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Sample records for academic communalism values

  1. From Bench to Bedside: A communal utility value intervention to enhance students’ biomedical science motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R.; Smith, Jessi L.; Thoman, Dustin B.; Allen, Jill M.; Muragishi, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Motivating students to pursue science careers is a top priority among many science educators. We add to the growing literature by examining the impact of a utility value intervention to enhance student’s perceptions that biomedical science affords important utility work values. Using an expectancy-value perspective we identify and test two types of utility value: communal (other-oriented) and agentic (self-oriented). The culture of science is replete with examples emphasizing high levels of agentic value, but communal values are often (stereotyped as) absent from science. However, people in general want an occupation that has communal utility. We predicted and found that an intervention emphasizing the communal utility value of biomedical research increased students’ motivation for biomedical science (Studies 1–3). We refined whether different types of communal utility value (working with, helping, and forming relationships with others) might be more or less important, demonstrating that helping others was an especially important predictor of student motivation (Study 2). Adding agentic utility value to biomedical research did not further increase student motivation (Study 3). Furthermore, the communal value intervention indirectly impacted students’ motivation because students believed that biomedical research was communal and thus subsequently more important (Studies 1–3). This is key, because enhancing student communal value beliefs about biomedical research (Studies 1–3) and science (Study 4) was associated both with momentary increases in motivation in experimental settings (Studies 1–3) and increased motivation over time among students highly identified with biomedicine (Study 4). We discuss recommendations for science educators, practitioners, and faculty mentors who want to broaden participation in science. PMID:26617417

  2. From Bench to Bedside: A communal utility value intervention to enhance students' biomedical science motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Smith, Jessi L; Thoman, Dustin B; Allen, Jill M; Muragishi, Gregg

    2015-11-01

    Motivating students to pursue science careers is a top priority among many science educators. We add to the growing literature by examining the impact of a utility value intervention to enhance student's perceptions that biomedical science affords important utility work values. Using an expectancy-value perspective we identify and test two types of utility value: communal (other-oriented) and agentic (self-oriented). The culture of science is replete with examples emphasizing high levels of agentic value, but communal values are often (stereotyped as) absent from science. However, people in general want an occupation that has communal utility. We predicted and found that an intervention emphasizing the communal utility value of biomedical research increased students' motivation for biomedical science (Studies 1-3). We refined whether different types of communal utility value (working with, helping, and forming relationships with others) might be more or less important, demonstrating that helping others was an especially important predictor of student motivation (Study 2). Adding agentic utility value to biomedical research did not further increase student motivation (Study 3). Furthermore, the communal value intervention indirectly impacted students' motivation because students believed that biomedical research was communal and thus subsequently more important (Studies 1-3). This is key, because enhancing student communal value beliefs about biomedical research (Studies 1-3) and science (Study 4) was associated both with momentary increases in motivation in experimental settings (Studies 1-3) and increased motivation over time among students highly identified with biomedicine (Study 4). We discuss recommendations for science educators, practitioners, and faculty mentors who want to broaden participation in science.

  3. Pursuit of communal values in an agentic manner: A way to happiness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Elisabeth Abele

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research studies the association between traits, values and life satisfaction. While values should influence the direction of an individual’s goals and behaviour, his/her traits impact effort expenditure, efficiency and persistence in goal-pursuit. We apply the framework of the Big Two of agency and communion (Bakan, 1966 for distinguishing the content of values and traits. While agentic content refers to qualities relevant for goal-attainment, such as assertiveness, competence or persistence, communal content refers to qualities relevant for the establishment and maintenance of social relationships, such as being friendly, helpful, or fair. We predict that high scores on communal values and high scores on agentic traits are associated with life satisfaction. We test these predictions in two studies conducted in different countries (Germany and Russia with different cultural background. The findings support our reasoning: Across both countries we find positive associations of communal values and agentic traits with life satisfaction; and individuals high in communal values and high in agentic traits are most satisfied with their lives. In Russia, the association of communal values with life satisfaction is moderated by agentic traits; in Germany, however, there is a main effect of communal values.

  4. Pursuit of communal values in an agentic manner: a way to happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Andrea E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research studies the association between traits, values, and life satisfaction. While values should influence the direction of an individual’s goals and behavior, his/her traits impact effort-expenditure, efficiency, and persistence in goal-pursuit. We apply the framework of the “Big Two” of agency and communion (Bakan, 1966) for distinguishing the content of values and traits. While agentic content refers to qualities relevant for goal-attainment, such as assertiveness, competence or persistence, communal content refers to qualities relevant for the establishment and maintenance of social relationships, such as being friendly, helpful, or fair. We predict that high scores on communal values and high scores on agentic traits are associated with life satisfaction. We test these predictions in two studies conducted in different countries (Germany and Russia) with different cultural background. The findings support our reasoning: across both countries we find positive associations of communal values and agentic traits with life satisfaction; and individuals high in communal values and high in agentic traits are most satisfied with their lives. In Russia, the association of communal values with life satisfaction is moderated by agentic traits; in Germany, however, there is a main effect of communal values. PMID:25477843

  5. The erosion of African communal values: a reappraisal of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the question: How can we retrieve the communal cultural values of tolerance, humanity, respect and some of common elements of our cultural treasures of Ubuntu that African communities used to be proud of? Using the philosophy of Ubuntu as a hermeneutic key, I argue that any member of a community whose personal ...

  6. Biodiversity conservation values of fragmented communally reserved forests, managed by indigenous people, in a human-modified landscape in Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Soda, Ryoji; Diway, Bibian; Kuda, Tinjan ak.; Nakagawa, Michiko; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the conservation values of communally reserved forests (CRFs), which local indigenous communities deliberately preserve within their area of shifting cultivation. In the current landscape of rural Borneo, CRFs are the only option for conservation because other forested areas have already been logged or transformed into plantations. By analyzing their alpha and beta diversity, we investigated how these forests can contribute to restore regional biodiversity. Although CRFs w...

  7. The Value of Research in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Gay Helen; Slowik, Amy J. W.

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of 2010, two researchers interviewed twenty-three library administrators of comparable academic libraries at American universities for their views of the value of research in academic libraries. The interview questions focused on the administrators' perceived value of academic librarians' research, incentives given to academic…

  8. Igbo- communalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    influence on different aspects of Igbo life. The idea of. Ibuanyidanda as an aspect of Igbo communalism developed as a result of the fact that man is a social being who necessarily lives in the company of other human beings. “The Igbo sees this social collaboration as a natural legacy which ought to be lived, recognized at ...

  9. Biodiversity conservation values of fragmented communally reserved forests, managed by indigenous people, in a human-modified landscape in Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi Takeuchi

    Full Text Available This study explored the conservation values of communally reserved forests (CRFs, which local indigenous communities deliberately preserve within their area of shifting cultivation. In the current landscape of rural Borneo, CRFs are the only option for conservation because other forested areas have already been logged or transformed into plantations. By analyzing their alpha and beta diversity, we investigated how these forests can contribute to restore regional biodiversity. Although CRFs were fragmented and some had been disturbed in the past, their tree species diversity was high and equivalent to that of primary forests. The species composition of intact forests and forests disturbed in the past did not differ clearly, which indicates that past logging was not intensive. All CRFs contained unique and endangered species, which are on the IUCN Red List, Sarawak protected plants, or both. On the other hand, the forest size structure differed between disturbed and intact CRFs, with the disturbed CRFs consisting of relatively smaller trees. Although the beta diversity among CRFs was also high, we found a high contribution of species replacement (turnover, but not of richness difference, in the total beta diversity. This suggests that all CRFs have a conservation value for restoring the overall regional biodiversity. Therefore, for maintaining the regional species diversity and endangered species, it would be suitable to design a conservation target into all CRFs.

  10. Biodiversity conservation values of fragmented communally reserved forests, managed by indigenous people, in a human-modified landscape in Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Soda, Ryoji; Diway, Bibian; Kuda, Tinjan Ak; Nakagawa, Michiko; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the conservation values of communally reserved forests (CRFs), which local indigenous communities deliberately preserve within their area of shifting cultivation. In the current landscape of rural Borneo, CRFs are the only option for conservation because other forested areas have already been logged or transformed into plantations. By analyzing their alpha and beta diversity, we investigated how these forests can contribute to restore regional biodiversity. Although CRFs were fragmented and some had been disturbed in the past, their tree species diversity was high and equivalent to that of primary forests. The species composition of intact forests and forests disturbed in the past did not differ clearly, which indicates that past logging was not intensive. All CRFs contained unique and endangered species, which are on the IUCN Red List, Sarawak protected plants, or both. On the other hand, the forest size structure differed between disturbed and intact CRFs, with the disturbed CRFs consisting of relatively smaller trees. Although the beta diversity among CRFs was also high, we found a high contribution of species replacement (turnover), but not of richness difference, in the total beta diversity. This suggests that all CRFs have a conservation value for restoring the overall regional biodiversity. Therefore, for maintaining the regional species diversity and endangered species, it would be suitable to design a conservation target into all CRFs.

  11. Sustainability of a Community-Based Enterprise through shared value. Case: Mallay Communal Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Munoz Marticorena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of a community-based enterprise (CBE and a mining company was reviewed from the perspective of shared value creation. Specifically, through the study of the Mallay CBE and its interaction with the Buenaventura mining company, the opportunity to create economic value by creating value for the community was verified. The CBE is an organizational innovation whose management is oriented towards the market, integrating its activities with the operative dynamics of the mining company through the provision of services. CBE focuses on member’s economic benefit and the social welfare of the broader community. There are, however, barriers that limit the growth and optimization of the desired impacts caused by this articulation. Despite this, the economic and social value generated is significant and the defined growth model under certain circumstances could be replicable and scalable.

  12. Individual Values, Learning Routines and Academic Procrastination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured routines for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. Aims: The…

  13. Managing "Academic Value": The 360-Degree Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret R.; Corr, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of all universities is to create and deliver "academic value", which we define as the sum total of the contributions from the 360-degree "angles" of the academic community, including all categories of staff, as well as external stakeholders (e.g. regulatory, commercial, professional and community…

  14. Using biodiversity stewardship as a means to secure the natural wild values on communal land in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin McCann; Roelie Kloppers; Andrew Venter

    2015-01-01

    South Africa is one of the most biodiversity-rich countries in the world, with much valuable biodiversity situated on a range of different land tenure types, including state, private and communal land. Despite this, these wild lands are being lost at an unprecedented rate, with the resultant loss of natural areas and associated ecosystem services. The challenge lies in...

  15. Individual values, learning routines and academic procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan

    2007-12-01

    Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured routines for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. The model tested in this study posits that postmodern value orientations are positively related to procrastination and to a lack of daily routines concerning the performance of academic activities. In contrast, modern values are negatively related to procrastination and positively to learning routines. Academic procrastination, in-turn, should be associated with the tendency to prefer leisure activities to schoolwork in case of conflicts between these two life domains. Seven hundred and four students from 6th and 8th grade with a mean age of 13.5 years participated in the study. The sample included students from all tracks of the German educational system. Students completed a questionnaire containing two value prototypes as well as scales on learning routines and procrastination. Decisions in motivational conflicts were measured using two vignettes. Results from structural equation modelling supported the proposed model for the whole sample as well as for each school track. A planned course of the day can prevent procrastination and foster decisions for academic tasks in case of conflicts. Students' learning takes place within a societal context and reflects the values held in the respective culture.

  16. Broad themes of difference between French and Americans in attitudes to food and other life domains: Personal versus communal values, quantity versus quality, and comforts versus joys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eRozin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of previous literature on the role of food in life in France and the United States suggests some fundamental differences in attitudes which may generalize outside of the food domain. Questionnaire results from French and American adults suggest that, compared to the French, Americans emphasize quantity rather than quality in making choices, Americans have a higher preference for variety, and Americans usually prefer comforts (things that make life easier over joys (unique things that make life interesting. The American preference for quantity over quality is discussed in terms of the American focus on abundance as opposed to the French preference for moderation. The American preference for variety is reflective of Americans’ more personal as opposed to communal food and other values.

  17. Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…

  18. The academic value of rehabilitation medicine meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Manoj; Smith, Matthew; Bavikatte, Ganesh; Bradley, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Twice-yearly meetings of The British Society of Rehabilitation Medicine (BSRM) take place at which posters and free papers are generated, as abstracts, to present novel research findings, audits and case reports. The aim of this study was to evaluate the academic value of these meetings, by determining the subsequent rate of publication in peer-reviewed journals of abstracts presented. This was compared to the publication rate of other European medical specialist society meetings. The authors used MEDLINE, PubMed and Google Scholar search engines to look for publication of abstracts presented at BSRM meetings within peer-reviewed journals over a 7-year period (2000-2006). The abstracts were categorised into sub-groups (original study, audit, review, case report and service description) to determine which type was more likely to be published. The above databases were used also to extract studies on publication rate of other medical specialties in Europe. In 7 years, a total of 251 abstracts (of which 152 are original studies) have been presented as free papers or posters in a total of 13 meetings. The publication rate for the described study categories were: total 34%, original study 52%, review 50%, case report 5%, audit 0% and service description 0%. Publication rates from other specialist meetings in Europe range from 10% to 70%. The average publication rate for an abstract submitted to a BSRM meeting is 34% for any abstract and 52% for an original study suggesting that the meeting is generating abstracts of comparable academic interest to other specialist societies.

  19. Academic Dishonesty Tendencies and Values of Teacher Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül KADI; Osman Ferda BEYTEKİN; Hasan ARSLAN

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the values and academic dishonesty tendencies of teacher candidates. The population of this study included teacher candidates who received pedagogic formation education during 2013-2014 academic semester at the Faculty of Education at Ege University. The study was conducted with 244 teacher candidates, who were chosen through convenient sampling method. Academic Dishonesty Tendency Scale and Portrait Values Questionnaire were used to collect data. It w...

  20. Academic Dishonesty Tendencies and Values of Teacher Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül KADI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the values and academic dishonesty tendencies of teacher candidates. The population of this study included teacher candidates who received pedagogic formation education during 2013-2014 academic semester at the Faculty of Education at Ege University. The study was conducted with 244 teacher candidates, who were chosen through convenient sampling method. Academic Dishonesty Tendency Scale and Portrait Values Questionnaire were used to collect data. It was a correlational study due to the investigation of the relationship between values and academic dishonesty tendencies of teacher candidates. It was also a survey study since the academic dishonesty tendencies and values of teacher candidates were examined in relation to demographic variables. The results suggested that there wass a significant difference between the values and academic dishonesty tendencies of teacher candidates for gender variable. The values and academic dishonesty tendencies of teacher candidates did not differ for different fields of study. There was not a significant relationship between the academic dishonesty tendencies and values of teacher candidates.

  1. Against African Communalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olúfẹ́mi Táíwò

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Communalism and its cognates continue to exercise a vise grip on the African intellectual imaginary. Whether the discussion is in ethics or social philosophy, in metaphysics or even, on occasion, epistemology, the play of communalism, a concept expounded in the next section, is so strong that it is difficult to escape its ubiquity. In spite of this, there is little serious analysis of the concept and its implications in the contemporary context. Yet, at no other time than now can a long-suffering continent use some robust debates on its multiple inheritances regarding how to organize life and thought in order to deliver a better future for its population. Given the continual resort to communalism as, among others, the standard of ethical behavior, the blueprint for restoring Africans to wholeness and organizing our social life, as well as a template for political reorganization across the continent, one cannot overemphasize the importance of contributing some illumination to the discourse surrounding the idea. This essay seeks to offer a little illumination in this respect. Additionally, it offers a criticism of what all—proponents and antagonists alike—take to be a defensible version of communalism: moderate communalism. I shall be arguing that communalism, generally, has a problem with the individual. And the African variant of it, mostly subscribed to by the African scholars discussed below and defended by them as something either peculiar to or special in Africa, has an even harder time accommodating the individual. Yet, as history shows, until the modern age in which individualism is the principle of social ordering and mode of social living, a situation that privileges the individual, above all, various forms of communalism never really accorded the individual the recognition and forbearances that we now commonly associate with the idea. The strongest variants of moderate communalism discussed here have a difficult time taking the

  2. Balancing Managerial and Academic Values: Mid-Level Academic Management at a Private University in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thian, Lok Boon; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Idris, Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Representing both "central university administration" and academics, deans are increasingly being confronted with the competing managerial and academic values. Being able to manage the competing values is pivotal to the success of a dean. However, there is dearth of research studying this. Considering the for-profit private…

  3. African Communalism and Globalization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    Abstract. The certainty of African philosophy during pre-colonial Africa is no longer in doubt. Doubting such a claim is denying the existence of the African race which may be self contradictory. As this work observes, African philosophy which is all encompassing, is inbuilt in African communalism through which indigenous ...

  4. Does Enjoying Friendship Help or Impede Academic Achievement? Academic and Social Intrinsic Value Profiles Predict Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunjin; Lee, You-kyung

    2018-01-01

    We examine the intrinsic value students placed on schoolwork (i.e. academic intrinsic value) and social relationships (i.e. social intrinsic value). We then look at how these values predict middle and high school achievement. To do this, we came up with four profiles based on cluster analyses of 6,562 South Korean middle school students. The four…

  5. How Academic Libraries Provide Value through Course Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacaru, Simona; Hartnett, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Academic libraries are continually being asked to demonstrate their value. Showing benefits that provide financial value to the user community is one approach to meeting this challenge. With a focus on journal articles and monographs, the authors have analyzed course syllabi to determine the cost savings graduate students in psychology receive…

  6. The Effects of Looping on Perceived Values and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carmen; Arenz, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of looping, a practice whereby teachers and students stay together for more than one year, on perceived values and academic achievement in language arts at a Fresno Unified School District elementary school in Fresno, CA. Looping has many perceived advantages, such as the development of long-term…

  7. Cross-Generational Valuing among Peer Academic Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, Gail; Coonin, Bryna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the skills, knowledge, abilities or dispositions that are most valued and respected by academic librarians, and determined how these qualities might, or might not, be associated with generational membership. Other variables included institutional classification, career length, years since first professional degree, and…

  8. From Classroom to Career: The Unique Role of Communal Processes in Predicting Interest in STEM Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuesting, Melissa A.; Diekman, Amanda B.; Hudiburgh, Lynette

    2017-01-01

    The current studies investigated how interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers is predicted both by academic motivation as well as by beliefs that STEM careers allow the fulfillment of communal goals (i.e., "communal affordances"). This research also examines whether past course experiences of being…

  9. Does Communal Context Bring the Worst in Narcissists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarna Anna Z.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment (N = 95 investigated the relations of narcissism with social value orientation under façade conditions of testing communal or agentic traits (or none - in a control condition. The results indicated that narcissism predicted less willingness to share resources with others and more competitive orientation in a façade communal condition compared to the remaining two conditions: control and agentic. The results confirm narcissistic disregard for communal domain and are consistent with the extended agency model of narcissism and the “success as a drawback” effect.

  10. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  11. Academic Library Administrators Perceive Value in Their Librarians’ Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Sullo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Perkins, G.H. & Slowik, A.J.W. (2013. The value of research in academic libraries. College & Research Libraries, 74(2, 143-158. Retrieved from http://crl.acrl.org/content/74/2/143.full.pdf+html Abstract Objective – To explore academic library administrators’ perceived value of their librarians’ research, specifically the importance to the profession and the library community. Design – Qualitative, exploratory study using a survey questionnaire. Setting – Academic libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – 23 library administrators. Methods – During the summer of 2010, one of the authors conducted 20-30 minute telephone interviews with 23 academic library administrators. Interviews were recorded and transcribed for coding. Interview questions 1-3 and 8-19 were content-analyzed; the authors described common themes for each of these questions. Items 4-7 had Likert scale response formats, and a mean and standard deviation were computed for each of these items. Main Results – The benefits of librarians’ research included fulfilling tenure-track requirements, enriching relationships with teaching faculty, library faculty recognition, improved services and programs, collaboration with others, research result application to daily issues, development as librarians, and improved knowledge of the research field. The perceived current changes and future issues for university libraries included increased digitization of collections, scholarly communication, and expanded instructional engagement of faculty and students, as well as future economic downturn and budget cuts. Administrators noted several methods that influenced their thinking: professional meetings, reading professional journals, informal discussions with colleagues, and social media such as Facebook and Twitter. Academic library administrators used a variety of methods to support their librarians’ research. These included tenure-track requirements

  12. Misconception p value among Chilean and Italian academic psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Badenes-Ribera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The p value misconceptions are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals’ decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italians, 30 Chileans, questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with original research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed.

  13. A Survey of Current Valued Academic Leadership Qualities in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cheryl; Mitchell, Maureen M

    2016-01-01

    An informal survey was used to identify nurse faculty leadership qualities currently valued and relevant. The accelerating retirement rate for seasoned leaders has created a need for nurse educators and academic leaders. Our school was concerned that we were not meeting students' needs for today's leadership challenges. We were also interested in the experiences of leadership preparation. This was a cross-sectional, online survey of faculty at top nursing schools as determined by US News & World Report. The top leadership qualities identified were integrity, communication clarity, and problem-solving ability. Current challenges for leaders were finding qualified faculty, obtaining resources, and team building. The results may guide curricular adjustments and the transition to a new generation of nurse academic leaders.

  14. Academic Identity Tensions in the Public University: Which Values Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Richard P.; O'Donohue, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Our study explores the relationship between values and academic identity in the public university. Framing the study is the proposition public universities face academic identity tensions arising from pressures to combine and sustain competing and contradictory managerial (economic) and academic (professional) values systems. Academic responses to…

  15. Interpersonal values and Academic Performance related to Delinquent Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Mar Molero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the relation between delinquent behaviors, interpersonal values and academic performance. It also analyzes the possible protective function of interpersonal values against delinquent behaviors. The Interpersonal Values Questionnaire (IVQ was used to assess interpersonal values, and the Antisocial-Delinquent Behaviors Questionnaire (A-D was employed to assess antisocial behaviors. The sample was made up of 885 students of Compulsory Secondary Education, aged from 14 to 17 years. The results show that individuals who fail a subject as well as those who repeat a course present higher means in delinquent behaviors. Repeaters present higher means in the values of recognition and leadership, and non-repeaters in the value stimulation, whereas students who do not fail obtain higher scores in the value benevolence. Students with high levels of recognition, independence, and leadership, as well as students with low levels of conformity and benevolence display significantly higher levels of delinquent behaviors. Lastly, the probability of presenting a high level of delinquent behaviors is greater in individuals with: high independence, high leadership, high recognition, low benevolence, and low conformity.

  16. The value of speed mentoring in a pediatric academic organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwint, Janet R; Cellini, Melissa M; Spector, Nancy D; Gusic, Maryellen E

    2014-01-01

    A reliable and supportive mentor is indispensable to the career development of successful academic professionals. The Academic Pediatric Association (APA) utilized a speed mentoring format at the 2012 Pediatric Academic Societies meeting to enhance mentoring potential. We sought to evaluate the structure of the speed mentoring event and to determine the benefits and impact from the perspectives of the mentors and mentees. Sixty mentees were matched with 60 mentors within various tracks. Each mentee met with 6 mentors for 10 minutes for each dyad. Participants were then asked to complete a survey 1 to 4 weeks after the event. Survey items included expectation, impact, and value of the experience along with potential for ongoing mentoring relationships. Fifty-four (90%) of the 60 mentees and 52 (87%) of 60 of the mentors completed the evaluation. Mentees stated that the event allowed them to receive advice from multiple mentors in a short time period. Mentors appreciated that they gained new insights, reflected on their own careers, and were able to give back to their field. Both mentees and mentors agreed that the time was well spent, would participate again, and identified chemistry as a major factor in pursuing an ongoing relationship. This national speed mentoring event provided an innovative, fun, and time-efficient mechanism to establish connections, network, and determine whether chemistry existed for potential mentor-mentee relationships. Further study should evaluate whether it can be used in other venues and lead to the development of lasting mentor-mentee relationships. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), Communalism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper avers that most attempts at formulating viable theories in African philosophy are saddled with intrusions of ethnophilosophic and ethnocentric types: The author identifies this as the phenomenon of “unintended ethnocentric commitment”. He uses communalism, a socio-political theory in African philosophy, ...

  18. Influence of communal area grazing management system on the nutritive value of forages selected by cattle in a semi-arid area of Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hungwe, T.; Mugabe, P.; Mutisi, C.; Gandiwa, E.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of grazing management system on the nutritive value of forages selected by cattle. Animals were observed while grazing and the grazed samples were collected. The samples were analysed for chemical composition and digestibility. There were significant

  19. Making Value-Based Payment Work for Academic Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Harold D

    2015-10-01

    Under fee-for-service payment systems, physicians and hospitals can be financially harmed by delivering higher-quality, more efficient care. The author describes how current "value-based purchasing" initiatives fail to address the underlying problems in fee-for-service payment and can be particularly problematic for academic health centers (AHCs). Bundled payments, warranties, and condition-based payments can correct the problems with fee-for-service payments and enable physicians and hospitals to redesign care delivery without causing financial problems for themselves. However, the author explains several specific actions that are needed to ensure that payment reforms can be a "win-win-win" for patients, purchasers, and AHCs: (1) disconnecting funding for teaching and research from payment for service delivery, (2) providing predictable payment for essential hospital services, (3) improving the quality and efficiency of care at AHCs, and (4) supporting collaborative relationships between AHCs and community providers by allowing each to focus on their unique strengths and by paying AHC specialists to assist community providers in diagnosis and treatment. With appropriate payment reforms and a commitment by AHCs to redesign care delivery, medical education, and research, AHCs could provide the leadership needed to improve care for patients, lower costs for health care purchasers, and maintain the financial viability of both AHCs and community providers.

  20. The Value of Reflective: Functioning within an Academic Therapeutic Nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLonde, Mary M; Dreier, Mona; Aaronson, Gayle; O'Brien, John

    2015-01-01

    The self begins as a social self and is dependent on the other and the self-other relationship. Furthermore, shortly after birth, the intersubjective self is nurtured and sustained by the reciprocal interactions with the significant other. Recent research suggests that the significant other's reciprocity depends on his or her capacity for mentalization, and this reflective functioning capacity influences not only the child's developing sense of I, other, and we, but also his or her developing attachment pattern. Several studies have demonstrated that parental reflective functioning can be improved with intervention, and enhancing parental reflective functioning can lead to a more secure attachment pattern and better outcomes for the child and parent. Therefore, intervention with toddlers and their families requires us to consider this dynamic two-person psychology. In this paper, we describe an academic parent-child nursery program aimed at enhancing parental reflective functioning. A clinical example from the collaborative treatment of a mother and her two-year-old will demonstrate how reflective functioning can be enhanced in the parent-child dyad and lead to a more secure parent-child relationship. We will also discuss the value of reflective functioning to the interdisciplinary team and how we dealt with countertransference issues that arose during the treatment.

  1. An Exploration into the Influence of Academic and Social Values, Procrastination, and Perceived School Belongingness on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gary J.; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    2013-01-01

    The results of a structural equation model showed that a tendency to procrastinate, assessed early in college students' first term, was positively related to social values, assessed as concerns over social exclusion, but was negatively related to academic task values and grade goal-setting. The results suggest that procrastination may be a…

  2. Academic Value of Internships in Agronomy: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Matthew D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the academic requirements of internships, benefits in taking part in an internship, and problems encountered in internship programs are described. Results indicated that one of the problems with internship programs occurred when faculty did not have direct control over the experience. (CW)

  3. Predictive value of parenting styles on the academic achievement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between parenting styles and the academic achievement level of secondary school students in Benin City. A correlational research design was adopted in this study. Multistage random sampling procedure was used to obtain the sample of two hundred and thirty eight (238) ...

  4. Estimating the influence of social-economic factors on the quality of services rendered by a housing and communal organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsiya Sayetovna Gatina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to define the group of factors influencing on the quality of services rendered by a housing and communal services organization. Methods methods of systemic analysis and synthesis economicstatistical analysis. Results using the statistical methods of analysis a group of factors is defined which should be taken into account when developing the strategy of services market in housing and communal sphere. The objective of the strategy is to increase the level of quality services to the population of Russia in the housing and communal industry. Scientific novelty the indicators are revealed of the quality of communal services formed under socialeconomic factors. When analyzing the data of the matrix of interfactoral influence those were extinguished which show the largest influence on the level of services market development in housing and communal sphere. Practical value is the ability to use the assessment results to develop measures to improve the quality of housing and communal services organizations. nbsp

  5. Wastewater Collection Performance on Communal Sanitation System in Cimahi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rangga Sururi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In dense population cities, the effectiveness of the communal system in handling municipal domestic wastewater is important. This research aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of pipe dimensioning process and determine it as a wastewater collector to be served as a reactor through a tracer test. Thus, this work may give some inputs for a reliable design criteria for communal system in Indonesia. The reaserch area was at communal system on Tegal Kawung RT 05 RW 08. It served 37 household which was identified using built drawings and field checking. The number of communal septic tank user was 150 people who approximately use water of 134.33 L/person/day and more than 75% (107.46 L/persons/day was discharged to the system. The tracer test was done between the control box with the distance of 27.94 m and diameter of 150 mm. Based on the mathematical model that was used, the diameter of the pipe should be 100 mm. The tracer test showed that the piping system is the Plug Flow Reactor but it is not yet effective, shown by the MDI value of 3.36.

  6. The Relative Influences of Neutralizing Behavior and Subcultural Values on Academic Dishonesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curasi, Carolyn F.

    2013-01-01

    The author examined the influence of neutralizing techniques and subcultural values on academic dishonesty using a sample of 327 ethnically diverse business majors. Findings suggest that both neutralizing behavior and subcultural norms are correlated with academic dishonesty; however, neutralization techniques have a stronger association. Findings…

  7. An Exploratory Study of Value-Added and Academic Optimism of Urban Reading Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff-Franklin, Clairie L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between state-recorded value- added (VA) scores and academic optimism (AO) scores, which measure teacher self-efficacy, trust, and academic emphasis. The sample for this study is 87 third through eighth grade Reading teachers, from fifty-five schools, in an urban school district in Ohio who…

  8. Changes in the value chain of scientific information: economic consequences for academic institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Vet, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    The economic impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on the academic library and on the academic institution are discussed in terms of changes in the value chain of scientific information induced by the use of ICT. Argues that ICT is a very strong engine for change as it has the

  9. Value of microvascular surgery in academic oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Tirbod; Fernandes, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery has witnessed a large trend of inclusion of maxillofacial oncology and microvascular reconstructive surgery within its scope of practice in recent years. The purpose of this report is to describe the authors' experience with a very active oncologic and microvascular reconstructive surgical service within an academic oral and maxillofacial surgical program at a large university teaching hospital. The operative log from July 1, 2010, to June 30, 2011, of 325 operations devoted to head and neck oncology and reconstruction was examined. Thirty-nine patients (group A) received a pedicled flap for head and neck reconstruction. Sixty-three patients (group B) received a microvascular free tissue transfer for head and neck reconstruction. Financial records of 20 consecutive patients who underwent simultaneous ablative and reconstructive procedures in each group were then reviewed for total hospital charges, including direct (surgical fees) and indirect (hospital stay, operating room expenses, and ancillary services) charges, and length of stay. Total hospital charges and direct surgical fees, were higher for the microvascular reconstruction group (group B). Length of hospital stay was not statistically different between the two groups. Microvascular reconstructive surgery performed within an academic oral and maxillofacial surgical program has many financial and intangible benefits within a medical center. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Communal farming, climate change adaptation and the media in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mthokozisi P. Ndhlovu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is destroying Zimbabwean communal farmers’ agricultural activities – a source of living for most people. As communal farmers struggle to adapt, the media is expected to assume a fundamental theoretical role of educating and informing them about the appropriate adaptation techniques. Located in Umguza District in Matabeleland North Province, the study explored how communal farmers created meaning out of climate change media content and its influence on their agricultural practices from October 2014 to April 2015. In doing so, the study used the Two-Step Flow theory and Hall’s Encoding and Decoding Model. Entrenched in pragmatism, the study embedded quantitative techniques at different stages. Multistage sampling combining Simple Random Sampling (SRS, purposive and systematic sampling techniques was used to identify the 263 households for semi structured questionnaires, direct observations and in-depth interviews. The findings were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, thematic analysis and pattern matching. The results show that personal observations; print, broadcast and online media; and opinion leaders were the main sources of climate change information. The radio was the most used medium in communicating climate change adaptation though it was the second most accessed after mobile phones. Conservation Agriculture and planting of drought-resistant crops were some of the adaptation techniques communicated in the media. When interacting with media content, communal farmers create their own meaning influenced by their cultural values, resulting in some adopting, rejecting or modifying certain adaptation techniques. The study concludes that opinion leaders are fundamental in communal farmers’ interaction with media but their influence must not be overestimated.

  11. Provosts' Perceptions of Academic Library Value and Preferences for Communication: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Adam; Ireland, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    While many studies have been conducted under the auspices of calculating academic library value, there are no large-scale studies into the perceptions that college or university provosts have of library value, nor are there studies into how provosts prefer library value data to be communicated. This study addresses that gap through a national…

  12. The Relative Influence of Values and Identities on Academic Dishonesty: A Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Within sociological-social psychology values are an emerging topic of substantive interest. Building on identity theory this study tests the relative salience of values versus role-identities as a predictor of a student's participation in academic dishonesty. This study finds that for a general population of students values are a significant…

  13. Evidence for a communal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrow, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Recently described social network phenomena show that emotionally connected people come to share certain traits, including obesity, happiness, and loneliness. These do not appear to be mediated by face-to-face contact. Other examples of groups with a common connection that act in unison are mass hysteria, menstrual synchrony, and the ability of a group to guess the number of jelly beans in a jar. The animal kingdom abounds with examples of groups functioning as a single whole: fish school, birds flock, hoofed animals herd, ant and bee colonies work as a single organism. Try as they might, neuroscientists have been unable to find an anatomical seat of consciousness within the brain. C.G. Jung's realization of a collective unconscious began with an observation of a patient whose thoughts matched previous writings that the patient had never seen. The "emotional telepathy" of social network phenomena suggests a collective/communal consciousness as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement: The Mediator Role of Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Doménech-Betoret

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there is considerable evidence to support the direct effects of self-efficacy beliefs on academic achievement, very few studies have explored the motivational mechanism that mediates the self-efficacy–achievement relationship, and they are necessary to understand how and why self-efficacy affects students' academic achievement. Based on a socio-cognitive perspective of motivation, this study examines the relationships among academic self-efficacy, students' expectancy-value beliefs, teaching process satisfaction, and academic achievement. Its main aim is to identify some motivational-underlying processes through which students' academic self-efficacy affects student achievement and satisfaction. Student achievement and satisfaction are two of the most important learning outcomes, and are considered key indicators of education quality. The sample comprises 797 Spanish secondary education students from 36 educational settings and three schools. The scales that referred to self-efficacy and expectancy-value beliefs were administered at the beginning of the course, while student satisfaction and achievement were measured at the end of the course. The data analysis was conducted by structural equation modeling (SEM. The results revealed that students' expectancy-value beliefs (Subject value, Process expectancy, Achievement expectancy, Cost expectancy played a mediator role between academic self-efficacy and the achievement/satisfaction relationship. These results provided empirical evidence to better understand the mechanism that mediates self-efficacy–achievement and efficacy–course satisfaction relationships. The implications of these findings for teaching and learning in secondary education are discussed.

  15. Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement: The Mediator Role of Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Betoret, Fernando; Abellán-Roselló, Laura; Gómez-Artiga, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Although there is considerable evidence to support the direct effects of self-efficacy beliefs on academic achievement, very few studies have explored the motivational mechanism that mediates the self-efficacy-achievement relationship, and they are necessary to understand how and why self-efficacy affects students' academic achievement. Based on a socio-cognitive perspective of motivation, this study examines the relationships among academic self-efficacy, students' expectancy-value beliefs, teaching process satisfaction, and academic achievement. Its main aim is to identify some motivational-underlying processes through which students' academic self-efficacy affects student achievement and satisfaction. Student achievement and satisfaction are two of the most important learning outcomes, and are considered key indicators of education quality. The sample comprises 797 Spanish secondary education students from 36 educational settings and three schools. The scales that referred to self-efficacy and expectancy-value beliefs were administered at the beginning of the course, while student satisfaction and achievement were measured at the end of the course. The data analysis was conducted by structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that students' expectancy-value beliefs (Subject value, Process expectancy, Achievement expectancy, Cost expectancy) played a mediator role between academic self-efficacy and the achievement/satisfaction relationship. These results provided empirical evidence to better understand the mechanism that mediates self-efficacy-achievement and efficacy-course satisfaction relationships. The implications of these findings for teaching and learning in secondary education are discussed.

  16. Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement: The Mediator Role of Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Betoret, Fernando; Abellán-Roselló, Laura; Gómez-Artiga, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Although there is considerable evidence to support the direct effects of self-efficacy beliefs on academic achievement, very few studies have explored the motivational mechanism that mediates the self-efficacy–achievement relationship, and they are necessary to understand how and why self-efficacy affects students' academic achievement. Based on a socio-cognitive perspective of motivation, this study examines the relationships among academic self-efficacy, students' expectancy-value beliefs, teaching process satisfaction, and academic achievement. Its main aim is to identify some motivational-underlying processes through which students' academic self-efficacy affects student achievement and satisfaction. Student achievement and satisfaction are two of the most important learning outcomes, and are considered key indicators of education quality. The sample comprises 797 Spanish secondary education students from 36 educational settings and three schools. The scales that referred to self-efficacy and expectancy-value beliefs were administered at the beginning of the course, while student satisfaction and achievement were measured at the end of the course. The data analysis was conducted by structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that students' expectancy-value beliefs (Subject value, Process expectancy, Achievement expectancy, Cost expectancy) played a mediator role between academic self-efficacy and the achievement/satisfaction relationship. These results provided empirical evidence to better understand the mechanism that mediates self-efficacy–achievement and efficacy–course satisfaction relationships. The implications of these findings for teaching and learning in secondary education are discussed. PMID:28769839

  17. Imagining value, imagining users: academic technology transfer for health innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fiona Alice; Sanders, Carrie B; Lehoux, Pascale

    2009-04-01

    Governments have invested heavily in the clinical and economic promise of health innovation and express increasing concern with the efficacy and efficiency of the health innovation system. In considering strategies for 'better' health innovation, policy makers and researchers have taken a particular interest in the work of universities and related public research organizations: How do these organizations identify and transfer promising innovations to market, and do these efforts make best use of public sector investments? We conducted an ethnographic study of technology transfer offices (TTOs) in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada, to consider the place of health and health system imperatives in judgments of value in early-stage health innovation. Our analysis suggests that the valuation process is poorly specified as a set of task-specific judgments. Instead, we argue that technology transfer professionals are active participants in the construction of the innovation and assign value by 'imagining' the end product in its 'context of use'. Oriented as they are to the commercialization of health technology, TTOs understand users primarily as market players. The immediate users of TTOs' efforts are commercial partners (i.e., licensees, investors) who are capable of translating current discoveries into future commodities. The ultimate end users - patients, clinicians, health systems - are the future consumers of the products to be sold. Attention to these proximate and more distal users in the valuation process is a complex and constitutive feature of the work of health technology transfer. At the same time, judgements about individual technologies are made in relation to a broader imperative through which TTOs seek to imagine and construct sustainable innovation systems. Judgments of value are rendered sensible in relation to the logic of valuation for systems of innovation that, in turn, configure users of health innovation in systemic ways.

  18. Organisational Culture and Values and the Adaptation of Academic Units in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zilwa, Deanna

    2007-01-01

    This study explores connections between the organisational culture and values of academic units in Australian universities and their efforts to adapt to external environmental pressures. It integrates empirical findings from case studies with theories of organisational culture and values and adaptation. It identifies seven dimensions of academic…

  19. Relationships between the Perceived Value of Instructional Techniques and Academic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarraju, Meera; Karau, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite a large volume of research examining instructional strategies and student learning, very little research has examined relationships between students' perceptions of the value of specific instructional techniques and academic motivation. In the current research, college students (172 undergraduates) completed scales assessing the perceived…

  20. Living out our values: the legacy of Christian academic nursing leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeling, Harriet V; Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Thompson, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Retired academic nursing leaders possess a rich legacy of knowledge. Using a grounded theory approach, knowledge possessed by 14 retired Christian Chairperson/Deans was explored. Two themes representing commitment to living out Christian values; and fortitude, understanding, and spiritual guidance emerged from written responses to open-ended survey questions.

  1. Using structured incentives to increase value for money in an academic health sciences centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Guy J; Colasante, Connie; Ilse, Renate G; Forster, Alan J

    2017-07-01

    As healthcare continues to consume more and more of provincial government spending, there is a continuing pressure to improve efficiency and cut overall costs. In this increasingly constrained healthcare system, value for money is a growing focus of discussions around accountability and system sustainability; healthcare leaders are required to find ways of measuring, enforcing, and reporting on that value. In 2014, our organization began implementing an innovative system of structured incentives, linking distribution of Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care academic physician funding to quality and performance goals. Through a carefully planned process of benchmarking, stakeholder consultation, model improvement, and change management, we were able to move to a new value for money allocation model. The new model drives accountability by linking distribution of government payments to quality and performance outcomes. Initial results include increased stakeholder satisfaction as well as broader physician engagement in corporate and academic quality improvement initiatives.

  2. Study of Ethical Values and Practices in Academic Programmes at a Higher Learning Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Kogilah; Shetty, M. V.

    The study on ethical values in academic programmes has attracted the attention of many researchers throughout the world especially in view of its important role today. Many academic programmes today focus on how to make profit both for the individual and the organization and on how to increase the firm`s market share and shareholders value and in the process may compromise on their ethical values and have unethical practices. Thus, this study is undertaken to evaluate the extent of integration of ethical values in the academic programmes of the higher learning operating institution involved with post graduate and higher level programs. The impact of demographics and race of the lecturer and students have been separately ascertained. The sample has been taken from one college, rated to be high in ethical values and practices, a sample of 120 students and 31 lecturers from a leading college (reputed for ethical values) have been collated and analyzed for validation of the objectives. The explanation on ethics has been done to a large extent in the study. The study also indicates the number of higher learning institutions to indicate the extent of impact if these issues are appropriately addressed. Government policy in this regard also needs to be reviewed and improved to avoid deterioration of ethical values and practices in the dynamic market place of today. This study review that, the level at which lecturers at the institutions have high ethical values and do incorporate it in their lectures and discussions in the classroom. The impact of demographic factors on the ethical values and practice of the lecturers have useful insights for academic staff recruitment and staff training. On the other hand, students` ethical values and behavior is a cause for concern to everyone as these future pillars of the nation have been found to have their ethical values and practices at low levels. The implications for the college management as to consider further emphasis on the

  3. Communal conflict, civil war, and the state: Complexities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses communal conflict, which we define as violent conflict between non-state groups that are organised along a shared communal identity, and how such conflicts relate to state-based violence. We argue that a deeper understanding of communal conflicts, the different types of dynamics and conflict issues, ...

  4. African communalism and globalization | Etta | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this connection, it is the belief of this work that the current wind of globalization that the world is embracing is of no much difference from African communalism. As such, this work suggests that each of the above should complement the other in harnessing developmental strides while pursuing the empowerment of the ...

  5. COMMUNAL DISCERNMENT IN THE EARLY CHURCH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spiritual traditions of Christianity agree that discernment normally takes place in the routine of daily life and about mundane ... and role in Biblical Scholarship and Spirituality.3. Such communal discernment took on many forms, ...... Lessons from St Ignatius and St Benedict. In: H. Blommestijn et al (eds.), Seeing the seeker.

  6. Indigenous knowledge and communal conflict resolution: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses an experience of relying on indigenous knowledge to resolve a communal conflict between two Nigerian local communities. The authors were working in one of the communities when conflict erupted, and had to initiate moves to restore peace and normality. They relied largely on information on the ...

