. A Rasch Analysis of the Academic Self-Concept Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Tan Bei Yu; Yates, Shirley M.

    2007-01-01

    This study used the Rasch model to assess the unidimensionality and item-person fit of an Academic Self-Concept Questionnaire (ASCQ) that is based on the Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC) perspective. Knowledge of the relationship between academic achievement and academic self-concept is particularly useful because academic achievement is…

  16. Perspectives of staff nurses of the reasons for and the nature of patient-initiated call lights: an exploratory survey study in four USA hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng Huey-Ming

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has been done on patient call light use and staff response time, which were found to be associated with inpatient falls and satisfaction. Nurses' perspectives may moderate or mediate the aforementioned relationships. This exploratory study intended to understand staff's perspectives about call lights, staff responsiveness, and the reasons for and the nature of call light use. It also explored differences among hospitals and identified significant predictors of the nature of call light use. Methods This cross-sectional, multihospital survey study was conducted from September 2008 to January 2009 in four hospitals located in the Midwestern region of the United States. A brief survey was used. All 2309 licensed and unlicensed nursing staff members who provide direct patient care in 27 adult care units were invited to participate. A total of 808 completed surveys were retrieved for an overall response rate of 35%. The SPSS 16.0 Window version was used. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results The primary reasons for patient-initiated calls were for toileting assistance, pain medication, and intravenous problems. Toileting assistance was the leading reason. Each staff responded to 6 to 7 calls per hour and a call was answered within 4 minutes (estimated. 49% of staff perceived that patient-initiated calls mattered to patient safety. 77% agreed that that these calls were meaningful. 52% thought that these calls required the attention of nursing staff. 53% thought that answering calls prevented them from doing the critical aspects of their role. Staff's perceptions about the nature of calls varied across hospitals. Junior staff tended to overlook the importance of answering calls. A nurse participant tended to perceive calls as more likely requiring nursing staff's attention than a nurse aide participant. Conclusions If answering calls was a high priority among nursing tasks, staff

  17. Academic mentoring and the future of tertiary education in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academic mentoring and the future of tertiary education in Nigeria. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... early perspectives of mentoring undergraduates, the rationale for academic mentoring, the ...

  18. Latino Adolescents' Academic Success: The Role of Discrimination, Academic Motivation, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Edna C.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Zeiders, Katharine H.

    2009-01-01

    Guided by the academic resilience perspective, the current longitudinal study examined whether academic motivation mediated the relation between Latino adolescents' (N = 221) experiences with discrimination and their academic success. The potential moderating role of gender was also examined. Using multiple group analysis in structural equation…

  19. Path Analysis on the Factors Influencing Learning Outcome for Hospitality Interns--From the Flow Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Tai; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Learning outcome is an important indicator for educators in evaluating curriculum design. The focus of this study has been to examine the factors within internship programs, recognizing the complex nature of knowledge application in a practical industry environment. Flow theory was adopted to explain the psychological state of hospitality students…

  20. ٍEffective factors on the Incidence of medication errors from the nursing staff perspective in various department of Fasa Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Bizhani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Objective: The incidence of medical errors is deemed one of the unavoidable cases of serious threats to the health and safety of patients. This study aimed to determine the factors influencing medication errors from the perspective of the nursing staff. Materials and Methods: This descriptive -analytic study recruited 80 nurses working in various wards in Fasa Hospital. The nurses were selected via the availability sampling method, and their perspective on factors affecting medication errors was gathered using a questionnaire designed for this study. The data were analyzed with SPSS-15 software.   Results: The most important causes of medication errors were work fatigue, low nurse-to-patient ratio, long working hours, high density of work in units, and doing other tasks. Other variables such as age and gender as well as factors effective on the incidence of medication errors are mentioned in the full text. Conclusion: From the nurses’ standpoint, workload and the patient-to-nurse ratio were the most significant factors leading to medication errors.

  1. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  2. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  3. Academic Jibberish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about academic jibberish. Alfie Kohn states that a great deal of academic writing is incomprehensible even to others in the same area of scholarship. Academic Jibberish may score points for the writer but does not help research or practice. The author discusses jibberish as a career strategy that impresses those…

  4. Academic writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  5. A Research on the Approaches to the Development of Academic Lectures in Universities from Multiple Perspectives%多视角下高校学术讲座建设的路径探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳翔

    2013-01-01

      学术讲座作为高校文化建设的一部分,发挥着第二课堂的重要作用。但受多方面影响,讲座水平参差不齐,效果不佳。阐述了开设高校学术讲座的作用,并针对学术讲座建设中存在的问题,从不同视角提出了具体可行的解决方法,以实现高校文化传承的战略意义。%As part of the cultural construction in universities ,academic lectures play an important role in after-class education .However ,academic lectures often achieve little due to bad performance .To achieve the strategic significance of the cultural heritage in universities ,the paper describes the roles of academic lectures ,deals with the problems and proposes some solutions from multiple perspectives .

  6. Perspective of Teachers about the Role of Family, Personal, School and Environmental Factors in the Academic Survival Rate of Students in Rural Areas of Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Toughi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptivestudyhas carried out to investigate some related factors on the academic survival rate of students in rural areas of Southeast of Iran. Using stratified random sampling method, 224 teachers were chosen as sample. The results showed that teachers believed that family, personal, school and environmental factors affect the academic survival rate of students in rural areas; thus, the identification of these factors increase the survival rate and decrease the dropout rate of students in rural areas.

  7. Healthcare professional perspectives on quality and safety in New Zealand public hospitals: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Robin; Horsburgh, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Few studies have sought to measure health professional perceptions of quality and safety across an entire system of public hospitals. Therefore, three questions that gauge different aspects of quality and safety were included in a national New Zealand survey of clinical governance. Three previously used questions were adapted. A total of 41040 registered health professionals employed in District Health Boards were invited to participate in an online survey. Analyses were performed using the R statistical environment. Proportional odds mixed models were used to quantify associations between demographic variables and responses on five-point scales. Relationships between other questions in the survey and the three quality and safety questions were quantified with the Pearson correlation coefficient. A 25% response rate delivered 10303 surveys. Fifty-seven percent of respondents (95% CI: 56-58%) agreed that health professionals in their District Health Board worked together as a team; 70% respondents (95% CI: 69-70%) agreed that health professionals involved patients and families in efforts to improve patient care; and 69% (95% CI: 68-70%) agreed that it was easy to speak up in their clinical area if they perceived a problem with patient care. Correlations showed links between perceptions of stronger clinical leadership and performances on the three questions, as well as with other survey items. The proportional mixed model also revealed response differences by respondent characteristics. The findings suggest positive commitment to quality and safety among New Zealand health professionals and their employers, albeit with variations by district, profession, gender and age, but also scope for improvement. The study also contributes to the literature indicating that clinical leadership is an important contributor to quality improvement. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Various studies have explored aspects of healthcare quality and safety, generally within a hospital or

  8. [Career perspectives of hospital health workers after maternity and paternity leave: survey and observational study in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, C; Grote, G; Miemietz, B; Vaske, B; Geyer, S

