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Sample records for academic failure school

  1. Construction of Academic Success and Failure in School Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Gamze Inan

    2018-01-01

    The idea of "Apprenticeship of Observation", proposing that pre-service teachers' early academic experiences might have effects on their professional development, has been a concern in teacher education in the last forty years. Early success or failure experiences of pre-service teachers in school may have a role in their professional…

  2. Economic Determinants of Academic Failure and School Desertion in the Guatemala Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Explores, from an economic perspective, elementary school system adequacy in the rural, indigenous Guatemalan highlands. Estimates least-squares coefficients and elasticities separately for academic failure and school abandonment for each of four indigenous groups. The model explains academic failure better than school desertion. A national policy…

  3. Longitudinal analysis of the effect of academic failure tolerance on academic achievement fluctuation in medical school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Su Jin; Kim, Miran; Chang, Ki Hong

    2016-03-01

    Academic failure tolerance (AFT) is one of the important psychological concepts in education, but its applications in medical education are rare. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of academic failure tolerance on academic achievement fluctuation among medical school students using a longitudinal research design. The subjects were 43 medical students who responded to the AFT test. This study analyzed the longitudinal data of achievement scores up to the 2nd academic year (2012-2013) among students who were divided into academic achievement improvement and decline groups. Comparing the improvement and decline groups' mean academic achievement fluctuation scores demonstrated that behavior and preferred task difficulty showed high scores whereas feeling scores were lower in the improvement group (pimportant basis for enhancing academic achievement among medical students.

  4. Academic Self-Concept and Causal Attributions for Success and Failure Amongst Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Annette; Grube, Dietmar; Moschner, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of research shows that the way in which children attribute causes to their successes and failures in school has implications for the development of their academic self-concept (ASC). The most common attributions are ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck. The present study asked 68 elementary school children aged seven to eight…

  5. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Río, Francisco Javier; Cecchini Estrada, José Antonio; Méndez Giménez, Antonio; Prieto Saborit, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.20...

  6. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini, Jose A; Méndez-Gimenez, Antonio; Mendez-Alonso, David; Prieto, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.205 females), 12-17 years old ( M = 13.85, SD = 1.29), enrolled in 17 different schools belonging to the National Network of Schools on Cooperative Learning in Spain agreed to participate. They all had experienced this pedagogical approach a minimum of one school year. Participants were asked to complete the cooperative learning questionnaire, the strategies to control the study questionnaire and the global academic self-efficacy questionnaire. Participants were grouped based on their perceptions on cooperative learning and self-regulated learning in their classes. A combination of hierarchical and κ -means cluster analyses was used. Results revealed a four-cluster solution: cluster one included students with low levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster two included students with high levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster three included students with high levels of cooperative learning, low levels of self-regulated learning and intermediate-low levels of academic self-efficacy, and, finally, cluster four included students with high levels of self-regulated learning, low levels of cooperative learning, and intermediate-high levels of academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning was found more influential than cooperative learning on students' academic self-efficacy. In cooperative learning contexts students interact through different types of regulations: self, co, and

  7. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini, Jose A.; Méndez-Gimenez, Antonio; Mendez-Alonso, David; Prieto, Jose A.

    2017-01-01

    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.205 females), 12–17 years old (M = 13.85, SD = 1.29), enrolled in 17 different schools belonging to the National Network of Schools on Cooperative Learning in Spain agreed to participate. They all had experienced this pedagogical approach a minimum of one school year. Participants were asked to complete the cooperative learning questionnaire, the strategies to control the study questionnaire and the global academic self-efficacy questionnaire. Participants were grouped based on their perceptions on cooperative learning and self-regulated learning in their classes. A combination of hierarchical and κ-means cluster analyses was used. Results revealed a four-cluster solution: cluster one included students with low levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster two included students with high levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster three included students with high levels of cooperative learning, low levels of self-regulated learning and intermediate-low levels of academic self-efficacy, and, finally, cluster four included students with high levels of self-regulated learning, low levels of cooperative learning, and intermediate-high levels of academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning was found more influential than cooperative learning on students’ academic self-efficacy. In cooperative learning contexts students interact through different types of regulations: self, co, and

  8. Associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and duration with academic failure in community-dwelling Swedish adolescents: sleep and academic performance at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Olga E; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Jacobsson, Josefin A; Feldman, Inna; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To examine associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and short sleep duration with the risk for academic failure. A cohort of ~40,000 adolescents (age range: 12-19 years) who were attending high school grades 7, 9, and 2nd year of upper secondary school in the Swedish Uppsala County were invited to participate in the Life and Health Young Survey (conducted between 2005 and 2011 in Uppsala County, Sweden). In addition to the question how many subjects they failed during the school year (outcome variable), subsamples of adolescents also answered questions related to subjective sleep disturbance (n = 20,026) and habitual sleep duration (n = 4736) (exposure variables). Binary logistic regression analysis was utilized to explore if self-reported sleep disturbances and habitual short sleep duration (defined as less than 7-8 h sleep per night) increase the relative risk to fail subjects during the school year (controlled for possible confounders, e.g. body-mass-index). Adolescents with self-reported sleep disturbances had an increased risk for academic failure (i.e., they failed at least one subject during the school year; OR: boys, 1.68; girls, 2.05, both P sleep disturbances. In addition, adolescents who reported short sleep duration on both working and weekend days were more likely to fail at least one subject at school than those who slept at least 7-8 h per night (OR: boys, 4.1; girls, 5.0, both P sleep disturbance and short sleep duration are linked to academic failure in adolescents. Based on our data, causality cannot be established. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Academic Self-Attributions for Success and Failure in Mathematics and School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, Carolina; Sanmartín, Ricardo; Vicent, María; Inglés, Cándido J.; Aparicio-Flores, M. Pilar; García-Fernández, José M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold: to analyze the mean differences scores in mathematic self-attributions based on school refusal and to verify its predictive capability on high scores in school refusal. The Sydney Attribution Scale and the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised were administered to 1078 Spanish students (50.8% boys) aged…

  10. Identifying the necessary and sufficient number of risk factors for predicting academic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Robert; Hunt, Elizabeth; Bornovalova, Marina

    2012-03-01

    Identifying the point at which individuals become at risk for academic failure (grade point average [GPA] academic success or failure. This study focused on 12 school-related factors. Using a thorough 5-step process, we identified which unique risk factors place one at risk for academic failure. Academic engagement, academic expectations, academic self-efficacy, homework completion, school relevance, school safety, teacher relationships (positive relationship), grade retention, school mobility, and school misbehaviors (negative relationship) were uniquely related to GPA even after controlling for all relevant covariates. Next, a receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine a cutoff point for determining how many risk factors predict academic failure (GPA academic failure, which provides a way for early identification of individuals who are at risk. Further implications of these findings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Children's Coping with Academic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…

  12. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic fai...

  13. Departing from the Beaten Path: International Schools in China as a Response to Discrimination and Academic Failure in the Chinese Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Natalie A. E.

    2018-01-01

    International schools are commonly depicted in the academic literature and popular press as offering elite educational credentials to an elite, oftentimes international, student body. In this paper, I draw on a case study of a Canadian international school to argue that a new form of international school is emerging in China--one that offers a…

  14. Factors Influencing Academic Failure of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yousaf Ali; Ahamad, Zahoor; Kousar, Sadia

    2013-01-01

    There was a close link between education and development. Education played a vital role in human capital formation. Academic failure from university was a problem that had became a serious concern for higher education institutions. This study presented the result of a recent investigation at the University of Gujrat that attempted to identify the…

  15. Attributional Choices for Academic Success and Failure by Intellectually Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Susan G.; Colangelo, Nicholas; Ihrig, Damien; Forstadt, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    This study emerges from the lack of empirical research on gifted students' attributions about academic success and failure in multiple subject areas and school in general. We explored differences in top attributional choices between boys and girls for success and failure in general academics, language arts, science, and mathematics. Gifted…

  16. School Discipline, School Uniforms and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Chris; Krskova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of school discipline in achieving academic performance. The study aims to clarify the role of permissive "vis-à-vis" authoritative teaching styles with an overarching hypothesis that better discipline leads to better academic performance. The authors also probe whether uniformed…

  17. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  18. Cognitive Effects of Chess Instruction on Students at Risk for Academic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Saahoon; Bart, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive effects of chess instruction on students at risk for academic failure was examined. Thirty-eight students, from three elementary schools, participated in this study. The experimental group received a ninety-minute chess lesson once per week over a three-month period; and the control group students regularly attended school activities…

  19. Factors Related to the Academic Success and Failure of College Football Players: The Case of the Mental Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Gale; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines variables used to predict the academic success or failure of college football players. Valid predictors include the following: (1) high school grades; (2) repeating a year in school; (3) feelings towards school; (4) discipline history; (5) mother's education; and (6) high school background. (FMW)

  20. The Relationship Between School Well-being and Academic Procrastination on Student 10th Grade of State Madrasah Aliyah

    OpenAIRE

    Annisa, Annisa; Kristiana, Ika Febrian

    2014-01-01

    School is a part of learning environment that affect in forming student's academic behavior including academic procrastination. Academic procrastination is delay either in initiating or completing academic assignments that lead to failure. Academic procrastination can be affected by school environment. The school environment is perceived differently by each student. The student's perception of aspects having, loving, being, and health tend to be aspect that lead to the school satisfaction, al...

  1. Understanding the Phenomenon of Overcoming Academic Challenges and Failure to Achieve Academic Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Sam

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of 10 adults who had experienced academic challenges during their studies, yet were able to return to academic studies and complete one or more graduate degrees. The participants were separated into two groups. "Group A" participants experienced academic failure and were asked to withdraw from their…

  2. Schooling Background and Academic Academic Achievement of Agricultural Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In our society academic achievement is considered as a key criterion to judge one’s total potentiality and capability. Academic achievement is seen as a students’ grade point averages in many academic settings. Academic achievement has become an index of students’ future in this highly competitive world and Agricultural education is no exception.  Hence it becomes necessary to find out the factors that determine better academic performance. In this context the present study had been carried out to find out the possible relationship between schooling background and academic achievement of agriculture students. The students admitted in Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College, Kalavai, Vellore between 1999 and 2009 formed the subjects of the study. Findings of the study revealed that determinants like gender, type of school and stream of education had a significant role in the academic achievement of the students. Medium of instruction in HSC did influence the academic achievement but not significantly. It was also found that students who performed well in their HSC did perform well in their undergraduate programme also. This confirms that previous educational outcomes are the most important indicators of student’s future achievement and schooling background has a significant role in academic achievement of students.

  3. Academic performance of school children with behavioural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Behavioural disorders can have a negative influence on the academic performance of school children. There are no similiar published is no known studies in Nigeria. Objective: To compare the academic performance of primary school children with behavioural disorders with that of their controls. Methods: A ...

  4. Managing school library services for effective academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... teachers and student s toward the roles of school library in achieving effective performance, school librarians are not recognized as a stakeholder in promoting students academic performance, school librarians are not part of the school management and curriculum planning team. Establishing and adequate management ...

  5. Teachers' perceptions of academic failure: Is it worth to bother about unsuccesful pupils?

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    Malinić Dušica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the convictions of the teachers about scholastic failure and their perception of the activities they use in work with unsuccessful pupils. The theoretical basis for our research was the belief that there is a connection between the teacher's convictions and their everyday practices. The aim was to examine: 1 the teachers' convictions about the nature of academic failure, traits of the failing students, adequacy of after-class sessions and group work in overcoming the problem of academic failure, and 2 the teachers' perception of their own responsibility and engagement in supporting failing pupils. A set of parametric statistical techniques was used to analyze the responses of 1441 elementary-school teachers to the items related to academic failure in the questionnaire about current school problems. The results show that 1 the teachers have optimistic convictions about cognitive abilities of failing pupils and see after-class sessions as a good opportunity to work with them; they state that 2 they additionally prepare classes for work with failing pupils and stimulate them during regular classes and believe that failing pupils are successful in outdoor activities; 3 they have no definite opinion about the role of the teacher and adequacy of group work in overcoming the problem. The concluding observations stress the need for a detailed analysis of the activities based on the teacher's convictions about academic failure and support to failing pupils.

  6. Relationships among grit, academic performance, perceived academic failure, and stress in associate degree students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wincy Wing Sze

    2017-10-01

    The present study examined the relationships among grit, academic performance, perceived academic failure, and stress levels of Hong Kong associate degree students using path analysis. Three hundred and forty-five students from a community college in Hong Kong voluntarily participated in the study. They completed a questionnaire that measured their grit (operationalized as interest and perseverance) and stress levels. The students also provided their actual academic performance and evaluated their perception of their academic performance as a success or a failure. The results of the path analysis showed that interest and perseverance were negatively associated with stress, and only perceived academic failure was positively associated with stress. These findings suggest that psychological appraisal and resources are more important antecedents of stress than objective negative events. Therefore, fostering students' psychological resilience may alleviate the stress experienced by associate degree students or college students in general. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. School Climate and Academic Achievement in Suburban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Tracey N.

    2016-01-01

    School climate research has indicated a relationship between the climate of a school and academic achievement. The majority of explanatory models have been developed in urban schools with less attention given to suburban schools. Due to the process of formation of suburban schools, there is a likelihood these campuses differ from the traditional…

  8. [On the partition of acupuncture academic schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengyan; Luo, Xi; Xia, Youbing

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays extensive attention has been paid on the research of acupuncture academic schools, however, a widely accepted method of partition of acupuncture academic schools is still in need. In this paper, the methods of partition of acupuncture academic schools in the history have been arranged, and three typical methods of"partition of five schools" "partition of eighteen schools" and "two-stage based partition" are summarized. After adeep analysis on the disadvantages and advantages of these three methods, a new method of partition of acupuncture academic schools that is called "three-stage based partition" is proposed. In this method, after the overall acupuncture academic schools are divided into an ancient stage, a modern stage and a contemporary stage, each schoolis divided into its sub-school category. It is believed that this method of partition can remedy the weaknesses ofcurrent methods, but also explore a new model of inheritance and development under a different aspect through thedifferentiation and interaction of acupuncture academic schools at three stages.

  9. Use of school gardens in academic instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Heather; Beall, Deborah Lane; Lussier, Mary; McLaughlin, Peggy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2005-01-01

    To determine the status of gardens in California schools. A self-administered Internet and mailed survey was sent to all California principals (N = 9805). 4194 California school principals. School garden practices, attitudes associated with the use of gardens in schools, and perceptions of barriers to having and using school gardens in academic instruction. Descriptive statistics and chi-square; P science, environmental studies, and nutrition. Principals strongly agreed that resources such as curriculum materials linked to academic instruction and lessons on teaching nutrition in the garden would assist in the school garden being used for academic instruction. Principals deemed the garden as being not to slightly effective at enhancing the school meal program. School gardens appear to be predominantly used by most schools to enhance academic instruction. There is a need for curriculum materials and teacher training for gardening and nutrition. The link between the garden and the school meal program is an area that clearly requires attention. School lunch would be a logical setting for provision of edible produce, in addition to taste-testing of fresh produce in the garden or classroom setting.

  10. Exam stressors, modulating variables and academic failure

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    Arturo Barraza Macías

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was raised four objectives: a to establish the profile of stress descriptive review of the higher education students, b identify areas that cause more stress on the students of higher education when presenting a review c distinguish socio-demographic variables and situational which provide significant differences in stress examination of students in higher education d determining the relationship between stress examination and the number of subjects disapproved of the students in higher education. It is based on the model theoretically systemic cognoscitivism academic stress which is derived from the slope of transaccionalista Research Program Person-environment. To achieve these goals, a study was conducted transectional not experimental and correlational through the implementation of the Inventory Stress Test to 343 students, of the Preparatory Lomas of the city of Durango, in the state of Durango, Mexico. Its main results allow establishing a descriptive profile of stress examination of students in higher education, as well as confirm the modulatory effect of the variables and gender semester and the positive correlation between stress and the number of examination subject disapproved.

  11. Variables that predict academic procrastination behavior in prospective primary school teachers

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    Asuman Seda SARACALOĞLU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the variables predicting academic procrastination behavior of prospective primary school teachers and is conducted using the correlational survey model. The study group is composed of 294 undergraduate students studying primary school teaching programs in faculties of education at Adnan Menderes, Pamukkale, and Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Universities in Turkey. The data collection instruments used were the Procrastination Assessment Scale Students (PASS, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES, and Academic Motivation Scale (AMS. While analyzing the gathered data, descriptive analysis techniques were utilized. Moreover, while analyzing the data, power of variables namely reasons of academic procrastination, academic motivation, and academic efficacy to predict prospective primary school teachers’ academic procrastination tendencies were tested. For that purpose, stepwise regression analysis was employed. It was found that nearly half of the prospective primary school teachers displayed no academic procrastination behavior. Participants’ reasons for procrastination were fear of failure, laziness, taking risks, and rebellion against control. An average level significant correlation was found between participants’ academic procrastination and other variables. As a result, it was identified that prospective primary school teachers had less academic procrastination than reported in literature and laziness, fear of failure, academic motivation predicted academic procrastination.

  12. Socially Embedded Academic Emotions in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Henrika; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Piertarinen, Janne; Soini, Tiina

    2018-01-01

    School is a central arena for a wide amount of emotions. Previous research on academic emotions has, however, mainly focused on achievement, engagement and teaching, situated in classroom. The social embeddedness, as well as different learning environments of school, continue to be neglected in the research literature. Our study focuses on…

  13. School Bullying: Why Quick Fixes Do Not Prevent School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebeer, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem. It is associated with negative effects for bullies, targets, and bystanders. Bullying is related to school shootings, student suicides, and poor academic outcomes. Yet, this issue cannot be solved by way of simple, one-size-fits-all solutions. Instead, school bullying is a complex, systemic issue that requires…

  14. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…

  15. Gender, Self-Perception, and Academic Problems in High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Muller, Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of education to socioeconomic attainment and other life course trajectories, early academic struggles can have long-term consequences if not addressed. Analysis of a nationally representative sample with official school transcripts and extensive data on adolescent functioning identified a social psychological pathway in this linkage between external feedback about early struggles and truncated educational trajectories. For girls, class failures absent of diagnosed learning disabilities engendered increasingly negative self-perceptions that, in turn, disrupted math and science course-taking, especially in family and peer contexts in which academic success was prioritized. For boys, diagnosed learning disabilities, regardless of class performance, engendered the same changes in self-perception and the same consequences of these changes for course-taking across family and peer contexts. These results reveal how ability labels and ability-related performance indicators come together to influence the long-term educational prospects of girls and boys attending mainstream schools in which the majority of students do not have learning disabilities or severe academic problems. Keywords: education, learning disability, academic failure, peers, and stigma.

  16. School Segregation and Racial Academic Achievement Gaps

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    Sean F. Reardon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is clear that racial segregation is linked to academic achievement gaps, the mechanisms underlying this link have been debated since James Coleman published his eponymous 1966 report. In this paper, I examine sixteen distinct measures of segregation to determine which is most strongly associated with academic achievement gaps. I find clear evidence that one aspect of segregation in particular—the disparity in average school poverty rates between white and black students’ schools—is consistently the single most powerful correlate of achievement gaps, a pattern that holds in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. This implies that high-poverty schools are, on average, much less effective than lower-poverty schools and suggests that strategies that reduce the differential exposure of black, Hispanic, and white students to poor schoolmates may lead to meaningful reductions in academic achievement gaps.

  17. Academic Dishonesty in Medical Schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drive academic dishonesty among aspiring doctors. Objective: To establish the ... Cross sectional survey using self-administered questionnaire. ... There is no data to show how medical students compare to other .... by mandated bodies to contain the malpractice, hence bigger ... on Plagiarism and Cheating, in Perspectives.

  18. High school students with asthma: attitudes about school health, absenteeism, and its impact on academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenitsky-Korn, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most frequent reason for absence from school; it accounts for one-third of all days of missed instruction, placing students at risk for academic failure and social isolation. This study compared high school students with asthma with those without asthma, and examined the relationship of their attitudes toward school health services, absenteeism, academic achievement, and the supposition that school nurse services play an essential part in the academic process. Surveys were completed by all students who participated in the study. Twenty-eight students with asthma reported levels of illness and school nurse support in an additional survey. Data revealed that students with asthma were absent more frequently, scored lower in mathematics, and participated less in school activities than their peers without asthma. Their level of illness did not predict the number of days absent, which was negatively correlated with achievement and positively correlated with students' permissive attitudes toward absenteeism. Findings indicate that school nurse interventions were sources of physical, social, emotional, and academic support.

  19. How Does School Mobility Impact Indicators of Academic Achievement for Highly Mobile Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-McBrien, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Children who are homeless or in foster care change schools more often than their non-mobile peers. The impact of school mobility increases their risk of academic failure (Evans, 1996; Ingersoll, Scamman, & Eckerling, 1989; Mao, 1997, Mehana & Reynolds, 2003; Reynolds & Wolf, 1999). Laws enforcing the right of students to remain in…

  20. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

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    Shephard Roy J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE, free school physical activity (PA and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007, PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007, SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA, and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF. Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.

  1. Explanation of the academic failure and the social representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef AÏSSANI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a plethora of research related to attribution in the last few decades. However, very few studies focused on the relationship between understanding the causes of others’ behavior and social representation. The overall objective of this study was to fill the gap by showing that the understanding of the causes behind others’ behavior is influenced by our social believes. We studied the scholar failure social representation of school-teacher.

  2. Academic Self-Concept, Gender and Single-Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alice

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses gender differences in academic self-concept for a cohort of children born in 1958 (the National Child Development Study). It addresses the question of whether attending single-sex or co-educational schools affected students' perceptions of their own academic abilities (academic self-concept). Academic self-concept was found…

  3. Behavioral Skills Training in Portuguese Children With School Failure Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Galindo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper postulates that psychology can make an important contribution at an individual level to help children with school failure problems in a context where too little applied research has been conducted on the instructional needs of these children. Some data are analyzed, revealing that, despite some progress, school failure is still a main educational problem in many countries. In this study, Behavioral Skills Training (BST was applied in Portugal to train children with school failure difficulties. BST is a method based on Applied Behavior Analysis, a teaching package consisting of a combination of behavioral techniques: instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. Two empirical studies are presented. Their main purpose was to develop behavioral diagnostic and training techniques to teach lacking skills. School success was defined in terms of a set of skills proposed by teachers and school failure as a lack of one or more of these skills. The main instrument was a package of training programs to be applied in three areas: basic behavior (precurrents, academic behavior, or social behavior. The second instrument is a package of check-lists, aimed to determine the level of performance of the child in an area. This check-list was applied before (pre-test and after (post-test training. In the first study, 16, 7- to 8-year old children were trained. They were attending the second or third grades and having academic difficulties of different origins. The effects of the training programs are evaluated in terms of percentage of attained objectives, comparing a pre- and a post-test. The results showed an increase in correct responses after training in all cases. To provide a sounder demonstration of the efficacy of the training programs, a second study was carried out using a quasi-experimental design. A multiple baseline design was applied to three 10- to 11-year-old children, referred by teachers because of learning difficulties in the fourth

  4. School Mobility and Students' Academic and Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seunghee

    2014-01-01

    The study examined estimated effects of school mobility on students' academic and behaviouiral outcomes. Based on data for 2,560 public schools from the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) 2007-2008, the findings indicate that high schools, urban schools, and schools serving a total student population of more than 50 percent minority…

  5. Antecedent and Consequence of School Academic Optimism and Teachers' Academic Optimism Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Fu-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to examine the relationships among school principals' transformational leadership, school academic optimism, teachers' academic optimism and teachers' professional commitment. This study conducted a questionnaire survey on 367 teachers from 20 high schools in Taiwan by random sampling, using principals'…

  6. Implementation, Sustainability, and Scaling up of Social-Emotional and Academic Innovations in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Maurice J.; Zins, Joseph E.; Graczyk, Patricia A.; Weissberg, Roger P.

    2003-01-01

    Many attempts at bringing successful educational programs and products "to scale" as part of school reform, particularly in urban districts, have been disappointing. Based on the experiences of the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) and reviews of literature addressing implementation failures, observations about…

  7. Improving Academic Self-Efficacy, School Connectedness, and Identity in Struggling Middle School Girls: A Preliminary Study of the "REAL Girls" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael J.; Smith, Megan L.; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.

    2015-01-01

    Girls struggling to be successful in middle school are often dealing with negative life experiences that affect their ability to achieve academically. Frequently, their academic failures and problem behaviors are associated with feeling overwhelmed by difficult and challenging life circumstances. In the absence of intervention, these patterns may…

  8. Academic Identity Status, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…

  9. Teachers' and parents' conceptions of students' academic success and failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hočevar, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Personal conceptions regarding academic (in)efficiency are directing the thinking and behaviour of all those involved in the educational process. Due to the subjectivity and complexity of personal conceptions, the individuals are experiencing academic (in)efficiency differently. Also, various factors contribute to students academic (in)efficiency, including teachers and parents. The Master's thesis deals with personal conceptions of teachers and parents about academic (in)efficiency. In the t...

  10. Testing the Causal Links between School Climate, School Violence, and School Academic Performance: A Cross-Lagged Panel Autoregressive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron Avi; Roziner, Ilan; Wrabel, Stephani L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores the causal link between school climate, school violence, and a school's general academic performance over time using a school-level, cross-lagged panel autoregressive modeling design. We hypothesized that reductions in school violence and climate improvement would lead to schools' overall improved academic performance.…

  11. Self-Concept, Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement: Strategies for Maintaining Self-Esteem in Students Experiencing Academic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Francisco; Almeida, Leandro S.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research into the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement shows that despite differences in academic self-evaluation, students' global self-representations do not differ as a result of their grades at school. In this study, we will analyse the strategies that underachievers used to maintain their self-esteem at an…

  12. Academic Performance, School Desertion and Emotional Paradigm in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Barrientos, Laura Gática; Castro, Patricia Eugenia García; García, Jesús Hernández

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims to describe academic performance, school desertion and the emotional paradigm of the university students of the accounting school of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (FCPBUAP). We have found that low academic performance is related to students' economic deficiency, which affects their concentration on their…

  13. Personality Type and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Arul A. S.; Lawrence, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality is the man. The successful living of an individual, as a man, depends to a large extent on the academic achievement of that individual, as a student. This article attempts to find out personality type, academic achievement of secondary school students and relationship between them by selecting a sample of 300 secondary school students…

  14. Academic performance in high school as factor associated to academic performance in college

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    Mileidy Salcedo Barragán

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to find the relationship between academic performance in High School and College, focusing on Natural Sciences and Mathematics. It is a descriptive correlational study, and the variables were academic performance in High School, performance indicators and educational history. The correlations between variables were established with Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results suggest that there is a positive relationship between academic performance in High School and Educational History, and a very weak relationship between performance in Science and Mathematics in High School and performance in College.

  15. Incidence of academic failure and its underlying factors in Lorestan university of medical sciences

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    Farzad Ebrahimzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Academic failure, conceived of as lack of success in one’s education, is of paramount importance for students of medical sciences and it might lead to more acute problems. The present study set out to investigate the prevalence and underlying reasons of academic failure in Lorestan University of medical sciences.  Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, academic records of all students of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences during the academic years of 2006-2011 were collected from education and student affair center and also, demographic and educational records were entered into a checklist. Inappropriate grade point average, being a provisional student, prolonged graduation, expulsion and dropout were taken into account as academic failure. To model the related effective factors, logistic regression was adopted and significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The cumulative incidence of academic failure was about 25.1%. Factors such as department, being self-funded or government-funded student, academic grade students are pursuing, the elapsed time between academic grades, gender and location of residence were related to academic failure (P<0.05. It is worth mentioning that no relationship was observed between the academic failure and being accepted based on quota system. Conclusion: The most important at risk groups were students of department of medicine and health, associate or medical doctoral students, self-funded students, students with a considerable time elapsed between their academic grades, male students and students living in dormitory. It is suggested that these students refer to consulting centers of university or educational supervisors and receive particular attention.

  16. Influences on Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Cambodia

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    Sopheak Song

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Employing education production function approach, this article investigates the influences of school and pupil background factors on academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia. Based on achievement data of 1,080 Grade 6 pupils from one rural and one semi-urban area, the study reveals that school and teacher quality exerts a considerable effect on pupils’ performance. Teachers’ experience and teacher guides are positively correlated with academic achievement, while instructional time loss is significantly associated with poor performance. In light of these results, policies to boost academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia are discussed.

  17. Predicting Day-to-Day Changes in Students' School-Related Affect from Daily Academic Experiences and Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermatt, Ellen Rydell

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role that everyday academic successes and failures--and the interactions with family members and peers that follow these events--play in predicting day-to-day changes in children's emotional responses to school. Middle school students (N = 101; mean age = 11.62 years) completed daily assessments of their academic…

  18. ASSESMENT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Tripathi

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to find out the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education and academic performance among school-aged youth. To better understand these connections, this research paper first finds out the independent variables upon which academic performance depends. Study is from a range of physical activity contexts, including school-based physical education, recess, classroom-based physical activity and extracurricular physical activity. In his attempt...

  19. Academic Performance in Primary School Children With Common Emotional and Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Tucker, Dawn; Bayer, Jordana; Romaniuk, Helena; Sawyer, Susan; Lietz, Petra; Redmond, Gerry; Proimos, Jenny; Allen, Nicholas; Patton, George

    2017-08-01

    Many emotional and behavioral problems first emerge in primary school and are the forerunners of mental health problems occurring in adolescence. However, the extent that these problems may be associated with academic failure has been explored less. We aimed to quantify the association between emotional and behavioral problems with academic performance. A stratified random sample of 8- to 9-year-olds (N = 1239) were recruited from schools in Australia. Data linkage was performed with a national assessment of academic performance to assess reading and numeracy. Parent report assessed emotional and behavioral problems with students dichotomized into "borderline/abnormal" and "normal" categories. One in 5 grade 3 students fell in the "borderline/abnormal" category. Boys with total difficulties (β = -47.8, 95% CI: -62.8 to -32.8), conduct problems, and peer problems scored lower on reading. Numeracy scores were lower in boys with total difficulties (β = -37.7, 95% CI: -53.9 to -21.5) and emotional symptoms. Children with hyperactivity/inattention scored lower in numeracy. Girls with peer problems scored lower in numeracy. Boys with emotional and behavioral problems in mid-primary school were 12 months behind their peers. Children with emotional and behavioral problems are at high risk for academic failure, and this risk is evident in mid-primary school. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  20. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs. PMID:27168614

  1. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs.

  2. Factors associated with nursing students' academic success or failure: a retrospective Italian multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, A; Valoppi, G; Saiani, L; Palese, A

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing standardization of nursing education in Europe under the Bologna Process Declaration (1999), there is a growing interest in defining a common concept of academic success and/or failure, measuring associated factors and comparing differences and similarities between different countries. While there is literature available on these issues from other countries, the phenomenon has not been studied in Italy. The aim of this study was to define the factors associated with academic success or failure in an Italian cohort of nursing students on a bachelor's degree course. A retrospective multicenter study design was adopted. All students enrolling in the academic year 2004-05 on two different bachelor's courses in the north of Italy were interviewed. Only 81 of the 117 students considered (69.2%) concluded their course in three years. Multivariate analysis identified two factors determining academic success/failure: good results in the entry examination for the bachelor's degree in nursing sciences were associated with academic success (OR 4.217, IC(95%) 1.501-11.84), while family commitments, e.g. caring for children or elderly people were associated with academic failure (OR 0.120, IC(95%) 0.03-0.471). Academic failure has a strong impact on students, their families, the teaching faculties and the community, and its prevention is a challenge in the countries with a shortage of nurses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Study of Secondary School Students' Academic Performance at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed and investigated the academic performance of secondary school students in two principal subjects (English Language and. Mathematics) at the Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) in ten secondary schools typical of urban and rural locations in five randomised. Local Government Areas of ...

  4. School Values: A Comparison of Academic Motivation, Mental Health Promotion, and School Belonging with Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly-Ann; Kern, Margaret L.; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Waters, Lea

    2017-01-01

    School vision and mission statements are an explicit indication of a school's priorities. Research has found academic motivation, mental health promotion, and school belonging to be the most frequently cited themes in these statements. The present study sought to examine whether these themes relate to student academic achievement, as indicated by…

  5. Effects of High School Students' Perceptions of School Life Quality on Their Academic Motivation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin Kösterelioglu, Meltem; Kösterelioglu, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the effects of high school students' perceptions of school life quality on their academic motivation levels. The study was conducted on a sample of high school students (n = 2371) in Amasya Province in the fall semester of 2013-2014 academic year. Study sample was selected with the help of cluster sampling method. Data…

  6. Investigating the Link between Home-School Dissonance and Academic Cheating among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Thomas, Deneia; Mulder, Shambra; Hughes, Travonia; Stevens-Morgan, Ruby; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Gadson, Nadia; Smith, La Toya

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the association between home-school dissonance and academic cheating among 344 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). Analyses revealed that home-school…

  7. Essays on Academic Achievement and Student Behavior in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Wael Soheil

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the student academic achievement through various mechanisms, put in place by the public school district, classroom student behavior, and negative external shocks to the students' living environment. I examine the impacts of various treatments on student short and long run academic outcomes such as math and English test…

  8. Academic Performance of School Children With Epilepsy | Ibekwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease encountered among school children in Nigeria. Studies in developed countries show conflicting reports on it\\'s effect on academic performance. There is also a dearth of information on the academic performance of Nigerian children with epilepsy.

  9. Hope of Success and Fear of Failure Predicting Academic Procrastination Students Who Working on a Thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Zakiah Akmal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Students, who are working on the thesis, have some difficulties caused by internal and external factors. Those problems can disrupt the completion of their thesis, such as the tendency to do academic procrastination. Increasing achievement motivation can reduce academic procrastination. This study aims to look at the role of achievement motivation (hope of success and fear of failure in predicting academic procrastination. The study used a quantitative approach by distributing academic procrastination and achievement motivation questionnaires. The study involved 182 students who were working on a thesis as samples, which were obtained by using accidental sampling technique. Data were analyzed using multiple regressions. It showed that the hope of success and fear of failure have a significant role in predicting academic procrastination (R2 = 13.8%, F = 14,356, p <0.05. The hope of success can decrease academic procrastination, while fear of failure can improve it. Thus, interventions to reduce academic procrastination can be delivered by increasing students hope of success.

  10. The Role of Neighborhood Context and School Climate in School-Level Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Linda D; McMahon, Susan D; Jason, Leonard A

    2018-03-30

    In recent years, the quality of education available to children has become increasingly dependent on the social and economic demographics of neighborhoods in which the children live. This study assesses the role of community violence in explaining the relation between socio-economic status (SES) and academic outcomes and the potential of positive school climate to promote academic achievement. With a sample of 297 Chicago public elementary schools, we examine community-level and school-level data and use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping to illustrate how school academic achievement coincides with neighborhood economics and crime statistics. Results support the hypothesized mediation, such that lower SES was associated with lower academic achievement, and violent crime partially mediated this relation. School climate was positively associated with academic achievement, and student safety significantly moderated the relation between SES and academic achievement. Implications for theory, research, and intervention are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  11. Influence of parenting style on the academic performance of middle school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Domínguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Students who don't succeed in school are a persistent problem in our educational system. This fact shows that all the efforts to reduce this problem are not succeeding. One third of our students are left behind by the educational system; their results are discouraging. The measures to fight the academic failure are not working and that we have to put into practice new ways of analysis and treatment of this problem. This research explores the relationship between the way children perceive the parenting style of their parents and his o her own academic performance. In the intersection of both phenomena we find our hypothesis: the way parents socialise their children influences significantly on their academic performance. This research is orientated to decision taking process: the aim is to define the level of influence of the parenting style on academic outcomes. The main result is that parents acceptation/implication appears to be significantly linked to the school performance (this evidence shows a big area for new researches: the family. Our research confirms and frames the correlation between these two variables and underlies the family as a new scenario of pedagogical concern to explain and treat school failure.

  12. Catholic High Schools and Rural Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1997-01-01

    A study of national longitudinal data examined effects of rural Catholic high schools on mathematics achievement, high school graduation rates, and the likelihood that high school graduates attend college. Findings indicate that rural Catholic high schools had a positive effect on mathematics test scores and no effect on graduation rates or rates…

  13. It Feels Good to Learn Where I Belong: School Belonging, Academic Emotions, and Academic Achievement in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Un Fong; Chen, Wei-Wen; Zhang, Jingqi; Liang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between school belonging, academic emotions, and academic achievement in Macau adolescents. A survey of 406 junior high school students in Macau was used to collect information on the extent to which these students felt accepted and respected in their schools (school belonging), the emotions they experienced…

  14. Integrating Academic Interventions into Small Group Counseling in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Kaffenberger, Carol J.