  7. Ethnicity, Communal Relations, and Education in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. L.

    Communal life in Malaysia is characterized by discords, tensions, and strife, especially between the Malays and Chinese. By and large, Malays are educationally and economically backward in comparison to non-Malays. Malays seek to redress what they consider racial imbalances through use of their political power. Constitutionally, certain privileges…

  8. Interpersonal value profiles and analysis of adolescent academic performance and social thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jesús eGázquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to identify interpersonal value profiles and find out whether there were any differences in academic performance and social thinking. The study sample was 885 high school students of whom 49.8% (N=441 were boys and 50.2% (N=444 were girls. The results show that students with low Benevolence and Conformity levels showed higher prevalence of failures and repeated the year more often. Furthermore, students with a high level of Recognition and Leadership and low Conformity and Benevolence are socially incompetent students. Intervention programs should to achieve high levels of kindness and consideration, respect for rules and generosity, and diminish the perception of recognition by others and exertion of authority. Thus, this study shows the values that must be worked on to improve students’ Academic Performance and social competence.

  9. Organizational culture in an academic health center: an exploratory study using a competing values framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Buchan, Alastair M

    2012-06-01

    Implementing cultural change and aligning organizational cultures could enhance innovation, quality, safety, and job satisfaction. The authors conducted this mixed-methods study to assess academic physician-scientists' perceptions of the current and preferred future organizational culture at a university medical school and its partner health system. In October 2010, the authors surveyed academic physicians and scientists jointly employed by the University of Oxford and its local, major partner health system. The survey included the U.S. Veterans Affairs Administration's 14-item Competing Values Framework instrument and two extra items prompting respondents to identify their substantive employer and to provide any additional open-ended comments. Of 436 academic physicians and scientists, 170 (39%) responded. Of these, 69 (41%) provided open-ended comments. Dominant hierarchical culture, moderate rational and team cultures, and underdeveloped entrepreneurial culture characterized the health system culture profile. The university profile was more balanced, with strong rational and entrepreneurial cultures, and moderate-to-strong hierarchical and team cultures. The preferred future culture (within five years) would emphasize team and entrepreneurial cultures and-to a lesser degree-rational culture, and would deemphasize hierarchical culture. Whereas the university and the health system currently have distinct organizational cultures, academic physicians and scientists would prefer the same type of culture across the two organizations so that both could more successfully pursue the shared mission of academic medicine. Further research should explore strengthening the validity and reliability of the organizational culture instrument for academic medicine and building an evidence base of effective culture change strategies and interventions.

  10. "Innovation" institutes in academic health centers: enhancing value through leadership, education, engagement, and scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Jesse M; Farmer, Steven A; Akman, Jeffrey S

    2014-09-01

    In the next decade, the biggest change in medicine in the United States will be the organizational transformation of the delivery system. Organizations-including academic health centers-able to achieve better outcomes for less will be the financial winners as new payment models become more prevalent. For medical educators, the question is how to prepare the next generation of physicians for these changes. One solution is the development of new "innovation" or "value" institutes. Around the nation, many of these new institutes are focused on surmounting barriers to value-based care in academic health centers, educating faculty, house staff, and medical students in discussions of cost-conscious care. Innovation institutes can also lead discussions about how value-based care may impact education in environments where there may be less autonomy and more standardization. Quality metrics will play a larger role at academic health centers as metrics focus more on outcomes than processes. Optimizing outcomes will require that medical educators both learn and teach the principles of patient safety and quality improvement. Innovation institutes can also facilitate cross-institutional discussions to compare data on utilization and outcomes, and share best practices that maximize value. Another barrier to cost-conscious care is defensive medicine, which is highly engrained in U.S. medicine and culture. Innovation institutes may not be able to overcome all the barriers to making medical care more cost-conscious, but they can be critical in enabling academic health centers to optimize their teaching and research missions while remaining financially competitive.

  11. Interpersonal value profiles and analysis of adolescent academic performance and social thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Gázquez, José J.; Sainz, Jorge; Pérez-Fuentes, María del C.; Molero, María del M.; Soler, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify interpersonal value profiles and find out whether there were any differences in academic performance and social thinking. The study sample was 885 high school students of whom 49.8% (N = 441) were boys and 50.2% (N = 444) were girls. The results show that students with low Benevolence and Conformity levels showed higher prevalence of failures and repeated the year more often. Furthermore, students with a high level of Recognition and Leadership and ...

  12. Misconceptions of the p-value among Chilean and Italian Academic Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Iotti, Bryan; Bonilla-Campos, Amparo; Longobardi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Common misconceptions of p-values are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals' decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italian, 30 Chilean) questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with previous research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p-values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed.

  13. Multiple strategies for resilient livelihoods in communal areas of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, Wayne

    2013-04-01

    Livestock farming in communal areas is an activity pursued by rural households as one of a range of livelihood strategies aimed at spreading risk. The cash and non-cash benefits derived from livestock, as well as the wide range of secondary resources harvested from communal rangelands, make an important contribution to livelihood diversification, and hence, resilience. Rural development policy should therefore not focus narrowly on commercialisation of livestock production in communal areas. Rather, it should take a multi-faceted approach to building livelihood resilience while providing pathways for households to escape poverty through enhancing the multiple benefits of livestock, adding value to secondary rangeland resources, and expanding the rural non-farm economy.

  14. Male Student-Athlete Perceptions of University Academic Staff Expectations: A Qualitative Analysis of Perceptions, Value and Academic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeck, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 male collegiate student-athletes in a revenue-generating sport in an effort to better inform current academic support practitioners how to best serve this population. The inquiry focused on student-athlete perceptions of two areas: (1) perceptions regarding the expectations academic personnel have…

  15. Gratitude depends on the relational model of communal sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2014-01-01

    We studied the relation between benefits, perception of social relationships and gratitude. Across three studies, we provide evidence that benefits increase gratitude to the extent to which one applies a mental model of a communal relationship. In Study 1, the communal sharing relational model, and no other relational models, predicted the amount of gratitude participants felt after imagining receiving a benefit from a new acquaintance. In Study 2, participants recalled a large benefit they had received. Applying a communal sharing relational model increased feelings of gratitude for the benefit. In Study 3, we manipulated whether the participant or another person received a benefit from an unknown other. Again, we found that the extent of communal sharing perceived in the relationship with the stranger predicted gratitude. An additional finding of Study 2 was that communal sharing predicted future gratitude regarding the relational partner in a longitudinal design. To conclude, applying a communal sharing model predicts gratitude regarding concrete benefits and regarding the relational partner, presumably because one perceives the communal partner as motivated to meet one's needs. Finally, in Study 3, we found in addition that being the recipient of a benefit without opportunity to repay directly increased communal sharing, and indirectly increased gratitude. These circumstances thus seem to favor the attribution of communal norms, leading to a communal sharing representation and in turn to gratitude. We discuss the importance of relational models as mental representations of relationships for feelings of gratitude.

  16. Academic Procrastination in Linking Motivation and Achievement-Related Behaviours: A Perspective of Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Fan, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships among college students' achievement motivation (subjective task value and academic self-efficacy), academic procrastination (delay and missing deadlines) and achievement-related behaviours (effort and persistence). More specifically, the study investigated the mediating role…

  17. Measuring the Value of Library Resources and Student Academic Performance through Relational Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Jantti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article describes a project undertaken by the University of Wollongong Library (UWL to identify whether a correlation exists between usage of library resources and academic performance.Methods – A multidimensional approach to systems design was implemented, requiring collaboration between among the library, university administration, Performance Indicator Project team (PIP, and information technology services. The project centers on the integration and interrogation of a series of discrete datasets containing student performance, attrition, demographic, borrowing, and electronic resources usage data. PIP built a cube for the library that links usage of library resources to student demographic data and academic performance (the “Library Cube”. Other cubes will be linked later.Results – While initial reports are rudimentary and do not yet incorporate data on e-resource usage, results are favourable in demonstrating the value of using the library information resources in coursework. Based on the data generated to date, students who borrow library resources do outperform students who do not. Early trend data shows up to a 12-point difference in grades.Conclusion – The Library Cube signals a new milestone in the UWL’s quality assessment journey. Well-established measures of effectiveness and efficiency will be further complemented by measures of impact and value, allowing the library to step even closer to the goal of having effective and valued partnerships with the university community to realize teaching, learning, research, and internalization goals.

  18. Tinto's Theoretical Perspective and Expectancy-Value Paradigm: A confrontation to explain freshmen's academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Neuville

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, success in postsecondary education has preoccupied psychological and educational researchers. In this respect, Tinto's student integration model (1982, 1997 is one of the most frequently cited models. Tinto proposed that students' background characteristics, initial intentions and aspirations towards college influence their academic and social integration, which in turn affect their persistence. Unfortunately, although this model is an integrative one, it does not take motivational variables such as students' self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997; Bong & Skaalvik, 2003 and students' subjective value of academic tasks (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Neuville, 2004 into account although their impact on learning has been widely demonstrated (Robbins, Lauver, Le, Davis, & Langley, 2004. The purpose of this study, conducted with 2637 first-year university students from all the Bachelor's degree programs of a Belgian university, is to compare, through structural equation models, the explanatory power of these two research traditions (students' integration, on the one hand, and a motivational paradigm, on the other hand in predicting students' academic performance.

  19. Adding Value to Total Joint Arthroplasty Care in an Academic Environment: The Utah Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelt, Christopher E; Anderson, Mike B; Erickson, Jill A; Gililland, Jeremy M; Peters, Christopher L

    2018-02-10

    Adding value in a university-based academic health care system provides unique challenges when compared to other health care delivery models. Herein, we describe our experience in adding value to joint arthroplasty care at the University of Utah, where the concept of value-based health care reform has become an embraced and driving force. To improve the value, new resources were needed for care redesign, physician leadership, and engagement in alternative payment models. The changes that occurred at our institution are described. Real-time data and knowledgeable personnel working behind the scenes, while physicians provide clinical care, help move clinical pathway redesigns. Engaged physicians are essential to the successful implementation of value creation and care pathway redesign that can lead to improvements in value. An investment of money and resources toward added infrastructure and personnel is often needed to realize large-scale improvements. Alignment of providers, payers, and hospital administration, including by means of gainsharing programs, can lead to improvements. Although significant care pathway redesign efforts may realize substantial initial cost savings, savings may be asymptotic in nature, which calls into question the likely sustainability of programs that incentivize or penalize payments based on historical targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. How do nurse academics value and engage with evidence-based practice across Australia: Findings from a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Gulzar; McKenna, Lisa; Griffiths, Debra

    2016-06-01

    Integrating evidence-based practice (EBP) into undergraduate education and preparing future nurses to embrace EBP in clinical practice becomes paramount in today's complex and evolving healthcare environment. The role that EBP plays in the practical lives of nursing students will depend on the degree to which it is promoted by academics, how it is incorporated into courses and its application to clinical setting. Hence, nursing academics play a crucial role in influencing its integration into curricula. Drawn from a larger doctoral study, this paper presents findings discussing how nurse academics value and engage with EBP. Grounded theory was employed to explore processes used by nursing academics while incorporating EBP into teaching and learning practices. Twenty-three academics across Australian universities were interviewed. Nine were also observed while teaching undergraduate students. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation. In keeping with the tenets of grounded theory, data collection and analysis continued until theoretical saturation was reached. In total, four categories emerged. This paper focuses on the category conceptualised as Valuing and Engaging with EBP. How nursing academics valued and engaged with EBP was closely associated with meanings they constructed around understanding it, attitudes and commitment to implementation while teaching and working clinically. Different opinions also existed in regard to what actually constituted EBP. However, they engaged with and valued EBP by keeping themselves up-to-date, being involved in research activities, using evidence in teaching, therefore leading by example. Participants identified a number of barriers influencing their engagement with EBP including heavy workloads, limited time, lack of commitment within their schools, lack of confidence with teaching EBP, and complexity of EBP application. Faculty clinical practice, committed academics, workload

  1. Impact factor and study design: the Academic Value of Published Research (AVaRes) score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Dennis M; Williamson, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    To compare the citation indices of original articles and case reports in otolaryngology journals and thereby determine whether case reports are of less interest and possibly of academically inferior value to original articles. All articles in two reputable UK otolaryngology journals (Clinical Otolaryngology and Journal of Laryngology and Otology) for 2000 and 2001 were identified. Citation indices were obtained from ISI Web of Knowledge and compared. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Review articles were cited most frequently with a mean of 5.21 followed by original articles with 4.28 citations and case reports with 2.40 citations. The difference in citing between original articles and case reports was statistically significant (P articles and original articles. As case reports are clearly of lesser academic value than original and review articles, we suggest a scoring system incorporating journal impact factor and a scoring multiple taking into account study design. This facilitates easier comparison and recognition of publications in curricula vitae during job application.

  2. Impact Factor and Study Design: The Academic Value of Published Research (AVaRes) Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Dennis M; Williamson, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION To compare the citation indices of original articles and case reports in otolaryngology journals and thereby determine whether case reports are of less interest and possibly of academically inferior value to original articles. METIERIALS AND METHODS All articles in two reputable UK otolaryngology journals (Clinical Otolaryngology and Journal of Laryngology and Otology) for 2000 and 2001 were identified. Citation indices were obtained from ISI Web of Knowledge and compared. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft® Office Excel 2003. RESULTS Review articles were cited most frequently with a mean of 5.21 followed by original articles with 4.28 citations and case reports with 2.40 citations. The difference in citing between original articles and case reports was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in citations between review articles and original articles. CONCLUSIONS As case reports are clearly of lesser academic value than original and review articles, we suggest a scoring system incorporating journal impact factor and a scoring multiple taking into account study design. This facilitates easier comparison and recognition of publications in curricula vitae during job application. PMID:18990264

  3. Communalism, familism, and filial piety: are they birds of a collectivist feather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J; Weisskirch, Robert S; Hurley, Eric A; Zamboanga, Byron L; Park, Irene J K; Kim, Su Yeong; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana; Castillo, Linda G; Brown, Elissa; Greene, Anthony D

    2010-10-01

    The present studies examined the extent to which (a) communalism, familism, and filial piety would pattern onto a single family/relationship primacy construct; (b) this construct would be closely related to indices of collectivism; and (c) this construct would be related to positive psychosocial functioning and psychological distress. In Study 1, 1,773 students from nine colleges and universities around the United States completed measures of communalism, familism, and filial piety, as well as of individualistic and collectivistic values. Results indicated that communalism, familism, and filial piety clustered onto a single factor. This factor, to which we refer as family/relationship primacy, was closely and positively related to collectivism but only weakly and positively related to individualism and independence. In Study 2, 10,491 students from 30 colleges and universities in 20 U.S. states completed measures of communalism, familism, and filial piety, as well as of positive psychosocial functioning and psychological distress. The family/relationship primacy factor again emerged and was positively associated with both positive psychosocial functioning and psychological distress. Clinical implications and future directions for the study of cultural values are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Culture-based perceptions of academic achievement among low-income elementary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, A Wade; Albury, Aretha; Tyler, Kenneth M; Hurley, Eric A; Bailey, Caryn T; Miller, Oronde A

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the influence of culture on students' perceptions of academic success. Students read scenarios depicting hypothetical classmates achieving success through the cultural themes of individualism, competition, communalism, or verve. Students reported their social endorsement for the hypothetical classmates. A 2x4 repeated measures analysis, examining the effects of cultural group and cultural theme on students' endorsement, revealed an interaction between the two variables. African American students were significantly more accepting of communal and vervistic high-achieving peers than European American students. European American students endorsed individualistic and competitive high achievers significantly more than African American students. These and other findings suggest that the value students attach to academic success should not be understood in the absence of cultural considerations. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation Of Communal Wastewater Treatment Plant Operating Anaerobic Baffled Reactor And Biofilter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Hendriarianti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction of communal Waste Water Treatment Plant, WWTP in city of Malang since 1998 but until recently had never done an evaluation the performance. Communal WWTP performance evaluation is needed to see how far the efficiency of processing result. Until now, Environmental Agency Malang City only measure effluent from WWTP Communal  to know the suitability  with domestic wastewater quality standards. Effluent quality data in 2014 showed value above the quality standard of domestic wastewater from East Java Governor Regulation No. 72 in 2013 for parameters BOD and COD. WWTP Communal USRI research objects are on a six (6 locations by involving the user community during the planning, construction, operation and maintenance. Technology choice of ABR followed by a biofilter reactor with the stone media proved capable of processing organic matter of BOD and COD with the removal levels respectively by 78% -99% and 71% -99%. As for the parameters of TSS, NO3 and PO4 have the ranges of removal respectively by 56% -100%, (43% - 72%, (2% - 13%. Ratio BOD and COD in influent are low and ranged from 0.22 to 0.41. From the evaluation shows that high organic matter concentrations in influent along with the HRT and operation time high will result in a higher removal level

  6. How Do Binus University Undergraduate Students Value English in the General, Academic, and ELT Context?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almodad B. Asmani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Article  explored the issues of the reasons and ways Indonesian undergraduate students taking English subjects at Binus University valued English, particularly in relation to its roles and influences as the dominant language and as the world’s lingua franca, and how these could give impacts on the ELT (English Language Teaching purposes at Binus University. The study used the quantitative approach to find out the pattern of the ways they valued English in the general, academic and ELT contexts. The analysis of the quantitative results showed that there was a tendency that non-computer students value English relatively higher than computer students in terms of linguistically imperialistic ideas and macroacquisition views, while English itself tended to be respected by all students for both reasons of material/non-material benefits as well as international influences. In summary, teacher resources, teaching techniques, curriculum design, material content and assessment format should put these findings into consideration so as to make the best teaching methodology for ELT practices at Binus University. 

  7. Communal land use and the 'tragedy of the commons': Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies which emphasize the social and cultural significance of communal farming systems are highlighted. These studies also suggest that communal farming systems are logical and pragmatic adaptations to local conditions, especially from the point of view of local communities, and that they often have underlying rules of ...

  8. Reshaping women's land rights on communal rangeland | Kleinbooi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to contribute to the debates on communal rangelands and analyses the gendered dimension of land rights and land access in the rural areas of Namaqualand. The actual gender relations within rural communities and the emergence of strategies that are being pursued in communal land processes are ...

  9. Role of communal and private forestland tenure regimes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to compare provisioning of forest ecosystem goods and services in Manuo Hill Communal Forest and Shirima Private Forest in Rombo District, Tanzania. Fuel wood was a key forest ecosystem good and biodiversity protection was a key forest ecosystem service identified. Manuo Hill communal ...

  10. Linking Communalism to Achievement Correlates for Black and White Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth; Love, Keisha; Brown, Carrie; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Thomas, Deneia; Garriott, Patton O.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relationships between home-based communal activities and beliefs and student reports of various achievement correlates with 290 black and white undergraduates. MANOVA procedures examined differences in self-esteem, self-efficacy, identified motivation, motivation to know, and amotivation and scores on Home Communalism Measure…

  11. Communal conflict, civil war, and the state: Complexities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bottom line is that what constitutes the basis for a communal identity may differ across time and space; hence, leaving the definition of this term more open allows for a broader contextual range. Communal conflict contrasted to civil war violence. In categorising different types of collective violence and analysing how they.

  12. Academic Excellence: A Commentary and Reflections on the Inherent Value of Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas J.; Shambrook, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Academic peer review is widely viewed as fair, equitable, and essential to academic quality. Successfully completing the process through publication or award is widely deemed as one of the most rigorous and prestigious forms of scholarly accomplishment. Despite this sentiment the academic peer review process is not without fault. It is criticized…

  13. Importance of the Alternative Five and Trait Emotional Intelligence for Agentic and Communal Domains of Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies supported the importance of trait emotional intelligence (EI for subjective well-being but specific domains of life-satisfaction were rarely of interest. Our study investigated whether emotional intelligence is more important for interpersonal or communal-related domains (e.g. satisfaction with friends, intimate partners than for agentic domains of satisfaction (e.g. satisfaction with finances, work. Due to the problematic differential validity of trait EI from personality, the relationship between trait EI and domains of satisfaction was controlled for by personality. Slovene students and young adults (N=442 completed the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire and the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire, and rated their satisfaction with 12 aspects of life. Principal component analysis of these domains revealed three components, explaining 62% of total variance. The communal domains included self-reported satisfaction with popularity, respect, influence on others, family relationships, and intimate relationship. The agentic domains included satisfaction with professional carrier, financial situation, academic education, and achieved goals. The physical domains component was comprised of satisfaction with appearance, fitness, and health. After accounting for personality, trait EI explained 16% of variance in communal domain and 10% of variance in agentic domain, thus suggesting greater importance of trait EI for interpersonal domains. However, trait EI seems to play an important role for satisfaction in the agentic domains also, as successful management of our emotions can help us reach our goals and thus be more satisfied.

  14. Transitioning From Volume to Value: One Academic Medical Center's Approach to Improving Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Stephanie A C; Tanski, Mary E; Yackel, Thomas R

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. health care system is undergoing a major transformation. Clinical delivery systems are now being paid according to the value of the care they provide, in accordance with the Triple Aim, which incorporates improving the quality and cost of care and the patient experience. Increasingly, financial risk is being transferred from insurers to clinical delivery systems that become responsible for both episode-based clinical care and the longitudinal care of patients. Thus, these delivery systems need to develop strategies to manage the health of populations. Academic medical centers (AMCs) serve a unique role in many markets yet may be ill prepared for this transformation. In 2013, Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) partnered with a large health insurer and six other hospitals across the state to form Propel Health, a collaborative partnership designed to deliver the tools, methods, and support necessary for population health management. OHSU also developed new internal structures and transformed its business model to embrace this value-based care model. Each Propel Health partner included the employees and dependents enrolled in its employee medical plan, for approximately 55,000 covered individuals initially. By 2017, Propel Health is expected to cover 110,000 individuals. Other outcomes to measure in the future include the quality and cost of care provided under this partnership. Anticipated challenges to overcome include insufficient primary care networks, conflicting incentives, local competition, and the magnitude of the transformation. Still, the time is right for AMCs to commit to improving the health of populations.

  15. Lib-Value: Values, Outcomes, and Return on Investment of Academic Libraries, Phase III: ROI of the Syracuse University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Bruce; McClure, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This study measures the return on investment (ROI) of the Syracuse University library. Faculty and students at Syracuse University were surveyed using contingent valuation methodology to measure their willingness to pay in time and money for the services of the academic library. Their travel time and use of the online library was measured to…

  16. Significant Value Found in Mentoring Programs for Novice Tenure-Track Academic Librarians

    OpenAIRE

    Saori Wendy Herman, MLIS, AHIP

    2016-01-01

    A Review of: Goodsett, M., & Walsh, A. (2015). Building a strong foundation: Mentoring programs for novice tenure-track librarians in academic libraries. College & Research Libraries, 76(7), 914-933. http://dx.doi.org/10.5860/crl.76.7.914 Objective – To examine the effectiveness of mentoring programs for novice tenure-track academic librarians, and to identify critical elements that define a successful mentoring program in various academic library settings. Design – Survey questionn...

  17. The Mcdonaldization of Academic Libraries and the Values of Transformational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Karen P.

    2015-01-01

    In his article "The McDonaldization of Academic Libraries?" Brian Quinn explores to what extent and to what effect academic libraries have become "McDonaldized," according to the concept developed by sociologist George Ritzer. Quinn identifies a number of ways in which the four dimensions of…

  18. Academic stress and positive affect: Asian value and self-worth contingency as moderators among Chinese international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wei, Meifen

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical model proposed by Berry and colleagues (Berry, 1997; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987) highlights the importance of identifying moderators in the acculturation process. Accordingly, the current study examined the Asian cultural value of family recognition through achievement (FRTA) and contingency of self-worth on academic competence (CSW-AC) as moderators in the association between academic stress and positive affect among Chinese international students. A total of 370 Chinese international students completed online surveys. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated that while academic stress was negatively associated with positive affect, FRTA was positively associated with positive affect. In other words, those with high academic stress reported a lower level of positive affect. However, individuals who endorsed high levels of FRTA reported a higher level of positive affect. In addition, results also revealed a significant interaction between academic stress and CSW-AC on positive affect. Thus, the study's finding supported the moderator role of CSW-AC. Simple effect analyses were conducted to examine the significant interaction. The results showed that higher levels of CSW-AC strengthened the negative association between academic stress and positive affect but lower levels of CSW-AC did not. Future research directions and implications are discussed.

  19. The Relationship between Students' Attitudes towards School, Values of Education, Achievement Motivation and Academic Achievement in Gondar Secondary Schools, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnew, Asrat

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between students' attitudes towards school, values of education, achievement motivation and academic achievement. Accordingly, the study adopted a correlation research design. To achieve the objectives of the study, 362 students using systematic sampling technique were taken from grade 9 students of…

  20. Faculty Composition in Four-Year Institutions: The Role of Pressures, Values, and Organizational Processes in Academic Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna; Gehrke, Sean

    2016-01-01

    This study broadens our understanding of conditions that shape faculty composition in higher education. We surveyed academic deans to evaluate their views on the professoriate, values, pressures, and practices pertaining to the use of non-tenure-track faculty (NTTF). We utilized [ordinary-least-squares] OLS regression to test a model for…

  1. Investigating Student Use and Value of E-Learning Resources to Develop Academic Writing within the Discipline of Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffs, Kathryn H.; Holt, Julienne I.

    2013-01-01

    The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education to support student learning is expanding. However, student usage has been low and the value of e-learning resources has been under investigation. We reflect on best practices for pedagogical design of e-learning resources to support academic writing in environmental…

  2. The Influence of Academic Values on Scholarly Publication and Communication Practices. Research and Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.13.06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Diane; Earl-Novell, Sarah; Arter, Jennifer; Lawrence, Shannon; King, C. Judson

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on five disciplinary case studies that explore academic value systems as they influence publishing behavior and attitudes of University of California, Berkeley faculty. The case studies are based on direct interviews with relevant stakeholders--faculty, advancement reviewers, librarians, and editors--in five fields: chemical…

  3. PRIVATIZATION OF HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICE ENTERPRISES: PRIVATIZATION MECHANISM AND PROPERTY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Kuznetsova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing and communal services in Russia are provided by state or municipality owned so-called unitary enterprises. At present, most of these enterprises are at the brink of bankruptcy. Privatization in the field of housing and communal economy (HCE sector is one of most efficient instruments of improvement thereof. Particular feature of the author’s approach to evaluation of the total or partial cost of such enterprises is summing up the values of the element-to-element property assessment on the basis of the enterprise’s net assets. Described in the article is a system and succession of steps to be followed by private entities formed on the basis of HCE enterprises’ whole or partial property or acquiring rights thereupon.

  4. The rise and fall of communal responsibility in ancient law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parisi, F.; Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Miller, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In ancient societies, rules of communal responsibility permitted the imposition of retaliatory sanctions on a wrongdoer's clan. These rules followed the collective ownership structure of early communities. Over time, notions of personal responsibility emerged, terminating the transfer of

  5. The Uneasy Inter-communal Relations in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina NEDELCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the inter-communal relations in Lebanon and it approaches issues such as diversity and identity. Ever since the creation of modern Lebanon in 1920, the principle of proportionality has been subject of a significant inter-communal debate. Although, proportionality was to support state’s development and fair representation of all religious groups, it ended up the basis for a rigid political system, which turned into a major problem for the inter-communal political relationship, situation which escalated to civil war. The war, not only emphasized the inter-communal debate of what constituted a fair power-distribution system, but it also deepened this question, because it added new components such as new political actors.

  6. African communal basis for autonomy and life choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuenobe, Polycarp

    2017-09-05

    I argue that the metaphysical capacity of autonomy is not intrinsically valuable; it is valuable only when used in relation to a community's values and instrumentally for making the proper choices that will promote one's own and the community's well-being. I use the example of the choice to take one's life by suicide to illuminate this view. I articulate a plausible African conception of personhood as a basis for the idea of relational autonomy. I argue that this conception is better understood as a social-moral thesis, and not a metaphysical thesis. A metaphysical thesis gives an account of the abstract nature of an atomic individual, his agency, and rational choice. The social-moral thesis indicates that personhood and autonomy are positive and relational to the life plans, well-being, material conditions, and the best means for achieving them that are made available and possible by harmonious living in a community. This idea of autonomy is not just having the capacity of freewill; it also involves how such freewill is used, in terms of how an individual's choices are guided by internalized communal values. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.

  8. Extended parental care in communal social groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Forbes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in social insect research have challenged the need for close kinship as a prerequisite for the evolution of stable group living. In a model communal bee species, Lasioglossum (Chilalictus hemichalceum, previous allozyme work indicated that groups of cooperating adult females are not relatives. Yet at any given time, not all group members perform the risky task of foraging. We previously hypothesized that tolerance for non-foragers was a component of extended parental care, previously known only for kin based social systems. DNA microsatellites were used to study colony genetic structure in order to test this hypothesis. Microsatellite polymorphism was substantial (He = 0.775. Overall intracolony relatedness, mainly of immatures, was low but significant in nine, late season nests (r = 0.136 plus or minus0.023, indicating that broods contain five to six unrelated sib ships. Detailed analyses of kinship between pairs of individuals revealed that most pairs were unrelated and most related pairs were siblings. Mothers are absent for 89-91% of the developing immature females, and 97% of developing males. Alternatively, 46% of adult females had neither sibs nor offspring in their nests. These findings indicate that the extended parental care model applies broadly to both kin based and nonkin based social systems in the Hymenoptera.

  9. European moves to a communal energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klijs, K.

    1978-01-01

    The author has endeavoured to discover whether there is talk of a communal energy policy in the EEC and if so how far are the developments, on what foundation is the policy based and what factors are hindering its realisation. It is concluded that as yet there is scarely any talk of a communual energy policy within the activities of the EEC, although the growing dependence on oil imports is seen as a reason to discuss this policy. The main aim of such a policy is to reduce oil imports from 61% of energy sources in 1973 to 30% in 1985, since the oil from Arab lands is seen as a totally unreliable energy source. A very strong development in nuclear energy is seen as a means of reducing oil imports. The failure of a European energy policy cannot be blamed on the different conceptions of the member states. The choice against oil imports and for nuclear energy is general, and each member is initially trying to make the national energy provision safe. (C.F.)

  10. The culture of academic medicine: faculty perceptions of the lack of alignment between individual and institutional values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda; Kern, David E; Carr, Phyllis; Conrad, Peter; Knight, Sharon

    2009-12-01

    Energized, talented faculty are essential to achieving the missions of academic medical centers (AMCs) in education, research and health care. The alignment of individuals' values with workplace experiences are linked to meaningfulness of work and productivity. To determine faculty values and their alignment with institutional values. A qualitative hypothesis-generating interview study to understand the professional experiences of faculty and organizational approach in five AMCs that were nationally representative in regional and organizational characteristics. Analysis was inductive and data driven. Using stratified, purposeful sampling, we interviewed 96 male and female faculty at different career stages (early career, plateaued, senior faculty and those who had left academic medicine) and diverse specialties (generalists, medical and surgical subspecialists, and research scientists). Dominant themes that emerged from the data. Faculty described values relating to excellence in clinical care, community service (including care for the underserved and disadvantaged), teaching, intellectual rigor/freedom and discovery, all values that mirror the stated missions of AMCs. However, many faculty also described behaviors that led them to conclude that their AMCs, in practice, undervalued excellence in clinical care, and their social and educational missions. Themes were seen across gender, career stage, race and discipline, except that female leaders appeared more likely than male leaders to identify incongruence of individual values and organizational practices. In this study of five diverse medical schools, faculty values were well aligned with stated institutional missions; however, many perceived that institutional behaviors were not always aligned with individual faculty values.

  11. Exploring the Value of Emotional Intelligence: A Means to Improve Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Eagan, M. Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The academic model of success in higher education often neglects the role of noncognitive variables, including Emotional Intelligence (EI). As higher education educators turn their attention to learning, scholars are focusing on the role of EI and other noncognitive variables in enhancing learning. Although learning takes place both inside and…

  12. Using "Giving Voice to Values" to Improve Student Academic Integrity in Information Technology Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemenschneider, Cynthia K.; Manly, Tracy S.; Leonard, Lori N. K.

    2016-01-01

    Academic integrity continues to be a concern for universities and faculty. Yet practical methods for conveying ethical behavior can be difficult to achieve. This study uses the multidimensional ethics scale to gain insight into three situations involving students. The findings from those scenarios are then framed using the "Giving Voice to…

  13. The Value of Assessing Pupils' Academic Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jørgen; Ottem, Ernst

    2018-01-01

    The Myself-As-a-Learner scale (MALS) has been constructed to assess academic self-concept (Burden, R. L. [2000]. "The Myself As a Learner Scale." Birmingham: Imaginative Minds; Burden, R. L. [2012]. "The Myself As a Learner Scale" [2nd ed.]. Cognitive Education Development Centre, Graduate School of Education, University of…

  14. Value of College Education Mediating the Predictive Effects of Causal Attributions on Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Obade, Masela; Gerszewski, Tammy; Ruthig, Joelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Causal attributions (explanations for outcomes) have been found to predict college students' academic success; however, not all students attributing success or failure to adaptive (i.e., controllable) causes perform well in university. Eccles et al.'s ("Achievement and achievement motives." W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, pp 75-145, 1983)…

  15. The Value of Family Routines for the Academic Success of Vulnerable Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ghazarian, Sharon R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations between mother reports of family routines and adolescent academic success. The authors used prospective data from "Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three City Study" (N = 1,147), a study of low-income urban youth and mothers. The vast majority of youth were African American (43%) or Latino (47%); youth were an…

  16. The Value of Nonmedical Academic Libraries to Medical Libraries: A Case in Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    While the National Library of Medicine created the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) as a network to provide medical and health information, historically few nonmedical academic libraries have participated. University medical libraries and hospital libraries have been the major focus of the Network. Recently, the NNLM has…

  17. The predictive value of science process skills, cognitive development, attitude toward science on academic achievement in a Thai teacher institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittirug, Hussachai

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among science process skills, attitude toward science, cognitive development and academic achievement of elementary preservice teachers. Especially, the combined predictive value of science process skills, attitude toward science and cognitive development on student academic achievement were determined. The data were obtained from 85 pre-service elementary teachers at a teachers college in Thailand. Science process skills, attitude toward science in school and cognitive development were addressed by the Thai translation of the respective instruments: Dillashaw and Okey's (1980) Test of Science Process Skills (TIPS), Germann's (1988) Attitude Toward Science in School Assessment (ATSSA) and Tobin and Capie's (1981) Test Of Logical Thinking (TOLT). Grade point average (GPA) in science courses and overall college grade point average (GPA) as a measure of academic achievement were taken from students' records. Data were analyzed through the use of descriptive statistic, the Pearson Product Moment correlation, stepwise multiple linear regression and canonical correlation. Results indicated a significant high correlation between pre-service teachers' science process skills and cognitive development, overall college GPA, GPA in science courses, and between overall college GPA and GPA in science courses; significant moderate correlation between cognitive development and overall college GPA, and GPA in science courses; significant low correlation between attitude toward science and GPA in science courses. In addition, science process skills was an effective predictor of individual academic achievement.

  18. Significant Value Found in Mentoring Programs for Novice Tenure-Track Academic Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Wendy Herman, MLIS, AHIP

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Goodsett, M., & Walsh, A. (2015. Building a strong foundation: Mentoring programs for novice tenure-track librarians in academic libraries. College & Research Libraries, 76(7, 914-933. http://dx.doi.org/10.5860/crl.76.7.914 Objective – To examine the effectiveness of mentoring programs for novice tenure-track academic librarians, and to identify critical elements that define a successful mentoring program in various academic library settings. Design – Survey questionnaire with a voluntary phone interview. Setting – Academic libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – 283 librarians participated in a survey questionnaire. Researchers conducted additional interviews with 6 out of the 12 librarians who had volunteered on the survey questionnaire and who met the inclusion criteria. Methods – Researchers recruited participants through two professional e-mail lists: the Information Literacy Instruction Discussion List (ILI-L listserv and the American Library Association’s New Members Round Table (NMRT listserv. Interested participants completed a secured online survey that was hosted using SurveyMonkey. The researchers then coded and analyzed the collected survey data using the same software. At the end of the online survey, participants were given the opportunity to volunteer for an additional interview. Potential interviewees were selected if mentoring programs were available for tenure- track librarians at their institutions. Once selected, researchers contacted potential interviewees and conducted interviews. The interviews were transcribed, the data anonymized, and original recordings deleted. Researchers coded the anonymized interview data to identify common themes.

  19. Reclaiming value from academic labor: commentary by the Editors of Human Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Finn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There have long been discussions about the need for an alternative publishing model for academic research. This has been made clear by the September 2017 scandal involving Third World Quarterly. The editor’s deeply problematic decision to publish an essay arguing in favor of colonialism was likely meant as click-bate to drive clicks and citations. But we should not lose sight of the fact that this latest scandal is only one recent manifestation of a long-simmering problem that has periodically commanded significant attention in the academic literature, blogs, email lists, conference sessions, and the popular press. As a direct result, over the last decade or more, new journals have been created that specifically endeavor to offer routes around corporate/capitalist academic publishing, and several existing journals have removed themselves from this profit-driven ecosystem. In this commentary, the editorial team of the journal Human Geography weighs in on what we see as the nature of the problem, what we are doing in response, what our successes have been, and what challenges remain.

  20. The Value of a Brief Thought for the Day Reflection on an Academic Consult Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Thomas; Lyndale, Patricia; Szakatis, Kathryn; Fitzgerald, Tom

    2017-11-01

    Work in hospice and palliative medicine can be stressful. A variety of methods have been used to mitigate workplace stress including mindfulness mediation, reflective writing, and physical activity. An intervention implemented at our institution is a "Thought for the Day," a short reflection on a piece of poetry, music, or religious writing. Although this practice may be commonplace in the field of hospice and palliative medicine, no literature has been published about its perceived utility by team members with various competing demands on their time. This study's objective was to obtain a better understanding about the perception and utility of a Thought for the Day held by clinicians rounding on an academic palliative medicine consult service. A survey, containing qualitative and quantitative elements was sent to faculty, staff, and learners who participated in a Thought for the Day over the 18 months between March 2013 and October 2014. Twenty-eight responses were returned and analyzed. Most participants (23 of the 28) felt that the Thought for the Day was an important use of their time on the academic consult service. Differences were seen by gender and team role. Additionally, it was reported that the Thought for the Day improved the participants' perception of teamwork. The use of a Thought for the Day reflection may be beneficial and constructive even for a busy academic consult service.

  1. Morphological model of female members of the Communal Police of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Raša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Communal Police of Belgrade was founded in 2010. The specific tasks of communal police officers define their professional and work profile, health status, relevant personality traits, the appropriate level of general and special physical fitness, and morphological characteristics. The aim of this study was to define the current state of basic morphological characteristics of female uniformed structure of Communal Police of Belgrade. The sample consisted of 40 female communal police officers aged 29.7 ± 6.2 years. All measurements were made during 2011 at the Motor Research Laboratory (MRL, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade. Measurements were carried out by a standardized procedure using the newest generation analyser of body structure: InBody 720. The obtained values of all variables were processed using basic descriptive statistics. The results showed that the average body weight (BW of the subjects was 63.61±9.81 kg, body height (BH 166.9±5.7 cm, body mass index (BMI 22.97±3.73 kg/m2 and the average structure of body composition as follows: 21.14±2.08 L of intracellular fluid (ICW, 13.01±1.30 L of extracellular fluid (ECW, 9.13±0.91 kg of proteins, 3.20±0.35 kg of minerals, 2.67±0.26 kg of bones mass, 17.10±6.43 kg of body fat mass (BFM, 26.24±5.99 % of percent body fat (PBF, area of internal organs affected by fatty deposits (visceral fat was 57.07±25.67 cm2, fitness score index was 75.80±3.81 points, 30.27±3.09 kg of living cells mass in the body, while the level of the basal metabolism was 1372.0±100.0 kcal. The results lead us to conclude that the current morphological status of female communal police officers belongs to the category of the population with normal anthropomorphological status of citizens of the Republic of Serbia.

  2. WAYS TO OPTIMIZE THE LABOUR IN THE COMMUNAL HOUSING COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana BUZDUGAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The management of communal complex-residential retention can be improved through the material, spiritual service, staff, and workers in the field. The main method of efficiency of functioning of the communal system of dwelling: development tool-stimulating, determining the parameters (levers supporting. Study of the utility function in profile all employees, workers, the use of economic-mathematical methods for solving problems, developing systems of imitation of the functioning of the overall system, studying the elasticity of exogenous origin of each parameter.

  3. Ways to optimize the labour in the communal housing complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzdugan Adriana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The management of communal complex-residential retention can be improved through the material, spiritual service, staff, and workers in the field. The main method of efficiency of functioning of the communal system of dwelling: development tool-stimulating, determining the parameters (levers supporting. Study of the utility function in profile all employees, workers, the use of economic-mathematical methods for solving problems, developing systems of imitation of the functioning of the overall system, studying the elasticity of exogenous origin of each parameter.

  4. Increase in competitiveness of housing-and-communal services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnik, Oksana

    2017-10-01

    The problems, interfering effective activity of housing-and-communal complex are considered in the article. Some factors of the increase in competitiveness and the importance of transactional expenses are revealed. The assessment of competitiveness of the organizations of the sphere of housing-and-communal services is considered as the set of the following basic elements organizational and administrative, marketing, financial, production, indicators of quality, indicators of development, labor indicators interconnected with processes of the organization. The author proves that the increase in competitiveness is possible by carrying out organizational and administrative, innovative, technological, economic transformations, increasing quality of services, reducing costs for production and realization of services, providing new services.

  5. Exploring Home-School Value Conflicts: Implications for Academic Achievement and Well-Being among Latino First-Generation College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Salgado, Yolanda; Greenfield, Patricia M.; Burgos-Cienfuegos, Rocio

    2015-01-01

    U.S. colleges place a high value on the fulfillment of academic obligations by their students. The academic achievement of each individual student is the institutional priority; this is an individualistic frame of reference. However, many Latino first-generation college students have been raised to prioritize family obligations; their home…

  6. Shapley value-based multi-objective data envelopment analysis application for assessing academic efficiency of university departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abing, Stephen Lloyd N.; Barton, Mercie Grace L.; Dumdum, Michael Gerard M.; Bongo, Miriam F.; Ocampo, Lanndon A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper adopts a modified approach of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the academic efficiency of university departments. In real-world case studies, conventional DEA models often identify too many decision-making units (DMUs) as efficient. This occurs when the number of DMUs under evaluation is not large enough compared to the total number of decision variables. To overcome this limitation and reduce the number of decision variables, multi-objective data envelopment analysis (MODEA) approach previously presented in the literature is applied. The MODEA approach applies Shapley value as a cooperative game to determine the appropriate weights and efficiency score of each category of inputs. To illustrate the performance of the adopted approach, a case study is conducted in a university in the Philippines. The input variables are academic staff, non-academic staff, classrooms, laboratories, research grants, and department expenditures, while the output variables are the number of graduates and publications. The results of the case study revealed that all DMUs are inefficient. DMUs with efficiency scores close to the ideal efficiency score may be emulated by other DMUs with least efficiency scores.

  7. Exploring the Value of Academic Librarians' Participation in Journal Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbons, Megan; Kloda, Lorie; Miller-Nesbitt, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Journal clubs are meetings where participants engage in discussion or appraisal of professional literature and research. This study investigates the perceived value of librarians' participation in journal clubs. Using a hermeneutic dialectic process, we built a construction of the value of journal club participation based on interviews with…

  8. Student Motivation for Learning in Ghana: Relationships with Caregivers' Values toward Education, Attendance, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Wolf, Sharon; Godfrey, Erin B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role that Ghanaian caregivers' values toward education play in shaping students' intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation for learning, and the ways these values and motivational orientations predict school attendance and achievement. Study participants included 88 students (M?=?11.63 years; 48% female) from two primary…

  9. The evolution of institutions and rules governing communal grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper traces the tradition and evolution of the institutions and rules governing communal grazing lands in Botswana. It shows how the problem of resource overuse arose partly from the dismantling and delegitimization of traditional resource management institutions that occurred during the colonial period, and was ...