    2015-02-01

    A term of maternity and paternity (parental) leave becomes frequent on the career paths of medical personnel. Hospitals are highly competitive environments. The question employees universally face is how such a leave will alter their personal work situation and prospects upon return. We questioned 709 leave-takers and 88 department heads of a German university hospital (2009-12; full data sets: n = 406 and n = 63) about their experiences. This data was validated by epidemiology data extraction and expert interviews, also in a Swiss and in a Norwegian institution. Parental leave elicited high emotionality (score: 4.0 +/- 2 out of 5). Superiors' appraisal of employees' parental leave was more positive than negative (p leave takers doubled to 39 %; 51 % of leave-takers experienced significant task profile changes. 58 % of doctors thought about changing their employer and 17 % of leave-taking executives lost status after return. Employees' "power" and "influence" dropped significantly (p leave. The Swiss and Norwegian comparators appeared to have more liberal substitution and part-time schemes than the German institution. A competitive hospital environment can effectively demote leave-taking medical employees in their jobs. Despite sufficient financial arrangements high-commitment staff will only take parental leave of adequate length when an institutional framework protects their status. Data support four requirements: 1. Formal recognition of the leave taker's status pre-leave. 2. Establishment of a written ("claimable") return policy. 3. Substitution scheme for each individual, preferably by a locum. 4. Redirection of funds to facilitate part-time work schemes temporarily after return. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. 'Practice what you preach': Nurses' perspectives on the Code of Ethics and Service Pledge in five South African hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Janine; Phakoe, Maureen; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2015-01-01

    A recent focus of the global discourse on the health workforce has been on its quality, including the existence of codes of ethics. In South Africa, the importance of ethics and value systems in nursing was emphasised in the 2011 National Nursing Summit. The study explored hospital nurses' perceptions of the International Code of Ethics for Nurses; their perceptions of the South African Nurses' Pledge of Service; and their views on contemporary ethical practice. Following university ethics approval, the study was done at a convenience sample of five hospitals in two South African provinces. In each hospital, all day duty nurses in paediatric, maternity, adult medical, and adult surgical units were requested to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on their perceptions of the Code of Ethics and the Pledge, using a seven-point Likert scale. STATA(®) 13 and NVIVO 10 were used to analyse survey data and open-ended responses, respectively. The mean age of survey participants (n=69) was 39 years (SD=9.2), and the majority were female (96%). The majority agreed with a statement that they will promote the human rights of individuals (98%) and that they have a duty to meet the health and social needs of the public (96%). More nuanced responses were obtained for some questions, with 60% agreeing with a statement that too much emphasis is placed on patients' rights as opposed to nurses' rights and 32% agreeing with a statement that they would take part in strike action to improve nurses' salaries and working conditions. The dilemmas of nurses to uphold the Code of Ethics and the Pledge in face of workplace constraints or poor working conditions were revealed in nurses' responses to open-ended questions. Continuing education in ethics and addressing health system deficiencies will enhance nurses' professional development and their ethical decision-making and practice.

  10. Stroke rehabilitation: assistive technology devices and environmental modifications following primary rehabilitation in hospital--a therapeutic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne Vinkel; Lendal, Susie; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the need for assistive devices and environmental modifications among long-living stroke survivors and to investigate if the need is continued and growing over time. The study sample of 155 consecutive stroke patients with stroke-related impairment, discharged...... home from three hospitals in Copenhagen from 1996 through 1998, constituted 20% of the total population of stroke survivors in this area. The results showed that 75% of these patients were provided with assistive devices and/or environmental modifications at discharge. Six months after discharge...... be required in order to target stroke survivors' changing needs for assistive devices and environmental modifications....

  11. Supervisors' perspective on medical thesis projects and dropout rates: survey among thesis supervisors at a large German university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Elif; Richter, Felicitas; Valchanova, Ralitsa; Dewey, Marc

    2016-10-14

    To identify underlying causes for failure of medical thesis projects and the constantly high drop-out rate in Germany from the supervisors' perspective and to compare the results with the students' perspective. Cross-sectional survey. Online questionnaire for survey of medical thesis supervisors among the staff of Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Published, earlier longitudinal survey among students for comparison. 1069 thesis supervisors participated. Data are presented using descriptive statistics, and the χ(2) test served to compare the results among supervisors with the earlier data from the longitudinal survey of doctoral students. Not applicable. This survey is an observational study. Of 3653 potential participants, 1069 (29.3%) supervising 3744 doctoral candidates participated in the study. Supervisors considered themselves to be highly motivated and to offer adequate supervision. On the other hand, 87% stated that they did not feel well prepared for thesis supervision. Supervisors gave lack of timeliness of doctoral students and personal differences (p=0.024 and p=0.001) as the main reasons for terminating thesis projects. Doctoral students predominantly mentioned methodological problems and difficult subjects as critical issues (p=0.001 and pthesis supervisors and medical students feel ill prepared for their roles in the process of a medical dissertation. Contradictory reasons for terminating medical thesis projects based on supervisors' and students' self-assessment suggest a lack of communication and true scientific collaboration between supervisors and doctoral students as the major underlying issue that requires resolution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. How can hospitals better protect the privacy of electronic medical records? Perspectives from staff members of health information management departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Ming-Ling; Talley, Paul C; Cheng, Tain-Junn; Kuo, Kuang-Ming

    2017-05-01

    The adoption of electronic medical records (EMR) is expected to better improve overall healthcare quality and to offset the financial pressure of excessive administrative burden. However, safeguarding EMR against potentially hostile security breaches from both inside and outside healthcare facilities has created increased patients' privacy concerns from all sides. The aim of our study was to examine the influencing factors of privacy protection for EMR by healthcare professionals. We used survey methodology to collect questionnaire responses from staff members in health information management departments among nine Taiwanese hospitals active in EMR utilisation. A total of 209 valid responses were collected in 2014. We used partial least squares for analysing the collected data. Perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy and cues to action were found to have a significant association with intention to protect EMR privacy, while perceived susceptibility and perceived severity were not. Based on the findings obtained, we suggest that hospitals should provide continuous ethics awareness training to relevant staff and design more effective strategies for improving the protection of EMR privacy in their charge. Further practical and research implications are also discussed.

  13. Academic Achievement Survey and Educational Assessment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The recent "Nationwide academic achievement and study situation survey" was clearly influenced by the idea of "authentic assessment", an educational assessment perspective focused on "quality" and "engagement". However, when "performance assessment", the assessment method corresponding to this…

  14. Survival models for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation from the perspectives of the bystander, the first responder, and the paramedic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalewijn, R A; de Vos, R; Tijssen, J G; Koster, R W

    2001-11-01

    Survival from out-of-hospital resuscitation depends on the strength of each component of the chain of survival. We studied, on the scene, witnessed, nontraumatic resuscitations of patients older than 17 years. The influence of the chain of survival and potential predictors on survival was analyzed by logistic regression modeling. From 1030 patients, 139 survived to hospital discharge. Three prediction models of survival were developed from the perspective of the different contributors active in out-of-hospital resuscitation: model I, bystanders; model II, first responders; and model III, paramedics. Predictors for survival (with odds ratio) were: in model I (bystanders): emergency medical service (EMS) witnessed arrest (0.50), delay to basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (0.74/min) and delay to EMS arrival (0.87/min); in model II (first responders): initial recorded heart rhythm (0.02 for nonshockable rhythm), delay to basic CPR (0.71/min and 0.87/min for shockable and nonshockable rhythms) and to defibrillation (0.89/min), and in model III (paramedics): need for advanced CPR (4.74 for advanced CPR not-needed), initial recorded heart rhythm (0.05 for nonshockable rhythm), and delay to basic CPR (0.77/min and 0.72/min for shockable and nonshockable rhythms), to defibrillation and to advanced CPR for shockable rhythms (0.85/min), and to advanced CPR for nonshockable rhythm (0.85/min). The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve for model I was 0.763, for model II was 0.848, and for model III was 0.896. Of survivors, 50% had restoration of circulation without need for advanced CPR. Three survival models for witnessed nontraumatic out-of-hospital resuscitation based on the information known by bystanders, first responders and paramedics explained survival with increasing precision. Early defibrillation can restore circulation without the need for advanced CPR. When advanced CPR is needed, its delay leads to a markedly reduced survival.