    2007-01-01

    Professional school counselors face the challenge of delivering guidance and counseling services to students while connecting to the educational mission of schools. This article is a summary and evaluation of a small group counseling program that targets academic issues while addressing personal/social issues with elementary-aged children. Results…

  15. Bullying Experiences and Compromised Academic Performance across Middle School Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Jaana; Wang, Yueyan; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether bullying experiences are associated with lower academic performance across middle school among urban students.The ethnically diverse sample was drawn from a longitudinal study of 2,300 sixth graders (44% Latino, 26% African American, 10% Asian, 10% White, and 10% mixed) from 11 public middle schools.…

  16. Men in Academic School Psychology: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Steven G.; Akin-Little, Angeleque; Palomares, Ronald S.; Eckert, Tanya L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of research examining the experiences and perceptions of men employed as school psychology academicians. The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain male school psychology academicians' perceptions of their respective academic climates, levels of support, incidences of harassment, and levels of stress, and to compare…

  17. A Multilevel Analysis of Teacher and School Academic Optimism in Taiwan Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason Hsinchieh; Lin, Chunn-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Research on teacher and school academic optimism has abounded ever since these two constructs were confirmed and shown to have positive effects on student achievement. However, one overlooked research question is the nested association between teacher and school academic optimism. This study intends to fill this gap by using hierarchical linear…

  18. ADOLESCENT WORK INTENSITY, SCHOOL PERFORMANCE, AND ACADEMIC ENGAGEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E; Bachman, Jerald G

    2010-07-01

    Teenagers working over 20 hours per week perform worse in school than youth who work less. There are two competing explanations for this association: (1) that paid work takes time and effort away from activities that promote achievement, such as completing homework, preparing for examinations, getting help from parents and teachers, and participating in extracurricular activities; and (2) that the relationship between paid work and school performance is spurious, reflecting preexisting differences between students in academic ability, motivation, and school commitment. Using longitudinal data from the ongoing national Monitoring the Future project, this research examines the impact of teenage employment on school performance and academic engagement during the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades. We address issues of spuriousness by using a two-level hierarchical model to estimate the relationships of within-individual changes in paid work to changes in school performance and other school-related measures. Unlike prior research, we also compare youth school performance and academic orientation when they are actually working in high-intensity jobs to when they are jobless and wish to work intensively. Results indicate that the mere wish for intensive work corresponds with academic difficulties in a manner similar to actual intensive work.

  19. The Financial Crisis and the Systemic Failure of Academic Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colander, David; Föllmer, Hans; Haas, Armin

    The economics profession appears to have been unaware of the long build-up to the current worldwide financial crisis and to have significantly underestimated its dimensions once it started to unfold. In our view, this lack of understanding is due to a misallocation of research efforts in economics....... We trace the deeper roots of this failure to the profession's focus on models that, by design, disregard key elements driving outcomes in real-world markets. The economics profession has failed in communicating the limitations, weaknesses, and even dangers of its preferred models to the public...

  20. Peer harassment, school connectedness, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Perry, Cheryl L

    2003-10-01

    This study described peer harassment in a large, multiethnic sample of adolescents, and explored the relationship between experiencing peer harassment and both school connectedness and achievement. Survey data came from 4,746 students in grades 7-12 at 31 public schools in ethnically and socioeconomically diverse communities in a Midwestern state. Frequency of five types of harassment were analyzed with data on school connectedness and grades. Multivariate analysis controlled for gender, grade level, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that most students periodically experience mistreatment; 10% to 17% report being treated disrespectfully, having others act superior, or being insulted at least once per week, and an additional 14% to 22% of students report suffering these behaviors a few times per month. Girls, Whites, Native Americans, and middle school students reported more harassment than boys, other ethnic groups, and high school students, respectively. Peer harassment related significantly to both aspects of school life; those who disliked school tended to suffer more mistreatment, and "B" students reported the least harassment on average. Young people mistreated by peers may not want to be in school and may thereby miss out on the benefits of school connectedness as well as educational advancement. The high prevalence of peer harassment and its association with school connectedness and school achievement provide justification for interventions aimed at prevention of peer harassment. A schoolwide approach using educational and policy components may provide an appropriate prevention strategy.

  1. The failure of academic epidemiology: witness for the prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, C M

    1997-03-15

    Academic epidemiology has failed to develop the scientific methods and the knowledge base to support the fundamental public health mission of preventing disease and promoting health through organized community efforts. As a basic science of public health, epidemiology should attempt to understand health and disease from a community and ecologic perspective as a consequence of how society is organized and behaves, what impact social and economic forces have on disease incidence rates, and what community actions will be effective in altering incidence rates. However, as taught in most textbooks and as widely practiced by academicians, epidemiology has become a biomedical discipline focused on the distribution and determinants of disease in groups of individuals who happen to have some common characteristics, exposures, or diseases. The ecology of human health has not been addressed, and the societal context in which disease occurs has been either disregarded or deliberately abstracted from consideration. By essentially assuming that risk factors for disease in individuals can be summed to understand the causes of disease in populations, academic epidemiology has limited itself to a narrow biomedical perspective, thereby committing the bio-medical fallacy of inferring that disease in populations can be understood by studying risk factors for disease in individuals. Epidemiology should be redefined as a study of the distribution and societal determinants of the health status of populations. This definition provides a stronger link to be the primary mission of public health and places an appropriate emphasis on the social, economic, environmental, and cultural determinants of population health. Epidemiology must cross the boundaries of other population sciences and add to its scope a macro-epidemiology, a study of causes from a truly population perspective, considering health and disease within the context of the total human environment.

  2. Family and academic performance: identifying high school student profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Aleli Chaparro Caso López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify profiles of high school students, based on variables related to academic performance, socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family organization. A total of 21,724 high school students, from the five municipalities of the state of Baja California, took part. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify the profiles. The analyses identified two clearly-defined clusters: Cluster 1 grouped together students with high academic performance and who achieved higher scores for socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family involvement, whereas Cluster 2 brought together students with low academic achievement, and who also obtained lower scores for socioeconomic status and cultural capital, and had less family involvement. It is concluded that the family variables analyzed form student profiles that can be related to academic achievement.

  3. 'Luck, chance, and happenstance? Perceptions of success and failure amongst fixed-term academic staff in UK higher education'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Vik

    2017-09-07

    What does it mean to attribute success to 'luck', but failure to personal deficiency? In 2015/16, more than 34 per cent of academic employees in UK higher education institutions were employed on temporary contracts, and the sector itself has undergone a substantial transformation in recent years in terms of expansion, measurement, and marketization. Based on two waves of interviews conducted with fixed-term academic employees at different career stages, the article explores the narrativization of success and failure amongst staff working at the 'sharp end' of the so-called neoliberal academy. Arguing that precarious employment situations precipitate the feeling of being 'out of control', the majority of the participants' narratives were characterized by a distinct lack of agency. The paper explores the recourse to notions of chance and the consolidation of 'luck' as an explanatory factor in accounting for why good things happen; however, in tandem with this inclination is the tendency to individualize failure when expectations have been thwarted. While accounts of fixed-term work are suffused with notions of chance and fortune, 'luck' remains an under-researched concept within sociology. The article thus concludes by considering what the analysis of 'luck' might offer for a fuller, politicized understanding of processes at work in the contemporary academy. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  4. Academic Procrastination of Secondary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Ribič Hederih

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is a trait and/or a form of behavior that denotes an individual’s delay in an activity which should be done, and which causes discomfort. In the study we wished to determine the differences between high school students regarding gender, educational programme and learning success of the previous school year in three factors. On a sample of 284 high school students of different Slovenian secondary schools, we found that on average boys show statistically significantly more shortage of learning self-discipline than girls, while girls, on average, significantly more discomfort than boys. Comparison of secondary school students between programmes showed that, on average, gimnazija students show significantly more learning self-discipline than students in secondary technical education. The comparison in relation to different levels of learning success at the end of the previous school year and the factors of procrastination showed, however, no statistically significant differences.

  5. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city-wide assessment of student’s perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3rd-8th graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students’ self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2%-8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16%-22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children’s academic performance. PMID:21197388

  6. Core Competencies and the Prevention of School Failure and Early School Leaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; McNeely, Clea A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase…

  7. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? A school based randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gehan; Quach, Jon; Gold, Lisa; Anderson, Peter; Rickards, Field; Mensah, Fiona; Ainley, John; Gathercole, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2011-06-20

    Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If this preventive intervention can be shown to be efficacious, then

  8. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? a school based randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Peter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. Discussion A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If

  9. School Engagement, Risky Peers, and Student-Teacher Relationships as Mediators of School Violence in Taiwanese Vocational versus Academically Oriented High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2011-01-01

    Educational tracking based on academic ability accounts for different school dynamics between vocational versus academically-oriented high schools in Taiwan. Many educational practitioners predict that the settings of vocational schools and academic schools mediate school violence in different ways. Alternatively, some researchers argue the actual…

  10. School Facility Conditions and Student Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Earthman, Glen I.

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows that the condition of school facilities has an important impact on student performance and teacher effectiveness. In particular, research demonstrates that comfortable classroom temperature and noise level are very important to efficient student performance. The age of school buildings is a useful proxy in this regard, since older facilities often have problems with thermal environment and noise level. A number of studies have measured overall building condition and its conne...

  11. The Academic Experience of Male High School Students with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Kristine M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Biswas, Aparajita; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the high school academic experience of adolescents with and without childhood ADHD using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Participants were 326 males with childhood ADHD and 213 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited at the start of the follow-up study. Data were collected yearly from parents, teachers and schools. The current study used assessment points at which the participants were currently in or had recently completed gr...

  12. Sleepwalking through School: New Evidence on Sleep and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kurt; Sabia, Joseph J.; Cesur, Resul

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers advocating for later school starting times argue that increased sleep duration may generate important schooling benefits. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines the relationship between sleep duration and academic performance, while carefully controlling for difficult-to-measure characteristics at the family- and individual-levels. We find that increased sleep time is associated with improvements in classroom concentration as wel...

  13. Shifting and Sharing: Academic Physicians' Strategies for Navigating Underperformance and Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDonna, Kori A; Ginsburg, Shiphra; Watling, Christopher

    2018-05-22

    Medical practice is uncertain and complex. Consequently, even outstanding performers will inevitably experience moments of underperformance and failure. Coping relies on insight and resilience. However, how physicians develop and use these skills to navigate struggle remains underexplored. A better understanding may reveal strategies to support both struggling learners and stressed practitioners. In 2015, 28 academic physicians were interviewed about their experiences with underperformance or failure. Constructivist grounded theory informed data collection and analysis. Participants' experiences with struggle ranged from patient errors and academic failures to frequent, smaller moments of interpersonal conflict and work-life imbalance. To buffer impact, participants sometimes shifted their focus to an aspect of their identity where they felt successful. Additionally, while participants perceived that insight develops by acknowledging and reflecting on error, they sometimes deflected blame for performance gaps. More often, participants seemed to accept personal responsibility while simultaneously sharing accountability for underperformance or failure with external forces. Paradoxically, participants perceived learners who used these strategies as lacking in insight. Participants demonstrated the protective and functional value of distributing responsibility for underperformance and failure. Shifting and sharing may be an element of reflection and resilience; recognizing external factors may provide a way to gain perspective and to preserve the self. However, this strategy challenges educators' assumptions that learners who deflect are avoiding personal responsibility. The authors' findings raise questions about what it means to be resilient, and how assumptions about learners' responses to failure may affect strategies to support underperforming learners.

  14. The Impact of School Management Strategies on Academic Achievement in Texas Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundokun, Olubunmi K.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between school management strategies and student's academic achievement, while controlling for factors such as the school principals' age, gender, experience, as well as school size and location, Student's Social Economics Status (SES), English as a Second Language learner's population (ESL), Special Education…

  15. School Climate for Academic Success: A Multilevel Analysis of School Climate and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Darren; Davis, Jonathan Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This multilevel study examined the relationship between school climate and academic achievement. Using the Educational Longitudinal Survey (ELS, 2002), and a sample of 16,258 students and 1954 schools nationwide, we found that student-level perception of school climate--especially the student learning environment--was highly predictive of academic…

  16. The Association between Elementary School Start Time and Students' Academic Achievement in Wayzata Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Danielle N.

    2015-01-01

    The Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement (CAREI) conducted two analyses with the purpose of examining the association between elementary school start time and students' academic achievement in mathematics and reading in Wayzata Public Schools. The first analysis examined the association between elementary school start time and…

  17. 314 A Study of Secondary School Students' Academic Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Students' Academic Performance in English Language and Mathematics ... passed at credit level by secondary schools students in public examinations. A credit level ..... ls O n lin e: www.a jo l.in fo. T ab le 1. : P ercen tage of p asses and failu.

  18. Academic Performance of Less Endowed High School Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the academic performance of students from less endowed senior high schools in the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Questionnaires were administered to 152 (123 males and 29 females) fourth year students who enrolled for various programmes at KNUST in 2007 ...

  19. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  20. The Academic Experience of Male High School Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Kristine M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Biswas, Aparajita; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the high school academic experience of adolescents with and without childhood ADHD using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Participants were 326 males with childhood ADHD and 213 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited at the start of the follow-up study. Data were collected yearly…

  1. The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumtuma, Chamnan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Yeamsang, Theerawat

    2015-01-01

    The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand was created by research and development. The quantitative and qualitative data were collected via the following steps: a participatory workshop meeting, the formation of a team according to knowledge base, field study, brainstorming, group discussion, activities carried out…

  2. [Quality of sleep and academic performance in high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugueño, Maithe; Curihual, Carolina; Olivares, Paulina; Wallace, Josefa; López-AlegrÍa, Fanny; Rivera-López, Gonzalo; Oyanedel, Juan Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Sleeping and studying are the day-to-day activities of a teenager attending school. To determine the quality of sleep and its relationship to the academic performance among students attending morning and afternoon shifts in a public high school. Students of the first and second year of high school answered an interview about socio-demographic background, academic performance, student activities and subjective sleep quality; they were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The interview was answered by 322 first year students aged 15 ± 5 years attending the morning shift and 364 second year students, aged 16 ± 0.5 years, attending the afternoon shift. The components: sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, drug use and daytime dysfunction were similar and classified as good in both school shifts. The components subjective sleep quality and duration of sleep had higher scores among students of the morning shift. The mean grades during the first semester of the students attending morning and afternoon shifts were 5.9 and 5.8, respectively (of a scale from 1 to 7). Among students of both shifts, the PSQI scale was associated inversely and significantly with academic performance. A bad sleep quality influences academic performance in these students.

  3. Gendered Pedagogic Identities and Academic Professionalism in Greek Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouroufli, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Feminist scholarship has considered how pedagogical identities and emotions are implicated in the gender politics of belonging and othering in higher education. This paper examines how gendered and embodied pedagogy is mobilised in Greek medical schools to construct notions of the ideal academic and assert women's position women in Academic…

  4. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; Rajeswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem on academic achievement among high school students in Miandoab City of Iran. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society includes male and female high…

  5. Self-Concept and Secondary School Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of self concept on physics students' academic achievement in secondary schools. The study was conducted in Uyo LGA of Akwa Ibom State in Nigeria. A sample size of five hundred (500) senior secondary two physics students took part in the investigation.

  6. Academic achievement of junior high school students with sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fijri Auliyanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disorders are prevalent in adolescents and may influence their academic achievement. To date, no study has been done in Indonesia on academic achievement in students with sleep disorders and its related factors. Objective To assess for relationships between academic achievement and related factors, including gender, motivation and learning strategies, IQ level, maternal educational level, socioeconomic status, family structure, after-hours education program, presence of TV/computer in the bedroom, sleep duration during school days, as well as bedtime and wakeup time difference in junior high school students with sleep disorders. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2013. Subjects were students from five junior high schools in Jakarta who fulfilled the criteria for sleep disorders based on the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children questionnaire. Results There were 111 study subjects. The prevalence of sleep disorders was 39.7%, mostly in difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (70.2%. Below-average academic achievement was seen in 47.6% of subjects. Factors significantly related to below-average academic achievement were after-hours education program (prevalence ratio 5.6; 95%CI 1.36 to 23.18; P = 0.017, average IQ level (prevalence ratio 3.26; 95%CI 1.38 to 7.71; P = 0.007, and male gender (prevalence ratio 2.68; 95%CI 1.06 to 6.78; P = 0.037. Conclusion Among junior high school students with sleep disorders, factors related to below-average academic achievement are afterhours education program (more than 2 types, the average IQ level, and male gender.

  7. A Research Synthesis of the Associations between Socioeconomic Background, Inequality, School Climate, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Ruth; Moore, Hadass; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2017-01-01

    Educational researchers and practitioners assert that supportive school and classroom climates can positively influence the academic outcomes of students, thus potentially reducing academic achievement gaps between students and schools of different socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Nonetheless, scientific evidence establishing directional…

  8. Pre-Schooling and Academic Performance of Lower Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pre- ... for increased public investment in Early Child Development (ECD) as a strategic ..... students' academic performance: A case study of Islamia University sub-.

  9. Iraqi Refugee High School Students' Academic Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Many Iraqi refugee students in the United States suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as acculturation stresses. These stresses often create challenges for their integration into U.S. schools. The project explored risk factors such as the length of educational gaps in transit, PTSD, and separation and marginalization…

  10. Attachment at School Age and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; St-Laurent, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Examined longitudinally the association between attachment at age 6 and school-related cognitive functioning 2 years later in a French Canadian sample. Found that secure children had higher scores than insecure peers on communication, cognitive engagement, and mastery motivation. Controlling children were at greatest risk for school…

  11. The relationship between school absence, academic performance, and asthma status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonie, Sheniz; Sterling, David A; Figgs, Larry W; Castro, Mario

    2008-03-01

    Children with asthma experience more absenteeism from school compared with their nonasthma peers. Excessive absenteeism is related to lower student grades, psychological, social, and educational adjustment. Less is known about the relationship between the presence of asthma and the academic achievement in school-aged children. Since students with asthma miss more days from school, this may negatively impact their academic achievement. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between absenteeism, presence of asthma, and asthma severity level with standardized test level performance in a predominantly African American urban school district. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 3812 students (aged 8-17 years) who took the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) standardized test during the 2002-2003 academic year. After adjustment for covariates, a significant inverse relationship was found between absenteeism and test level performance on the MAP standardized test in all children (F = 203.9, p achievement between those with and without asthma (p = .12). Though not statistically different, those with persistent asthma showed a modestly increased likelihood of scoring below Nearing Proficient compared with those with mild intermittent asthma (adjusted odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence intervals = 0.93-4.01, p = .08). A negative impact of absenteeism on standardized test level achievement was demonstrated in children from an urban African American school district. Children with asthma perform the same academically as their nonasthma peers. However, those with persistent asthma show a trend of performing worse on MAP standardized test scores and have more absence days compared with other students. More research is warranted on the effects of persistent asthma on academic achievement.

  12. Medical school faculty discontent: prevalence and predictors of intent to leave academic careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Steven R; Fernandez, Genaro; Crane, Lori A

    2007-10-14

    Medical school faculty are less enthusiastic about their academic careers than ever before. In this study, we measured the prevalence and determinants of intent to leave academic medicine. A 75-question survey was administered to faculty at a School of Medicine. Questions addressed quality of life, faculty responsibilities, support for teaching, clinical work and scholarship, mentoring and participation in governance. Of 1,408 eligible faculty members, 532 (38%) participated. Among respondents, 224 (40%; CI95: 0.35, 0.44) reported that their careers were not progressing satisfactorily; 236 (42%; CI95: 0.38, 0.46) were "seriously considering leaving academic medicine in the next five years." Members of clinical departments (OR = 1.71; CI95: 1.01, 2.91) were more likely to consider leaving; members of inter-disciplinary centers were less likely (OR = 0.68; CI95: 0.47, 0.98). The predictors of "serious intent to leave" included: Difficulties balancing work and family (OR = 3.52; CI95: 2.34, 5.30); inability to comment on performance of institutional leaders (OR = 3.08; CI95: 2.07, 4.72); absence of faculty development programs (OR = 3.03; CI95: 2.00, 4.60); lack of recognition of clinical work (OR = 2.73; CI95: 1.60, 4.68) and teaching (OR = 2.47; CI95: 1.59, 3.83) in promotion evaluations; absence of "academic community" (OR = 2.67; CI95: 1.86, 3.83); and failure of chairs to evaluate academic progress regularly (OR = 2.60; CI95: 1.80, 3.74). Faculty are a medical school's key resource, but 42 percent are seriously considering leaving. Medical schools should refocus faculty retention efforts on professional development programs, regular performance feedback, balancing career and family, tangible recognition of teaching and clinical service and meaningful faculty participation in institutional governance.

  13. School Violent Crime and Academic Achievement in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia

    2013-10-01

    Educational outcomes vary dramatically across schools in the United States. Many under-performing schools, especially in Chicago, also deal with high levels of violent crime on school grounds. Exposure to this type of frequent violence may be an important factor shaping already disadvantaged students' educational experiences. However, estimating the effect of school violence on learning is difficult due to potential selection bias and the confounding of other school-level problems. Using detailed crime data from the Chicago Police Department, complete administrative records from the Chicago Public Schools, and school climate surveys conducted by the Consortium on Chicago School Research (2002-10), this study exploits variation in violent crime rates within schools over time to estimate its effect on academic achievement. School and neighborhood fixed-effects models show that violent crime rates have a negative effect on test scores, but not on grades. This effect is more likely related to direct reductions in learning, through cognitive stress and classroom disruptions, than changes in perceived safety, general school climate, or discipline practices.

  14. Peace of Mind, Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement in Filipino High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datu, Jesus Alfonso D

    2017-04-09

    Recent literature has recognized the advantageous role of low-arousal positive affect such as feelings of peacefulness and internal harmony in collectivist cultures. However, limited research has explored the benefits of low-arousal affective states in the educational setting. The current study examined the link of peace of mind (PoM) to academic motivation (i.e., amotivation, controlled motivation, and autonomous motivation) and academic achievement among 525 Filipino high school students. Findings revealed that PoM was positively associated with academic achievement β = .16, p amotivation β = -.19, p < .05, and autonomous motivation was positively associated with academic achievement β = .52, p < .01. Furthermore, the results of bias-corrected bootstrap analyses at 95% confidence interval based on 5,000 bootstrapped resamples demonstrated that peace of mind had an indirect influence on academic achievement through the mediating effects of autonomous motivation. In terms of the effect sizes, the findings showed that PoM explained about 1% to 18% of the variance in academic achievement and motivation. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are elucidated.

  15. An Insight into the Challenges Faced by Academic Women with Pre-School Age Children in Academic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günçavdi, Gizem; Göktürk, Söheyda; Bozoglu, Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the challenges academic women, especially those who were mothers of pre-school age children, went through. The main guiding question of this study was "How do academic mothers with pre-school age children survive in the academia from pregnancy through all the various stages of parenting and motherhood?". This…

  16. The Relationship between Family Functioning and Academic Achievement in Female High School Students of Isfahan, Iran, in 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Dehaghani, Abdollah; Keshvari, Mahrokh; Paki, Somayeh

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, the most important problem of the educational system is the vast spread of school failure. Therefore, detection of the factors leading to or preventing students' academic achievement is of utmost importance. Family function is considered to be a critical component of academic success. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between family functioning and academic achievement in high school female students in Isfahan. This descriptive correlational study was conducted through random sampling among 237 female high school students in Isfahan during school year 2013-2014. Data were collected by participants' personal characteristics and Bloom family function questionnaires. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis) were adopted and computed using SPSS software. The results showed a significant correlation between family function (except lack of independence) and students' academic achievement ( p family function dimensions, expressiveness ( β = 0.235, p family socialization ( β = 0.219, p = 0.001), and cohesion ( β = 0.211, p = 0.001) were more reliable predictors of academic achievement. The results of this study showed that students' academic achievement is highly correlated with the performance of their families. Therefore, to improve students' educational status in cultural and educational programs, which are specified for them, family function centered plans should be at the heart of attention.

  17. The relationship between family functioning and academic achievement in female high school students of Isfahan, Iran, in 2013–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Rezaei-Dehaghani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, the most important problem of the educational system is the vast spread of school failure. Therefore, detection of the factors leading to or preventing students' academic achievement is of utmost importance. Family function is considered to be a critical component of academic success. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between family functioning and academic achievement in high school female students in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted through random sampling among 237 female high school students in Isfahan during school year 2013-2014. Data were collected by participants' personal characteristics and Bloom family function questionnaires. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis were adopted and computed using SPSS software. Results: The results showed a significant correlation between family function (except lack of independence and students' academic achievement (p < 0.05. Further, among family function dimensions, expressiveness (β = 0.235, p < 0.001, family socialization (β = 0.219, p = 0.001, and cohesion (β = 0.211, p = 0.001 were more reliable predictors of academic achievement. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that students' academic achievement is highly correlated with the performance of their families. Therefore, to improve students' educational status in cultural and educational programs, which are specified for them, family function centered plans should be at the heart of attention.

  18. Provisional crown failures in dental school predoctoral clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Jeffrey D; Bader, James A; Shugars, Daniel A

    2007-11-01

    Following a preliminary study indicating that at least 10 percent of single-unit crown temporary restorations failed in patients who received treatment by predoctoral students, a comprehensive examination of provisional crown failure was initiated to identify strategies to reduce the failure rate. For all provisionalized, natural tooth, single-unit crown preparations in University of North Carolina School of Dentistry predoctoral clinics for one year (N=1008), we noted tooth type, type of crown, student level, faculty coverage experience, treatment clinic, temporary material and luting agent, and retreatment (failure) of the provisional restoration. For failures, we also noted the stage of crown preparation at failure and the time since initial placement of the temporary. We analyzed these data using simple cross-tabs and logistic regression on need for retreatment (alpha =0.05). The failure rate was 18.75 percent (N=189). The median time to failure was twelve days; the 25(th) and 75(th) percentiles were six and twenty-six days. Significant risk factors, in order of odds ratio estimates, were molar tooth, second- or third-year student, and inexperienced faculty. Most provisional failures occurred during the final preparation phase of treatment. Provisional restoration failure is more frequent than was initially suspected from preliminary studies. Strategies for institutional intervention to reduce provisional restoration failure include greater attention to evaluating provisional crowns placed by inexperienced students (sophomores and juniors) and placing more emphasis on the retentiveness of provisional restorations reused following the final impression. Review of provisional evaluation procedures is also indicated for faculty who do not routinely supervise these procedures.

  19. European nursing students' academic success or failure: a post-Bologna Declaration systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, Angelo; Petrucci, Cristina; Lancia, Loreto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the available evidence in the European scientific literature produced after the Bologna Declaration and to evaluate studies that quantify and examine the factors associated with the academic success or failure of nursing students. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Major health literature databases were searched for studies published from 2000 to 2011. This review includes only European observational studies that were submitted to a quality assessment by two researchers before inclusion. Only five studies were included in this review. There are discordant results regarding the predictors of success or failure, which were common objects of study (gender, age, qualification on entry, ethnic group). other factors were studied individually (student personality, gendered view of nursing careers, intention to leave, family commitments, working while on course, student performance, clinical learning environment) need to be confirmed in additional studies. Although the predictors may be relevant at the local level, given their low external validity and the conflicting results, it is not possible to state with certainty that these factors are effectively predictive of success or failure in the context of post-Bologna Declaration Europe. This review showed that over the last ten years, in the European context, only a few high-quality observational studies have been performed. In this regard, given the small number and heterogeneity of the available studies, there is little useful evidence available for Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to effectively address the problem. In the future, European researchers should focus not only on the documentation of the predictors but also on the documentation of the outcomes produced by the HEI strategies that have been implemented to prevent avoidable academic failure and contain physiological academic failure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Academic success or failure in nursing students: results of a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancia, Loreto; Petrucci, Cristina; Giorgi, Fabio; Dante, Angelo; Cifone, Maria Grazia

    2013-12-01

    Nursing student academic failure is a phenomenon of growing international interest, not only because of its economic impact but also because it negatively affects the availability of future nurses in different healthcare systems. To recruit the students with the highest probability of academic success, an open challenge for universities is to recruit students who have previously demonstrated superior scholastic aptitudes that appear to be associated with a greater likelihood of academic success. Documenting the relationship between the selection methods used when selecting nursing students and academic failure will contribute to the international debate concerning the optimisation of the selection strategies. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the role in predicting nursing student academic success of (1) the upper-secondary diploma grades and (2) the score obtained by students in the nursing degree program admission test. A retrospective observational study was conducted. Five cohorts of nursing students, matriculated in consecutive academic years from 2004 to 2008, in an Italian bachelor's degree program were observed retrospectively. Overall, 61.2% of the 1006 considered students concluded their degree within the legal duration allowed for the nursing degree. Students who failed were those who had lowest grades associated with their upper-secondary diploma coursework (p=0.000) and were male (p=0.000). The grades associated with the upper-secondary diploma coursework, unlike the admission test score, correlates positively with the final degree grade and the average value of degree program examination scores. No correlation was found between the upper-secondary diploma coursework grades and the scores obtained in the test for the nursing degree program admission test (r=-0.037). These results suggest that upper-secondary diploma coursework grades are a parameter that should receive great consideration, especially in cases where there are planned

  1. A longitudinal study of school belonging and academic motivation across high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Cari Gillen-O'; Fuligni, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how school belonging changes over the years of high school, and how it is associated with academic achievement and motivation. Students from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds participated (N = 572; age span = 13.94-19.15 years). In ninth grade, girls' school belonging was higher than boys'. Over the course of high school, however, girls' school belonging declined, whereas boys' remained stable. Within-person longitudinal analyses indicated that years in which students had higher school belonging were also years in which they felt that school was more enjoyable and more useful, above and beyond their actual level of achievement. Results highlight the importance of belonging for maintaining students' academic engagement during the teenage years. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Success after Failure: Academic Effects and Psychological Implications of Early Universal Algebra Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith A.; Scott, Allison; Romero, Martin; Saddler, Derrick

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors use the High School Longitudinal Study 2009 (HSLS:09) national database to analyze the relationships between algebra failure, subsequent performance, motivation, and college readiness. Students who failed eighth-grade Algebra I did not differ significantly in mathematics proficiency from those who passed lower-level…

  3. An Assessment of School Belonging and Academic Motivation among Latino Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate and examine the self-reported feelings of school belonging and academic motivation among seventh and eighth grade students in a suburban setting, with a specific focus on the Latino subgroup. A corollary purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between school belonging and…

  4. Middle School Transition Stress: Links with Academic Performance, Motivation, and School Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Boxer, Paul; Rudolph, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates links between early adolescents' subjective experiences of stress associated with the middle school transition and their academic outcomes. Seventh and eighth grade students (N?=?774) were surveyed about their experiences during their transition to middle school. Students answered questions about stress…

  5. Modeling the Relations among Parental Involvement, School Engagement and Academic Performance of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alwan, Ahmed F.

    2014-01-01

    The author proposed a model to explain how parental involvement and school engagement related to academic performance. Participants were (671) 9th and 10th graders students who completed two scales of "parental involvement" and "school engagement" in their regular classrooms. Results of the path analysis suggested that the…

  6. Academic procrastination: associations with personal, school, and family variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro; Costa, Marta; Núñez, José Carlos; González-Pienda, Julio; Solano, Paula; Valle, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    Procrastination is a common behavior, mainly in school settings. Only a few studies have analyzed the associations of academic procrastination with students' personal and family variables. In the present work, we analyzed the impact of socio-personal variables (e.g., parents' education, number of siblings, school grade level, and underachievement) on students' academic procrastination profiles. Two independent samples of 580 and 809 seventh to ninth graders, students attending the last three years of Portuguese Compulsory Education, have been taken. The findings, similar in both studies, reveal that procrastination decreases when the parents' education is higher, but it increases along with the number of siblings, the grade level, and the underachievement. The results are discussed in view of the findings of previous research. The implications for educational practice are also analyzed.

  7. Improved Attitude and Achievement: A Case Study of an Elementary School Academic Advisement Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrath, Barry; Brooker, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    School counselors are often called upon to develop and implement academic interventions. In this case study of one urban elementary school, a school counselor conducted a small group academic advisement intervention. The results suggest that integrating the activities into the elementary school counseling program can be an effective Response to…

  8. Do foreclosures affect Boston public school student academic performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Katharine L.; Burke, Mary A.; Triest, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show that students who live at an address that experiences a foreclosure tend to score substantially lower on standardized tests (math and English) and al...

  9. Longitudinal Analysis of Academic Burnout in Korean Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyoung; Lee, Minyoung; Kim, Keunhwa; Choi, Hyunju; Lee, Sang Min

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the longitudinal relationships between the initial values and slopes of three dimensions of burnout syndrome (i.e. emotional exhaustion, cynicism and academic inefficacy). The study utilized four-wave longitudinal data from a total of 367 (81.6% response rate) middle school students in South Korea. Comprising a 6-month interval survey, the first survey was conducted in June 2010, the second in December 2010, the third in June 2011 and the fourth in December 2011. All participants were 13-year-olds at the first and second surveys, and 14-year-olds at the third and fourth surveys. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey was used for each survey to assess the level of academic burnout. The longitudinal data were analysed using latent growth modelling. The results of the study indicated that high initial values (intercept) for emotional exhaustion were associated with a higher rate of increase (slope) in cynicism and academic inefficacy. On the other hand, high initial values for cynicism and academic inefficacy were associated with a lower rate of increase in the other dimensions. This longitudinal study should promote understanding of burned-out students and contribute to the literature by informing the design of prevention programmes for academic burnout. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Single-Sex Schooling and Academic Attainment at School and through the Lifecourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the impact of single-sex schooling on a range of academic outcomes for a sample of British people born in 1958. In terms of the overall level of qualifications achieved, single-sex schooling is positive for girls at age 16 but neutral for boys, while at later ages, single-sex schooling is neutral for both sexes. However,…

  11. Measuring the academic, social, and psychological effects of academic service learning on middle school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Valarie A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an academic service learning project on ninth-grade students' science achievement and attitudes. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design was used with four classes of one teacher in a rural school. The treatment was an Energy Fair service project. Two treatment classes that were chosen by random assignment (n = 58) were compared to two control classes (n = 64), who performed an alternative assignment. The Energy Fair was conducted for the elementary school students and on a limited basis for fellow students (peers). The academic effect was measured by a teacher-designed end-of-unit ecology test, with a subset of the questions on energy use. Psychological effects were measured by a self-esteem questionnaire, which measured both self-esteem and the satisfaction felt about one's self-esteem. Social effects were measured by three semantic differentials, one each for "adults," "peers," and "elementary students." The teacher was interviewed regarding her observations about the project. Written reflections from both the treatment and control groups were coded and analyzed. Pretest results were divided into thirds of high, medium, and low for all variables to search for the possibility of an attribute-treatment interaction. Analysis of covariance was used to reduce the possibility of pretest bias, to test for significant effects, and to test for a level by treatment interaction. Although the posttest means favored the experimental group, no statistically significant difference was found for academic results. No significant effect was found for either of the psychological measures. No change was found for the social results regarding "adults." A statistically significant effect was found for social results in the categories of "elementary students" and "peers." No statistically significant level by treatment interaction was found. Further research on the effects of academic service learning projects is needed at

  12. Academic Vulnerability and Resilience during the Transition to High School: The Role of Social Relationships and District Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenkamp, Amy G.

    2010-01-01

    The transition to high school is a critical stage in students' academic trajectories and can be especially difficult for middle school students who struggle academically. Starting high school on a low academic track and with low academic performance often leads to dropping out of high school. This study investigates what might protect academically…

  13. Academic Optimism and Organizational Climate: An Elementary School Effectiveness Test of Two Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Jonathan Bart

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of two climate constructs in academic optimism and organizational climate as each relates to school effectiveness. Academic optimism is an academic environment comprised of three dimensions: academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust (Hoy, Tarter, & Hoy, 2006). The Organizational Climate…

  14. Cultural Sensitiveness of School Goals and Students’ Failure in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Sahin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Education is the means by which society provides for the transmission or advancement of its culture and it is formally done at schools that are the arena of human interaction aimed at producing learning. But some people in that interaction aimed at producing learning cannot achieve as much as the others due to some social or individual factors especially when the society is not homogeneous in terms of culture, language, etc.All cultures do not require the same kinds of knowledge and all may have distinct goals and expectations in education. This study aims at presenting the consensus and conflict in perspectives of students of different ethnic origins on general goals of education and expectations from schools in East and Southeast Turkey. The results will be used to generate a rationale to assume that the failure of students in East and Southeast Turkey where majority of population is ethnically diverse, may be because of the lack of divergent goals and expectations set for school curriculum or that the failure of students is dependent on some other factors except the unique school curriculum unresponsive to cultural or ethnic diversity. For this purpose, the goals of general education (1973, Law number 1739, Item number 2, and school expectations developed by House (1973 were prepared as questionnaire items, piloted, validated and administered to 9373 secondary school students in east and southeast Turkey. The findings of this study were that the students of different ethnic origins value the goals and expectations set for school curriculum in Turkey in significantly different ways.