  10. Communal space design as student interaction in polnep campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasriyanti, N.; Zulestari, A.; Judhi, J.; Ikayanti, P.

    2018-03-01

    Communal space is a means to do for social interaction, from private to the public. The purpose of this study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of communal space setting of Pontianak State Polytechnic students from 8 departments of study both indoor and outdoor spaces. The research method used is a rationalistic study. The planned activities to be undertaken include the determination of communal places (indoor and outdoor), sample determination, data collection with surveys and interviews, presenting data and analysis and drawing conclusions as a basis for designing communal space for Polnep students. The research were analyzed of building and space character, analysis of space organization and circulation, space requirement analysis, material and color analysis, site analysis, and analysis of inner space elements and outer space elements. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that Polnep campus environment requires the addition of public space for students in conducting formal activities outside lectures. Some activity which to do some student such as activity to waiting lecturer, do some coursework, discussion, relaxation, extracurricular activities, and other informal activities still require adequate space infrastructure and are equipped with street furnitures such as garden lights, benches, outer space markers and shade vegetation.

  11. Prevalence of internal parasite infections of cattle in the communal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of internal parasite infections of cattle in the communal farming areas of Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. G D Vassilev. Abstract. (Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal, 1999, 30(1): 1-18). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. A description of rangeland on commercial and communal land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of a Landsat TM image from a rangeland near Peddie, Eastern Cape, revealed differences in two vegetation indices (normalised difference vegetation index, NDVI, and moving standard deviation index, MSDI) between communal and commercial rangeland. It was suggested that the difference in the MSDI reflected ...

  13. Tree canopies facilitate invasion of communal savanna rangelands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    canopy micro-sites is most likely explained by either seed dispersal patterns imposed by avian dispersal agents and/or micro-site variation. An assessment of population size class structure of Lantana in the communal lands suggested that the ...

  14. Wildlife or livestock? New directions for developing communal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper agrees with three fundamental points raised by Vetter (in this issue), whilst highlighting an emerging trend in wildlife land use, which should be considered in policy making. Firstly, the paper supports the argument that communal rangelands are important as objects of biodiversity conservation and, secondly, the ...

  15. The Notion of Ubuntu and Communalism in African Educational Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Elza

    2004-01-01

    The notion of "ubuntu" and "communalism" is of great importance in an African educational discourse, as well as in African Philosophy of Education and in African philosophical discourse. "Ubuntu" is a philosophy that promotes the common good of society and includes humanness as an essential element of human growth. In…

  16. Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Communal Relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to determine whether self-esteem, perceived control and communal relationship strength would predict emotional distress in Nigerian university students. 148 students from a Christian university and 158 students from a Secular university responded to measures of the variables listed above.

  17. Multiple strategies for resilient livelihoods in communal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cash and non-cash benefits derived from livestock, as well as the wide range of secondary resources harvested from communal rangelands, make an important contribution to livelihood diversification and, hence, resilience. Rural development policy should therefore not focus narrowly on commercialisation of livestock ...

  18. Use of traditional veterinary medicine in Nhema communal area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study documents the use of ethno-veterinary medicine to treat livestock in Nhema communal area in the Midlands province of Zimbabwe. This study employed oral interviews and detailed discussions with 69 smallholder farmers and 3 traditional healers. The local people use 23 plant species belonging to 16 families ...

  19. Probing the Dynamic of Communal Conflict in Northern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Abstract. The phenomenon of communal conflict has assumed the posture of ethno-religious conflict in its occurrence and destructive potential in this era of democratic development in Nigeria. Its incessant occurrence has not been matched with scholarly investigations like the way ethno-religious conflict has been explored ...

  20. Local Government Administration and Communal Clashes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper notes that the increasing communal clashes in local areas are not caused by prevailing disputes such as land disputes, ethnic intolerance, cultural or religious extremism but persistent anomalies, inconsistencies in service delivery performance that have been continued over the years. It is quite an irony that in an ...

  1. Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Robin; Weaver, L Chris; Diggle, Richard W; Matongo, Greenwell; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Thouless, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Tourism and hunting both generate substantial revenues for communities and private operators in Africa, but few studies have quantitatively examined the trade-offs and synergies that may result from these two activities. We evaluated financial and in-kind benefit streams from tourism and hunting on 77 communal conservancies in Namibia from 1998 to 2013, where community-based wildlife conservation has been promoted as a land-use that complements traditional subsistence agriculture. We used data collected annually for all communal conservancies to characterize whether benefits were derived from hunting or tourism. We classified these benefits into 3 broad classes and examined how benefits flowed to stakeholders within communities under the status quo and under a simulated ban on hunting. Across all conservancies, total benefits from hunting and tourism increased at roughly the same rate, although conservancies typically started generating benefits from hunting within 3 years of formation as opposed to after 6 years for tourism. Disaggregation of data revealed that the main benefits from hunting were income for conservancy management and food in the form of meat for the community at large. The majority of tourism benefits were salaried jobs at lodges. A simulated ban on trophy hunting significantly reduced the number of conservancies that could cover their operating costs, whereas eliminating income from tourism did not have as severe an effect. Given that the benefits generated from hunting and tourism typically begin at different times in a conservancy's life-span (earlier vs. later, respectively) and flow to different segments of local communities, these 2 activities together may provide the greatest incentives for conservation on communal lands in Namibia. A singular focus on either hunting or tourism would reduce the value of wildlife as a competitive land-use option and have grave repercussions for the viability of community-based conservation efforts in Namibia

  2. Don't Preach. Practice! Value Laden Statements in Academic Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Karel F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The slogan "Practice what you preach" denotes that people should behave in accordance with the values that they preach. For universities that teach sustainable development (SD), it implies that these institutes should apply major SD principles themselves for example by campus greening, green purchasing, etc. But is not…

  3. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  4. The Influence of Academic Values and Belongingness Concerns on Achievement Goals, Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Stress in First Quarter Freshmen: Relationships to Academic Performance and the Mediating Role of Procrastination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the influence of student values on long-term self-regulatory decisions defined in terms of a tendency to procrastinate and how these values, indirectly through procrastination, but also directly, affect important motivational, affective, social and behavioral academic outcomes of first quarter freshmen. Results of a structural…

  5. Determinants of crime in the sphere of dwelling-communal sector in Russian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Sizykh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the most important factors of crimes in the sphere of dwelling and communal services in Russian cities with a population of over 1 million people. Methods correlation analysis using Pearson coefficient. Results the initial hypothesis is based on the following assumptions about the determination of crime in the dwellingcommunal sector this crime is proportional to the total criminality of the region economy the number of all corruption crimes revealed by divisions of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs in all spheres of economic activities in the studied cities production indicators number of investments and amount of financing in the dwellingcommunal sector volume of construction works etc. as well as the degree of monopolization in the dwellingcommunal sector in the region i.e. proportional to the number of municipal utilities. To check the hypotheses we used data on crime and socioeconomic characteristics of the dwellingcommunal sector in 15 largest Russian cities in 2012ndash2013 as well as the data about crime in the sphere of dwelling and communal services and about the corruption crimes in Russian cities in 2012ndash2014. As a result the calculations partially confirmed the hypotheses the dependence of the level of crime in the dwellingcommunal sector of Russian cities on the level of corruption crimes in these cities is high r 063 as well as the dependence on the number of organizations operating in the dwellingcommunal sector r 047. At the same time the correlation was weak between the volume of activity in the dwellingcommunal sector in Russian cities and the level of crime in them absolute value of Pearson coefficient is lower than 04. Scientific novelty for the first time the article investigated the determinants of crime in the sphere of dwelling and communal services in Russian cities on the basis of correlation analysis using Pearson coefficient. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions

  6. The Africanisation of Academic Development Programs: A case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Africanisation of Academic Development Programs: A case study. Phillip Higgs, RMH Moeketsi. Abstract. The question this article addresses is: what does the Africanisation of academic development programmes involve? In trying to answer this question, we shall discuss the African concepts of ubuntu and communality ...

  7. The complexity, relative value, and financial worth of curbside consultations in an academic infectious diseases unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Christopher; Alston, W Kemper; Ramundo, Mary; Polish, Louis; Kirkpatrick, Beth; Huston, Christopher

    2010-09-15

    Curbside consultations are common in clinical practice. The complexity, relative value, and revenue loss associated with curbside consultations are not well defined. Curbside consultations performed during a 1-year period were studied. Each curbside consultation was assigned a Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code on the basis of the inpatient versus outpatient status of the patient, initial versus subsequent care, and clinical complexity. On the basis of the CPT code, the physician work component of the relative value unit (wRVU) was assigned for each curbside consultation. The 2005 Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services conversion factor of $37.89 per wRVU was used for cost estimates. Comparisons were made with formal consultations performed during the same time period. A total of 1001 curbside consultations were fielded: 66% involved outpatients, and 97% were coded as initial consultations. A total of 78% of curbside consultations were considered complex in nature, being assigned a CPT code of level 4-5, including 84% of the inpatient and 75% of the outpatient curbside consultations. These curbside consultations would have generated 2480 wRVUs. During the same period, formal consultations generated 12,121 wRVUs. Thus, curbside consultations represented 17% (2480/14,601) of the clinical work value of the infectious diseases unit. If the infectious diseases unit had performed these curbside consultations as formal consultations, an additional $93,979 in revenue would have been generated. Curbside consultations are common and complex. The curbside consultation should be incorporated into measures of infectious diseases providers' productivity and compensation.

  8. When performance-approach goals predict academic achievement and when they do not: a social value approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    Research on achievement goal promotion at University has shown that performance-approach goals are perceived as a means to succeed at University (high social utility) but are not appreciated (low social desirability). We argue that such a paradox could explain why research has detected that performance-approach goals consistently predict academic grades. First-year psychology students answered a performance-approach goal scale with standard, social desirability and social utility instructions. Participants' grades were recorded at the end of the semester. Results showed that the relationship between performance-approach goals and grades was inhibited by the increase of these goals' social desirability and facilitated by the increase of their social utility, revealing that the predictive validity of performance-approach goals depends on social value. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Conjugative plasmids: Vessels of the communal gene pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2009-01-01

    available within that environment. Here we use the term supergenome to describe the set of all genes that a prokaryotic ‘individual' can draw on within a particular environmental setting. Conjugative plasmids can be considered particularly successful entities within the communal pool, which have enabled HGT...... over large taxonomic distances. These plasmids are collections of discrete regions of genes that function as ‘backbone modules' to undertake different aspects of overall plasmid maintenance and propagation. Conjugative plasmids often carry suites of ‘accessory elements' that contribute adaptive traits...... to the hosts and, potentially, other resident prokaryotes within specific environmental niches. Insight into the evolution of plasmid modules therefore contributes to our knowledge of gene dissemination and evolution within prokaryotic communities. This communal pool provides the prokaryotes with an important...

  10. RUSSIAN HOUSING AND COMMUNAL ECONOMY BRANCH REFORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Ivanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of socially oriented principles and market tools is main direction of Russian housing and communal economy branch reformation aimed at proving the population with decent housing conditions. At present, owners of dwelling facilities are bound to maintain and repair them at their own. If dwellings were privatized in houses that were to be overhauled, respective current and capital repairs work is to be carried out by the state in accordance with norms. Housing and communal economy branch reformation assistance Fund and Program are created in the country, the latter being organized on the co-financing principle (major part of means needed for the repairs is provided by Fund, lesser part – by regional and local governments, some 10% – by the owners. Coordinated activities of governmental, scientific and business organizations as well as dwelling owners are needed for further sustainable development of the branch.

  11. Linking Information Seeking Patterns with Purpose, Use, Value, and Return On Investment of Academic Library Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W. King

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To demonstrate the power of the critical incident method in studying theinformation seeking patterns of university faculty.Methods – Faculty at five U.S. universities participated in a study concerning their information seeking and reading patterns involving scholarly journals. The surveys relied on a critical incident method of asking questions concerning the last journal article read. This method allows analysis of the relationships among the purposes of reading articles, ways in which faculty first learned about the articles, where they obtained them, aspects of their use, and the value or impact of the information read. Results – Results show that journal articles were by far the most used source of the last substantive piece of information used for work. Over half of article readings were from articles provided by libraries (52%, compared with 32.6% from personal subscriptions, and journal articles were the most frequent way faculty became aware of information prior to reading about it (33.9%, compared with 19.4% from informal discussions.Conclusion – This project has shown that articles read for the purpose of research, found by searching, and obtained from the library collections have the highest value to faculty by many measures. Library provided articles save faculty time and effort, which can be quantified using contingent valuation. The return on investment (ROI for library collections can be calculated by measuring all library costs and establishing the monetary returns to faculty members through contingent valuation. Library journal collections are estimated to have an ROI of between 3.3 and 3.6 to 1.

  12. The Reconfiguration of Civil Society through Ethnic Communal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Frank Lalich

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Migrant communities participate in the reconfiguration of civil society in places of settlement. Among the consequences of the large-scale culturally diverse postwar migration was in the regeneration, broadening and diversification of Australian civil society. This contribution outlines with unique data generated from ethnic communal organisations in Sydney the process of confluence of migration and civil society out of settlement constraints. Consecutive waves of migrants experienced settlement constraints that impaired the quality of their lives in a welfare state. Migrants, mostly left to themselves, acted collectively to improve the quality of their existence, to enable co-ethnic communication, and to mediate with the rest of society. They established thousands of grassroots organisations through collective mobilization of scarce resources. Many ethnic collectives through collective action appropriated their own communal places to satisfy spiritual, educational, welfare and other secular needs alongside the other forms of institutional development. Ethnic communal places, representatives of the re-territorialized cultures, heritages and elements of civil society, signify migrant inclusion in Australian social structures, including in civil society. Through development of community capital, ethnic collectives impacted on civil society in an environment experiencing limited cross-cultural social exchange. This development is representative of the unique structure of Australian civil society.

  13. The operating economy of communal biogas plants by mid-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjort-Gregersen, K.

    1992-01-01

    The aim was to describe the status of the operational economy of Danish communal biogas systems one year after the Coordinating Committee for Communal Biogas Systems (Koordineringsudvalget for Biogasfaellesanlaeg) had published its main report. Initiatives aimed at the improvement of the systems' economy are also described. The economic analysis is based on actual current earnings. Tables also compare actual and expected earnings in the case of nine communal systems. It is concluded that methane production is generally high and stable as a result of adding organic wastes to the animal manures, yet maintenance and running costs are too high, and capital gains must be raised in order to achieve economical balance. It is recommended that prices and supply of organic wastes be regulated. The quality of used manures must be improved, also by reducing the moisture content. Process control must be initiated as a means of further increasing methane production. Transport systems should be analyzed in an attempt to reduce maintenance costs and the technology should be developed to obtain a stable operation. More personnel are required to ensure operational reliability. The overall administration should be stream-lined, and personnel training should be given higher priority - also implemented by means of manuals and servicing programmes. Personnel should be more familiar with aspects of the general related economy and cost control. (AB)

  14. The Use of Refuges by Communally Housed Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sicuto de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m. However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics, research laboratories, shelters and domestic homes.

  15. Time Spent by Breast Imaging Radiologists to Perform Value-Added Activities at an Academic Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mesa, Fernando; Klevos, Geetika; Arheart, Kristopher; Banks, James; Yepes, Monica; Net, Jose

    2017-04-01

    Health care reform in the United States has generated a paradigm shift in the practice of radiology aimed at increasing the degree of patient-centered care. We conducted a study to quantify the amount of time breast imaging radiologists spend on value-added activities at an academic comprehensive cancer center located in Miami, Florida, and accredited by the American College of Radiology as a Breast Imaging Center of Excellence. A prospective, observational study was conducted during a period of 20 consecutive workdays. Three participating breast imaging radiologists maintained a real-time log of each activity performed. A generalized linear model was used to perform a 1-way analysis of variance. An alpha level of .05 was used to determine statistical significance. The average daily time dedicated to these activities was 92.1 minutes (range, 56.4-132.2). The amount of time significantly differed among breast imaging radiologists and correlated with their assigned daily role (P value-added activities to help improve patients' experience across the continuity of their care. We propose that similar studies be conducted at other institutions to better assess the magnitude of this finding across different breast imaging care settings.

  16. Moving away from a cultural deficit to a holistic perspective: Traditional gender role values, academic attitudes, and educational goals for Mexican descent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Watson, Brandy; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Dornhecker, Marianela; Martinez, Ashley J; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2016-04-01

    Latina/o youth lag behind Asian American and non-Latina/o White youth in many academic areas. Previous research has taken a deficit approach to understand the factors that affect academic outcomes for Latina/o youth often neglecting to highlight both the potential positive and negative contributions of gender role values. The present study took a holistic perspective to understand the affect of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., marianismo, machismo, and caballerismo) on the academic attitudes and educational goals of Mexican descent youth. Structural equation models were tested to examine the associations of "positive" and "negative" gender role values on educational goals using 524 Mexican descent adolescents from a mid-sized city in southern Texas. We hypothesized that positive aspects of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., "positive marianismo" and caballerismo) would be associated with more positive attitudes toward academics and higher educational goals. We further expected negative gender role values (i.e., "negative marianismo" and machismo) to have the opposite effect. Additionally, based on the theory of planned behavior and gender schema theory, academic attitudes were hypothesized to mediate the relation between gender role values and educational goals. An alternative model was tested in which educational goals mediated the relation between gender roles and academic attitudes. Results indicated that both models fit the data well, and recommendations are made for future longitudinal research aimed at disentangling the directionality of the relations in the model. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Comparison of plant diversity in protected and communal lands in the Bushbuckridge lowveld savanna, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shackleton, CM

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available and density in the communal area. Prendini et al. (1996) recorded a higher species richness of grasshoppers in Timbavati communal lands relative to adjacent protected areas in the Bushbuckridge lowveld. Cumming et al. (1997) found reduced species richness... Catchment. Dept. of Water AC128airs and Forestry, Pretoria. Prendini, L., Theron, L., van der Merwe, K., Owen-Smith, N., 1996. Abundance and guild structure of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acri- diodea) in communally grazed and protected savanna. South Afri...

  18. Serosurvey for canine distemper virus exposure in dogs in communal lands in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Kelly

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 173 apparently healthy, unvaccinated dogs from 4 widely separated communal lands in Zimbabwe were tested by ELISA for antibodies against canine distemper virus. Overall, 82 % were positive with high prevalences found in each communal land. The highest seroprevalence was in dogs between 1 and 2 years of age (91 %; 49/54. These results show dogs in the communal lands of Zimbabwe are commonly exposed to canine distemper virus and that a substantial number survive infection. The role that the virus might play in the high mortality rate of the dog population on communal land warrants further investigation.

  19. Judicial "translation" and contextualisation of values: rethinking the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and therefore the liberal individualism of international law could be "foreign" in a customary context, which values communalism. Hence, it is asked whether courts can accommodate pluralism by simply transposing norms and values such as ...

  20. Management of reforming of housing-and-communal services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnik, Oksana

    2017-10-01

    The international experience of reforming of housing and communal services is considered. The main scientific and methodical approaches of system transformation of the housing sphere are analyzed in the article. The main models of reforming are pointed out, interaction of participants of structural change process from the point of view of their commercial and social importance is characterized, advantages and shortcomings are revealed, model elements of the reform transformations from the point of view of the formation of investment appeal, competitiveness, energy efficiency and social importance of the carried-out actions are allocated.

  1. The integration of ecopolitical needs in communal competition politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, L.

    1993-01-01

    Politically and institutionally the integration of ecopolitical needs in Communal competition politics has not progressed very far. In the domain of Article 85 trade-internal agreements and agreements for self-imposed moderation attain particular importance from the ecopolitical viewpoint. Protection of the environment as a task of common European interest cannot be realed solely or even in large part through market mechanisms. Therefore financial aids for the promotion of environment protection are principally both desirable and permissible. This is the starting point from which to assess effects of ecopolitical measures on competition. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. Perceived Value of Academic Support Services for Post-Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities at Accredited Institutions of the Association for Biblical Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Gretchen Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the perceived value of academic support service types for post-secondary students with learning disabilities in the Christian higher education milieu. Grounded in a model of service utilization (Pescosolido, 1992), the research methodology applied in this study addressed the following research question: What is the perceived…

  3. An Examination of How Academic Advancement of U.S. Journalism Students Relates to Their Degree Motivations, Values, and Technology Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Serena; Hoag, Anne; Grant, August E.; Bowe, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    The newsroom is a powerful influence in a journalist's identity formation. Research has yet to verify the socializing impact of academia. This research utilized the quantitative survey method applying it to undergraduate journalism students (n = 798) to assess how academic status relates to students' degree motivations, life values, and technology…

  4. Community College Students' Perceptions of Educational Counseling, Its Value, and Its Relationship with Students' Academic and Social Integration into the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Sergio A.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation investigated community college students' perceptions about educational counseling, its value, and its relationship with academic and social integration into the college environment. In an attempt to explore students' perceptions, a quantitative study was conducted at four California community colleges. The survey was distributed…

  5. Pengaruh Communal Activation untuk Membentuk Brand Loyalty Produk Minuman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiwi Prabowo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Established in 1974, PT Sinar Sosro is the first ready-to-drink tea beverage in bottles in Indonesia and in the world. Teh Botol Sosro market position is the leader in ready to drink tea industry. One of the leading products of PT Sinar Sosro is Teh Botol Sosro glass bottle often called RGB (returnable Glass Bottle. To meet the lovers’ needs anywhere they are, the latest innovation from Teh Botol Sosro products is Teh Botol Sosro Less Sugar which was launched on August 20, 2008. As the time passes by, the market condition encourages a change in marketing plan that leads to a decentralized system (horizontal in which the customer demands the same service from the same brand from any location they are. This era is called the New Wave Marketing (2008, which is still running today. The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of communal activation of the buying decisions to increase brand loyalty in Teh Botol Sosro Less Sugar product. Data collecting technique is the questionnaire to members of the online community Botol Sosro Less Sugar and interviews, while the data analysis technique using path analysis. Path Analysis Results show there was an impact dan significant between Communal Activation and Buying Decisions, and there was also a positive correlation and significant between Buying Decisions and Brand Loyalty.

  6. Communal roosting and foraging behavior of staging sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Krapu, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    Each spring more than 300,000 Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) roost communally at night in river channels in the Platte River Valley of Nebraska and disperse at dawn to forage in agricultural fields. Cranes with central roosts had activity ranges double the size of those with peripheral roosts; 42% of the birds changed activity ranges prior to the onset of migration. Minimum daily flight distance generally increased during the staging period. Cranes used native grassland and planted hayland more often than expected, relative to their percentage of occurrence, and fed longest there; cornfields were underutilized. These differences probably reflect, in part, (1) limited distribution of grasslands and haylands resulting in a greater energy expenditure to acquire protein in the form of macroinvertebrates and (2) wider distribution of cornfields with adequate energyrich foods but limited protein. Cranes probably forage more efficiently and conserve energy by following conspecifics from communal roosts to local feeding grounds, by settling in fields where foraging flocks are already present, and by establishing diurnal activity centers. Alert behavior varied with flock size but not as predicted from group size, presumably because predation of staging adult cranes is inconsequential.

  7. aspirations and needs of farmers on communal grazing areas in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lynette

    The study evaluated the needs and aspirations of farmers in communal or commonage ... countries wish to improve their standard of living (Mukhala, 1999). Farmers in communal areas would also like to make a profit, generate income, increase .... preference, the most important management problems they faced. There are.

  8. Valuing the human asset - the impact of university placements on academic performance and graduate employment amongst management students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R.

    2012-05-01

    The employment market for graduates is competitive with employers requiring appropriate work experience in addition to academic qualifications. Sandwich courses, where up to a year is spent in industry, provide an opportunity for structured work experience to be gained alongside studying. Benefits of placements include improved academic performance and the development of transferable skills to increase employability. This paper evaluates the impact of placements on academic performance and graduate employment among management students. Analysing performance data and graduate destinations data, results indicate that management students completing a placement are more likely to perform better academically with improvements in their personal grades between year 2 and the final year. Additionally, a qualitative themed analysis of student experiences indicates placement students feel more confident in engaging with the graduate recruitment process, with a better understanding of their personal skills and an ability to articulate their experience in relation to the workplace.

  9. Choice of the marketing concept of management of housing-and-communal services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnik, Oksana

    2017-10-01

    According to the author, housing-and-communal services comprise the basis of regional infrastructure forming quality and the standard of living of the population, being one of the most important prerequisites of development of social and economic capacity of the region. Some marketing concepts of management of housing-and-communal services are considered in the article, the problems, interfering the use of marketing technologies in management of housing-and-communal services are revealed. The need of use of marketing management for effective activity of housing-and-communal services is also reasoned. The author proves that the introduction of housing-and-communal services in practice as the marketing concept of management allows to solve the whole complex of issues, which are studied in the article.

  10. Environmental accounting on a communal level: A tool to support environmental management and decision-making by communal executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, G; Pietsch, J; Ufermann, K

    1999-01-01

    Starting from an ecological perspective of urban-industrial areas, environmental accounting is used to analyse and to evaluate which environmental impacts are the result of communal activities (e.g. the results of different kinds of water supply systems). Therefore, the anthropogenic fluxes, the changing quality of areas as well as the processes between the environmental fields are taken into account. The approach is based on methodical elements of te Life Cycle Analysis and the Environmental Impact Assessment. Looking at the 'urban systems' within the communal activities, 'ecological modelling' gives us a new and fuller picture of the spatial and temporal character of urban metabolism. The approach supports the perception of cumulative effects and the postponement of environmental problems and opens new horizons for process-oriented environmental planning within the community. Greater efficiency and a decrease in costs can be arrived at by leaving 'end of the pipe' strategies; opportunities for a better planning process and measures for different individuals and organisations can be drawn up. A data base which acts as a 'support system' implements the computer-aided approach to environmental accounting.

  11. Down-regulating narcissistic tendencies: communal focus reduces state narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H

    2014-04-01

    Narcissism has been conceptualized as a set of coherent, mutually reinforcing attributes that orients individuals toward self-enhancement and positive self-feelings. In this view, reducing one element of narcissism--such as a greater concern for agency than communion--may situationally reduce narcissism in a state-like manner. Across five studies, we found that increasing communal focus toward others decreases state narcissism. In Study 1, participants induced to feel empathy reported less state narcissism. In Studies 2 to 4, participants primed with interdependent self-construal reported less state narcissism than control participants and those primed with independent self-construal. Furthermore, in Study 4, changes in state narcissism mediated changes in desire for fame and perceptions that others deserve help. Thus, changes in one element of narcissism may situationally reduce narcissistic tendencies. These findings suggest that narcissism is more state-like and context-dependent than previously assumed.

  12. HIV and dyadic intervention: an interdependence and communal coping analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Montgomery

    Full Text Available The most common form of HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa is heterosexual sex between two partners. While most HIV prevention interventions are aimed at the individual, there is mounting evidence of the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of dyadic interventions. However, the mechanisms through which dyadic-level interventions achieve success remain little explored. We address this gap by using Lewis et al's interdependence model of couple communal coping and behaviour change to analyse data from partners participating in an HIV prevention trial in Uganda and Zambia.We conducted a comparative qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Thirty-three interviews were conducted in total; ten with couples and twenty-three with staff members at the two sites. The Ugandan site recruited a sero-discordant couple cohort and the Zambian site recruited women alone. Spouses' transformation of motivation is strong where couples are recruited and both partners stand to gain considerably by participating in the research; it is weaker where this is not the case. As such, coping mechanisms differ in the two sites; among sero-discordant couples in Uganda, communal coping is evidenced through joint consent to participate, regular couple counselling and workshops, sharing of HIV test results, and strong spousal support for adherence and retention. By contrast, coping at the Zambian site is predominantly left to the individual woman and occurs against a backdrop of mutual mistrust and male disenfranchisement. We discuss these findings in light of practical and ethical considerations of recruiting couples to HIV research.We argue for the need to consider the broader context within which behaviour change occurs and propose that future dyadic research be situated within the framework of the 'risk environment'.

  13. An evolutionary framework for cultural change: Selectionism versus communal exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabora, Liane

    2013-06-01

    Dawkins' replicator-based conception of evolution has led to widespread mis-application of selectionism across the social sciences because it does not address the paradox that necessitated the theory of natural selection in the first place: how do organisms accumulate change when traits acquired over their lifetime are obliterated? This is addressed by von Neumann's concept of a self-replicating automaton (SRA). A SRA consists of a self-assembly code that is used in two distinct ways: (1) actively deciphered during development to construct a self-similar replicant, and (2) passively copied to the replicant to ensure that it can reproduce. Information that is acquired over a lifetime is not transmitted to offspring, whereas information that is inherited during copying is transmitted. In cultural evolution there is no mechanism for discarding acquired change. Acquired change can accumulate orders of magnitude faster than, and quickly overwhelm, inherited change due to differential replication of variants in response to selection. This prohibits a selectionist but not an evolutionary framework for culture and the creative processes that fuel it. The importance non-Darwinian processes in biological evolution is increasingly recognized. Recent work on the origin of life suggests that early life evolved through a non-Darwinian process referred to as communal exchange that does not involve a self-assembly code, and that natural selection emerged from this more haphazard, ancestral evolutionary process. It is proposed that communal exchange provides an evolutionary framework for culture that enables specification of cognitive features necessary for a (real or artificial) societies to evolve culture. This is supported by a computational model of cultural evolution and a conceptual network based program for documenting material cultural history, and it is consistent with high levels of human cooperation.

  14. Deviancy from the Norms of Science: The Effects of Anomie and Alienation in the Academic Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, John M.

    1993-01-01

    A study applying anomie theory to behavior of college faculty, especially as alienation from the academic reward system results in deviation from professional norms of communality, disinterestedness, universalism, and organized skepticism, is reported. Implications for use of norms as interpretive devices, ambivalence of academics toward norms,…

  15. The Crisis in Higher Education: The Views of Academic Professionals on Policy, Leadership Values and Operational Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    There is a perception of crisis in UK higher education, particularly in England. This article identifies elements of the perceived crisis, quantifies the depth of the crisis from the perceptions of a sample of nearly 300 academic staff, and exemplifies the gap between stated policy and the realities of delivery. Comparisons are made between…

  16. ROLE OF THE VENEZUELAN CONDITION IN THE ELECTORAL PROCESSES OF THE COMMUNAL ADVICES: Resolution of Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édinson Enrique Luzardo Nava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to analyze the role of the Venezuelan State in the electoral processes of the communal councils according. The investigation was legal theoretical documentary in nature, based on the Venezuelan legal framework. The Constitution, law of communal councils, electoral processes, rulings and newspaper articles were used for data collection. Conclusions: actually there is absence of effective legal protection with helplessness due process in the conflicts in the electoral processes of communal councils. Recommendations: create municipal electoral collegiate bodies with incorporation of the universities

  17. Communal nursing in wild house mice is not a by-product of group living: Females choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidt, Andrea; Lindholm, Anna K.; König, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Communal nursing, the provision of milk to non-offspring, has been argued to be a non-adaptive by-product of group living. We used 2 years of field data from a wild house mouse population to investigate this question. Communal nursing never occurred among females that previously lacked overlap in nest box use. Females nursed communally in only 33 % of cases in which there was a communal nursing partner available from the same social group. Solitarily nursing females were not socially isolated in their group; nevertheless, high spatial associations prior to reproduction predict which potential female partner was chosen for communal nursing. An increase in partner availability increased the probability of communal nursing, but population density itself had a negative effect, which may reflect increased female reproductive competition during summer. These results argue that females are selective in their choice of nursing partners and provide further support that communal nursing with the right partner is adaptive.

  18. Predictive Value of the School-leaving Grade and Prognosis of Different Admission Groups for Academic Performance and Continuity in the Medical Course – a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadmon, Guni; Resch, Franz; Duelli, Roman; Kadmon, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school-leaving GPA and the time since completion of secondary education are the major criteria for admission to German medical schools. However, the predictive value of the school-leaving grade and the admission delay have not been thoroughly examined since the amendment of the Medical Licensing Regulations and the introduction of reformed curricula in 2002. Detailed information on the prognosis of the different admission groups is also missing. Aim: To examine the predictive values of the school-leaving grade and the age at enrolment for academic performance and continuity throughout the reformed medical course. Methods: The study includes the central admission groups “GPA-best” and “delayed admission” as well as the primary and secondary local admission groups of three consecutive cohorts. The relationship between the criteria academic performance and continuity and the predictors school-leaving GPA, enrolment age, and admission group affiliation were examined up to the beginning of the final clerkship year. Results: The academic performance and the prolongation of the pre-clinical part of undergraduate training were significantly related to the school-leaving GPA. Conversely, the dropout rate was related to age at enrolment. The students of the GPA-best group and the primary local admission group performed best and had the lowest dropout rates. The students of the delayed admission group and secondary local admission group performed significantly worse. More than 20% of these students dropped out within the pre-clinical course, half of them due to poor academic performance. However, the academic performance of all of the admission groups was highly variable and only about 35% of the students of each group reached the final clerkship year within the regular time. Discussion: The school-leaving grade and age appear to have different prognostic implications for academic performance and continuity. Both factors have consequences for the

  19. Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar da Costa Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current industry demand for dairy products with extended shelf life has resulted in new challenges for milk quality maintenance. The processing of milk with high bacterial counts compromises the quality and performance of industrial products. The study aimed to evaluate the total bacteria counts (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC in 768 samples of refrigerated raw milk, from 32 communal tanks. Samples were collected in the first quarter of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and analyzed by the Laboratory of Milk Quality - LQL. Results showed that 62.5%, 37.5%, 15.6% and 27.1% of the means for TBC in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, were above the values established by legislation. However, we observed a significant reduction in the levels of total bacterial count (TBC in the studied periods. For somatic cell count, 100% of the means indicated values below 600.000 cells/mL, complying with the actual Brazilian legislation. The values found for the somatic cell count suggests the adoption of effective measures for the sanitary control of the herd. However, the results must be considered with caution as it highlights the need for quality improvements of the raw material until it achieves reliable results effectively.

  20. Probing the Unique Contributions of Self-Concept, Task Values, and Their Interactions Using Multiple Value Facets and Multiple Academic Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Jiesi; Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Kelava, Augustin; Gaspard, Hanna; Brandt, Holger; Cambria, Jenna; Flunger, B.; Dicke, Anna Lena; Häfner, Isabelle; Brisson, Brigitte Maria; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on expectancy-value theory, the present study examined the unique contributions of the four major value beliefs and self-concept on achievement, self-reported effort, and teacher-rated behavioral engagement in mathematics. In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of self-concept

  1. The dimensions and role of commensality: A theoretical model drawn from the significance of communal eating among adults in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoman, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    This article examines the significance of communal eating among adults from Santiago, Chile, by elaborating on a theoretical model for commensality that is based on empirical material. Based on this objective, 24 group interviews were conducted in Santiago with family members, coworkers, and friends who shared meals with one another. The results showed that the practice of commensality strengthens the cohesion among the members of a group, providing an interactive space in which communal belonging is symbolized and shared norms are respected. However, eating together also is assigned an ambiguous value: On the one hand, commensality is viewed as positive in enabling connections with others. On the other hand, participating in commensality can be viewed as negative, causing tensions depending on the characteristics of the commensal group and the context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. When giving feels good. The intrinsic benefits of sacrifice in romantic relationships for the communally motivated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Aleksandr; Impett, Emily A; Oveis, Christopher; Hui, Bryant; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2010-12-01

    Who benefits most from making sacrifices for others? The current study provides one answer to this question by demonstrating the intrinsic benefits of sacrifice for people who are highly motivated to respond to a specific romantic partner's needs noncontingently, a phenomenon termed communal strength. In a 14-day daily-experience study of 69 romantic couples, communal strength was positively associated with positive emotions during the sacrifice itself, with feeling appreciated by the partner for the sacrifice, and with feelings of relationship satisfaction on the day of the sacrifice. Furthermore, feelings of authenticity for the sacrifice mediated these associations. Several alternative hypotheses were ruled out: The effects were not due to individuals higher in communal strength making qualitatively different kinds of sacrifices, being more positive in general, or being involved in happier relationships. Implications for research and theory on communal relationships and positive emotions are discussed.

  3. Ecological solid fuels, effective heating devices for communal management and their testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubica, K.

    1995-12-31

    The national balance of primary energy consumption is almost 90% based upon coal. Coal is used not only in electricity production, but also in the communal sector - in heating facilities comprising chiefly local boiler houses and private households.

  4. A longitudinal study investigating the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus genotype B in seasonally communal dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelk, V; Graber, H U; van den Borne, B H P; Sartori, C; Steiner, A; Bodmer, M; Haerdi-Landerer, M C

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major mastitis-causing pathogen. Various genotypes have been recently identified in Switzerland but Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB) was the only genotype associated with high within-herd prevalence. The risk of introducing this Staph. aureus genotype into a herd may be increased by frequent animal movements. This may also be the case when cows from different herds of origin are commingled and share their milking equipment for a limited period of time. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Staph. aureus GTB in seasonally communal dairy herds before and after a summer period when dairy farming is characterized by mixing cows from different herds of origin in 1 communal operation. In addition, the environment was investigated to identify potential Staph. aureus GTB reservoirs relevant for transmission of the disease. A total of 829 cows from 110 herds of origin in 9 communal operations were included in the study. Composite milk samples were collected from all cows during the first or second milking after arrival at the communal operation and again shortly before the end of the season. Swab samples from the environment, involved personnel, and herding dogs present were collected before the cows arrived. At the end of the season, sampling of personnel was repeated. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Staph. aureus GTB using an established quantitative PCR. At the beginning of the season, Staph. aureus GTB-positive cows were identified in 7 out of 9 communal operations and the within-communal operation prevalence ranged from 2.2 to 38.9%. At the second sampling, all communal operations were Staph. aureus GTB positive, showing within-communal operation prevalence from 1 to 72.1%. The between-herd of origin prevalence increased from 27.3 to 56.6% and the cow-level prevalence increased from 11.2% at the beginning of the season to 29.6% at the end of the season. On 3 different communal operations, Staph. aureus

  5. Led by the Spirit: Missional Communities and the Quakers on communal vocation discernment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis R. Love

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the term missional is an expression of the global shift towards a theocentric (rather than ecclesiocentric understanding of mission. A Missional Community is a concrete, local embodiment of this missional ecclesiology and it comes to be through discerning its particular and ongoing vocation in the cosmic missio Dei. It is for this reason that we argued that communal vocation discernment lies at the heart of the Missional Community’s life and practice. This practice births, energises and renews the Missional Community in the wake of the boundary-breaking Spirit’s work in the local neighbourhood or context. Because communal vocation discernment is central to Missional Communities it seemed prudent to ask which other communities or traditions see discernment as central to their life and practice. In Western Christianity, the Quakers stand out as a significant example of communal discernment as their normal way of making decisions. We sought to answer whether the Quaker practice of communal discernment, in the Meeting for Worship in which Business is Conducted, is a suitable model for communal vocation discernment in Missional Communities. We suggested that it was not suitable in so far as it did not express an explicit commitment to being grounded and connected to a place or neighbourhood as a prerequisite for discernment. We suggested that it was suitable in so far as it continually reminds the community that communal discernment is not simply about making decisions or finding your vocation but at its heart is an act of worship. This awareness in the Quakers is primarily achieved through naming communal discernment spaces as worship spaces and through the strategic use of silence. We also suggested that the Quaker commitment to unity anddissent creates space for belonging, agency and responsibility in the community and that this is something which Missional Communities would do well to appropriate in their own communal

  6. A longitudinal study on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus genotype B in Swiss communal dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Borne, Bart H P; Graber, Hans U; Voelk, Verena; Sartori, Carlotta; Steiner, Adrian; Haerdi-Landerer, M Christina; Bodmer, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common mastitis causing pathogen of dairy cattle. Several S. aureus genotypes exist, of which genotype B (GTB) is highly prevalent in Swiss dairy herds. Dairy farming in mountainous regions of Switzerland is characterised by the movement of dairy cattle to communal pasture-based operations at higher altitudes. Cows from different herds of origin share pastures and milking equipment for a period of 2 to 3 months during summer. The aim of this longitudinal observational study was to quantify transmission of S. aureus GTB in communal dairy operations. Cows (n=551) belonging to 7 communal operations were sampled at the beginning and end of the communal period. Transmission parameter β was estimated using a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) model. The basic reproduction ratio R 0 was subsequently derived using previously published information about the duration of infection. Mean transmission parameter β was estimated to be 0.0232 (95% CI: 0.0197-0.0274). R 0 was 2.6 (95% CI: 2.2-3.0), indicating that S. aureus GTB is capable of causing major outbreaks in Swiss communal dairy operations. This study emphasized the contagious behaviour of S. aureus GTB. Mastitis management in communal dairy operations should be optimized to reduce S. aureus GTB transmission between cows and back to their herds of origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Predictive Value of Preschool Language Assessments on Academic Achievement: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Icelandic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna T; Björnsdóttir, Amalía; Símonardóttir, Ingibjörg

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between language knowledge at 5 years of age and later academic achievement throughout compulsory school in Iceland. Between 1997 and 1998, 267 Icelandic preschool children aged from 5;4 (years;months) to 5;10 were tested with the HLJÓM-2 (an Icelandic test of phonological awareness; Símonardóttir, Einarsdóttir, & Björnsdóttir, 2002) and the Icelandic version of the Test of Language Development-Primary: Second Edition (TOLD-2P; oral comprehension tasks; Símonardóttir, Guðmundsson, Skúlason, & Pétursdóttir, 1995). In 2011 these individuals, now aged 18-19 years, were contacted again. Of the original 267 participants, 221 (83%) gave permission to link their results from the preschool language assessments with their performance on national tests in 4th, 7th, and 10th grades. The results showed strong correlation between phonological awareness (as measured by the HLJÓM-2) and academic achievement (Icelandic and mathematics) in 4th, 7th, and 10th grades. There was also a significant but lower correlation with oral comprehension skills, as measured with the TOLD-2P. Regression analysis showed that the preschool oral-language assessments in phonological awareness and oral comprehension explained between 35% and 43% of variability in scores on national tests in Icelandic and between 20% and 39% of variability in scores in mathematics. Preschool language knowledge is a reliable predictor of later academic achievement.

  8. Loneliness is associated with sleep fragmentation in a communal society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurina, Lianne M; Knutson, Kristen L; Hawkley, Louise C; Cacioppo, John T; Lauderdale, Diane S; Ober, Carole

    2011-11-01

    Loneliness has been shown to predict poor health. One hypothesized mechanism is that lonely individuals do not sleep as well as individuals who feel more connected to others. Our goal was to test whether loneliness is associated with sleep fragmentation or sleep duration. Cross-sectional study. Members of a traditional, communal, agrarian society living in South Dakota. Ninety-five participants (mean age 39.8 years, 55% female) who were ≥ 19 years of age at the study's inception. Not applicable. We conducted interviews querying loneliness, depression, anxiety, and stress, as well as subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. Study participants wore a wrist actigraph for one week to measure objective sleep properties; the two studied here were sleep fragmentation and sleep duration. Higher loneliness scores were associated with significantly higher levels of sleep fragmentation (β = 0.073, t = 2.55, P = 0.01), controlling for age, sex, body mass index, risk of sleep apnea, and negative affect (a factor comprising symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress). Loneliness was not associated with sleep duration or with either subjective sleep measure. Loneliness was a significant predictor of sleep fragmentation. Humans' social nature may partly be manifest through our dependence on feeling secure in our social environment to sleep well.