  15. Academic Words and Academic Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Billig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests that it is the best and worst of times for academic work. It is the best of times because there are more academics publishing than ever before. It is the worst of times because there is much unnecessary publication. Working in the competitive conditions of academic capitalism, academics feel impelled to keep publishing, whether or not they have anything to say. The pressures to publish continually and to promote one’s own approach are reflected in the way that social scientists are writing. Academics use a noun-based technical language, which is less precise than ordinary language. Postgraduates are taught this way of writing as a precondition for entering the social sciences. In this way, the nature of academic capitalism not only determines the conditions under which academics are working but it affects the way that they are writing.

  16. Ayurpharmacoepidemiology Perspective: Health Literacy (Knowledge and Practice) Among Older Diabetes Patients Visiting Ayurveda Teaching Hospitals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Parikshit; Natasha, Khurshid; Ali, Liaquat; Bhaduri, Tapas; Roy, Tushar Kanti; Bera, Sayantan; Mukherjee, Debdeep; Debnath, Swati

    2016-04-12

    Older Indian diabetics lack proper health literacy making them vulnerable to complications. Assessment of health literacy was done by hospital-based cross-sectional study. Face-to-face interview was conducted by pretested structured questionnaires. Diabetes patients aged ≥60 years consisted of 56.22% males and 43.78% females; in addition, 34.2% respondents were without formal schooling. Diabetes was known to 63.56% respondents. Total knowledge and practice score of the respondents was good (18.9% and 35.1%), average (30.7% and 46.9%), and poor (50.4% and 18%), respectively. Knowledge and practice score was strongly associated (Payurveda management. Baseline statistics will pave the way toward ayurpharmacoepidemiology.

  17. Taking up national safety alerts to improve patient safety in hospitals: The perspective of healthcare quality and risk managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Schwappach, David

    2016-01-01

    National safety alert systems publish relevant information to improve patient safety in hospitals. However, the information has to be transformed into local action to have an effect on patient safety. We studied three research questions: How do Swiss healthcare quality and risk managers (qm/rm(1)) see their own role in learning from safety alerts issued by the Swiss national voluntary reporting and analysis system? What are their attitudes towards and evaluations of the alerts, and which types of improvement actions were fostered by the safety alerts? A survey was developed and applied to Swiss healthcare risk and quality managers, with a response rate of 39 % (n=116). Descriptive statistics are presented. The qm/rm disseminate and communicate with a broad variety of professional groups about the alerts. While most respondents felt that they should know the alerts and their contents, only a part of them felt responsible for driving organizational change based on the recommendations. However, most respondents used safety alerts to back up their own patient safety goals. The alerts were evaluated positively on various dimensions such as usefulness and were considered as standards of good practice by the majority of the respondents. A range of organizational responses was applied, with disseminating information being the most common. An active role is related to using safety alerts for backing up own patient safety goals. To support an active role of qm/rm in their hospital's learning from safety alerts, appropriate organizational structures should be developed. Furthermore, they could be given special information or training to act as an information hub on the issues discussed in the alerts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Occurrence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in an academic veterinary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kanako; Shimokubo, Natsumi; Sakagami, Akie; Ueno, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Chie; Hanaki, Hideaki; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Tamura, Yutaka

    2010-08-01

    Recently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have been increasingly isolated from veterinarians and companion animals. With a view to preventing the spread of MRSA and MRSP, we evaluated the occurrence and molecular characteristics of each in a veterinary college. MRSA and MRSP were isolated from nasal samples from veterinarians, staff members, and veterinary students affiliated with a veterinary hospital. Using stepwise logistic regression, we identified two factors associated with MRSA carriage: (i) contact with an identified animal MRSA case (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.2 to 21.6) and (ii) being an employee (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.0 to 19.4). The majority of MRSA isolates obtained from individuals affiliated with the veterinary hospital and dog patients harbored spa type t002 and a type II staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), similar to the hospital-acquired MRSA isolates in Japan. MRSA isolates harboring spa type t008 and a type IV SCCmec were obtained from one veterinarian on three different sampling occasions and also from dog patients. MRSA carriers can also be a source of MRSA infection in animals. The majority of MRSP isolates (85.2%) carried hybrid SCCmec type II-III, and almost all the remaining MRSP isolates (11.1%) carried SCCmec type V. MRSA and MRSP were also isolated from environmental samples collected from the veterinary hospital (5.1% and 6.4%, respectively). The application of certain disinfection procedures is important for the prevention of nosocomial infection, and MRSA and MRSP infection control strategies should be adopted in veterinary medical practice.

  19. An Analysis of the lnternal Factors of Academic Profession lnternationalization from the Perspective of Faculty Development%学术职业国际化:基于教师发展的视域

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李碧虹; 罗成; 舒俊

    2015-01-01

    internationalization of academic profession need an analysis of faculty’ s will and develop-ment demands. Our study also reveals that oversea education experience clearly boosts cross-border academic activi-ties, implying a progress of internationalization of academic profession under the trend of introducing oversea talents. The following strategies are proposed to promote the academic profession internationalization:raising faculty’ s intrin-sic motivation by integrating international perspectives and contents into their daily works;bringing faculty’ s leading role into full play in the internationalization of teaching;paying more attention to the career development of overseas talents and their positive effects on campus internationalization; giving multidimensional approaches on the interna-tional academic profession faculty development.%国际化已成为当代学术职业发展一股不可回避的潮流。我国政府和高校对大学教师的国际交流十分重视,但只有从教师个人角度剖析影响学术职业国际化的内因,才能对教师形成有效的激励。从教师发展的视域看,学术职业国际化在跨境、本土课程教学和本土科研三个维度上受到教师知识基础、参与意愿、受教育经历的影响。本文据此构建学术职业国际化影响模型,并基于问卷调查所获样本,运用分层回归方法对模型进行验证。研究发现,教育国际化经历、知识基础、参与意愿诸因素对不同维度的学术职业国际化分别具有不同的影响。学术职业国际化在本土维度上取决于教师的自主诉求,说明学术职业国际化的实现需要了解和分析教师的意愿及对专业发展的诉求;跨境交流最为显著的影响因素是教育国际化经历,而高校增加海外人才引进的趋势有助于在有限范围内促进学术职业国际化发展。根据影响机制,本研究提出了促进学术职业国际化发展的策略。

  20. The "Academic Literacies" Model: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Mary R.; Street, Brian V.

    2006-01-01

    Although the term academic literacies was originally developed with regard to the study of literacies in higher education and the university, the concept also applies to K-12 education. An academic literacies perspective treats reading and writing as social practices that vary with context, culture, and genre (Barton & Hamilton, 1998; Street,…

  1. A Shift towards Academic Capitalism in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka; Kaidesoja, Tuukka

    2014-01-01

    Academic capitalism is currently a widely studied topic amongst higher education scholars, especially in the United States. This paper demonstrates that the theory of academic capitalism also provides a fruitful perspective for analysing the restructuring of Finnish higher education since the 1990s, although with reservations. It will be argued…

  2. Academization of Danish semi-professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Jakob Ditlev

    2012-01-01

    Academization is a phenomenon which plays an increasing role in the training programmes for the semi-professions. In Denmark academization has been researched from a predominantly student perspective, as an analysis of how abstract forms of knowledge dominate competencies for care and nursing among...... as a knowledge/power structure for the production and repression of professional identities....