  15. Examining Cognitive Predictors of Academic Cheating among Urban Middle School Students: The Role of Home-School Dissonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Academic cheating within the middle grades has become a prevalent schooling dilemma for teachers and administrators. Among the various contextual and cognitive factors that promote academic cheating is home-school dissonance, which has been shown to predict the phenomenon among high school students. The current study extends this line of research…

  16. How Are Middle School Climate and Academic Performance Related across Schools and over Time? REL 2017-212

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, Adam; Hanson, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of educators concur that, in order to improve student academic performance, schools need to focus not only on students' academic needs but also on their social, emotional, and material needs (Piscatelli & Lee, 2011). As a result, school climate--the social, emotional, and physical characteristics of a school community (Cohen,…

  17. Assessing Effectiveness and Efficiency of Academic Interventions in School Psychology Journals: 1995-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlett, Ron; Cates, Gary L.; Savina, Elena; Lauinger, Brittni

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews research in the four major school psychology journals: "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," "School Psychology Quarterly," and "School Psychology Review." The function of the review was to provide school psychologists with a summary of academic interventions published through years 1995-2005, synthesize…

  18. The Role of Vision in Academic School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Mohamed; Zhang, Xiaoe; Goh, Liang Ke; Young, Terri L.; Lee, Paul; Saw, Seang Mei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether presenting distance visual acuity is related to subsequent academic school performance in Singaporean children between 9 to 10 years of age. Methods Singapore children (n = 1143 children) were examined during their visits at ages 9 to 10 years (grades 3 to 4) as part of the Singapore Cohort Study of the Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM) longitudinal study. Each child underwent an annual comprehensive eye examination, including the assessment of presenting logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) distance visual acuity (VA). The individual marks of a nation-wide standard examination in grade 4 were used as the outcome measure for academic school performance. Children with any known eye disease, (such as media opacities) were excluded from the analysis. Results The mean presenting distance VA of the better eye was 0.10 and 0.08 when the children were in grades 3 and 4, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference for mean presenting VA with 9 and 10 year old boys scoring better (0.08 and 0.07) compared to girls (0.12 and 0.09) for the same ages, (p = 0.001 and p = 0.007), respectively. After adjusting for gender, ethnicity, school, reading, intelligence quotient and father’s education, no significant relationships were found between average examination marks at the end of grade 4 and presenting VA obtained (better eye and worst eye) in grade 3 (p = 0.38 and p = 0.98) and 4 (p = 0.27 and p = 0.16). Conclusion In our sample of Singaporean children without ocular disease, distance VA did not play a significant role in predicting academic school performance. PMID:20100096

  19. Academic failure and students' viewpoint: The influence of individual, internal and external organizational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najimi, Arash; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Amini, Mehdi Mohammad; Meftagh, Sayyed Davood

    2013-01-01

    Educational failure is one of the most important problems in higher education institutes in Iran. This study was performed to investigate the factors affecting students' academic failure in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 280 students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were studied in 2009. They were chosen using multiple cluster sampling. The students' demographic characteristics and study information were collected by a valid and reliable questionnaire. Data were analyzed with SPSS (15) software. The most important factors affecting educational failure from students' point of view were: curriculum (4.23 ± 0.63), factors related to educator (3.88 ± 0.55), learning environment (3.63 ± 0.62), family factors (3.53 ± 0.6), socioeconomic factors (3.45 ± 0.69). There is a significant relationship between attitudes of students in two sexes and educator (P = 0.03) and socioeconomic environment (P = 0.003). In addition, the results did not show a significant difference between attitudes of students with age, marital status and employment status (P > 0.05). More attention to curriculum, factors related to educator and learning environment can prevent students' educational failure, in addition to preventing loss of resources and contribute to develop a more effective educational system.

  20. Investigation of Academic Success, Self-Esteem and Academic Self-Concept in 4th Class Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Seher

    2017-01-01

    In Turkey due to changes in the age starting school implemented during the 2012-2013 academic year, children ages from 60 months to 84 months were subject to the same educational program in the same class. By the 2015-2016 academic year these children were at the end of 4th class. This research aimed to investigate the Turkish and mathematic…

  1. Physical Fitness, Grit, School Attendance, and Academic Performance among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Jonathan M; Chen, Yen T; Castelli, Darla M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of grit as a construct representing perseverance to overcoming barriers and the total number of school absences to academic performance (AP) while controlling for sociodemographics, fitness (i.e., PACER), and Body Mass Index (BMI). Adolescents ( N = 397, SD = 1.85; 80.9% females; 77.1% Hispanic) from an urban, minority-majority city in the Southern United States completed the FitnessGram® assessment of physical fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity and Body Mass Index (BMI)) and the valid and reliable short grit survey. The schools provided sociodemographics, attendance, and AP data for the adolescents. Adolescents with higher grit scores ( r s = 0.21, P < 0.001) and less total absences ( r s = -0.35, P < 0.001) performed better on AP. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that grit and absences were associated with AP ( β = 0.13, P < 0.01 and β = -0.35, P < 0.001, resp.). Grit and a total number of absences are significant contributors to academic success, particularly among Hispanic adolescents. Further, grit and school attendance may serve as a better measure of protective factors over proximal health measures of cardiovascular health and BMI.

  2. Academic Emphasis of Urban Elementary Schools and Student Achievement in Reading and Mathematics: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Roger D.; Sweetland, Scott R.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2000-01-01

    Examines importance of a school climate characterized by high levels of academic emphasis. Drawing on effective-schools research and social-cognitive theory, uses hierarchical linear modeling to show that academic emphasis accounts for differences among urban elementary schools in student math and reading achievement. (Contains 48 references.)…

  3. Association between physical fitness and academic achievement in a cohort of Danish school pupils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Porsborg; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Vardinghus-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Time spent on physical activity in elementary school has been altered to improve core academics. However, little is known about the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement. We examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement......) ). Academic achievement was measured 1 school year later through a series of mandatory exams within the humanities, sciences, and all obligatory defined exams. Parental income and education were drawn from nationwide registers. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association. RESULTS...

  4. BREAKFAST HABIT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SUBURBAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ayu Widyanti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Academic performance is affected by a numbers of factors. Age, gender, nutritional status, and breakfast habits are some factors that have relation with academic performance. Nutritional statues among school children still to be concerned. Breakfast habit is important thing to do before school to maintain enough calories to study and work well. The aim of this study was to determine the association of breakfast habits and academic performance especially in suburban elementary school children. An analytic cross sectional study conducted in children aged 6-12 years who studied at SD 1 Taro, Gianyar regency, Bali. There were 178 students participated in this study. We found 3 factors associated with academic performance i.e. breakfast, gender, and age with OR=2.56 (95% CI 1.16 to 5.66, P=0.02; OR=0.32 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.70, P=0.04; OR=6.52 (95% CI 2.73 to 15.53, P<0.0001, respectively. We conclude there was an association between breakfast habits and academic performance. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. Peer Victimization and Academic Performance in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Kosola, Silja; Degenhardt, Louisa; Allen, Nicholas B; Patton, George C

    Peer victimization is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. In this study we aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimization and academic performance in a large population sample of children. Eight- to 9-year-old children were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (1 year of learning equals 40 points). Physical and verbal victimization were measured according to child self-report. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses were conducted. For female children, verbal victimization was associated with poorer academic performance on writing (β = 17.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -28.2 to -6.2) and grammar/punctuation (β = -20.8; 95% CI, -40.1 to -1.6). Physical victimization was associated with poorer performance on numeracy (male children: β = -29.0; 95% CI, -53.8 to -4.1; female children: β = -30.1; 95% CI, -56.6 to -3.5), and writing (female children: β = -21.5; 95% CI, -40.4 to -2.7). Verbal and physical victimization were associated with poorer performance on reading (male children: β = -31.5; 95% CI, -59.9 to -3.1; female children: β = -30.2; 95% CI, -58.6 to -1.8), writing (female children: β = -25.5; 95% CI, -42.8 to -8.2), spelling (female children: β = -32.3; 95% CI, -59.6 to -4.9), and grammar/punctuation (female children: β = -32.2; 95% CI, -62.4 to -2.0). Children who were physically victimized were 6 to 9 months behind their non-victimized peers on measures of academic performance. There are growing reasons for education systems to invest in the prevention of bullying and promotion of positive peer relationships from the earliest years of school. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. School Homework and its Relationship with Student Academic Achievement in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    F. P.; Chew; M. H.; Teong; Z. Ishak

    2012-01-01

    School homework has been synonymous with students- life in Chinese national type primary schools in Malaysia. Although many reports in the press claimed that students were burdened with too much of it, homework continues to be a common practice in national type schools that is believed to contribute to academic achievement. This study is conducted to identify the relationship between the burden of school homework and academic achievement among pupils in Chinese National Type Primary School in...

  7. Bullying, psychosocial adjustment, and academic performance in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, Gwen M; Fan, Ming-Yu; Katon, Wayne; Rivara, Frederick P; Kernic, Mary A

    2005-11-01

    Over the past decade, concerns about bullying and its role in school violence, depression, and health concerns have grown. However, no large studies in the United States have examined the prevalence of bullying during elementary school or its association with objective measures of school attendance and achievement. To determine the prevalence of bullying during elementary school and its association with school attendance, academic achievement, disciplinary actions, and self-reported feelings of sadness, safety, and belonging. Cross-sectional study using 2001-2002 school data. Urban, West Coast public school district. Three thousand five hundred thirty (91.4%) third, fourth, and fifth grade students. Self-reported involvement in bullying. Twenty-two percent of children surveyed were involved in bullying either as a victim, bully, or both. Victims and bully-victims were more likely to have low achievement than bystanders (odds ratios [ORs], 0.8 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-0.9] and 0.8 [95% CI, 0.6-1.0], respectively). All 3 bullying-involved groups were significantly more likely than bystanders to feel unsafe at school (victims, OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.1-4.2]; bullies, OR, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.5-4.1]; bully-victims, OR, 5.0 [95% CI, 1.9-13.6]). Victims and bully-victims were more likely to report feeling that they don't belong at school (ORs, 4.1 [95% CI, 2.6-6.5] and 3.1 [95% CI, 1.3-7.2], respectively). Bullies and victims were more likely than bystanders to feel sad most days (ORs 1.5 [95% CI, 1.2-1.9] and 1.8 [95% CI, 1.2-2.8], respectively). Bullies and bully-victims were more likely to be male (ORs, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.2-1.9] and 3.0 [95% CI, 1.3-7.0], respectively). The prevalence of frequent bullying among elementary school children is substantial. Associations between bullying involvement and school problems indicate this is a serious issue for elementary schools. The research presented herein demonstrates the need for evidence-based antibullying curricula in the

  8. The relationship among self-efficacy, perfectionism and academic burnout in medical school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic self-efficacy, socially-prescribed perfectionism, and academic burnout in medical school students and to determine whether academic self-efficacy had a mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic burnout. Methods: A total of 244 first-year and second-year premed medical students and first- to fourth-year medical students were enrolled in this study. As study tools, socially-prescribed perfectionism, academic self-efficacy, and academic burnout scales were utilized. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Results: Academic burnout had correlation with socially-prescribed perfectionism. It had negative correlation with academic self-efficacy. Socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy had 54% explanatory power for academic burnout. When socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy were simultaneously used as input, academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic burnout. Conclusion: Socially-prescribed perfectionism had a negative effect on academic self-efficacy, ultimately triggering academic burnout. This suggests that it is important to have educational and counseling interventions to improve academic self-efficacy by relieving academic burnout of medical school students.

  9. The relationship among self-efficacy, perfectionism and academic burnout in medical school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji Hye; Chae, Su Jin; Chang, Ki Hong

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic self-efficacy, socially-prescribed perfectionism, and academic burnout in medical school students and to determine whether academic self-efficacy had a mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic burnout. A total of 244 first-year and second-year premed medical students and first- to fourth-year medical students were enrolled in this study. As study tools, socially-prescribed perfectionism, academic self-efficacy, and academic burnout scales were utilized. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Academic burnout had correlation with socially-prescribed perfectionism. It had negative correlation with academic self-efficacy. Socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy had 54% explanatory power for academic burnout. When socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy were simultaneously used as input, academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic burnout. Socially-prescribed perfectionism had a negative effect on academic self-efficacy, ultimately triggering academic burnout. This suggests that it is important to have educational and counseling interventions to improve academic self-efficacy by relieving academic burnout of medical school students.

  10. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neighborhood crime and school climate as predictors of elementary school academic quality: a cross-lagged panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Roy, Amanda L; Sirkman, Gabriel M

    2013-09-01

    Past research has found negative relationships between neighborhood structural disadvantage and students' academic outcomes. Comparatively little work has evaluated the associations between characteristics of neighborhoods and schools themselves. This study explored the longitudinal, reciprocal relationships between neighborhood crime and school-level academic achievement within 500 urban schools. Results revealed that higher neighborhood crime (and particularly violent crime) predicted decreases in school academic achievement across time. School climate emerged as one possible mechanism within this relationship, with higher neighborhood crime predicting decreases in socioemotional learning and safety, but not academic rigor. All three dimensions of school climate were predictive of changes in academic achievement. Although this research supports a primarily unidirectional hypothesis of neighborhoods' impacts on embedded settings, additional work is needed to understand these relationships using additional conceptualizations of neighborhood climate.

  12. Pathways to School Readiness: Executive Functioning Predicts Academic and Social-Emotional Aspects of School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Trisha D.; Hund, Alycia M.; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S.; Roman, Zachary J.

    2017-01-01

    The current study specified the extent to which hot and cool aspects of executive functioning predicted academic and social-emotional indicators of school readiness. It was unique in focusing on positive aspects of social-emotional readiness, rather than problem behaviors. One hundred four 3-5-year-old children completed tasks measuring executive…

  13. Variable School Start Times and Middle School Student's Sleep Health and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Daniel S; Wang, Guanghai; Chen, Yao I; Skora, Elizabeth; Hoehn, Jessica; Baylor, Allison; Wang, Jichuan

    2017-08-01

    Improving sleep health among adolescents is a national health priority and implementing healthy school start times (SSTs) is an important strategy to achieve these goals. This study leveraged the differences in middle school SST in a large district to evaluate associations between SST, sleep health, and academic performance. This cross-sectional study draws data from a county-wide surveillance survey. Participants were three cohorts of eighth graders (n = 26,440). The school district is unique because SST ranged from 7:20 a.m. to 8:10 a.m. Path analysis and probit regression were used to analyze associations between SST and self-report measures of weekday sleep duration, grades, and homework controlling for demographic variables (sex, race, and socioeconomic status). The independent contributions of SST and sleep duration to academic performance were also analyzed. Earlier SST was associated with decreased sleep duration (χ 2  = 173, p academic performance, and academic effort. Path analysis models demonstrated the independent contributions of sleep duration, SST, and variable effects for demographic variables. This is the first study to evaluate the independent contributions of SST and sleep to academic performance in a large sample of middle school students. Deficient sleep was prevalent, and the earliest SST was associated with decrements in sleep and academics. These findings support the prioritization of policy initiatives to implement healthy SST for younger adolescents and highlight the importance of sleep health education disparities among race and gender groups. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Should Students Engaged to Their Study? (Academic Burnout and School-Engagement among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Arlinkasari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inability to deal with lectures efficiently leads students vulnerable to academic burnout. Burnout contributes to the high dropout rate among students, and this phenomenon has occurred on several universities in Indonesia. To overcome these problems, students should generate the feelings, attitudes and positive attitude towards the academic demands, or known as school engagement. School involvement is a predictor of students’ dropout rate. This study aims to analyze the dropout problem in many private universities in Jakarta by examining the psychological variables: academic burnout and school engagement. 208 students from some private university in Jakarta participated and fulfilled two questionnaires: academic burnout and school engagement that has been modified to suit the college setting. Correlation of the variables showed r= - 0.399 (p = 0.000. This means that school engagement plays a role in reducing academic burnout among students. These findings contribute a reference for academic counseling to support the decreasing of students’ dropout rate.

  15. Evaluation of Academic Performance, Academic Motivation, Hope for the Future and Life Satisfaction of Pharmacy Students of a Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armaghan Eslami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study sought to investigate the evaluation of academic achievement, academic motivation and hope for the future and life satisfaction of Pharmacy Students of the Medical Sciences University of Ahvaz and their relationship with the school years passed.Methods: The samples in this study were all pharmacy students studying in the College of Pharmacy, the Medical University of Ahvaz in the year 93-94. Moreover, standard questionnaires were used by this study for collecting data. In order to collect data with regard to hope, life satisfaction, motivation and academic satisfaction, the questionnaire of Snyder hope Scale (1991, Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire (SWLS, lepper motivation scale (2005 and Bahrani and Jokar questionnaire (1378 were used respectively.Moreover, data on Academic performance were acquired using the score of the students and the number of students dropping out in each entry and the data were analysed by using SPSS 20.Results: The results did not indicate any significant different in an investigation of five class of students and from four variables of hope, Academic motivation, academic achievement, life satisfaction. But contrast test for combined group showed that academic motivation and academic performance in freshmen students are significantly higher than the other four inputs.Third-year students possess less Academic motivation than other students.Senior students' Academic performance was also significantly lower than of students from other school years.Conclusion: freshmen students face challenges of the new environment, and this affects their academic performance. Besides in the third year of pharmacy school curriculum, pharmacy students pass the basic exam and the main pharmaceutical courses start for them, this might be the reason that their intrinsic motivation increase.  

  16. Adolescent Academic Achievement and School Engagement: An Examination of the Role of School-Wide Peer Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Lerner, Richard M.; Leventhal, Tama

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, peer groups present an important venue for socializing school-related behaviors such as academic achievement and school engagement. While a significant body of research emphasizes the link between a youth's immediate peer group and academic outcomes, the current manuscript expands on this idea, proposing that, in addition to…

  17. 34 CFR 200.10 - Applicability of a State's academic assessments to private schools and private school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assessments to private schools and private school students. (a) Nothing in § 200.1 or § 200.2 requires a... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of a State's academic assessments to private schools and private school students. 200.10 Section 200.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of...

  18. Factors Affecting Burnout and School Engagement among High School Students: Study Habits, Self- Efficacy Beliefs, and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Filiz; Tuzgol Dost, Meliha; Cetin, Bayram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines high school students' levels of burnout and school engagement with respect to academic success, study habits, and self-efficacy beliefs. The data were gathered during the 2011-2012 school year from 633 students attending six high schools located in Ankara, Turkey. The analyses were conducted on responses from 605 students. The…

  19. Collective Responsibility, Academic Optimism, and Student Achievement in Taiwan Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that collective efficacy, faculty trust in students and parents, and academic emphasis together formed a single latent school construct, called academic optimism. In the U.S., academic optimism has been proven to be a powerful construct that could effectively predict student achievement even after controlling for…

  20. Parent-school relationships and children's academic and social outcomes in public school pre-kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas R; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R

    2010-08-01

    Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed that parental school involvement positively predicted children's social skills (d=.55) and mathematics skills (d=.36), and negatively predicted problem behaviors (d=.47). Perceived teacher responsiveness to child/parent was positively related to children's early reading (d=.43), and social skills (d=.43), and negatively to problem behaviors (d=.61). All analyses controlled for quality of teacher interaction with children in the classroom, parental home involvement, parental education level, and child race/ethnicity. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Opportunity Makes the Cheater: High School Students and Academic Dishonesty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Šorgo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to reveal data about cheating behaviours in Slovenian upper secondary schools, to raise awareness and to lower tolerance for such behaviour. To acquire information about demographics, cheating behaviour, and opinions on such behaviour, we compiled a questionnaire that targeted a university population of first-year students (N=323. From the results, it was revealed that cheating is a way of life in Slovenian schools, and almost all students at least occasionally indulge in some academic misbehaviour. It seems that a culture tolerant or even supportive of such behaviour has been established among students, parents and teachers, all working together to “help” students climb the ladder of success. The open question is whether all kinds of cheating are even recognized as such. Cheating is most common in homework, but at the other end, even systems such as external exams are not immune to fraud. At the moment, classic methods of cheating dominate. Differences between characters (e.g. gender and educational institutions in most cases are non-existent or small, a finding that could aid in establishing measures to prevent cheating inside schools as institutions.

  2. Can Failure Succeed? Using Racial Subgroup Rules to Analyze the Effect of School Accountability Failure on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Many school accountability programs are built on the premise that the sanctions attached to failure will produce higher future student achievement. Furthermore, such programs often include subgroup achievement rules that attempt to hold schools accountable for the performance of all demographic classes of students. This paper looks at two issues:…

  3. Academic Achievement and Risk Factors for Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Middle School and Early High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendarski, Nardia; Sciberras, Emma; Mensah, Fiona; Hiscock, Harriet

    Examine academic achievement of students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the early high school period and identify potentially modifiable risk factors for low achievement. Data were collected through surveys (adolescent, parent, and teacher) and direct assessment of Australian adolescents (12-15 yr; n = 130) with ADHD in early high school (i.e., US middle and high school grades). Academic achievement outcomes were measured by linking to individual performance on the National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) tests, direct assessment of reading and math, and teacher report of academic competence. Linear regression models examined associations between adolescent, parent/family, and school factors and NAPLAN domain scores. Students with ADHD had lower NAPLAN scores on all domains and fewer met minimum academic standards in comparison with state benchmarks. The poorest results were for persuasive writing. Poor achievement was associated with lower intelligence quotient across all academic domains. Adolescent inattention, bullying, poor family management, male sex, and attending a low socioeconomic status school were associated with lower achievement on specific domains. Students with ADHD are at increased academic risk during the middle school and early high school period. In addition to academic support, interventions targeting modifiable factors including inattention, bullying, and poor family management may improve academic achievement across this critical period.

  4. Development of Effective Academic Affairs Administration System in Thai Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongnoi, Niratchakorn; Srisa-ard, Boonchom; Sri-ampai, Anan

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) study current situations and problems of academic affairs administration system in Primary Schools. 2) develop an effective academic affairs administration system, and 3) evaluate the implementation of the developed system in the primary school, Thailand. Research and Development (R&D) was employed which consisted of…

  5. Academic Motivation Maintenance for Students While Solving Mathematical Problems in the Middle School

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rodionov; Z. Dedovets

    2015-01-01

    The level and type of student academic motivation are the key factors in their development and determine the effectiveness of their education. Improving motivation is very important with regard to courses on middle school mathematics. This article examines the general position regarding the practice of academic motivation. It also examines the particular features of mathematical problem solving in a school setting.

  6. Teacher-Student Interpersonal Relationships and Academic Motivation within One School Year: Developmental Changes and Linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Maulana, Ridwan; den Brok, Perry

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the developmental changes of teacher-student interpersonal relationships as well as that of academic motivation among first-grade secondary school students. In addition, the link between teacher-student interpersonal behaviour and academic motivation across the school year was investigated. The data were collected 5…

  7. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  8. The Effect of Primary School Mergers on Academic Performance of Students in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Rozelle, Scott; Loyalka, Prashant

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of primary school mergers on academic performance of students using a dataset that we collected using a survey designed specifically to examine changes in the academic performance of students before and after their schools were merged. We use difference-in-differences and propensity score matching approaches and demonstrate…

  9. At-Risk Student Mobility in an Urban Elementary School: Effects on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoho, Alan R.; Oleszewski, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of at-risk student mobility on academic achievement in an urban elementary school. Math and reading scores from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) of 172 third, fourth, and fifth grade students from an urban school district in South Central Texas were examined to determine whether…

  10. Do School Bullying and Student-Teacher Relationships Matter for Academic Achievement? A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Li, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    In extending our understanding of how the social climate of schools can affect academic outcomes, this study examined the relationship between school bullying, student-teacher (S-T) connectedness, and academic performance. Using data collected in Canada as part of a larger international study conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation…

  11. Time Perspective and School Membership as Correlates to Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelabu, Detris Honora

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of academic achievement to time perspective (future, present) and school membership (belonging, acceptance, rejection) among 232 low-income, urban African American adolescents. Findings indicated positive, significant relationships among academic achievement, future time perspective, school belonging, and…

  12. Interdependence of Depressive Symptoms, School Involvement, and Academic Performance between Adolescent Friends: A Dyadic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chong Man; Tan, Cin Cin; Buhrmester, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Background: Friendships play an important role in the development of school involvement and academic performance during adolescence. This study examined the interdependence of depressive symptoms, school involvement, and academic performance between adolescent same-sex friends. Aims: Using cross-sectional data, we examined whether the link between…

  13. Teacher-student interpersonal relationships and academic motivation within one school year : developmental changes and linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Maulana, Ridwan; den Brok, Perry

    The present study explored the developmental changes of teacher-student interpersonal relationships as well as that of academic motivation among first-grade secondary school students. In addition, the link between teacher-student interpersonal behaviour and academic motivation across the school year

  14. Examining Relationships among Enabling School Structures, Academic Optimism and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Penelope Pope

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among enabling school structures, academic optimism, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Additionally, it sought to determine if academic optimism served as a mediator between enabling school structures and organizational citizenship behaviors. Three existing survey instruments, previously tested for…

  15. Disentangling the Predictive Validity of High School Grades for Academic Success in University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulperhorst, Jonne; Lutz, Christel; de Kleijn, Renske; van Tartwijk, Jan

    2018-01-01

    To refine selective admission models, we investigate which measure of prior achievement has the best predictive validity for academic success in university. We compare the predictive validity of three core high school subjects to the predictive validity of high school grade point average (GPA) for academic achievement in a liberal arts university…

  16. Pupils' Perceptions of Discipline and Academic Standards in Belgian Coeducational and Single-Sex Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Herman

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, single-sex and coeducational schools are compared in terms of pupils' perceptions of disciplinary and academic climates. Use was made of data from 68 secondary schools in Flanders (Belgium). Of these schools, 25 were mixed and 43 were single-sex (21 girls, and 22 boys, schools). Respondents were third-year students: 3370 girls and…

  17. Predicting Students' Academic Performance Based on School and Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Tamara; Singleton, Alexander; Pope, Daniel; Stanistreet, Debbi

    2016-01-01

    Students' trajectories into university are often uniquely dependent on school qualifications though these alone are limited as predictors of academic potential. This study endorses this, examining associations between school grades, school type, school performance, socio-economic deprivation, neighbourhood participation, sex and academic…

  18. School Climate, Family Structure, and Academic Achievement: A Study of Moderation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Eklund, Katie

    2015-01-01

    School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family…

  19. School Climate, Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement: Results from a Multi-Informant Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…

  20. Communication Disorders in the School: Perspectives on Academic and Social Success an Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Karen L.; Fletcher, Kathryn; Decker, Blair

    2008-01-01

    The critical role of communication in schools cannot be understated. Communication skills are a necessity both in the academic and social atmosphere of the school environment. Unfortunately, there are a large number of children in the schools today identified with speech and language disorders. This special edition of "Psychology in the Schools"…

  1. International note: between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangyang, Liu

    2012-08-01

    The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that academic achievement was largely domain-general in nature. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Student Bedtimes, Academic Performance, and Health in a Residential High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernette, Maliah J; Emory, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Inadequate sleep among adolescents is considered an epidemic in the United States. Late night bedtimes could be an important factor in academic performance and health with consequences continuing throughout adulthood. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between late night bedtimes, academic performance (grade point average [GPA]), and utilization of health care (school nurse visits) in a residential high school. The data were collected from archival records for one academic semester. The statistical analysis employed the nonparametric Pearson's correlation coefficient ( r) with the standard level of significance (α = .05). Positive and inverse linear relationships were found between bedtime and school nurse visits ( p < .00001) and bedtime and GPA ( p = .007). The findings suggest students' late night bedtimes may be related to increased school nurse visits and lower academic performance. Adolescent late night bedtimes may be an important consideration for academic success and maintaining health in residential high schools.

  3. Trait emotional intelligence influences on academic achievement and school behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroveli, Stella; Sánchez-Ruiz, María José

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) refers to individuals' emotion-related self-perceptions (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The children's trait EI sampling domain provides comprehensive coverage of their affective personality. Preliminary evidence shows that the construct has important implications for children's psychological and behavioural adjustment. AIMS. This study investigates the associations between trait EI and school outcomes, such as performance in reading, writing, and maths, peer-rated behaviour and social competence, and self-reported bullying behaviours in a sample of primary school children. It also examines whether trait EI scores differentiate between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 565 children (274 boys and 286 girls) between the ages of 7 and 12 (M((age)) = 9.12 years, SD= 1.27 years) attending three English state primary schools. METHOD. Pupils completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), the Guess Who peer assessment, the Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Bullying Behaviour Scale. Additional data on achievement and SEN were collected from the school archives. RESULTS. As predicted by trait EI theory, associations between trait EI and academic achievement were modest and limited to Year 3 children. Higher trait EI scores were related to more nominations from peers for prosocial behaviours and fewer nominations for antisocial behaviour as well as lower scores on self-reported bulling behaviours. Furthermore, SEN students scored lower on trait EI compared to students without SEN. CONCLUSIONS. Trait EI holds important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Learning Communities for University Students At-Risk of School Failure: Can They Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Terri J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of learning communities on the academic success of university students at-risk of academic failure. The effects of learning communities (LC) at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) on cumulative GPAs, retention rates, and earned cumulative hours of students with ACT sub-scores of 17 or 18 in math who were…

  5. Examining reciprocal influences among family climate, school attachment, and academic self-regulation: Implications for school success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mengya; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-06-01

    Guided by family systems and ecological theories, this study examined the multicontextual implications of family, school, and individual domains for adolescents' school success. The first goal of this study was to examine reciprocal influences among family climate, school attachment, and academic self-regulation (ASR) during the middle school years. The second goal was to test the relative impact of each of these domains on adolescents' school adjustment and academic achievement after the transition to high school. We applied a cross-lag structural equation modeling approach to longitudinal data from 979 students in the 6th grade and their families, followed over 5 measurement occasions, from 6th through 9th grade. Controlling for family income, parent education, and adolescent gender, the results revealed reciprocal relationships between the family climate and school attachment over time; both of these factors were related to increases in ASR over time. In turn, ASR was a robust predictor of academic success, with unique associations with school adjustment and academic achievement. Family climate and school adjustment had modest to marginal associations with school adjustment, and no association with academic achievement. Applications of these findings for family school interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Procrastination, Self-Regulation Failure, Academic Life Satisfaction, and Affective Well-Being: Underregulation or Misregulation Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of self-regulation failure in procrastination. In addition, it also aimed to investigate the effects of procrastination on affective well-being and academic life satisfaction. Three hundred and twenty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The most obvious finding emerging from this…

  7. Student mistreatment in medical school and planning a career in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Mark G; Yamagata, Hisashi; Werner, Leonard S; Zhang, Kehua; Dial, Thomas H; Sonne, Janet L

    2011-01-01

    Student mistreatment in medical school is a persistent problem with both known and unexplored consequences [corrected]. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a perception of having been mistreated in medical school had an association with planning a full-time career in academic medicine. Using Association of American Medical Colleges' 2000-2004 Medical School Graduation Questionnaire data, we evaluated the relationship between students' mistreatment experience and their career choice, academic versus nonacademic setting. Meta-analysis and regression were used to evaluate this relationship. At medical schools where relatively high percentages of graduating seniors were planning academic careers, students reporting mistreatment experiences were less likely at graduation to be planning careers in academic medicine. A perception of having been mistreated in medical school is related to students' career choices, a finding that may be useful to medical school administrators/faculty and students as mistreatment is addressed in program planning, counseling, and faculty recruitment.

  8. [Preschool familial environment and academic difficulties: A 10-year follow-up from kindergarten to middle school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara-Costa, H; Pulgar, S; Cusin, F; Dellatolas, G

    2016-02-01

    The persistence of academic difficulties from childhood through adulthood has led researchers to focus on the identification of the early factors influencing children's subsequent achievement in order to improve the efficient screening of children who might be at risk of school failure. The foundations of academic achievement can be accurately traced back to the preschool years prior to children's entry in formal schooling and are largely influenced by environmental determinants. Importantly, some environmental conditions act as early risk factors undermining children's later academic achievement due to the well-established relation between underachievement and exposure to moderate to high levels of environmental risk. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the longitudinal effects of environment-level factors (sociodemographic and family characteristics) and early risk exposure at kindergarten on children's subsequent academic achievement at the end of middle school (grade 9). The sample of analysis comprised 654 kindergarteners aged 5-6 years (2001-2002 school year) followed through the end of middle school when they were aged 14-15 years (2010-2011 school year). At kindergarten, assessment included questionnaire-based measures of sociodemographic and family background characteristics. These included an original set of information pertaining to family background including parental nationality, education level, history of reading difficulties, type of early childcare, family situation, family size, and language-based bedtime routines, as well as individual-level factors such as children's first language, medical history, language delay, birth weight, age of walking onset, and gestation period. At grade 9, outcome measures were composed of children's results in the national evaluations performed at the end of middle school ("Diplôme National du Brevet"), or history of repetition for a second year of the same class. The results indicated that all family

  9. School Competence and Fluent Academic Performance: Informing Assessment of Educational Outcomes in Survivors of Pediatric Medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alice Ann; Hughes, Carroll W; Stavinoha, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    Academic difficulties are widely acknowledged but not adequately studied in survivors of pediatric medulloblastoma. Although most survivors require special education services and are significantly less likely than healthy peers to finish high school, measured academic skills are typically average. This study sought to identify potential factors associated with academic difficulties in this population and focused on school competence and fluent academic performance. Thirty-six patients (ages 7-18 years old) were recruited through the Departments of Neurosurgery and Neuro-Oncology at Children's Medical Center Dallas and Cook Children's Medical Center in Fort Worth, TX. Participants completed a neuropsychological screening battery including selected Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement subtests. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. School competence was significantly correlated with measured academic skills and fluency. Basic academic skill development was broadly average, in contrast to significantly worse fluent academic performance. School competence may have utility as a measure estimating levels of educational success in this population. Additionally, academic difficulties experienced by childhood medulloblastoma survivors may be better captured by measuring deficits in fluent academic performance rather than skills. Identification of these potential factors associated with educational outcomes of pediatric medulloblastoma survivors has significant implications for research, clinical assessment, and academic services/interventions.

  10. Non-academic attributes of hidden curriculum in medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aamer Zaman

    2013-01-01

    To identify the non-academic attributes developed during 5 years of training in medical school. Sequential mixed method. The study was conducted on final year medical students of four medical colleges in the city of Lahore, from March to September 2010. Probability random sampling was employed to identify public sector medical colleges for inclusion in the study through Lottery method. In the first phase, survey was done with the help of questionnaires, distributed amongst 280 students, selected on the basis of convenience sampling. It was triangulated with data collected by in-depth structured interviews on 46 students selected using purposive sampling after formal informed consent. For quantitative data percentages of the categorical variables were calculated through SPSS version 10. For qualitative data, themes and patterns were identified using Content Analysis technique. Majority of the medical students (80%) learn the attributes of integrity, self-reliance, tolerance and independence during their schooling. Sixty five percent students thought that the values of humanity, forbearance, righteous attitude in face of adversities and sympathetic behaviour towards peers and patients helped them in being better medical students. Thirty five percent said they faced the negative influences of gender bias and gender discrimination which has led to their impaired professional growth. Eighty percent of the students believe that the teaching methodology employed is teacher centric which does not let them become problem solvers, team players, reflective learners and hampers development of effective communication skills. Medical schooling in our part of the world helps in developing untaught attributes such as integrity, selfreliance, tolerance, independence, sympathetic attitude and good communication skills which are the same as are developed in the medical students of advanced countries, which can be fostered further by formally addressing them in the curriculum.

  11. A Study of African American Male Students' Academic Achievement and School Attitude in an Urban Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Roslyn J. F. Billy

    2013-01-01

    With the signing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, much emphasis has been placed on the accountability of schools and school districts to ensure higher academic achievement of all students. The achievement gap remains among African American male students in urban school districts. This purposed quantitative study explored the relationship…

  12. Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol, Katarzyna; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis; Goetz, Thomas; Martin, Romain

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German) components of students' academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a) hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b) longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c) developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3498 and N = 3863) of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (0.42 < r < 0.55) and subject-specific levels (0.45 < r < 0.73). Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative effects across subjects.

  13. Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eGogol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German components of students’ academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c ipsative developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3,498 and N = 3,863 of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (.42 < r < .55 and subject-specific levels (.45 < r < .73. Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative, ipsative effects across subjects.

  14. Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol, Katarzyna; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis; Goetz, Thomas; Martin, Romain

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German) components of students' academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a) hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b) longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c) developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3498 and N = 3863) of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (0.42 < r < 0.55) and subject-specific levels (0.45 < r < 0.73). Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative effects across subjects. PMID:27014162

  15. [Handling the cases of school failure in an educational institute in Zaghouan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkafi Koubaa, Afifa; Bouslama, Samira; Bel Abed, Najet; Dahmen, Hayet; Mira Gabsi, Zvine; Gabsi, Abdallah; Ouerfelli, Nabil; Mabaouj, Mohamed Taher; Bachouche, Imen

    2011-10-01

    To assess the main reasons for the school failure in a school in Zaghouan, how to handle these issues, to evaluate the work of the school social office. A retrospective study included 86 failure cases in a school in Zaghouan, handled by the school social office for three years (2004 - 2007). He have detected the principals causes of school failure, detected by the educational staff or by the listening office. The causes of failure are mainly social (46%) as family problems and low income. These families received financial aids and free treatment cards. Discussions have been made with the parents in order to make them more conscious. The pedagogical reasons (28%) however are usually relationship' problems between the student and his teacher or the student and the administration, the three subjects were informed so that attitudes could be changed in the purpose of helping the student. Twelve students (14%) have a psychological case, depression and over worrying, led in some cases to addiction.These cases were diagnosed and transferred to specialized clinics.Sense and chronic diseases (12%), are considered as health reasons for school failure and caused several absences in the school. The school physicist took care of these cases by handling them medical guidance cards while observing the diagnose progress. As school results, 56 cases turned satisfaisant which is 65 % of all cases. The school failure became a priority of the "School Health" institute. That puss to create the school social program, his aim is protecting the students from all dangers, early school leaving and social disintegration, and delinquency. Thus, all parts must be responsible for the school failure, teachers, parents, students,psychiatrists and physicists, as well as introducing the social school work and listening offices and missions to the parents, students and teachers in order to guarantee the success of the operations.

  16. 29 CFR 1602.43 - Commission's remedy for school systems' or districts' failure to file report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' failure to file report. Any school system or district failing or refusing to file report EEO-5 when... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commission's remedy for school systems' or districts' failure to file report. 1602.43 Section 1602.43 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL...

  17. The Impact of Comprehensive School Nursing Services on Students' Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocoglu, Deniz; Emiroglu, Oya Nuran

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: School nursing services should be evaluated through health and academic outcomes of students; however, it is observed that the number of studies in this field is limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of comprehensive school nursing services provided to 4th grade primary school students on academic performance of students. Methods: The quasi-experimental study was conducted with 31 students attending a randomly selected school in economic disadvantaged area in Turky. Correlation analysis, repeated measures analyses of variance, multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data with SPSS software. Results: At the end of school nursing practices, an increase was occurred in students' academic achievement grades whereas a decrease was occurred in absenteeism and academic procrastination behaviors. Whilst it was determined that nursing interventions including treatment/ procedure and surveillance was associated to the decrease of absenteeism, it also was discovered that the change in the health status of the student after nursing interventions was related to the increase of the academic achievement grade and the decrease of the academic procrastination behavior score. Conclusion: In this study, the conclusion that comprehensive school nursing services contributed positively to the academic performance of students has been reached. In addition, it can be suggested that effective school nursing services should include services such as acute-chronic disease treatment, first aid, health screening, health improvement-protection, health education, guidance and counseling and case management.