  9. Communal energy law. An outline. 2. ed.; Kommunales Energierecht. Darstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henneke, Hans-Guenter; Ritgen, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Ensuring a reliable, reasonably priced, environmentally friendly energy supply area-wide belongs to the most important public services that cities, administrative districts and municipalities are required to provide. In preparation of its second edition the present publication was thoroughly revised to do justice to the numerous legislative changes attending the energy turnaround. It presents the wide array of legal instruments at the disposal of municipalities for fulfilling their important duties in matters relating to the energy supply. It discusses the requirements of communal economic law as well as the constitutional and energy economy related framework conditions governing the energy supply. The concession contract, one of the most important instruments in the area of energy supply, has been given a chapter of its own. In regard to another of its focal topics the publication explains how municipal planning autonomy, especially in the area of land use planning, can help municipalities implement energy policies according to their own ideas. The publication concludes with a discussion of topics concerning municipalities as energy consumers, namely energy-related environmental law, the requirements of the Renewable Energy Heat Law and laws on energy saving.

  10. Communal goat production in Southern Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K

    2009-10-01

    Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of using goats in rural development in Southern Africa. Farmers in Southern Africa largely use the village goat management system. There are various goat breeds in Southern Africa, of which the Mashona, Matabele, Tswana, Nguni and the Landim are the dominant ones. It is, however, not clear if these breeds are distinct. Major constraints to goat production include high disease and parasite prevalence, low levels of management, limited forage availability and poor marketing management. Potential research areas that are required to ensure that goats are vehicles for rural development include evaluation of constraints to goat production, assessing the contribution of goats to household economies and food securities throughout the year, genetic and phenotypic characterisation of the indigenous breeds to identify appropriate strains and sustainable methods of goat improvement through either selection or crossbreeding.

  11. Communal biomass conversion plants. From idea to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The first Danish biomass conversion plant for the production of methane was built in the nineteen seventies. It was just a little plant based on manure slurries from a local herd of farm animals. It was not until the nineteen eighties that larger plants were established so that enough methane could be produced as part fuels for decentral district heating and/or cogeneration plants. By November 1995 there were 15 communal biomass conversion plants producing methane in Denmark, three more plants were in the course of establishment and a number of similar projects were on the drawing board. The history of this development is narrated and plans for the future are indicated. The document also deals with the technological aspects, operational economics, environmental impacts, resources and re-use, wastes used as fertilizers, household organic wastes and sewage slam, standards of hygiene and reduction of infection risks, exports and commercial development and socio-economic evaluations in addition to areas within this field which need special attention in the very near future. It is concluded that the economics of Danish biomass conversion plants have improved significantly since 1987, and many older plants have been brought right up to date. Improvements in technology and an increase in the supply of industrial wastes have increased production. Details of the basis of many other betterments that have taken place in recent years are also given. (AB) 27 refs

  12. Distinguishing communal narcissism from agentic narcissism: a behavior genetics analysis on the agency-communion model of narcissism

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Y.L.L; Cai, H.; Sedikides, C.; Song, H.

    2014-01-01

    This article examined the genetic and environmental bases of the newly proposed agency–communion model of narcissism. The model distinguishes between agentic narcissism and communal narcissism. The sample comprised 304 pairs of twins. Genes explained 47% and 25% of the variance in agentic and communal narcissism, respectively; shared environments contributed 0% and 15%, respectively, to agentic and communal narcissism, with non-shared environments accounting for the remaining portions. Althou...

  13. THE PROBLEM COMMUNAL NOISE IN CITY OF VRANJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bogdanović

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Noise is any unwanted sound. This means that every sound effects (buzzing, noise, magnifier, speech and so on., which interferes with work or rest, is noise. Communal noise generated by all noise sources that are found in the human environment, excluding the noise that occurs at the workplace in the industrial plants. It mainly comes from traffic and it's called traffic noise. Department of Public Health Vranje is authorized and accredited professional organization that performs measurements of noise pollution in the city of Vranje. Measurement of noise in both cycles included ten measuring points that are found in a residential area. The level of acoustical load at each measurement point is followed by three measurements in the daily interval and two measurements in a night interval. Made the daytime, evening and nighttime measurements at 53 measuring points (a total of 159 measurements over a period of 15 minutes of noise. From the 53 measuring points are higher noise level at measuring point 51 (almost all measuring points and ranges from 2 to 47.2 dB (tab. 1 Measuring points of noise pollution Vranje-2015-day / evening / night . The way to combat environmental noise largely depends on the degree of development, economy, culture and politics. There is no estimate on the world level about the impact of noise on the environment and human health as well as estimates of the price of that impact. The existence of a modern harmonized with European regulations normative acts will be aimed at the maximum limit and control the exposure of the population of acoustic pollution.

  14. Agentic and communal narcissism and satisfaction with life: The mediating role of psychological entitlement and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Magdalena A; Piotrowski, Jarosław P; Maltby, John

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the mediational role of self-esteem (as an enhancement) and psychological entitlement (as a cost) in the relationship between an agentic-communal model of grandiose narcissism and satisfaction with life. Two hundred and forty-eight university undergraduate students completed measures of agentic and communal narcissism, self-esteem, psychological entitlement and satisfaction with life. The findings suggest that there is support for the usefulness of the agentic-communal model of narcissism, and, consistent with predictions in the wider literature, self-esteem and psychological entitlement mediated the relationship between agentic-communal narcissism and life satisfaction. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Patterns and determinants of communal latrine usage in urban poverty pockets in Bhopal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, A; Jenkins, M W; Dabrase, P; Bhagwat, I

    2011-07-01

    To explore and explain patterns of use of communal latrine facilities in urban poverty pockets. Six poverty pockets with communal latrine facilities representing two management models (Sulabh and municipal) were selected. Sampling was random and stratified by poverty pocket population size. A seventh, community-managed facility was also included. Data were collected by exit interviews with facility users and by interviews with residents from a randomly selected representative sample of poverty pocket households, on social, economic and demographic characteristics of households, latrine ownership, defecation practices, costs of using the facility and distance from the house to the facility. A tally of facility users was kept for 1 day at each facility. Data were analysed using logistic regression modelling to identify determinants of communal latrine usage. Communal latrines differed in their facilities, conditions, management and operating characteristics, and rates of usage. Reported usage rates among non-latrine-owning households ranged from 15% to 100%. There was significant variation in wealth, occupation and household structure across the poverty pockets as well as in household latrine ownership. Households in pockets with municipal communal latrine facilities appeared poorer. Households in pockets with Sulabh-managed communal facilities were significantly more likely to own a household latrine. Determinants of communal facility usage among households without a latrine were access and convenience (distance and opening hours), facility age, cleanliness/upkeep and cost. The ratio of male to female users was 2:1 across all facilities for both adults and children. Provision of communal facilities reduces but does not end the problem of open defecation in poverty pockets. Women appear to be relatively poorly served by communal facilities and, cost is a barrier to use by poorer households. Results suggest improving facility convenience and access and modifying fee

  16. Predictors and consequences of gender typicality: the mediating role of communality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Matthew D; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2013-04-01

    Considerable work has shown the benefits for psychological health of being gender typed (i.e., perceiving oneself in ways that are consistent with one's sex). Nevertheless, little is known about the reasons for the link. In two studies of young adults (total N = 673), we studied (1) the ways in which gender typing is predicted from gender-related interests and personal qualities, and (2) links between gender typing and adjustment (self-esteem and negative emotionality). In the first study, gender typicality was positively predicted by a variety of gender-related characteristics and by communal traits, a female-typed characteristic; gender typicality was also positively associated with adjustment. To clarify the role of communality in predicting gender typicality and its link with adjustment, we conducted a follow-up study examining both gender typicality and "university typicality." Gender typicality was again predicted by gender-related characteristics and communality, and associated with adjustment. Further, university typicality was also predicted by communality and associated with adjustment. Mediation analyses showed that feelings of communality were partly responsible for the links between gender/university typicality and adjustment. Thus, the psychological benefits suggested to accrue from gender typicality may not be specific to gender, but rather may reflect the benefits of normativity in general. These findings were discussed in relation to the broader literature on the relation between identity and adjustment.

  17. Demography and dog-human relationships of the dog population in Zimbabwean communal lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J R; Bingham, J

    2000-10-14

    Dogs are Zimbabwe's primary vector for rabies, and the majority live in communal lands (traditional agropastoralist rural areas). In 1994, a household questionnaire survey was conducted to provide baseline data on the demography and dog-human relationships of the dogs in the communal lands. The survey showed that all the dogs were owned, and there was no evidence of a feral population. They were unrestricted and semi-dependent on people. The numbers of dogs per capita varied little in each communal land, resulting in higher dog densities in communal lands with higher human densities, and indicating that people were not intolerant of dogs at higher densities. The population turnover was rapid: the life expectancy of the dogs was 1.1 years, the mean age 2.0 years, and 71.8 per cent died in their first year. The population was heavily skewed towards juveniles, with 40.8 per cent aged less than 12 months. Despite the high juvenile mortality, the population was growing by 6.52 per cent per annum. It was estimated that in 1994 there were 1.36 million dogs in communal lands.

  18. Secondary Resources in the Bio-Based Economy : A Computer Assisted Survey of Value Pathways in Academic Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Chris B.; Aid, Graham; Zhu, B.

    2017-01-01

    Research on value pathways for organic wastes has been steadily increasing in recent decades. There have been few considerably broad overview studies of such materials and their valuation potential in the bio-based economy in part because of the vast multitude of materials and processes that can

  19. "How Do You Feel about Math?": Relationships between Competence and Value Appraisals, Achievement Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Francisco; Sanches, Cristina; Mata, Lourdes; Monteiro, Vera

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships between cognitive appraisals, classroom and test emotions, and math achievement in a sample of 1,219 Portuguese students from the 6th and 8th grades. Participants completed measures of perceived value, perceived competence, and seven math achievement emotions (boredom, hopelessness, anger, anxiety, enjoyment,…

  20. A Control-Value Theory Approach: Relationships between Academic Self-Concept, Interest, and Test Anxiety in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Annette; Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on test anxiety of elementary school children has mainly focused on prevalence rates and gender differences. Less work has addressed predictors of test anxiety in elementary school children. According to the control-value theory developed by Pekrun ("Educ Psychol Rev" 18:315-341. doi: 10.1007/s10648-006-9029-9,…

  1. Women chairs in academic medicine: engendering strategic intuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Griffin, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Because stereotypically masculine behaviors are required for effective leadership, examining female chairs’ leadership in academic medicine can provide insight into the complex ways in which gender impacts on their leadership practices. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach The author interviewed three female clinical chairs and compared the findings to interviews with 28 of their faculty. Grounded theory analysis of the subsequent text gathered comprehensive, systematic, and in-depth information about this case of interest at a US top-tier academic medical center. Findings Four of five themes from the faculty were consistent with the chair’s narrative with modifications: Prior Environment (Motivated by Excellence), Tough, Direct, Transparent (Developing Trust), Communal Actions (Creating Diversity of Opinion), and Building Power through Consensus (an “Artful Exercise”) with an additional theme, the Significance (and Insignificance) of a Female Chair. While faculty members were acutely aware of the chair’s gender, the chairs paradoxically vacillated between gender being a “non-issue” and noting that male chairs “don’t do laundry.” All three female chairs in this study independently and explicitly stated that gender was not a barrier, yet intuitively used successful strategies derived from the research literature. Originality/value This study suggests that while their gender was highlighted by faculty, these women dismissed gender as a “non-issue.” The duality of gender for these three female leaders was both minimized and subtly affirmed. PMID:26045192

  2. Subordinating Timor: Central authority and the origins of communal identities in East Timor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Kammen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, a mere seven years after the overwhelming vote in opposition to Indonesia's final offer of 'broad autonomy' and only four years after the restoration of independence, communal violence erupted in Dili, the capital of East Timor. This violence was framed in terms of tensions between westerners, known as kaladi, and easterners, known as firaku. This essay seeks to answer two basic puzzles. First, what are the origins of these communal labels? Second, why did these terms resonate so profoundly within East Timorese society so soon after independence? Tracing the history of these terms, this essay argues that across more than three centuries these communal labels have emerged during crucial struggles to exert central authority. In doing so, this essay highlights the relationship between regional identities and the social ecology of food.

  3. Promoting Health Through Policy and Systems Change: Public Health Students and Mentors on the Value of Policy Advocacy Experience in Academic Internships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Daniela; Pell, Dylan; Forster-Cox, Sue; Garcia, Evelyn; Ornelas, Sophia; Bandstra, Brenna; Mata, Holly

    2017-05-01

    Emerging professionals and new Certified Health Education Specialists often lack academic training in and actual experience in National Commission for Health Education Credentialing Area of Responsibility VII: Communicate, Promote, and Advocate for Health, Health Education/Promotion, and the Profession. For undergraduate and graduate students who have an opportunity to complete an internship or practicum experience, gaining experience in Competencies 7.2: Engage in advocacy for health and health education/promotion and 7.3: Influence policy and/or systems change to promote health and health education can have a profound impact on their career development and their ability to advocate for policies that promote health and health equity. Compelling evidence suggests that interventions that address social determinants of health such as poverty and education and those that change the context through improved policy or healthier environments have the greatest impact on public health, making it vital for emerging public health professionals to gain experience in policy advocacy and systems change. In this commentary, students and faculty from two large universities in the U.S.-Mexico border region reflect on the value of policy advocacy in academic internship/fieldwork experiences. Based on their experiences, they highly recommend that students seek out internship opportunities where they can participate in policy advocacy, and they encourage university faculty and practicum preceptors to provide more opportunities for policy advocacy in both classroom and fieldwork settings.

  4. Communalism predicts prenatal affect, stress, and physiology better than ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt

    2010-07-01

    The authors examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic status (SES). African American and European American women (N = 297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress, and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, whether the pregnancy was desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications of culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and an important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed.

  5. THE ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICES AND TARIFF POLICY IN THE REPUBLIC OF DAGHESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shabanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the condition of housing and communal services in the Republic of Daghestan is considered, the main problems, characteristic for the present stage of development of this sphere are revealed, the priority directions of improvement of tariff policy and management of development of housing and communal services are defined. 

  6. COMMUNAL SPACE IN ISLAMIC ACTIVITY OF DUKUH KRAJAN, DESA KROMENGAN,KABUPATEN MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Winarni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dukuh Krajan settlement is a one of the settlement that still hold and maintain the value of tradition, social and cultural  in the  daily and social life. Nowadays, the  phenomena that  happens in the  social-cultural community is the decrement of life pattern of the rural community consist of the value of togetherness and mutual cooperation. This transformation will affect changes of common space. It still needs a deeper research about the formed common spaces especially in the relation with Islamic activity in regular nor incidentally basis. With purpose so that the formed common space can be benficial to grow some communal senses and mutual cooperation in the next generation. The research using qualitative with rationalistic approach. With the data acquired from the filed observation and interview with social figure and the residence. Common space is a common area that formed from the participation of the residence. Space as a base of common life grow from the alliance by building those spaces for a joint interest. the physical room of the Islamic activity consist of two namely residence house Islamic activity and public facility Islamic activity. Those function can transform when the Islamic activity being held. Semi public spaces, semi private, and private will change into common space function. This is affected by the activity, user, time and the room atribute inside. The space application of one activity has a sequence which give the activity and the user a interpretation, in this case togetherness and communality.   Keywords:  Common Space, Islamic Activity, Rural Settlement     Abstrak Permukiman Dukuh Krajan merupakan salah satu pedesaan yang  masih memegang dan mempertahankan nilai- nilai tradisi, sosial dan budaya baik dalam kehidupan sehari-hari maupun kehidupan sosial. Dalam kehidupan sosial-budaya masyarakat  desa saat ini corak kehidupan masyarakat desa yang berupa nilai-nilai kebersamaan dan kegotong

  7. Impact of communal land use and conservation on woody vegetation structure in the Lowveld savannas of South Africa – Lidar results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available of the conservation sites, presumably due to the absence of elephants in communal rangelands. On granite substrates there was a 50% reduction in woody cover below 5m in communal rangelands. These results in conjunction with related studies, suggest that communal land...

  8. Losing Its Expected Communal Value: How Stereotype Threat Undermines Women's Identity as Research Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessi L.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Thoman, Dustin B.; Deemer, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    The worry or concern over confirming negative gender group stereotypes, called stereotype threat, is one explanation for women's worldwide underrepresentation in undergraduate science classes and majors. But how does stereotype threat translate into fewer women motivated for science? In this quantitative study with a sample from the US, we use…

  9. A Novel Conceptual Model of Environmental Communal Education: Content Analysis Based on Distance Education Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezi, Soheila; Shobeiri, Seyed Mohammad; Sarmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ebadi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Environmental education as a learning process increases people's knowledge and awareness about the environment. Although in some countries, the Environmental Communal Education (ECE) is the core of the environmental education by formal and informal organizations and groups, but, it has not clarified the meaning of the ECE's concept. Therefore the…

  10. Cultivating nature-based solutions: The governance of communal urban gardens in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt, Alexander P.N.; Szaraz, Luca R.; Delshammar, Tim; Cvejić, Rozalija; Santos, Artur; Goodness, Julie; Buijs, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    In many countries in the European Union (EU), the popularity of communal urban gardening (CUG) on allotments and community gardens is on the rise. Given the role of this practice in increasing urban resilience, most notably social resilience, municipalities in the Global North are promoting CUG as a

  11. The potential of optimization in communal routing problems : case studies from Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bräysy, Olli; Dullaert, Wout; Nakari, Pentti

    2009-01-01

    In many European countries, municipalities offer their inhabitants a wide variety of social services. In this paper we will focus on efficiently scheduling home care, transportation of the elderly, and home meal delivery. These so-called municipal or communal routing problems can be modeled as

  12. Enacting President Trump's Leadership Contract with Educators: Toward a Communal Leadership Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Chen

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes the communal leadership framework as a leverage for reciprocal educational policy in uncertain and turbulent times. It is argued that leadership at the policy level should abandon the seductive dance with the "self" where knowledge resides at a specific location in the system (policy-makers' perceptions and agendas)…

  13. No evidence for punishment in communally nursing female house mice (Mus musculus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Manuela; König, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Punishment is claimed as an important mechanism to stabilise costly cooperation in humans, but its importance in social animals has been questioned recently due to both conceptual considerations and a lack of empirical evidence (only few published studies). We empirically tested whether there is evidence for punishment in communally nursing house mice (Mus musculus domesticus, direct descendants of "wild" animals). Communally breeding females pool their litters and raise all offspring together, indiscriminately caring for own and other offspring. Such a situation resembles a public good and provides scope for exploitation if females vary in their relative contributions to the joint nest (offspring number). We allowed two females to communally breed and conducted removal experiments both in the presence and absence of pups. We aimed to test whether reduced investment by one of the females (induced through separation from the partner and their combined offspring for 4 or 12 hours) leads to increased aggression by the other female after the reunion. We found no evidence for punishment, on the contrary, females increased socio-positive behaviours. The costs of losing a partner in a communally breeding species might be too high and hinder the evolution of punishment. Our findings add to a growing list of examples questioning the role of punishment in cooperating non-human animals and emphasise the importance of empirical testing of its assumptions and predictions.

  14. An optimization approach for communal home meal delivery service : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bräysy, Olli; Nakari, Pentti; Dullaert, Wout; Neittaanmäki, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the first to discuss the communal home meal delivery problem. The problem can be modelled as a multiple travelling salesman problem with time windows, that is closely related to the well-studied vehicle routing problem with time windows. Experimental results are reported for a

  15. Agentic or Communal? Associations between Interpersonal Goals, Popularity, and Bullying in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caravita, S.C.S.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether perceived popularity mediates and/or moderates the association between agentic goals and bullying, and whether sociometric popularity mediates and/or moderates the association between communal goals and bullying. Age and gender differences were also examined.

  16. Primal Eukaryogenesis: On the Communal Nature of Precellular States, Ancestral to Modern Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This problem-oriented, exploratory and hypothesis-driven discourse toward the unknown combines several basic tenets: (i) a photo-active metal sulfide scenario of primal biogenesis in the porespace of shallow sedimentary flats, in contrast to hot deep-sea hydrothermal vent conditions; (ii) an inherently complex communal system at the common root of present life forms; (iii) a high degree of internal compartmentalization at this communal root, progressively resembling coenocytic (syncytial) super-cells; (iv) a direct connection from such communal super-cells to proto-eukaryotic macro-cell organization; and (v) multiple rounds of micro-cellular escape with streamlined reductive evolution-leading to the major prokaryotic cell lines, as well as to megaviruses and other viral lineages. Hopefully, such nontraditional concepts and approaches will contribute to coherent and plausible views about the origins and early life on Earth. In particular, the coevolutionary emergence from a communal system at the common root can most naturally explain the vast discrepancy in subcellular organization between modern eukaryotes on the one hand and both archaea and bacteria on the other. PMID:25382122

  17. The impact of uncertainty and communal coping on mental health following natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Walid A; Felix, Erika D; Afifi, Tamara D

    2012-05-01

    Feelings of uncertainty are a central feature of the disaster experience. Surprisingly, though, there is very little systematic quantitative research about the impact of uncertainty on disaster survivors. Moreover, communal coping has increasingly received attention as a potential buffer of the negative effects of stressors but that literature is also limited in its application to disasters. This investigation applies research in the domain of uncertainty, together with the Theoretical Model of Communal Coping to better understand the experience of a community exposed to three wildfires in a one year period. A random-digit dialing procedure was used to gather data from 402 individuals. Participants completed measures of mental health, uncertainty, and communal coping in the context of their experience with the most personally stressful of the three wildfires. All analyses were examined separately for those who were evacuated and those who were not. Results support the negative impact of uncertainty across both evacuated and nonevacuated sub-samples and show a strong buffering role for communal coping among those who evacuated. The implications of these findings for the understanding of wildfire survivors' experiences are noted and future directions are proposed.

  18. Vegetation of the eastern communal conservancies in Namibia: I. Phytosociological descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J. Strohbach

    2014-11-01

    Conservation implications: This article described 13 plant associations of the central Kalahari in eastern Namibia, an area hitherto virtually unknown to science. The information presented in this article forms a baseline description, which can be used for future monitoring of the vegetation under communal land use.

  19. Aspirations and needs of farmers on communal grazing areas in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the needs and aspirations of the farmers are related to the integration of environmental planning into communal grazing systems in the Free State, as well as security of tenure, working capital, knowledge, adequate extension services, training and water supply, timely veld fires, and co-operation amongst ...

  20. Communal and Ethnic Conflicts in Nigeria: The Case of the 1999 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communal and Ethnic Conflicts in Nigeria: The Case of the 1999 Sagamu Yoruba-Hausa Clash. ... Unlike previous studies on the subject of conflict and ethnicity, this paper brings out the central importance of culture in the interrelationship between two ethnic groups living in a country. It shows that the failure to respect the ...

  1. Identity issues in urban ethno-communal con! ict in Africa: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    e paper examines identity issues in urban ethno-communal con" ict focusing on the case of Ife-Modakeke in Nigeria. ! e data used in the study is from a larger survey carried out by the author in Ife and Modakeke communities. ! e data collected was analysed using simple frequencies, percentages and correlation statistical ...

  2. Beyond the information centre hypothesis : communal roosting for information on food, predators, travel companions and mates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Allert I.; Egas, Martijn; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis; Schmidt, Kenneth

    Communal roosting - the grouping of more than two individuals resting together - is common among animals, notably birds. The main functions of this complicated social behaviour are thought to be reduced costs of predation and thermoregulation, and increased foraging efficiency. One specific

  3. Attitudes toward older adults: A matter of cultural values or personal values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Xing, Cai; Guan, Yanjun; Song, Xuan; Melloy, Robert; Wang, Fei; Jin, Xiaoyu

    2016-02-01

    The current research aimed to address the inconsistent findings regarding cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults by differentiating the effects of personal and cultural values. In Study 1, we used data from the sixth wave of the World Values Survey to examine attitudes toward older adults across cultures, and how different personal values (i.e., communal vs. agentic) and cultural values (i.e., individualism) predicted these attitudes. The results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that after controlling for potential covariates, personal communal values positively correlated with positive attitudes toward older adults; however, cultural individualistic values did not. To further examine the causal effects of personal values (vs. cultural values), we conducted an experimental study and confirmed that priming personal values rather than cultural values had significant effects on ageism attitudes. The present studies help to reconcile conflicting results on cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Positive effects of communal coping in the aftermath of a collective trauma: The case of the 2010 Chilean earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wlodarczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study examines the relationship between participation in secular demonstrations, spiritual rituals, and communal coping, as well as the question whether these strategies might serve as triggers of post-traumatic growth, and enhance social well-being. A communal coping scale, showing satisfactory structural validity, was administered to a quasi-random sample (N = 517 of people affected by an earthquake in Chile in 2010. The results indicated that adaptive forms, such as communal reappraisal, regulated emotional expression, communal distraction, and communal searching for social support, were associated with social well-being (SWB and post-traumatic growth (PTG. Participation in spiritual rituals was specifically related to communal reappraisal and contributed to post-traumatic growth. On the other hand, participation in secular collective gatherings also reinforced post-traumatic growth, as well as social well-being, but not through communal reappraisal. Overall, this study confirmed social functions of collective ritualized activities, which through the reinforcement of in-group interaction, foster individual post-traumatic growth and social well-being of people affected by a collective trauma, like an earthquake. Results are discussed in the framework of a collective positive psychology approach on micro- and macro-social processes of coping and their implications for social well-being.

  5. Positive effects of communal coping in the aftermath of a collective trauma: The case of the 2010 Chilean earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wlodarczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study examines the relationship between participation in secular demonstrations, spiritual rituals, and communal coping, as well as the question whether these strategies might serve as triggers of post-traumatic growth, and enhance social well-being. A communal coping scale, showing satisfactory structural validity, was administered to a quasi-random sample (N = 517 of people affected by an earthquake in Chile in 2010. The results indicated that adaptive forms, such as communal reappraisal, regulated emotional expression, communal distraction, and communal searching for social support, were associated with social well-being (SWB and post-traumatic growth (PTG. Participation in spiritual rituals was specifically related to communal reappraisal and contributed to post-traumatic growth. On the other hand, participation in secular collective gatherings also reinforced post-traumatic growth, as well as social well-being, but not through communal reappraisal. Overall, this study confirmed social functions of collective ritualized activities, which through the reinforcement of in-group interaction, foster individual post-traumatic growth and social well-being of people affected by a collective trauma, like an earthquake. Results are discussed in the framework of a collective positive psychology approach on micro- and macro-social processes of coping and their implications for social well-being.

  6. It's a matter of time: The effect of depletion on communal action in romantic relationships is moderated by relationship length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammrath, Lara K; Peetz, Johanna; Hara, Kimberley; Demarco, Arden; Wood, Kristen; Kirkconnell, Jackie; Meirovich, Harley; Allen, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Researchers have only begun to turn their attention to the role of self-control in communal action (rather than communal restraint) in relationships. Conflicting results from early studies indicate that the association between self-control and communal action may be quite complex, and potentially moderated by many variables. Here we investigate how relationship length may moderate the extent to which communal actions require self-control resources. In 5 studies, we investigated the role of self-control resources in implementing (Studies 1 and 2) and in choosing (Studies 3-5) communal actions for a romantic partner, as a function of the length of time partners had been together. The data supported the hypothesis that as relationships mature over time, communal actions may require less self-control to implement and may become a decisional default. These findings suggest that communal actions may be a more deliberative response in newer romantic relationships but a more reflexive response in more established relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. “What’s So Special about Special Collections?” Or, Assessing the Value Special Collections Bring to Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Yakel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The objective of this study was to examine and call attention to the current deficiency in standardized performance measures and usage metrics suited to assessing the value and impact of special collections and archives and their contributions to the mission of academic research libraries and to suggest possible approaches to overcoming the deficiency.Methods – The authors reviewed attempts over the past dozen years by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL and the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL to highlight the unique types of value that special collections and archival resources contribute to academic research libraries. They also examined the results of a large survey of special collections and archives conducted by OCLC Research in 2010. In addition, they investigated efforts by the Society of American Archivists (SAA dating back to the 1940s to define standardized metrics for gathering and comparing data about archival operations. Finding that the library and archival communities have thus far failed to develop and adopt common metrics and methods for gathering data about the activities of special collections and archives, the authors explored the potential benefits of borrowing concepts for developing user-centered value propositions and metrics from the business community.Results – This study found that there has been a lack of consensus and precision concerning the definition of “special collections” and the value propositions they offer, and that most attempts have been limited in their usefulness because they were collections-centric. The study likewise reaffirmed a lack of consensus regarding how to define and measure basic operations performed by special collections and archives, such as circulating materials to users in supervised reading rooms. The review of concepts and metrics for assessing value in the business community, however, suggested new approaches to defining metrics that

  8. Psychosocial impacts of communal conflicts in a sample of secondary school youths from two conflict communities in south east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwaraji, Friday E; Aguwa, Emmanuel N; Shywobi-Eze, Chioma; Nwokpoku, Emeka N; Nduanya, Calista U

    2017-06-01

    In Nigeria, communal conflicts arise due to misunderstanding from ownership of land for farming, oil deposits, solid minerals or water for fishing activities. It may also arise in defence of community pride and properties or even in defence of the people involved in the conflict. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), The Short Screening Scale for Post traumatic stress disorder, The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-2) were used to assess psychosocial impacts of communal conflicts among 560 secondary school youths from two communities in south east Nigeria. Result revealed various forms of psychosocial impacts of communal conflicts among the youths.

  9. Management of communal rangelands - the dialogue between science and indigenous knowledge: the case of the Eastern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Communal area rangeland resource users are an important part of the rangeland ecosystem; rangeland management policies and practice should, therefore, accommodate their socio-cultural practices and knowledge. Indigenous knowledge (IK) is often...

  10. A Goal Congruity Model of Role Entry, Engagement, and Exit: Understanding Communal Goal Processes in STEM Gender Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Amanda B; Steinberg, Mia; Brown, Elizabeth R; Belanger, Aimee L; Clark, Emily K

    2017-05-01

    The goal congruity perspective provides a theoretical framework to understand how motivational processes influence and are influenced by social roles. In particular, we invoke this framework to understand communal goal processes as proximal motivators of decisions to engage in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). STEM fields are not perceived as affording communal opportunities to work with or help others, and understanding these perceived goal affordances can inform knowledge about differences between (a) STEM and other career pathways and (b) women's and men's choices. We review the patterning of gender disparities in STEM that leads to a focus on communal goal congruity (Part I), provide evidence for the foundational logic of the perspective (Part II), and explore the implications for research and policy (Part III). Understanding and transmitting the opportunities for communal goal pursuit within STEM can reap widespread benefits for broadening and deepening participation.

  11. Muslim and Hindu Women's public and private behaviors: gender, family, and communalized politics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda

    2014-12-01

    Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship among gender, family, and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of "doing gender," we argue that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors, such as household decision-making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender.

  12. Communal Sanctuaries: A Model for Inter-religious Dialogue and Conflict Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsdal, Jesper; Abdullah, Somaya

    2010-01-01

      Amidst fractured Euro-American and Middle Eastern relations and conflicts, and its global impact, various societies are witnessing increased conflict and polarization between religious, especially Muslim and non-Muslim, communities. In many instances, these communities may have previously lived...... peacefully alongside each other, now these circumstances are influencing their views and perceptions of the religious "other" in decidedly negative ways.  This article aims to provide one way to address and begin to reverse these trends. It proposes a model for change through the formation of communal...... sanctuaries for inter-religious dialogue and reconciliation based on religious and philosophical principles to support interaction between religious communities.  In this respect, it provides a theoretical framework and a practical design for such communal sanctuaries drawing on three religious worldviews...

  13. THE HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SPHERE AS THE MAIN INDICATOR OF QUALITY OF LIFE CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    Leyla Borisovna Leonova

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the historical experience of the management of the housing and communal sector in Russia, which shows that the state has always paid a lot of attention to this sphere.The article also provides an international experience of management in the apartment buildings (AB) and the main foreign models of management in communal sphere. This experience of management in the AB is very important and interesting for Russia, because almost 85% of the population live in such houses.The...

  14. Muslim and Hindu Women’s Public and Private Behaviors: Gender, Family and Communalized Politics in India

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda

    2014-01-01

    Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship between gender, family and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of “doing gender”, it argues that because communal id...

  15. Partner Pronoun Use, Communal Coping, and Abstinence during Couple-Focused Intervention for Problematic Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentscher, Kelly E; Soriano, Emily C; Rohrbaugh, Michael J; Shoham, Varda; Mehl, Matthias R

    2017-06-01

    Communal coping-a process in which romantic partners view a problem as ours rather than yours or mine, and take collaborative action to address it -has emerged as an important predictor of health and treatment outcomes. In a study of partners' pronoun use prior to and during couple-focused alcohol interventions, we examined first-person plural (we-talk) and singular (I-talk) pronouns as linguistic markers of communal coping and behavioral predictors of treatment outcome. Thirty-three couples in which one partner abused alcohol were selected from a randomized control trial (N = 63) of couple-focused Cognitive-Behavioral or Family Systems Therapy if they had unambiguously successful or unsuccessful treatment outcomes (i.e., patient maintained abstinence for 30 days prior to treatment termination or had more than one heavy drinking day in the same period). Pronoun measures for each partner were obtained via computerized text analysis from transcripts of partners' speech, derived from a videotaped pretreatment interaction task and three subsequent therapy sessions. Spouse we-talk during the intervention (accounting for pretreatment we-talk), as an index of communal orientation, uniquely predicted successful treatment outcomes. In contrast, both patient and spouse I-talk during the intervention (accounting for pretreatment I-talk), as a marker of individualistic orientation, uniquely predicted unsuccessful outcomes, especially when distinguishing active and passive (I vs. me/my) pronoun forms. Results strengthen evidence for the prognostic significance of spouse behavior for patient health outcomes and for communal coping (indexed via pronoun use) as a potential mechanism of change in couple-focused interventions for health problems. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  16. Gevolgen van de Europese kaderrichtlijn water (KRW) voor de communale waterzuivering in Nederland.

    OpenAIRE

    Poort, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Invoering van de Europese Kaderrichtlijn Water KRW heeft gevolgen voor de communale water-zuiveringen in Nederland. Het onderzoek had tot doel te onderzoeken op welke manier aan de toekomstige eisen van de KRW voldaan moet worden en op welke manier de kennisoverdracht met betrekking tot dit onderwerp plaatsvindt. Hiertoe is een literatuurstudie uitgevoerd ontrent de stand van zaken met betrekking tot deze kaderrichtlijn en zijn er interviews gehouden bij 8 water-schappen, STOWA en een aantal ...

  17. Protected area coverage of threatened vertebrates and ecoregions in Peru: Comparison of communal, private and state reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanee, Sam; Shanee, Noga; Monteferri, Bruno; Allgas, Nestor; Alarcon Pardo, Alejandro; Horwich, Robert H

    2017-11-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are a conservation mainstay and arguably the most effective conservation strategy for species protection. As a 'megadiverse' country, Peru is a priority for conservation actions. Peruvian legislation allows for the creation of state PAs and private/communal PAs. Using publicly available species distribution and protected area data sets we evaluated the coverage of Threatened terrestrial vertebrate species distributions and ecoregions provided by both kinds of PA in Peru. Peru's state PA system covers 217,879 km 2 and private/communal PAs cover 16,588 km 2 . Of the 462 species of Threatened and Data Deficient species we evaluated, 75% had distributions that overlapped with at least one PA but only 53% had ≥10% of their distributions within PAs, with inclusion much reduced at higher coverage targets. Of the species we evaluated, 118 species are only found in national PAs and 29 species only found in private/communal PAs. Of the 17 terrestrial ecoregions found in Peru all are represented in PAs; the national PA system included coverage of 16 and private/communal PAs protect 13. One ecoregion is only protected in private/communal PAs, whereas four are only covered in national PAs. Our results show the important role private/communal PAs can play in the protection of ecological diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ROUTE OPTIMIZATION TO INCREASE ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCE FUEL CONSUMPTION OF COMMUNAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša M Jovičić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Collection and transportation within the system of solid waste management may account more than 60% of the overall budget, most of which is for fuel costs. Furthermore, municipal vehicles have great environmental impact through exhaust gases emissions. The aim of this research was to estimate the potential for reduction of fuel consumption and thus the emission of CO2 through the communal vehicles route optimization. General methodology for route optimization is also presented. For the area under study, detailed field experimental research in the City of Kragujevac was conducted. Using GIS and GPS technology, whole municipally infrastructure for waste collection was scanned and all paths of communal tracks was recorded and allocated in developed database. Based on experimental and numerical results, one typical municipal vehicle route was analyzed by using ArcGis software. The obtained result indicates 2700 km of possible savings per year concerning one communal vehicle. In addition, the most fuel-economical route was extracted and compared with the original route, and with the routes extracted from criterions concerning the traffic time and shortest distance. According to available information for the City of Kragujevac and the results from this study, it was estimated that the total savings could be 20% in costs and the associated emissions.

  19. Maintaining warm, trusting relationships with brands: increased temperature perceptions after thinking of communal brands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans IJzerman

    Full Text Available Classical theories on interpersonal relations have long suggested that social interactions are influenced by sensation, such as the experience of warmth. Past empirical work now confirms that perceived differences in temperature impact how people form thoughts about relationships. The present work first integrates our knowledge database on brand research with this idea of "grounded social cognition". It then leverages a large sample (total N = 2,552 toward elucidating links between estimates of temperature and positive versus negative evaluations of communal brands. In five studies, the authors have found that thinking about positively (vs. negatively perceived communal brands leads to heightened temperature estimates. A meta-analysis of the five studies shows a small but consistent effect in this noisy environment, r = .11, 95% CI, .05, .18. Exploratory analyses in Studies 1a and b further suggest that temperature perceptions mediate the (significant relationship between perceived communality and willingness to purchase from the brand. The authors discuss implications for theory and practice and consider the effects from a Social Baseline Perspective.

  20. Communal breeding promotes a matrilineal social system where husband and wife live apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Jia; He, Qiao-Qiao; Deng, Ling-Ling; Wang, Shi-Chang; Mace, Ruth; Ji, Ting; Tao, Yi

    2013-05-07

    The matrilineal Mosuo of southwest China live in large communal houses where brothers and sisters of three generations live together, and adult males walk to visit their wives only at night; hence males do not reside with their own offspring. This duolocal residence with 'walking' or 'visiting' marriage is described in only a handful of matrilineal peasant societies. Benefits to women of living with matrilineal kin, who cooperate with child-care, are clear. But why any kinship system can evolve where males invest more in their sister's offspring than their own is a puzzle for evolutionary anthropologists. Here, we present a new hypothesis for a matrilineal bias in male investment. We argue that, when household resources are communal, relatedness to the whole household matters more than relatedness to individual offspring. We use an inclusive fitness model to show that the more sisters (and other closely related females) co-reside, the more effort males should spend working on their sister's farm and less on their wife's farm. The model shows that paternity uncertainty may be a cause of lower overall work rates in males, but it is not likely to be the cause of a matrilineal bias. The bias in work effort towards working on their natal farm, and thus the duolocal residence and 'visiting marriage' system, can be understood as maximizing inclusive fitness in circumstances where female kin breed communally.

  1. Maintaining warm, trusting relationships with brands: increased temperature perceptions after thinking of communal brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Hans; Janssen, Janneke A; Coan, James A

    2015-01-01

    Classical theories on interpersonal relations have long suggested that social interactions are influenced by sensation, such as the experience of warmth. Past empirical work now confirms that perceived differences in temperature impact how people form thoughts about relationships. The present work first integrates our knowledge database on brand research with this idea of "grounded social cognition". It then leverages a large sample (total N = 2,552) toward elucidating links between estimates of temperature and positive versus negative evaluations of communal brands. In five studies, the authors have found that thinking about positively (vs. negatively) perceived communal brands leads to heightened temperature estimates. A meta-analysis of the five studies shows a small but consistent effect in this noisy environment, r = .11, 95% CI, .05, .18. Exploratory analyses in Studies 1a and b further suggest that temperature perceptions mediate the (significant) relationship between perceived communality and willingness to purchase from the brand. The authors discuss implications for theory and practice and consider the effects from a Social Baseline Perspective.

  2. Communal bereavement and resilience in the aftermath of a terrorist event: Evidence from a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Venkataramani, Atheendar S

    2015-12-01

    Sociological analyses of the psychological distress experienced by persons indirectly exposed to traumatic stressors have been conceptualized as a form of communal bereavement, defined by Catalano and Hartig (2001) as the experience of distress among persons not attached to the deceased. Their theory predicts communal bereavement responses particularly in the setting of loss of essential state, religious, or economic institutions. To estimate the extent to which the September 11, 2001 attacks on the U.S. World Trade Center had a causal effect on psychological distress nationwide. We used a difference-in-differences framework applied to repeated cross-sectional data from more than 300,000 participants in the 2000 and 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Psychological distress was measured using three questions eliciting days of poor mental health-related quality of life. The September 11 attacks served as our exposure of interest. The September 11 attacks had a statistically significant, adverse, causal effect on psychological distress nationally. Both the magnitude and statistical significance of the estimated effects were larger in the New York City region compared to the rest of the country. Our estimates were robust to probes of the parallel trends assumption and potential sources of selection bias, as well as to falsification tests. However, these effects had largely resolved within four weeks. Contrary to findings from the medical and public health literature, we conclude that the September 11 attacks did not have lasting effects on communal bereavement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Expressing pride: Effects on perceived agency, communality, and stereotype-based gender disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosi, Prisca; Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Heilman, Madeline E

    2016-09-01

    Two experimental studies were conducted to investigate how the expression of pride shapes agency-related and communality-related judgments, and how those judgments differ when the pride expresser is a man or a woman. Results indicated that the expression of pride (as compared to the expression of happiness) had positive effects on perceptions of agency and inferences about task-oriented leadership competence, and negative effects on perceptions of communality and inferences about people-oriented leadership competence. Pride expression also elevated ascriptions of interpersonal hostility. For agency-related judgments and ascriptions of interpersonal hostility, these effects were consistently stronger when the pride expresser was a woman than a man. Moreover, the expression of pride was found to affect disparities in judgments about men and women, eliminating the stereotype-consistent differences that were evident when happiness was expressed. With a display of pride women were not seen as any more deficient in agency-related attributes and competencies, nor were they seen as any more exceptional in communality-related attributes and competencies, than were men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The method of complex evaluation of management in the sphere of housing and communal services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhotina Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers considered the quality of management, but the definition of “quality control” in the literature is quite rare. The author’s definition of this concept, whose distinctive features are as follows: management is considered as a system, and its quality is determined by the quality of the elements of the system; management is of high quality, if not only provides function, but also the development of the facility; the quality of management is measured by customer satisfaction. The study authors of market relations in the sphere of housing and communal services helped to define the modern model of management of the industry of housing and communal services, which involves the preservation of state regulation and control and the bringing to market of private operators. Identified the need for further sustained efforts to implement the new economic relations in the system of housing and communal services at all levels of government, which requires further improvement of management. Based on the authors analysis of the methods of evaluation of activities of management companies found that despite their diversity they all have several disadvantages, the main of which is the lack of standard indicators by which to judge to what extent the housing managers of the organization implement the adopted programme. Therefore, the author proposes two sets of criteria (representing the result of control and management efficiency, which will be monitored and evaluated the quality management of the organization.