  3. A Shift towards Academic Capitalism in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka; Kaidesoja, Tuukka

    2014-01-01

    Academic capitalism is currently a widely studied topic amongst higher education scholars, especially in the United States. This paper demonstrates that the theory of academic capitalism also provides a fruitful perspective for analysing the restructuring of Finnish higher education since the 1990s, although with reservations. It will be argued…

  4. Compliance with AAPM Practice Guideline 1.a: CT Protocol Management and Review - from the perspective of a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Bour, Robert K; Pozniak, Myron; Ranallo, Frank N

    2015-03-08

    The purpose of this paper is to describe our experience with the AAPM Medical Physics Practice Guideline 1.a: "CT Protocol Management and Review Practice Guideline". Specifically, we will share how our institution's quality management system addresses the suggestions within the AAPM practice report. We feel this paper is needed as it was beyond the scope of the AAPM practice guideline to provide specific details on fulfilling individual guidelines. Our hope is that other institutions will be able to emulate some of our practices and that this article would encourage other types of centers (e.g., community hospitals) to share their methodology for approaching CT protocol optimization and quality control. Our institution had a functioning CT protocol optimization process, albeit informal, since we began using CT. Recently, we made our protocol development and validation process compliant with a number of the ISO 9001:2008 clauses and this required us to formalize the roles of the members of our CT protocol optimization team. We rely heavily on PACS-based IT solutions for acquiring radiologist feedback on the performance of our CT protocols and the performance of our CT scanners in terms of dose (scanner output) and the function of the automatic tube current modulation. Specific details on our quality management system covering both quality control and ongoing optimization have been provided. The roles of each CT protocol team member have been defined, and the critical role that IT solutions provides for the management of files and the monitoring of CT protocols has been reviewed. In addition, the invaluable role management provides by being a champion for the project has been explained; lack of a project champion will mitigate the efforts of a CT protocol optimization team. Meeting the guidelines set forth in the AAPM practice guideline was not inherently difficult, but did, in our case, require the cooperation of radiologists, technologists, physicists, IT

  5. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  6. Why Do Children Worry about Their Academic Achievement? An Expectancy-Value Perspective on Elementary Students' Worries about Their Mathematics and Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, Fani; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Children's worrying about their academic performance has profound implications for their learning and wellbeing in school. Understanding the contextual and psychological antecedents of students' worry thus represents an important area of research. Drawing on Eccles and colleagues' expectancy-value theory and Pekrun's control-value theory and using…

  7. The role of academic motivation in high school students' current and lifetime alcohol consumption: adopting a self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Stephanie V; Anderson, Kristen G; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong

    2011-11-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between different types of academic motives-specifically, intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation, and external regulation-and high school students' current and lifetime alcohol consumption. One thousand sixty-seven high school students completed measures of academic motivation, other school-related factors, and lifetime and current alcohol consumption. Using structural equation modeling, different types of motivation and school-related factors were differentially related to student drinking. Specifically, intrinsic motivation was negatively related to lifetime and current alcohol consumption. External regulation, on the other hand, was positively associated with current drinking. Grade point average was the only school-related factor related to student alcohol use. These findings suggest that motivation is an important construct to consider in predicting students' alcohol use, even when other more commonly studied educational variables are considered. In addition, it supports the adoption of a motivation framework that considers different types of motivation in understanding the relationship between academic motivation and alcohol use. Suggestions for incorporating the self-determination model of motivation into studies of alcohol and substance use, as well as potential impacts on intervention efforts, are discussed. In particular, it may be important to foster only certain types of motivation, rather than all types of academically-focused motives, in efforts to deter alcohol use.

  8. The Role of Academic Motivation in High School Students’ Current and Lifetime Alcohol Consumption: Adopting a Self-Determination Theory Perspective*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the relationship between different types of academic motives—specifically, intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation, and external regulation—and high school students' current and lifetime alcohol consumption. Method: One thousand sixty-seven high school students completed measures of academic motivation, other school-related factors, and lifetime and current alcohol consumption. Results: Using structural equation modeling, different types of motivation and school-related factors were differentially related to student drinking. Specifically, intrinsic motivation was negatively related to lifetime and current alcohol consumption. External regulation, on the other hand, was positively associated with current drinking. Grade point average was the only school-related factor related to student alcohol use. Conclusions: These findings suggest that motivation is an important construct to consider in predicting students’ alcohol use, even when other more commonly studied educational variables are considered. In addition, it supports the adoption of a motivation framework that considers different types of motivation in understanding the relationship between academic motivation and alcohol use. Suggestions for incorporating the self-determination model of motivation into studies of alcohol and substance use, as well as potential impacts on intervention efforts, are discussed. In particular, it may be important to foster only certain types of motivation, rather than all types of academically-focused motives, in efforts to deter alcohol use. PMID:22051210

  9. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  10. The Relation between Elementary Students' Recreational and Academic Reading Motivation, Reading Frequency, Engagement, and Comprehension: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Naeghel, Jessie; Van Keer, Hilde; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Rosseel, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates the need to further examine the dimensions of reading motivation. A clear theoretical basis is necessary for conceptualizing reading motivation and considering contextual differences therein. The present study develops and validates the SRQ-Reading Motivation, a questionnaire measuring recreational and academic reading…

  11. University of Management Innovation from the Perspective of Academic Organization%大学管理创新:学术组织的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏喜

    2014-01-01

    Academia is the essential attribute of university. From the organizational form the university is the academic organization based on disciplines. To achieve management innovation,the laws of academic organizations management should be followed,and the professor scholarship,democratic management should be implemented;the atmosphere of academic freedom should be created,and academic standards and the quality of personnel train-ing should be promoted.%学术性是大学的本质属性。大学从组织形态上看是以学科专业为基础的学术组织。大学要实现管理创新,就必须遵循学术组织的管理规律,实行教授治学、民主管理,营造学术自由氛围,提升学术水平和人才培养质量。

  12. Survey the relationship between professional ethics and improve the quality of care with nurses, staff empowerment of the perspective of Ayatollah Rouhani hospital of Babol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Hosseinzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, how to live and how to behave in a professional style and in a professional environment, both individual and organizational sets. In this regard, the present study was to determine the relationship between the ethics of the profession and improve the quality of care with nurses, hospital staff empowerment from the perspective of Ayatollah Rouhani was performed. The study was a descriptive one. The population consisted of nurses Ayatollah spiritual Babylon, which uses random sampling method, 163 samples were selected and evaluated. Collection tool was a questionnaire, content validity of the questionnaire in consultation with experts confirmed the reliability of the test-retest on 10% of the total of 2-week interval was calculated, and Cronbach's alpha for the whole questionnaire 0.85respectively. To analyze the data, structural equation modeling was used. The results showed that relations professional ethics to improve the quality of care (P <0.01 and staff empowerment (P <0.01 was significant. The ability of the staff as well as improve the quality of care (P <0.05 there was a significant relationship. Based on the results of research, professional ethics directly and indirectly improve the quality of nursing care was effective (P<0.05. In general it can be said that rely on moral and ethical management, increases the effectiveness of the approach is to improve the quality of care and sense of empowerment among nurses.