  18. The Impact of Comprehensive School Nursing Services on Students' Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Kocoglu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School nursing services should be evaluated through health and academic outcomes of students; however, it is observed that the number of studies in this field is limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of comprehensive school nursing services provided to 4th grade primary school students on academic performance of students. Methods: The quasi-experimental study was conducted with 31 students attending a randomly selected school in economic disadvantaged area in Turky. Correlation analysis, repeated measures analyses of variance, multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data with SPSS software. Results: At the end of school nursing practices, an increase was occurred in students’ academic achievement grades whereas a decrease was occurred in absenteeism and academic procrastination behaviors. Whilst it was determined that nursing interventions including treatment/ procedure and surveillance was associated to the decrease of absenteeism, it also was discovered that the change in the health status of the student after nursing interventions was related to the increase of the academic achievement grade and the decrease of the academic procrastination behavior score. Conclusion: In this study, the conclusion that comprehensive school nursing services contributed positively to the academic performance of students has been reached. In addition, it can be suggested that effective school nursing services should include services such as acute-chronic disease treatment, first aid, health screening, health improvement-protection, health education, guidance and counseling and case management.

  19. Impacting Children’s Health and Academic Performance through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. BRUSSEAU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with numerous academic and health benefits. Furthermore, schools have been identified as an ideal location to promote physical activity as most youth attend school regularly from ages 5-18. Unfortunately, in an effort to increase academic learning time, schools have been eliminating traditional activity opportunities including physical education and recess. To combat physical inactivity in you, numerous organizations are promoting a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program to encourage academic achievement and overall health. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs include five components and should be centered around 1 quality physical education, 2 physical activity before and after school, 3 physical activity during school (both recess and classroom activity, 4 staff involvement, and 5 family and community engagement.

  20. Cognitive performance and academic achievement: How do family and school converge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filipa Alves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Children enter the school system with different educational experiences, leaving also with different levels of learning and school results. In this study, we intend to understand the impact of family and school on children's cognitive performance and academic achievement during elementary education. The sample consists of 406 Portuguese children, from preschool and the 1st cycle of Basic Education, aged from 4 to 10 years old. Through full structural equation model, it was observed that the latent variable family (parents’ schooling and socioeconomic level and the latent variable school (community and type of school have a significant impact on academic achievement. However, only family presents a significant impact on cognitive performance. These data suggest that the impact of school on intelligence quotient is not expressive in early academic years, where family present higher explanation of the variance.

  1. academic performance of less endowed high school students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    girls) who obtained the basic requirements for courses that they ... Academic performance of students from less endowed senior high ... 106 ... only pay academic facility user fees. The second ..... certificate education, Pro is senior executive.

  2. School climate, peer victimization, and academic achievement: results from a multi-informant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-09-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Rightsizing Projects for Non-Research-Intensive Schools of Nursing via Academic-Clinical Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooken, Wendy Carter; Eckhardt, Ann L; McNutt-Dungan, Marianne; Woods, Jonathan

    Most academic-clinical partnerships are described as formal agreements between schools of nursing at research-intensive universities and large teaching hospitals. This article demonstrates less formal versions of academic-clinical partnerships established between a small, private liberal arts university school of nursing and 2 regional clinical agencies. In both exemplars, students, faculty, and staff contributed to evidence-based practice projects. Schools of nursing in non-research-intensive environments can develop right-size academic-clinical partnerships that are beneficial for all parties involved.

  4. Academic stress levels were positively associated with sweet food consumption among Korean high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Yang, Hye Young; Kim, Ae-Jung; Lim, Yunsook

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify the association among levels of persistent academic stress, appetite, and dietary habits and to determine the specific types of sweet foods consumed by Korean high-school students according to their academic stress levels. The study participants included 333 high-school students in the 10th to 12th grades in Kyunggi Province, Korea. The level of academic stress was scored with a 75-item academic stress scale and was categorized as high, medium, or low. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure the sugar intake from sweet foods. Korean high-school students with a high academic stress level had larger meals than the other students. Compared with students with low academic stress, the students with high academic stress had a higher frequency of sugar intake from the following food types: confectionaries, candies and chocolates, breads, and flavored milk. Moreover, compared with students with low academic stress, the students with high academic stress had a higher total intake of sugar from the following food types: confectionaries, candies, chocolates, flavored milk, traditional Korean beverages, and spicy, sweet, and fried rice cakes. Unhealthy stress-related food choices may compromise high-school students' health and contribute to their morbidity. The findings of the present study could be used to help nutritionists develop effective strategies for nutritional education and counseling to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Enabling School Structures, Collegial Trust and Academic Emphasis: Antecedents of professional learning communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Julie; Kruse, Sharon; Tarter, C. John

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the role of enabling school structures, collegial trust and academic emphasis in the development of professional learning communities (PLCs) in a low-income school district. The empirical study was based upon the perceptions of teachers and principals as provided by survey responses (N = 67 schools). While enabling school…

  6. Academic Achievement, Employment, Age and Gender and Students' Experience of Alternative School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Meister, Denise G.; Forthun, Larry; Coatsworth, J. Doug; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore associations between academic achievement, employment, gender, and age in relation to students' sense of school membership and perception of adults in school. The sample consisted of 102 secondary, alternative school students. Results indicated that students with a more positive perception…

  7. The Relationship between Bible Literacy and Academic Achievement and School Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between Bible literacy among secondary school students and their academic achievement and school behavior. One hundred and forty students in the 7th to 12th grade were randomly selected from a Christian school. Four measures of Bible knowledge were combined to obtain an overall measure of Bible literacy. They…

  8. Transactional Relationships between Latinos' Friendship Quality and Academic Achievement during the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebanc, Anne M.; Guimond, Amy B.; Lutgen, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether friendship quality, academic achievement, and mastery goal orientation predict each other across the transition to middle school. Participants were 146 Latino students (75 girls) followed from the end of elementary school through the first year of middle school. Measures included positive and negative friendship…

  9. School Engagement for Academically At-Risk Students: A Participatory Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Nadia; Due, Clemence

    2015-01-01

    While past literature has explored school engagement in older students, there is less research for younger children specifically, and very little which engages children themselves in the research process. This paper provides insight into school engagement for academically at-risk students in the second year of school through a participatory…

  10. Academic Optimism, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, and Student Achievement at Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvercin, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic optimism, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs), and student achievement in college preparatory charter schools. A purposeful sample of elementary school teachers from college preparatory charter schools (N = 226) in southeast Texas was solicited to complete the…

  11. Coming to America for Spiritual or Academic Growth? Experiences of International Students at One Christian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lishu

    2013-01-01

    The number of international students flocking to North American private Christian schools has continued to grow. The author examined the overall experiences of 67 international high school students studying at a private Christian school in South Carolina. Their frustrations and struggles with academic and spiritual growth in a new cross-cultural…

  12. Leading Schools of Excellence in Academics, Character, and Social-Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencivenga, Anthony S.; Elias, Maurice J.

    2003-01-01

    In the 21st century, students' character, social-emotional skills, and academic competencies will define school excellence. This article describes characteristics of visionary leadership for such schools based on settings already characterized by strengths in "EQ + IQ = Best Leadership Practices for Caring and Successful Schools." Core beliefs…

  13. Authoritative School Climate, Number of Parents at Home, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Francis L.; Eklund, Katie; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2017-01-01

    School climate is widely recognized as an important factor in promoting student academic achievement. The current study investigated the hypothesis that a demanding and supportive school climate, based on authoritative school climate theory, would serve as a protective factor for students living with 1 or no parents at home. Using a statewide…

  14. Back to School Blues: Seasonality of Youth Suicide and the Academic Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Benjamin; Lang, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found evidence of academic benefits to longer school years. This paper investigates one of the many potential costs of increased school year length, documenting a dramatic decrease in youth suicide in months when school is not in session. A detailed analysis does not find that other potential explanations such as economic…

  15. Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling: Relationships to Socioemotional and Academic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.

    1998-01-01

    The role of coeducation versus single-sex schooling in the academic, socioemotional, interpersonal, and career development of adolescents is discussed, and arguments and research support for both types of schooling are reviewed. Separate-sex schooling seems to provide potential benefits for at least some students. (Author/SLD)

  16. Middle School Learning, Academic Emotions and Engagement as Precursors to College Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Clarissa Z.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation research focuses on assessing student behavior, academic emotions, and knowledge within a middle school online learning environment, and analyzing potential effects on students' interests and choices related to decisions about going to college. Using students' longitudinal data ranging from their middle school, to high school, to…

  17. Should Schools Be Optimistic? An Investigation of the Association between Academic Optimism of Schools and Student Achievement in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Tinneke; Pinxten, Maarten; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust in students and parents (3 school characteristics positively associated with student achievement) are assumed to form a higher order latent construct, "academic optimism" (Hoy, Tarter, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2006a, 2006b). The aim of the present study is to corroborate the latent…

  18. Compelling Comprehensible Input, Academic Language and School Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Krashen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is abundant research confirming that we pass through three stages on the path to full development of literacy, which includes the acquisition of academic language. The stages are: hearing stories, doing a great deal of self-selected reading, followed by reading for our own interest in our chosen specialization. At stages two and three, the reading is highly interesting or compelling to the reader. It is also specialized; there is no attempt to cover a wide variety. The research confirms that the library, in particular school library, makes a powerful contribution at all three stages: for many living in poverty it is the only place to find books for recreational reading or specialized interest reading, with the librarian serving as the guide on how to locate information as well as supplier of compelling reading. The expertise of certified librarians is pivotal for compelling reading in a foreign language, such as EFL worldwide and ELLs in the US, as well as compelling reading in children’s heritage languages.

  19. The Impact of School Climate and School Identification on Academic Achievement: Multilevel Modeling with Student and Teacher Data

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Sophie; Reynolds, Katherine J.; Lee, Eunro; Subasic, Emina; Bromhead, David

    2017-01-01

    School climate is a leading factor in explaining student learning and achievement. Less work has explored the impact of both staff and student perceptions of school climate raising interesting questions about whether staff school climate experiences can add “value” to students' achievement. In the current research, multiple sources were integrated into a multilevel model, including staff self-reports, student self-reports, objective school records of academic achievement, and socio-economic d...

  20. A longitudinal study of school connectedness and academic outcomes across sixth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Kate; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Rakes, Christopher R

    2012-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examines the extent to which school connectedness (i.e., students' perceptions of school support and the number of adults with whom they have a positive relationship) is associated with academic outcomes across sixth grade for students from high poverty neighborhoods. Data were collected from 330 sixth-grade students attending two middle schools in a large public school district. Specifically, students completed a survey to assess their perceived connection to the school environment, and academic information regarding students' grades, attendance, and discipline referrals was obtained from school records. Results from latent growth curve modeling showed that, on average, students' perceptions of school support declined significantly across the sixth-grade year. However, students who reported less decline, or growth, in school support across sixth grade had higher academic achievement at the end of the year than students who reported more decline in school support. Sixth-grade boys were at a greater risk for negative outcomes (i.e., lower school support, lower GPAs, and more discipline referrals) across the school year than girls. Results point to the importance of perceived connectedness to school in helping economically disadvantaged students experience a safe and successful transition to middle school. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. All rights reserved.

  1. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: a longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes.

  2. Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Pia; Bäckström, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, ) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Interdependence of depressive symptoms, school involvement, and academic performance between adolescent friends: A dyadic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chong Man; Tan, Cin Cin; Buhrmester, Duane

    2015-09-01

    Friendships play an important role in the development of school involvement and academic performance during adolescence. This study examined the interdependence of depressive symptoms, school involvement, and academic performance between adolescent same-sex friends. Using cross-sectional data, we examined whether the link between depressive symptoms and academic performance would be mediated by school involvement at the intrapersonal (actor) and interpersonal (partner) levels. Data came from 155 pairs of same-sex adolescent friends (80 boys; M(age) = 16.17, SD = 0.44). The actor-partner interdependence model was used to examine the dyadic data and mediation hypotheses. Mediated actor effects showed that adolescents who had more depressive symptoms reported lower academic performance, and such an association was mediated by their own and their friend's lower school involvement. Mediated partner effects showed that adolescents who had more depressive symptoms also had a friend with lower academic performance, and such an association was mediated by both individuals' lower school involvement. This study provided evidence to support the broader interpersonal framework for understanding school involvement and academic performance. The current findings also have potential practical implications, especially for programmes targeted at addressing adolescents' school problems. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Teachers' instructional behaviors as important predictors of academic motivation : Changes and links across the school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Bosker, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Learning environments play an important role for students' learning and outcomes. Research indicates that many students show poor academic motivation. Teachers' behavior can function as a protective factor for sustaining students' interest and active engagement in schools. However, the knowledge

  5. Psychopathology and Academic Performance, Social Well-Being, and Social Preference at School : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.

    Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and

  6. A Review of the Relationship between Parental Involvement and Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Shute

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between parental involvement (PI and academic achievement, with special focus on the secondary school (middle and high school level. The results first present how individual PI variables correlate with academic achievement and then move to more complex analyses of multiple variables on the general construct described in the literature. Several PI variables with correlations to academic achievement show promise: (a communication between children and parents about school activities and plans, (b parents holding high expectations/aspirations for their children's schooling, and (c parents employing an authoritative parenting style. We end the results section by discussing the findings in light of the limitations of nonexperimental research and the different effects of children's versus parents' perspectives on academic achievement.

  7. [Changes in academic motivation among elementary and junior high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takuma; Sakurai, Shigeo

    2013-02-01

    This study examined changes in academic motivation among elementary and junior high school students. Based on self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000a), we focused on changes in autonomous and controlled motivation. In Study 1, we examined inter-individual changes in academic motivation among 5th to 9th grade students (N = 1 572) through a cross-sectional study. In Study 2, we examined intra-individual changes in academic motivation among students (N = 128) who were in transition from elementary to junior high school through a longitudinal study. All participants completed the Academic Motivation Scale (Nishimura, Kawamura, & Sakurai, 2011) that measured autonomous and controlled motivation. The results revealed that autonomous motivation decreased in the students from elementary to junior high school, while controlled motivation increased during the same period. This is a unique finding because a prior study conducted in a Western culture suggested that both motivations decrease gradually in school.

  8. Functional semantics academic school at the PFU general and russian linguistics department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е А Красина

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the origins of the Functional Semantics Academic School at the PFU General and Russian Linguistics Department specifying its theoretical background and features.

  9. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  10. Religiousness as a Predictor of Academic Performance among High-school Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Seong

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between high school students' religiousness and academic achievement, noting the effects of ethnicity. Data from two followups of the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 indicated that religiousness related to academic achievement, though the link was mediated by other psychosocial factors. The…

  11. The Mediating Role of School Motivation in Linking Student Victimization and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Dempsey, Allison G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of student school motivation in linking student victimization experiences and academic achievement among a nationally representative sample of students in 10th grade. Structural equation modeling supported that there were significant associations between student victimization and academic achievement for high…

  12. Parental Encouragement in Relation to Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Barathi, C.

    2016-01-01

    Parental Encouragement refers to the general process undertaken by the parents to initiative and directs the behaviour of the children towards high academic achievement. The present study aims to probe the relationship between Parental Encouragement and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students. Survey method was employed and the…

  13. Perceived Attachment Security to Father, Academic Self-Concept and School Performance in Language Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacro, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between 8-12-year-olds' perceived attachment security to father, academic self-concept and school performance in language mastery. One hundred and twenty two French students' perceptions of attachment to mother and to father were explored with the Security Scale and their academic self-concept was assessed with…

  14. Business Studies Academic Performance Differences of Secondary School Juniors in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoukpong, Bassey E.; Emah, Ime E.; Umoren, Shirley E.

    2012-01-01

    The research examined the differences in the academic performance in Business Studies of a sampled secondary school junior students in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. A sample of 290 (138 male and 152 female) Junior Secondary Three (9th grade) students was surveyed. The students' variables' being examined vis-à-vis academic performance in Business…

  15. Executive Functioning Predicts Academic Achievement in Middle School: A Four-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, William Ellery; Tournaki, Nelly; Blackman, Sheldon; Zilinski, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) is a strong predictor of children's and adolescents' academic performance. Although research indicates that EF can increase during childhood and adolescence, few studies have tracked the effect of EF on academic performance throughout the middle school grades. EF was measured at the end of Grades 6-9 through 21 teachers'…

  16. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  17. Predictors of Academic Procrastination and University Life Satisfaction among Turkish Sport Schools Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Kubilay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of burnout, academic self-efficacy and academic success in predicting procrastination and university life satisfaction among sports schools students. The study sample comprised of 224 participants aged from 18 to 30 years with a mean age of 21.71 (SD = 1.94) who were attending various departments…

  18. The Academic Procrastination in Junior High School Students' Mathematics Learning: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, Dahlia Novarianing; Setyosari, Punaji; Hitipeuw, Imanuel; Chusniyah, Tutut

    2017-01-01

    Among the main causes of low learning achievement in mathematics learning is a delayed behavior to do tasks, commonly called academic procrastination. The objectives of this research are to describe and to explain the causal factors and consequences of academic procrastination in learning mathematics for junior high school students. This research…

  19. Visible School Security Measures and Student Academic Performance, Attendance, and Postsecondary Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Fisher, Benjamin W

    2016-01-01

    Many U.S. schools use visible security measures (security cameras, metal detectors, security personnel) in an effort to keep schools safe and promote adolescents' academic success. This study examined how different patterns of visible security utilization were associated with U.S. middle and high school students' academic performance, attendance, and postsecondary educational aspirations. The data for this study came from two large national surveys--the School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (N = 38,707 students; 51% male, 77% White, MAge = 14.72) and the School Survey on Crime and Safety (N = 10,340 schools; average student composition of 50% male, 57% White). The results provided no evidence that visible security measures had consistent beneficial effects on adolescents' academic outcomes; some security utilization patterns had modest detrimental effects on adolescents' academic outcomes, particularly the heavy surveillance patterns observed in a small subset of high schools serving predominantly low socioeconomic students. The findings of this study provide no evidence that visible security measures have any sizeable effects on academic performance, attendance, or postsecondary aspirations among U.S. middle and high school students.

  20. Investigation of Academic Procrastination Prevalence and Its Relationship with Academic Self-Regulation and Achievement Motivation among High-School Students in Tehran City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Setareh; Shakoorzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the aim of Investigation of academic procrastination prevalence and its relationship with academic self-regulation and achievement motivation among high-school students in Tehran city. The sample included 624 high school students (312 Boys & 312 Girls) from different areas and regions that selected using…

  1. Effects of differences in problem-based learning course length on academic motivation and self-directed learning readiness in medical school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yune, So Jung; Im, Sun Ju; Lee, Sun Hee; Baek, Sun Yong; Lee, Sang Yeoup

    2010-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational approach in which complex authentic problems serve as the context and stimulus for learning. PBL is designed to encourage active participation during learning. The goal of this study was to study the effects of PBL on academic motivation and self-directed learning readiness in medical school students. The subjects of this study were 190 students in the 1st and 2nd grade of medical school. The period of the PBL course was two weeks for Year 1 and five weeks for Year 2 students. Students completed one module over one week. Academic motivation tests and self-directed learning readiness tests were performed before and after the PBL course. The differences between the two groups were analyzed using paired t-test and repeated measures MANCOVA. PBL had positive effects on academic self-efficacy (self-control efficacy, task-level preference) and academic failure tolerance (behavior, task-difficulty preference) as academic motivation. PBL had a mildly positive effect on self-directed learning readiness. In addition, the five-week PBL course had greater positive effects on academic motivation than the two-week course but not with regard to self-directed learning readiness. Medical students engage in academic motivation and self-directed learning readiness during PBL, suggesting that the five-week PBL course has greater positive effects than the two-week course. Future studies are needed to confirm the most effective periods of PBL.

  2. Influence of the motivational class climate on adolescents’ school engagement and their academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchor GUTIÉRREZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific literature provides empirical evidence on the relationship between school engagement and numerous important variables of the adolescents’ educational context. The school engagement has been related, among other important constructs, with burnout of both teachers and students, school performance, satisfaction with the school, behavioral disruption, goal orientation and motivational climate in the classroom. Because of it, the aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between perceived motivational class climate and students’ academic achievement, with school engagement acting as a mediator. A sample of 2028 teenagers completed various instruments to measure the perception of motivational climate, perceived basic psychological needs satisfaction, perceived autonomy support provided by the teacher, and academic achievement. The data were analyzed using a structural equation model with observed variables (path analysis. The results have shown a significant relationship between motivational climate and school engagement, and of this with academic achievement. It should also be highlighted the direct relationship of perceived competence and perceived autonomy support with perception of academic success. Of the three variables to be predicted (Portuguese and Mathematics marks and Academic success, the largest percentage of variance explained was the one of academic success. The results are discussed within the framework of achievement goal theory, the self-determined motivation, and in terms of contributing practical issues to adolescents’ teaching-learning process.

  3. Motivation, Critical Thinking and Academic Verification of High School Students' Information-seeking Behavior

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    Z Hidayat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High school students have known as Gen Y or Z and their media using can be understand on their information-seeking behavior. This research’s purposes were: 1 to analyze the students’ motivation; 2 to analyze the critical thinking and academic verification; 3 to analyze the information-seeking behavior. This study used quantitative approach through survey among 1125 respondents in nine clusters, i.e. Central, East, North, West, and South of Jakarta, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok, and Bogor. Schools sampling based on "the best schools rank" by the government, while respondents have taken by accidental in each school. Construct of questionnaire included measurement of motivation, critical thinking and academic verification, and the information-seeking behavior at all. The results showed that the motivations of the use of Internet were dominated by habit to interact and be entertained while on the academic needs are still relatively small but increasing significantly. Students’ self-efficacy, performance and achievement goals tend to be high motives, however the science learning value, and learning environment stimulation were average low motives. High school students indicated that they think critically about the various things that become content primarily in social media but less critical of the academic information subjects. Unfortunately, high school students did not conducted academic verification on the data and information but students tend to do plagiarism. Key words: Student motivation, critical thinking, academic verification, information-seeking behavior, digital generation.

  4. Interlimb coordination and academic performance in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Pacheco, Sheila Cristina; Gabbard, Carl; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Bobbio, Tatiana Godoy

    2016-10-01

    The specific mechanisms linking motor ability and cognitive performance, especially academic achievement, are still unclear. Whereas the literature provides an abundance of information on fine and visual-motor skill and cognitive attributes, much less has been reported on gross motor ability. This study examined interlimb coordination and its relationship to academic performance in children aged 8-11 years. Motor and academic skills were examined in 100 Brazilian children using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and the Academic Performance Test. Participants were grouped into low (75%) academic achievers. There was a significant difference between groups for Total Motor Composite (P academic performance and Body Coordination. Of the subtests of Body Coordination (Bilateral Coordination and Balance), Bilateral Coordination accounted for the highest impact on academic performance. Of interest here, that subtest consists primarily of gross motor tasks involving interlimb coordination. Overall, there was a positive relationship between motor behavior, in particular activities involving interlimb coordination, and academic performance. Application of these findings in the area of early assessment may be useful in the identification of later academic problems. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Solutions to academic failure: The cognitive and cultural realities ofEnglish as the medium of instruction among black learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gamaroff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, black learners who are speakers of Bantu languages have to use a second language, namely English, as the medium of instruction from Std 3 onwards. The differences between English language-culture and Bantu languages-culture(s have generated a host of problems (and pseudo-problems?, where the main problem is academic failure. Three solutions to academic failure are discussed in the light of cultural and cognitive factors in multicultural education: 1. The use of the mother tongue as the exclusive medium of instruction 2. Critical Language Study (CLS and People's English 3. The separation of high ability learners from limited ability learners in the teaching situation. It is emphasised that culture is closely connected to a symbolic system, and thus an understanding of cognitive processes in academic learning requires an understanding of culture, and vice versa. Ultimately, of primary importance in academic study are the cognitive underpinnings of Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP developed in the first language. In Suid-Afrika word swart leerders wie se moedertaal een van die Afrika tale is, tans vanaf st. 3 in 'n tweede taal, naamlik Engels, onderrig. As gevolg van die verskille tussen die Engelse taalkultuur en die taalkulture van die A.frika tale het daar 'n groot aantal probleme (en pseudoprobleme? ontstaan, waarvan akademiese mislukking die belangrikste is. Drie oplossings vir hierdie akademiese mislukking word bespreek aan die hand van kulturele en kognitiewe faktore in multikulturele onderwys: 1. Die gebruik van die moedertaal as eksklusiewe medium van onderrig 2. "Critical Language Study" (CLS en "People's English" 3. Die afsonderlike hantering van hoogsbegaafde en minder begaafde leerlinge. Dit moet beklemtoon word dat kultuur nouverwant is aan 'n simbolesisteem. Gevolglik is 'n be grip van die kognitiewe prosesse betrokke by akademiese leer 'n voorvereiste vir 'n be grip van kultuur, en omgekeerd. Vera

  6. Academic performance and talent school: Importance of motivation in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izamara da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The education aimed at more skilled students with traits of giftedness still poses challenges. Factors related to the cognitive development and counseling programs have been the object of growing interest among researchers in this field, such as Guimarães (2007. One of the challenges for them is the relation between motivation, intelligence and high abilities/giftedness. To provide adequate counseling to such special students means to offer them equal opportunities for the development of all their potentiality. The teaching excellence proposed in special programs for the gifted should also be considered as a democratic educational practice since they intend to meet individual needs. Fifty-two high school students from Rio de Janeiro, scholarship holders of the Social Institut, took part in this research, which investigates intrinsic and extrinsic motivational aspects that indicate the strategies used by them to favor the maintenance of the motivational features. The means used was the Scholastic Motivation Scale for Junior High School Students (Escala de Motivação Escolar para Alunos do Ensino Fundamental, developed by Manzini & Martinelli (2006, whose motivational guidance is arranged in 31 questions, 15 on intrinsic motivation and 16 on extrinsic ones. The results point out the intrinsic motivation as the main motivational feature present in these students and show how committed they are to the tasks they have pledged to perform throughout the Social Institut Maria Telles program. The average of the intrinsic motivation obtained from the use of the variable was superior (18.2 in relation to the extrinsic one (13.8, also verifying such result. More than achieving the objectives and attaining the goals in the program, these students have pleasure in studying as their main characteristic. Knowing the motivational aspects of these students helps the choice of strategies, which not only extends the different aspects of motivation but also allows

  7. Academic PHD School at Faculty of Agriculture in Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijo, B; Hoda, A; Thamaj, F

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural University of Tirana (AUT) is one of 12 public Universities in Albania. There are five Faculties within AUT. The study courses in AUT except of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, are organized in three levels. Courses of the first level offer the fundamental knowledge. The students at the end of this cycle own 180 credits and obtain a first level diploma. In the second level study courses, the students get deeper theoretical and practical knowledge and modules are spread across 120 credits. At the end of this level the students obtain a second level diploma, according to the study course. In FVM, the study courses are organized as integrated program of second level that is spread across 300 credits. The students, who have finished the first level course, may go further in "Master of First level" for a professional training, where they do obtain 60 credits. The program of third cycle includes the courses of "Master of Second level" and the programs of PhD. The course of "Master of second level" is offered to the students who have achieved a Diploma of Second Level, and the students get deeper knowledge of scientific and professional character and do obtain at least 60 credits. PhD programs have totally an academic character. The principal aspect is the research and independent scientific activity. This program can be followed by the students who have a diploma of second level, or a diploma of "Master of Second level". The PhD program is organized in four years. The first year, consists of theoretical knowledge of the students. The second year is mainly research. The third year is research, data manipulation, publications, oral presentations and the last year is compilation of PhD thesis, its presentation and defense. Here is presented newly established doctoral school at Faculty of Agriculture and Environment.

  8. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Keijo

    2009-01-01

    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it…

  9. When Daddy Comes to School: Father-School Involvement and Children's Academic and Social-Emotional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claire E.

    2018-01-01

    The present study used a large sample of mostly non-resident fathers (74%) to determine whether father-school involvement (e.g. attending parent-teacher conferences) predicted better academic and social emotional skills after controlling for the influence of mother-school involvement, the quality of children's home learning environment, and…

  10. Effect of Insecurity of School Environment on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Imo State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojukwu, M. O.

    2017-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insecurity of school environment on the academic performance of secondary school students in Imo state, Nigeria. A total of 1000 made up of 500 each of male and female students responded to a self-structured validated questionnaire designed for the study. Two research questions and two…

  11. Assessment of Public Schools' Out-of-School Time Academic Support Programs with Participant-Oriented Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Saban

    2018-01-01

    Using the participants-oriented approach, this study evaluated public schools' out-of-school time academic support programs, corresponding to the corrective/enrichment stage of Bloom's Mastery Learning Model and offered outside formal education's weekday hours and on weekends. Study participants included 50 principals, 110 teachers, 170 students…

  12. Enabling School Structure, Collective Responsibility, and a Culture of Academic Optimism: Toward a Robust Model of School Performance in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason H.; Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is twofold: to test a theory of academic optimism in Taiwan elementary schools and to expand the theory by adding new variables, collective responsibility and enabling school structure, to the model. Design/methodology/approach: Structural equation modeling was used to test, refine, and expand an…

  13. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  14. Do Intervention Impacts on Academic Achievement Vary by School Climate? Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Urban Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2015-01-01

    Given established links between social-emotional skills and academic achievement, there is growing support for implementing universal social/behavioral interventions in early schooling (Jones & Bouffard, 2012). Advocates have been particularly interested in implementing such programming in low income urban schools where students are likely to…

  15. Gifted students' academic performance in medical school: a study of Olympiad winners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Kee, Changwon

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the performance of academically talented students (i.e., those who received awards in Olympiads, the international competitions for gifted students in science or mathematics) in medical school. The goal is to investigate whether students exceptionally talented in science and mathematics excel in medical school. A retrospective analysis of 13 cohorts of medical students (N = 475) was conducted to compare learning outcomes of academically talented students (ATS) with their peers in terms of their grade point averages (GPAs) and national licensing exam (KMLE) scores. ATS outperformed their peers in total GPAs (p success in medical school, even among those with exceptional talent. Better understanding of nonacademic factors associated with medical school performance is warranted to improve our selection processes and to better help academically talented students succeed in medical school.

  16. The Contribution of School-Related Parental Monitoring, Self-Determination, and Self-Efficacy to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affuso, Gaetana; Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of school-related parental monitoring (SR-PM), self-determined motivation, and academic self-efficacy to academic achievement across time. The authors hypothesized that SR-PM would affect academic achievement indirectly via its effects on self-determined motivation and academic self-efficacy…

  17. Collective school-type identity: predicting students' motivation beyond academic self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, Michel; Hannover, Bettina

    2011-06-01

    In Germany, according to their prior achievement students are tracked into different types of secondary school that provide profoundly different options for their future educational careers. In this paper we suggest that as a result, school tracks clearly differ in their social status or reputation. This should translate into different collective school-type identities for their students, irrespective of the students' personal academic self-concepts. We examine the extent to which collective school-type identity systematically varies as a function of the school track students are enrolled in, and the extent to which students' collective school-type identity makes a unique contribution beyond academic self-concept and school track in predicting scholastic motivation. In two cross-sectional studies a measure of collective school-type identity is established and applied to explain motivational differences between two school tracks in Berlin. In Study 1 (N = 39 students) the content of the collective school-type identity is explored by means of an open format questionnaire. Based on these findings a structured instrument (semantic differential) to measure collective school-type identity is developed. In Study 2 (N = 1278 students) the assumed structure with four subscales (Stereotype Achievement, Stereotype Motivation, Stereotype Social, and Compensation) is proved with confirmatory factor analysis. This measure is used to compare the collective school-type identity across school tracks and predict motivational outcomes. Results show large differences in collective school-type identity between students of different school tracks. Furthermore, these differences can explain motivational differences between school tracks. Collective school-type identity has incremental predictive power for scholastic motivation, over and above the effects of academic self-concept and school track.

  18. Work-Family Balance and Academic Advancement in Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Geri; Schwartz, Alan; Hart, Katherine M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines various options that a faculty member might exercise to achieve work-family balance in academic medicine and their consequences for academic advancement. Method: Three data sets were analyzed: an anonymous web-administered survey of part-time tenure track-eligible University of Illinois College of Medicine (UI-COM)…

  19. Investigating Arabic Academic Vocabulary Knowledge Among Middle School Pupils: Receptive Versus Productive Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Baha

    2017-08-01

    The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study. Two academic vocabulary tests, including receptive and productive academic vocabulary evaluation tests, were administrated to the students across the different age groups (7th, 8th and 9th). The results pointed to no significant difference between 7th and 9th grade in academic vocabulary knowledge. In contrast, significant difference was encountered between the different Arab sub-groups where the lowest scores were noted among the Bedouin sub-group, characterized by the lowest SES. When comparing receptive and productive academic vocabulary knowledge between 7th and 9th grade, the results pointed to improvement in receptive academic knowledge towards the end of middle school but not on the productive knowledge level. In addition, within participants' comparison indicated a gap between the pupils' receptive and productive vocabulary. The results are discussed in relation to the existing scientific literature and to its implication of both research and practice in the domain of Arabic literacy development.

  20. Academic Performance, Sleep Disorders and Their Association in Middle School Students in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Reisi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although sleep disorders are common problems among families and they affect the learning, memory processes and academic performance of children, there is no evaluation of these disorders in Iran. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep disorders and its association with academic performance of school age children.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,100 middle school students of Isfahan city of Iran during 2012-2013. Multi-stage random cluster sampling method was performed and five girl’s schools and five boy’s schools were selected. The data gathered with a validated questionnaire to evaluate the academic performance and sleep disorders.Results: The mean duration of nocturnal sleep was 8.38±1.17 which was significantly higher in the group with excellent academic performance (8.86±1.18 hours, than the other two groups (8.14±1.17 hours for average academic performance and 7.90±1.15 hours for poor academic performance. Academic performance was significantly associated with age, gender, parental occupation, nocturnal sleep time, sleep latency and sleep disorders (P

  1. . CONDITIONS AND DETERMINANTS OF THE ACADEMIC STAFF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE MODERN SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Fomenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals the research findings concerning a complicated process of academic staff formation in the secondary school. The main determinants of the process include the discrepancy between the actual development level of academic staff and the existing requirements of pedagogic society. The author denotes the main motives for academic staff development: moral and financial incentives for professional growth, new educational tasks, unsatisfactory social status of educational institution, etc; and identifies the complex of objective and subjective conditions positively affecting the given process. According to the author, the main priority should be given to the methodological provision of academic staff, integration of their activity, and stimulation of informational, methodical, and organizational channels of school activity. In conclusion, the paper considers the principles of life-long teacher training, corporate cooperation, partnership and solidarity, and discusses the technological structure of academic staff development, based on the competence model of education. 

  2. Relationship between academic performance and affective changes during the first year at medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Machado, Vanessa Foresto; Madisson, Mariani Mendes; Resende, Tamara Lovatto; Valério, Fernando Passador; Troncon, Luiz Ernesto De Almeida

    2013-05-01

    Entering medical school may be associated with changes in the students' life, which can affect academic motivation and impair academic performance. This work aimed at measuring longitudinally academic motivation, anxiety, depression and social adjustment in first-year medical students and determining the relationships between these variables and academic performance, as measured mainly by grades on regular exams. Eighty-five first-year medical students (age: 17-25 years) were included after giving informed consent. Beck's Anxiety (BAI) and Beck's Depression (BDI) Inventories, the self-reported Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR) and the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) were applied two months after admission and at the end of the academic year. BAI scores increased throughout the year (7.3 ± 6.6 versus 28.8 ± 6.7; p 0.10). SAS-SR subscales scores remained stable, except for a decreasing pattern for leisure/social life (1.8 ± 0.4 versus 2.1 ± 0.4; p motivation to know (22.2 ± 4.5 versus 19.7 ± 5.5; p academic performance and the global scores for any of the scales except for the SAS-SR subscale for academic life (r = -0.48, p academic year, first-year medical students showed increased anxiety, decreased academic motivation and a maladjusted leisure/social life, which however does not seem to affect academic achievement.

  3. Academic profile of students who transferred to Zagreb School of Medicine from other medical schools in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Davorka; Dolovcak, Svjetlana; Kljaković-Gaspić, Marko

    2004-02-01

    To assess the academic performance of students who transferred to the Zagreb School of Medicine from other three medical schools in Croatia. Academic performance of medical students who moved from Rijeka, Osijek, or Split University Medical Schools to the Zagreb University School of Medicine at the second or third year was compared with academic performance of students enrolled at the Zagreb University School of Medicine. Using the Zagreb Medical School's registry, we made a list of 57 transfer students to Zagreb Medical School in the 1985-1994 period. Control group was formed of students enrolled at the Zagreb School of Medicine in the same period, whose names followed in alphabetical order after the names of transfer students. Students' performance was analyzed according to their grade average before transfer, grade average in the first year after transfer, total grade average after transfer, overall grade average, and duration of studies. We also analyzed the proportion of students in each group who did not pass the admission test at the Zagreb School of Medicine in the year before the enrollment in Zagreb, Osijek, Rijeka, and Split Medical Schools. Nineteen transfer students, transferred between 1985 and 1988, and their controls were excluded from the analysis because of incomplete data. Transfer students had significantly lower grade average before transfer (3.2-/+0.6 vs 3.5-/+0.7, p=0.03, Student t-test), lower grade average in the first year after transfer (3.2-/+0.6 vs 3.5-/+0.7, p=0.03), lower total grade average after transfer (3.6-/+0.5 vs 4.0-/+0.6, pZagreb School of Medicine in the year before the final enrollment than their controls (15/38 vs 4/38, p=0.009, chi-square test). Transfer students had poorer academic performance than students who passed the admission test and were enrolled at the Zagreb School of Medicine from the first year of studies.