  5. Communal proactive coping strategies among Tamil refugees in Norway: A case study in a naturalistic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guribye Eugene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results Tamil refugees in Norway co-operated to appraise their shared life situation and accumulate resources communally to improve it in culturally meaningful ways. Long term aspirations were related to both the situation in the homeland and in exile. However, unforeseen social events created considerable challenges and forced them to modify and adapt their coping strategies. Conclusions We describe a form of coping previously not described in the scientific literature: Communal proactive coping strategies, defined as the process by which group members feel collectively responsible for their future well-being and co-operate to promote desired outcomes and prevent undesired changes. The study shows that proactive coping efforts occur in a dynamic social setting which may force people to use their accumulated proactive coping resources in reactive coping efforts. Theoretical and clinical implications are explored.

  6. Academic Manager or Managed Academic? Academic Identity Schisms in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between values and academic identity has received scant attention in the higher education literature with some notable exceptions (Churchman, 2006; Harley, 2002; Henkel, 2005). This paper contends that the perceived need to align all academics around corporate values and goals has given rise to academic identity schisms in higher…

  7. Academic Blogging: Academic Practice and Academic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkup, Gill

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…

  8. Academic Hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  9. Using Academic Journals to Help Students Learn Subject Matter Content, Develop and Practice Critical Reasoning Skills, and Reflect on Personal Values in Food Science and Human Nutrition Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…

  10. Impact of School Sense of Community within a Faith-Based University: Administrative and Academic Staff Perceptions on Institutional Mission and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Cowman, Shaun E.; Milner, Lauren A.; Gutierrez, Robert E.; Drake, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Academic staff (n = 305) and administrative staff (n = 595) at a large urban, Catholic, and religious order teaching university completed on-line school sense of community, social desirability, and mission-identity plus mission-driven activity measures. Partial correlates (controlling for social desirability) indicated that for both faculty and…

  11. State of the Science in Technology Transfer: At the Confluence of Academic Research and Business Development--Merging Technology Transfer with Knowledge Translation to Deliver Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    The practice of technology transfer continues to evolve into a discipline. Efforts continue in the field of assistive technology (AT) to move technology-related prototypes, resulting from development in the academic sector, to product commercialization within the business sector. The article describes how technology transfer can be linked to…

  12. The rupture and repair of the couple's communal body with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Karen D

    2011-06-01

    Intimate partners' ability to adopt a "we" outlook in relation to cancer has consistently been associated with optimal adaptation for couples. This investigation adds to the growing body of literature on dyadic coping and resiliency in couples through an in-depth examination of five well-adjusted couples' experiences with prostate cancer. Of specific interest were (1) how the experience of prostate cancer affected the couple's unique intersubjective identity, and how in turn (2) the couple's identity and relationship culture influenced their adjustment to cancer. An ethnographic mode of inquiry was adopted. Marital partners were interviewed together on two separate occasions with the intention of having them deepen their conjoint reflexive processing of their relationship. During the interviews, couples were asked to reflect upon and articulate their sense of themselves as a couple, their experience of "we-ness" and shared identity, and the interaction between the illness and we-ness. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the grounded theory method. The grounded theory analysis yielded three main themes portraying the couples' experience of prostate cancer: (1) riding the vortex, (2) holding the communal body intact, and (3) invincibility and its underbelly. A more broad understanding to arise from this investigation was the notion of a "communal body" and that couples participated in a shared corporeality, to which each partner's identity and sense of self was intricately tied. It is concluded that the intersubjective embodiment displayed by couples in this study was instrumental to the "repair" of the communal body ruptured by prostate cancer. ©2011 APA

  13. Lomba Merpati: Place-making and Communal Signalling within Javanese Pigeon Racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Stevens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The project, Lomba Merpati, is a series of photographs and video works documenting pigeon racing in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Associated as a lower socio-economic class sport and tied up with expressions of Javanese masculinity, pigeon racing occupies a central position within much of the daily social activity of Javanese villages.  The project explores the significance of pigeon training grounds as communal gathering points for young men in Yogyakarta. Comprising short video and photographic portraits, the series focuses on the performative gestures enacted by pigeon fanciers as they train their pigeons for short distance sprinting.

  14. Epidemiological studies of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfukenyi, D.M.; Mukaratirwa, S.; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2006-01-01

    During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Faecal samples of cattle were...... collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas, respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of the intermediate host-snail populations and the climatic factors influencing the distribution were also determined at monthly intervals from...... November 1998 to October 2000, a period of 24 months, in six dams and six streams in the highveld and nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Monthly, each site was sampled for relative snail density, the vegetation cover and type, and physical and chemical properties of the water. Mean monthly...

  15. Age differences in personal values: Universal or cultural specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Original article Agentic and communal narcissism and subjective well-being: are narcissistic individuals unhappy? A research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The communal/agentic model of narcissism is well accepted in the current research literature (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken & Maio, 2012. This model could be particularly useful in examining the relation between narcissism and hedonistic and eudaimonic subjective well-being (SWB; Deci & Ryan, 2008. Participants and procedure In an effort to examine the relationship between narcissism and SWB, correlational analyses of survey responses obtained from students (n = 138 were conducted. Agentic narcissism was measured using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988 and communal narcissism by the Communal Narcissism Inventory (CNI; Gebauer et al., 2012. Subjective well-being measures included the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985, Positive And Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark & Tegellen, 1988, and the Social Well-being Scale (SWBS; Keyes, 1998. Self-esteem was included in the study in order to examine the potential mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship between narcissism and subjective well-being. Results Agentic narcissism was positively related to the affective component of SWB whereas communal narcissism was positively related to the cognitive component of SWB. Both forms of narcissism were positively related to social well-being. All relationships were mediated by the participant’s self-esteem level. Conclusions The results indicate that both agentic narcissism and communal narcissism are positively related to SWB. The results are discussed in the context of the agentic/communal model of narcissism (Gebauer et al., 2012 and hedonistic/eudaimonic well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2008.

  17. Communal Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, M.; Jongerden, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    The article engages with the question of self-governance and its implications for the concept of citizenship in Rojava. A short overview of the historical development of the political idea of democratic autonomy applied in Rojava is given, a model that claims to be on the way to creating a stateless

  18. Microbial Content of "Bowl Water" Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Abdul-Latif Baako, Bawa; Opintan, Japheth A; Minamor, Andrew A; Abdul-Rahman, Mubarak; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of "bowl water" used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern.

  19. Removal of Organic Load in Communal Wastewater by using the Six Stage Anaerobic Baffle Reactor (ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trilita Minarni Nur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of water quality in the urban drainage is a crucial problem to overcome because it can affect the health of community. This fact encouraged the researcher to conduct the research in efforts to increase the water quality in the drainage. One of the solutions to increase the water quality in the drainage is that the domestic wastewater must be treated at first before it is flown through the drainage. Furthermore, the wastewater treatment was conducted by employing the communal wastewater processor. The research was aimed at knowing the capability of Anaerobic Baffle Reactor with the six-stage design in communal wastewater processor in efforts to decrease the organic load. This research was conducted in a laboratory scale. Meanwhile, the sort of waste used was taken from the domestic wastewater of settlement by varying its discharge and waste concentration flowing into the waste processor. Finally, the research result showed that the reduction of organic load of COD was reaching up to 92%, N was 85% and Phosphate was 50%.

  20. Debating the Conduct and Nature of Malaysian Politics: Communalism and New Media Post-March 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Chinyong Liow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of Malaysia’s general election held on 8 March 2008 was nothing short of monumental. By winning five state legislatures and denying the incumbent governing coalition its hitherto routine two-thirds parliamentary majority, the performance of the opposition, swayed by the contribution of the new media, raised hopes that Malaysian politics had turned a corner. Following the elections, the popular discursive terrain in Malaysia was awash with talk of a “new politics” that had emerged, and that transcended the traditional narratives of race, religion, and communalism. The purpose of this paper is to examine the veracity of these claims in relation to the nature and conduct of politics in Malaysia. It argues that, three years after the 2008 elections, the communal narrative remains as forceful a factor in Malaysian politics despite the presence of a multi-ethnic opposition coalition and the hope engendered by the emergence of the new media as an equalizing factor that has eroded the incumbent’s traditional hegemonic control over information.

  1. Evaluation of the PV minigrid communal system project in La Venturosa Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Cordoba, Juan Jacobo; Romero Romero, Luis Carlos [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares y Energias Alternativas - INEA, (Colombia)

    1997-12-31

    A communal photovoltaic minigrid grid system had been operating for about two years in La Venturosa Village located at the Easter Plains of Colombia. The Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Alternative Energies, INEA, had been evaluating this system for about a year of operation in order to measure performance, level of satisfaction in users and sustainability of the project. The results of this evaluation concluded that the option of communal minigrid photovoltaic systems represents a good alternative, but that the human element can affect the sustainability for this type of projects. [Espanol] Por alrededor de dos anos ha estado en operacion un sistema comunal fotovoltaico mini-red en la villa La Venturosa, localizada en las Llanuras Orientales de Colombia. El Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares y Energias Alternativas, INEA, ha estado evaluando este sistema durante aproximadamente un ano de operacion para medir su rendimiento, nivel de satisfaccion de los usuarios y sustentabilidad del proyecto. Los resultados de esta evaluacion concluyeron que la opcion de sistemas comunales fotovoltaicos mini-red representan una buena alternativa, pero que el elemento humano puede afectar la sostenibilidad de este tipo de proyectos.

  2. [Strategies for sustainable management of commensal rodents. Definitions of control objectives at communal level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenge-Bönig, A; Schmolz, E

    2014-05-01

    The German Act on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases in Man (Infektionsschutzgesetz, IfSG) provides a legal framework for activities and responsibilities concerning communal rodent control. However, actual governance of communal rodent control is relatively heterogeneous, as federal states (Bundesländer) have different or even no regulations for prevention and management of commensal rodent infestations (e.g. brown rats, roof rats and house mice). Control targets and control requirements are rarely precisely defined and often do not go beyond general measures and objectives. Although relevant regulations provide information about agreed preventive measures against rodents, the concept of sustainability is not expressed as such. A centrally managed database-supported municipal rodent control is a key factor for sustainability because it allows a systematic and analytical approach to identify and reduce rodent populations. The definition of control objectives and their establishment in legal decrees is mandatory for the implementation of a sustainable management strategy of rodent populations at a local level. Systematic recording of rodent infestations through municipal-operated monitoring provides the essential data foundation for a targeted rodent management which is already implemented in some German and European cities and nationwide in Denmark. A sustainable rodent management includes a more targeted rodenticide application which in the long-term will lead to an overall reduction of rodenticide use. Thus, the benefits of sustainable rodent management will be a reduction of rodenticide exposure to the environment, prevention of resistance and long-term economical savings.

  3. Climate change trends and environmental impacts in the Makonde Communal Lands, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishumael Sango

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last century, climate has increasingly become variable and changeable, with significant deviations from the observed normal averages, which often leads to disruptive consequences to ecosystems and livelihoods. Climate change induced environmental challenges are viewed to be particularly severe to economically challenged tropical societies including the Zimbabwean rural communities. We sought to determine local level climate change trends and associated biophysical implications in the Makonde Communal Lands of Zimbabwe. Our findings suggest that there has been significant climate change in the Makonde Communal Lands since 1962. The climate change observed has induced the deterioration of ecosystem productivity, diversity and services, to the detriment of human livelihoods. We provide insights into how to better understand local level dynamics between climate change and local ecosystem goods and services as the basis of livelihood in marginalised rural communities. Among the key reasons for concern about impacts of anthropogenic activities on climate is the fact that changing climate has direct impacts on the biophysical world, which in turn is a vital asset for human livelihoods, economies and general well-being.

  4. Academic dishonsty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    avoidance and mastery orientation, Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA), awareness of academic rules and regulations, assessment practices, faculty, and university attended predicted the different types of academic dishonesty with varying levels of significance. INTRODUCTION. Today's undergraduate students are ...

  5. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  6. academic libraries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Enhancing research visibility of academics: the role of academic libraries. Information Impact: Journal of Information and. Knowledge Management. 2017, Vol. .... Social media platforms allow users to connect, create, promote, share and follow interest groups. With these capabilities, academic libraries can make use of ...

  7. Inter-communality: which critical size for lower costs?; Intercommunalite: quelle taille critique pour les couts moindres?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valat, B.

    2000-07-01

    The wastes management need today a cooperation between the communities. It takes the form of ECPI Public Establishments with a Communal Cooperation. This paper gives the ECPI distribution in function of their juridical statutes, the ECPI statutes, the ECPI competences (collecting, processing) and a distribution in function of the population size. (A.L.B.)

  8. Participation, Poverty and Public Policies: 3P Challenging Community Environmental Psychology (The Case of the Communal Councils in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Wiesenfeld

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Participation, poverty and public policy are three relevant topics for the state, society and academy, particularly for environmental and community social psychology. Meanings and ways of addressing these topics by the above mentioned sector have varied across time and places. Recent impact of new governance models, such as participative democracy, has provoked changes in public policy modes of influence, as a strategy for poverty reduction. Such changes’ orientations coincide with those of environmental community psychology, social constructionist theoretical perspective and qualitative methodology. In Venezuela, only Latin American country where participation has been given a constitutional and legal status, it is important to study participation’s meanings and its implications in public management as a strategy for poverty reduction. Communal councils constitute the main community participatory structure, which integrates poor sectors and vehicles their requirements together with governmental entities. Conscious as we are of existing gaps between discourses and actions, the present research analyses official discourses on participation, through the Venezuelan Constitution and the Organic Communal Councils Law, and compares them with participatory meanings and experiences provided by communal councils’ members and other community stakeholders’ narratives. Results show differences between official and community perspectives on participation in communal councils, as well as discrepancies within communities: they also point out to the difficulties of state induced participation, as is the venezuelan case, for its protagonists’ limitations for transcending projects and exerting power outside community boundaries.

  9. Academic dishonesty among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Linda

    2014-02-01

    This quantitative study identified sociodemographic and situational conditions that affected 336 nursing students' engagement in academic dishonesty, their attitudes regarding various forms of academic dishonesty, and the prevalence of academic dishonesty in which they engaged and witnessed. More than half of the participants reported cheating in the classroom and in the clinical settings. A positive relationship was found between the frequency of cheating in classroom and clinical settings. Results revealed differences in frequency of engagement in and attitudes toward academic dishonesty by gender, semester in the program, and ethnicity. Relationships were also found among peer behavior, personal beliefs and values, and frequency of engaging in academic dishonesty. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Nest structure and communal nesting in Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Garófalo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three nests of Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressier, 1982 were obtained from trap nests at Serra do Japi, Jundiai, São Paulo State, Brazil. The bees nested in bamboo cane (one nest and in wooden-boxes (two nests. Solitary (two cases and pleometrotic (one case foundations were observed. Two nests were re-used once by two females working in each of them. Re-using females that shared the nests were of the same generation and each built, provisioned and oviposited in her own cells, characterizing a communal association. The brood development period was related to climatic conditions. Natural enemies included Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 (Bombyliidae, Coelioxys sp. (Megachilidae and Melittobia sp. (Eulophidae.

  11. CURRENT STATE OF COMMUNAL SEWAGE TREATMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Andraka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Protection of water environment from pollution is one of the major tasks in the contemporary world. Nowadays, in the Republic of Kazakhstan ecological situation concerning sewage treatment remains deficient. Raw sewage is often discharged directly onto filtration beds or landfills. Many existing wastewater treatment facilities in cities are in unsatisfactory technical conditions. In many villages and small settlement units the problem of treatment and disposal of sewage sludge from treatment facilities also requires urgent solutions. In this article, the current state of communal sewage treatment in the Republic of Kazakhstan is shown. The technical and technological characteristics of sewage disposal systems, including the cities of Almaty and Astana, are presented. This article is especially aimed at identification of environmental problems related with sewage treatment in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  12. How Danish communal heat planning empowers municipalities and benefits individual consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chittum, Anna; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    Danish municipal heat planning empowers municipalities to implement locally appropriate energy solutions that are the best fit for the locality as a whole and the individual consumers served. Supportive policies and actions at the national and local levels have encouraged heat planning that confers...... significant autonomy to local governments. By examining how power is distributed and shared by different levels of governments in the planning process, this paper investigates how comprehensive energy planning in Denmark has supported the development of highly cost-effective district heating systems. Lessons...... locations, the practical aspects of power sharing, socio-economic cost–benefit analyses, and communal decision-making may inform approaches to local heat planning around the world....

  13. Whose Moral Community? Religiosity, Secularity, and Self-rated Health across Communal Religious Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroope, Samuel; Baker, Joseph O

    2018-01-01

    Scholars have long theorized that religious contexts provide health-promoting social integration and regulation. A growing body of literature has documented associations between individual religiosity and health as well as macro-micro linkages between religious contexts, religious participation, and individual health. Using unique data on individuals and county contexts in the United States, this study offers new insight by using multilevel analysis to examine meso-micro relationships between religion and health. We assess whether and how the relationship between individual religiosity and health depends on communal religious contexts. In highly religious contexts, religious individuals are less likely to have poor health, while nonreligious individuals are markedly more likely to have poor health. In less religious contexts, religious and nonreligious individuals report similar levels of health. Consequently, the health gap between religious and nonreligious individuals is largest in religiously devout contexts, primarily due to the negative effects on nonreligious individuals' health in religious contexts.

  14. Analytical data of January 1993 communal riot victims--the KEM Hospital experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvie S

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Bombay experienced a violent outbreak of communal rioting in January 1993. Four hundred and thirteen casualties were treated in the KEM hospital from January 7 to January 15, of which 194 required admission and further management. Twenty-seven were brought dead on arrival. The large influx of casualties sustained over a period of 9 days tended to overwhelm the medical facilities. The data of the admitted patients are analyzed to identify the frequency of admissions, cause and nature of injuries sustained, management and prognosis of casualties in such a catastrophe. An attempt is also made to identify the problems faced during such a crisis and a few suggestions made for their solution.

  15. THE COMMUNITY MENTORING IN ORGANIC WASTE MANAGEMENT AT COMMUNAL SCALE TO SUPPORT THE URBAN FARMING PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Amaranti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The waste management in urban areas should get treatment from various parties (communities, governments, and businesses to prevent environmental damage increases. Waste management can be done in the management area of the Rukun Tetangga (RT and Rukun Warga (RW level, also the village level. The main problem for the current partner that doesn’t spread evenly of knowledge and the capabilities in utilizing waste into something that has economic valuable and the low level of public participation in the program launched by the government especially Kampung Berkebun programs that have been implemented at the level of Rukun Warga (RW. Community Service activity is done by providing assistance to communities to manage organic waste in the local environment (communal scale-Rukun Tetangga program to support the Urban Farming to utilize all potentials and resources that have been owned and has not been utilized properly.

  16. Caught in the Act: How Extraverted and Introverted Friends Communally Cope with Being Recorded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Avril; Shapiro, Lauren; Cardilla, Kim; Korobov, Neill; Nelson, Paul A

    2009-08-01

    This study explored how close friends who were similar or opposite on extraversion communally coped with being put on the spot to produce a recorded conversation. Participants were 50 pairs of same-sex college-age friends (54% female) who explicitly discussed the fact that their conversation was being recorded. The initial 'on-stage' episode emerged consistently earliest for extraverted dyads, and the majority of their episodes quickly diverted the on-stage moment. Dyads that included at least one introvert engaged in more extensive assortments of on-stage maneuvers, including research talk, soothing, and joking. In introvert-extravert dyads the extravert usually initiated and ended these episodes. Implications are discussed for understanding how personality is reciprocally implicated in managing shared everyday problems.

  17. Latinos and Latinas in Communal Settings: A Grounded Theory of Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Ferrari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 Latino/a residents of a mutual help residential recovery program (Oxford House in order to elicit their experiences of the program’s therapeutic elements. A model of recovery emerged from the analysis including several themes supported by existing literature: personal motivation and readiness to change, mutual help, sober environment, social support, and accountability. Consistent with a broad conceptualization of recovery, outcomes included abstinence, new life skills, and increased self-esteem/sense of purpose. Most participants were the only Latino/a in their Houses; however, cultural differences did not emerge as salient issues. The study’s findings highlight potential therapeutic aspects of mutual-help communal recovery programs and suggest that English-speaking, bicultural Latinos/as have positive experiences and may benefit from participating in these programs.

  18. Immunocompetence of breeding females is sensitive to cortisol levels but not to communal rearing in the degu (Octodon degus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebensperger, Luis A; León, Cecilia; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; Abades, Sebastian; Hayes, Loren D; Nova, Esteban; Salazar, Fabián; Bhattacharjee, Joydeep; Becker, María Inés

    2015-03-01

    One hypothesis largely examined in social insects is that cooperation in the context of breeding benefits individuals through decreasing the burden of immunocompetence and provide passive immunity through social contact. Similarly, communal rearing in social mammals may benefit adult female members of social groups by reducing the cost of immunocompetence, and through the transfer of immunological compounds during allonursing. Yet, these benefits may come at a cost to breeders in terms of a need to increase investment in individual immunocompetence. We examined how these potential immunocompetence costs and benefits relate to reproductive success and survival in a natural population of the communally rearing rodent, Octodon degus. We related immunocompetence (based on ratios of white blood cell counts, total and specific immunoglobulins of G isotype titers) and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGC) levels of adults immunized with hemocyanin from the mollusk Concholepas concholepas to measures of sociality (group size) and communal rearing (number of breeding females). Offspring immunocompetence was quantified based on circulating levels of the same immune parameters. Neither female nor offspring immunocompetence was influenced by communal rearing or sociality. These findings did not support that communal rearing and sociality enhance the ability of females to respond to immunological challenges during lactation, or contribute to enhance offspring condition (based on immunocompetence) or early survival (i.e., to 3months of age). Instead, levels of humoral and cellular components of immunocompetence were associated with variation in glucorcorticoid levels of females. We hypothesize that this covariation is driven by physiological (life-history) adjustments needed to sustain breeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors that influence the success of conservation programs in communal property areas in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Bunge-Vivier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the natural vegetation in Mexico is managed collectively within common property systems. The appropriation and continuity of government programs related to the conservation of land that is communally used is proposed to depend on the level of organization of the communities and the interaction between the local and governmental institutions, as well as the benefits derived from conservation projects. Patterns of what drives the conservation of common natural resources were analyzed in order to propose improvements to conservation policy. Changes in primary and secondary vegetation cover in common and private properties were identified by performing a historical spatial analysis. Questionnaires were used to survey 32 populations of seven states of the Mexican Republic to determine the conservation status of common property resources, as well as the ability of the community to continue conservation activities initially undertaken by government programs. Some 53% of the primary and secondary vegetation in Mexico is found in common property areas, but the change from primary and secondary vegetation to other uses is the same for common and private property. Communities with a high level of conservation of communal areas and with the ability to continue conservation projects were those that had dedicated the areas to recreation and conservation, had stronger community organization and were less marginalized. A recognition of the heterogeneity of the socioeconomic and cultural context of communities with common property is necessary to design governmental conservation programs that achieve long-term conservation. To meet the needs of a region that is both degraded and marginalized, the creation of synergies between programs that combat poverty and programs that promote conservation is needed. In addition, the continuation of payments with public funds for work that preserves or rehabilitates natural areas is needed, thereby

  20. Sustainability study of domestic communal wastewater treatment plant in Surabaya City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, E.; Sudarno; Zaman, B.

    2017-06-01

    Sanitation is one of the critical infrastructure sectors in order to improve community health status. The Ministry of Public Works of the Republic of Indonesia to define that word sanitation include: domestic waste water management, solid waste management, rain water management (drainage management) as well as the provision of clean water. Surabaya city as the capital of East Java province and Indonesia’s second largest city with a population of 2,853,661 inhabitants in 2014 (the second largest after Jakarta), but the people who have been served by the sanitation infrastructure systems were expected at 176,105 families or about 26.95 % of the population of the city is already using sanitation facilities. In the White Book Sanitation of Surabaya City in 2010, Surabaya City sanitation development mission is to realize the wastewater management of settlements in a sustainable and affordable by the community. This study aims to assess the sustainability of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) domestic communal in the city of Surabaya. The method in this research is quantitative method through observation, structured interviews and laboratory testing of the variables analyzed. Analyses were performed using a technique Multidisciplinary rapid appraisal (Rap-fish) to determine the level of sustainability of the management of communal WWTP based on a number of attributes that easy scored. Attributes of each dimension includes the technical, environmental quality, institutional, economic, and social. The results of this study are sustainability index of environmental quality dimension at 84.32 with highly sustainable status, technical dimension at 62.61 with fairly sustainable status, social dimension at 57.98 with fairly sustainable status, economic dimension at 43.24 with less sustainable status, and institutional dimension at 39.67 with less sustainable status.

  1. University Student and Faculty Opinions on Academic Integrity Are Informed by Social Practices or Personal Values, A Review of: Randall, Ken, Denise G. Bender and Diane M. Montgomery. “Determining the Opinions of Health Sciences Students and Faculty Regarding Academic Integrity.” International Journal for Educational Integrity 3.2 (2007: 27‐40.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Thomas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To understand the opinions of students and faculty in physical therapy (PT and occupational therapy (OT regarding issues of academic integrity such as plagiarism and cheating.Design – Q method (a mixed method of qualitative data collection with application of quantitative methods to facilitate grouping and interpretation.Setting – An urban university‐affiliated health sciences facility in the mid‐western United States.Subjects – Thirty‐three students and five faculty members of ages 21 to 61 years, 30 associated with the physical therapy program and 8 with occupational therapy, including 6 males and 32 females.Methods – Initially, 300 opinion statements for, against, or neutral on the subject of academic integrity were gathered from journal articles, editorials and commentaries, Internet sites, and personal web logs, 36 of which were selected to represent a full spectrum of perspectives on the topic. Participants in the study performed a “Q‐sort” in which they ranked the 36 statements as more‐like or less‐like their own values. A correlation matrix was developed based on the participantsʹ rankings to create “factors” or groups of individuals with similar views. Two such groups were found and interpreted qualitatively to meaningfully describe the differing views of each group. Three participants could not be sorted into either group, being split between the factors. Main Results – Analysis of the two groups, using software specific to the Q method, revealed a good deal of consensus, particularly in being “most unlike” those statements in support of academic dishonesty. The two groups differed primarily in the motivation for academic honesty. Factor one, with 21 individuals, was labeled “Collective Integrity,” (CI being represented by socially oriented statements such as “I believe in being honest, true, virtuous, and in doing good to all people,” or “My goal is to help create a world

  2. From Academic to Post-Academic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Ghaneirad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the cultural change in science from academic science to post-academic science by the use of documentary studying and analytical reasoning. The aim of this study is determining the direction of cultural change in science and comparing it with cultural change in society.The knowledge production which surrounds academy has little relationship with the values of society and epistemological norms regulate scientists' behavior from within the scientific system. But in post-academic science the relationship between science and society operates in the same line with market and government and science produce within the social context and scientists' behavior controlled by the norms out of the scientific system. So the culture of science has changed because science applied to meet the requirements of market and industry. The result is that contrary to cultural change in society that goes from materialism to post-materialism, cultural change in science moves from post-materialism to materialism.

  3. Adopting Basic Principles of the United Nations Academic Impact Initiative (UNAI: Can Cultural Differences Be Predicted from Value Orientations and Globalization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nechtelberger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Academic Impact (UNAI Initiative has set forth 10 Basic Principles for higher education. In the present study, a 10 item self-report questionnaire measuring personal endorsement of these principles has been tested by self-report questionnaires with university and post-graduate students from Austria, China, Cyprus, India, Nigeria, and Slovakia (total N = 976, N = 627 female, mean age 24.7 years, s = 5.7. Starting from the assumptions of Moral Foundations Theory (MFT, we expected that personal attitudes toward the UNAI Basic Principles would be predicted by endorsement of various moral foundations as suggested by MFT and by the individual's degree of globalization. Whereas for the Austrian, Cypriot, and Nigerian sub- samples this assumption was largely confirmed, for the Chinese, Indian, and Slovak sub- samples only small amounts of the variance could be explained by regression models. All six sub-samples differed substantially with regard to their overall questionnaire responses: by five discriminant functions 83.6% of participants were classified correctly. We conclude that implementation of UNAI principles should adhere closely to the cultural requirements of the respective society and, where necessary should be accompanied by thorough informational campaigns about UN educational goals.

  4. Adopting Basic Principles of the United Nations Academic Impact Initiative (UNAI): Can Cultural Differences Be Predicted from Value Orientations and Globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechtelberger, Andrea; Renner, Walter; Nechtelberger, Martin; Supeková, Soňa Chovanová; Hadjimarkou, Maria; Offurum, Chino; Ramalingam, Panchalan; Senft, Birgit; Redfern, Kylie

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations Academic Impact (UNAI) Initiative has set forth 10 Basic Principles for higher education. In the present study, a 10 item self-report questionnaire measuring personal endorsement of these principles has been tested by self-report questionnaires with university and post-graduate students from Austria, China, Cyprus, India, Nigeria, and Slovakia (total N = 976, N = 627 female, mean age 24.7 years, s = 5.7). Starting from the assumptions of Moral Foundations Theory (MFT), we expected that personal attitudes toward the UNAI Basic Principles would be predicted by endorsement of various moral foundations as suggested by MFT and by the individual's degree of globalization. Whereas for the Austrian, Cypriot, and Nigerian sub- samples this assumption was largely confirmed, for the Chinese, Indian, and Slovak sub- samples only small amounts of the variance could be explained by regression models. All six sub-samples differed substantially with regard to their overall questionnaire responses: by five discriminant functions 83.6% of participants were classified correctly. We conclude that implementation of UNAI principles should adhere closely to the cultural requirements of the respective society and, where necessary should be accompanied by thorough informational campaigns about UN educational goals.

  5. Adopting Basic Principles of the United Nations Academic Impact Initiative (UNAI): Can Cultural Differences Be Predicted from Value Orientations and Globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechtelberger, Andrea; Renner, Walter; Nechtelberger, Martin; Supeková, Soňa Chovanová; Hadjimarkou, Maria; Offurum, Chino; Ramalingam, Panchalan; Senft, Birgit; Redfern, Kylie

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations Academic Impact (UNAI) Initiative has set forth 10 Basic Principles for higher education. In the present study, a 10 item self-report questionnaire measuring personal endorsement of these principles has been tested by self-report questionnaires with university and post-graduate students from Austria, China, Cyprus, India, Nigeria, and Slovakia (total N = 976, N = 627 female, mean age 24.7 years, s = 5.7). Starting from the assumptions of Moral Foundations Theory (MFT), we expected that personal attitudes toward the UNAI Basic Principles would be predicted by endorsement of various moral foundations as suggested by MFT and by the individual's degree of globalization. Whereas for the Austrian, Cypriot, and Nigerian sub- samples this assumption was largely confirmed, for the Chinese, Indian, and Slovak sub- samples only small amounts of the variance could be explained by regression models. All six sub-samples differed substantially with regard to their overall questionnaire responses: by five discriminant functions 83.6% of participants were classified correctly. We conclude that implementation of UNAI principles should adhere closely to the cultural requirements of the respective society and, where necessary should be accompanied by thorough informational campaigns about UN educational goals. PMID:29180977

  6. Expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The literature on business expatriates has been increasing rapidly, but research on expatriate academics has remained scant, despite the apparent increasing globalisation of the academic world. Therefore, more research is needed on the latter group of expatriates. This paper aims to fil...

  7. “How do you feel about math?” : Relationships between competence and value appraisals, achievement emotions and academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto, Francisco José Brito; Sanches, Ana Cristina Pires; Mata, Maria de Lourdes Estorninho Neves; Monteiro, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships between cognitive appraisals, classroom and test emotions and math achievement in a sample of 1219 Portuguese students from the 6th and 8th grades. Participants completed measures of Perceived Value, Perceived Competence and seven Math achievement emotions (boredom, hopelessness, anger, anxiety, enjoyment, pride and relief) experienced in two different settings: Classroom and Tests. Math achievement was obtained from school records. Results showed sign...

  8. The Use of Woodland Products to Cope with Climate Variability in Communal Areas in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte S. Woittiez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common lands provide smallholder farmers in Africa with firewood, timber, and feed for livestock, and they are used to complement human diets through the collection of edible nontimber forest products (NTFPs. Farmers have developed coping mechanisms, which they deploy at times of climatic shocks. We aimed to analyze the importance of NTFPs in times of drought and to identify options that could increase the capacity to adapt to climate change. We used participatory techniques, livelihood analysis, observations, and measurements to quantify the use of NTFPs. Communities recognized NTFPs as a mechanism to cope with crop failure. We estimated that indigenous fruits contributed to approximately 20% of the energy intake of wealthier farmers and to approximately 40% of the energy intake of poor farmers in years of inadequate rainfall. Farmers needed to invest a considerable share of their time to collect wild fruits from deforested areas. They recognized that the effectiveness of NTFPs as an adaptation option had become threatened by severe deforestation and by illegal harvesting of fruits by urban traders. Farmers indicated the need to plan future land use to (1 intensify crop production, (2 cultivate trees for firewood, (3 keep orchards of indigenous fruit trees, and (4 improve the quality of grazing lands. Farmers were willing to cultivate trees and to organize communal conservation of indigenous fruits trees. Through participatory exercises, farmers elaborated maps, which were used during land use discussions. The process led to prioritization of pressing land use problems and identification of the support needed: fast-growing trees for firewood, inputs for crop production, knowledge on the cultivation of indigenous fruit trees, and clear regulations and compliance with rules for extraction of NTFPs. Important issues that remain to be addressed are best practices for regeneration and conservation, access rules and implementation, and the

  9. Muslim and Hindu Women’s Public and Private Behaviors: Gender, Family and Communalized Politics in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda

    2015-01-01

    Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship between gender, family and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of “doing gender”, it argues that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors such as household decision making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender. PMID:25143018

  10. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI. PMID:27563295

  11. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI.

  12. Communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Augusto Gurgel de Sousa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Communal nesting has been registered for several species of lizards. The egg aggregations offer potential advantages such as protection, predator-satiation and thermoregulation. Hemidactylus mabouia is a successful colonizing species with continuous reproduction and a fixed size of two eggs each time. Here, we report two communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia for the Parque Estadual Mata da Pipa, Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil.

  13. The impact of gender-blindness on social-ecological resilience: The case of a communal pasture in the highlands of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Aregu, Lemlem; Darnhofer, Ika; Tegegne, Azage; Hoekstra, Dirk; Wurzinger, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We studied how the failure to take into account gendered roles in the management of a communal pasture can affect the resilience of this social-ecological system. Data were collected using qualitative methods, including focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and participant observations from one community in the highlands of Ethiopia. The results show that women are excluded from the informal institution that defines the access and use rules which guide the management of the communal p...

  14. Academic Education Chain Operation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ruskov, Petko; Ruskov, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modelling the educational processes as a value added chain. It is an attempt to use a business approach to interpret and compile existing business and educational processes towards reference models and suggest an Academic Education Chain Operation Model. The model can be used to develop an Academic Chain Operation Reference Model.

  15. Evolution of Communal Order of tAleksandr E.he Sarepta Missionary Settlement Throughout the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    [Kuryshev Andrey V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the social and economic processes that took place in the Sarepta missionary settlement near Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd, Russia in the 19th century. Those processes eventually led to dramatic changes in the life of Sarepta residents and to the loss of status of missionary settlement. Sarepta was founded in 1765 by the Moravians to fulfill missionary activities among the Kalmyks. Initially the life in Sarepta was based on communal principles. The Sarepta Moravians were organized into groups (choirs according to their sex, age, and marital status. The choirs lived by strict rules and were supervised by superiors. The Sarepta economy was organized in a similar way with the single ruling centre and communal distribution of the production. In the course of the 19th century the Sarepta community was gradually disorganized under the pressure of a number of factors. The key factor consisted in the development of capitalism. Facing a severe competition from manufacturers of the region, Sarepta had to respond to the needs of time and introduce private entrepreneurship which was more effective but incompatible to the communal economic system. Another destructing factor was the inflow of non-Moravian population into Sarepta caused by the deficit of workforce in the settlement. Those newcomers were free from the restrictions imposed upon Sarepta Moravians by the community authorities. Alongside with the strengthening of their economic position they made more and more insistent claims on the Moravian communal property. Rights-of-ownership conflicts between Sarepta inhabitants and the Directorate of the Moravian church in Germany eventually led to exclusion of Sarepta from the system of Moravian settlements in 1892.

  16. On the relationship between cultural diversity and creativity in education: The moderating role of communal versus divisional mindset

    OpenAIRE

    Vezzali, Loris; Gocłowska, Małgorzata A.; Crisp, Richard J.; Stathi, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an experimental study with the aim of testing certain conditions under which engaging with cultural diversity increases creativity among schoolchildren. Results obtained from a sample of 149 Italian elementary schoolchildren revealed that engaging with cultural diversity, operationalized by asking Italian children to work with immigrant children on a cooperative task, led to an increase in creativity. Furthermore, we found that this effect was only present when a communal but not...

  17. Original article Agentic and communal narcissism and subjective well-being: are narcissistic individuals unhappy? A research report

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska; Amanda Clinton; Jarosław Piotrowski

    2014-01-01

    Background The communal/agentic model of narcissism is well accepted in the current research literature (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken & Maio, 2012). This model could be particularly useful in examining the relation between narcissism and hedonistic and eudaimonic subjective well-being (SWB; Deci & Ryan, 2008). Participants and procedure In an effort to examine the relationship between narcissism and SWB, correlational analyses of survey responses obtained from students (n =...

  18. Fitness conflicts and the costs of sociality in communal egg layers: a theoretical model and empirical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, M L G; Zink, A G

    2006-05-01

    Individuals within complex social groups often experience reduced reproduction owing to coercive or suppressive actions of other group members. However, the nature of social and ecological environments that favour individual acceptance of such costs of sociality is not well understood. Taxa with short periods of direct social interaction, such as some communal egg layers, are interesting models for study of the cost of social interaction because opportunities to control reproduction of others are limited to brief periods of reproduction. To understand the conditions under which communal egg layers are in fitness conflict and thus likely to influence each other's reproduction, we develop an optimality model involving a brood guarding 'host' and a nonguarding disperser, or 'egg dumper'. The model shows that when, where intermediate-sized broods have highest survival, lifetime inclusive fitnesses of hosts and dumpers are often optimized with different numbers of dumped eggs. We hypothesize that resolution of this conflict may involve attempts by one party to manipulate the other's reproduction. To test model predictions we used a lace bug (Heteroptera: Tingidae) that shows both hosts and egg dumpers as well as increased offspring survival in response to communal egg laying. We found that egg-dumping lace bugs oviposit a number of eggs that very closely matches predicted fitness optimum for hosts rather than predicted optimum of dumpers. This result suggests that dumpers pay a social cost for communal egg laying, a cost that may occur through host suppression of dumper reproduction. Although dumper allocation of eggs is thus sub-optimal for dumpers, previous models show that the decision to egg dump is nevertheless evolutionarily stable, possibly because hosts permit just enough dumper oviposition to encourage commitment to the behaviour.

  19. How Academic Health Systems Can Achieve Population Health in Vulnerable Populations Through Value-Based Care: The Critical Importance of Establishing Trusted Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Donald E; Kitzman, Heather E

    2018-01-16

    Improving population health may require health systems to proactively engage patient populations as partners in the implementation of healthy behaviors as a shared value using strategies that incentivize healthy outcomes for the population as a whole. The current reactive health care model, which focuses on restoring the health of individuals after it has been lost, will not achieve the goal of improved population health. To achieve this goal, health systems must proactively engage in partnerships with the populations they serve. Health systems will need the help of community entities and individuals who have the trust of the population being served to act on behalf of the health system if they are to achieve this effective working partnership. The need for these trusted agents is particularly pertinent for vulnerable and historically underserved segments of the population. In this Invited Commentary, the authors discuss ways by which health systems might identify, engage, and leverage trusted agents to improve the health of the population through value-based care.

  20. Academic Allies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Rebekka Birkebo

    the national associations of European law: Fédération Internationale pour le Droit Européen, the European law journal Common Market Law Review, and the ITL project, carried out at the European University Institute.It carefully documents an alliance between academics and community actors with the aim...... of providing academic support to the constitutional claim, and it argues that the academic discipline of European law was built and developed through a circular attribution of legal ideas, legitimacy, and self-image between the European Court of Justice, the Commission, and academia –most particularly so...

  1. Whistleblowing in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, R; Strain, J J

    2004-02-01

    Although medical centres have established boards, special committees, and offices for the review and redress of breaches in ethical behaviour, these mechanisms repeatedly prove themselves ineffective in addressing research misconduct within the institutions of academic medicine. As the authors see it, institutional design: (1) systematically ignores serious ethical problems, (2) makes whistleblowers into institutional enemies and punishes them, and (3) thereby fails to provide an ethical environment. The authors present and discuss cases of academic medicine failing to address unethical behaviour in academic science and, thereby, illustrate the scope and seriousness of the problem. The Olivieri/Apotex affair is just another instance of academic medicine's dereliction in a case of scientific fraud and misconduct. Instead of vigorously supporting their faculty member in her efforts to honestly communicate her findings and to protect patients from the risks associated with the use of the study drug, the University of Toronto collaborated with the Apotex company's "stalling tactics," closed down Dr Olivieri's laboratory, harassed her, and ultimately dismissed her. The authors argue that the incentives for addressing problematic behaviour have to be revised in order to effect a change in the current pattern of response that occurs in academic medicine. An externally imposed realignment of incentives could convert the perception of the whistleblower, from their present caste as the enemy within, into a new position, as valued friend of the institution. The authors explain how such a correction could encourage appropriate reactions to scientific misconduct from academic medicine.

  2. The Features of Regulation of the Housing and Communal Services in the Regions through the Use of Methods of the Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyvavar Iryna V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at a further development of the theoretical-methodological support together with elaboration of practical recommendations on the State regulation of housing and communal services in Ukraine. The stages of formation of mechanism of the State regulation in the sphere of housing and communal services have been considered, its main principles, functions, and models have been allocated; methods for reforming housing and communal services have been implemented through the use of the multivariate statistical analysis techniques (the integral rating evaluation and the cluster analysis. The groups of administrative territories with common problems were defined, using the integrated indicator of the level of development of housing and communal services in the individual regions each of them was evaluated and rated. The most effective levers of the State regulation have been determined. A matrix of the management strategy has been developed, thus allowing adaptation to the level of development in an individual region. Some basic strategies for management of housing and communal services have been proposed, following which the corresponding priority directions of regulation on the basis of assessment of the status of development of the sphere of housing and communal services can be elaborated in accordance with the relevant components and the existing potential.

  3. Le projet "Développement Forestier Communal dans l'AItiplano Bolivien" : une nouvelle vision de l'agroforesterie communautaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimanche, PH.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Project "Communal Forestry Development in the Bolivian Highlands (Altiplano " : a New Vision of the Communautary Agroforestry. Since 1991, the "Communal Forestry Development in the Bolivian Highlands (Altiplano " project has been promoting self-supporting agroforestry activities, integrated into the farmerproductive system, boosting the satisfaction of needs in forest products, increasing agriculture production and conserving natural resources. High demands on land and the difficult climatic conditions prevailing in Potosi department, where the project is located, are serious constraints to a massive forestation. Taking these constraints into account, the project has developped a strategy, the Communal Forestry Development, which is focussed on an integrated and participative approach : "integrated" means the technical available alternatives, including agroforestry actions (promotion of forester, fruit, and forrage trees and shrubs as well as hydraulic and soil conservation actions, are implemented inside the productive agro-sylvo-pastoral systems. Within the scope of an implication of the stakeholders, the project uses "participative" ways as communautary planning of agroforestry priorities. Those objectives are reached by means of training, extension and communication. Another orientation consists in a flexible coordination with all the organizations working on the field. The project is now implementing a second phase. The results which have been registered so far lead towards a strenghthening of integrated actions and increasing responsabilities of as well communities as other institutions. Such an orientation points out the necessity of a long-term and flexible project conception.