  13. What is the role of the pharmacist?: physicians' and nurses' perspectives in community and hospital settings of Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niurka María Dupotey Varela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to understand the perceptions and expectations of the other health care professionals about pharmacists' role in primary health care centers and hospitals in Santiago de Cuba (Cuba. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, applying a self-administered questionnaire to health care professionals. The sample included 763 professionals (40.9% physicians and 59.1 % nurses from hospitals and primary health care clinics, chosen by random stratified sampling,. The most common activity performed by pharmacists was the distribution of medications or the drug supply management (51.5% and adverse drug reactions reporting (29.4%, activities performed daily by pharmacists. Pharmaceutical care practice was considered as poor by the professionals, and only 15.6% of them have collaborated in these programs in the past. For nurses and physicians, interprofessional communication occurs sometimes (56.9% and never (25.8%. Pharmacists' integration into the health team was considered as fair (50.7%. A total of 70.1% perceived the pharmacist as a drug expert and 60.1% as a professional who provides medication counseling. The main expectations these health care professionals expressed were that pharmacists provide more education about medication (97.4% and improve their interprofessional communication techniques in order to communicate more effectively with the other members of the health care team (96.6%.O presente trabalho analisa o papel do farmacêutico na atenção primária de saúde e em hospitais, na percepção de profissionais da saúde na província de Santiago de Cuba. Um estudo descritivo transversal foi conduzido, através da aplicação de um questionário autoadministrado a uma amostra de 763 profissionais de atenção primária e hospitalar, 40,9% de médicos e 59,1% de enfermeiros. As funções farmacêuticas mais reconhecidas pelos profissionais desta amostra foram o fornecimento e distribuição de medicamentos

  14. Mobile Phone Intervention for Heart Failure in a Minority Urban County Hospital Population: Usability and Patient Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Stuti; Karanam, Chandana; Gómez-Orozco, Carlos; Gómez-Marín, Orlando

    2017-07-01

    Chronic heart failure (HF) is a complex and costly disease. Daily weight and symptom monitoring is the cornerstone of HF management. Little information exists about feasibility of a mobile monitoring intervention among minority patients with HF. We developed and tested usability of a mobile-monitoring system in minority patients with HF in a 2:1 randomized controlled trial. We tracked usage and obtained feedback on usability and the system overall at 1, 2, and 3 months. Forty-two participants aged 53.0 ± 9.4 years (mean ± standard deviation) were randomized to the mobile-monitoring intervention group. They included the following: 67% males, 76% White Hispanics, 21% African Americans, and 52% with high school education or less. Over the 3-month intervention period, 26 (62%) participants used the system over 50% of the time. Overall, on a 1.0-7.0 scale for both, program satisfaction scores were excellent (mean 6.84 ± 0.46), and the usability ratings were all above 6.0. Comparing 1- to 3-month responses, there was a substantial increase in the percentage of participants who felt the system was easy to use after they had gotten used to it (84% vs. 94%) and that navigating the system was not complicated (78% vs. 84%). Almost all participants said that the program made them feel more secure about their health and that they would stay enrolled in a program like this. None of them had used a similar system before. A mobile phone-based disease management program is feasible in a minority county hospital population and offers a modality to help reduce ethnic disparity.

  15. Student Academic Assessment:A Postmodern Perspective of Study%后现代视角下的学生学业评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雷洪; 周仁

    2014-01-01

    基于后现代主义思潮的学业评价价值导向,通过后现代视角从评价内容、方法和主体三个方面对学生学业评价展开分析。以建构主义范式和响应式聚焦来理解评价,以利益相关者的主张、焦虑和争议为焦点,以协商作为学生学业评价的主要形式,通过学业评价的准备、实施、分析和反馈四个阶段的循环模式,不断评价、反馈与修正,从而实现评价主体多元化和方法的多样性。%This paper , building on the postmodern values of academic assessment , addresses the student academic assessment in terms of its content , method and subject .It attempts to understand the assessment through the constructivist paradigm and the responsive focus;focusing on the assertions , anxieties and disputes among relevant parties , it takes consultation as the major form of student academic assessment , and adopts a 4-phase ( preparation , administration , analysis and feedback ) model to fulfill the assessment-feedback-correc-tion cycle of the assessment , thereby realizing the diversification of the subject and method of student academic assessment .

  16. Perspectives in medical education 7. Observations on clinical training at a "US-style" residency program at Teine Keijinkai Hospital in Sapporo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R Harsha

    2009-06-01

    The residency program at Teine Keijinkai Hospital in Sapporo has successfully implemented a training philosophy that is focused on the development of clinical skills and critical thinking in Japanese residents. Several elements contribute to its success. The first and foremost is visionary physician leadership, beginning with the pioneers who implemented the philosophy, and continuing through the current leadership, which has sustained the original vision. A close second is the administrative and financial commitment to invest in producing more clinically accomplished Japanese physicians, long before that need was officially recognized. Third is the program's explicit aim of adhering to international norms by requiring three years of training, promulgating a benevolent, not paternalistic teaching philosophy and encouraging an interactive and interrogatory learning ethic. Fourth is the year-round presence of a US-trained Physician-in-Residence, to sustain the focus on clinical skills and international norms. Fifth is a long-term relationship with the Internal Medicine Training Program at the University of Pittsburgh, providing a conduit for ongoing academic exchange and programmatic advice. Last, but not least, is its avowed intention of being viewed as an "American-style program" with a preference for English fluent applicants, which acts as a magnet for trainees motivated to acquire clinical skills and competencies, with an eye to future training in the US. All these elements contribute to the program's unique focus on teaching clinical skills and critical thinking. Others who are striving with varying degrees of success to implement a similar philosophy in Japan may benefit from studying its example.

  17. Analysis of the Reasons and Countermeasures for Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Bin, Feng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective of the various types of academic corruption that is currently running rife in society, a theoretical analysis of the roots of academic corruption, and proposals for a number for countermeasures to put a stop to academic corruption. (Contains 3 notes.) [This article was translated by Ted Wang.

  18. Are Australasian academic physicians an endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A

    2007-11-01

    It has been stated that academic medicine is in a worldwide crisis. Is this decline in hospital academic practice a predictable consequence of modern clinical practice with its emphasis on community and outpatient-based services as well as a corporate health-care ethos or does it relate to innate problems in the training process and career structure for academic clinicians? A better understanding of the barriers to involvement in academic practice, including the effect of gender, the role and effect of overseas training, expectation of further research degrees and issues pertaining to the Australian academic workplace will facilitate recruitment and retention of the next generation of academic clinicians. Physician-scientists remain highly relevant as medical practice and education evolves in the 21st century. Hospital-based academics carry out a critical role in the ongoing mentoring of trainees and junior colleagues, whose training is still largely hospital based in most specialty programmes. Academic clinicians are uniquely placed to translate the rapid advances in medical biology into the clinical sphere, by guiding and carrying out translational research as well as leading clinical studies. Academic physicians also play key leadership in relations with government and industry, in professional groups and medical colleges. Thus, there is a strong case to assess the problems facing recruitment and retention of physician-scientists in academic practice and to develop workable solutions.