  4. Influence of Mothers' Parenting Styles on Self-Regulated Academic Learning among Saudi Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnafea, Tahany; Curtis, David D.

    2017-01-01

    Much of the research on self-regulation has investigated the influence of school settings. However, fewer studies have concentrated on the home environment and its influence on student's academic behaviour in school. The present research investigates the influence of mothers' parenting styles on students' self-regulated learning behaviours in…

  5. Parent Involvement and Academic Outcomes among Urban Adolescents: Examining the Role of School Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Wehrspann, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which parent involvement in education was directly and indirectly (via school engagement) related to academic outcomes in an effort to more fully understand the school experiences of urban adolescents. Participants (80% racial/ethnic minority; n = 108) were in grades 6, 7 or 8. In the Fall and subsequent…

  6. Validity and Reliability of the Academic Resilience Scale in Turkish High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Sahin

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the validity and reliability of the academic resilience scale in Turkish high school. The participances of the study includes 378 high school students in total (192 female and 186 male). A set of analyses were conducted in order to determine the validity and reliability of the study. Firstly, both exploratory…

  7. Bonding, Achievement, and Activities: School Bonding, Academic Achievement, and Participation in Extracurricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Anissa K.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing a single-group interrupted time series design (Creswell, 2003), this pilot study examined the relationship between academic achievement, school bonding, and the extracurricular activity participation of "uninvolved" students (n=11) who participated in a voluntary support group at a suburban high school in the southeast. Results…

  8. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  9. Academic Achievement and Transcendental Meditation: A Study with At-Risk Urban Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidich, Sanford; Mjasiri, Shujaa; Nidich, Randi; Rainforth, Maxwell; Grant, James; Valosek, Laurent; Chang, Walter; Zigler, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    The middle school level is of particular concern to educators because of poor standardized test performance. This study evaluated change in academic achievement in public middle school students practicing the Transcendental Meditation[R] program compared to controls. A total of 189 students who were below proficiency level at baseline in English…

  10. Whole-School Positive Behaviour Support: Effects on Student Discipline Problems and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, James K.; Putnam, Robert F.; Handler, Marcie W.; Feinberg, Adam B.

    2005-01-01

    Many students attending public schools exhibit discipline problems such as disruptive classroom behaviour, vandalism, bullying, and violence. Establishing effective discipline practices is critical to ensure academic success and to provide a safe learning environment. In this article, we describe the effects of whole-school positive behaviour…

  11. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy…

  12. The Perceptions of Academic Women in School Psychology: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin-Little, K. Angeleque; Bray, Melissa A.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    There is a paucity of research examining the experiences and perceptions of women employed as school psychology academicians. The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain female school psychology academicians' perceptions of their respective academic climates, levels of support, incidences of harassment, and levels of stress. Comparisons…

  13. Space for Convenience Planning and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Suleman

    2017-01-01

    Every secondary school leaver is expected to be able to seek and gain admission into institutions of higher learning, both locally and internationally. However, this has become unattainable as a result of the poor academic performance seen in senior secondary school examinations; the quintessential example being the West African Senior School…

  14. Minimally Verbal School-Aged Children with Autism: Communication, Academic Engagement and Classroom Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Kathryne Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Minimally verbal school aged children with autism (MVSACwA) receive the bulk of their behavioral and academic support in schools yet we know little about the environments to which they are exposed. This population of children has often been excluded from studies and thus, underrepresented in current data on autism. As increasing numbers of…

  15. How to Improve Academic Optimism? an Inquiry from the Perspective of School Resource and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason Hsinchieh; Sheu, Tian-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified many school variables which can have significant effect on academic optimism. However, most of these identified variables are leadership or psychological constructs; thus, it is often too abstract for school administrators to translate into real practice. Therefore, this study adopted the perspective of school…

  16. Parental Influence on Academic Achievement among the Primary School Students in Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; Descartes, Christine H.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the level of parental influence on academic achievement in primary school students who prepare for the National-level test at standard five (grade 6), Secondary Entrance Examinations in Trinidad. A sample of 128 students studying standard five from primary schools was randomly selected. The data were analysed using SPSS.…

  17. Filial Piety and Academic Motivation: High-Achieving Students in an International School in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This study uses self-determination theory to explore the mechanisms of filial piety in the academic motivation of eight high-achieving secondary school seniors at an international school in South Korea, resulting in several findings. First, the students attributed their parents' values and expectations as a major source of the students'…

  18. Students' Perceived Parental School Behavior Expectations and Their Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gary L.; Hopson, Laura M.; Rose, Roderick A.; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Self-report data from 2,088 sixth-grade students in 11 middle schools in North Carolina were combined with administrative data on their eighth-grade end-of-the-year achievement scores in math and reading to examine the influence of students' perceived parental school behavior expectations on their academic performance. Through use of multilevel…

  19. Comparative Study of Pupils' Academic Performance between Private and Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Sunday B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares pupils' academic performance between the private and public primary schools. The sample, made up of 240 pupils were randomly selected from the private and public primary schools in Ilesa East and West Local Government Council Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Two instruments were used. A structured questionnaire and Pupils'…

  20. Organizational Cynicism, School Culture, and Academic Achievement: The Study of Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Engin; Kilicoglu, Gökhan; Yilmaz, Derya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain constructed theoretical models that organizational cynicism perceptions of primary school teachers affect school culture and academic achievement, by using structural equation modeling. With the assumption that there is a cause-effect relationship between three main variables, the study was constructed with…

  1. Stimulating students’ academic language : Opportunities in instructional methods in elementary school mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Nanke; Aarts, Rian; Kurvers, J.J.H.; Ros, Anje; Kroon, Sjaak

    2017-01-01

    Mastering academic language (AL) by elementary school students is important for achieving school success. The extent to which teachers play a role in stimulating students’ AL development may differ. Two types of AL stimulating behavior are distinguished: aimed at students’ understanding and at

  2. Stimulating students’ academic language : opportunities in instructional methods in elementary school mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rian Aarts; Jeanne Kurvers; Sjaak Kroon; Anje Ros; Nanke Dokter

    2017-01-01

    Mastering academic language (AL) by elementary school students is important for achieving school success. The extent to which teachers play a role in stimulating students’ AL development may differ. Two types of AL stimulating behavior are distinguished: aimed at students’ understanding and at

  3. Self-Concept among Primary School Students According to Gender and Academic Achievement Variables in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Srour, Nadia Hayel; Al-Ali, Safa Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the level of self-concept among primary school students according to gender and academic achievement variables in Amman. A random sample was chosen from fourth, fifth and sixth grades in private schools in Amman city. The sample of the study consisted of (365) male and female students, (177) males and (188)…

  4. [The relationship between autonomous motivation and academic adjustment in junior high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takuma; Sakurai, Shigeo

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and academic adjustment based on the perspective of self-determination theory. It also examined motivational profiles to reveal individual differences and the characteristic of these profiles for groups with varying levels of autonomous and controlled regulation (autonomous, controlled, high motivation, and low motivation). Data were collected from 442 junior high school students for academic motivation, academic performance, academic competence, meta-cognitive strategy, academic anxiety, apathy, and stress experience. Correlation analyses generally supported the basic hypothesis of self-determination theory that a more autonomous regulation style was strongly related to academic adjustment. The results also showed that persons with a high autonomous regulation and a low controlled regulation style were the most adaptive.

  5. Effectiveness of cognitive restructuring technique to reduce academic pracrastination of vocational high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic procrastination is a serious problem among student. Academic procrastination refers to delaying in doing assignments and preparing for examinations until the last period of examination time and submission date of assignments. To solve this problem we could use cognitive restructuring technique. The purposes of this research are to gain the description of academic procrastination decrease by implementing the cognitive restructuring technique. This research used a single subject research as the research design. The type of the single subject research which used in this research is multiple baselines. The result of this research shows that academic procrastination had significant decrease by implementation the cognitive restructuring technique. This research gives advice for two parts. First, it will be better if counselor implement the cognitive restructuring technique to decreasing academic procrastination. Second, it will be better if stakeholder of school gives support to counselor for implementation the cognitive restructuring technique to decrease academic procrastination.

  6. Co-occurrences Between Adolescent Substance Use and Academic Performance: School Context Inuences a Multilevel-Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernando H.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use. PMID:25057764

  7. Motivation, Critical Thinking and Academic Verification of High School Students' Information-seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Hidayat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High school students have known as Gen Y or Z and their media using can be understand on their information-seeking behavior. This research’s purposes were: 1 to analyze the students’ motivation; 2 to analyze the critical thinking and academic verification; 3 to analyze the information-seeking behavior. This study used quantitative approach through survey among 1125 respondents in nine clusters, i.e. Central, East, North, West, and South of Jakarta, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok, and Bogor. Schools sampling based on "the best schools rank" by the government, while respondents have taken by accidental in each school. Construct of questionnaire included measurement of motivation, critical thinking and academic verification, and the information-seeking behavior at all. The results showed that the motivations of the use of Internet were dominated by habit to interact and be entertained while on the academic needs are still relatively small but increasing significantly. Students’ self-efficacy, performance and achievement goals tend to be high motives, however the science learning value, and learning environment stimulation were average low motives. High school students indicated that they think critically about the various things that become content primarily in social media but less critical of the academic information subjects. Unfortunately, high school students did not conducted academic verification on the data and information but students tend to do plagiarism.

  8. Yoga Improves Academic Performance in Urban High School Students Compared to Physical Education: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagins, Marshall; Rundle, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Yoga programs within schools have become more widespread but research regarding the potential effect on academic achievement remains limited. This study cluster-randomized 112 students within a single New York City public high school to participate in either school-based yoga or physical education (PE) for an entire academic year. The primary…

  9. Chartering Turnaround: Leveraging Public Charter School Autonomy to Address Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Persistently low-achieving public schools around the country have received $5.8 billion from the federal School Improvement Grant (SIG) program, in addition to districts and state funds, and other supplementary federal funds. Despite all of these sources of funding, most of the schools receiving them have failed to make a dramatic difference in…

  10. School environmental conditions and links to academic performance and absenteeism in urban, mid-Atlantic public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, J D; McCormack, M C; Koehler, K A; Connolly, F; Clemons-Erby, D; Davis, M F; Gummerson, C; Leaf, P J; Jones, T D; Curriero, F C

    2018-05-02

    School facility conditions, environment, and perceptions of safety and learning have been investigated for their impact on child development. However, it is important to consider how the environment separately influences academic performance and attendance after controlling for school and community factors. Using results from the Maryland School Assessment, we considered outcomes of school-level proficiency in reading and math plus attendance and chronic absences, defined as missing 20 or more days, for grades 3-5 and 6-8 at 158 urban schools. Characteristics of the environment included school facility conditions, density of nearby roads, and an index industrial air pollution. Perceptions of school safety, learning, and institutional environment were acquired from a School Climate Survey. Also considered were neighborhood factors at the community statistical area, including demographics, crime, and poverty based on school location. Poisson regression adjusted for over-dispersion was used to model academic achievement and multiple linear models were used for attendance. Each 10-unit change in facility condition index, denoting worse quality buildings, was associated with a decrease in reading (1.0% (95% CI: 0.1-1.9%) and math scores (0.21% (95% CI: 0.20-0.40), while chronic absences increased by 0.75% (95% CI: 0.30-1.39). Each log increase the EPA's Risk Screening Environmental Indicator (RSEI) value for industrial hazards, resulted in a marginally significant trend of increasing absenteeism (p < 0.06), but no association was observed with academic achievement. All results were robust to school-level measures of racial composition, free and reduced meals eligibility, and community poverty and crime. These findings provide empirical evidence for the importance of the community and school environment, including building conditions and neighborhood toxic substance risk, on academic achievement and attendance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Academic self-efficacy for high school scale: search for psychometrics evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soely Polydoro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the adaptation and the search for psychometrics evidence of an academic self-efficacy scale. High school students (N = 453 participated of the research (mean age 15.93; SD 1.2. The Academic Self-efficacy Scale for High School is an adapted scale composed of 16 items and organized into three factors: self-efficacy for learning, self-efficacy to act in school life, and self-efficacy for the career decision. Through exploratory factor analysis, a KMO = 0.90 was verified, and 56.57% of the variance was explained. The internal consistency was 0.88. The scale demonstrated good conditions to identify academic self-efficacy of high school students.

  12. Prosocial behavior and academic motivation in Spanish High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Inglés, Cándido J.; Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche; Martínez-González, Agustin E.; Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche; Valle, Antonio; Universidad de A Coruña; García-Fernández, José M.; Universidad de Alicante; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia; Universidad de Murcia

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between prosocial behaviour and academic goals in a sample of 2,022 Spanish compulsory secondary education students. The prosocial behaviour was measured with the Prosocial Behaviour scale of the Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS) and academic goals were measured with the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ). The results revealed that students with high prosocial behaviour presented higher significantly scores in learning and performance...

  13. Study Habits and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Mathematic: A Case Study of Selected Secondary Schools in Uyo Local Education Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakirudeen, Abisola Oladeni; Sanni, Kudirat Bimbo

    2017-01-01

    The study examined study habits and academic performance of secondary school students in Mathematics. A case study of selected secondary schools in Uyo Local Education Council. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between study habits and academic performance of secondary school students in Mathematics. To carry out…

  14. School Culture, Basic Psychological Needs, Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Achievement: Testing a Casual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Badri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Culture is s common system of believes, values and artifacts that the members of a society use it in their relations, and it transfers from one generation to another. The school culture is a system of norms, meanings and values between school members. One of STD (self-determination theory components is basic psychological needs that emphasizes on Relatedness, Competence and Autonomy to accomplish the motivation. Motivation involves the processes that energize, direct, and sustain behavior. It seems that school culture, basic psychological needs and motivation has immense effect on academic achievement. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relation between students' perceived school culture, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation and academic achievement in a causal model. 296 high school students (159 females and 137 males in Tabriz, north - west of Iran, participated in this research and completed the students' perceived school culture questionnaire based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions (femininity, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism and power distance, basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation. The results of the path analysis showed that fulfillment of basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation has positive effect on academic achievement. Uncertainty avoidance and power distance have also negative effect on fulfillment of psychological needs, but the influence of femininity on this variable was positive. Also, collectivism has no significant effect on it. In general, the findings showed that if school culture supports students' autonomy, they will experience fulfillment of their basic psychological needs, and attain higher intrinsic motivation and academic achievement.

  15. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males;...

  16. Relationship of sociocultural factors and academic self-esteem to school grades and school disengagement in North African French adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régner, Isabelle; Loose, Florence

    2006-12-01

    The present study was designed to provide an integrated understanding of school grades and psychological disengagement among ethnic minority students. For that purpose, perceived parental involvement, acculturation orientations, and ethnic identity were simultaneously investigated in order to discover their respective contribution to grades among these students. Additionally, it was tested whether academic self-esteem mediated the relationship between grades and psychological disengagement. North African French junior high-school students completed a questionnaire assessing their ethnic identity, acculturation orientations, perceptions of parental involvement, academic self-esteem and trend toward the devaluing and discounting facets of psychological disengagement. Their grades in the main courses were obtained from the school records. Although perceived parental involvement displayed the strongest contribution to grades, acculturation orientations and ethnic identity still predicted grades, after controlling for parental involvement. Academic self-esteem mediated the influence of grades on both facets of disengagement, while this pattern was less clear for the devaluing process.

  17. After-School Academic Enrichment Programs. Information Capsule. Volume 1509

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2016-01-01

    The number of U.S. children attending after-school programs has been steadily increasing. In 2014, the most recent year for which data were available, approximately 10.2 million students, representing about 23 percent of U.S. families, were enrolled in an after-school program. Of the students attending after-school programs, the majority do so at…

  18. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; Vandellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time-that is, between one year's achievement and the subsequent year's dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved performance saw decreased dropout rates following these successes. However, we find

  19. Morningness-eveningness is not associated with academic performance in the afternoon school shift: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrona-Palacios, Arturo; Díaz-Morales, Juan F

    2017-11-01

    The effect of morningness-eveningness, sleep habits, and intelligence on academic performance has been studied in a fixed morning school shift. However, no studies have analysed these variables in an afternoon school shift and tested whether morningness-eveningness is related to academic performance beyond sleep habits and intelligence effects. The psychometric properties of the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) were analysed. Additionally, academic performance, sex, intelligence, sleep habits, and morningness-eveningness relationship in a morning and afternoon school shift were compared. The sample consisted of 400 students at a secondary public school in Reynosa, Tamaulipas, in north-eastern Mexico (195 boys and 205 girls; mean ± SD: 13.85 ± 0.70 years old) attending a double-shift school system: 200 from the morning shift (99 boys and 101 girls) and 200 from the afternoon shift (96 boys and 104 girls). The students completed the MESC as a measure of morningness-eveningness, a sleep habits survey, a test of academic performance, and the inductive reasoning subtest (R) of the Primary Mental Abilities battery. Adolescents in the two school shifts did not differ in academic performance and intelligence. In the afternoon shift, adolescents slept longer, reported less sleep deficit and social jet lag, and were more oriented to eveningness than adolescents in the morning shift. Sex (girls), sleep length, inductive reasoning, and morningness were associated with academic performance in the morning shift but only sex and intelligence in the afternoon shift. The role of morningness-eveningness in academic performance in the afternoon shift is examined. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  20. The English proficiency and academic language skills of Australian bilingual children during the primary school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennaoui, Kamelia; Nicholls, Ruth Jane; O'Connor, Meredith; Tarasuik, Joanne; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Goldfeld, Sharon

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that early proficiency in the language of school instruction is an important predictor of academic success for bilingual children. This study investigated whether English-proficiency at 4-5 years of age predicts academic language and literacy skills among Australian bilingual children at 10-11 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children ( LSAC, 2012 ). The LSAC comprises a nationally representative clustered cross-sequential sample of Australian children. Data were analysed from a sub-sample of 129 bilingual children from the LSAC Kindergarten cohort (n = 4983), for whom teachers completed the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) checklist (a population measure of early childhood development) and the Academic Rating Scale (ARS) language and literacy subscale. Linear regression analyses revealed that bilingual children who commenced school with stronger English proficiency had higher academic language and literacy scores at the end of primary school (β = 0.45). English proficiency remained a significant predictor, even when accounting for gender and socio-economic disadvantage (β = 0.38). The findings indicate that bilingual children who begin school without English proficiency are at risk of difficulties with academic language and literacy, even after 6 years of schooling. Risk factors need to be identified so early support can be targeted towards the most vulnerable children.

  1. Getting Comfortable with Failure and Vulnerability to Facilitate Learning and Innovation in the Game of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machajewski, Szymon

    2017-01-01

    Schools are to prepare students for success. However, they often villainize failure. Instead, schools should teach students how to fail fast and safely in order to learn and to allow innovation through vulnerability. The lessons that the gaming culture has for learning will define future strategies of teaching and learning. Games are sometimes…

  2. Making Failure Pay: For-Profit Tutoring, High-Stakes Testing, and Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Jill P.

    2010-01-01

    A little-discussed aspect of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is a mandate that requires failing schools to hire after-school tutoring companies--the largest of which are private, for-profit corporations--and to pay them with federal funds. "Making Failure Pay" takes a hard look at the implications of this new blurring of the…

  3. Who They Are, What They Think, and What They Do: Mothers' School-Related Identities, Academic Socialization, and Child Academic Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Dilworth-Bart, Janean E.; Miller, Kyle E.; Liesen, Carolyn A.

    2018-01-01

    This study adopts an intergenerational approach to explore whether mothers' school experiences influence academic readiness through parenting beliefs and parenting quality. Forty-five mothers were categorised as either having a desired or feared school-related identity based on their narratives about past school experiences and the ways they…

  4. School Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    School phobia is a serious disorder affecting up to 5% of elementary and middle school children. Long-term consequences include academic failure, diminished peer relationships, parental conflict, and development of additional psychiatric disorders. Hiding behind such common physical symptoms as headaches, stomachaches, and fatigue, school phobia…

  5. Reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in high school and college students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachelka, D; Katz, R C

    1999-09-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure in otherwise capable students. Because test anxiety is common in older students with learning disabilities (LD), it is surprising that little research has been done on ways to reduce the distress these students experience in test situations. In this study, we used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment for reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in a cohort (N = 27) of high school and college students with learning disabilities (LD). All of the students participated voluntarily. They were enrolled in classes for students with learning problems. Before the study began, they complained of test anxiety and showed an elevated score on the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Eleven students (85%) completed the 8-week long treatment, which consisted of progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, self-instruction training, as well as training in study and test-taking skills. Results showed significant improvement in the treated group which was not evident in an untreated control group (N = 16). Compared to the control group, the treated group showed significant reductions in test anxiety on the TAI, as well as improvement in study skills and academic self-esteem as measured by the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, and the school scale of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. These results extend the generality of similar studies on reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in younger students. They also suggest that relief from test anxiety can be expected fairly quickly when cognitive-behavioral methods are used. Additional implications and methodological limitations of the study are discussed.

  6. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved

  7. Naturally Acquired Learned Helplessness: The Relationship of School Failure to Achievement Behavior, Attributions, and Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dona S.

    1981-01-01

    Personality and behavioral consequences of learned helplessness were monitored in children experiencing failure in school. The predictive quality of learned helplessness theory was compared with that of value expectancy theories. Low self-concept was predicted significantly by school failure, internal attributions for failure, and external…

  8. Improving the professionalism of post-certification teacher through academic supervision in vocational schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyawati, Sophia Tri; Widyanto, I. Putu; Suemy

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the principal's efforts in improving the professionalism of post-certification teachers through academic supervision in vocational school. The certification of educators is expected to improve the professionalism of teachers, there are significant changes between the before and after receiving the certificate of educators. One of the efforts made by the principal on increasing the professionalism of teachers is to carry out academic supervision completely and continuously. This paper examines about how principals at vocational schools carry out the programmed academic supervision, and continuing through mentoring, evaluation and coaching. Academic supervision is performed by individual supervision techniques which includes: classroom or practical visit, classroom or practical observation, individual meetings, inter-class or practical places visit, and self-assessment.

  9. Tradition meets innovation: transforming academic medical culture at the University of Pennsylvania's Perelman School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Susmita; Reum, Josef; Conant, Emily; Tuton, Lucy Wolf; Scott, Patricia; Abbuhl, Stephanie; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2013-04-01

    Traditional performance expectations and career advancement paths for academic physicians persist despite dramatic transformations in the academic workflow, workload, and workforce over the past 20 years. Although the academic physician's triple role as clinician, researcher, and educator has been lauded as the ideal by academic health centers, current standards of excellence for promotion and tenure are based on outdated models. These models fail to reward collaboration and center around rigid career advancement plans that do little to accommodate the changing needs of individuals and organizations. The authors describe an innovative, comprehensive, multipronged initiative at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania to initiate change in the culture of academic medicine and improve academic productivity, job satisfaction, and overall quality of life for junior faculty. As a key part of this intervention, task forces from each of the 13 participating departments/divisions met five times between September 2010 and January 2011 to produce recommendations for institutional change. The authors discuss how this initiative, using principles adopted from business transformation, generated themes and techniques that can potentially guide workforce environment innovation in academic health centers across the United States. Recommendations include embracing a promotion/tenure/evaluation system that supports and rewards tailored individual academic career plans; ensuring leadership, decision-making roles, and recognition for junior faculty; deepening administrative and team supports for junior faculty; and solidifying and rewarding mentorship for junior faculty. By doing so, academic health centers can ensure the retention and commitment of faculty throughout all stages of their careers.

  10. Experiences of violence and deficits in academic achievement among urban primary school children in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Meeks-Gardner, Julie; Chang, Susan; Walker, Susan

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children's experiences of three different types of violence and academic achievement among primary school children in Kingston, Jamaica. A cross-sectional study of 1300 children in grade 5 [mean (S.D.) age: 11 (0.5) years] from 29 government primary schools in urban areas of Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica, was conducted. Academic achievement (mathematics, reading, and spelling) was assessed using the Wide Range Achievement Test. Children's experiences of three types of violence - exposure to aggression among peers at school, physical punishment at school, and exposure to community violence - were assessed by self-report using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Fifty-eight percent of the children experienced moderate or high levels of all three types of violence. Boys had poorer academic achievement and experienced higher levels of aggression among peers and physical punishment at school than girls. Children's experiences of the three types of violence were independently associated with all three indices of academic achievement. There was a dose-response relationship between children's experiences of violence and academic achievement with children experiencing higher levels of violence having the poorest academic achievement and children experiencing moderate levels having poorer achievement than those experiencing little or none. Exposure to three different types of violence was independently associated with poor school achievement among children attending government, urban schools in Jamaica. Programs are needed in schools to reduce the levels of aggression among students and the use of physical punishment by teachers and to provide support for children exposed to community violence. Children in Jamaica and the wider Caribbean experience significant amounts of violence in their homes, communities, and schools. In this study, we demonstrate a dose-response relationship between primary school

  11. Success and failure in school mathematics: effects of instruction and school environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusser, K

    2000-01-01

    Given the stubborn phenomenon of many children's serious difficulties and failure in mathematical learning, the hypothesis of developmental delay, or neurocognitively based deficiency should be complemented by further explanantions of children's weaknesses and substandard performance in mathematics. One obvious explanantion is that schooling and instruction for low ability children and for children with special needs is often inadequate. The present contribution examines selected research on mathematics learning under a cognitive instructional (didactical) perspective. Constructivist learning theory, the rooting of meaningful learning in concrete modeling activities, the balancing of understanding and practice in mathematics instruction, diagnostic and adaptive teaching, computer-assisted instruction, and the role of nonmathematical stumbling-blocks are discussed as principles and factors of effective mathematics learning and teaching.

  12. Chronic Childhood Trauma, Mental Health, Academic Achievement, and School-Based Health Center Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers…

  13. Academic dishonesty in nursing schools: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Donald L

    2009-11-01

    Academic dishonesty, whether in the form of plagiarism or cheating on tests, has received renewed attention in the past few decades as pervasive use of the Internet and a presumed deterioration of ethics in the current generation of students has led some, perhaps many, to conclude that academic dishonesty is reaching epidemic proportions. What is lacking in many cases, including in the nursing profession, is empirical support of these trends. This article attempts to provide some of that empirical data and supports the conclusion that cheating is a significant issue in all disciplines today, including nursing. Some preliminary policy implications are also considered. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Role of Starting School Age in the Academic Performance at the Tertiary Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahwish Ali Baber

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out whether starting school earlier than four years of age gave any academic benefit to the students in the long run. This research aimed to find out whether the students who started schooling earlier than four years of age are able to achieve better grades and are better at self-regulation at the tertiary level. For this purpose, a sample of 108 students from a private business school comprising both early and late school starters were made to fill in questionnaires reporting their school starting age, their CGPA and answering questions that showed their level of self-regulation. The findings of this study suggest that there is no difference in the academic performance of the two groups, both in terms of their CGPA and their self-regulation skills.

  15. Type of High School Predicts Academic Performance at University Better than Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, Benjamin; Perin, Višnja

    2016-01-01

    Psychological correlates of academic performance have always been of high relevance to psychological research. The relation between psychometric intelligence and academic performance is one of the most consistent and well-established findings in psychology. It is hypothesized that intelligence puts a limit on what an individual can learn or achieve. Moreover, a growing body of literature indicates a relationship between personality traits and academic performance. This relationship helps us to better understand how an individual will learn or achieve their goals. The aim of this study is to further investigate the relationship between psychological correlates of academic performance by exploring the potentially moderating role of prior education. The participants in this study differed in the type of high school they attended. They went either to gymnasium, a general education type of high school that prepares students specifically for university studies, or to vocational school, which prepares students both for the labour market and for further studies. In this study, we used archival data of psychological testing during career guidance in the final year of high school, and information about the university graduation of those who received guidance. The psychological measures included intelligence, personality and general knowledge. The results show that gymnasium students had greater chances of performing well at university, and that this relationship exceeds the contribution of intelligence and personality traits to university graduation. Moreover, psychological measures did not interact with type of high school, which indicates that students from different school types do not profit from certain individual characteristics.

  16. Academic and social achievement goals: Their additive, interactive, and specialized effects on school functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D

    2016-03-01

    Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and social achievement goals in outcome variables relevant to academic (achievement, effort/persistence), social (peer relationship satisfaction, loneliness), and socio-academic (cooperative learning, competitive learning, socially regulated, and self-regulated learning) functioning. A total of 356 Indonesian high-school students (mean age = 16 years; 36% girls) participated in the study. A self-report survey comprising items drawn from pre-existing instruments was administered to measure distinct dimensions of achievement goals and outcomes under focus. Regression analysis was performed to examine additive, interactive, and specialized effects of achievement goals on outcomes. Aligned with the hierarchical model of goal relationships (Wentzel, 2000, Contemp. Educ. Psychol., 25, 105), academic and social achievement goals bore additive effects on most outcomes. Findings also revealed a specialized effect on academic achievement and notable interactive effects on cooperative learning. In general, mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were more adaptive than their avoidance counterparts. The effects of social development goals were positive, whereas those of social demonstration-approach goals were mixed. Contrary to prior findings, social demonstration-avoidance goals did not appear to be inimical for school functioning. Findings underscore the importance of both academic and social achievement goals in day-to-day school functioning and the need to consider the meaning of goals and the coordination of multiple goals from cultural lenses. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTS’ EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND AND STUDY FACILITIES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ALOKAN, FUNMILOLA BOSEDE; OSAKINLE, EUNICE OLUFUNMILAYO; ONIJINGIN, EMMANUEL OLUBU

    2013-01-01

    There has been an outcry against the poor performance of students in the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in Nigeria. This study investigated the difference between the academic performance of students from parents with high educational background and students from parents with low educational background. It also investigated the influence of having study facilities at home on academic performance. The population for this study comprised all public secondary school students in Ondo St...

  18. Neoliberalism and Corporate School Reform: "Failure" and "Creative Destruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, corporate school reform or neoliberal educational restructuring has overtaken educational policy, practice, curriculum, and nearly all aspects of educational reform. Although this movement began on the political right, the corporate school model has been heralded across the political spectrum and is aggressively embraced now…

  19. Helping Minority Children in School Psychology: Failures, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Craig L.

    2015-01-01

    Observations that led to the development of the book, "Meeting the Psychoeducational Needs of Minority Students: Evidence-Based Guidelines for School Psychologists and Other School Personnel" (Frisby, 2013), will be discussed. This will be followed by a summary of the wide variety of the difficult and complex issues embedded within…

  20. Comparison preferences after success or failure at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrens, M. J. P. W.; Kuyper, H.; Buunk, A. P.; van der Werf, M. P. C.

    2011-01-01

    Getting an insufficient grade at school might be threatening for students. In such a situation the choice of a lower comparison level possibly functions as a self-protective strategy. The present study investigated whether students in high school reported a lower absolute preferred comparison level

  1. The Medical Academic Advancement Program at the University of Virginia School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, W L; Woode, M K; Carey, R M; Apprey, M; Schuyler, J M; Atkins-Brady, T L

    1999-04-01

    Since 1984 the University of Virginia School of Medicine has conducted the Medical Academic Advancement Program for minority and disadvantaged students interested in careers in medicine. The program is a six-week residential program for approximately 130 undergraduate and post-baccalaureate students per year. It emphasizes academic course work--biology, chemistry, physics, and essay writing--to prepare the participants for the Medical College Admission Test. Non-graded activities, such as a clinical medicine lecture series, clinical experiences, and a special lecture series, and special workshops are also offered. The participants take two simulated MCAT exams. Between 1984 and 1998, 1,497 students have participated in the program, with complete follow-up information available for 690 (46%). Of the 1,487 participants, 80 (5%) have graduated from the University of Virginia School of Medicine and 174 (12%) from other medical schools; 44 (3%) are attending the medical school now, and 237 (16%) are at other medical schools; 44 (3%) have graduated from other health professions schools, and 54 (3%) are attending such schools. The retention rate for participants at the University of Virginia School of Medicine is 91% (that is, all but seven of the 80 who matriculated have been retained past the first year). The Medical Academic Advancement Program has been successful in increasing the number of underrepresented minority students matriculating into and continuing in medical education. Such programs warrant continued support and encouragement.

  2. Profiles of Student Perceptions of School Climate: Relations with Risk Behaviors and Academic Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-06-01

    School climate has been linked to a variety of positive student outcomes, but there may be important within-school differences among students in their experiences of school climate. This study examined within-school heterogeneity among 47,631 high school student ratings of their school climate through multilevel latent class modeling. Student profiles across 323 schools were generated on the basis of multiple indicators of school climate: disciplinary structure, academic expectations, student willingness to seek help, respect for students, affective and cognitive engagement, prevalence of teasing and bullying, general victimization, bullying victimization, and bullying perpetration. Analyses identified four meaningfully different student profile types that were labeled positive climate, medium climate-low bullying, medium climate-high bullying, and negative climate. Contrasts among these profile types on external criteria revealed meaningful differences for race, grade-level, parent education level, educational aspirations, and frequency of risk behaviors. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  3. The relationship between psychological adjustment and social protection with academic self-concept and academic achievement among high school female students in Rasht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Dadarigashti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study conducted to examine the relationship between psychological adjustment and social protection with academic self-concept and academic achievement among high school female students in Rasht. The research is descriptive correlational. The target population includes all female students studying in Rasht in 2015. By random cluster sampling method and based on the variables, 180 subjects selected. In this study, to collect data, psychological adjustment and social support, academic self-concept and academic achievement questionnaire are used. To test the hypothesis of this research, the parametric statistical Pearson correlation and regression tests are used. Moreover, all statistical operations were analyzed by using SPSS software. The research results showed that the correlation values between psychological adjustment and social support with academic self-concept and academic achievement of high school female students is statistically significant ( 01/0 > p.

  4. Impact of Teacher Self-Efficacy on Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram Shahzad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of self-efficacy and its impact on human performance has intrigued many scholars during the last two decades, for example, Clayson and Sheffet, 2006; Nauta, 2004; Muijsand Rejnolds 2001; Bandura, 1997 and Soodak and Podell, 1993. This study was conducted with the objective to find out the impact ofteacher self-efficacy on the secondary school students’ academic achievement. For this purpose, sixty (60 secondary school teachers and a hundred (100 secondary school students in Chiltan Town of Quetta city were randomly selected. To collect the data, teacher self-efficacy questionnaire for teachers was used and to measure students’ academic achievement a test was developed. Data were analyzed through Pearson Correlation and Multiple Regressions. The findings of the study revealed that teacher self-efficacy has a positive impact on the students’ academic achievement. The results of the study and their pedagogical implications have been discussed, and recommendations have been provided for further researches.

  5. Cluster (school) RCT of ParentCorps: impact on kindergarten academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther J; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Palamar, Joseph J; Petkova, Eva

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of an early childhood, family-centered, school-based intervention on children's kindergarten academic achievement. This was a cluster (school) randomized controlled trial with assessments from pre-kindergarten (pre-k) entry through the end of kindergarten. The setting was 10 public elementary schools with 26 pre-k classes in 2 school districts in urban disadvantaged neighborhoods serving a largely black, low-income population. Participants were 1050 black and Latino, low-income children (age 4; 88% of pre-k population) enrolled in 10 schools over 4 years. Universal intervention aimed to promote self-regulation and early learning by strengthening positive behavior support and effective behavior management at home and school, and increasing parent involvement in education. Intervention included after-school group sessions for families of pre-k students (13 2-hour sessions; co-led by pre-k teachers) and professional development for pre-k and kindergarten teachers. The outcome measures were standardized test scores of kindergarten reading, writing, and math achievement by independent evaluators masked to intervention condition (primary outcome); developmental trajectories of teacher-rated academic performance from pre-k through kindergarten (secondary outcome). Relative to children in control schools, children in intervention schools had higher kindergarten achievement test scores (Cohen's d = 0.18, mean difference = 2.64, SE = 0.90, P = .03) and higher teacher-rated academic performance (Cohen's d = 0.25, mean difference = 5.65, SE = 2.34, P = .01). Early childhood population-level intervention that enhances both home and school environments shows promise to advance academic achievement among minority children from disadvantaged, urban neighborhoods.

  6. Academic Self-Presentation Strategies and Popularity in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Joan M.; Russotti, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined early adolescents' beliefs about which academic self-presentation strategies hypothetical hard-working, high-achieving students should use with popular peers, adolescents' own use of self-presentation strategies, and links between popularity and self-presentation strategies. In response to scenarios in which popular classmates…

  7. Child Abuse and Academic Performance of Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to provide research information about the prevalence of street hawking, its effects and educational factors was the focus of this research. The focus of this study is on street hawking as an aspect of child labour, abuse and neglect. The goal of the research on child abuse and academic performance of children who ...

  8. Academic Guidance for Undergraduate Students in a South African Medical School: Can we guide them all?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho P Jama

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions, including medical schools, still grapple with the challenge of poor academic performance of students. Some studies report the positive results of providing academic guidance for common challenges such as poor and/or ineffective time management, study methods, test- and exam-taking techniques and management, and the high academic workload of undergraduate medical students. However, limited detailed insights and understanding of medical students who experience more complex challenges are available.  This study was conducted at a medical school in South Africa to determine undergraduate medical students’ perceptions of factors affecting their academic performance. A total of 89 semi-structured interviews were held with undergraduate medical students who were identified as having academic problems between 2012 and 2015. According to the results, more blacks, males and first- and second year students experienced poor academic performance. Prominent findings included the harsh realities and implications of lack of accommodation for black students; how poor academic performance can lead to an array of other social and psychological problems, such as withdrawal of bursaries and negative achievement emotions that some students experience. Compared to the usual objective measures of individual ability, the rich qualitative data of cases presented in this study reveal critical, real insights and understanding of students’ challenges from their own perspective.