  4. Securing Communal Land Rights to Achieve Sustainable Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Critical Analysis and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Andrew Clarke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available While the concept of sustainable development gains increasing traction under international law, effective and scalable policies to translate these principles into practice remain largely beyond reach. This article analyses one possible strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa - increasing security of communal tenure to improve resource management and achieve rural sustainable development. Although this approach has attracted some attention, particularly with management responsibility of communal property increasingly devolved to the community-level, the expected results in terms of more sustainable resource exploitation and sounder environmental management have yet to be realised. Through critical analysis, with particular emphasis on the Gestion Terroir approach in Burkina Faso , the article explores the reasons behind the limited success. The article suggests that greater emphasis must be placed on bridging statutory command-and-control regimes with community-based models. Focusing on the links between communal land tenure and environmental management, and effectively embedding community land management institutions within existing environmental governance structures offers a practical model to promote sustainable development.

  5. African communalism and public health policies: the relevance ofindigenous concepts of personal identity to HIV/AIDS policies in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kipton; Gaie, Joseph Br

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the possible relevance of African communalism to HIV/AIDS policies in Botswana and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. We examine various interpretations of African communalism, which many consider to be the cardinal insight of African thought. We suggest several applications of this indigenous notion of personhood to HIV prevention in general and to routine HIV-testing policies in particular. This analysis demonstrates some of the ethical dilemmas and cultural complexities inherent in designing as well as implementing effective HIV-prevention programmes that strike a conscientious balance between protecting individual freedoms and securing public health. Recovering past traditions (such as African conceptions of personal identity) is valuable not only for the purpose of self-identification but also for helping us meet the challenges and problems of today in Africa. We also suggest that the human-rights-based approach to HIV prevention, which strives to protect individuals, is possibly incompatible with the socio-ethical ideals espoused by African communalism. We conclude that public health programmes in Botswana and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa would be more effective if those who designed and implemented them possessed a better understanding of indigenous conceptions of personhood or human agency as well as existing ethno-medical beliefs and cultural practices.

  6. Females of the communally breeding rodent, Octodon degus, transfer antibodies to their offspring during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, María Inés; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; León, Cecilia; Ebensperger, Luis A

    2007-06-01

    Females in numerous rodent species engage in communal nesting and breeding, meaning that they share a nest to rear their young together. One potential benefit to communally nesting mothers is that infants improve their immunocompetence. Thus, suckling from two or more females might provide newborns with a more diverse array of antibodies and defensive cells. As a first step toward testing the immunocompetence hypothesis, we assessed whether female degus (Octodon degus), a communally nesting and breeding caviomorph rodent, transfer immunoglobulins to their young through the yolk sac or placenta while in the uterus and, during lactation, through milk. With this aim, adult degu females were immunized with four antigens, including two mollusk hemocyanins from Concholepas and Megathura (CCH and KLH, respectively), porcine thyroglobulin and tetanus toxoid. Specific antibodies against the experimental antigens were used to track the origin of antibodies in the young. To establish the presence of specific antibodies of IgG and IgA isotypes in sera and milk of animals, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. Degu females produced specific antibodies against antigens not found in their natural environment, and mothers were able to transfer the induced antibodies to their litters during pregnancy (IgG) and during lactation (IgA). However, we recorded only limited evidence of degu offspring acquiring antibodies from lactating mothers other than their own, giving little support to the increased immunocompetence hypothesis.

  7. Reflecting on law, morality and communal mores (with particular reference to the protection of pre-natal life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourens M. du Plessis

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the relationship between law, morality and communal mores with particular reference to the protection of pre-natal life in South Africa. It is argued that personal, moral choice influences communal mores and that these mores can, in turn, be transformed into legal norms, thus becoming part of the legal system. It is pointed out that South African law lends insufficient protection tofoetal life - especially in situations where it stands to be destroyed as a result of abortion. It is then suggested that the legal subjectivity of the foetus should be recognized and that every application for an abortion should be heard by a court of law or, alternatively, a specialist tribunal. The foetus should be represented at these proceedings by a curator ad litem. It is finally argued that the proposed arrangement will not unduly encroach on the moral freedom of the individual and that personal, moral choice and communal mores will still be of decisive significance in regulating 'bio-ethical' morality.

  8. Participatory academic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Janus Holst; Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    2015-01-01

    understanding of participation in edu-cation can move educatees’ learning beyond institutions through focusing on educatees as researchers, participat-ing in society, building a research community and obtaining academic citizenship. Further, the article discusses how a value-based, vision-driven approach...

  9. Matching soil salinization and cropping systems in communally managed irrigation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malota, Mphatso; Mchenga, Joshua

    2018-03-01

    Occurrence of soil salinization in irrigation schemes can be a good indicator to introduce high salt tolerant crops in irrigation schemes. This study assessed the level of soil salinization in a communally managed 233 ha Nkhate irrigation scheme in the Lower Shire Valley region of Malawi. Soil samples were collected within the 0-0.4 m soil depth from eight randomly selected irrigation blocks. Irrigation water samples were also collected from five randomly selected locations along the Nkhate River which supplies irrigation water to the scheme. Salinity of both the soil and the irrigation water samples was determined using an electrical conductivity (EC) meter. Analysis of the results indicated that even for very low salinity tolerant crops (ECi irrigation water was suitable for irrigation purposes. However, root-zone soil salinity profiles depicted that leaching of salts was not adequate and that the leaching requirement for the scheme needs to be relooked and always be adhered to during irrigation operation. The study concluded that the crop system at the scheme needs to be adjusted to match with prevailing soil and irrigation water salinity levels.

  10. How Danish communal heat planning empowers municipalities and benefits individual consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittum, Anna; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    Danish municipal heat planning empowers municipalities to implement locally appropriate energy solutions that are the best fit for the locality as a whole and the individual consumers served. Supportive policies and actions at the national and local levels have encouraged heat planning that confers significant autonomy to local governments. By examining how power is distributed and shared by different levels of governments in the planning process, this paper investigates how comprehensive energy planning in Denmark has supported the development of highly cost-effective district heating systems. Lessons from the Danish approach to heat planning are considered for their relevance to the United States, where significant technical district heating potential exists, yet remains well outside the typical energy policy discussions. While the specific Danish political context may not be transferable to other locations, the practical aspects of power sharing, socio-economic cost–benefit analyses, and communal decision-making may inform approaches to local heat planning around the world. - Highlights: • Danish district heating has cost-effectively reduced the country's emissions. • Danish heat planning has been critical to the district heating sector's success. • Danish heat planning confers substantial power to municipalities. • Empowering cities offers significant benefits to cities and consumers. • Danish planning practices can be implemented today in the U.S. and other locations

  11. A simple rule reduces costs of extragroup parasitism in a communally breeding bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina

    2010-10-26

    How do cooperatively breeding groups resist invasion by parasitic "cheaters," which dump their eggs in the communal nest but provide no parental care [1,2]? Here I show that Greater Anis (Crotophaga major), Neotropical cuckoos that nest in social groups containing several breeding females [3], use a simple rule based on the timing of laying to recognize and reject eggs laid by extragroup parasites. I experimentally confirmed that Greater Anis cannot recognize parasitic eggs based on the appearance of host egg phenotypes or on the number of eggs in the clutch. However, they can discriminate between freshly laid eggs and those that have already been incubated, and they accordingly eject asynchronous eggs. This mechanism is reliable in naturally parasitized nests, because group members typically lay their eggs in tight synchrony, whereas the majority of parasitic eggs are laid several days later. Rejection of asynchronous eggs therefore provides a rare empirical example of a complex, group-level behavior that arises through relatively simple "rules of thumb" without requiring advanced cognitive mechanisms such as learning, counting, or individual recognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Software Prototype Design for Managing Housing and Communal Services in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper presents the disign and implementation of a computer program for the housing and utilities services. The Housing Code of the Russian Federation allows creating an apartment building council. The residents of a house choose the members this council to control providing services, manage an apartment building and represent their interests. The authors suggest using a special computer program for this purpose. Materials and Methods: The authors used the qualitative analysis of the data obtained from house bills and from the State housing and communal sector information system. The data processing and software development were performed through using the Ruby object-oriented language, the Ruby On Rails framework, the PostgreSQL database management system, the Slim templating, and Sass CSS extensions. Results: The authors developed a prototype software system to automate the activities of the apartment building council. This software helps to increase the quality of life of the apartment building residents. Discussion and Conclusions: This research provides an information framework for improving the quality of utilities services. The results of this study can be applied to the solution of many problems of housing and utilities sector.

  13. Communally Nesting Migratory Birds Create Ecological Hot-Spots in Tropical Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J D Natusch

    Full Text Available Large numbers of metallic starlings (Aplonis metallica migrate annually from New Guinea to the rainforests of tropical Australia, where they nest communally in single emergent trees (up to 1,000 birds. These aggregations create dense and species-rich faunal "hot-spots", attracting a diverse assemblage of local consumers that utilise this seasonal resource. The starlings nested primarily in poison-dart trees (Antiaris toxicaria near the rainforest-woodland boundary. Surveys underneath these colonies revealed that bird-derived nutrients massively increased densities of soil invertebrates and mammals (primarily wild pigs beneath trees, year-round. Flying invertebrates, nocturnal birds, reptiles, and amphibians congregated beneath the trees when starlings were nesting (the wet-season. Diurnal birds (primarily cockatoos and bush turkeys aggregated beneath the trees during the dry-season to utilise residual nutrients when the starlings were not nesting. The abundance of several taxa was considerably higher (to > 1000-fold under colony trees than under nearby trees. The system strikingly resembles utilisation of bird nesting colonies by predators in other parts of the world but this spectacular system has never been described, emphasizing the continuing need for detailed natural-history studies in tropical Australia.

  14. Human Carnivore Coexistence on Communal Land Bordering the Greater Kruger Area, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagendijk, D. D. Georgette; Gusset, Markus

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential for coexistence between rural people (living adjacent to a protected area) and predators (from the same area) ranging onto communal land. Ninety members of local communities bordering Manyeleti Game Reserve, which is contiguous with Kruger National Park, South Africa were interviewed. Respondents expressed diverging attitudes toward predators, which were more favorable among participants with higher education. Negative views were particularly due to fear of human and livestock losses, especially to lions, Panthera leo. Lions were thought to be the most abundant predator both within and outside the reserve. Lions were also the best known predator and were most often held responsible for killing livestock. Despite these livestock losses and a lack of conservation education, most participants voiced favorable opinions about large carnivore conservation, as predators were considered an integral part of the respondents’ natural heritage. Thanks to this cultural tolerance and also because of a largely accepted management policy regarding predator control, large carnivores and people can coexist in the vicinity of Kruger National Park.

  15. Communal spaces: aggregation and integration in the Mogollon Region of the United States Southwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisengard, Jennifer E.

    2006-12-01

    Aggregation and integration are processes that occur in human societies throughout the globe. An informative example of population aggregation and social integration can be observed in the North American desert borderlands from A.D. 250 to 1450 in the area known as the Mogollon region. In fact, Mogollon communities oscillated from smaller social groups into larger ones and dispersed into smaller groups only to form larger ones again. For this reason, examining the groups of people living in the Mogollon region provides a magnified view of social change over a substantial period. Understanding patterns of aggregation and integration provides researchers with the promise for research into the nature of these phenomena. In general, the Mogollon region is characterized by limited water supplies and low average annual precipitation. However, pockets of the Mogollon area, including the Mimbres valley and the Gila River valley, represent oases, where permanent rivers and their associated tributaries allowed for the pursuit of agricultural endeavors and access to a wide variety of wild plant and animal resources. The areas with these kinds of potential became population centers for previously dispersed groups of people living in the region. These people exploited natural resources and practiced agriculture in areas surrounding their communities. Over time, more organized aggregated and socially integrated communities were established throughout the region. Using ancient Mogollon communal architecture, commonly called kivas, this study examines issues of, and evidence for, population aggregation and social integration.

  16. Rich pickings near large communal roosts favor 'gang' foraging by juvenile common ravens, Corvus corax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha R X Dall

    Full Text Available Ravens (Corvus corax feed primarily on rich but ephemeral carcasses of large animals, which are usually defended by territorial pairs of adults. Non-breeding juveniles forage socially and aggregate in communal winter roosts, and these appear to function as 'information centers' regarding the location of the rare food bonanzas: individuals search independently of one another and pool their effort by recruiting each other at roosts. However, at a large raven roost in Newborough on Anglesey, North Wales, some juveniles have been observed recently to forage in 'gangs' and to roost separately from other birds. Here we adapt a general model of juvenile common raven foraging behavior where, in addition to the typical co-operative foraging strategy, such gang foraging behavior could be evolutionarily stable near winter raven roosts. We refocus the model on the conditions under which this newly documented, yet theoretically anticipated, gang-based foraging has been observed. In the process, we show formally how the trade off between search efficiency and social opportunity can account for the existence of the alternative social foraging tactics that have been observed in this species. This work serves to highlight a number of fruitful avenues for future research, both from a theoretical and empirical perspective.

  17. Cooperative investment in public goods is kin directed in communal nests of social birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, René E; Kaden, Jennifer C; Argüelles-Ticó, Araceli; Dawson, Deborah A; Burke, Terry; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2014-09-01

    The tragedy of the commons predicts social collapse when public goods are jointly exploited by individuals attempting to maximize their fitness at the expense of other social group members. However, animal societies have evolved many times despite this vulnerability to exploitation by selfish individuals. Kin selection offers a solution to this social dilemma, but in large social groups mean relatedness is often low. Sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) live in large colonies that share the benefits of a massive communal nest, which requires individual investment for construction and maintenance. Here, we show that despite low mean kinship within colonies, relatives are spatially and socially clustered and that nest-building males have higher local relatedness to other colony members than do non-building males. Alternative hypotheses received little support, so we conclude that the benefits of the public good are shared with kin and that cooperative investment is, despite the large size and low relatedness of these communities, kin directed. © 2014 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  18. Death and Communal Mass-Mourning: Vin Diesel and the Remembrance of Paul Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Klastrup

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Vin Diesel’s use of his public Facebook Page to mourn the loss of his friend and co-actor Paul Walker in the period from 2013-2015. It discusses how Vin Diesel performed his grief and how his mourning process was communally reflected and repeated by both Vin Diesel and Walker fans, who used Vin Diesel’s page to share and verbalise their own feelings of loss in a both public and safe space. An analysis of Vin Diesel’s own status updates and 1800 comments reacting to three popular status updates related to the death of Paul Walk posted over the course of more than a year show that commentary was used to make condolences to both Vin Diesel and Walker’s familes and to affectively express the users’ immediate feelings, both verbally and through the use of emojis. However, over time, both the form and intensity of expression of both Vin Diesel and his followers changed, pointing to the need to further study celebrity mourning processes on social media over extended periods of time.

  19. Agonistic behavior and environmental enrichment of cats communally housed in a shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Leticia M S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L; Alford, Kelly; Genaro, Gelson; D'Almeida, Jose Mario; Paixao, Rita L

    2011-09-15

    To evaluate the presence of a dominance rank in a group of cats and the relation between agonistic behavior and the use of resources, including environmental enrichment, in these cats. Observational analytic study. 27 neutered cats in a shelter in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The cats were video recorded for 4 consecutive days to obtain baseline data. Subsequently, a puzzle feeder was added as an enrichment device every other day over 8 days, for a total of 4 days with enrichment. Cats were also video recorded on these days. All pretreatment and posttreatment agonistic behaviors and interactions with the puzzle feeder were recorded by reviewing the videotapes. 143 agonistic encounters were recorded, of which 44 were related to resources and 99 were not. There were insufficient agonistic interactions to determine a dominance rank. Presence or absence of the puzzle feeder did not affect the rate of aggression. There was no significant effect of weight, sex, or coat color on the rate of aggression, and aggressive behavior did not correlate with time spent with the puzzle feeder. Twenty-three of the 27 cats interacted with the puzzle feeder. In a stable group of communally housed cats, environmental enrichment did not cause increased aggression as a result of competition for the source of enrichment. Because environmental enrichment increases the opportunity to perform exploratory behaviors, it may improve the welfare of groups of cats maintained long-term in shelters, sanctuaries, or multicat households.

  20. Pain catastrophizing and interpersonal problems: a circumplex analysis of the communal coping model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Jeffrey M; Gurtman, Michael B

    2004-08-01

    Using the circumplex model of interpersonal behavior [Handbook of research methods in clinical psychology, 1982], this study tested the communal coping model of catastrophizing (CCM) in a large (N = 179) sample of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common, benign chronic pain disorder associated with significant painful extraintestinal comorbidity (e.g. headache, low back pain). Patients completed the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. The main findings were: (1) individuals who reported higher levels of catastrophizing described greater interpersonal problems; (2) the interpersonal problems described by catastrophizers fell within the friendly and friendly submissive quadrants of the circumplex supporting the notion that they have an interpersonal style demanding support and care-taking [Pain 103 (2003) 151]; (3) the pain coping behavior most strongly associated with interpersonal problems was catastrophizing; and (4) the relationship between interpersonal problems and catastrophizing remained after removing the influence of general symptomatic distress (i.e. an overall tendency to complain of psychological problems in general). In general, data provide evidence supporting the interpersonal distinctiveness of pain catastrophizing as postulated by the CCM. Advantages of a circumplex model and of interpersonal theory for understanding and testing the CCM are discussed.

  1. Homophobia and communal coping for HIV risk management among gay men in relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowski, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-02-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the US and estimates suggest that one to two-thirds of new infections occur among main partners. Previous research has focused on individual MSM and their risk for HIV, yet couples' ability to manage risk has been largely understudied. In particular, the role that homophobia plays in shaping the ability of gay male couples to cope with HIV risk is currently understudied. A sample of 447 gay/bisexual men with main partners was taken from a 2011 survey of gay and bisexual men in Atlanta. Linear regression models were fitted for three couples' coping outcome scales (outcome efficacy, couple efficacy, communal coping) and included indicators of homophobia (internalized homophobia and homophobic discrimination). Findings indicate that reporting of increased levels of internalized homophobia were consistently associated with decreased outcome measures of couples' coping ability regarding risk management. The results highlight the role that homophobia plays in gay male couples' relationships and HIV risk, extending the existing literature in the field of same-sex relationships as influenced by homophobia.

  2. Academic Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Daniela ZECA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Academic Marketing is an investment in a future dominated by The Forth Industrial Revolution and Globalization and not an expense. This aspect will basically alter our way to teach and to learn. In its dimensions, arguably changes will be like anything we has seen before. We try to assess how will be all unfold but, anyway, academic field response at this challenge should be integrated and comprehensive, involving all stakeholders both public and private sectors, because these changes herald upheaval of whole organizations. The educational service is a special one, delivered today but with effects in the future, the future of the individual, the future of generation, the future of nations. The educational service policy adapted to the requirements of time, brings to the front the opportunity of academic marketing. To analyze demand in a professional way, to measure trends and correlated university programs with the forecast demand for jobs, it is the subject. In the case of academic education, we are talking also about cost, distribution and promotion policies, but being a special service we also discuss about ethic boundaries. This work is an open chapter focusing studies on academic megamarketing, the work keeping up with the pace of change, students enrolment mobility, overtakes job market, and an imposed win-win-win formula, applied for students, local community and academic field.

  3. How Cultural Values Shape Learning in Older Adulthood: The Case of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Mohamad, Mazanah

    2000-01-01

    Malaysian adults aged 60-83 (n=19) were interviewed about aging and learning activites. They primarily engaged in nonformal and experiential learning. Learning was communal and religious/spiritual in orientation; it was shaped by cultural context and values. (SK)

  4. #IWD2016 Academic Inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2016-01-01

    What academics or books have inspired you in your writing and research, or helped to make sense of the world around you? In this feature essay, Ninna Meier returns to her experience of reading Hannah Arendt as she sought to understand work and how it relates to value production in capitalist...... economies. Meier recounts how Arendt’s book On Revolution (1963) forged connective threads between the ‘smallest parts’ and the ‘largest wholes’ and showed how academic work is never fully relegated to the past, but can return in new iterations across time....

  5. Academic Freedom in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokay GEDİKOĞLU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concept ‘academic freedom’ is discussed, its implications and value for the academics, institutions of higher education, and the society are focused, and a few suggestions for the Turkish higher education are made. Academic freedom is defined as the freedom of the academic staff to look for and to find the truth in their scientific field, to publish the findings, and to teach these findings to their students without any external intervention. The concept has gained a further definition with inclusion of research activities into academic freedom as part of the reform attempts started in the German higher education in the 19th century. Therefore, academic freedom is at the very core of the missions of the institutions of higher education; that is, teaching-learning and research. On the point of academic staff and their academic activities of the academic freedom, the subjects such as the aim of the course, choosing the teaching materials and textbooks, the lecturer, and the criteria for the measurement and evaluation of the course take place. And he point of research covers the aim of the study, academicians can’t be imposed the involve in an academic and artistic studies that conflict their values and beliefs; researchers should comply with codes of ethical principles and practices during the process of researching; and research outputs should be reported accurately and honestly without any misleading manipulation. Academic freedom does not provide any exemption from accountability in academic activities of the faculty, nor does it provide any right to act against the well-being of the society, current laws and regulations, and codes of ethical principles and practices.

  6. Academic Motivation: Concepts, Strategies, and Counseling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Lonnie; Hong, Eunsook

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is an important foundation of academic development in students. This article discusses academic motivation; its various component concepts in areas such as beliefs, goals, and values; and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. It also presents major, widely studied theoretical perspectives of academic motivation and briefly illustrates…

  7. Creating environments that foster academic integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippitt, Michelle Pixley; Ard, Nell; Kline, Juanita Reese; Tilghman, Joan; Chamberlain, Barbara; Meagher, P Gail

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies related to academic dishonesty within the nursing student population have been published; however, little has been written in the nursing literature regarding academic integrity and means of promoting this value. In addition to the many short-term solutions to prevent cheating and dissuade academic misconduct that are offered, solutions that promote long-term affective changes underlying the acquisition of academic integrity are needed. This article provides a context for discussions related to academic integrity, explores issues facing faculty when dealing with this challenge, and offers short-term and long-term strategies for creating environments that foster academic integrity.

  8. Diversity and seasonal occurrence of Eimeria species in a mixed flock of communally reared sheep and goats in Mafikeng in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Bakunzi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and seasonal occurrence of coccidia in a communally reared mixed flock of sheep and goats at Mafikeng, North West Province, South Africa, was determined between March 2008 and February 2009. Faecal specimens were collected directly from the rectum of the animals and the number of oocysts per gram of faeces (opg determined. The mean monthly opg for goats was significantly higher than that for sheep. Higher oocyst counts were observed during the hot, rainy season than during the cold, dry season. The highest mean values for both the sheep (862.5 opg and goats (1200 opg were recorded during March. Six species (Eimeria crandallis, E. bakuensis, E. weybridgensis, E. ahsata, E. intricata, and E. ovinoidalis were recovered from sheep, with E. crandallis and E. bakuensis occurring most frequently. The last 2 species, together with E. ahsata, are considered among the most pathogenic species in sheep. In goats, 7 species (E. arloingi, E. jolchijevi, E. caprina, E. alijevi, E. caprovina, E. christenseni and E. hirci were recovered, with E. arloingi and E. jolchijevi occurring most frequently. Up to 5 Eimeria species were recovered from individual specimens in goats while up to 4 were recovered in sheep. No cross-infections between goats and sheep were recorded and no clinical coccidiosis was noted during the study. It is increasingly becoming evident that the pathogenic E. arloingi is one of the most commonly occurring Eimeria species in goats in South Africa.

  9. Dispersal in the communally breeding groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.S.; Koford, Rolf R.; Vehrencamp, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    We studied dispersal in a color-banded population of the Groove-billed Ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris) in Costa Rica. Eight percent of the young alive at the end of the breeding season bred on their natal territories the next year and 4% remained but did not breed. Thirteen percent dispersed successfully within the study area and bred in communal groups or simple pairs. The remaining 75% of the young birds disappeared from the study area. Young males remained in the study area as breeders more frequently than did young females. Breeding dispersal occurred, with at least 9% of the adult population moving to a new territory each year.We used a demographic model to estimate the following dispersal fates for young birds. For both males and females, 62% of the young alive at the end of the breeding season in which they hatched obtained a breeding position the next year. Of those that dispersed from their natal territories, 59 to 70% of the males and 64 to 74% of the females obtained breeding positions. Of those that bred the year after they hatched, 22% of the males and 2% of the females bred in their natal units, 34% of the males and 6% of the females bred within the study area but outside their natal units, and 44% of the males and 92% of the females bred outside the study area. We estimated that all of the males and 28% of the females that bred the year after they hatched were within three territories of their natal sites.

  10. Cultivating nature-based solutions: The governance of communal urban gardens in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Jagt, Alexander P N; Szaraz, Luca R; Delshammar, Tim; Cvejić, Rozalija; Santos, Artur; Goodness, Julie; Buijs, Arjen

    2017-11-01

    In many countries in the European Union (EU), the popularity of communal urban gardening (CUG) on allotments and community gardens is on the rise. Given the role of this practice in increasing urban resilience, most notably social resilience, municipalities in the Global North are promoting CUG as a nature-based solution (NbS). However, the mechanisms by which institutional actors can best support and facilitate CUG are understudied, which could create a gap between aspiration and reality. The aim of this study is therefore to identify what governance arrangements contribute to CUG delivering social resilience. Through the EU GREEN SURGE project, we studied six CUG initiatives from five EU-countries, representing different planning regimes and traditions. We selected cases taking a locally unique or innovative approach to dealing with urban challenges. A variety of actors associated with each of the cases were interviewed to achieve as complete a picture as possible regarding important governance arrangements. A cross-case comparison revealed a range of success factors, varying from clearly formulated objectives and regulations, municipal support, financial resources and social capital through to the availability of local food champions and facilitators engaging in community building. Municipalities can support CUG initiatives by moving beyond a rigid focus on top-down control, while involved citizens can increase the impact of CUG by pursuing political, in addition to hands-on, activities. We conclude that CUG has clear potential to act as a nature-based solution if managed with sensitivity to local dynamics and context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Whistleblowing in academic medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, R; Strain, J

    2004-01-01

    The authors present and discuss cases of academic medicine failing to address unethical behaviour in academic science and, thereby, illustrate the scope and seriousness of the problem. The Olivieri/Apotex affair is just another instance of academic medicine's dereliction in a case of scientific fraud and misconduct. Instead of vigorously supporting their faculty member in her efforts to honestly communicate her findings and to protect patients from the risks associated with the use of the study drug, the University of Toronto collaborated with the Apotex company's "stalling tactics," closed down Dr Olivieri's laboratory, harassed her, and ultimately dismissed her. The authors argue that the incentives for addressing problematic behaviour have to be revised in order to effect a change in the current pattern of response that occurs in academic medicine. An externally imposed realignment of incentives could convert the perception of the whistleblower, from their present caste as the enemy within, into a new position, as valued friend of the institution. The authors explain how such a correction could encourage appropriate reactions to scientific misconduct from academic medicine. PMID:14872069

  12. Academic Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…

  13. Academic Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  14. Academic Words and Academic Capitalism Academic Words and Academic Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Billig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artículo sugiere que esta época es la mejor y peor para la labor académica. La mejor en cuanto hay más publicaciones académicas que nunca. Y la peor porque sobra mucho de estas publicaciones. Trabajando en las condiciones competitivas del capitalismo académico, los académicos se sienten en la necesidad de continuar publicando, independientemente de que tengan algo que decir. Las presiones de publicar continuamente y promover la propia perspectiva se reflejan en la manera en la que los científicos sociales están escribiendo. Y es que los académicos utilizan un lenguaje técnico basado en sustantivos, con una precisión menor a la del lenguaje ordinario. Los estudiantes de postgrado han sido educados en esta manera de escribir como una condición previa a iniciarse en las ciencias sociales. Así, la naturaleza misma del capitalismo académico no sólo determina las condiciones en las que los académicos trabajan, sino que también afecta su manera de escribir.


    This paper suggests that it is the best and worst of times for academic work. It is the best of times because there are more academics publishing than ever before. It is the worst of times because there is much unnecessary publication. Working in the competitive conditions of academic capitalism, academics feel impelled to keep publishing, whether or not they have anything to say. The pressures to publish continually and to promote one’s own approach are reflected in the way that social scientists are writing. Academics use a noun-based technical language, which is less precise than ordinary language. Postgraduates are taught this way of writing as a precondition for entering the social sciences. In this way, the nature of academic capitalism not only determines the conditions under which academics are working but it affects the way that they are writing.

  15. An investigation into the causes of low calving percentage in communally grazed cattle in Jericho, North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mokantla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The communal grazing system is generally understood to have a low input, low output type of management. However, the actual inputs and outputs of the farmers are not well known and the farmers are often unaware of their problems. Although the causes of low calving percentage are well understood in commercial beef farming enterprises in South Africa, the same is not true for communal farming systems. The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive performance of beef cattle on a communal farming system in Jericho, NorthWest Province. Ten farmers from five villages with a total of 265 cows and 13 bulls were purposively selected. The selection criteria were that each farmer had to have a minimum of 10 breeding cows and a bull and be willing to participate in the study. This was followed by a 12-month longitudinal study with monthly herd visits where cows were examined rectally and bulls (n = 13 were subjected to a single breeding soundness evaluation. The calving percentage was found to be 37.7 %. This is lower than the recorded percentages for commercial beef cattle on extensive grazing. The factors playing a role in low calving percentage were ranked using field data. From this it appeared that failure of cows to become pregnant was the main cause of poor calving percentage as opposed of loss of calves through abortion or resorption. Sub-fertility of the bulls was found to be of great significance and it is proposed that this be included in extension messages and that bulls be fertility tested routinely. Poor body condition score of cows, mainly caused by poor management, was also considered to play a major role in reducing pregnancy rates. Infectious diseases like trichomonosis, campylobacteriosis and brucellosis played a much leser role than anticipated.

  16. Beyond “Teach a Man to Fish”: Communal Meta-cognition as the Key to Sustainable Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Foster

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in the quality of aid and development in a community requires a feedback loop within the community, known as “communal meta-cognition.” This is relevant to medical education in resource-poor countries and is illustrated with the author’s own surgical experience. The usual source of truth is unquestioned allegiance to established wisdom rather than the dynamic state that comes through the feedback loop of asking questions, most importantly of one’s self. Some elements of what this might look like in a medical education context are illustrated.

  17. Work Values and College Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michela; Lauriola, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Our study sought to clarify the nature of the known individual differences in work values associated with academic college major choice, specifically the question whether these precede or follow the choice of an academic major. To rule out environmental influences during academic study, group differences in five value orientations were evaluated…

  18. How and What Do Academics Learn through Their Personal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataraia, Nino; Margaryan, Anoush; Falconer, Isobel; Littlejohn, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of personal networks in academics' learning in relation to teaching. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 11 academics, this study examines, first, how and what academics learn through their personal networks; second, the perceived value of networks in relation to academics' professional development; and, third,…

  19. Academic Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Heine, Carmen

    Vejledning i at undgå plagiering ved at følge de normer, der gælder for good academic practice. Dette indebærer at man angiver kilder korrekt, og når det er nødvendigt, og at man har en korrekt udformet fortegnelse over referencer. Vejledningen indeholder konkrete eksempler på korrekt kildeangive......Vejledning i at undgå plagiering ved at følge de normer, der gælder for good academic practice. Dette indebærer at man angiver kilder korrekt, og når det er nødvendigt, og at man har en korrekt udformet fortegnelse over referencer. Vejledningen indeholder konkrete eksempler på korrekt...

  20. Africentric Cultural Values, Psychological Help-Seeking Attitudes, and Self-Concealment in African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Barbara C.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among Africentric cultural values (i.e., the extent to which an individual adheres to a worldview emphasizing communalism, unity, harmony, spirituality, and authenticity), favorable psychological help-seeking attitudes, perceived counseling stigma, and self-concealment (i.e., the tendency to withhold…

  1. Sisters in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families: communal coping, social integration, and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehly, Laura M; Peters, June A; Kuhn, Natalia; Hoskins, Lindsey; Letocha, Anne; Kenen, Regina; Loud, Jennifer; Greene, Mark H

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the association between psychological distress and indices of social integration and communal coping among sisters from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families. Sixty-five sisters from 31 HBOC families completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and the Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map, which identified members of participants' social support networks. Hierarchical linear models were used for all analyses to account for the clustering of sisters within families. Intra-family correlation coefficients suggested that sisters shared perceptions of breast cancer risk and worry, but not ovarian cancer risk and worry. Further, sisters demonstrated shared levels of anxiety and somatization, but not depressive symptoms. Communal coping indices quantifying shared support resources were negatively related to anxiety and somatization. The number of persons with whom cancer risk information was shared exhibited a positive trend with somatization. Social integration, as measured by the size of participants' emotional support network, was negatively associated with anxiety. Lower depression scores were observed among participants with more persons playing multiple support roles and fewer persons providing tangible assistance. Understanding how support relationships impact well-being among persons adjusting to HBOC risk, and the particular role of family in that process, will facilitate developing appropriate management approaches to help cancer-prone families adjust to their cancer risk.

  2. Microbial Content of “Bowl Water” Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Abdul-Latif Baako, Bawa; Opintan, Japheth A.; Minamor, Andrew A.; Abdul-Rahman, Mubarak; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of “bowl water” used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern. PMID:27555872

  3. Two routes toward optimism: how agentic and communal themes in autobiographical memories guide optimism for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Adrienne; Costabile, Kristi

    2017-11-01

    Autobiographical memories are particularly adaptive because they function not only to preserve the past, but also to direct our future thoughts and behaviours. Two studies were conducted to examine how communal and agentic themes of positive autobiographical memories differentially predicted the route from autobiographical memories to optimism for the future. Across two studies, results revealed that the degree to which participants focused on communal themes in their autobiographical memories predicted their experience of nostalgia. In turn, the experience of nostalgia increased participants' levels of self-esteem and in turn, optimism for the future. By contrast, the degree to which participants focused on agentic themes in their memories predicted self-esteem and optimism, operating outside the experience of nostalgia. These effects remained even after controlling for self-focused attention. Together, these studies provide greater understanding of the interrelations among autobiographical memory, self-concept, and time, and demonstrate how agency and communion operate to influence perceptions of one's future when thinking about the past.

  4. Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W. [Oil Mining and Gas Engineering Institute, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.

  5. Establishing the system of public communal utility on the river Danube and the river Sava on the territory of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pušić Antonije

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste disposal and treatment problem consideration in the Republic of Serbia is making a pioneer steps. Main goal of this paper is to emphasize problems of waste disposal on waterways in urban areas, which consists of three aspects: uncontrolled disposal, possibilities of waste elimination and institutional model of collecting and recycling. Considering the fact that Draft version of Waste disposal law is not yet adopted by the national government (beside the fact that it contains the question of disposing and recycling municipal solid waste and that it is not elaborating the problem of dumping the municipal waste into rivers, this paper will give methodological and legislative recommendations for the solution of this problem. However, city of Belgrade and the other cities in Serbia are often facing serious problems (arranged riverfronts covered with municipal waste. Because of that, it is necessary to define methods of collecting and treatment of waste disposed in the water streams (in the area of technology. It is also important to determine legislative framework, and also to establish hierarchy in decision-making on the local level. One of the main goals is to determine new aspects of public communal utilities (so called "river communal utility", which will have jurisdiction in this area. International experiences must be analyzed separately and based on them is proposed new concept of elimination of waste from the rivers. Implementation of this pilot project is recommended on the river Danube and the river Sava on the territory of the city of Belgrade.

  6. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    6, 7 May LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Decoding the Human Genome, Scientific basis and ethic and social aspects by S.E. Antonarakis and A. Mauron / Univ. of Geneva Decoding the Human genome is a very up-to-date topic, raising several questions besides purely scientific, in view of the two competing teams (public and private), the ethics of using the results, and the fact that the project went apparently faster and easier than expected. The lecture series will address the following chapters: Scientific basis and challenges, Ethical and social aspects of genomics. Academic Training Françoise Benz Tel. 73127

  7. Alternative reproductive tactics in female striped mice: heavier females are more likely to breed solitarily than communally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Pillay, Neville; Schradin, Carsten

    2015-11-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are discrete reproductive phenotypes governed by decision rules called strategies. ARTs are fixed for life in species with alternative strategies, while tactic expression is plastic in species with a single strategy. ARTs have been investigated in males of many species, but few studies have tested whether the same theoretical framework applies in females. Female striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) employ three ARTs: communal breeders give birth in a nest shared with female kin and a breeding male and show allo-parental care; returners give birth away from the shared nest and later return to it; and solitary breeders give birth away from the shared nest and do not return to the group. Here, studying free-living female striped mice over six breeding seasons, we tested whether ARTs arise from alternative strategies or a single strategy. We also asked to what extent stochastic extrinsic factors explain whether individuals become solitary rather than group living. Females switched tactics, consistent with a single strategy, so we tested whether this represented a mixed or conditional single strategy. Only the latter predicts differences between ARTs in traits indicating competitive ability, such as body mass or age, before individuals adopt a tactic. We weighed females at conception when they were still group living to eliminate potential confounding effects of gestation and subsequent social tactic (solitary versus group living) on body mass. Females that went on to use a solitary ART were heavier than those that became communal breeders and returners, in support of a conditional strategy. Solitary breeders also arose through extrinsic factors (mortality of all adult female group members). They weighed less than females that became solitary while relatives were alive, but did not differ in body mass from communal breeders and returners. We conclude that ART theory applies to both sexes, with female striped mice following a

  8. Epidemiological studies of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Faecal samples of cattle were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas, respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of the intermediate host-snail populations and the climatic factors influencing the distribution were also determined at monthly intervals from November 1998 to October 2000, a period of 24 months, in six dams and six streams in the highveld and nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Monthly, each site was sampled for relative snail density, the vegetation cover and type, and physical and chemical properties of the water. Mean monthly rainfall and temperature were recorded. Snails collected at the same time were individually examined for shedding of cercariae of S. mattheei and Schistosoma haematobium. A total of 16 264 (5 418 calves, 5 461 weaners and 5 385 adults faecal samples were collected during the entire period of study and 734 (4.5 % were positive for S. mattheei eggs. Significantly higher prevalences were found in the highveld compared to the lowveld (P < 0.001, calves compared to adult cattle (P < 0.01 and the wet season compared to the dry season (P < 0.01. Faecal egg output peaked from October/ November to March / April for both years of the study. Bulinus globosus, the snail intermediate host of S. mattheei was recorded from the study sites with the highveld having a significantly higher abundance of the snails than the lowveld (P < 0.01. Monthly densities of B. globosus did not show a clearcut pattern although there were peaks between March / May and September / November. The mean num ber of snails collected was positively correlated with the water plants Nymphaea caerulea and

  9. Epidemic spread of Shigella sonnei shigellosis and evidence for development of immunity among children attending day-care centers in a communal settlement (Kibbutz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Y; Yavzori, M; Ambar, R; Sechter, I; Wiener, M; Cohen, D

    1994-04-01

    An investigation of two Shigella sonnei shigellosis outbreaks that occurred in a communal settlement indicated that the transmission of the pathogen was restricted to day-care classes and secondary infection of family members was minimal. Development of serotype-specific immunity following S. sonnei infection was observed among infected children.

  10. To Grab and To Hold: Cultivating communal goals to overcome cultural and structural barriers in first generation college students' science interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jill M; Muragishi, Gregg A; Smith, Jessi L; Thoman, Dustin B; Brown, Elizabeth R

    2015-12-01

    Homogeneity within science limits creativity and discovery, and can feed into a perpetuating cycle of underrepresentation. From enhancing social justice to alleviating health and economic disadvantages, broadening participation in science is imperative. We focus here on first-generation students (FGS) and identify factors which grab and hold science interest among this underrepresented group. Might the culture and norms within science unintentionally limit FGS' participation? We argue that two distinct aspects of communal goals contribute to FGS' underrepresentation at different stages of the STEM pipeline: cultural perceptions of science as uncommunal (little emphasis on prosocial behavior and collaboration) and the uncommunal structure of STEM graduate education and training. Across 2 studies we investigated factors that catch (Study 1) and hold (Study 2) FGS' science interest. In Study 1, we find only when FGS believe that working in science will allow them to fulfill prosocial communal purpose goals are they more intrinsically interested in science. Yet, later in the pipeline science education devalues prosocial communal goals creating a structural mobility barrier among FGS. Study 2 found that FGS generally want to stay close to home instead of relocating to pursue a graduate education. For FGS (versus continuing-generation students), higher prosocial communal goal orientation significantly predicted lower residential mobility. We discuss implications for interventions to counteract the uncommunal science education and training culture to help improve access to FGS and other similarly situated underrepresented populations.

  11. Automatic affective-motivational regulation processes underlying supportive dyadic coping: the role of increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals in response to a stressed relationship partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koranyi, Nicolas; Hilpert, Peter; Job, Veronika; Bodenmann, Guy

    2017-09-01

    We examined the implicit affective mechanisms underlying provision of support in intimate dyads. Specifically, we hypothesized that in individuals with high relationship satisfaction, the perception that one's partner is stressed leads to increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals. In turn, this change in implicit attitudes facilitates supportive behavior. In two studies, we induced partner stress by instructing participants to either recall a situation where their partner was highly stressed (Study 1; N = 47 university students) or imagine a specific stressful event (excessive workload; Study 2; N = 85 university students). Subsequently, implicit attitudes toward communal goals were assessed with an Implicit Association Test. In both studies, we found that among participants with high relationship satisfaction partner stress increases preferences for communal goals. In addition, implicit preferences for communal goals predicted stronger inclinations to engage in supportive dyadic coping (Study 2). The current findings provide important insights into the implicit cognitive-affective mechanics of dyadic coping. Moreover, they can explain how people manage to avoid experiencing motivational conflicts between partner-oriented and self-oriented goals in situations characterized by high partner stress.

  12. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    25, 26, 27, 28 February and 1st March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 LECTURE SERIES Neutrino masses and oscillations by A. de Rujula / CERN-TH This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos. Academic Training Françoise Benz Secretariat Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  13. GENDER, VIOLENCE AND CRIMINALIZATION OF YOUNG "BAND" PEOPLE. CHALLENGES TO THE INDIGENOUS AND PEASANT COMMUNALITY OF THE SIERRA NEVADA POBLANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufino Díaz-Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances of a study on processes of gender identity, age and ethnicity in the surge and the group dynamics of peasant and Indigenous young 'band' people are discussed as well as their links to life expectations of the youth, to violence, and social cohesion, their transcendencies in the patriarchal order and the interculturality in the community of San Mateo Ozolco, settlement of the municipality of Calpan, Puebla. The community youth context is characterized by a persistent school dropout, the worsening of unemployment and impoverment, as well as a constant and intensified migration within Mexico, specially to Mexico City, and to the USA. This migration has undergone transformations, including return being a phenomenon that puts in evidence the social, domestic and community organization and coexistence with regard to the capacity of integrating young 'band' people into their communality.

  14. Les architectes d’arrondissement et la transformation du paysage communal au XIXe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    L’embellissement et la transformation du paysage communal en Alsace n’ont débuté qu’au lendemain de la Révolution française et de l’Empire. Dans le cadre de cette vaste politique d’aménagement – qui se poursuit activement pendant plusieurs décennies – l’architecte d’arrondissement occupe le devant de la scène et dispose d’un statut officiel institué par le préfet. Sous l’Ancien Régime déjà, les Inspecteurs des bâtiments publics et communaux – placés sous l’autorité directe de l’intendant – co...