  19. The Academic Library in the Life of Undergraduate: An Investigation of Undergraduates' Academic Information Behaviors in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozaklis, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation research investigated undergraduates' academic information behaviors in the modern digital age to identify their perspective on the role of the academic library in their academic life. The research examined usage of a broad range of information sources and means to access, selection criteria, and obstacles encountered during…

  20. The Academic Library in the Life of Undergraduate: An Investigation of Undergraduates' Academic Information Behaviors in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozaklis, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation research investigated undergraduates' academic information behaviors in the modern digital age to identify their perspective on the role of the academic library in their academic life. The research examined usage of a broad range of information sources and means to access, selection criteria, and obstacles encountered during…

  1. Risco de hospitalizações repetidas em idosos usuários de um centro de saúde escola Risk of repeated hospitalizations in elderly users of an academic health center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Casale Guerra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estratificar 305 idosos com 65 anos ou mais, atendidos em um Centro de Saúde Escola (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil, quanto à probabilidade de admissão hospitalar repetida. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um instrumento de avaliação do risco de admissão hospitalar repetida, constituído por oito indicadores de saúde: autopercepção da saúde, hospitalização, consultas médicas, diabetes, doença cardiovascular, sexo, apoio social e idade. Verificou-se que 56,4% dos entrevistados apresentaram baixa probabilidade de admissão hospitalar repetida; 26,9%, média; 10,5%, média-alta; e 6,2%, alta. Na associação dos indicadores de saúde com a probabilidade de admissão hospitalar repetida, observou-se que, para idosos classificados como sendo de riscos médio, médio-alto e alto, em relação àqueles com baixo, os riscos relativos foram significativos: saúde média ou ruim (2,31; hospitalização (2,38; mais de três consultas médicas (1,75; diabetes (2,10; doença cardiovascular (2,76; homens (1,68; e 75 anos ou mais (1,62. Constatou-se que o instrumento utilizado possibilitou a estratificação dos idosos quanto ao risco de serem hospitalizados repetidas vezes, o que pode contribuir para propostas de reorganização dos serviços de saúde.The aim of this study was to stratify 305 elderly (> 65 years treated at an academic health center (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil according to risk of repeated hospitalization. Data collection used an instrument to evaluate risk of repeated hospital admissions, including eight health indicators: self-rated health, hospitalizations, doctor visits, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, gender, social support, and age. 56.4% of interviewees presented low probability of repeated hospitalization, as compared to 26.9% medium, 10.5% medium-high, and 6.2% high probability. Combining health indicators with the probability of repeated hospitalization, for elderly classified as

  2. The struggle for inter-professional teamwork and collaboration in maternity care: Austrian health professionals' perspectives on the implementation of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Christina C; Marent, Benjamin; Dorner, Thomas E; Dür, Wolfgang

    2016-03-14

    The health benefits of breastfeeding for mothers and babies are well documented in the scientific literature. Research suggests that support of breastfeeding during pre- and postnatal maternity care is an important determinant of breastfeeding initiation and duration. To support and promote breastfeeding on maternity units, the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched in 1991. In Austria, however, less than one fifth of hospitals with a maternity unit are currently BFHI-certified. Implementation of BFHI and adjunct changes in work practices seem to represent a major challenge to maternity units. This article builds upon previous research that has identified a number of facilitators of and barriers to BFHI implementation in Austria. A major barrier has been the lack of intra- and inter-professional collaboration. Therefore, this article investigates the ways in which different healthcare professionals struggle to work together to successfully integrate the BFHI into practice. In this study, a qualitative research approach was used. Thirty-six semi-structured interviews with 11 midwives, 11 nurses, 13 physicians, and one quality manager, working across three maternity units, were interviewed on-site. Data analysis followed thematic analysis. Midwives, nurses, and physicians had diverse approaches to childbirth and breastfeeding (medicalization vs. naturalness) and worked along different jurisdictions that became manifest in strict spatial divisions of maternity units. In their engagement within the BFHI, midwives, nurses, and physicians pursued different strategies (safeguarding vs. circumvention strategies). These differences hindered inter-professional teamwork and collaboration and, therefore, the integration of BFHI into practice. Differing approaches to childbirth and breastfeeding, deep seated professional jurisdictions, as well as spatial constraints, challenge inter-professional teamwork and collaboration on maternity units. Inter

  3. Academic dishonsty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Scores on performance avoidance and ... of academic rules and regulations, assessment practices, faculty, and university attended predicted .... Second, it identifies those factors that predict various ..... The higher the students' GPA, the lower.

  4. Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)

  5. Academic Abstract Writing from Thematic Structure Perspective%主位结构分析与学术论文英语摘要写作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章东华; 强学民

    2011-01-01

    Writing abstract of research paper is the major concern as academic researchers. In this paper, the basic concepts of theme and patterns of thematic progression in systemic functional linguistics are reviewed. The application of thematic structure theory to academic abstract writing is discussed with abstract samples selected from key meteorological journals. The results show that the choice of appropriate themes and patterns of thematic progression in writing abstract is of great significance for semantic coherence and improving the writing ability for academic communication.%学术论文摘要是一类具有特殊功能的语篇,英语摘要写作中存在的语义连贯问题严重影响着摘要的质量。本文运用系统功能语言学的主位结构理论探讨实现摘要语篇的连贯问题。在简要介绍主位和主位推进模式的基本概念基础上,以气象学核心期刊的论文摘要为语料,分析主位和主位推进模式的运用及其效果。指出合理选择主位并借助主位推进模式可有效改善学术论文摘要语篇的语义连贯性,从而达到提高摘要写作水平的目的。

  6. Hospital outpatient perceptions of the physical environment of waiting areas: the role of patient characteristics on atmospherics in one academic medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Pi-hung

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines hospital outpatient perceptions of the physical environment of the outpatient waiting areas in one medical center. The relationship of patient characteristics and their perceptions and needs for the outpatient waiting areas are also examined. Method The examined medical center consists of five main buildings which house seventeen primary waiting areas for the outpatient clinics of nine medical specialties: 1 Internal Medicine; 2 Surgery; 3 Ophthalmology; 4 Obstetrics-Gynecology and Pediatrics; 5 Chinese Medicine; 6 Otolaryngology; 7 Orthopedics; 8 Family Medicine; and 9 Dermatology. A 15-item structured questionnaire was developed to rate patient satisfaction covering the four dimensions of the physical environments of the outpatient waiting areas: 1 visual environment; 2 hearing environment; 3 body contact environment; and 4 cleanliness. The survey was conducted between November 28, 2005 and December 8, 2005. A total of 680 outpatients responded. Descriptive, univariate, and multiple regression analyses were applied in this study. Results All of the 15 items were ranked as relatively high with a range from 3.362 to 4.010, with a neutral score of 3. Using a principal component analysis' summated scores of four constructed dimensions of patient satisfaction with the physical environments (i.e. visual environment, hearing environment, body contact environment, and cleanliness, multiple regression analyses revealed that patient satisfaction with the physical environment of outpatient waiting areas was associated with gender, age, visiting frequency, and visiting time. Conclusion Patients' socio-demographics and context backgrounds demonstrated to have effects on their satisfaction with the physical environment of outpatient waiting areas. In addition to noticing the overall rankings for less satisfactory items, what should receive further attention is the consideration of the patients' personal

  7. Transitions of Care Consensus Policy Statement American College of Physicians-Society of General Internal Medicine-Society of Hospital Medicine-American Geriatrics Society-American College of Emergency Physicians-Society of Academic Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Vincenza; Beck, Dennis; Budnitz, Tina; Miller, Doriane C; Potter, Jane; Wears, Robert L; Weiss, Kevin B; Williams, Mark V

    2009-08-01

    The American College of Physicians (ACP), Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM), Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM), American Geriatric Society (AGS), American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) developed consensus standards to address the quality gaps in the transitions between inpatient and outpatient settings. The following summarized principles were established: 1.) Accountability; 2) Communication; 3.) Timely interchange of information; 4.) Involvement of the patient and family member; 5.) Respect the hub of coordination of care; 6.) All patients and their family/caregivers should have a medical home or coordinating clinician; 7.) At every point of transitions the patient and/or their family/caregivers need to know who is responsible for their care at that point; 9.) National standards; and 10.) Standardized metrics related to these standards in order to lead to quality improvement and accountability. Based on these principles, standards describing necessary components for implementation were developed: coordinating clinicians, care plans/transition record, communication infrastructure, standard communication formats, transition responsibility, timeliness, community standards, and measurement.