  9. [Depression status of academic high school students in Seoul: mediating role of entrapment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Joo; Shin, Nah-Mee; Han, Kuem-Sun; Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Cheon, Sook-Hee; Shin, Hyunjeong

    2011-10-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate the status of depression in academic high school students and path analysis model for exploring the mediating role of entrapment to depression in relation to academic stress and perceived social support. Measurements were four reliable questionnaires measuring academic stress, social support, entrapment, and depression. Data were collected from students in 17 high schools in Seoul. Students (n=5,346) completing the questionnaires indicated depression & entrapment from academic stress. Depression was more prevalent in girls, those whose parents' household income was less than two million won, who did not live with father or mother or both due to divorce, separation, or death, and those who smoked or used alcohol. Entrapment was more prevalent in students similar to cases of depression and in seniors. According to the proposed path model, 48.6% of depression was explained by academic stress, social support, and entrapment. The indirect effect of entrapment as a mediator between academic stress and depression was verified and larger than the direct effect of academic stress on depression. Considering levels of depression and entrapment demonstrated by these students, better mental health programs with diverse strategies should be developed for their psychological well-being.

  10. The Academic Self-Schema: An Experimental Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinot, Delphine; Monteil, Jean-Marc

    1995-01-01

    Existence of an academic self-schema was studied with 142 French eighth and ninth graders and 50 high school students. Both success and failure schemas appeared to exist, but the academic failure schema was only observed for the variable self-description time. (SLD)

  11. Do Perceived Academic Competence and School Satisfaction Mediate the Relationships between Perceived Support Provided by Teachers and Classmates, and Academic Initiative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Anne G.; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was twofold: (1) to examine how psychosocial support provided by teachers and classmates related to students' self-regulated learning as expressed through self-reported academic initiative, and (2) whether academic competence and school satisfaction mediated these relationships. The data were from a nationally representative…

  12. Evaluating School Improvement Plans and Their Affect on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    The development of a school improvement plan (SIP) has become an integral part of many school reform efforts. However, there are almost no studies that empirically examine the effectiveness of SIPs. The few studies examining the planning activities of organizations have generally focused on the private sector and have not provided clear or…

  13. School Administration Leadership Style and Academic Achievement: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brvenik-Estrella, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to gather current teacher and administrator perceptions on leadership in a school environment. The study sought to identify patterns of leadership style as elements in building a school climate that focused on performance and intrinsic rewards. The study also sought to establish an understanding of how leadership…

  14. Adolescent Same-Sex Attraction and Academic Outcomes: The Role of School Attachment and Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2007-11-01

    Schools create environments in which some sexual feelings, behaviors, and relationships are stigmatized, and this may have negative consequences for adolescents with nonheterosexual romantic attractions. This stigma can lead them to withdraw and disengage from school at a critical time of preparation for adulthood, which can compromise opportunities for future success. Previous research has demonstrated that sexual minority youth report greater levels of school-related problems, including a weaker sense of attachment to school and more trouble with teachers and peers. This lack of social integration is likely to affect their educational success. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the newly collected Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study provide the first opportunity to fully explore whether and to what extent same-sex attracted youth enter adulthood with an educational disadvantage. In this study, we examine (1) whether same-sex attracted adolescents have lower levels of academic success, (2) if their lower academic success is explained by a lack of social integration at school, and (3) whether these relationships differ for boys and girls. Results suggest that same-sex attracted students, particularly boys, do suffer academically, and that this is in part a result of school-related problems and risk factors such as emotional distress and substance use; however, a great deal of the disadvantage fails to be explained by these factors. Additionally, while same-sex attracted boys show poorer academic performance, same-sex attracted girls do not, suggesting that gender may shape how sexual minority youth experience and respond to marginalizing school environments.

  15. The Evaluation of Enhanced Academic Instruction in After-School Programs: Final Report. NCEE 2009-4077

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Alison Rebeck; Somers, Marie-Andree; Doolittle, Fred; Unterman, Rebecca; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether providing structured academic instruction in reading or math to students in grades two to five during their afterschool hours--instead of the less formal academic supports offered in regular after-school programs-- improves their academic performance in the subject. This is the second and…

  16. Mentoring At-risk Youth: Improving Academic Achievement in Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie C. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research supports the implementation of mentoring programs as potentially successful approaches to meeting the needs of at-risk students. This study examined a mentoring program entitled: LISTEN (Linking Individual Students To Educational Needs. The LISTEN mentoring program was a district-sponsored, school-based program in which at-risk, middle school students were identified by the school system and mentors were recruited specifically to assist these students with school performance or related issues. Mentors, in this study, were classroom teachers, school counselors, administrators, custodians, librarians, teaching assistants, retired teachers, and cafeteria employees. Archival data from the 2003–04 and 2004–05 academic years were analyzed. A statistically significant difference was found for all three of the study’s criterion variables (GPAs, discipline referrals, and attendance records between those measured in the 2003–04 academic year (pre-intervention and those measured in the 2004–05 academic year (post-intervention. Forty-nine of the fifty-four LISTEN participants experienced academic achievement gains in all three areas of the study.

  17. The Impact of Leadership Practices on the Academic Achievement of Elementary Students in Satisfactory Schools and Unsatisfactory Schools in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Our nation's k-12 schools are faced with numerous critical challenges: elevating academic achievement, recruitment and retention of high-caliber teachers, improving teacher quality, and meeting the mandates of the "No Child Left Behind" ("NCLB") legislation and state standards (Simpson, Lacava, & Graner, 2004; &…

  18. Examining the Effects of School-Level Variables on Elementary School Students' Academic Achievement: The Use of Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Sala, Matthew Robert

    2014-01-01

    School finance scholars have called for the alignment of accountability policies with state finance formulae to allocate resources toward student learning goals (Adams, 2008; Ryan, 2008; Superfine, 2009; Verstegen, 2002). With the presence of accountability policies that focus on improving students' academic achievement, state finance systems must…

  19. The Relationship between Students' Attitudes towards School, Values of Education, Achievement Motivation and Academic Achievement in Gondar Secondary Schools, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnew, Asrat

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between students' attitudes towards school, values of education, achievement motivation and academic achievement. Accordingly, the study adopted a correlation research design. To achieve the objectives of the study, 362 students using systematic sampling technique were taken from grade 9 students of…

  20. Family Background, School-Age Trajectories of Activity Participation, and Academic Achievement at the Start of High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Smith, Chelsea; Leventhal, Tama

    2015-01-01

    Applying latent class and regression techniques to data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 997), this study explored the potential academic advantages of time spent in out-of-school activities. Of particular interest was how these potential advantages played out in relation to the timing and duration of activity…

  1. Fitness, fatness, and academic performance in seventh-grade elementary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In addition to the benefits on physical and mental health, cardiorespiratory fitness has shown to have positive effects on cognition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status on academic performance among seventh-grade students. Methods Participants included 1531 grade 7 students (787 male, 744 female), ranging in age from 12 to 14 years (Mage = 12.3 ± 0.60), from 3 different cohorts. Academic performance was measured using the marks students had, at the end of their academic year, in mathematics, language (Portuguese), foreign language (English), and sciences. To assess cardiorespiratory fitness the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, from Fitnessgram, was used as the test battery. The relationship between academic achievement and the independent and combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness/weight status was analysed, using multinomial logistic regression. Results Cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status were independently related with academic achievement. Fit students, compared with unfit students had significantly higher odds for having high academic achievement (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.48-3.55, p academic achievement (OR = 3.65, 95% CI: 1.82-7.34, p academic achievement in seventh-grade students independent of the different cohorts, providing further support that aerobically fit and normal weight students are more likely to have better performance at school regardless of the year that they were born. PMID:25001376

  2. Prosocial behavior and academic motivation in Spanish High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido J. Inglés

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the relationship between prosocial behaviour and academic goals in a sample of 2,022 Spanish compulsory secondary education students. The prosocial behaviour was measured with the Prosocial Behaviour scale of the Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS and academic goals were measured with the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ. The results revealed that students with high prosocial behaviour presented higher significantly scores in learning and performance goals. The prosocial behaviour was a positive and statistically significant predictor of learning and performance goals. Furthermore, learning and performance goals were positive and statistically significant predictors of the prosocial behaviour, whereas social reinforcement goals were a negative and statisticallysignificant predictor of prosocial behaviour.

  3. Effect of Insecurity of School Environment on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Imo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojukwu M.O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insecurity of school environment on the academic performance of secondary school students in Imo state, Nigeria. A total of 1000 made up of 500 each of male and female students responded to a self-structured validated questionnaire designed for the study. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Means and standard deviations were calculated to answer the research questions and independent samples t-tests were used for testing the hypotheses. Major findings revealed that insecurity of school environment significantly affects the academic performance of secondary school students while students’ gangsterism, smoking of Indian hemp, abusing other hard drugs, cult and related violent activities were some of the factors that constituted insecurity of the school environment which eventually cause boys to leave school and join trading while leading girls to drop out and settle for marriage. Based on the findings, it was recommended that owners of schools and other stakeholders in education should take bold steps to fence and protect school environments from intruders to ensure safety of the students.

  4. Academic Zombies: A Failure of Resistance or a Means of Survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Successive waves of neoliberal reforms to higher education have taken their toll on the academy. This paper uses the zombie metaphor to discuss the causes and consequences of organisational change on Australian academics as a background to exploring zombiefication as a form of passive resistance and survival. The paper uses the literature and…

  5. Academic achievement and self-concept of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -concepts of male and female secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of Abuja Federal Capital Territory. Four research questions were stated and answer in the field, four hypotheses were stated and tested to guide the study.

  6. Student Perception of Academic Achievement Factors at High School

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the ‘product’ is elemental in education, and most studies depend on observational data about student achievement factors, focusing overwhelmingly on quantitative data namely achievement scores, school data like attendance, facilities, expenditure class size etc. But there is little evidence of learner perceptions. 553 students from two different universities, who graduated from 3 high school types, were asked to respond to two fundamental questions to reflect on schoo...

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Social Media Usage and Academic Performance in Public and Private Senior High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingle, Jeffrey; Adams, Musah; Adjei, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The study comparatively analyzed social media usage and academic performance in public and private senior high schools. The issue of social media and academic performance has been a very debatable topic with regard to its effect. This study further explores the relation between private and public schools in relation to social media use and…

  8. Study of the Relationship between Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Students: A Case of Spicer Higher Secondary School, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahi, Evans Atsiaya; Maiyo, Julius K.

    2015-01-01

    The studies on the correlation of academic achievement have paved way for control and manipulation of related variables for quality results in schools. In spite of the facts that schools impart uniform classroom instructions to all students, wide range of difference is observed in their academic achievement. The study sought to determine the…

  9. 25 CFR 36.82 - May behavioral health professional(s) provide services during the academic school day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) provide services during the academic school day? Behavioral health professional(s) must average at least... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May behavioral health professional(s) provide services during the academic school day? 36.82 Section 36.82 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  10. An Evaluation of the Fitness, Academic, and Self-Esteem Training Program at Meridian School 1984-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Samuel G.; Saccone, Peter P.

    This paper reports the results of a pilot program, "Fitness, Academics, and Self-Esteem Training" (FAST), conducted during the 1984/85 school year at Meridian School to test the hypotheses that a program of aerobic exercise with the focus on running, conducted by the classroom teacher, would result in a higher rate of academic achievement, better…

  11. A Case Study of Academic Growth in Schools for the Deaf: The Convergence of Educational Policy and Organizational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virnig, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    In this age of educational accountability, public schools are presumed to have the innate organizational capability to meet academic achievement benchmarks. Fair or not, this presumption also extends to schools serving students who are deaf, a population whose academic achievement continues to be unsatisfactory. This dissertation investigated how…

  12. Impact of Self-Regulation Skills on Academic Performance of Young Children in Private Schools of Karachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathawala, Abeer; Bhamani, Shelina

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to explore if self-regulation skills had any effect on the academic outcomes of young children in private schools of Karachi, Pakistan. Quantitative research method was used to determine the impact of self-regulation upon the academic outcome of young children by utilizing Early School Self-Regulation Scale-Care Giver Version…

  13. Self-efficacy for self-regulation and fear of failure as mediators between self-esteem and academic procrastination among undergraduates in health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanting; Dong, Siqin; Fang, Wenjie; Chai, Xiaohui; Mei, Jiaojiao; Fan, Xiuzhen

    2018-05-29

    Academic procrastination has been a widespread problem behavior among undergraduates. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of academic procrastination among undergraduates in health professions, and explore the mediation effects of self-efficacy for self-regulation and fear of failure in the relationship between self-esteem and academic procrastination. A cross-sectional design was used to study 1184 undergraduates in health professions from China. Participants completed measures of academic procrastination, self-esteem, self-efficacy for self-regulation and fear of failure. We used Pearson product-moment correlation to examine the bivariate correlations between study variables, and path analysis to examine mediation. Among the 1184 undergraduates, 877 (74.1%) procrastinated on at least one type of academic task. The total score for academic procrastination was negatively correlated with scores for self-esteem and self-efficacy for self-regulation, and positively correlated with the score for fear of failure. Moreover, the relationship between self-esteem and academic procrastination was fully mediated by self-efficacy for self-regulation (indirect effect: β = - .15, 95% bootstrap CI - .19 to - .11) and fear of failure (indirect effect: β = - .06, 95% bootstrap CI - .09 to - .04). These findings suggest that interventions targeting the enhancement of self-efficacy for self-regulation and the conquest of fear of failure may prevent or reduce academic procrastination among undergraduates in health professions, especially for those with lower self-esteem.

  14. Scientific reasoning skills of high school students’ relationship gender and their academic success

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Demirtaş

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed to examine the relationships between scientific reasoning skills of high school students and academic success that science (Physics, Chemistry and Biology), language (Turkish Language and Literature with Foreign Language), social (History and Geograpy) and ability groups (Painting, Music and Physical Education). For this purpose a test was executed to 408 first grade students from different seven high schools in Sakarya. Data were collected by a Classroom Test of Scientifi...

  15. A Comparative Study of the Academic Stress and Depression among High School Girl and Boy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanehkeshi, Ali; Basavarajappa

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the difference between boy and girl high school students of 1st grade to 3rd grade in academic stress and depression. Using a random stratified sampling 120 girl and boy students (60 girls and 60 boys) were selected from 1st grade (n = 40), 2nd grade (n = 40) and 3rd grade (n = 40) high school students. In this study gender and…

  16. Social and Emotional Learning and Academic Achievement in Portuguese Schools: A Bibliometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Cristóvão

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Social and Emotional Learning (SEL is an educational movement that is gaining ground throughout the world. We can define SEL as the capacity to recognize and manage emotions, solve problems effectively, and establish positive relationships with others. Research has demonstrated the significant role of SEL in promoting healthy student development and academic achievement. Extensive research confirms that SEL competencies: can be taught, that they promote positive development and reduce problem behaviors, and that they improve students' academic achievement and citizenship. At the international level, several rigorous studies have identified programs and practices that promote SEL. In Portugal, however, no review has yet been published regarding the implementation of SEL programs. Such a study would elucidate the current panorama of SEL programs in Portugal. This study aims to identify research on SEL programs implemented in Portuguese schools and the relationship of those programs with academic achievement. To this end, we have consulted the following databases: Scientific Repository of Open Access of Portugal (RCAAP, Online Knowledge Library (b-on, and Web of Science (WoS. The criteria were: (a all time frames; (b publications in either Portuguese or English; (c programs that developed socio-emotional competencies in Portuguese schools; (d academic levels including elementary, middle, and high school and (e students of regular education. Few publications on SEL programs implemented in Portugal were found, although the recent decade has witnessed an upsurge of interest in the topic, principally that arising from academic research.

  17. Is age of menarche among school girls related to academic performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mathkoori, Radhia; Nur, Ula; Al-Taiar, Abdullah

    2017-06-17

    Background There is strong evidence that the mean age of menarche has declined over the last few decades in developed and developing countries. This is of a major concern because of its enormous public health implications. This study aimed to estimate the age of menarche in Kuwait and investigate the association between menarcheal age and academic performance among high school girls in Kuwait. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected female high school students from private and public high schools in all governorates in Kuwait. Data on the age of menarche were collected by self-administered questionnaire from the students, while data on academic performance were extracted from the students' academic records. Results Of the 907 students we selected, 800 (88.2%) responded. The mean age of menarche was 12.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.18-12.49] years. There was no evidence for significant association between age of menarche and students' academic performance before or after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion The calculated age of menarche among contemporary girls in Kuwait is similar to that of the girls in industrialized countries. Early menarcheal age is unlikely to lead to adverse behavior that may affect academic performance in our setting.

  18. Level of Attention of Secondary School Students and Its Relationship with their Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Manzoor Hussain Shah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The major purpose of the study was to find out the relationship between the level of attention and academic achievement. The tool designed to carry out this study was questionnaire. A sample of 420 students was taken from six secondary schools of district chakwal. The data was collected personally by visiting the concerned schools. The collected data was properly tabulated and analyzed with the help of ANOVA. The major findings of the study were: students’ level of attention directly effects their academic achievement. Those students who have high level of attention their academic achievement is also higher. As the level of attention decreases academic achievement also decreases student with moderate attention level have average academic achievement while the student with low level of attention are failed. The main factors that distract student attention are noise, home environment, financial problems, health problems and lack of interest. The study concludes that attention should be considered an important psychological phenomenon that effects the students’ academic achievement. As the individuals are different in their capabilities, skills, intelligence and aptitude their level of attention is also different.

  19. Examining gray matter structure associated with academic performance in a large sample of Chinese high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Song Wang; Ming Zhou; Taolin Chen; Xun Yang; Guangxiang Chen; Meiyun Wang; Qiyong Gong

    2017-01-01

    Achievement in school is crucial for students to be able to pursue successful careers and lead happy lives in the future. Although many psychological attributes have been found to be associated with academic performance, the neural substrates of academic performance remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between brain structure and academic performance in a large sample of high school students via structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI) using voxel-based morphome...

  20. The Impact of School Climate and School Identification on Academic Achievement: Multilevel Modeling with Student and Teacher Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Sophie; Reynolds, Katherine J; Lee, Eunro; Subasic, Emina; Bromhead, David

    2017-01-01

    School climate is a leading factor in explaining student learning and achievement. Less work has explored the impact of both staff and student perceptions of school climate raising interesting questions about whether staff school climate experiences can add "value" to students' achievement. In the current research, multiple sources were integrated into a multilevel model, including staff self-reports, student self-reports, objective school records of academic achievement, and socio-economic demographics. Achievement was assessed using a national literacy and numeracy tests ( N = 760 staff and 2,257 students from 17 secondary schools). In addition, guided by the "social identity approach," school identification is investigated as a possible psychological mechanism to explain the relationship between school climate and achievement. In line with predictions, results show that students' perceptions of school climate significantly explain writing and numeracy achievement and this effect is mediated by students' psychological identification with the school. Furthermore, staff perceptions of school climate explain students' achievement on numeracy, writing and reading tests (while accounting for students' responses). However, staff's school identification did not play a significant role. Implications of these findings for organizational, social, and educational research are discussed.

  1. The Impact of School Climate and School Identification on Academic Achievement: Multilevel Modeling with Student and Teacher Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Maxwell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available School climate is a leading factor in explaining student learning and achievement. Less work has explored the impact of both staff and student perceptions of school climate raising interesting questions about whether staff school climate experiences can add “value” to students' achievement. In the current research, multiple sources were integrated into a multilevel model, including staff self-reports, student self-reports, objective school records of academic achievement, and socio-economic demographics. Achievement was assessed using a national literacy and numeracy tests (N = 760 staff and 2,257 students from 17 secondary schools. In addition, guided by the “social identity approach,” school identification is investigated as a possible psychological mechanism to explain the relationship between school climate and achievement. In line with predictions, results show that students' perceptions of school climate significantly explain writing and numeracy achievement and this effect is mediated by students' psychological identification with the school. Furthermore, staff perceptions of school climate explain students' achievement on numeracy, writing and reading tests (while accounting for students' responses. However, staff's school identification did not play a significant role. Implications of these findings for organizational, social, and educational research are discussed.

  2. How academic career and habits related to the school environment influence on academic performance in the physical education subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizuete Carrizosa, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the degree of influence of some school habits and scholar trayectory on academic achievement in physical education (PE students in secondary education (ESO in the city of Badajoz. A total sample of 1197 students in compulsory secondary education 49.9% men, and 50.1% women, participated in the study. They spent a questionnaire filled out by the river questions about major school habits, of which eight variables were analyzed also included the final course in the subject of EF as a variable for analysis of academic performance. Through statistical analysis with ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal Wallis H, there are significant differences in PE scores in all variables analyzed (p d».001, among which being repetitive, being truant, the time to read and study daily. In the variable environment perceived in class, there is a degree of significance (p d».05. Pupils who were repeaters, missing more classes or were delayed more times than read and studied less and earned a worse environment in their classes, are those who obtained poorer performance on EF.

  3. Impact of Gender Stereotype on Secondary School Students’ Self-Concept and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Igbo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of gender stereotype as a predictor of secondary school students’ self-concept and academic achievement. The study was guided by four purposes, four research questions, and four hypotheses. The study adopted ex post facto design. The research sample was drawn from eight government/public senior secondary schools in Udi education zone. Nine schools were randomly selected from the 227 schools. A total of 342 senior secondary II school (SSII students made up the sample of the study. A 20-item students’ stereotype self-concept questionnaire (SSSCQ was adapted from Marsh’s Self Descriptive Questionnaire II (SDQII, and a 10-item students’ mathematics achievement test (SMAT was developed by the researchers after reviewing related literature. This was done with the help of experts in the areas. The instruments were face and content validated and used for the collection of data. In analyzing the data, mean and standard deviation were used in answering the research questions while a t test was used in testing the four hypotheses. The findings of the study indicate that gender stereotype has significant influence on students’ self-concept and academic achievement in favor of the male students. On the other hand, school location has significant influence on academic achievement of students but has no significant influence on students’ self-concept.

  4. The Academic Differences between Students Involved in School-Based Robotics Programs and Students Not Involved in School-Based Robotics Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoullos, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This research study aimed to identify any correlation between participation in afterschool robotics at the high school level and academic performance. Through a sample of N = 121 students, the researcher examined the grades and attendance of students who participated in a robotics program in the 2011-2012 school year. The academic record of these…

  5. Resilience influence, goals and social context in the academic achievement of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Concepción Gaxiola Romero

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The academic achievement in high school students of Mexico, according to national and international evaluations has been insufficient. In spite of this situation, is possible to find excellent students, even in the context of sharing negative contextual and physical conditions. There are few investigations that describe the variables associated to resilient students. The alumni that are beyond the risks are called resilient (Rutter, 2007. The aim of this research was to explore and identify the internal variables: goals and resilience, and the external variables: risky neighborhood and risky friends that predicted the scholar achievement of high school students. To measure those variables, was used a compilation of scales validated in the region. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, and show that resilience predicted indirectly the scholar achievement trough the academic goals. The results could be used in programs to improve the academic achievement of this group of students.

  6. Correlation Among Students’ Family Background, Academic Performance in Junior High School, and Senior High School Tracking in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fu Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There were numerous previous studies on educational tracking. However, most of the data adopted in these studies were collected a decade ago, involving sample population 20-64 years of age. Among them, many elderly samples had undergone senior high school tracking in the early years. The present study used the data of students and parents from the 3rd wave (2005 of the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS. A path analysis was conducted to investigate the inequality of opportunities involved in the influence of student family background on educational tracking at the senior high school stage. The results show: although the overall percentage of junior high school graduates entering advanced levels was approximately 100% and almost all students of different family backgrounds entered advanced levels, the most crucial factor among those affecting educational tracking of senior high school stage was students’ academic performance during junior high school. Students with higher family socioeconomic status and fewer siblings showed better academic performance in junior high schools, and consequently had higher possibilities of entering public senior high schools leading to a more promising future. This indicates that though the inequality in the quantity of opportunities approached 0, the inequality in the quality of opportunities still remained, which fails to support the hypothesis of the maximally maintained inequality of educational opportunity (MMI; however, the result supports the hypothesis of the effectively maintained inequality of educational opportunity (EMI.

  7. College Seniors' Plans for Graduate School: Do Deep Approaches Learning and Holland Academic Environments Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocconi, Louis M.; Ribera, Amy K.; Nelson Laird, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which college seniors' plans for graduate school are related to their tendency to engage in deep approaches to learning (DAL) and their academic environments (majors) as classified by Holland type. Using data from the National Survey of Student Engagement, we analyzed responses from over 116,000 seniors attending…

  8. On-Entry Assessment of School Competencies and Academic Achievement: A Comparison between Slovenia and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Maša; Niklas, Frank; Schneider, Wolfgang; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The foundation of school success is laid early in children's lives. Consequently, assessments of academic precursors may help to identify children in need of additional support. Such early assessments could also be interesting from an international perspective when educational systems are compared. This analysis is used to inform on the…

  9. The role of Effective Supervision on academic performance of Senior High Schools in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Rosemary Ankoma-Sey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In all facets of life, supervision has become a cross-cutting edge tool and a pivot around which performance revolves. There are widespread and on-going debates centred on the influence of effective supervision on academic performance in our academic institutions. This study examined the role of supervision on academic performance in Senior High Schools (SHS in Ghana. The study was based on the collegial model of educational management and the supervision model, Theory Y as proposed by Douglas McGregor. This study employed the descriptive research survey design. Through a questionnaire, data analysed was collected from 963 respondents who were purposively selected from randomised schools in each region comprising of headmasters, their assistants and heads of department of 155 SHSs across Ghana. The WAEC results (2006-2009 and 2011 of the sampled schools were analysed. Reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was Cronbach’s alpha (α = 0.826. The Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS version 18 software was employed in the analyses of data using, mean, standard deviation, correlation and independent t-test. The study revealed that there was a positive weak significant relationship between supervision roles of heads and academic performance of students. Moreso, there was a positive weak significant relationship between gender of heads and their supervision roles. The study recommended that supervision should be intensified in SHS. Heads of SHS should be re-orientated in the new trends of supervision in schools.

  10. Principals' Administrative Styles and Students' Academic Performance in Taraba State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Suleiman; Ibi, Mustapha Baba; Bukar, Ibrahim Bulama

    2016-01-01

    The study determined the relationship between principals' administrative styles and students' academic performance in Taraba State secondary schools, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationships between initiative structure of leadership styles, consideration structure of leadership styles, participatory structure of…

  11. Admission Scores as a Predictor of Academic Success in the Fiji School of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeala, Christian C.; Swami, Niraj S.; Lal, Nilesh; Hussain, Shagufta

    2012-01-01

    Secondary education in Fiji ends with the Form 7 examination. Predictive validity for academic success of Form 7 scores which form the basis for admission into the Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of Surgery programme of the Fiji School of Medicine was examined via a cohort of 129 students. Success rates for year 1 in 2008, 2009, and 2010 were 90.7…

  12. Unequal Academic Achievement in High School: The Mediating Roles of Concerted Cultivation and Close Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Brian V.

    2016-01-01

    Building from the classic Wisconsin model of status attainment, this study examines whether a specific style of parenting, concerted cultivation, and a close friend's school-related attitudes and behaviors mediate the relationship between a family's socioeconomic status and their child's academic achievement in the United States. Using a recursive…

  13. "Managing" Managerialism: The Impact of Educational Auditing on an Academic "Specialist" School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to nuance arguments about the impact of broad policy technologies of auditing processes upon teachers' practices by providing empirical evidence of the effects of such processes, in context. Specifically, the article draws upon a cross section of teachers' accounts of schooling practices in a specialist, academically oriented…

  14. The Relationship between Mental Health, Acculturative Stress, and Academic Performance in a Latino Middle School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albeg, Loren J.; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between acculturative stress, symptoms of internalizing mental health problems, and academic performance in a sample of 94 Latino middle school students. Students reported on symptoms indicative of depression and anxiety related problems and acculturative stress. Teachers reported on students' academic…

  15. Leading Schools of Education in the Context of Academic Capitalism: Deans' Responses to State Policy Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.; Teitelbaum, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    State education policy changes have contributed to a reduced interest in teaching and a decreased enrollment in education degree programs in North Carolina, USA. Pressure to cut budgets and generate revenue has added to a climate of academic capitalism influencing the ways in which deans lead schools of education. The purpose of this mixed-methods…

  16. The Relationships among Middle School Students' Motivational Orientations, Learning Strategies, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintic-Gilbert, Megan S.; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Haimovitz, Kyla

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which middle school students' (N = 90) learning strategies mediated the relationship between their motivational orientations and academic achievement. Survey data revealed that higher degrees of intrinsic motivation predicted the use of both deep and surface learning strategies, whereas higher degrees of…

  17. Psychological Correlates of School Bullying Victimization: Academic Self-Concept, Learning Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims at detecting the association between students' bullying victimization at school and some psychological dimensions, referred to academic self-concept (for both Mathematics and Reading), learning motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, commitment to study) and test anxiety. A questionnaire including these measures was…

  18. Credentialism and Academic Standards: The Evolution of High School Graduation Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serow, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The credentialist thesis is applied to high school graduation requirements by tracing their transformation according to societal demand. Because of demands for further education and academic excellence, secondary education presently occupies a modest position in American status aspirations and has encumbered its curricula with unrestricted…

  19. The Development of a Questionnaire on Academic Hardiness for Late Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsios, Spiridon; Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to develop a questionnaire to measure dimensions of academic hardiness in late elementary school children. Questionnaires were distributed to 1474 children. After a set of exploratory factor analyses in studies 1 and 2, the confirmatory factor analysis results provided support for the 9-factor solution which…

  20. Ugandan Immigrant Students' Perceptions of Barriers to Academic Achievement in American High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssekannyo, Denis

    2010-01-01

    In a world that is now a global village, enterprising individuals, especially from Third World countries, who make it to greener pastures do not leave their children behind. But with a long list of barriers to academic achievement associated with immigrant and minority students in American high schools, an understanding of the experiences and…

  1. How Does School Climate Impact Academic Achievement? An Examination of Social Identity Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Katherine J.; Lee, Eunro; Turner, Isobel; Bromhead, David; Subasic, Emina

    2017-01-01

    In explaining academic achievement, school climate and social belonging (connectedness, identification) emerge as important variables. However, both constructs are rarely explored in one model. In the current study, a social psychological framework based on the social identity perspective (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987) is…

  2. Social Media Use, Loneliness, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study with Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…

  3. Influence of Parenting Styles on the Adolescent Students' Academic Achievement in Kenyan Day Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odongo, Alice Atieno; Aloka, Peter J. O.; Raburu, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to establish the influence of parenting styles on adolescent academic achievement in day secondary schools in North Rachuonyo Sub-County, Kenya. Baumrind's theory of parenting style informed the study. The Concurrent Triangulation Design was used. The target population comprised 2409 day secondary students registered for…

  4. Who Are the "Journalism Kids"? Academic Predictors of Journalism Participation in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkowski, Piotr S.; Cavanah, Sarah B.; Miller, Patrick R.

    2017-01-01

    Prior scholastic journalism research did not adequately address the possibility that journalism students perform better academically because of their backgrounds and inherent abilities. Using Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 data, this study shows that high school journalism attracts better students. Although for-credit and extracurricular…

  5. Differences in Construction, Facilities, Equipment and Academic Achievement Among Ugandan Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, S. P.

    1977-01-01

    This study sets out to clarify two questions within the context of a non-industrial society's educational system: (1) In what areas would there be measurable variation in physical facilities between primary schools? (2) Is any of this variation statistically related to the academic performance of children on the national selection examination…

  6. Do Foreclosures Affect Boston Public School Student Academic Performance? Public Policy Brief No. 13-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Katharine; Burke, Mary A.; Triest, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show…

  7. Perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students predicts academic performance: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Wagner, Josefin; Brüheim, Linda; Voltmer, Edgar

    2017-12-16

    Medical students are exposed to high amounts of stress. Stress and poor academic performance can become part of a vicious circle. In order to counteract this circularity, it seems important to better understand the relationship between stress and performance during medical education. The most widespread stress questionnaire designed for use in Medical School is the "Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument" (PMSS). It addresses a wide range of stressors, including workload, competition, social isolation and financial worries. Our aim was to examine the relation between the perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students and academic performance. We measured Medical School stress using the PMSS at two different time points (at the end of freshman year and at the end of sophomore year) and matched stress scores together with age and gender to the first medical examination (M1) grade of the students (n = 456). PMSS scores from 2 and 14 months before M1 proved to be significant predictors for medical students' M1 grade. Age and gender also predict academic performance, making older female students with high stress scores a potential risk group for entering the vicious circle of stress and poor academic performance. PMSS sum scores 2 and 14 months before the M1 exam seem to have an independent predictive validity for medical students' M1 grade. More research is needed to identify potential confounders.

  8. Academic characteristics of orthopedic team physicians affiliated with high school, collegiate, and professional teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Buza, John A; Byram, Ian; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study to determine the academic involvement and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians at high school, college, and professional levels of sport. Through Internet and telephone queries, we identified 1054 team physicians from 362 institutions, including 120 randomly selected high schools and colleges and 122 professional teams (baseball, basketball, football, hockey). For all physicians included in the study, we performed a comprehensive search of the Internet and of a citation database to determine academic affiliations, number of publications, and h-index values. Of the 1054 physicians, 678 (64%) were orthopedic surgeons. Percentage of orthopedic team physicians affiliated with an academic medical center was highest in professional sports (64%; 173/270) followed by collegiate sports (36%; 98/275) and high school sports (20%; 27/133). Median number of publications per orthopedic team physician was significantly higher in professional sports (30.6) than in collegiate sports (10.7) or high school sports (6). Median number of publications by orthopedic physicians also varied by sport, with the highest number in Major League Baseball (37.9; range, 0-225) followed by the National Basketball Association (32.0; range, 0-227) and the National Football League (30.4; range, 0-460), with the lowest number within the National Hockey League (20.7; range, 0-144). Academic affiliation and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians vary by competition level and professional sporting league.