  15. Effects of Achievement Motivation, Social Identity, and Peer Group Norms on Academic Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…

  16. Adding value(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    Most economic inquires revolve around agents making decisions. Getting the ‘best value’, it is assumed, drives such decisions: gaining most while risking least. This assumption has been debunked by showing that people does not always choose neither maximum benefit nor less risk (Kahneman & Tversky......, 1992). In response, behavioral economics (Camerer, 1999) has shown that agents have values other than optimization underpinning their decisions. Therefore, concerns arose regarding which values are guiding the agent but not about how such values became relevant for the agent. In this presentation, I...... will explore the consequences of shifting to the latter perspective, i.e. looking for the generative framework of values. Here I argue that economic behavior should also be seen as a sense-making process, guided by values that are chosen/rejected along with fellow human beings, in specific socio...

  17. Association of Academic Physiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Podcasts AAP Podcasts Leadership & Academic Development Program for Academic Leadership (PAL) Volunteer Opportunities Mentorship Programs Publications & News American Journal of PM&R AAP Newsletter RFC Newsletter - Physiatry ...

  18. Emotional Intelligence, Academic Procrastination and Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academic achievement is the main measure of the level of education attained, which is meant to achieve the curriculum objective of success and priority. The study investigated effect of emotional intelligence and academic procrastination on academic achievement of students in two Nigerian Universities. The study adopted ...

  19. Northrop Frye on Academic Freedom: A Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Howard

    1992-01-01

    Argues that Frye's concept of academic freedom is based on an espistemological dualism that separates knowledge from experience. This distinction severely limits his account of academic freedom by excluding fundamental aspects of knowledge (experience, value judgments, teacher-student dialogue, rational argument, interdisciplinary inquiry,…

  20. Academic detailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.

  1. Academic Media Ranking and the Configurations of Values in Higher Education: A Sociotechnical History of a Co-Production in France between the Media, State and Higher Education (1976-1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Before the 2000s and the buzz surrounding global rankings, many countries witnessed the emergence and development, starting in the 1970s, of academic media rankings produced primarily by press organisations. This domestic, media-based production, despite the relative lack of attention paid by the social sciences, has been progressively integrated…

  2. Academic Education Chain Operation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruskov, Petko; Ruskov, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modelling the educational processes as a value added chain. It is an attempt to use a business approach to interpret and compile existing business and educational processes towards reference models and suggest an Academic Education Chain Operation Model. The model

  3. Writing in the Academic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodkey, Linda

    Grammar and style contribute to a matrix that expresses the writer's thinking and the values of the academic community. Writers uphold the matrix while presenting their own ideas through a system of "deixis" (to refer to or point to things or ideas not actually present or stated). Nonlinguistic deixis coordinates expression and context…

  4. Academic Freedom: A Lawyer's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Academic freedom is central to ideas of higher education, yet in the United Kingdom it is facing challenges from changing managerial approaches within some universities and changing governmental expectations. Universities are increasingly expected to focus upon knowledge which can be shown to have value and to exploit the results of academic…

  5. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...... parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What...... is the value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections...

  6. Information Seeking Behaviours of Business Students and the Development of Academic Digital Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli WooShue

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives ‐ To gain insight into the extent to which user information‐seeking behaviours should inform the design and development of Digital Libraries in an academic setting, a study was carried out at Dalhousie University, Canada to explore the information‐seeking behaviours of business students.Methods ‐ The students studied were drawn from the School of Business Administration at Dalhousie University, Canada. The study was based on qualitative and quantitative data collected through a survey, in‐depth semi‐structured interviews, observational study and document analysis. Qualitative case study data was coded using QSR N6 qualitative data analysis software. The data was categorized using Atkinson’s “Model of BusinessInformation Users’ Expectations” and Renda and Straccia‘s personalized collaborative DL model. Atkinson’s model defines the expectations of business students in terms of cost, time,effort required, pleasure and the avoidance of pain. Renda and Straccia’s model of a personalized and collaborative digital library centres around three concepts: actors, objects, and functionality. The survey data was analysed using the Zoomerang software.Results ‐ The study results revealed that students tend to select resources based on cost(free or for fee, accessibility, ease of use, speed of delivery (of results, and convenience. The results showed that similar to Atkinson’s findings, the business students’ information seeking behaviour is influenced by the concepts of cost‐benefit and break‐even analyses that underlie business education. Concerning speed of delivery and convenience, the organization of the resources was paramount. Students preferred user‐defined resource lists, alert services, and expert‐created business resource collections. When asked about the usefulness of potential digital library functionalities, students valued a personalized user interface and communal virtual spaces to share

  7. Epidemiological studies of Fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of Fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Cattle faecal samples were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of the intermediate host-snail populations and the climatic factors influencing the distribution were also determined by sampling at monthly intervals for a period of 24 months (November 1998 to October 2000 in six dams and six streams in the highveld and in nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Each site was sampled for relative snail density and the vegetation cover and type, physical and chemical properties of water, and mean monthly rainfall and temperature were recorded. Aquatic vegetation and grass samples 0-1 m from the edges of the snail habitats were collected monthly to determine the presence or absence of F. gigantica metacercariae. Snails collected at the same time were individually checked for the emergence of larval stages of F. gigantica. A total of 16 264 (calves 5 418; weaners 5 461 and adults 5 385 faecal samples were collected during the entire period of the study and 2 500 (15.4 % of the samples were positive for F. gigantica eggs. Significantly higher prevalences were found in the highveld compared to the lowveld (P < 0.001, for adult cattle than calves ( P < 0.01 and in the wet season over the dry season (P < 0.01. Faecal egg output peaked from August / September to March / April for both years of the study. Lymnaea natalensis, the snail intermediate host of F. gigantica was recorded from the study sites with the highveld having a significantly higher abundance of the snail species than the lowveld (P < 0.01. The snail population was low between December and March and started

  8. Epidemiological studies of amphistome infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of amphistome infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Cattle faecal samples were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas, respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of intermediate host-snail populations and the climatic factors influencing the distribution were also determined by sampling at monthly intervals for a period of 24 months (November 1998 to October 2000 in six dams and six streams in the highveld and in nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Each site was sampled for relative snail density and the vegetation cover and type, physical and chemical properties of water, and mean monthly rainfall and temperature were recorded. Aquatic vegetation and grass samples 0-1 m from the edges of the snail habitats were collected monthly to determine the presence or absence of amphistome metacercariae. Snails collected at the same time were individually checked for the emergence of larval stages of amphistomes. A total of 16 264 (calves 5 418, weaners 5 461 and adults 5 385 faecal samples were collected during the entire period of the study and 4 790 (29.5 % of the samples were positive for amphistome eggs. For both regions the number of animals positive for amphistome eggs differed significantly between the 2 years, with the second year having a significantly higher prevalence (P < 0.01 than the first year. Significantly higher prevalences were found in the highveld compared to the lowveld (P < 0.001, for adult cattle than calves (P < 0.01, and in the wet over the dry season (P < 0.01. Faecal egg output peaked from October to March in both years of the study. Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus forskalii and Biomphalaria pfeifferi were recorded from the study sites. The main

  9. A Comparison of Academic and Athletic Performance in the NCAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi

    2017-01-01

    The Academic Progress Rate (APR) of 34 sports was investigated to determine whether the top athletic teams performed significantly better "academically" compared to their bottom counterparts. A "p" value of 0.0029 revealed that top athletic teams academically outperformed bottom athletic teams. Further analysis showed the…

  10. Research Productivity by Career Stage among Korean Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun

    2014-01-01

    This study explores Korean academics' changes in research productivity by career stage. Career stage in this study is defined as a specific cohort based on one's length of job experience, with those in the same stage sharing similar interests, values, needs, and tasks; it is categorized into fledglings, maturing academics, established academics,…

  11. La création d'une culture de controle? Les intentions politiques derrière la genèse des Sanctions Administratives Communales

    OpenAIRE

    Devroe, E.

    2015-01-01

    C’est le 3 mars 1999, en fin de législature, qu’est introduit par les ministres de la Justice et de l’Intérieur de l’époque Tony Van Parijs et L. Van den Bossche, le projet de loi sur les sanctions administratives communales[1] (connue sous le nom de «Loi SAC). La loi devait être votée et il y avait urgence. Les instigateurs du projet craignaient en effet que si la loi n’était pas votée très vite, tout le projet d’un traitement administratif des infractionsà la réglementation communale par le...

  12. Considering wind energy in regional planning guidelines and communal land-use planning; Die Beruecksichtigung der Windenergie in der Richt- und Nutzungsplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soguel, R. [Atelier North and Robyr, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Henz, H.R. [Metron Raumplanung AG, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the situation in Switzerland regarding the planning guidelines required at regional and communal level that are required for the granting of permission to build wind energy installations. Various types of wind turbines and wind farms are described and topics such as planning tools, landscape protection and promotional concepts are discussed. The role of the Swiss Cantons in the promotion of wind energy is examined and the question of how to integrate wind energy plant into cantonal and communal planning guidelines is looked at. This working guide introduces two schemes that demonstrate how the planning process for the construction of wind farms can be co-ordinated with the development of land-use plans. Examples of current cantonal guidelines are presented in the appendix to the report.

  13. La création d'une culture de controle? Les intentions politiques derrière la genèse des Sanctions Administratives Communales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.

    2015-01-01

    C’est le 3 mars 1999, en fin de législature, qu’est introduit par les ministres de la Justice et de l’Intérieur de l’époque Tony Van Parijs et L. Van den Bossche, le projet de loi sur les sanctions administratives communales[1] (connue sous le nom de «Loi SAC). La loi devait être votée et il y avait

  14. Elements to re-think the communal: new forms of access to land and pressure on the resource in the communities of Colán and Catacaos

    OpenAIRE

    Burneo, María Luisa

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that there is a transformation in the relationship between land, peasant communities and its members or comuneros. In the case of the communities of the Peruvian northern coast, this transformation links with a double dynamic: (i) the increasing external pressure on the resource from the private-national and transnational capitals, and (ii) the emergence of new means and motivations of access to land among the communal members. Under these circumstances, the communities se...

  15. Using remotely sensed imagery to monitor savanna rangeland deterioration through woody plant proliferation: a case study from communal and biodiversity conservation rangeland sites in Mokopane, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Munyati, C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Environ Monit Assess (2011) 176:293?311 Using remotely sensed imagery to monitor savanna rangeland deterioration through woody plant proliferation: a case study from communal and biodiversity conservation rangeland sites in Mokopane, South Africa... Christopher Munyati Ecosystems Earth Observation Research Group, Natural Resources and the Environment Unit, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), P.O. Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa, e-mail: cmunyati@csir.co.za, chrismunyati...

  16. Impacts of communal fuelwood extraction on lidar-estimated biomass patterns of savanna woodlands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 54% of rural households in South Africa continue to use wood as their main source of energy, mainly for cooking and heating. The provision of biomass by savanna woodlands is thus of considerable value to rural households and therefore...

  17. Similarities and differences among paramilitaries, severe aggressors and communal control, a case-control study in Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Duque

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study was performed in Medellín during 2003-2004 to compare characteristics of severe aggressors, members of Colombian United Selfdefense Forces members (AUC, otherwise named paramilitaries, and communal control. Severe aggressors and paramilitaries have lower educational level than communal control; their families were biparental in a lower proportion, and experienced drug and alcohol abuse in a higher proportion than in the case of families of communal control. Severe aggressors and paramilitaries’ families suffered forced displacement and assassination of one of its members in a higher proportion than those of controls. There were no differences relating time of residence in Medellín or current neighborhood, or current family socioeconomic stressors. No differences were found regarding believing in God, religious practice and reasons for practicing religion. There were no significant differences for all mentioned variables between severe aggressors and paramilitaries. Paramilitaries did inform having suffered extreme poverty conditions during childhood in a higher proportion than severe aggressors and controls. Progress opportunities perception was also explored.

  18. The impact of gender-blindness on social-ecological resilience: The case of a communal pasture in the highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aregu, Lemlem; Darnhofer, Ika; Tegegne, Azage; Hoekstra, Dirk; Wurzinger, Maria

    2016-12-01

    We studied how the failure to take into account gendered roles in the management of a communal pasture can affect the resilience of this social-ecological system. Data were collected using qualitative methods, including focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and participant observations from one community in the highlands of Ethiopia. The results show that women are excluded from the informal institution that defines the access and use rules which guide the management of the communal pasture. Consequently, women's knowledge, preferences, and needs are not taken into account. This negatively affects the resilience of the communal pasture in two ways. Firstly, the exclusion of women's knowledge leads to future adaptation options being overlooked. Secondly, as a result of the failure to address women's needs, they start to question the legitimacy of the informal institution. The case study thus shows how excluding women, i.e., side-lining their knowledge and needs, weakens social learning and the adaptiveness of the management rules. Being blind to gender-related issues may thus undermine the resilience of a social-ecological system.

  19. More Value through Greater Differentiation: Gender Differences in Value Beliefs about Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Hanna; Dicke, Anna-Lena; Flunger, Barbara; Schreier, Brigitte; Häfner, Isabelle; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983) is a prominent approach to explaining gender differences in math-related academic choices, with value beliefs acting as an important explanatory factor. Expectancy-value theory defines 4 value components: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and cost. The present study followed up on…

  20. The San values of conflict prevention and avoidance in Platfontein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mollema

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify measures that can prevent violent conflict through the maintenance of traditional cultural values that guide conflict avoidance. Moreover, the article focuses on the concepts of conflict prevention and conflict avoidance as applied by the San community of Platfontein. The causes of the inter-communal tensions between the San community members are also examined. A selected conflict situation, that of superstition and witchcraft, is assessed as factors increasing interpersonal conflict in the Platfontein community. This investigation is made to determine if the San preventive measures have an impact in the community, so as to prevent ongoing conflicts from escalating further.

  1. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  2. Skills-based constraints and complexities affecting small-scale communal cattle farmer entrepreneurs in Vhembe District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates constraints and complexities affecting entrepreneurial and Agri-business small-scale communal cattle farming success and sustainability in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The respondent entrepreneur farmers were randomly selected (n=55 amongst 183 other farmers for primary data collection. A semi-structured cross-language (English-Tshivenda questionnaire was employed to gather the data. Key Informant Interviews (KIIs and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs were also employed. The results of this paper revealed that the entrepreneur farmers’ formal school educational levels and basic literacy skills in addition; subtraction; multiplication and division were reasonably higher while technological skills in farm risk management and production, and managerial competence in business financial skills; budgeting and marketing were low amongst the farmers. Government extension service could be employed to improve some of these deficient skills through skills training programmes for the farmers. Institutions of higher learning such as the University of Venda and Madzivhandila Agricultural College could be utilized for the trainings.

  3. ECONOMIC PRAGMATISM: THE IOWA AMISH AND THE VISION OF COMMUNAL COHERENCE IN LATE 2O CENTURY AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano A. Wueschner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how members of one Amish settlement in southern Iowa have attempted to broaden their economic activities in an effort to maintain their religiously based community; The Amish dress in a plain 19th century style and rely on horses for their work and transportation needs, and, on the surface at least, eschew the modern ways of the world. Though it is readily apparent that the long held perception of a cloistered life is a myth. The Amish have managed to push their communal strictures to the limit. At the same time it is apparent that it has been a daunting task at best for the Amish to attempt to maintain their cultural homogeneity in an economy dominated by sweeping technological and social changes. The Amish frequent many of the same retail stores as their “other world neighbors,” have availed themselves of modern means of transportation to travel great distances to visit relatives or to attend funerals and weddings, and in the winter some, especially the elderly, spend the harsher months in Florida as do their “English” counterparts. Within Amish communities there have been signs of conflicts that have had less to do with theological questions but more with efforts to cling to old customs. As the paper points out, the Amish have been wedded to an impossible exegesis given the modernizing influences of the surrounding world.

  4. Communal visual histories to detect environmental change in northern areas: Examples of emerging North American and Eurasian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Tero

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the pioneering potential of communal visual-optic histories which are recorded, painted, documented, or otherwise expressed. These materials provide collective meanings of an image or visual material within a specific cultural group. They potentially provide a new method for monitoring and documenting changes to ecosystem health and species distribution, which can effectively inform society and decision makers of Arctic change. These visual histories can be positioned in a continuum that extends from rock art to digital photography. They find their expressions in forms ranging from images to the oral recording of knowledge and operate on a given cultural context. For monitoring efforts in the changing boreal zone and Arctic, a respectful engagement with visual histories can reveal emerging aspects of change. The examples from North America and case studies from Eurasia in this article include Inuit sea ice observations, Yu'pik visual traditions of masks, fish die-offs in a sub-boreal catchment area, permafrost melt in the Siberian tundra and early, first detection of a scarabaeid beetle outbreak, a Southern species in the Skolt Sámi area. The pros and cons of using these histories and their reliability are reviewed.

  5. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  6. Social and psychological aspects of communal hunting (pieli among residents of Tamale Metropolis in the Northern Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Adongo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of communal hunting (also referred to as “mob” hunting has been the pastime of the people of the Northern Region of Ghana for as long as many may remember. It has recently come to the fore for all the wrong reasons primarily due to its perceived environmental impacts. While the generally held notion is that this form of hunting is essentially for the acquisition of meat, little has been done to establish other factors that continue to entice people to engage in this activity. Through a combination of participant observation and administration of structured interviews to hunters in the Tamale Metropolis, this paper brings out the social characteristics of participants, as well as the motivations for engaging in this activity. It is suggested that the practice should be modified to include the strict observance of hunting rules, issuance of licenses, and designation of areas for hunting. This could be the genesis of controlled recreational hunting in the region.

  7. Design and Implementation of a Cloud-Based Platform for Unleashing the Personal and Communal Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Elicegui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT concept has attracted a lot of attention in recent years and it is foreseen as one of the technologies that will leverage the Future Internet. It is seen as a major enabler of novel applications and services that will foster efficiency and will ease every day’s life. However, current IoT solutions are mainly focusing on the development of centralized solutions that do not promote the democratization of the IoT but rather concentrate the IoT around a set of cloud-based platforms which pretend to be open but limit the capacity of the people to tailor their Personal and Communal IoT. This paper describes a software platform based on available generic enablers as defined by the FIWARE initiative. It extends the existing architecture models to accommodate the requirements stemming from the vision of people-sourced IoT devices which are shared to create applications and services in smart communities where the owners of the shared devices are always empowered to control who, and in which circumstances, has access to the shared information.

  8. Hope and Substance Abuse Recovery: The Impact of Agency and Pathways within an Abstinent Communal-living Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Glen M.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Groh, David R.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2010-01-01

    Hope is commonly divided into two constructs: agency, defined as goal-directed energy, and pathways, defined as the ability to create paths to a goal. To date, only two studies have examined the utility of hope in substance abuse recovery, and the present investigation buildings on this small literature by assessing hope beliefs within a larger and more diverse sample of adults in recovery. This study examined how two hope constructs of agency and pathways related to substance use abstinence among 90 new residents of communal-living recovery homes (i.e., Oxford Houses) who completed two waves of data assessment. Results indicated that agency scores significantly predicted alcohol use at Wave 1 but pathway scores failed to predict drug or alcohol use at this time point. Additionally, agency and pathway scores predicted drug (but not alcohol use) at an 8-month follow-up assessment. These findings indicated that participants’ hope may be linked to substance use at later stages of recovery. In addition, these results suggested a stronger relationship between hope and drug as opposed to alcohol use at this time point. Implications for substance abuse recovery are discussed. PMID:20689653

  9. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency and the regu......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...... parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What...

  10. Human health risks due to heavy metals through consumption of wild mushrooms from Macheke forest, Rail Block forest and Muganyi communal lands in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Ndumo, Tafungwa; Moyo, Mambo

    2015-12-01

    The levels and sources of toxic heavy metals in Amanita loosii (AL) and Cantharellus floridulus (CF) mushrooms and their substrates were studied in some parts of Zimbabwe, Rail Block forest (mining town), Macheke forest (commercial farming), and Muganyi communal lands. The mushrooms and their associated soils were acid digested prior to Al, Pb, and Zn determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The transfer factors, mushrooms-soil metal correlation coefficients, daily intake rates, weekly intake rates, and target hazard quotients were calculated for each metal. The concentration of Zn, Al and Pb in mushrooms ranged from 1.045 ± 0.028 to 7.568 ± 0.322, 0.025 ± 0.001 to 0.654 ± 0.005, and a maximum of 5.78 ± 0.31 mg/kg, respectively, in all the three sampling areas. The mean heavy metal concentrations among the three sampling areas decreased as follows: Rail Block forest (mining town) > Macheke forest (commercial farming) > Muganyi communal lands for the concentrations in both mushrooms and total concentration in their substrates. C. floridulus accumulated higher concentrations of Al, Zn, and Pb than A. loosii at each site under study. Zn in both AL and CF (Muganyi communal lands) and Pb in AL (Rail Block forest) were absorbed only from the soils, while other sources of contamination were involved elsewhere. The consumption of 300 g of fresh A. loosii and C. floridulus per day by children less than 16 kg harvested from Rail Block forest would cause health problems, while mushrooms from Macheke Forest and Muganyi communal lands were found to be safe for human consumption. Due to non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation abilities of heavy metals, people are discouraged to consume A. loosii and C. floridulus from Rail Block forest for they have significant levels of heavy metals compared to those from Macheke forest and Muganyi communal lands.

  11. Organisation communale et droits sur l'eau et la terre à San Juan de Uchucuanicu, vallée du Chancay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Le village de San Juan est organisé en communauté paysanne comme tous les autres villages de la vallée de Chancay. Sont brièvement exposés l'entrée dans la communauté, les charges communales, les droits communaux et individuels sur les eaux et les terres. Aux charges politiques s'ajoutent les charges cérémonielles pour les fêtes, ainsi que les charges communales concernant les travaux d'intérêt commun (faenas. Les diverses 'terres' du terroir sont exploitées suivant un système complexe de droits dans lesquels coexistent des droits communaux et individuels dont l'existence et les modifications présentes ne semblent pas favoriser l'égalité des divers comuneros. El pueblo de San Juan está organizado como comunidad campesina al igual que los otros pueblos del valle del Chancay. Brevemente se expone la entrada en la comunidad, las cargas comunales, los derechos comunales, los derechos comunales e individuales sobre las aguas y las tierras. A los cargos políticos se agregan los cargos ceremoniales en las fiestas, lo mismo que los cargos comunales concernientes a los trabajos de interés común (faenas. Las diferentes ''tierras' del terruño se explotan siguiendo un sistema complejo de derechos entre los que coexisten derechos comunales e individuales cuya existencia y las modificaciones presentes no parecen favorecer la igualdad de los diversos comuneros. San Juan village is organized into a village community as the other villages in the valley of Chancay. We will expose briefly the entrance to the community, the communal functions, communal and individual rights upon water and lands. Added to the political functions, the ceremonial ones during the festivals as the ones which are concerning works made for the common interest (faenas. The different lands of the soil are exploited according to a complex right system in which coexist communal and individual rights but their existence and present modifications don't seem to help the

  12. Women chairs in academic medicine: engendering strategic intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Griffin, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Because stereotypically masculine behaviors are required for effective leadership, examining female chairs' leadership in academic medicine can provide insight into the complex ways in which gender impacts on their leadership practices. The paper aims to discuss this issue. The author interviewed three female clinical chairs and compared the findings to interviews with 28 of their faculty. Grounded theory analysis of the subsequent text gathered comprehensive, systematic, and in-depth information about this case of interest at a US top-tier academic medical center. Four of five themes from the faculty were consistent with the chair's narrative with modifications: Prior Environment (Motivated by Excellence), Tough, Direct, Transparent (Developing Trust), Communal Actions (Creating Diversity of Opinion), and Building Power through Consensus (an "Artful Exercise") with an additional theme, the Significance (and Insignificance) of a Female Chair. While faculty members were acutely aware of the chair's gender, the chairs paradoxically vacillated between gender being a "non-issue" and noting that male chairs "don't do laundry." All three female chairs in this study independently and explicitly stated that gender was not a barrier, yet intuitively used successful strategies derived from the research literature. This study suggests that while their gender was highlighted by faculty, these women dismissed gender as a "non-issue." The duality of gender for these three female leaders was both minimized and subtly affirmed.

  13. Academic Entitlement and Academic Performance in Graduating Pharmacy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.

  14. Academic dishonesty and unprofessional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Laura; Simmons, Pamela; Graham-Webb, Diane

    2011-01-01

    To investigate differences in radiologic science student and faculty perceptions of academic dishonesty and unprofessional behavior. Radiologic science faculty and students were questioned about their perceptions of academic dishonesty and unprofessional behavior using ethical scenarios in an electronic survey format. Significant differences occurred between faculty and student values regarding the seriousness of cheating and unprofessional behaviors. Faculty viewed cheating and unprofessional behaviors as more serious than students. Faculty and student self-reports of cheating behavior demonstrated no significant differences; however, significant differences existed in self-reported incidences of unprofessional behavior. Faculty and students differed in their values and participation related to cheating and unprofessional behaviors. Efforts should be directed toward bridging the gap between faculty and student perceptions. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  15. Improving University Research Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley O’Reilly

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the current data management practices of university researchers at an Intermountain West land-grant research university in the United States. Key findings suggest that researchers are primarily focused on the collection and housing of research data. However, additional research value exists within the other life cycle stages for research data—specifically in the stages of delivery and maintenance. These stages are where most new demands and requirements exist for data management plans and policies that are conditional for external grant funding; therefore, these findings expose a “gap” in current research practice. These findings should be of interest to academics and practitioners alike as findings highlight key management gaps in the life cycle of research data. This study also suggests a course of action for academic institutions to coalesce campus-wide assets to assist researchers in improving research value.

  16. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  17. The inventions in nanotechnological area increase the efficiency of construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The review gives brief description of inventions in nanotechnological area: the production method for silver nanoparticles with modified ligand shell in highviscosity matrix (RU 2526967; structures containing molecular structures with high aspect ratio and the production methods for them (RU 2526969; preconcentrator of the samples (RU 2526972; antifrictional composition (RU 2526989; conglutination composition for metal articles (RU 2526991; thin dispersed organic suspension of metal/carbon nanocomposite and the production method for it (RU 2527218; composite ion-exchange membrane (RU 2527236; pigment based on modified titanium dioxide powder (RU 2527262; the method of production of microballs and microspheres (RU 2527427; the method for strengthening metal products with nanostructured surface layers (RU 2527511; the method of production of sensitive element of gas detector with carbon nanotubes (RU 2528032; cutting plate (RU 2528288 etc. The inventions in the nanotechnological area can cause significant effects on construction, housing and communal services and adjacent fields of economy: reduced hardening time and increased durability of adhesive joints, increased wear-resistance of cutting plates, increased strength of materials under compressive forces, descreased detail tearing, etc. For example, composition for glueing metal products (RU 2526991 contains anaerobic mastic AH-111 and the filler – carbon nanotubes «Taunit-M». The invention shortens hardening time and increases the durability of adhesive joints. Cutting plate (RU 2528288 contains the base made of hard alloy and sprayed on it wear-resistant layer of nanostructured tungsten carbide and nanostructured niobium carbide which grain size is 20–50 nm, and their ratio, mass.%: nanostructured tungsten carbide 90, nanostructured niobium carbide – the rest. That increases wear-resistance of cutting plates, especially in hard cutting modes.

  18. Using Poaching Levels and Elephant Distribution to Assess the Conservation Efficacy of Private, Communal and Government Land in Northern Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festus W Ihwagi

    Full Text Available Efforts to curb elephant poaching have focused on reducing demand, confiscating ivory and boosting security patrols in elephant range. Where land is under multiple uses and ownership, determining the local poaching dynamics is important for identifying successful conservation models. Using 2,403 verified elephant, Loxodonta africana, mortality records collected from 2002 to 2012 and the results of aerial total counts of elephants conducted in 2002, 2008 and 2012 for the Laikipia-Samburu ecosystem of northern Kenya, we sought to determine the influence of land ownership and use on diurnal elephant distribution and on poaching levels. We show that the annual proportions of illegally killed (i.e., poached elephants increased over the 11 years of the study, peaking at 70% of all recorded deaths in 2012. The type of land use was more strongly related to levels of poaching than was the type of ownership. Private ranches, comprising only 13% of land area, hosted almost half of the elephant population and had significantly lower levels of poaching than other land use types except for the officially designated national reserves (covering only 1.6% of elephant range in the ecosystem. Communal grazing lands hosted significantly fewer elephants than expected, but community areas set aside for wildlife demonstrated significantly higher numbers of elephants and lower illegal killing levels relative to non-designated community lands. While private lands had lower illegal killing levels than community conservancies, the success of the latter relative to other community-held lands shows the importance of this model of land use for conservation. This work highlights the relationship between illegal killing and various land ownership and use models, which can help focus anti-poaching activities.

  19. Using Poaching Levels and Elephant Distribution to Assess the Conservation Efficacy of Private, Communal and Government Land in Northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihwagi, Festus W; Wang, Tiejun; Wittemyer, George; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, Albertus G; Ngene, Shadrack; King, Juliet; Worden, Jeffrey; Omondi, Patrick; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to curb elephant poaching have focused on reducing demand, confiscating ivory and boosting security patrols in elephant range. Where land is under multiple uses and ownership, determining the local poaching dynamics is important for identifying successful conservation models. Using 2,403 verified elephant, Loxodonta africana, mortality records collected from 2002 to 2012 and the results of aerial total counts of elephants conducted in 2002, 2008 and 2012 for the Laikipia-Samburu ecosystem of northern Kenya, we sought to determine the influence of land ownership and use on diurnal elephant distribution and on poaching levels. We show that the annual proportions of illegally killed (i.e., poached) elephants increased over the 11 years of the study, peaking at 70% of all recorded deaths in 2012. The type of land use was more strongly related to levels of poaching than was the type of ownership. Private ranches, comprising only 13% of land area, hosted almost half of the elephant population and had significantly lower levels of poaching than other land use types except for the officially designated national reserves (covering only 1.6% of elephant range in the ecosystem). Communal grazing lands hosted significantly fewer elephants than expected, but community areas set aside for wildlife demonstrated significantly higher numbers of elephants and lower illegal killing levels relative to non-designated community lands. While private lands had lower illegal killing levels than community conservancies, the success of the latter relative to other community-held lands shows the importance of this model of land use for conservation. This work highlights the relationship between illegal killing and various land ownership and use models, which can help focus anti-poaching activities.

  20. Value-Personality Link Measured With Novel Instruments Developed With an Emic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Tevrüz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study is to investigate whether instruments developed with an emic approach in Turkey produce the same trait-value links obtained with studies using near universal instruments, and if emic traits and value concepts are composed under agency and communal conceptions. So, the first aim of this study is to inspect the conceptual similarities in the links between traits and values. The second aim is to examine the moderating effect of disposable income on the strength of the trait-value relationship. Undergraduate and graduate students (N = 595 from six universities in Istanbul responded to the Personality Profile Scale (PPS and the Life Goal Values (LGV questionnaire. Second order factor analysis indicated that indigenous value and trait items were representative of communal and agency conceptions. Furthermore, most of the value-trait links revealed with regression analysis, and the sinusoid relationships revealed with Pearson correlation coefficients were consistent with the findings measured with near universal instruments. Additionally found relationships between traits and especially conservation values can be interpreted as the instrumentality of agentic traits for personal as well for social focused values. Disposable income had a moderating effect on five trait-value relationships and three out of five were weaker in the low-income group.

  1. Penerapan Algoritma Learning Vector Quantization Untuk Prediksi Nilai Akademis Menggunakan Instrumen Ams (Academic Motivation Scale)

    OpenAIRE

    Hartatik, Hartatik

    2015-01-01

    Academic values is an important component for students and colleges. For students, high academic value can facilitate them to find a good job. As for college, academic grades is one of the tools to measure the success of teaching and learning in the college environment. Predicted value of academic achievement by a student is one of the ways that often do colleges to improve the quality of graduates. Learning Vector Quantization method is one of the artificial neural network algorithms that ca...

  2. Academic Training: Academic Training Lectures-Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 academic.training@cern.ch SUGGEST AND WIN! Its time to plan the 2004-2005 lecture series. From today until March 19 you have the chance to give your contribution to planning for next year's Academic Training Lecture Series. At the web site: http://cern.ch/Academic.Training/questionnaire you will find questionnaires proposing topics in high energy physics, applied physics and science and society. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at the CERN bookshop.

  3. Academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement : mediating and additive effects

    OpenAIRE

    Guay, Frédéric; Ratelle, Catherine; Roy, Amélie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between autonomous academic motivation and achievement, or 3) both motivational constructs have an additive effect on academic achievement. A total of 925 hig...

  4. ‘Living in a communal garden’ associated with well-being whilst reducing urban sprawl by 40%: a mixed methods cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie eAnderson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The extent to which novel land-efficient neighbourhood design can promote key health behaviours is examined, concentrating on communal outdoor space provision.Objectives: To test whether a neighbourhood (Accordia with a higher ratio of communal to private outdoor space is associated with higher levels of resident’s a self-reported local health behaviours and b observed engagement in local health behaviours, compared to a matched neighbourhood with lower proportion of communal outdoor space provision. Methods: Health behaviours were examined via direct observation and postal survey. Bespoke observation codes and survey items represented key well-being behaviours including: ‘connecting’, ‘keeping active’, ‘taking notice’, ‘keep learning’ and ‘giving’. The questionnaire was validated using psychometric analyses and observed behaviours were mapped in real-time. Results: General pursuit of health behaviours was very similar in both areas but Accordia residents reported substantially greater levels of local activity. Validated testing of survey dataset (n=256 showed support for a stronger Attitude to Neighbourhood Life (connecting and giving locally in Accordia and partial support of greater physical activity. Analyses of the behaviour observation dataset (n=7,298 support the self-reported findings. Mapped observations revealed a proliferation of activity within Accordia’s innovative outdoor hard spaces. Conclusion: Representation is limited to upper-middle class UK groups. However, Accordia was found to promote health behaviours compared a traditional neighbourhood that demands considerably more land area. The positive role of home zone streets, hard-standing and semi-civic space highlights the principle of quality as well as quantity. The findings should be considered as part of three forthcoming locally-led UK garden cities, to be built before 2020.

  5. Elements to re-think the communal: new forms of access to land and pressure on the resource in the communities of Colán and Catacaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Burneo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that there is a transformation in the relationship between land, peasant communities and its members or comuneros. In the case of the communities of the Peruvian northern coast, this transformation links with a double dynamic: (i the increasing external pressure on the resource from the private-national and transnational capitals, and (ii the emergence of new means and motivations of access to land among the communal members. Under these circumstances, the communities seek to develop mechanisms of containment that, nevertheless, escape to their own logics of controland imply the risk of a progressive division of shares of the communal territory.In order to demonstrate this, the article examines new uses (and potential uses of the land that generates more expectations among the comuneros, and new strategies of access to the resource that different actors compete for. Two peasant communities in the north coast of Peru, San Lucas de Colán and San Juan Bautista de Catacaos, are used as case studies. In orther to understand the variation of access to land trought time and to point out the new logics in the last decades, this article will examine the history and configuration process of land tenure in these communities. Finally, the article suggests as a hipothesis that these new logics transform the meanning of community and the relationship between the peasant communities and the comuneros. The latter seek to gain access tonew lands without necesarily involving their permanency in the communal territory nor having a productive use of their plots. Hence, the north coast communities are facing the challenge of a possible transformation in their functions like the control and defense of land.

  6. Academic Self-Concept, Autonomous Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement: Mediating and Additive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…

  7. Piloting a low-cost hardware intervention to reduce improper disposal of solid waste in communal toilets in low-income settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Farzana; Luby, Stephen P; Saxton, Ronald E; Nizame, Fosiul A; Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Dutta, Notan Chandra; Masud, Abdullah-Al; Yeasmin, Dalia; Layden, Anita; Rahman, Habibur; Abbott, Rachel; Unicomb, Leanne; Winch, Peter J

    2017-08-29

    Bangladesh faces daunting challenges in addressing the sanitation needs of its urban poor. Maintaining the cleanliness and functionality of communal toilets is dependent upon periodic emptying of fecal sludge, and cooperation between users of communal toilets. Trash disposal into latrines can block the outflow pipes, rendering the toilets non-functional. Pre-intervention: We conducted in-depth interviews with five operators of fecal sludge emptying equipment and five adult residents who were also caregivers of children. We identified factors contributing to improper disposal of trash into communal toilets, a barrier to operation of the equipment, in low-income communities of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Intervention design: We developed behavior change communication materials to discourage waste disposal in toilets, and promote use of waste bins. We conducted six focus group discussions with adult male, female, landlord and children to select the preferred design for waste bins to be placed inside toilets, and finalize communication materials. Post-intervention: We then pilot-tested an intervention package to promote appropriate trash disposal practices and thus facilitate periodic removal of fecal sludge when the latrine pits become full. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with community residents, landlords and cleaners of communal toilets. Barriers to appropriate waste disposal included lack of private location for disposal of menstrual hygiene products, limited options for formal trash collection and disposal, and the use of plastic bags for disposing children's feces. A pilot intervention including behavior change communication and trash bins was implemented in two urban slum communities. Spot checks confirmed that the bins were in place and used. Respondents described positive improvements in the appearance of the toilet and surrounding environment. The current practice on the part of local residents of disposing of waste into toilets

  8. Piloting a low-cost hardware intervention to reduce improper disposal of solid waste in communal toilets in low-income settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Yeasmin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh faces daunting challenges in addressing the sanitation needs of its urban poor. Maintaining the cleanliness and functionality of communal toilets is dependent upon periodic emptying of fecal sludge, and cooperation between users of communal toilets. Trash disposal into latrines can block the outflow pipes, rendering the toilets non-functional. Methods Pre-intervention: We conducted in-depth interviews with five operators of fecal sludge emptying equipment and five adult residents who were also caregivers of children. We identified factors contributing to improper disposal of trash into communal toilets, a barrier to operation of the equipment, in low-income communities of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Intervention design: We developed behavior change communication materials to discourage waste disposal in toilets, and promote use of waste bins. We conducted six focus group discussions with adult male, female, landlord and children to select the preferred design for waste bins to be placed inside toilets, and finalize communication materials. Post-intervention: We then pilot-tested an intervention package to promote appropriate trash disposal practices and thus facilitate periodic removal of fecal sludge when the latrine pits become full. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with community residents, landlords and cleaners of communal toilets. Results Barriers to appropriate waste disposal included lack of private location for disposal of menstrual hygiene products, limited options for formal trash collection and disposal, and the use of plastic bags for disposing children’s feces. A pilot intervention including behavior change communication and trash bins was implemented in two urban slum communities. Spot checks confirmed that the bins were in place and used. Respondents described positive improvements in the appearance of the toilet and surrounding environment. Conclusion The current

  9. "Notre ennemi, le client?": la mise en place d'une démarche qualité à la Bibliothèque communale de Nyon

    OpenAIRE

    Troehler, Marie-Claude; Thiébaud, Marc

    2010-01-01

    La Bibliothèque communale de Nyon est une institution de lecture publique qui dessert non seulement une ville de 17'000 habitants, mais aussi tout un bassin de population, y compris la France voisine. Son fonds se compose de 50'000 documents, répartis en 2 sections, situés dans des bâtiments distincts. La section adultes, dont il est question dans ce travail, occupe la Maison Richard, monument historique datant du 17ème siècle, au centre de la cité. Ce travail aborde principalement la problém...

  10. Remembering the Sea: Personal and Communal Recollections of Maritime Life in Jizan and the Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Dionisius A.; Cooper, John P.; Semaan, Lucy; Zazzaro, Chiara; Carter, Robert

    2016-08-01

    People create narratives of their maritime past through the remembering and forgetting of seafaring experiences, and through the retention and disposal of maritime artefacts that function mnemonically to evoke or suppress those experiences. The sustenance and reproduction of the resulting narratives depends further on effective media of intergenerational transmission; otherwise, they are lost. Rapid socio-economic transformation across Saudi Arabia in the age of oil has disrupted longstanding seafaring economies in the Red Sea archipelago of the Farasan Islands, and the nearby mainland port of Jizan. Vestiges of wooden boatbuilding activity are few; long-distance dhow trade with South Asia, the Arabian-Persian Gulf and East Africa has ceased; and a once substantial pearling and nacre (mother of pearl) collection industry has dwindled to a tiny group of hobbyists: no youth dive today. This widespread withdrawal from seafaring activity among many people in these formerly maritime-oriented communities has diminished the salience of such activity in cultural memory, and has set in motion narrative creation processes, through which memories are filtered and selected, and objects preserved, discarded, or lost. This paper is a product of the encounter of the authors with keepers of maritime memories and objects in the Farasan Islands and Jizan. An older generation of men recall memories of their experiences as boat builders, captains, seafarers, pearl divers and fishermen. Their recounted memories are inscribed, and Arabic seafaring terms recorded. The extent of the retention of maritime material cultural items as memorials is also assessed, and the rôle of individual, communal and state actors in that retention is considered. Through this reflection, it becomes clear that the extra-biological memory and archive of the region's maritime past is sparse; that intergenerational transmission is failing; that the participation of state agencies in maritime heritage creation

  11. Factors of academic procrastination

    OpenAIRE

    Kranjec, Eva; Košir, Katja; Komidar, Luka

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, and depression as factors of academic procrastination. Our main research interest was to examine the role of specific dimensions of perfectionism as moderators in the relationship between anxiety and depression and academic procrastination. Four scales were administered on the sample of 403 students: perfectionism scale FMPS, academic procrastination scale APS-SI, depression scale CESD and anxiety scale STAI-X2. The results showed ...

  12. The Concept of added value of FM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, PA; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, C; von Felten, D; Balslev-Nielsen, S; Sarasoja, AL; Riratanaphong, C.; Pfenninger, M; Jensen, PA; van der Voordt, DJM; Coenen, C

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This chapter presents research perspectives and theoretical reflections on the concept of added value of FM from a variety of academic fields.
    Methodology: A literature review of the most influential journals within the academic fields of Facilities Management (FM), Corporate Real

  13. Facilities Management and Added Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims to present different models of the concept of the added value of Facilities Management (FM), including the FM Value Map, which forms the basis of research group in EuroFM, and to present some of the results of this research collaboration. Approach and methodology: The paper...... is based on literature reviews of the most influential journals within the academic fields of FM, Corporate Real Estate Management and Business to Business Marketing and discussions between participants of the research group working on a further exploration and testing of the FM Value Map. Conclusions......: The research shows a number of different definitions and focus points of Added Value of FM, dependent on the academic field and the area of application. The different research perspectives explored a holistic view on the added value of FM by the integration of an external market based view (with a focus...

  14. Ageing in Communal Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke; Grönvall, Erik

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we adopt the position that design of social media for the elderly and virtual senior communities may be informed by studying ‘real’ senior communities. Since current research efforts target the role of social media and virtual communities for supporting seniors ageing in place, i.e....

  15. Ageing in communal place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke; Grönvall, Erik

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we adopt the position that design of social media for the elderly and virtual senior communities may be informed by studying `real´senior communities. Since current research efforts target the role of social media and virtual communities for supporting seniors ageing in place, i.e. ...

  16. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  17. Namibia - Communal Land Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The proposed evaluation design consists of two main activities. The first is an Initial Performance Evaluation (IPE), to be carried out in 2015. The IPE will focus...

  18. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest...

  19. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the valu....... Lastly, we find that deep value episodes tend to cluster and a deep value trading strategy generates excess returns not explained by traditional risk factors.......We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the value...... premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  20. Dishonest Academic Conduct: From the Perspective of the Utility Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Tian, Rui

    Dishonest academic conduct has aroused extensive attention in academic circles. To explore how scholars make decisions according to the principle of maximal utility, the author has constructed the general utility function based on the expected utility theory. The concrete utility functions of different types of scholars were deduced. They are as follows: risk neutral, risk averse, and risk preference. Following this, the assignment method was adopted to analyze and compare the scholars' utilities of academic conduct. It was concluded that changing the values of risk costs, internal condemnation costs, academic benefits, and the subjective estimation of penalties following dishonest academic conduct can lead to changes in the utility of academic dishonesty. The results of the current study suggest that within scientific research, measures to prevent and govern dishonest academic conduct should be formulated according to the various effects of the above four variables.