  8. Challenges in contemporary academic neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Peter M

    2006-03-01

    Traditionally, the ideal academic neurosurgeon has been a "quadruple threat," with excellence in clinical work, teaching, research, and administration. This tradition was best exemplified in Harvey Cushing, who developed the field of neurosurgery 90 years ago. This paradigm will probably have to change as academic neurosurgeons face major challenges. In patient care, these include increasing regulatory control, increasing malpractice costs, consolidation of expensive care in academic centers, and decreasing reimbursement; in resident teaching, work hour limitations and a changing resident culture; in research, the increasing dominance of basic scientists in governmental funding decisions and decreased involvement of neurosurgeons in scientific review committees; and in administration, problems of relationships in the workplace, patient safety, and employment compliance in an increasingly bureaucratic system. To meet these challenges, the new academic neurosurgeon will probably not be a quadruple threat personally but will be part of a quadruple threat in a department and institution. Neurosurgeons in such a setting will have to work with hospital, medical school, and national and international groups to address malpractice, reimbursement, subspecialization, and training problems; find supplemental sources of income through grants, development funds, and hospital support; lead in the development of multidisciplinary centers for neuroscience, brain tumor, spine, and other initiatives; and focus on training leaders for hospital, regional, and national groups to reconfigure neurosurgery. Collaboration, flexibility, and leadership will be characteristic of the academic neurosurgeon in this new era.

  9. A Systematic Review of Family Witnessed Resuscitation and Family Witnessed Invasive Procedures in Adults in Hospital Settings Internationally - Part II: Perspectives of Healthcare Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paplanus, Lisa M; Salmond, Susan W; Jadotte, Yuri T; Viera, Dorice L

    2012-01-01

    , representing JBI Level II and IIIa evidence, respectively. All other healthcare provider studies were descriptive cross-sectional survey designs representing JBI Level IIIc evidence. There exists mixed support for family witnessed resuscitation among healthcare providers in the included studies. Factors such as duration of clinical practice in nursing or critical care, the study setting and the presence of a formal institutional policy all appear to play an important role in the perspectives of healthcare providers on family witnessed resuscitation. Health care organisations should consider the fact that healthcare providers overall do not object to family witnessed resuscitation on the basis of its outcomes, but rather on the processes of its implementation and the decision-making that is required. There is insufficient evidence on family witnessed invasive procedures to make policy recommendations. There is a need for well-designed randomised controlled designs that test the effectiveness of different approaches to FWR with outcomes that go beyond the level of support for the procedure. NOTE:: This is Part II of the systematic review report. Part II of the review report will explicate the perceptions of healthcare providers on family witnessed resuscitation (FWR) and family witnessed invasive procedures (FWIP) in the adult population in emergency departments, intensive care units and general hospital wards internationally. Part I of the review report will explicate the perceptions of patients and their relatives regarding this phenomenon.Both review reports (part I and part II) are based on the same a priori approved review protocol. The decision to provide two review reports for one review protocol was justified for the sake of improved organization of the results. The volume of information from part I and part II, if combined, would make the review excessively long and difficult to read. Furthermore, some studies analysed the perspectives of both patients/families and

  10. Expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The literature on business expatriates has been increasing rapidly, but research on expatriate academics has remained scant, despite the apparent increasing globalisation of the academic world. Therefore, more research is needed on the latter group of expatriates. This paper aims to fill...... some of the gaps. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire was directed electronically towards expatriate academics occupying regular positions in science faculty departments in universities in northern Europe. Findings – Results showed that job clarity was the dominating job factor with strong...... relationships with all of the five investigated work outcome variables, work adjustment, work performance, work effectiveness, job satisfaction, and time to proficiency. Job conflict and job freedom had an association with some of the work outcome variables but not with all of them. Neither workload nor job...

  11. The Spread of Academic Journals through New Media——A Study from the Perspective of Social Psychology%社会心理学视阈下的学术期刊新媒体传播研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小妹; 陆学莉

    2016-01-01

    社会心理学通过对社会互动、社会交往等人类最基本的沟通活动的研究,揭示传播行为的一般本质,从而为传播学提供丰富的学科知识. 学术期刊是学术传播的主要渠道,在新媒体不断涌现和发展的当下,学术期刊也逐渐接受和利用新媒体以促进其发展. 微信平台是发展最快、影响力最大的新媒体. 微信平台的海量信息、快速传播、多元互动模式等给学术期刊传播注入新的活力. 新媒体时代,学术期刊一方面要坚守其固有的学术性、理论性和创新性,另一方面又要与新媒体融合. 扩大学术期刊传播力和影响力的主要路径有:改变观念,主动融合新媒体;从受众视角经营新媒体,创办个性平台;树立品牌意识,加强品牌建设.%Social psychology reveals the general nature of communication behaviors through studies on so -cial interactions , contacts and other fundamental forms of human communications , and thus provides the study of communication with abundant disciplinary knowledge .Academic journals are the main channel to spread the academic achievements and they should promote the development of themselves by gradually accepting and making use of new media , which are now emerging in large numbers and developing at a high speed .The We-Chat Platform , the fastest growing and most influential new media at present , can inject new vitality to the spread of academic journals due to its characteristics of mass information , rapid spread , multiple interactions and so on .In the era of new media , academic journals , on the one hand , should stick to their professional , theoretical and creative aspects , and on the other hand , should combine with new media .The main routes to expand the spread of academic journals and promote their influence are to change their concept so as to take the initiative to merge together with and make full use of new media , to run the new media from the perspec-tive of

  12. Abordagem profunda e abordagem superficial à aprendizagem: diferentes perspectivas do rendimento escolar Deep and surface approach to learning: different perspectives about academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investiga a relação entre a abordagem superficial e a abordagem profunda à aprendizagem na explicação do rendimento escolar. Algumas questões são delineadas buscando verificar o papel de cada uma das abordagens na proficiência escolar em séries distintas. Foram analisados dados de 684 estudantes da sexta série do ensino fundamental à terceira série do ensino médio de uma escola particular de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Foi delineado um modelo para comparação das séries escolares, através da modelagem por equação estrutural. O modelo desenhado apresentou bom grau de ajuste (c²=427,12; gl=182; CFI=0,95; RMSEA=0,04 para a amostra completa e para cada série escolar. Os resultados mostram que há uma participação distinta da abordagem superficial e da abordagem profunda no desempenho escolar nas diferentes séries. São discutidas implicações dos resultados para a teoria das abordagens.This study investigates the relationship between deep and surface approach to learning in explaining academic achievement. Some questions are outlined aiming to verify the role of each approach in student's proficiency in different grades. Data from 684 students from junior high school (6th year to high school (12th year of a private school in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, were analyzed. A model was designed to compare the grades through structural equation modeling. The designed model showed a good fit (c² = 427.12; df = 182; CFI = .95, RMSEA = .04 for the full sample and for each grade. The results show that there is a distinct contribution of both approaches in academic achievement in the different grades. Further implications to the learning approach theory will be discussed.