  9. The Impact of Values Education on School Ambience and Academic Diligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovat, Terence; Clement, Neville; Dally, Kerry; Toomey, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The article will focus on demonstrating the effects of values education on enhancing students' academic diligence through the more positive ambience it creates in the school. Evidence will be drawn from international studies but principally from the Australian Government's Values Education Program and, especially from the "Values Education…

  10. Exploring Rural High School Learners' Experience of Mathematics Anxiety in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlalele, Dipane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore rural high school learners' experience of mathematics anxiety in academic settings. Mathematics anxiety has been found to have an adverse effect on confidence, motivation and achievement. This quantitative study is exploratory and descriptive in nature. The participants were 403 learners doing mathematics in…

  11. Early Feelings about School and Later Academic Outcomes of Children with Special Needs Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser-Cram, Penny; Durand, Tina M.; Warfield, Marji Erickson

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation we examined the relation of children's reported feelings about school during kindergarten or first grade to their academic achievement at the end of fifth grade. Participants were children (N=103) who lived in poverty during early childhood and who were placed on individualized education programs (IEPs) during their…

  12. Student's perception of school bullying and its impact on academic performance: A longitudinal look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalba, Julieta; Durán, Lucas G; Carletti, Diego R; Zavala Gottau, Patxi; Serralunga, María G; Jouglard, Ezequiel F; Esandi, María E

    2018-04-01

    Bullying among peers has immediate and long-term consequences, as it affects children's health-related quality of life. The aim was to examine the association between the frequency, type and dynamics of children's involvement in bullying situations and their academic performance over the school year. Longitudinal study conducted in 2015 in 9 to 12 year-olds in schools of Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Outcome measures: children's involvement in bullying situations, frequency of participation in bullying and academic performance. Bullying categories were obtained through the Preconceptions of Bullying and Intimidation Among Peers (PRECONCIMEI) questionnaire and academic performance as reflected by each child's school grades. The survey included 375 children, of which 22.1% (83/375) were repeatedly involved and 30.12% (113/375) were occasionally involved in bullying situations (20.27% [76/375] reported having participated by the year end but not at the beginning, and 9.85% [37/375] showed the opposite behavior). No statistically significant differences were found, regardless of the course subject analyzed. Grades were found to have improved by school year-end, in all groups assessed. No association was found between bullying and academic performance. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  13. Antecedent Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Graduate Students at the Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Master's level thesis work that was done in 1997 to assess the antecedent factors affecting the academic performance of graduate students at the Nairobi Evangelical School of Theology (N.E.G.S.T.), which is currently Africa International University (AIU). The paper reviews the effect of lack of finance on…

  14. Parental Involvement as a Mediator of Academic Performance among Special Education Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores de Apodaca, Roberto; Gentling, Dana G.; Steinhaus, Joanna K.; Rosenberg, Elena A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined parental involvement as a mediator of the academic performance of middle school students with special needs. The study built on the different types of parental involvement theorized by Epstein and colleagues (2002) and studied empirically by Fan and Chen (2001). Using a specially developed questionnaire, a sample of 82 parents…

  15. The Relationship among Principals' Technology Leadership, Teaching Innovation, and Students' Academic Optimism in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chuan-Chung; Yen, Hung-Chin; Kuan, Liu-Yen

    2014-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the relationships among principals' technology leadership, teaching innovations, and students' academic optimism by surveying elementary school educators across Taiwan. Of the total 1,080 questionnaires distributed, 755 valid surveys were returned for a 69.90% return rate. Teachers were asked to indicate the…

  16. Parental Influence, School Readiness and Early Academic Achievement of African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Emanique M.; Davis, James Earl

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental influence and the school readiness of African American boys, using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: ECLS-K, Parents' influence, via their academic beliefs and behaviors, was associated with the cognitive performance of African American boys during kindergarten. While previous…

  17. The Influence of Parents Educational Level on Secondary School Students Academic Achievements in District Rajanpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rana Muhammad Asad; Iqbal, Nadeem; Tasneem, Saima

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to focus the influence and impact of parents educational level on students academic achievement at secondary level of education. The study utilizes the students results of the 9th class in secondary school certificate examination taken by the Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education Dera Ghazi Khan. Oral interview,…

  18. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  19. The Educational Benefits Claimed for Physical Education and School Sport: An Academic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Richard; Armour, Kathleen; Kirk, David; Jess, Mike; Pickup, Ian; Sandford, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This academic review critically examines the theoretical and empirical bases of claims made for the educational benefits of physical education and school sport (PESS). An historical overview of the development of PESS points to the origins of claims made in four broad domains: physical, social, affective and cognitive. Analysis of the evidence…

  20. Early Childhood Lead Exposure and Academic Achievement: Evidence From Detroit Public Schools, 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Harolyn W.; Tufts, Margaret; Raymond, Randall E.; Salihu, Hamisu; Elliott, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the long-term effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement in mathematics, science, and reading among elementary and junior high school children. Methods. We linked early childhood blood lead testing surveillance data from the Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion to educational testing data from the Detroit, Michigan, public schools. We used the linked data to investigate the effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement among school-aged children, both marginally and adjusted for grade level, gender, race, language, maternal education, and socioeconomic status. Results. High blood lead levels before age 6 years were strongly associated with poor academic achievement in grades 3, 5, and 8. The odds of scoring less than proficient for those whose blood lead levels were greater than 10 micrograms per deciliter were more than twice the odds for those whose blood lead levels were less than 1 micrograms per deciliter after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions. Early childhood lead exposure was negatively associated with academic achievement in elementary and junior high school, after adjusting for key potential confounders. The control of lead poisoning should focus on primary prevention of lead exposure in children and development of special education programs for students with lead poisoning. PMID:23327265

  1. Relationships between Parenting Practices, Social Engagement, Academic Competency, and High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parenting practices, social engagement, academic competency, and high school dropout. The study revealed students whose parents practiced Reactive Communication along with students that exhibited Truancy and Disciplinary Issues were more likely to drop out. Conversely, students…

  2. Entrepreneurship Projects and Pupils' Academic Performance: A Study of Norwegian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard; Schanke, Tuva

    2014-01-01

    Many European countries have launched policy strategies for entrepreneurship education in the past decade. The result is a significant increase of entrepreneurship education in schools and higher education institutions in Europe. Entrepreneurship education is supposed to promote entrepreneurial abilities and improve academic performance. This…

  3. Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement among Secondary School Students in Trivandrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning ability is the 'problem solving skills' or 'analytical ability' or 'deductive and inductive reasoning'. Academic achievement is the total score one achieved at school, college, or university from class, laboratory, library, or field work. The objectives of the study were to explore the relationship between reasoning ability and academic…

  4. Improving Academic Outcomes in Poor Urban Schools through Nature-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camasso, Michael J.; Jagannathan, Radha

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents results from the evaluation of the Nurture thru Nature (NtN) programme, a natural science and environmental education intervention designed to help elementary school children from disadvantaged backgrounds increase their knowledge of science and strengthen overall academic performance. Using an experimental design the pilot NtN…

  5. ENRICHMENT PROGRAM FOR ACADEMICALLY TALENTED JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM LOW INCOME FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRESSMAN, HARVEY

    A PROPOSAL FOR AN ENRICHMENT PROGRAM FOR ACADEMICALLY TALENTED JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES IN CERTAIN AREAS OF BOSTON IS PRESENTED. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS ARE THAT THERE IS AND OBVIOUS AND PRESSING NEED TO GIVE EXTRA HELP TO THE ABLE STUDENT FROM A DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUND, AND THAT A RELATIVELY BRIEF ENRICHMENT EXPERIENCE FOR…

  6. Challenges Facing Women Academic Leadership in Secondary Schools of Irbid Educational Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaradat, Mahmoud Khaled Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the challenges facing women academic leadership in secondary schools of Irbid Educational Area. A random sample of 187 female leaders were chosen. They responded to a 49-item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. The items were distributed into four domains: organizational, personal, social and physical…

  7. Childhood obesity and academic achievement among male students in public primary schools in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelalim, Ahmed; Ajaj, Nawras; Al-Tmimy, Abdulrahman; Alyousefi, Maytham; Al-Rashaidan, Sulaiman; Hammoud, Majeda S; Al-Taiar, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between childhood obesity and student academic performance in the classroom setting. A multi-stage cluster random sampling was used to select a representative sample of 1,213 fifth-grade students in male public schools. Height and weight were measured using a standard protocol. Overweight was defined as BMI ≥85th but education was the most important predictor for high academic performance in the classroom setting. There is no association between obesity and academic performance in the classroom setting among boys in Kuwait. With the lack of evidence of a relationship between childhood obesity and academic performance, using high performance as a measure of success in prevention initiatives cannot be justified. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Suppressor Effects of Positive and Negative Religious Coping on Academic Burnout Among Korean Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyunkyung; Chang, Eunbi; Jang, Yoojin; Lee, Ji Hae; Lee, Sang Min

    2016-02-01

    Statistical suppressor effects in prediction models can provide evidence of the interdependent relationship of independent variables. In this study, the suppressor effects of positive and negative religious coping on academic burnout were examined using longitudinal data. First, 388 middle school students reported their type of religion and use of positive and negative religious coping strategies. Four months later, they also reported their level of academic burnout. From structural equation modeling, significant suppressor effects were found among religious students. That is, the coefficients became larger when both positive and negative religious coping predicted academic burnout simultaneously, compared to when each religious coping predicted academic burnout alone. However, suppressor effects were not found among non-religious students.

  9. Sleep health, messaging, headaches, and academic performance in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecor, Keith; Kang, Lilia; Henderson, Matthew; Yin, Sunny; Radhakrishnan, Varsha; Ming, Xue

    2016-06-01

    We tested for associations of bedtime, sleep duration, instant messaging, and chronic headaches with hypersomnolence and academic performance in a sample of high school students in New Jersey, USA. Students were surveyed anonymously and asked to report their sleep and messaging habits, headache status, and overall grades. We found that greater hypersomnolence was associated with later bedtimes, shorter sleep durations, and the presence of chronic headaches, but not with messaging after lights out. Also, we found that academic performance was lower in students who messaged after lights out, but it was not affected by headache status, bedtime, or sleep duration. These results are consistent with other studies that have demonstrated associations between headaches and hypersomnolence and between instant messaging habits and academic performance. They also add to a growing literature on the relationships among use of electronic devices, sleep health, and academic performance by adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Peer relationships and adolescents' academic and non-academic outcomes: same-sex and opposite-sex peer effects and the mediating role of school engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    The literature has documented theoretical/conceptual models delineating the facilitating role of peer relationships in academic and non-academic outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which peer relationships link to those outcomes is an area requiring further research. The study examined the role of adolescents' perceptions of their relationships with same-sex and opposite-sex peers in predicting their academic performance and general self-esteem and the potentially mediating role of school engagement in linking these perceived peer relationships with academic and non-academic outcomes. The sample comprised 1,436 high-school students (670 boys, 756 girls; 711 early adolescents, 723 later adolescents). Self-report measures and objective achievement tests were used. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to test the hypothesized model and its invariance across gender and age groups. Perceived same-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with academic performance and general self-esteem. Perceived opposite-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with general self-esteem and an indirect positive link with academic performance, but mediation via school engagement was not as strong as that of perceived same-sex peer relationships. These findings generalized across gender and age groups. Adolescents' same-sex and opposite-sex peer relationships seem to positively impact their academic performance and general self-esteem in distinct ways. It appears that school engagement plays an important role in mediating these peer relationship effects, particularly those of same-sex peer relationships, on academic and non-academic functioning. Implications for psycho-educational theory, measurement, and practice are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Discurso pedagógico e fracasso escolar Discurso pedagógico y fracaso escolar Pedagogic discourse and academic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Floriana Damiani

    2006-12-01

    variado que examinó el riesgo del fracaso asociado a diferentes variables personales y familiares de los niños. Estos resultados confirman los encontrados en otras investigaciones, indicando la importante influencia de factores como grupo étnico, renta familiar, número de hermanos, escolaridad de los padres, tipo de vivienda, entre otros, sobre el desempeño de los niños. La segunda parte del trabajo relata estudios de caso de dos escuelas (que atienden poblaciones con los mismos factores de riesgo cuyas tasas de reprobación y evasión eran contrastantes (altas en una escuela y bajas en otra. Los resultados apuntan a que las instituciones de enseñanza difieren entre sí y también a la importancia de factores intraescolares, en especial el discurso pedagógico de las escuelas (concepto definido por Bernstein, para el desempeño de los niños. El énfasis en los aspectos académicos de la escolarización (discurso instruccional, verificado en la escuela con menores tasas de reprobación y evasión, posibilitó el cambio de una de las importantes correlaciones, encontrada también en otras investigaciones, entre fracaso escolar de los estudiantes y bajo nivel de escolarización de sus padres. La escuela que presentaba mayores tasas de fracaso era caracterizada por un discurso pedagógico regulativo (asistencialista.This paper presents the findings of an investigation which, in its first part, identified risk factors for school failure (understood as grade retention and/or drop-out in a cohort of all children born in the city Pelotas (RS hospitals, in 1982. This was accomplished through a multivariate model which examined the risk for failure associated to children's personal and family variables. The results confirm findings from other research, suggesting the important influence exerted by factors such as ethnic group, family income, number of siblings, parents' level of schooling, type of dwelling, among others, over children's academic attainment. The second part

  12. A Development of Academic Management on Small School Model Under The Office of Udonthani Educational Service Area 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerachai Saenkaew

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study were ; 1 to determine the Academic Management on small school Model ; 2 to Develop of Academic Management on small school model Under the office of Udonthani Educational Service Area 2. The research Methodology consisted of four steps ; 1 Analyzing the documentary research ; 2 developing the academic management on small school factors and Indicators with Delphi Technique by verifying of 21 experts ; 3 seeking the advices and the feedbacks from nine experts in Udonthani using focus group discussion ; 4 evaluating the 110 school Administrators opinions in Udonthani. The analysis of the data was accomplished by computation of percentage, mean, standard deviation, median and interquartile ranges. Based on the findings to the study; it was concluded that: 1 The group of experts represented the three factors were ; a A development school Record of students ; b A development attribute of student ; c care forward successes with 15 Indicators. 2 Based on group discussion, all experts strongly agreed with the used and Integration of three factors of academic management on small school Model. 3 Overall, the at 110 school demonstrations in Udonthani agreed with academic management on small school model at high level. 4 A development of academic management on small school model in the office of Udonthani Educational Service Area 2 ; a A development school Record of students with 5 indicators ; b A development attribute of student with 6 indicators ; c Care Forward Successes with 4 indicators.

  13. [The fight against school failure in children of migrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarot, Adeline; Chomentowski, Martine; Moro, Marie Rose

    2013-01-01

    The "Mastering the language" scheme focuses on the prevention of illiteracy in children of migrants in vocation-oriented high schools. According to interviews carried out with teachers, there seems to be a transformation in their conception of teaching within the scheme, which is in line with the change encouraged by the current reform of the whole public service sector. This reform offers hope with regard to the humanisation of institutions which are currently violent.

  14. Adolescent Work Intensity, School Performance, and Academic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2010-01-01

    Teenagers working more than 20 hours per week perform worse in school than youth who work less. There are two competing explanations for this association: (1) that paid work takes time and effort away from activities that promote achievement, such as completing homework, preparing for examinations, getting help from parents and teachers, and…

  15. Academic Discipline and Personal Finance Instruction in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Cäzilia; Fisher, Patti J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite public support for personal finance instruction in high school, its effectiveness has not been firmly established. The current study investigates instructional approaches as a reason for these inconsistent outcomes by comparing survey responses of business education, family and consumer sciences, and social studies/economics teachers. The…

  16. Assessing Schools' Academic Performance Using a Belief Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Maslan; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2012-01-01

    A lot of attention has been given to education as it is the most practical way of improving social mobility. In order to be progressive and resilient, there has to be an overall transformation of society as evidenced in the annual budget allocations which has educational implications to it. Therefore, schools will come to term that they are under…

  17. Incorporating Library School Interns on Academic Library Subject Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Aloha R.; Becker, Bernd W.; Klingberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This case study analyzes the use of library school interns on subject-based teams for the social sciences, humanities, and sciences in the San Jose State University Library. Interns worked closely with team librarians on reference, collection development/management, and instruction activities. In a structured focus group, interns reported that the…

  18. child abuse and academic performance of secondary school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN CENTRAL ... performance of children who participate in it as a routine scholars and people have defined child labour in several ways. ... children particularly those from low-income parents. ... dependent on the socio-economic status ... sensitize the family/guardians and relevant.

  19. The relationship between unhealthy snacking at school and academic outcomes: a population study in Chilean schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Orellana, Yasna; Ivanovic, Daniza

    2015-08-01

    We examined the association between unhealthy snacking at school and academic outcomes in students from the Santiago Metropolitan Region (Chile). Cross-sectional population-based study. We measured the nutritional quality of snacks at school using an FFQ, and accounting for the amounts of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, and academic outcomes using national standardized test scores in Language and Mathematics. Multivariate regression analyses modelled the relationship between unhealthy snacking at school (exposure), potential confounders and performance in Mathematics and Language (outcomes). Random sample of 1073 students (13.1 (SD 2.3) years old) attending public, partially subsidized and private schools. Fifty-six per cent of students ate items at snack time that were high in fat, sugar, salt and energy, and thus were considered to have unhealthy snaking. Thirty-six per cent and 8% were considered to have poor-to-fair and healthy snacking, respectively. Unhealthy snacking significantly lowered the odds of good academic performance in both domains. Students having unhealthy snacks were 56% less likely to pass in Language (fully adjusted OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.23, 0.85) and 66% less likely to pass in Mathematics (fully adjusted OR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.19, 0.64) compared with students having healthy snack items. Schoolchildren eating unhealthy foods at snack time had worse academic performance in Language and Mathematics, as measured by a standardized test. Although association does not imply causation, these findings support the notion that academic and health-related behaviours are linked. More research is needed on the effect of school health programmes on educational outcomes.

  20. Is There a Role for Ivabradine in the Contemporary Management of Patients with Chronic Heart Failure in Academic and Community Heart Failure Clinics in Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Sherryn; Fernando, Carlos; Azeem, Sadia; Moe, Gordon W

    2017-06-01

    In patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction, increased heart rate (HR) is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes. In systolic HF treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine trial (SHIFT), Ivabradine improved survival when added to conventional treatment including β-blockers. However, the extent of benefit in the real world is unclear. We examined the characteristics of patients on guideline-directed therapy and determined who had SHIFT-like characteristics. A total of 1096 patients with chronic HF were reviewed from June 2014 to April 2015 in two HF clinics in Toronto: an academic institution (AI), and a community hospital (CH) clinic. SHIFT-like characteristics [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35%; sinus rhythm; and HR ≥ 70 bpm] were described. For all patients, mean age was 75 ± 13 years, overall LVEF was 44 ± 15%, AI less than CH (41.9 ± 14.0% vs. 45.7 ± 15.0%; p < 0.0001). More than two-thirds of patients in both groups were on β-blockers; with less than one-third at target dose. The proportion of patients with SHIFT-like characteristics was 8.4% AI and 11.7% CH, respectively (p = 0.0658). In HF clinics from both academic and community hospitals in Toronto, up-titration in the dose of β-blockers and other guideline therapy can be improved on. A small proportion of patients with HF and SHIFT-like characteristics may potentially benefit from the addition of Ivabradine, just approved in Canada; this number will be further reduced if target dosage for β-blockers is achieved. Servier Inc.

  1. Relationships Among Student, Staff, and Administrative Measures of School Climate and Student Health and Academic Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Gomez, Louis M; Kuo, Tony; Glenn, Beth A; Inkelas, Moira; Ponce, Ninez A

    2017-05-01

    School climate is an integral part of a comprehensive approach to improving the well-being of students; however, little is known about the relationships between its different domains and measures. We examined the relationships between student, staff, and administrative measures of school climate to understand the extent to which they were related to each other and student outcomes. The sample included 33,572 secondary school students from 121 schools in Los Angeles County during the 2014-2015 academic year. A multilevel regression model was constructed to examine the association between the domains and measures of school climate and 5 outcomes of student well-being: depressive symptoms or suicidal ideation, tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, and grades. Student, staff, and administrative measures of school climate were weakly correlated. Strong associations were found between student outcomes and student reports of engagement and safety, while school staff reports and administrative measures of school climate showed limited associations with student outcomes. As schools seek to measure and implement interventions aimed at improving school climate, consideration should be given to grounding these efforts in a multidimensional conceptualization of climate that values student perspectives and includes elements of both engagement and safety. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  2. Critical Consciousness and Schooling: The Impact of the Community as a Classroom Program on Academic Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gavin Luter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the extent to which a program guided by the principles of critical pedagogy, which seeks to develop critical consciousness, is associated with the improved academic performance of students attending a low-performance middle-school in Buffalo, New York. The students were enrolled in an in-school academic support program called the Community as Classroom, which used critical project-based learning to show students how to improve neighborhood conditions. The study found that the Community as Classroom program bolstered student engagement as reflected in improved attendance, on-time-arrival at school, and reduced suspensions. Although class grades did not improve, standardized scores, particularly in Math and Science, dramatically improved for these students from the lowest scoring categories. We suspect that given increased student engagement and dramatically improved standardized test scores, teacher bias might be the cause of no improvements in class grades. We conclude that critical pedagogy, which leads to increased critical consciousness, is a tool that can lead to improved academic performance of students. Such a pedagogy, we argue, should be more widely used in public schools, with a particular emphasis on their deployment in Community Schools.

  3. Faculty and student perceptions of academic integrity at U.S. and Canadian dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Kenneth G; Smith, Linda A; Henzi, David; Demps, Elaine

    2007-08-01

    The issues of cheating and plagiarism in educational settings have received a large amount of attention in recent years. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which academic integrity issues currently exist in the dental schools throughout the United States and Canada. An online survey was developed to gather data pertaining to this topic from two key groups in dental education: faculty and students. Responses were obtained from 1,153 students and 423 faculty members. The results of the survey clearly reveal that cheating is a significant problem in dental schools and that significant differences exist between students' and faculty members' perceptions of academic integrity. The challenge for dental schools is to identify effective strategies to prevent cheating opportunities and to implement and enforce effective means of dealing with specific examples of cheating.

  4. Heritability, family, school and academic achievement in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokropek, Artur; Sikora, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate how genetically informed designs can be applied to administrative exam data to study academic achievement. ACE mixture latent class models have been used with Year 6 and 9 exam data for seven cohorts of Polish students which include 24,285 pairs of twins. Depending on a learning domain and classroom environment history, from 58% to 88% of variance in exam results is attributable to heritability, up to 34% to shared environment and from 8% to 15% depends on unique events in students' lives. Moreover, between 54% and 66% of variance in students' learning gains made between Years 6 and 9 is explained by heritability. The unique environment accounts for between 34% and 46% of that variance. However, we find no classroom effects on student progress made between Years 6 and 9. We situate this finding against the view that classroom peer groups and teachers matter for adolescent learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Social Consequences of Academic Teaming in Middle School: The Influence of Shared Course-Taking on Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of academic teaming (i.e., sharing academic classes with the same classmates) on the relationship between social preference and peer victimization among 6th grade students in middle school. Approximately 1,000 participants were drawn from 5 middle schools that varied in their practice of academic teaming. A novel methodology for measuring academic teaming at the individual level was employed, in which students received their own teaming score based on the unique set of classmates with whom they shared academic courses in their class schedule. Using both peer- and self-reports of victimization, the results of two path models indicated that students with low social preference in highly teamed classroom environments were more victimized than low preference students who experienced less teaming throughout the school day. This effect was exaggerated in higher performing classrooms. Implications for the practice of academic teaming were discussed. PMID:25937668

  6. Breakfast, midday meals and academic achievement in rural primary schools in Uganda: implications for education and school health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Acham

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Underachievement in schools is a global problem and is especially prevalent in developing countries. Indicators of educational performance show that Uganda has done remarkably well on education access-related targets since the introduction of universal primary education in 1997. However, educational outcomes remain disappointing. The absence of school feeding schemes, one of the leading causes of scholastic underachievement, has not been given attention by the Ugandan authorities. Instead, as a national policy, parents are expected to provide meals even though many, especially in the rural areas, cannot afford to provide even the minimal daily bowl of maize porridge.To assess and demonstrate the effect of breakfast and midday meal consumption on academic achievement of schoolchildren.We assessed household characteristics, feeding patterns and academic achievement of 645 schoolchildren (aged 9–15 years in Kumi district, eastern Uganda, in 2006–2007, using a modified cluster sampling design which involved only grade 1 schools (34 in total and pupils of grade four. Household questionnaires and school records were used to collect information on socio-demographic factors, feeding patterns and school attendance. Academic achievement was assessed using unstandardized techniques, specifically designed for this study.Underachievement (the proportion below a score of 120.0 points was high (68.4%; in addition, significantly higher achievement and better feeding patterns were observed among children from the less poor households (p<0.05. Achievement was significantly associated with consumption of breakfast and a midday meal, particularly for boys (p<0.05, and a greater likelihood of scoring well was observed for better nourished children (all OR values>1.0.We observed that underachievement was relatively high; inadequate patterns of meal consumption, particularly for the most poor, significantly higher scores among children from ‘less poor

  7. Breakfast, midday meals and academic achievement in rural primary schools in Uganda: implications for education and school health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acham, Hedwig; Kikafunda, Joyce K; Malde, Marian K; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H; Egal, Abdulkadir A

    2012-01-01

    Underachievement in schools is a global problem and is especially prevalent in developing countries. Indicators of educational performance show that Uganda has done remarkably well on education access-related targets since the introduction of universal primary education in 1997. However, educational outcomes remain disappointing. The absence of school feeding schemes, one of the leading causes of scholastic underachievement, has not been given attention by the Ugandan authorities. Instead, as a national policy, parents are expected to provide meals even though many, especially in the rural areas, cannot afford to provide even the minimal daily bowl of maize porridge. To assess and demonstrate the effect of breakfast and midday meal consumption on academic achievement of schoolchildren. We assessed household characteristics, feeding patterns and academic achievement of 645 schoolchildren (aged 9-15 years) in Kumi district, eastern Uganda, in 2006-2007, using a modified cluster sampling design which involved only grade 1 schools (34 in total) and pupils of grade four. Household questionnaires and school records were used to collect information on socio-demographic factors, feeding patterns and school attendance. Academic achievement was assessed using unstandardized techniques, specifically designed for this study. Underachievement (the proportion below a score of 120.0 points) was high (68.4%); in addition, significantly higher achievement and better feeding patterns were observed among children from the less poor households (pbreakfast and a midday meal, particularly for boys (p1.0). We observed that underachievement was relatively high; inadequate patterns of meal consumption, particularly for the most poor, significantly higher scores among children from 'less poor' households and a significant association between academic achievement and breakfast and midday meal consumption.

  8. Chronic Childhood Trauma, Mental Health, Academic Achievement, and School-Based Health Center Mental Health Services

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, S; Chapman, S; Spetz, J; Brindis, CD

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities.Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if rese...

  9. Influence of Counselling Services on Perceived Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Lagos State

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    Foluke Nike Bolu-Steve

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at looking at the influence of counseling services on perceived academic performance of secondary school students in Lagos State. At the first stage, the researchers purposively selected Ikorodu L.G.A in Lagos State. At the researchers selected two schools (1 Private schools, & 1 Public schools, using simple random technique. Thus, a total of two schools were picked in each of the L.G.A. Finally, simple random sampling was used in selecting eighty students in each L.G.A, thus making a total of two hundred and forty Senior Secondary students that participated in the study. Six hypotheses were generated for the purpose of this study. Data were gathered using a researcher designed instrument tagged “Influence of Counselling Service on Academic Performance of Students Questionnaire (ICAPSQ. The findings of this study showed that there was no significant difference on the basis of age, class level and school type. However a significant difference was found on the basis of respondent’s religion, gender and the number of times the students visited the counselor. It was therefore recommended that the ministry of education should ensure that guidance and counselling units are established in all public and private secondary schools in Nigeria.

  10. Dental Student Academic Integrity in U.S. Dental Schools: Current Status and Recommendations for Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bruce S; Knight, G William; Graham, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Cheating incidents in 2006-07 led U.S. dental schools to heighten their efforts to enhance the environment of academic integrity in their institutions. The aims of this study were to document the measures being used by U.S. dental schools to discourage student cheating, determine the current incidence of reported cheating, and make recommendations for enhancing a culture of integrity in dental education. In late 2014-early 2015, an online survey was distributed to academic deans of all 61 accredited U.S. dental schools that had four classes of dental students enrolled; 50 (82%) responded. Among measures used, 98% of respondents reported having policy statements regarding student academic integrity, 92% had an Honor Code, 96% provided student orientation to integrity policies, and most used proctoring of final exams (91%) and tests (93%). Regarding disciplinary processes, 27% reported their faculty members only rarely reported suspected cheating (though required in 76% of the schools), and 40% disseminated anonymous results of disciplinary hearings. A smaller number of schools (n=36) responded to the question about student cheating than to other questions; those results suggested that reported cheating had increased almost threefold since 1998. The authors recommend that schools add cheating case scenarios to professional ethics curricula; disseminate outcomes of cheating enforcement actions; have students sign a statement attesting to compliance with academic integrity policies at every testing activity; add curricular content on correct writing techniques to avoid plagiarism; require faculty to distribute retired test items; acquire examination-authoring software programs to enable faculty to generate new multiple-choice items and different versions of the same multiple-choice tests; avoid take-home exams when assessing independent student knowledge; and utilize student assessment methods directly relevant to clinical practice.

  11. Impact of previous pharmacy work experience on pharmacy school academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Ellena; Barnett, Mitchell J; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R; Knapp, Katherine

    2010-04-12

    To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses.

  12. Impact of Previous Pharmacy Work Experience on Pharmacy School Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Ellena; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R.; Knapp, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). Methods The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. Results No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Conclusions Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses. PMID:20498735

  13. Perceptions of children: low academic performance, school and family

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    Gabriela Maffei Moreira-Malagolli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Seizing children's perceptions is a challenge for family members, teachers and researchers. Aware of this, this article was the result of three researches developed in the years 2006 and 2010 and aims to appropriate discourses of children / students of the 4th grade / 5th year of Elementary School to understand how they conceived and experienced situations of low performance School. From the Bioecological Perspective of Human Development, semi-structured interviews with children were organized. The results showed that the children who participated in the three studies understood the family as a point of support, support and affection. They recognized the figure of the teacher, highlighting the affective relationship they had with her. In addition, they also revealed feeling guilty about their learning difficulties, expressing anguish and sadness. Attention must be paid to the child's educational trajectory in order to prevent the child from reaching the 5th grade with lags or even to acquire the idea that the course of schooling is painful.

  14. Ranking Schools' Academic Performance Using a Fuzzy VIKOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musani, Suhaina; Aziz Jemain, Abdul

    2015-06-01

    Determination rank is structuring alternatives in order of priority. It is based on the criteria determined for each alternative involved. Evaluation criteria are performed and then a composite index composed of each alternative for the purpose of arranging in order of preference alternatives. This practice is known as multiple criteria decision making (MCDM). There are several common approaches to MCDM, one of the practice is known as VIKOR (Multi-criteria Optimization and Compromise Solution). The objective of this study is to develop a rational method for school ranking based on linguistic information of a criterion. The school represents an alternative, while the results for a number of subjects as the criterion. The results of the examination for a course, is given according to the student percentage of each grade. Five grades of excellence, honours, average, pass and fail is used to indicate a level of achievement in linguistics. Linguistic variables are transformed to fuzzy numbers to form a composite index of school performance. Results showed that fuzzy set theory can solve the limitations of using MCDM when there is uncertainty problems exist in the data.

  15. A New Look to a Classic Issue: Reasoning and Academic Achievement at Secondary School

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    Isabel Gómez-Veiga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Higher-order thinking abilities such as abstract reasoning and meaningful school learning occur sequentially. The fulfillment of these tasks demands that people activate and use all of their working memory resources in a controlled and supervised way. The aims of this work were: (a to study the interplay between two new reasoning measures, one mathematical (Cognitive Reflection Test and the other verbal (Deductive Reasoning Test, and a third classical visuo-spatial reasoning measure (Raven Progressive Matrices Test; and (b to investigate the relationship between these measures and academic achievement. Fifty-one 4th grade secondary school students participated in the experiment and completed the three reasoning tests. Academic achievement measures were the final numerical scores in seven basic subjects. The results demonstrated that cognitive reflection, visual, and verbal reasoning are intimately related and predicts academic achievement. This work confirms that abstract reasoning constitutes the most important higher-order cognitive ability that underlies academic achievement. It also reveals the importance of dual processes, verbal deduction and metacognition in ordinary teaching and learning at school.

  16. A New Look to a Classic Issue: Reasoning and Academic Achievement at Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Veiga, Isabel; Vila Chaves, José O; Duque, Gonzalo; García Madruga, Juan A

    2018-01-01

    Higher-order thinking abilities such as abstract reasoning and meaningful school learning occur sequentially. The fulfillment of these tasks demands that people activate and use all of their working memory resources in a controlled and supervised way. The aims of this work were: (a) to study the interplay between two new reasoning measures, one mathematical (Cognitive Reflection Test) and the other verbal (Deductive Reasoning Test), and a third classical visuo-spatial reasoning measure (Raven Progressive Matrices Test); and (b) to investigate the relationship between these measures and academic achievement. Fifty-one 4th grade secondary school students participated in the experiment and completed the three reasoning tests. Academic achievement measures were the final numerical scores in seven basic subjects. The results demonstrated that cognitive reflection, visual, and verbal reasoning are intimately related and predicts academic achievement. This work confirms that abstract reasoning constitutes the most important higher-order cognitive ability that underlies academic achievement. It also reveals the importance of dual processes, verbal deduction and metacognition in ordinary teaching and learning at school.

  17. A New Look to a Classic Issue: Reasoning and Academic Achievement at Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Veiga, Isabel; Vila Chaves, José O.; Duque, Gonzalo; García Madruga, Juan A.

    2018-01-01

    Higher-order thinking abilities such as abstract reasoning and meaningful school learning occur sequentially. The fulfillment of these tasks demands that people activate and use all of their working memory resources in a controlled and supervised way. The aims of this work were: (a) to study the interplay between two new reasoning measures, one mathematical (Cognitive Reflection Test) and the other verbal (Deductive Reasoning Test), and a third classical visuo-spatial reasoning measure (Raven Progressive Matrices Test); and (b) to investigate the relationship between these measures and academic achievement. Fifty-one 4th grade secondary school students participated in the experiment and completed the three reasoning tests. Academic achievement measures were the final numerical scores in seven basic subjects. The results demonstrated that cognitive reflection, visual, and verbal reasoning are intimately related and predicts academic achievement. This work confirms that abstract reasoning constitutes the most important higher-order cognitive ability that underlies academic achievement. It also reveals the importance of dual processes, verbal deduction and metacognition in ordinary teaching and learning at school. PMID:29643823

  18. Alternative Schools and Programs for Public School Students at Risk of Educational Failure: 2007-08. First Look. NCES 2010-026

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Priscilla Rouse; Lewis, Laurie; Tice, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This report provides national estimates on the availability of alternative schools and programs for students at risk of educational failure in public school districts during the 2007-08 school year. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) previously reported results from a similar survey of alternative schools and programs conducted…

  19. CORRELATION BETWEEN ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND OBESITY IN SCHOOL-CHILDREN FROM ANAND DISTRIC

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    Dipika P. Shah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growing childhood obesity epidemic is concerning the health of future generation in any country. Today’s competitive world is increasing the never ending pressure on children to excel in academic performance to ensure bright future. Hence, it is the need of the hour to understand the correlation between obesity and academic performance for implementation of the policies related to obesity prevention and treatment. Methods: 1034 school children were taken randomly according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, and they were divided into two groups: a 5-11 years and b 12-18 years. BMI (BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, the Waist-Height ratio (WHtR and SSFT (Sum of Skinfold thickness were taken to measure obesity, and the class teacher evaluated academic performance. Results: The prevalence of obesity when assessed by WC revealed highest values as compared to Waist-Height ratio, IOTF-BMI and SSFT. Spearman correlation between obesity (WC and academic performance revealed that there was a significant negative moderate correlation in urban boys (r = -0.4, p0.05 correlation between obesity and academic performance in boys and girls of 12-18 years’ age-group. Conclusions: It is also concluded from the present study that obesity and academic performance of school children were negatively correlated in boys and girls of 5 -11 years of age but it was not found in 12-18 years of age. Influence of various confounding factors could not be isolated which could have also impacted the academic performance of the child.

  20. Educational Background and Academic Rank of Faculty Members within US Schools of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assemi, Mitra; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Sowinski, Kevin M; Corelli, Robin L

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To characterize the educational background and academic rank of faculty members in US schools of pharmacy, estimate the extent to which they are employed by institutions where they received previous training, and determine whether differences in degree origin and rank exist between faculty members in established (≤1995) vs newer programs. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty database and demographic information from the public domain. Results. Among 5516 faculty members, 50.3% held two or more types of degrees. Established schools had a higher median number of faculty members and a higher mean faculty rank than did newer schools. Conclusion. The difference in mean faculty rank highlights the shortage of experienced faculty members in newer schools. Future research efforts should investigate educational attainment in correlation to other faculty and school characteristics and prospectively track and report trends related to pharmacy faculty members composition.

  1. Air pollution around schools is linked to poorer student health and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohai, Paul; Kweon, Byoung-Suk; Lee, Sangyun; Ard, Kerry

    2011-05-01

    Exposing children to environmental pollutants during important times of physiological development can lead to long-lasting health problems, dysfunction, and disease. The location of children's schools can increase their exposure. We examined the extent of air pollution from industrial sources around public schools in Michigan to find out whether air pollution jeopardizes children's health and academic success. We found that schools located in areas with the highest air pollution levels had the lowest attendance rates-a potential indicator of poor health-and the highest proportions of students who failed to meet state educational testing standards. Michigan and many other states currently do not require officials considering a site for a new school to analyze its environmental quality. Our results show that such requirements are needed. For schools already in existence, we recommend that their environmental quality should be investigated and improved if necessary.

  2. Relationships between Student, Staff, and Administrative Measures of School Climate and Student Health and Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren Nichol; Gomez, Louis M.; Kuo, Tony; Glenn, Beth A.; Inkelas, Moira; Ponce, Ninez A.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND School climate is an integral part of a comprehensive approach to improving the wellbeing of students; however, little is known about the relationships between its different domains and measures. This study examined the relationships between student, staff, and administrative measures of school climate in order to understand the extent to which they were related to each other and student outcomes. METHODS The sample included 33,572 secondary school students from 121 schools in Los Angeles County during the 2014–2015 academic year. A multilevel regression model was constructed to examine the association between the domains and measures of school climate and five outcomes of student wellbeing: depressive symptoms or suicidal ideation, tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, and grades. RESULTS Student, staff, and administrative measures of school climate were weakly correlated. Strong associations were found between student outcomes and student reports of engagement and safety, while school staff reports and administrative measures of school climate showed limited associations with student outcomes. CONCLUSIONS As schools seek to measure and implement interventions aimed at improving school climate, consideration should be given to grounding these efforts in a multi-dimensional conceptualization of climate that values student perspectives and includes elements of both engagement and safety. PMID:28382671

  3. Does Teaching English in Saudi Primary Schools Affect Students’ Academic Achievement in Arabic Subjects?

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    Othman Aljohani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The global trend of introducing second language learning, namely, English, in primary schools is increasing. In Saudi Arabia, where English has never been taught in primary schools, the government to implement English as a second language at the primary level in 2005; however, this generated controversy. Opposition to the learning of English has been based on religious, cultural, and educational arguments. The latter argument consists of claims that learning English at a young age might influence children’s mother tongue development and influence their academic success. This paper investigates the impact of teaching English in Saudi primary schools on students’ achievement in Arabic-language subjects. This quantitative research aims to inform the debate on second language learning in primary schools by studying children’s examination results in the Arabic subject areas of grammar, reading, and writing. The sample consisted of primary school students from years 1 to 6 as well as year 6 students from the last year before (2004 and the first year after (2005 the introduction of English. Student results from four primary schools (two government schools and two private schools were collected and analysed. This study found no indication of a positive or negative impact of learning English on students’ achievement in Arabic subjects. However, private school students who studied English beginning in their first year of school had better results in the Arabic subjects that were the focus of this research. Keywords: second language acquisition, language impact, ESL

  4. The mediating effect of calling on the relationship between medical school students’ academic burnout and empathy

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    Su Jin Chae

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study is aimed at identifying the relationships between medical school students’ academic burnout, empathy, and calling, and determining whether their calling has a mediating effect on the relationship between academic burnout and empathy. Methods A mixed method study was conducted. One hundred twenty-seven medical students completed a survey. Scales measuring academic burnout, medical students’ empathy, and calling were utilized. For statistical analysis, correlation analysis, descriptive statistics analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. For qualitative approach, eight medical students participated in a focus group interview. Results The study found that empathy has a statistically significant, negative correlation with academic burnout, while having a significant, positive correlation with calling. Sense of calling proved to be an effective mediator of the relationship between academic burnout and empathy. Conclusion This result demonstrates that calling is a key variable that mediates the relationship between medical students’ academic burnout and empathy. As such, this study provides baseline data for an education that could improve medical students’ empathy skills.