  1. Frontières administratives et identités communales. Le cas de la France, XVIII-XXe siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Motte

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les différentes déclinaisons du terme "frontière" (naturelle, politique, administrative, identitaire, existe-t-il une combinaison d'entre elles qui résisterait le plus farouchement à l'épreuve du temps? Le cas de la France qui, au sein de l'Europe, connaît une exception administrative particulière, est intéressant à observer. Ses nombreuses frontières intérieures ont repoussé avec obstination toute tentative de réduction de leur nombre. Sans doute parce que, laissée à l'initiative des populations locales et respectée par les successifs gouvernements, la définition des territoires s'est appuyée sur la reconnaissance des identités communales construites au cours des siècles par le quotidien des habitants. La correspondance cartographique établie entre le tissu paroissial du XVIIIe siècle en France, et le maillage communal d'aujourd'hui illustre, en dépit des quelques variations observées, la remarquable stabilité de ses frontières administratives.

  2. Dietary supplement use among academic pharmacists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy MS

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available United States sales of dietary supplements exceeded $18 billion in 2002, indicating that dietary supplement use is common among the American public. This report describes a survey of academic pharmacists and their use of dietary supplements and herbs. To date, most data comes from retail or community pharmacists, so a survey was developed to collect information regarding dietary supplement and herb usage from academic pharmacists. Academic pharmacists are probably the most knowledgeable group in regards to assessing the clinical value of supplements. Our results showed that 54% of academic pharmacists have used dietary supplements or herbs. However, it is interesting to note that most of the dietary supplements listed were not in the top ten most commonly used supplements. In addition, there was no excessive use of supplements or herbs by this group of pharmacists since the majority of respondents listed multivitamins.

  3. The Academic Publishing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Wenzel, Tim Ole; Schmidt, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The case starts with introducing the outstanding profitability of academic journal publishers such as Elsevier and then dives into describing the research process from an idea to conducting research and to publishing the results in academic journals. Subsequently, demand and supply for scientific...

  4. Marketing Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  5. Academic Work and Performativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, John

    2017-01-01

    Neoliberal reforms in higher education have resulted in corporate managerial practices in universities and a drive for efficiency and productivity in teaching and research. As a result, there has been an intensification of academic work, increased stress for academics and an emphasis on accountability and performativity in universities. This paper…

  6. Academic Identities under Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the lived experience of practising academics as part of an inquiry into the vexed question of "academic identities". Identity is understood not as a fixed property, but as part of the lived complexity of a person's project. The article reports on data from a small study in one university. The data suggest that…

  7. Patterns of Academic Procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Victor; Mensink, David; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Uses the Academic Procrastination Questionnaire to measure procrastination and six possible patterns underlying it among undergraduate students. Finds that the most common patterns for clients involved Evaluation Anxiety or being Discouraged/Depressed, or Dependent. Supports individualized assessment and solutions for academic procrastination. (SC)

  8. Arbitration in Academe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Joel, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Questions and issues critical to an understanding of arbitration in higher education are discussed. Aspects of the academic arbitration model are defined. The following four topics are examined: (1) the procedural similarities and differences between academic arbitration and the industrial model; (2) the possible inherent conflict between academic…

  9. Gender and Academic Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershott, Anne; Drinan, Patrick F.; Cross, Megan

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the academic integrity climate of a mid-sized, comprehensive, private university. Seeks to assess gender differences in motivations surrounding cheating behaviors among 532 undergraduate students. Findings indicate that while both males and females are reluctant to report instances of academic dishonesty that they witness, there…

  10. Thinking Academic Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  11. Diligence and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Novarese, Marco; Di Giovinazzo, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    This article uses university administration data to investigate the relation between student behavior (rapid response in finalizing enrolment procedures) and academic performance. It shows how student solicitude in enrolment, or a lack of it, can be a useful forecast of academic success. Several explanations can be given, including the greater or lesser tendency to procrastinate.

  12. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Ndidi A; Howard, Lionel C; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J

    2009-08-01

    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independent samples. Among students with high racial centrality, endorsement of traditional race stereotypes was linked to lower self-perceptions of academic competence. The stereotype/self-concept relation was nonsignificant among youth for whom race was less central to their identities. These results confirm the supposition of expectancy-value theory and illustrate the interweaving of group and individual identity with motivational beliefs.

  13. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independent samples. Among students with high racial centrality, endorsement of traditional race stereotypes was linked to lower self-perceptions of academic competence. The stereotype/self-concept relation was nonsignificant among youth for whom race was less central to their identities. These results confirm the supposition of expectancy-value theory and illustrate the interweaving of group and individual identity with motivational beliefs. PMID:20625536

  14. Relocalising academic literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Nana; Holm, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to the continuing discussion about academic literacy in international higher education. Approaching international study programmes as temporary educational contact zones, marked by a broad diversity in students’ educational and discursive experiences, we examine the negot......This article contributes to the continuing discussion about academic literacy in international higher education. Approaching international study programmes as temporary educational contact zones, marked by a broad diversity in students’ educational and discursive experiences, we examine...... the negotiation and relocalisation of academic literacy among students of the international master’s programme, Anthropology of Education and Globalisation (AEG), University of Aarhus, Denmark. The article draws on an understanding of academic literacy as a local practice situated in the social and institutional...... contexts in which it appears. Based on qualitative interviews with eleven AEG-students, we analyse students’ individual experiences of, and perspectives on, the academic literacy practices of this study programme. Our findings reveal contradictory understandings of internationalism and indicate a learning...

  15. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  16. What Works in Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Marvin W.

    2011-01-01

    Values education (alternatively, moral education, character education) is the attempt, within schools, to craft pedagogies and supportive structures to foster the development of positive, ethical, pro-social inclinations and competencies in youth, including around strengthening their academic focus and achievement. Recent research has uncovered…

  17. Reinventing the academic health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Darrell G; Grigsby, R Kevin; Zolko, Wayne W; Moskowitz, Jay; Hefner, David S; Souba, Wiley W; Carubia, Josephine M; Baron, Steven D

    2005-11-01

    Academic health centers have faced well-documented internal and external challenges over the last decade, putting pressure on organizational leaders to develop new strategies to improve performance while simultaneously addressing employee morale, patient satisfaction, educational outcomes, and research growth. In the aftermath of a failed merger, new leaders of The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine and Milton S. Hershey Medical Center encountered a climate of readiness for a transformational change. In a case study of this process, nine critical success factors are described that contributed to significant performance improvement: performing a campus-wide cultural assessment and acting decisively on the results; making values explicit and active in everyday decisions; aligning corporate structure and governance to unify the academic enterprise and health system; aligning the next tier of administrative structure and function; fostering collaboration and accountability-the creation of unified campus teams; articulating a succinct, highly focused, and compelling vision and strategic plan; using the tools of mission-based management to realign resources; focusing leadership recruitment on organizational fit; and "growing your own" through broad-based leadership development. Outcomes assessment data for academic, research, and clinical performance showed significant gains between 2000 and 2004. Organizational transformation as a result of the nine factors is possible in other institutional settings and can facilitate a focus on crucial quality initiatives.

  18. Human predatory behavior and the social implications of communal hunting based on evidence from the TD10.2 bison bone bed at Gran Dolina (Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Saladié, Palmira; Ollé, Andreu; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2017-04-01

    Zooarcheological research is an important tool in reconstructing subsistence, as well as for inferring relevant aspects regarding social behavior in the past. The organization of hunting parties, forms of predation (number and rate of animals slaughtered), and the technology used (tactics and tools) must be taken into account in the identification and classification of hunting methods in prehistory. The archeological recognition of communal hunting reflects an interest in evolutionary terms and their inherent implications for anticipatory capacities, social complexity, and the development of cognitive tools, such as articulated language. Late and Middle Paleolithic faunal assemblages in Europe have produced convincing evidence of communal hunting of large ungulates allowing for the formation of hypotheses concerning the skills of Neanderthals anatomically modern humans as social predators. However, the emergence of this cooperative behavior is not currently understood. Here, faunal analysis, based on traditional/long-established zooarcheological methods, of nearly 25,000 faunal remains from the "bison bone bed" layer of the TD10.2 sub-unit at Gran Dolina, Atapuerca (Spain) is presented. In addition, other datasets related to the archeo-stratigraphy, paleo-landscape, paleo-environmental proxies, lithic assemblage, and ethno-archeological information of communal hunting have been considered in order to adopt a holistic approach to an investigation of the subsistence strategies developed during deposition of the archeological remains. The results indicate a monospecific assemblage heavily dominated by axial bison elements. The abundance of anthropogenic modifications and the anatomical profile are in concordance with early primary access to carcasses and the development of systematic butchering focused on the exploitation of meat and fat for transportation of high-yield elements to somewhere out of the cave. Together with a catastrophic and seasonal mortality pattern

  19. Changing discourses of academic development at a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article considers the discourses used by students, mainstream lecturers and academic development lecturers in their evaluations of language interventions at Technikon Natal from 1991 to 2002. The discourses under scrutiny are those of academic literacy: the beliefs, attitudes, values and norms necessary for ...

  20. Information Systems Education: The Case for the Academic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mew, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how cloud computing can be leveraged to add value to academic programs in information systems and other fields by improving financial sustainment models for institutional technology and academic departments, relieving the strain on overworked technology support resources, while adding richness and improving pedagogical…

  1. Behavioral Regulation and Early Academic Achievement in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan C.; Chen, Fu-Mei; Chen, Jo-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Behavioral regulation (the integration of attention, working memory, and inhibitory control) is critical for school readiness and early academic achievement. In Taiwan, however, where academic success is highly valued, there is a dearth of assessments available to measure young children's behavioral regulation. The present study…

  2. Academic Expectations as Sources of Stress in Asian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joyce Beiyu; Yates, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Education is highly valued in Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC) countries such as China, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan and Korea but the expectations of parents, teachers and students themselves to excel academically can also be a source of intense stress for many students. The "Academic Expectations Stress Inventory" (AESI),…

  3. Biomedical innovation in academic institutions: mitigating conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Lita L; Bierer, Barbara E

    2011-09-14

    As universities and research hospitals move increasingly toward translational research and encouragement of entrepreneurship, more attention must be paid to management of conflicts of interest (COIs) if the public trust is to be maintained. Here, we describe COI policies at two institutions that aim to structure an academic environment that encourages innovation while protecting academic values.

  4. Academic streaming in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falaschi, Alessandro; Mønster, Dan; Doležal, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...... in Europe. We report on a survey of the use of streaming media in the academic community in Europe, an open source content delivery network, and a portal for announcing live streaming events to the global academic community....

  5. A Cooperative Approach to Academic Entrepreneurial Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a novel entrepreneurial model, the “Faculty Cooperative”, an eco-system for creating and managing academic entrepreneurial initiatives. The goal of this model is to promote academic entrepreneurism, by providing a guiding concept and tools that overcome the lack of alignment between individual academic attributes and faculty efforts in driving academic spin-out companies.  Through an empirical inquiry based on an academic spin-out company in a UK university context, we have explored the key activities, actors, organisational processes and outcomes related to the formation and development stages of the academic entrepreneurship process. The empirical evidence reveals that the key principles embodied by the “Faculty Cooperative Model” namely, openness, freedom and collective shareholding, are likely to promote the entrepreneurial culture within a university context. The paper argues for the importance of developing entrepreneurial culture in conventional research focused universities, which not only improves the traditional values of teaching and research, but also enhances the dynamic capabilities of universities in a global marketplace. It is suggested that the entrepreneurial ideal is not contradictory to the conventional university missions, rather it is complementary.

  6. The role of philosophy in the academic study of religion in Indian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia SIKKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Joseph T. O’Connell drew attention to the relative scarcity of academic work on religion in South Asia, and offered as a plausible explanation for this state of affairs the tension between secular and religio‑political communal interests. This paper explores the potential role of philosophy as an established academic discipline within this situation, in the context of India. It argues that objective study, including evaluation, of the truth claims of various religious traditions is an important aspect of academic as opposed to confessional engagement with religion, and that philosophy in India is especially well suited to undertake such reflection and to provide corresponding education. Unlike Western countries, philosophy and religion were never clearly separated in India and did not evolve in tension with one another. The history of Indian philosophy therefore includes and is included within the history of its ‘religions’, in a way that makes philosophical examination of the truth claims of Indian religions internal to those religions themselves. By tracing this history, the discipline of philosophy can help to unsettle the idea of religion as a matter of fixed dogma. It can also continue the procedure of interpreting and evaluating metaphysical and epistemological theses that has been an intrinsic component of Indian religious thought for most of its history.

  7. Designation differences and academic career progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W. Callaghan

    2015-05-01

    Contribution/Value add: This study provides new insights into certain ‘crisis milestones’, or role conflicts or issues, that may need to be resolved or balanced before the career progression of academics can typically occur.

  8. Education for sustainability through academic freedom | Ekwueme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past researches are of the opinion that education for sustainable development and academic freedom could assist in solving these ethical menaces. Education for sustainable development allows every human being to acquire knowledge, skills, attitudes and values necessary to shape a sustainable future to make ...

  9. Academic Training: 2004 - 2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    1st Term - 01 October to 17 December 2004 REGULAR LECTURE PROGRAMME New Trends in Fusion Research by A. Fasoli, EPFL, Lausanne, CH 11, 12, 13 October Physics at e+e- linear collider by K. Desch, DESY, Hamburg, D 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 November LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS Standard Model by R. Barbieri, CERN-PH-TH 6, 7, 8, 9 10 December The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstract of the lectures, as well as any change to the above information (title, dates, time, place etc) will be published in the CERN Bulletin, the WWW, and by notices before each term and for each series of lectures. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  10. Default values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In making calculations for the purposes of radiation protection, numerical values for parameters used in the calculations are selected. In some cases, data directly applicable to the set of conditions for which the calculations are to be made are unavailable. Therefore, the selection of the values for these parameters may be based on more general data available from the literature or other sources. These values may be referred to as 'default values', that is, values used in default of those based on directly applicable data. The following policy will be applied by Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff in reviewing the radiation protection aspects of submissions associated with licensing, in participating with other organizations in the development of codes and standards, and in any other work which relies to some extent on using default values

  11. Value Investing

    OpenAIRE

    Liptáková, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with value investing in the form defined by Benjamin Graham. In clarifying the theoretical aspects, particular attention is given to an intrinsic value of stocks and to its calculation methods. A way to overcome the deficiencies in the two most widely used models of calculation is introduced. It is value screening, which by defining of certain criteria makes an assumption of undervalued stocks. Then the investment approach of the most successful investor, Warren B...

  12. Academic Capitalism and Academic Culture: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pilar; Berger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this…

  13. Academic librarianship today

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Intended for use by both librarians and students in LIS programs, Academic Librarianship Today is the most current, comprehensive overview of the field available today. Key features include: Each chapter was commissioned specifically for this new book, and the authors are highly regarded academic librarians or library school faculty— or both Cutting-edge topics such as open access, copyright, digital curation and preservation, emerging technologies, new roles for academic librarians, cooperative collection development and resource sharing, and patron-driven acquisitions are explored in depth Each chapter ends with thought-provoking questions for discussion and carefully constructed assignments that faculty can assign or adapt for their courses The book begins with Gilman’s introduction, an overview that briefly synthesizes the contents of the contributors’ chapters by highlighting major themes. The main part of the book is organized into three parts: The Academic Library Landscape Today, ...

  14. Googilum academic gaveshana librarikalum

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayakumar, J. K.

    2006-01-01

    Describes about two projects of Google such as "Google Scholar" and "Google Print".It also describes how the traditional library based academic research information search can be affected by these two projects.

  15. The Academic Quilting Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Julia A.; Ko, Marcia G.; Blair, Janis E.

    2009-01-01

    In medicine, the challenges faced by female faculty members who are attempting to achieve academic advancement have been well described. Various strategies have been proposed to increase academic productivity to aid the promotion of women in medicine. We propose an innovative collaboration strategy that encourages completion of an academic writing project. This strategy acknowledges the challenges inherent in achieving work–life balance and utilizes a collaborative work style with a group of peer physicians. The model is designed to encourage the completion and collation of independently prepared sections of an academic paper within a setting that emphasizes social networking and collaboration. This approach has many similarities to the construction of a quilt during a “quilting bee.” PMID:19172365

  16. Declaration of Academic Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ÇETİNSAYA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 1. Universities are the institutions where all the opinions, various truth claims as well as social and political problems are discussed in a liberal and civilized way and the complicated problems are expressed clearly without any oppression and prevention. 2. Academic freedom includes first and foremost the right of freedom of research and thus freedom of using the essential knowledge methods, the right of possessing the necessary tools and conditions required for the research and the rights of scientific production, informing, learning and dissemination. 3. Academics possess the rights to benefit from the academic freedom without any limitation, to research and investigate according to their own preferences and interests, and to teach these without being exposed to any oppression and prevention. 4. This freedom of teaching that the academics have should not be used in a manner restricting students' freedom of learning; academics should avoid from being dogmatic in the research and education processes and respect students' rights of thinking differently and expressing themselves. 5. Academics accordingly should lead the students to evaluate and understand the new thoughts as a whole and to be tolerant to the thoughts they do not agree and to think in various ways. Also, academics should encourage the students to create their own opinions based on evidences and enable them to express these opinions freely and respect their freedom of expression. 6. Campuses should be safe environments where the students can express their own opinions freely. Suppressing the intellectual diversity and the plurality of viewpoints will decrease the productivity of teaching and learning process, restrict students' freedom of learning, and constrain the chance of formation of critical and in-depth thinking. 7. Critical thinking develops only in the campuses where various thoughts are expressed in a liberal way. Students should feel that they would not be prevented

  17. Ethical philanthropy in academic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2006-05-01

    From an ethical perspective, psychiatrists cannot accept gifts of significant monetary value from their patients. This guideline raises important questions regarding institutional practices related to gift-giving in academic psychiatry. The first aim of this article is to explain the ethical tensions and shared ethical commitments of the professions of psychiatry and philanthropy. The second aim is to outline a series of steps that may be undertaken to assure ethical philanthropic practices within an institution, including the establishment of a committed advisory workgroup and the creation of ground rules and safeguards for gift-giving. Each situation should be evaluated for "ethical risk," and specific measures to safeguard donors should be considered. The author outlines methods to manage, minimize, or eliminate conflict of interest issues, including identification and disclosure of conflicting interests, role separation, goal clarification, confidentiality protections, proper timing, and ongoing oversight. Three case illustrations are provided and discussed. The process of institutional engagement, dialogue, and shared problem-solving is especially important. A shared, constructive ethic will be attained only if leaders and diverse stakeholders communicate the value of the new approach through their words, expectations, and actions. Through these efforts, greater attention will be given to the concerns of people with mental illness, and academic institutions may be better able to fulfill their responsibilities to this important but neglected population now and in the future.

  18. Perspectives on academic dishonesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, M J; Lowenstein, A J

    1990-01-01

    Academic dishonest behaviors, such as lying, cheating, and plagiarism, are destructive and must be recognized and addressed early in the development of professional nurses. Faculty must be concerned with the relationship between student integrity in the classroom and clinical or professional behaviors. The authors discuss student motivation and attitudes toward unethical practices, faculty responses, and responsibilities when these incidents arise, and strategies for preventing academic dishonesty.

  19. Commercializing Academic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge produced by academic scientists has been identified as a potential key driver of technological progress. Recent policies in Europe aim at increasing commercially orientated activities in academe. Based on a sample of German scientists across all fields of science, we investigate the......, a preliminary evaluation of the effects of the abolishment of the “professor privilege” (the German counterpart of the US Bayh-Dole Act) reveals that this legal disposition led to an acceleration of this apparent decline....

  20. Forestland values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Beuter; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the journal of Forestry is devoted to articles about forestland values. Viewed broadly, natural resources and humans are our two basic resources. An expression of the importance of land as a foundation for forest ecosystems is forestland value. Our attitudes about land and the forest ecosystems that they support have changed considerably in recent years....

  1. Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16 264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts showed an overall prevalence of GI nematodes of 43 %, coccidia 19.8 % and cestodes 4.8 %. A significantly higher prevalence of infection with GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia was recorded in calves (P < 0.01 than in adults. Pregnant and lactating cows had significantly higher prevalences than bulls, oxen and non-lactating (dry cows (P < 0.01. The general trend of eggs per gram (epg of faeces and oocysts per gram (opg of faeces was associated with the rainfall pattern in the two regions, with high epg and opg being recorded during the wet months. The most prevalent genera of GI nematodes were Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus in that order. Strongyloides papillosus was found exclusively in calves. Haemonchus was significantly more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season (P < 0.01. In contrast, Trichostrongylus was present in significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers during the dry months than the wet months, while Cooperia and Oesophagostomum revealed no significant differences between the wet and dry season. These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

  2. Resistance to change: Role of relationship and communal coping for coronary heart disease patients and their partners in making lifestyle changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Jónsdóttir, Mjöll; Spindler, Helle; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen

    2018-02-01

    Lifestyle behaviours are important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and, hence, motivation for lifestyle changes is suggested to be a key factor in the success of cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention programmes. The motivation for changing lifestyle among people with CHD may be influenced by those with whom they have long-term, intimate relationships. This study explores the role of the relationship between people with CHD and those closest to them in making lifestyle changes. This includes investigating if patients and partners experience autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and what role communal, i.e. relationship-centred coping serves in relation to patients' health behaviour. The study is based on semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 10 couples; people who have experienced acute coronary syndrome, and their partners. Participants had diverse histories of disease and social backgrounds. A three-stage interview process was undertaken including focus group interviews, couple interviews and individual interviews. A thematic analysis, inspired by the self-determination theory and the interdependence theory, was conducted. Communal coping is evident in various forms, and at different levels, among people with CHD and their partners. Satisfaction with new lifestyle, ownership of change, confidence in ability to change, and emotional distress are all factors that affect how couples deal with lifestyle changes in the aftermath of CHD. Rehabilitation efforts, aimed at lifestyle changes, need to address each individual, as well as the dyadic interaction within couples. Incorporating a dyadic perspective in the rehabilitation process may lead to a reduction in motivational barriers to lifestyle changes.

  3. Academic Motivations and Academic Self-Efficacy of Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Gamze Sarikoc

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Academic motivation and academic self-efficacy play important roles in the learning process. They increase academic achievement and the attainment of educational goals, thus providing opportunities in the training of qualified nurses. This study was conducted to determine nursing students%u2019 academic motivation and academic self-efficacy levels. Material and Method: This is a descriptive study. A total of 346 students who are attending a nursing school as either a first, second, third...

  4. Academic Writing and Tacit Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    The genre of academic writing is discipline dependent, so that neither specialists in academic writing nor practising academics in a discipline can, independently of each other, provide students with the necessary help to develop the ability to write in their academic disciplines. Furthermore, the rules are largely tacit, i.e. they are not…

  5. The concept of added value of FM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This chapter presents research perspectives and theoretical reflections on the concept of added value of FM from a variety of academic fields. Methodology: A literature review of the most influential journals within the academic fields of Facilities Management (FM), Corporate Real Estate...... conceptualization of the concept of added value of FM is of utmost importance for further research into the added value of FM and well-considered, evidence- based Value Adding Management in practice. Research limitations: Due to limited time not all FM-related journals could be included in the literature review...... Management (CREM) and Business to Business Marketing (B2B Marketing). Findings: The research shows different definitions and focus points, dependent on the academic field and the area of application. The different research perspectives explored a holistic view on the added value of FM by the integration...

  6. Study of the Efficacy of Cognitive Restructuring Teaching at Student\\'s Attribution Style and Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Mikaeili

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the education ministry’s concerns in high schools is the problem of academic achievement. The researches have mentioned that student’s false attribution and absence of scholastic counseling service are the most important factors affecting student’s low performance and achievements. The main goal of this research was to study the rate of cognitive reconstructive effect on attribution style and girl students’ academic performance at high school in Khalkhal. Methods: Pre-test and post-test experimental designs with control group were used in this study. Thirty high school girl students were chosen randomly in 2 groups including 15 persons in experimental group and 15 persons in control group. Eight sessions of cognitive reconstructive counseling, like communal for experimental group, were held. Subjects were evaluated by attributive style inventory and school year average by per-test and post–test. The general hypothesis was “cognitive reconstructive education influence, students’ attribution style and academic performance”. Manava and independent groups’ t-test for testing hypotheses were used. Results: Analyses showed that cognitive reconstructive education increase internal, permanent and general attributions for positive events and decrease those attributions for negative events. Discussion: Cognitive reconstructive education increase students’ academic performance.

  7. Academic Procrastination on Worker Students

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaqi, Sugito; Arumsari, Andini Dwi

    2017-01-01

    Academic procrastination is to delay the work in the academic field. Academic procrastination occurs because students who work less able to divide his time well, between work and college. Students who work doing academic procrastination because it is less able to regulate themselves. Self-regulation is the ability to control their own behavior and one of the prime movers of the human personality. In the process of self-regulation, academic procrastination students who need to understand the i...

  8. Taking Responsibility for Academic Integrity: A Collaborative Teaching and Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Julianne; Donnelly, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    La Trobe University, like many Australian universities, states that it values honest academic endeavour (Academic Integrity Policy 2011), and it can provide examples of good teaching practice in the areas of academic integrity, proper acknowledgment and avoiding plagiarism. Rather than relying on the chance that individuals will just develop good…

  9. An Analysis of Academic Reputation as Perceived by Consumers of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, Michael J.; Conard, Maureen A.

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses of college-bound high school seniors (n=198) found most respondents viewed successful postgraduate careers as very important to the perception of an institution's academic reputation. Three factors described student perception of academic reputation: academic concerns, campus ethos, and practical value. Also, three factors were…

  10. Dimensions of Academic Interest among Undergraduate Students: Passion, Confidence, Aspiration and Self-Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Durksen, Tracy L.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated psychological dimensions of academic interest among undergraduate students (N = 325) using a global academic interest scale. The scale was administered together with measures of academic performance, educational aspiration, career planning, goal setting, life satisfaction, attitudes towards leisure, personality and value.…

  11. The Value of Value Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Christensen, Jesper

    The world over classrooms in business schools are being taught that corporate values can impact performance. The argument is typically that culture matter more than strategy plans and culture can be influenced and indeed changed by a shared corporate value set. While the claim seems intuitively...

  12. Values Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    that individualistic employees in individualistic organizations and collectivistic employees in collectivistic organizations show greater job...fit subsumes needs-supplies and demands-abilities perspectives . 38 Values and Retention Relationship among different conceptualizations of P-E

  13. Unravelling Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Matthew

    Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania.......Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania....

  14. ACADEMIC INTEGRITY SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR UKRAINIAN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Sherstjuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Developing the methodology for providing academic integrity in the university. The methodology is based on Web-oriented academic integrity support system, developed by the authors, which enters into the information system of learning process control. Academic integrity support system is aimed at maintaining academic integrity as a basic institutional value, which will help to reduce corruption, plagiarism and other types of academic dishonesty. Methodology. The methodology of problem to solve is based on the development of the information system of education process control with the integral elements of quality control. The information subsystem of academic integrity support is its basic part. Findings. The proposed information system allows us to fulfill the following levels: educational process monitoring; audit of internal processes, which is necessary for developing the effective quality control system; assessment of achievements of educational process participants; formalization of the interaction of educational process participants. The system is aimed at the development of new academic society based on the following principles: open access to the information, at which the access of wide audience to the information provides participation, forming the sense of responsibility and social control; transparency of the information, by which its relevance, quality, reliability are meant; responsibility of all members of educational process; measurability, at which any action in educational process should be measured; detail of describing the actions, results and processes; support, which is meant by automatic tools of the realization of the principles of open access to the information, transparency of the information, responsibility of all participants of educational process, measurability, detail, support. The practical realization of information system is based on the development of a common repository of university information. The

  15. Academic Leadership Development: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    A dean at a private school of nursing implemented a leadership development program for early- to mid-career nursing faculty consisting of one 4-hour evening session per academic quarter for 7 quarters. Eight faculty members who had expressed interest in assuming a leadership role or been recommended by their supervisors as having strong leadership potential were invited to join. Program topics included leadership pathways, legal issues, budgeting and governance, diversity, the political arena, human resources, and student issues. Interviews with participants revealed 6 themes: the support a peer cohort provided, a desire for real-life application, a lack of previous exposure to related content or experiences, new perceptions of themselves as academic nurse leaders, the value of the program as preparation for academic nursing leadership roles, and broad program applicability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Persuasive Power of Prosodies: Radiating Values in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The notion of prosody in linguistics was originally applied to phonology by Firth (Palmer, 1970) to refer to non-segmental features. Its use has been extended in Systemic Functional Linguistic theory to the levels of grammar and discourse semantics. Here it refers to the way that interpersonal meaning spreads or diffuses across clauses and across…

  17. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  18. Academic Training: 2003 - 2004 Academic Training Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 academic.training@cern.ch 3rd Term - 5 April to 2nd July 2004 REGULAR LECTURE PROGRAMME 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 April Complex Systems, Chaos and Measurements by P. Collet / Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France 26, 27, 28, 29 April The Theory of Heavy Ion Collisions by U. Wiedemann / CERN-PH/TH 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 May Particle Identification at the LHC by D. Fournier / LAL, Orsay, France 1, 2, 3, 4 June Neural Systems, Genetic Algorithms by V. Robles Forcada and M. Perez Hernandez / Univ. Politecnica de Madrid E. 7, 8, 9, June Real Time Process Control by T. Riesco / CERN-TS 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 June The Cosmic Microwave Background by M. Zaldarriaga / Harvard University, USA 21, 22, 23, June Fixed Target Physics at CERN : Results and Prospects by J. Engelen / CERN-DG 28, 29, 30 June, 1, 2, July Search for Dark Matter by B. Sadoulet / Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstrac...

  19. Academic Training: 2004 - 2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    1st Term - 01 October to 17 December 2004 REGULAR LECTURE PROGRAMME New Trends in Fusion Research by A. Fasoli, EPFL, Lausanne, CH 11, 12, 13 October Physics at e+e- linear collider by K. Desch, DESY, Hamburg, D 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 November LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS Standard Model by R. Barbieri, CERN-PH-TH 6, 7, 8, 9 10 December The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstract of the lectures, as well as any change to the above information (title, dates, time, place etc) will be published in the CERN Bulletin, the WWW, and by notices before each term and for each series of lectures. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form a...

  20. Value Reappraisal as a Conceptual Model for Task-Value Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acee, Taylor W.; Weinstein, Claire Ellen; Hoang, Theresa V.; Flaggs, Darolyn A.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss task-value interventions as one type of relevance intervention and propose a process model of value reappraisal whereby task-value interventions elicit cognitive-affective responses that lead to attitude change and in turn affect academic outcomes. The model incorporates a metacognitive component showing that students can intentionally…

  1. Collective academic supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Thomsen, Rie; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    process. This article fills these gaps by discussing potentials and challenges in “Collective Academic Supervision”, a model for supervision at the Master of Education in Guidance at Aarhus University in Denmark. The pedagogical rationale behind the model is that students’ participation and learning...... are interconnected. Collective Academic Supervision provides possibilities for systematic interaction between individual master students in their writing process. In this process they learn core academic competencies, such as the ability to assess theoretical and practical problems in their practice and present them...... to peers. In sum CAS provides a practice in which a group of students and their supervisor learn by working together. Potentials for future research is to investigate the ways in which participants – both students and teachers - can be prepared for different modes of participation and, finally, how...

  2. Measurement of academic entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    Members of Generation Y, or Millennials, have been accused of being lazy, whiny, pampered, and entitled, particularly in the college classroom. Using an equity theory framework, eight items from a measure of work entitlement were adapted to measure academic entitlement in a university setting in three independent samples. In Study 1 (n = 229), confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit to a unidimensional structure for the data. In Study 2 (n = 200), the questionnaire predicted unique variance in university satisfaction beyond two more general measures of dispositional entitlement. In Study 3 (n = 161), the measure predicted unique variance in perceptions of grade fairness beyond that which was predicted by another measure of academic entitlement. This analysis provides evidence of discriminant, convergent, incremental, concurrent criterion-related, and construct validity for the Academic Equity Preference Questionnaire.

  3. Bioethics and academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the events surrounding his attempts to lecture on the subject of euthanasia in West Germany in June 1989. Singer, who defends the view that active euthanasia for some newborns with handicaps may be ethically permissible, had been invited to speak to professional and academic groups. Strong public protests against Singer and his topic led to the cancellation of some of his engagements, disruptions during others, and harrassment of the German academics who had invited him to speak. These incidents and the subject of euthanasia became matters of intense national debate in West Germany, but there was little public or academic support for Singer's right to be heard. Singer argues that bioethics and bioethicists must have the freedom to challenge conventional moral beliefs, and that the events in West Germany illustrate the grave danger to that freedom from religious and political intolerance.

  4. Passion for Academics and Problematic Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Alexander T; Razon, Selen; Saville, Bryan K; Tokac, Umit; Judge, Lawrence W

    2017-01-01

    According to the Dualistic Model of Passion (39), passion entails valuing, liking, and spending time on an activity. The Dualistic Model also posits two types of passion for activities: harmonious passion (individual voluntarily engages in the activity) and obsessive passion (individual is compelled to engage in the activity). The purpose of the present study was to examine the possible links between college students' passion for academic activities and problematic health behaviors including smoking, excessive drinking, exercise addiction, disordered eating, and sleepiness, which is a possible indicator of sleep deprivation. Participants (n = 502) completed a survey gauging passion type and health behaviors. Regression analyses revealed obsessive passion for academic activities was positively associated with scores on measures of excessive drinking (β = .15, p= .008), exercise addiction (β = .19, psleep deprivation (β = .07, p = .15). Harmonious passion for academic activities, in contrast, was negatively associated with excessive drinking behavior (β = -.16, p = .002) and sleep deprivation (β = -.13, p = .007) but was not associated with exercise addiction (β = .002, p = .97) and disordered eating (β = -.04, p = .37). These findings provide further support for the Dualistic Model of Passion. Students who are obsessively passionate about their academic activities are more likely to engage in poor health behaviors and, in turn, may experience greater negative outcomes than students who are harmoniously passionate about their academics.

  5. Satisfaction and Academic Engagement among Undergraduate Students: A Case Study in Istanbul University

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Özge Özaslan ÇaliÅŸkan; Burcu Adigüzel Mercangöz

    2013-01-01

    Academic engagement used to refer to the extent to which students identify with and value schooling outcomes, and participate in academic and non-academic school activities. This study aims to investigate the academic engagement and satisfaction from the school among the university students. The data is taken from the undergraduate students in School of Transportation & Logistics in Istanbul University. We used a questionnaire that consisted of two parts. First part of the questionnaire is ab...

  6. Satisfaction and Academic Engagement among Undergraduate Students: A Case Study in Istanbul University

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Ozge Özaslan Caliskan

    2016-01-01

    Academic engagement used to refer to the extent to which students identify with and value schooling outcomes, and participate in academic and non-academic school activities. This study aims to investigate the academic engagement and satisfaction from the school among the university students. The data is taken from the undergraduate students in School of Transportation & Logistics in Istanbul University. We used a questionnaire that consisted of two parts. First part of the questionnaire is ab...

  7. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic and organi......Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...... their performance....

  8. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  9. Essays on Firm Valuation and Value Appropriation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. de Maeseneire (Wouter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSophisticated valuation techniques such as adjusted present value and real options, attract ever-increasing attention from theory and practice. A huge number of papers in the academic field provide various applications of these advanced tools, for instance valuing research and

  10. Human values and the value of humanities in interdisciplinary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Robinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research integrating the perspectives of different disciplines, or interdisciplinary research, has become increasingly common in academia and is considered important for its ability to address complex questions and problems. This mode of research aims to leverage differences among disciplines in generating a more complex understanding of the research landscape. To interact successfully with other disciplines, researchers must appreciate their differences, and this requires recognizing how the research landscape looks from the perspective of other disciplines. One central aspect of these disciplinary perspectives involves values, and more specifically, the roles that values do, may, and should play in research practice. It is reasonable to think that disciplines differ in part because of the different views that their practitioners have on these roles. This paper represents a step in the direction of evaluating this thought. Operating at the level of academic branches, which comprise relevantly similar disciplines (e.g. social and behavioral sciences, this paper uses quantitative techniques to investigate whether academic branches differ in terms of views on the impact of values on research. Somewhat surprisingly, we find very little relation between differences in these views and differences in academic branch. We discuss these findings from a philosophical perspective to conclude the paper.

  11. Evaluating Nonclinical Performance of the Academic Pathologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Blackburn Wiles MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Academic pathologists perform clinical duties, as well as valuable nonclinical activities. Nonclinical activities may consist of research, teaching, and administrative management among many other important tasks. While clinical duties have many clear metrics to measure productivity, like the relative value units of Medicare reimbursement, nonclinical performance is often difficult to measure. Despite the difficulty of evaluating nonclinical activities, nonclinical productivity is used to determine promotion, funding, and inform professional evaluations of performance. In order to better evaluate the important nonclinical performance of academic pathologists, we present an evaluation system for leadership use. This system uses a Microsoft Excel workbook to provide academic pathologist respondents and reviewing leadership a transparent, easy-to-complete system that is both flexible and scalable. This system provides real-time feedback to academic pathologist respondents and a clear executive summary that allows for focused guidance of the respondent. This system may be adapted to fit practices of varying size, measure performance differently based on years of experience, and can work with many different institutional values.

  12. Productive procrastination: academic procrastination style predicts academic and alcohol outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Erin C.; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Oleson, Kathryn C.; Lindgren, Kristen P.

    2017-01-01

    Productive procrastination replaces one adaptive behavior with another adaptive—albeit less important—behavior (e.g., organizing notes instead of studying for an exam). We identified adaptive and maladaptive procrastination styles associated with academic and alcohol outcomes in 1106 college undergraduates. Cluster analysis identified five academic procrastination styles—non-procrastinators, academic productive procrastinators, non-academic productive procrastinators, non-academic procrastinators, and classic procrastinators. Procrastination style differentially predicted alcohol-related problems, cravings, risk of alcohol use disorders, and GPA (all ps procrastination and academic productive procrastination were most adaptive overall; non-academic productive procrastination, non-academic procrastination, and classic procrastination were least adaptive. Productive procrastination differed from other procrastination strategies, and maladaptive procrastination styles may be a useful risk indicator for preventative and intervention efforts. PMID:28804158

  13. Productive procrastination: academic procrastination style predicts academic and alcohol outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Erin C; Wormington, Stephanie V; Oleson, Kathryn C; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2017-03-01

    Productive procrastination replaces one adaptive behavior with another adaptive-albeit less important-behavior (e.g., organizing notes instead of studying for an exam). We identified adaptive and maladaptive procrastination styles associated with academic and alcohol outcomes in 1106 college undergraduates. Cluster analysis identified five academic procrastination styles- non-procrastinators , academic productive procrastinators , non-academic productive procrastinators, non-academic procrastinators , and classic procrastinators . Procrastination style differentially predicted alcohol-related problems, cravings, risk of alcohol use disorders, and GPA (all ps procrastination and academic productive procrastination were most adaptive overall; non-academic productive procrastination, non-academic procrastination, and classic procrastination were least adaptive. Productive procrastination differed from other procrastination strategies, and maladaptive procrastination styles may be a useful risk indicator for preventative and intervention efforts.

  14. Academic interventions for academic procrastination: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacks, Shlomo; Hen, Meirav

    2018-01-01

    Procrastination is a widespread phenomenon in academic settings. It has been studied from many different theoretical angles, and a variety of causes and consequences have been suggested. Recent studies support the notion that academic procrastination can be seen from a situational perspective and as a failure in learning self-regulation. It suggests that interventions should address situational as well as deficits in self-regulation to help students overcome their procrastinating tendencies. The present review examined the recent literature on causes and consequences of academic procrastination and the limited number of studies of academic interventions for academic procrastination. Findings of this review strengthen the need to further study the topic of academic interventions for academic procrastination and to develop effective interventions. At the end of this review, several suggestions for the development of academic interventions are outlined.

  15. Disruptive innovation in academic medical centers: balancing accountable and academic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Daniel; Chen, Christopher; Ackerly, D Clay

    2015-05-01

    Numerous academic medicine leaders have argued that academic referral centers must prepare for the growing importance of accountability-driven payment models by adopting population health initiatives. Although this shift has merit, execution of this strategy will prove significantly more problematic than most observers have appreciated. The authors describe how successful implementation of an accountable care health strategy within a referral academic medical center (AMC) requires navigating a critical tension: The academic referral business model, driven by tertiary-level care, is fundamentally in conflict with population health. Referral AMCs that create successful value-driven population health systems within their organizations will in effect disrupt their own existing tertiary care businesses. The theory of disruptive innovation suggests that balancing the push and pull of academic and accountable care within a single organization is achievable. However, it will require significant shifts in resource allocation and changes in management structure to enable AMCs to make the inherent difficult choices and trade-offs that will ensue. On the basis of the theories of disruptive innovation, the authors present recommendations for how academic health systems can successfully navigate these issues as they transition toward accountability-driven care.

  16. Managing the academic talent void: Investigating factors in academic turnover and retention in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Theron

    2014-04-01

    Research purpose: This study aimed to investigate the factors that influence turnover and retention of academic and to validate the developed talent retention diagnostic tool for use in South African higher education institutions. Motivation for the study: Limited research currently exists on the retention factors of academic staff in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: Using an investigative quantitative research approach, the tool was administered to a convenience sample of academics (n = 153 in 13 higher education institutions. Main findings: The results showed an array of distinguishing turnover and retention factors and proved the tool to be a valid and reliable measure. Over half the respondents indicated slight to strong dissatisfaction with compensation and performance management practices. Significantly, 34% indicated that they considered exiting their academic institution, citing unhappiness about compensation, as the most likely reason, whilst 74.5% have previously looked for another job. Practical/managerial implications: The research highlights key areas (i.e. compensation, emotional recognition, a bonus structure that reflects employee contribution, performance management systems, mentorship and career development opportunities that higher education should attend to if they want to retain their key and talented academic staff. Contribution/value-add: The results contribute to new knowledge on the factors that contribute to turnover and retention of academic staff and present a valid and reliable measure to assess these retention factors.

  17. Summary of Research 1997, Interdisciplinary Academic Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boger, Dan

    1999-01-01

    This report contains information of research projects in the interdisciplinary groups, Command, Control, and Communications Academic Group, Information Warfare Academic Group, Space Systems Academic...

  18. The Academic Chairperson's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; And Others

    This book champions the importance of chairing an academic department (or division) and focuses attention on the strategies "excellent" chairs use in building a positive work environment for faculty and releasing individual faculty potential. The framework is based on human, organizational, and career development; systems theory; and interpersonal…

  19. Kompetenceprofil for academic developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Rie; Mørcke, Anne Mette

    gerne vil udføre? Vi vil også diskutere hvilke positive og negative konsekvenser en (mulig fælles nordisk) kompetenceprofil kunne få.Referencer:Ansela, M. & Maikkola, M. (2007). ACADEMIC DEVELOPER’S COMPETENCE-BASED DESCRIPTION:Core and basic competences. Retrieved 22/01/15 at http://www.peda-forum.fi/index.php...

  20. Reframing Academic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, Lee G.; Gallos, Joan V.

    2011-01-01

    In "Reframing Academic Leadership," the authors offer higher education leaders a provocative and pragmatic guide for: (1) Crafting dynamic institutions where the whole is greater than the sum of the parts; (2) Creating campus environments that facilitate creativity and commitment; (3) Forging alliances and partnerships in service of the mission;…