  13. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    12, 13, 14, March LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 POSTPONED! - Modern Project Management Methods - POSTPONED! By G. Vallet / Ed. Highware, Paris, F. Academic Training Françoise Benz Secretariat Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  14. Academic Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…

  15. Academic Words and Academic Capitalism Academic Words and Academic Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Billig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artículo sugiere que esta época es la mejor y peor para la labor académica. La mejor en cuanto hay más publicaciones académicas que nunca. Y la peor porque sobra mucho de estas publicaciones. Trabajando en las condiciones competitivas del capitalismo académico, los académicos se sienten en la necesidad de continuar publicando, independientemente de que tengan algo que decir. Las presiones de publicar continuamente y promover la propia perspectiva se reflejan en la manera en la que los científicos sociales están escribiendo. Y es que los académicos utilizan un lenguaje técnico basado en sustantivos, con una precisión menor a la del lenguaje ordinario. Los estudiantes de postgrado han sido educados en esta manera de escribir como una condición previa a iniciarse en las ciencias sociales. Así, la naturaleza misma del capitalismo académico no sólo determina las condiciones en las que los académicos trabajan, sino que también afecta su manera de escribir.


    This paper suggests that it is the best and worst of times for academic work. It is the best of times because there are more academics publishing than ever before. It is the worst of times because there is much unnecessary publication. Working in the competitive conditions of academic capitalism, academics feel impelled to keep publishing, whether or not they have anything to say. The pressures to publish continually and to promote one’s own approach are reflected in the way that social scientists are writing. Academics use a noun-based technical language, which is less precise than ordinary language. Postgraduates are taught this way of writing as a precondition for entering the social sciences. In this way, the nature of academic capitalism not only determines the conditions under which academics are working but it affects the way that they are writing.

  16. 从韦伯的思想看大学精神%A Study of Academic Spirit from the Perspective of Weber's Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白育芳

    2011-01-01

    Max Weber thought the bureaucracy disturbed the academic and spirit freedom, while in our universities administration power-oriented infatuation is very common. He argued that instead of pursuing utility, universities should have ultimate beliefs and be a habitat of spirit; instead of imposing value judgment on students, universities should advocate the ideal of "value neutrality" and provide the students with spiritual nourishment that is optional on the basis of the reality that values judgment needs during the student's life. The Charism theory of Weber's can bring forward the deep thought about the influence of great master.%韦伯认为官僚制度对大学的学术自由和精神自由带来巨大干扰,提出大学是精神的栖息地,应有终极信仰,不应着眼于功利追求;大学应提倡“价值中立”观念,不能对学子强行灌输价值观,而是在构成世界观所需的客观真实基础上,给予学生人生道路上可供选择的精神食粮;韦伯的“卡理斯玛”理论可引发对大师影响力的深入思考。

  17. Academic integrity and plagiarism: perceptions and experience of staff and students in a school of dentistry: a situational analysis of staff and student perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, P J; Hughes, C

    2012-02-01

    This project has investigated student and staff perceptions and experience of plagiarism in a large Australian dental school to develop a response to an external audit report. Workshops designed to enhance participants' understanding of plagiarism and to assist with practical ways to promote academic integrity within the school were provided to all students and staff. Anonymous surveys were used to investigate perceptions and experience of plagiarism and to assess the usefulness of the workshops. Most participants felt that plagiarism was not a problem in the school, but a significant number were undecided. The majority of participants reported that the guidelines for dealing with plagiarism were inadequate and most supported the mandatory use of text-matching software in all courses. High proportions of participants indicated that the workshops were useful and that they would consider improving their practice as a result. The study provided data that enhanced understanding of aspects of plagiarism highlighted in the report at the school level and identified areas in need of attention, such as refining and raising awareness of the guidelines and incorporation of text-matching software into courses, as well as cautions to be considered (how text-matching software is used) in planning responsive action. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Investigation of different types of carcinomas among differentiated thyroid cancer patients managed in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, South Africa: A five year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpumelelo Nyathi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC are abnormal tissues growing around the thyroid gland manifesting in various forms, they vary according to geographic locations and life style. Knowledge of different types of DTC is important in order to implement cost effective treatment strategies. Aims This study was aimed at establishing the types of thyroid cancers among DTC patients managed with radioiodine post-surgery in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH in South Africa. Methods A retrospective five year (2007–2013 review of patient files managed post-surgery in the Nuclear Medicine Department for various thyroid diseases. A total of 51 patient files were examined. Males and females who received at least a single treatment dose of radioiodine (I-131 qualified for the study thus excluding 26 patients treated for grave’s disease and 9 DTC patients who did not receive a dose of radioiodine. A pie chart was used for categorical variables of the subtypes of carcinomas. Results The follicular carcinoma was the leading malignancy: 8 /16; (50 per cent; followed by the papillary carcinomas amounting to 6/16; (37.5; only one patient was managed for the Hurtle cell carcinoma; 1/16 (6.25 per cent and also one patient for poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma, 1/16; (6.25 per cent. Conclusion Follicular carcinoma was found to be the most common type of DTC managed at DGMAH followed by papillary carcinoma. However, the Hurtle cell carcinoma and the poorly differentiated follicular carcinomas were found to be rare.

  19. A Systematic Review of Family Witnessed Resuscitation and Family Witnessed Invasive Procedures in Adults in Hospital Settings Internationally - Part I: Perspectives of Patients and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paplanus, Lisa M; Salmond, Susan W; Jadotte, Yuri T; Viera, Dorice L

    2012-01-01

    Medicalization of care has removed family members from loved ones during critical events. Family Witnessed Resuscitation and Family Witnessed Invasive Procedures represent patient / family centered care options that can assist with having the family at the bedside during this perilous time. The objective was to examine the evidence on FWR and FWIP in adults from the perspective of patients and relatives. This review considered studies involving adult patients and their relatives, in intensive care units, emergency departments, trauma rooms and general nursing wards.This review examined interventions used for the adoption/implementation of FWR and FWIP including but not limited to: formal policy and guidelines; family facilitator/chaperone role; educational programming; communication approaches; and debriefing.This review considered studies that included the following outcome measures for patients and family members: level of support; stress and anxiety; grief and bereavement; coping; psychological sequelae; and impact of family facilitator/chaperone role, formal family presence policy or protocols, educational programming, communication approaches, and debriefing.Any randomised controlled trials, controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, before and after studies, case series studies, and survey studies were considered for inclusion. A comprehensive multistep search was undertaken for English language published and unpublished studies from 1985-2010. Retrieved papers were assessed for methodological quality independently by two reviewers, using appropriate JBI critical appraisal assessment tools. Findings were extracted using researcher-developed de novo tools, utilizing a framework of experiential, participant, and environmental factors influencing FWR/FWIP. The de novo tools best addressed the data collected. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity; all the results of this review are presented in narrative form. 38 studies were retrieved

  20. Disciplinary Perspectives on Archaeoastronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Stephen C.

    This chapter examines the contributions of major academic disciplines to archaeoastronomy, beginning with a consideration of several indicators of the participation of scholars from various fields. We then consider examples of research from astronomy and the physical sciences; anthropology, archaeology, and the social sciences; and the historical disciplines to see how they reflect their disciplinary perspectives. The questions drawn from these varied disciplinary perspectives stimulate different strands of research, enriching the study of astronomies in cultures.