  5. The mediating effect of calling on the relationship between medical school students' academic burnout and empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Su Jin; Jeong, So Mi; Chung, Yoon-Sok

    2017-09-01

    This study is aimed at identifying the relationships between medical school students' academic burnout, empathy, and calling, and determining whether their calling has a mediating effect on the relationship between academic burnout and empathy. A mixed method study was conducted. One hundred twenty-seven medical students completed a survey. Scales measuring academic burnout, medical students' empathy, and calling were utilized. For statistical analysis, correlation analysis, descriptive statistics analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. For qualitative approach, eight medical students participated in a focus group interview. The study found that empathy has a statistically significant, negative correlation with academic burnout, while having a significant, positive correlation with calling. Sense of calling proved to be an effective mediator of the relationship between academic burnout and empathy. This result demonstrates that calling is a key variable that mediates the relationship between medical students' academic burnout and empathy. As such, this study provides baseline data for an education that could improve medical students' empathy skills.

  6. A Longitudinal Study in Learning Preferences and Academic Performance in First Year Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yenya; Gao, Hong; Wofford, Marcia M; Violato, Claudio

    2017-12-18

    This is a longitudinal study of first year medical students that investigates the relationship between the pattern change of the learning preferences and academic performance. Using the visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic inventory at the beginning of the first and second year for the same class, it was found that within the first year, 36% of the class remained unimodal (single) modality learners (SS), 14% changed from unimodal to multimodality learners (SM), 27% changed from multimodality to unimodal modality learners (MS) and 21% remained as multimodality learners (MM). Among the academic performance through subsequent didactic blocks from Clinical Anatomy, Cell and Subcellular Processes to Medical Neuroscience during first year, the SM group made more significant improvement compared to the SS group. Semi-structured interview results from the SM group showed that students made this transition between the Clinical Anatomy course and the middle of the Medical Neuroscience course, in an effort to improve their performance. This study suggests that the transition from unimodal to multimodality learning among academically struggling students improved their academic performance in the first year of medical school. Therefore, this may be considered as part of academic advising tools for struggling students to improve their academic performances. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. School climate, family structure, and academic achievement: a study of moderation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L; Eklund, Katie

    2015-03-01

    School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family structure (i.e., two-parent, one-parent, foster-care, and homeless households), and academic performance (i.e., self-reported [grade point average] GPA). The present sample consisted of 902 California public high schools, including responses from over 490,000 students in Grades 9 and 11. Results indicated that, regardless of family structure, students with more positive school climate perceptions self-reported higher GPAs. Youths with two-parent, one-parent, and homeless family structures displayed stepwise, linear improvements in self-reported GPA as perceptions of climate improved. Foster-care students' positive school climate perceptions had a weaker effect on their self-reported GPA compared with students living in other family structures. A unique curvilinear trend was found for homeless students, as the relationship between their school climate perceptions and self-reported GPA was stronger at lower levels. Overall, the moderation effect of positive school climate perceptions on self-reported GPA was strongest for homeless youth and youth from one-parent homes, suggesting that school climate has a protective effect for students living in these family structures. A protective effect was not found for youth in foster-care. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  8. A social and academic enrichment program promotes medical school matriculation and graduation for disadvantaged students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, L; Hollar, D

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the impact of a pre-medical pipeline program on successful completion of medical school and the capacity of this program to address achievement gaps experienced by disadvantaged students. The University of North Carolina (USA) Medical Education Development (MED) program provides intensive academic and test skills preparation for admission to medical, dental, and other allied health professions schools. This retrospective study evaluated the academic progress of a longitudinal sample of 1738 disadvantaged college students who completed MED between 1974 and 2001. Data sources included MED participant data, medical school admissions data for the host school, aggregate data from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), and individual MED participant data from AAMC. Methods of analysis utilized Chi-square, independent samples t test, and logistic regression to examine associations between factors. Of the 935 students in MED from 1974 to 2001, who had indicated an interest in medical school, 887 (94.9%) successfully matriculated and 801 (85.7%) successfully earned the MD degree. Using logistic regression, factors that were significantly correlated with earning the medical degree included the student's race, college undergraduate total and science grade point averages, with Hispanic, African American, and Native American participants earning the medical degree at rates comparable to Caucasian participants. MED students successfully earned the MD degree despite having significantly lower Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) scores and undergraduate grade point averages compared to all United States medical school applicants: MCAT scores had little relationship with student's success. These findings suggest that an intensive, nine-week, pre-medical academic enrichment program that incorporates confidence-building and small-group tutoring and peer support activities can build a foundation on which disadvantaged students can successfully earn

  9. Causal relationships among academic delay of gratification, motivation, and self-regulated learning in elementary school children.

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    Zhang, Lili; Maruno, Shun'ichi

    2010-10-01

    Academic delay of gratification refers to the postponement of immediate rewards by students and the pursuit of more important, temporally remote academic goals. A path model was designed to identify the causal relationships among academic delay of gratification and motivation, self-regulated learning strategies (as specified in the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire), and grades among 386 Chinese elementary school children. Academic delay of gratification was found to be positively related to motivation and metacognition. Cognitive strategy, resource management, and grades mediated these two factors and were indirectly related to academic delay of gratification.

  10. Do Pre-Entry Tests Predict Competencies Required to Excel Academically in Law School?: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Prospective students of law are required to demonstrate competence in certain disciplines to attain admission to law school. The grounding in the disciplines is expected to demonstrate competencies required to excel academically in law school. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relevance of the law school admission test to…

  11. Cognitive Distortion as Predictor of In-School Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Academic Performance in South-South, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usen, Stella Anietie; Eneh, Grace Akaniyene; Udom, Inwang Etim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain how cognitive distortion could predict in-school adolescents' depressive symptoms and academic performance in the South-South Nigeria. The study adopted a correlation design with a sample of in-school adolescents who showed evidence of cognitive distortion (N = 798). In-School Adolescents' Cognitive…

  12. Longitudinal Analysis of the Trajectories of Academic and Social Motivation across the Transition from Elementary to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir; Cohen, Veronique; Shoval, Gal

    2018-01-01

    School transitions are important phases in students' educational experiences. The current study aimed to explore the trajectories of academic and social motivation across the transition from elementary to middle school. Participants (N = 415) were sampled from six elementary schools; 55% transitioned after sixth grade (transition) and 45% remained…

  13. School Nurses' Familiarity and Perceptions of Academic Accommodations for Student-Athletes Following Sport-Related Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained…

  14. Academic Leaderships Views of School Psychology and Black Students: The Case of Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeks, Amirah; Graves, Scott L., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand academic leadership's views of the field of school psychology. This is the first study that has attempted to incorporate the views of historically Black college and university (HBCU) Psychology Department Chairs' regarding the field of school psychology and the potential development of school psychology…

  15. Assessing the Roles of Student Engagement and Academic Emotions within Middle School Computer- Based Learning in College-Going Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Z.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation research focuses on assessing student behavior, academic emotions, and knowledge from a middle school online learning environment, and analyzing their potential effects on decisions about going to college. Using students' longitudinal data ranging from their middle school, to high school, to postsecondary years, I leverage…

  16. Gender and Academic Leadership Practices at Copenhagen Business School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria; Villeseche, Florence

    . First, it examines the following aspects in relation to gender: 1) Management practices in recruitment and promotion (with a special focus on scouting and nudging); 2) Management practices in establishing and maintaining good work cultures and attractive research environments; 3) Best practices......This report examines the relationship between gender and the Heads of Department group’s leadership practices at Copenhagen Business School. This research project is one of the initiatives of the action plan developed by the Diversity and Inclusion Council at this university. Its aim is two fold...... and guidelines for the promotion of diversity and equality, including suggestions for avoiding unconscious bias. Second, this initiative aims to stimulate self-reflexivity and open dialogue on the topic of gender and talent development among CBS’s management groups and between these groups and the Diversity...

  17. Academic attainment and the high school science experiences among high-achieving African American males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice, Rodney Nathaniel

    This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major

  18. Violence exposure, sleep disturbance, and poor academic performance in middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Stephen J; Kliewer, Wendy

    2013-11-01

    Violence has been linked to poor academic outcomes in youth, but there is little understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relation. This longitudinal survey study investigated whether sleep disturbance potentially mediates the associations between academic achievement and two forms of violence exposure--community violence and peer victimization-- in 498 seventh-grade youth. Structural equation models showed that community violence was associated with lower grade point average (GPA) directly and indirectly via sleep problems, whereas peer victimization was associated with lower GPA just indirectly via sleep problems. The structural models controlled for potential confounds, including depressive symptoms, intrusive thoughts and absenteeism. The findings suggest that failing grades and sleepiness in school may be signs that youth are exposed to violence. Interventions to improve sleep hygiene and reduce violence exposure may help to improve academic outcomes for youth.

  19. The relationship between school type and academic performance at medical school: a national, multi-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumwenda, Ben; Cleland, Jennifer A; Walker, Kim; Lee, Amanda J; Greatrix, Rachel

    2017-08-31

    Differential attainment in school examinations is one of the barriers to increasing student diversity in medicine. However, studies on the predictive validity of prior academic achievement and educational performance at medical school are contradictory, possibly due to single-site studies or studies which focus only on early years' performance. To address these gaps, we examined the relationship between sociodemographic factors, including school type and average educational performance throughout medical school across a large number of diverse medical programmes. This retrospective study analysed data from students who graduated from 33 UK medical schools between 2012 and 2013. We included candidates' demographics, pre-entry grades (adjusted Universities and Colleges Admissions Service tariff scores) preadmission test scores (UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) and Graduate Medical School Admissions Test (GAMSAT)) and used the UK Foundation Programme's educational performance measure (EPM) decile as an outcome measure. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent relationship between students' background characteristics and EPM ranking. Students from independent schools had significantly higher mean UKCAT scores (2535.1, SD=209.6) than students from state-funded schools (2506.1, SD=224.0, pschools came into medical school with significantly higher mean GAMSAT scores (63.9, SD=6.9) than students from state-funded schools (60.8, SD=7.1, pschools were almost twice as likely (OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.73) to finish in the highest rank of the EPM ranking than those who attended independent schools. This is the first large-scale study to examine directly the relationship between school type and overall performance at medical school. Our findings provide modest supportive evidence that, when students from independent and state schools enter with similar pre-entry grades, once in medical school, students from state-funded schools are likely to outperform students

  20. Do academic knowledge brokers exist? Using social network analysis to explore academic research-to-policy networks from six schools of public health in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessani, Nasreen S; Boulay, Marc G; Bennett, Sara C

    2016-06-01

    The potential for academic research institutions to facilitate knowledge exchange and influence evidence-informed decision-making has been gaining ground. Schools of public health (SPHs) may play a key knowledge brokering role-serving as agencies of and for development. Understanding academic-policymaker networks can facilitate the enhancement of links between policymakers and academic faculty at SPHs, as well as assist in identifying academic knowledge brokers (KBs). Using a census approach, we administered a sociometric survey to academic faculty across six SPHs in Kenya to construct academic-policymaker networks. We identified academic KBs using social network analysis (SNA) in a two-step approach: First, we ranked individuals based on (1) number of policymakers in their network; (2) number of academic peers who report seeking them out for advice on knowledge translation and (3) their network position as 'inter-group connectors'. Second, we triangulated the three scores and re-ranked individuals. Academic faculty scoring within the top decile across all three measures were classified as KBs. Results indicate that each SPH commands a variety of unique as well as overlapping relationships with national ministries in Kenya. Of 124 full-time faculty, we identified 7 KBs in 4 of the 6 SPHs. Those scoring high on the first measure were not necessarily the same individuals scoring high on the second. KBs were also situated in a wide range along the 'connector/betweenness' measure. We propose that a composite score rather than traditional 'betweenness centrality', provides an alternative means of identifying KBs within these networks. In conclusion, SNA is a valuable tool for identifying academic-policymaker networks in Kenya. More efforts to conduct similar network studies would permit SPH leadership to identify existing linkages between faculty and policymakers, shared linkages with other SPHs and gaps so as to contribute to evidence-informed health policies. © The

  1. The effect of high school chemistry instruction on students' academic self-concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Peter Wallace

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extended instruction in high school chemistry on the academic self-concept of students and determine what parts of the learning experience need to be addressed to make the interaction a more positive one. Fifty-seven students from three metropolitan public schools, who were enrolled in college preparatory chemistry classes, were asked to complete a written instrument, before and after extended chemistry instruction, that measures academic self-concept. Twenty-one of the students who took part in the written task volunteered to answer some in-depth interview questions concerning their academic self-concept and its relationship to chemistry instruction. Student responses, instrument scores, and student chemistry grades were analyzed for a variety of chemistry learning--academic self-concept connections and interactions. Results showed that there was a positive interaction for less than half of the students involved in the interview sessions. The results from the written instrument showed similar findings. Comparing chemistry grades and academic self-concept revealed an uncertain connection between the two, especially for students with strong academic self-concepts. Students felt that the laboratory experience was often disconnected from the remainder of chemistry instruction and recommended that the laboratory experience be integrated with classroom work. Students also expressed concerns regarding the volume of algorithmic mathematical calculations associated with college preparatory chemistry instruction. Results of this study suggest that secondary chemistry instruction must become more aware of the affective domain of learning and develop a mindful awareness of its connection to the cognitive domain if chemistry teaching and learning is going to better facilitate the intellectual growth of secondary students.

  2. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations. PMID:28197109

  3. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations.

  4. Academic Motivation Scale: adaptation and psychometric analyses for high school and college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stover JB

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Juliana Beatriz Stover,1 Guadalupe de la Iglesia,1 Antonio Ria,l Boubeta,2 Mercedes Fernández Liporace11Buenos Aires University and National Research Council (CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2Santiago de Compostela University, Santiago de Compostela, SpainAbstract: The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS, supported in Self-Determination Theory, has been applied in recent decades as well in high school as in college education. Although several versions in Spanish are available, the underlying linguistic and cultural differences raise important issues when they are applied to Latin-American population. Consequently an adapted version of the AMS was developed, and its construct validity was analyzed in Argentine students. Results obtained on a sample that included 723 students from Buenos Aires (393 high school and 330 college students verified adequate psychometric properties in this new version, solving some controversies regarded to its dimensionality.Keywords: Academic Motivation, self-determination, confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency

  5. Reliability and validity of academic motivation scale for sports high school students’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslofça Fehime

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test validity and reliability of Academic Motivation Scale (AMS for sports high school students. The research conducted with 357 volunteered girls (n=117 and boys (n=240. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that Chi square (χ2, degrees of freedom (df and χ2/df ratio were 1102.90, 341 and 3.234, respectively. Goodness of Fit Index, Comparative Fit Index, Non-normed Fit Index and Incremental Fit Index were between 0.92-0.95. Additionally, Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index, An Average Errors Square Root and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation were 0.88, 0.070 and 0.079, respectively. Subscale reliability coefficients were between 0.77 and 0.86. Test-retest correlations of AMS were found between 0.79 and 0.91. Results showed that scale was suitable for determination of sports high school students’ academicals motivation levels.

  6. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  7. Promoting parent academic expectations predicts improved school outcomes for low-income children entering kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin-Presnal, John E; Bierman, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    This study explored patterns of change in the REDI (Research-based Developmentally Informed) Parent program (REDI-P), designed to help parents support child learning at the transition into kindergarten. Participants were 200 prekindergarten children attending Head Start (55% European-American, 26% African American, 19% Latino, 56% male, M age =4.45years, SD=0.29) and their primary caregivers, who were randomized to a 16-session home-visiting intervention (REDI-P) or a control group. Extending beyond a prior study documenting intervention effects on parenting behaviors and child kindergarten outcomes, this study assessed the impact of REDI-P on parent academic expectations, and then explored the degree to which intervention gains in three areas of parenting (parent-child interactive reading, parent-child conversations, parent academic expectations) predicted child outcomes in kindergarten (controlling for baseline values and a set of child and family characteristics). Results showed that REDI-P promoted significant gains in parent academic expectations, which in turn mediated intervention gains in child emergent literacy skills and self-directed learning. Results suggest a need to attend to the beliefs parents hold about their child's academic potential, as well as their behavioral support for child learning, when designing interventions to enhance the school success of children in low-income families. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The cognitive approach on self-confidence of the girl students with academic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ommolbanin Sheibani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consequences of behavior attributed to external factors as chance, luck or help of other people are effective on one's self confidence and educational improvement. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of teaching “locus of control” on the basis of cognitive approach on Yazd high school students' self confidence.Materials and Method: This descriptive analytic research is done as an experimental project by using pre-test and post-test method on 15 first-grade high school students in Yazd city during 1387-88 educational year. The participants were chosen by the multistage cluster random sampling. Fifteen students were also chosen as the control group. The instruments used in this research were Eysenk self confidence test and also the “locus of control” teaching program. A t-test was used for the statistical analysis of the present study.Results: The results of the statistical analyses showed that there is a significant difference between the experimental and control group (p=0.01 in increasing the self confidence. Also the results of the t-test revealed that there is no significant difference in the educational improvement of the experimental group before and after teaching “locus of control”.Conclusion: According to this study, teaching “locus of control” on the basis of the cognitive approach has a significant effect on the self confidence but it doesn't have any positive effect on educational improvement

  9. Academic Motivation Scale: adaptation and psychometric analyses for high school and college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Juliana Beatriz; de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Boubeta, Antonio Rial; Liporace, Mercedes Fernández

    2012-01-01

    The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), supported in Self-Determination Theory, has been applied in recent decades as well in high school as in college education. Although several versions in Spanish are available, the underlying linguistic and cultural differences raise important issues when they are applied to Latin-American population. Consequently an adapted version of the AMS was developed, and its construct validity was analyzed in Argentine students. Results obtained on a sample that included 723 students from Buenos Aires (393 high school and 330 college students) verified adequate psychometric properties in this new version, solving some controversies regarded to its dimensionality.

  10. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY USE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF STUDENTS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Said Rabayah

    2014-01-01

    The association between ICT diffusion and education is a subject of hot debate in both ICT and educational circles. Stances range from positive enthusiast, to skeptics, to disbelievers vis-a-vis the impact of ICT on students’ achievements. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the presence of any correlation between students’ academic achievements as recorded by Trends in International Mathematics and Science (TIMMS 2011) and the penetration of ICT in their schools and households, with ...

  11. Fractured academic identities: dyslexia, secondary education, self-esteem and school experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Lithari, Eleni

    2018-01-01

    Identity construction for individuals with dyslexia is significantly moulded by their transition to and experiences within secondary education. This is an interview-based study with 20 participants living in England. Support-related school experiences, relationships with teachers, societal perceptions about the importance of literacy and academic achievement and the reactions of others around them are the core focus. The theoretical basis was symbolic interactionism and this paper aims to ext...

  12. Teacher Variables As Predictors of Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedeji TELLA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between Teacher self- efficacy, interest, attitude, qualification, experience and pupils’ academic achievement in primary school mathematics. The participants of the study comprises of 254 primary school teachers and 120 primary school pupils. Data collected on the study were analysed using a stepwise multiple regression analysis. The results reveals that teacher self – efficacy and interest had significant correlation with pupils achievement scores. Teacher’s self-efficacy being the best predictor of pupils’ academic achievement in mathematics was followed by teacher’s interest. Attitude, qualification and experience were not significant correlation with pupil’s achievement in mathematics. The study recommended that it is high time for primary school mathematics teachers to have a change of attitude towards the teaching of the subject so that the achievement of universal basic education will not be hindered. Furthermore, primary school educational authorities were called upon to ensure that only teachers who are qualified to teach the subject are employed. Not these alone, their attention was also drawn to the fact that they should design educational programmes that will enhance the teacher self- efficacy for a better prediction of pupils’ achievement in mathematics.

  13. Profile formation of academic self-concept in elementary school students in grades 1 to 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Schmidt

    Full Text Available Academic self-concept (ASC is comprised of individual perceptions of one's own academic ability. In a cross-sectional quasi-representative sample of 3,779 German elementary school children in grades 1 to 4, we investigated (a the structure of ASC, (b ASC profile formation, an aspect of differentiation that is reflected in lower correlations between domain-specific ASCs with increasing grade level, (c the impact of (internal dimensional comparisons of one's own ability in different school subjects for profile formation of ASC, and (d the role played by differences in school grades between subjects for these dimensional comparisons. The nested Marsh/Shavelson model, with general ASC at the apex and math, writing, and reading ASC as specific factors nested under general ASC fitted the data at all grade levels. A first-order factor model with math, writing, reading, and general ASCs as correlated factors provided a good fit, too. ASC profile formation became apparent during the first two to three years of school. Dimensional comparisons across subjects contributed to ASC profile formation. School grades enhanced these comparisons, especially when achievement profiles were uneven. In part, findings depended on the assumed structural model of ASCs. Implications for further research are discussed with special regard to factors influencing and moderating dimensional comparisons.

  14. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: a Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy change to address insufficient sleep in this population and potentially to improve students’ academic performance, reduce engagement in risk behaviors, and improve health. METHODS This paper reviews 38 reports examining the association between school start times, sleep, and other outcomes among adolescent students. RESULTS Most studies reviewed provide evidence that delaying school start time increases weeknight sleep duration among adolescents, primarily by delaying rise times. Most of the studies saw a significant increase in sleep duration even with relatively small delays in start times of half an hour or so. Later start times also generally correspond to improved attendance, less tardiness, less falling asleep in class, better grades, and fewer motor vehicle crashes. CONCLUSIONS Although additional research is necessary, research results that are already available should be disseminated to stakeholders to enable the development of evidence-based school policies. PMID:27040474

  15. Tree cover and species composition effects on academic performance of primary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivarajah, Sivajanani; Smith, Sandy M; Thomas, Sean C

    2018-01-01

    Human exposure to green space and vegetation is widely recognized to result in physical and mental health benefits; however, to date, the specific effects of tree cover, diversity, and species composition on student academic performance have not been investigated. We compiled standardized performance scores in Grades 3 and 6 for the collective student body in 387 schools across the Toronto District School Board (TDSB), and examined variation in relation to tree cover, tree diversity, and tree species composition based on comprehensive inventories of trees on school properties combined with aerial-photo-based assessments of tree cover. Analyses accounted for variation due to socioeconomic factors using the learning opportunity index (LOI), a regional composite index of external challenges to learning that incorporates income and other factors, such as students with English as a second language. As expected, LOI had the greatest influence on student academic performance; however, the proportion of tree cover, as distinct from other types of "green space" such as grass, was found to be a significant positive predictor of student performance, accounting for 13% of the variance explained in a statistical model predicting mean student performance assessments. The effects of tree cover and species composition were most pronounced in schools that showed the highest level of external challenges, suggesting the importance of urban forestry investments in these schools.

  16. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Croft, Janet B

    2016-05-01

    Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy change to address insufficient sleep in this population and potentially to improve students' academic performance, reduce engagement in risk behaviors, and improve health. This article reviews 38 reports examining the association between school start times, sleep, and other outcomes among adolescent students. Most studies reviewed provide evidence that delaying school start time increases weeknight sleep duration among adolescents, primarily by delaying rise times. Most of the studies saw a significant increase in sleep duration even with relatively small delays in start times of half an hour or so. Later start times also generally correspond to improved attendance, less tardiness, less falling asleep in class, better grades, and fewer motor vehicle crashes. Although additional research is necessary, research results that are already available should be disseminated to stakeholders to enable the development of evidence-based school policies. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Academic performance in the high school mathematics standardized test at metropolitan and remote areas of Costa Rica schools in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Castillo-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the academic performance of students from urban and distant areas in the national mathematics test corresponding to the completion of secondary education, considering the specific test and according to the different types of schools: daytime (daytime scientific, daytime humanistic, nighttime, technical or integrated centers for education of young people and adults (CINDEA, in its Spanish acronym.  The main objective is to describe the students academic performance in the national mathematics test issued to complete high-school level, for the year 2013 and according to the country educational areas.  For the analysis of such information, the main source used was the High-School Education National Report, issued by the Ministry of Public Education for 2013 standardized tests.  One of the conclusions from this study is the need to carry out a historical analysis of the performance of educational institutions which have recently obtained the highest and lowest average grades in the high-school diploma tests, in order to be able to delve into the causes of those performances.

  18. The Relationship between Academic Achievement and the Emotional Well-Being of Elementary School Children in China: The Moderating Role of Parent-School Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bo; Zhou, Huan; Guo, Xiaolin; Liu, Chunhui; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between academic achievement and the subjective well-being of elementary school children has received increasing attention. However, previous research on the relationship between these variables has yielded inconsistent conclusions - possibly due to the presence of potential moderating variables. This study investigated the relationship between the academic achievement and the emotional well-being (positive and negative affect) of elementary school children in China and the moderating effect of parent-school communication on this relationship. A total of 419 elementary school students and their parents participated. The elementary students' positive and negative affect, their academic achievement on both midterm and final examinations of the most recent semester, and the frequency of parent-school communication were assessed. Academic achievement of elementary students was positively correlated with positive affect and negatively correlated with negative affect. Parent-school communication significantly moderated this relationship. Regardless of positive or negative affect, the correlation was only significant in the high parent-school communication group (one standard deviation higher than the mean) and in the mean group, whereas in the low parent-school communication group, no association was observed. These results indicate that parental engagement with school impacts both the academic achievements and subjective well-being of children in China.

  19. Adolescents' Perceptions of the Economy: Its Association with Academic Engagement and the Role of School-Based and Parental Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nancy E; Liang, Belle; Bravo, Diamond Y; Price, Maggi; Polk, Whitney; Perella, John; Savitz-Romer, Mandy

    2018-05-01

    In the context of widespread media coverage of economic problems, un- and under-employment, and overwhelming student loan debt, youth are making sense of the prospects of getting a job and value of education. Further, they are assessing the implications of the job market in curtailing or enhancing their future success. School-based and familial relationships may support students in making sense of the job market. The current study focuses on how youth view the economy, its association with academic engagement, and how parental and school-based relationships shape views of the job market and their impact on academic engagement. With an ethnically diverse sample of high school students (N = 624; 54% female), perceptions of the job market were tested as mediators and moderators of the relations between school-based relationships and parenting on academic engagement. Using structural equation modeling, job market pessimism mediated the relation between school-based relationships and engagement. School-based relationships and parenting practices moderated the relation between job market pessimism and academic engagement. At high levels of parental and school support, interpreted as increased centrality and salience of academic success, there was a stronger negative association between job market pessimism and academic engagement. This set of findings indicates that high school students are thinking about the job market in ways that impact their engagement in school. These findings extend theories that have focused on the job market and the likelihood of dropping out of school or enrolling in post-secondary education. These findings are significant because just staying in school is not enough to succeed. With increased emphasis on college and career readiness, students are required to be more planful and purposeful during high school in order to succeed in the job market.

  20. How well Are Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Doing Academically at School? An Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Deb; Webster, Amanda; Ridley, Greta

    2016-01-01

    The academic achievement of individuals with autism spectrum disorder has received little attention from researchers despite the importance placed on this by schools, families and students with autism spectrum disorder. Investigating factors that lead to increased academic achievement thus would appear to be very important. A review of the…

  1. Relationship between Admission, Extracurricular Services and Academic Achievement in Secondary Schools: A Partial Least Square (PLS) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Yusuf; Hanaf, Zahyah Bt; Bin Taslikhan, Muhajir

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the nexus between two dimensions of student personnel services (Admission Services, Extracurricular Services) academic achievement in secondary schools with the particular interest to know the significant impact of these services on students' academic achievement. It is believed that the provision of these services are…

  2. Academic Performance, Course Completion Rates, and Student Perception of the Quality and Frequency of Interaction in a Virtual High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Abigail; Graham, Charles R.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Barbour, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between students' perceptions of teacher-student interaction and academic performance at an asynchronous, self-paced, statewide virtual high school. Academic performance was measured by grade awarded and course completion. There were 2269 students who responded to an 18-item survey designed to measure student…

  3. Factorial Invariance of the Academic Amotivation Inventory (AAI) across Gender and Grade in a Sample of Canadian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-Demers, Isabelle; Legault, Lisa; Pelletier, Daniel; Pelletier, Luc G.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation deficits are common in high school and constitute a significant problem for both students and teachers. The Academic Amotivation Inventory (AAI) was developed to measure the multidimensional nature of the academic amotivation construct (Legault, Green-Demers, & Pelletier, 2006). The present project further examined the consistency…

  4. Impact of Discipline on Academic Performance of Pupils in Public Primary Schools in Muhoroni Sub-County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simba, Nicholas Odoyo; Agak, John Odwar; Kabuka, Eric K.

    2016-01-01

    In Muhoroni Sub-County, Kenya, pupils' academic performance has received little attention in relation to discipline. The objectives of this study were to determine the level of discipline and extent of impact of discipline on academic performance among class eight pupils in the sub-county's public primary schools. The study adopted descriptive…

  5. Bullshit in Academic Writing: A Protocol Analysis of a High School Senior's Process of Interpreting "Much Ado about Nothing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Daigle, Elizabeth Anne; O'Donnell-Allen, Cindy; Bynum, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study of one high school senior's process of academic bullshitting as she wrote an analytic essay interpreting Shakespeare's "Much Ado about Nothing." The construct of bullshit has received little scholarly attention; although it is known as a common phenomenon in academic speech and writing, it has rarely been the subject…

  6. Divine Interventions: Needs Analysis for Post-Graduate Academic Literacy and Curriculum Development, in a South African School of Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Fiona

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a critical exploration of work in progress to develop a genre based academic support that promotes post-graduate academic literacies among new EIL and EAL Hons and Masters students in the School of Theology, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg. It traces the path of an action research project, using an eclectic needs analysis…

  7. Gender matters, too: the influences of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, Tabbye M; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-05-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination experiences on academic outcomes. Racial centrality related positively to school performance and school importance attitudes for boys. Also, centrality moderated the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed across gender. For boys, higher racial centrality related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades from experiencing classroom discrimination relative to boys lower in centrality, and girls with higher centrality were protected against the negative impact of peer discrimination on school importance and academic self-concept. However, among lower race-central girls, peer discrimination related positively to academic self-concept. Finally, socioeconomic background moderated the relationship of discrimination with academic outcomes differently for girls and boys. The authors discuss the need to consider interactions of individual- and contextual-level factors in better understanding African American youths' academic and social development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Co-occurrences between adolescent substance use and academic performance: school context influences a multilevel-longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernando H

    2014-08-01

    A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Impact of Home Environment Factors on Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Garki Area District, Abuja - Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    L. T. Dzever

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of home environment factors on the academic performance of public secondary school students in Garki Area District, Abuja, Nigeria. The stratified sampling technique was used to select 300 students from six public schools, while the simple random sampling technique was used to administer the questionnaire. The study utilized a descriptive survey research design for the study. Also, data on student’s academic performance was obtained from student’s scores in four ...

  10. Race and Academic Achievement in Racially Diverse High Schools: Opportunity and Stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Chandra; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Schiller, Kathryn S; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Frank, Kenneth A

    2010-04-01

    BACKGROUND/CONTEXT: Brown v Board of Education fundamentally changed our nation's schools, yet we know surprisingly little about how and whether they provide equality of educational opportunity. Although substantial evidence suggests that African American and Latino students who attend these schools face fewer learning opportunities than their White counterparts, until now, it has been impossible to examine this using a representative sample because of lack of data. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE/RESEARCH QUESTION/FOCUS OF STUDY: This study uses newly available data to investigate whether racially diverse high schools offer equality of educational opportunity to students from different racial and ethnic groups. This is examined by measuring the relative representation of minority students in advanced math classes at the beginning of high school and estimating whether and how this opportunity structure limits the level of achievement attained by African American and Latino students by the end of high school. SETTING: This study uses data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and its partner study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a stratified, nationally representative study of students in U.S. high schools first surveyed in 1994-1995. POPULATION/PARTICIPANTS/SUBJECTS: Two samples of racially diverse high schools were used in the analysis: one with African Americans, Whites, and Asians (26 schools with 3,149 students), and the other with Latinos, Whites, and Asians (22 schools with 2,775 students). RESEARCH DESIGN: Quantitative analyses first assess how high schools vary in the extent to which minority students are underrepresented in advanced sophomore math classes. Hierarchical multilevel modeling is then used to estimate whether racial-ethnic differences in representation in advanced math have an impact on African American and Latino students' achievement by the end of high school, relative to the Whites and Asians

  11. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below), city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34) that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800), a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores) and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden.

  12. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andres Cartes-Velasquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below, city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34 that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800, a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden.

  13. The Effects of Teacher Perceptions of Administrative Support, School Climate, and Academic Success in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lakishia N.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher turnover refers to major changes in teachers' assignments from one school year to the next. Past research has given an overview of several factors of teacher turnover. These factors include the school environment, teacher collaborative efforts, administrative support, school climate, location, salary, classroom management, academic…

  14. Academic Differentiation, School Achievement and School Violence in the USA and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Motoko; Han, Seunghee

    2007-01-01

    Whilst school violence is a major public concern and a focus of educational reforms both in the USA and South Korea, few studies have comparatively examined the rates of school violence and school factors associated with them. Analysing nationally-representative data from eighth graders, their mathematics teachers and principals in 150 South…

  15. Testing the Difference between School Level and Academic Mindset in the Classroom: Implications for Developing Student Psycho-Social Skills in Secondary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between school level and the psychosocial construct of an academic mindset operationalized on the Likert-style Project for "Educational Research That Scales" (PERTS) instrument; widely used in testing academic mindset interventions at the classroom level. Analyses were conducted using existing school…

  16. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee; Kirk, Sara; Kuhle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed throu...

  17. Change in weight status and academic performance among senior high school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Wang, Jiun-Hao; Wu, Min-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how the changes in weight status across the spectrum of a senior high school study are associated with academic performance measured by the university entrance exam scores. A unique dataset which compiles a national health examination profile and the General Scholastic Ability Test data bank in Taiwan was constructed. The final sample comprised 149,240 senior high school students of which 70,662 were males and 78,578 were female students. The school-level fixed effect models were estimated. Students who were either (a) not overweight in the first year but overweight in the third year of senior high school, (b) overweight in both the first and third year, or (c) overweight in the first year but not overweight in the third year, were more likely to score lower on the university entrance exam, compared with their never-overweight counterparts. The findings differ by gender and test subjects. The change in weight status during senior high school period is associated with subsequent university entrance exam outcome. Students who start senior high school being overweight should be paid attention. School-based programs and practices need to be implemented to reduce the prevalence of overweight among students.

  18. New Academic Partnerships in Global Health: Innovations at Mount Sinai School of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Philip J.; Ripp, Jonathan; Murphy, Ramon J. C.; Claudio, Luz; Jao, Jennifer; Hexom, Braden; Bloom, Harrison G.; Shirazian, Taraneh; Elahi, Ebby; Koplan, Jeffrey P.

    2011-01-01

    Global health has become an increasingly important focus of education, research, and clinical service in North American universities and academic health centers. Today there are at least 49 academically based global health programs in the United States and Canada, as compared with only one in 1999. A new academic society, the Consortium of Universities for Global Health, was established in 2008 and has grown significantly. This sharp expansion reflects convergence of 3 factors: (1) rapidly growing student and faculty interest in global health; (2) growing realization–powerfully catalyzed by the acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic, the emergence of other new infections, climate change, and globalization–that health problems are interconnected, cross national borders, and are global in nature; and (3) rapid expansion in resources for global health. This article examines the evolution of the concept of global health and describes the driving forces that have accelerated interest in the field. It traces the development of global health programs in academic health centers in the United States. It presents a blueprint for a new school-wide global health program at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. The mission of that program, Mount Sinai Global Health, is to enhance global health as an academic field of study within the Mount Sinai community and to improve the health of people around the world. Mount Sinai Global Health is uniting and building synergies among strong, existing global health programs within Mount Sinai; it is training the next generation of physicians and health scientists to be leaders in global health; it is making novel discoveries that translate into blueprints for improving health worldwide; and it builds on Mount Sinai’s long and proud tradition of providing medical and surgical care in places where need is great and resources few. PMID:21598272

  19. Energy drinks, caffeine, junk food, breakfast, depression and academic attainment of secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Richards, Gareth

    2018-06-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed, and concerns have been raised about possible negative outcomes. The aim of the present research was to examine associations between consumption of energy drinks, caffeine and junk food, and academic attainment in a sample of UK secondary school students. A total of 3071 students agreed to participate in the study; 2677 completed the survey on one occasion (52.4% female, 47.6% male; approximately 20% of the sample from each school year) and 1660 (49.6% female, 50.4% male) completed the survey a second time, approximately six months later. The academic attainment measure was based on Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4 grades for Maths and English. In the cross-sectional analyses, logistic regressions showed that consumption of energy drinks was associated with a greater likelihood of being in the low academic achievement group. This was not found for other sources of caffeine. The effect of energy drinks was still significant when demographic, academic and health/lifestyle variables were covaried. However, inclusion of an unhealthy diet variable (junk food) removed the significant effect of energy drinks. Similar observations were made in the longitudinal study, with the poorer attainment of those who consumed energy drinks reflecting breakfast omission and depression. The present findings indicate that consumption of energy drinks is associated with an increased likelihood of poor academic attainment that reflects energy drink consumption being part of an unhealthy diet or being associated with skipping breakfast rather than a more specific effect, such as being a source of caffeine. Although the current study extends previous research by utilising a longitudinal design, intervention studies are now required to better answer questions relating to causality and direction of effect.

  20. "Straw Bonnets" to Superior Schooling: The "Failure" of the Charity School Movement in the Context of Nineteenth-Century Ireland--A Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The spectacular growth and equally spectacular decline of the eighteenth-century charity school movement prompts this examination of the contribution made by the movement to nineteenth-century schooling--particularly superior or secondary schooling. Educational historians have argued that the movement was a failure. This paper argues that only in…