Although academic advising in Kenyan universities exists, no research has been done to find out how it impacts on students' educational and career goals. This research aimed at establishing the effect of academic advising on academic performance and the influence of year of study and gender on students' tendency to ...
score was used as an index of their academic performance. The respondents were also asked to provide other general information that assisted in the interpretation of the data. .... Higher Education, 38, 727-742. Cobb, N. J. (2001). The child. California: Mayfield Publishing Company. Vol. 5 (5), Serial No. 22, October, 2011.
Schubert, Arline F.; Schubert, George W.
Issues in tort and contract law and recent experiences in litigation that influence the academic adviser's responsibility are outlined, including negligence, nondisclosure and misrepresentation, defamation, written and oral contracts, and the adviser as an agent of the institution. Specific areas of adviser vulnerability are noted. (MSE)
Many published scholars argue for constructivism as a basis for academic advising theory. However, few have discussed the commensurate ontological assumptions of constructivist thinking. Potential problems with the metaphysical view of the student in contemporary academic advising may be attributable to constructivism. John Dewey's critique of…
Purpose: The purpose of this correlational study was to identify whether there are differences in student satisfaction scores in academic advisement gender pairings in an undergraduate university setting. Methodology: This study was a descriptive correlational research study utilizing archival survey data. The collected data consisted of numeric…
Hunter, Mary Stuart; White, Eric R.
Academic advising, well developed and appropriately accessed, is perhaps the only structured campus endeavor that can guarantee students sustained interaction with a caring and concerned adult who can help them shape such an experience. Under the guidance of an academic adviser, students can clarify the purposes of their college attendance,…
Hsu, Margaretha; Bailey, April E.
Business students' perceptions concerning several academic advising resources are presented. Using a Likert scale, students evaluated resources such as their academic advisor, course instructors, staffs, friends, and parents as well as the university catalog and the Foundations of Business Administration (FBA) course. Selected demographic…
Hughey, Judy K.
The relationship between interpersonal skills is positively correlated with effective academic advising. Professional academic advisors feel significant pressure to meet a wide array of student needs, increase retention rates, help students in their efforts of academic achievement and career exploration, and support institutions to excel in…
One might say that good advising requires understanding of those being advised. Yet, the way to achieve an accurate understanding of each advisee is unclear. An introduction to the field of hermeneutics, including an outline of Martin Heidegger's notion of human being and existential understanding, is presented to offer advisors a new opportunity…
Full Text Available the article analyzes the history of the development and establishment of academic advising in the context of US higher education, defines the functions and features of the academic advising in the educational space.
Full Text Available This study presents a customized academic e-advising service by using rule-based technology to provide each individual learner for recommending courses for college students in Taiwan. Since academic advising for taking courses is mostly by advisors to assist students to achieve educational, career, and personal goals, which made it important in the higher education system. To enhance the counseling effectiveness for advisors to assist students in fitting their professional field and improve their learning experience, we proposed an application system, called CRIS (course recommendation intelligent system. The CRIS consists of six functions: academic profile review, academic interest analysis, career and curriculum matchmaking, recommend courses analysis, department recommend analysis and record assessment. This work provides the solution in three layers, data layer, processing layer and solution layer, via four steps: (1 database design and data transfer, (2 student profile analysis, (3 customized academic advising generation and (4 solution analysis. A comparison of academic score and the combination of individual students' interest in learning and academic achievement satisfaction survey are conducted to test the effectiveness. The experiment result shows that the participating college students considered that the CRIS helpful in their adjustment to the university and it increased their success at the university.
Himes, Hilleary A.
Discussions on academic advising theory have centered on application from many disciplines; however, academic advising is unlike any other field, and therefore, theories from other disciplines do not correspond with all of the unique goals of advising: assisting students in understanding the meaning of higher education, supporting students in…
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.
We investigated whether the social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning apply to academic advising for measuring student learning outcomes. Community college students (N = 120) participated in an individual academic-advising session. We assessed students' post-intervention self-efficacy in academic planning and…
Hurt, Robert L.; McLaughlin, Eric J.
Academic advising research aids faculty members and advisors in detecting, explaining, and addressing macro-level trends beyond their local campus. It also helps legitimize the professional nature of academic advising, moving it beyond mere prescriptive models that focus on rules and course selection. Due to the erroneous belief that skills in…
Crawford, A. E.
A study was done of student perception of academic advising at the University of Nebraska, Omaha (UNO). The study surveyed 638 students who participated in the early registration process for the Fall 1991 semester. Of those students, 269 were men and 369 were women and 8.3 percent were members of a minority group. The study instrument was the…
Kodama, Corinne M.; Huynh, Jill
Academic and career development for Asian American students is complicated by cultural influences, interdependence with family, and racial stereotyping. This chapter highlights research, theory, and practice to help educators rethink traditional advising approaches to more appropriately work with Asian American students as they navigate their…
Heekin, Jonathan Ralph Calvin
Biology faculty at an East Coast university believed their undergraduate students were not being well served by the existing academic advising program. The purpose of this mixed methods project study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the academic advising model in a biology department. Guided by system-based organizational theory, a learning organization model, and holistic theory emphasizing an individual's journey of academic and personal growth, an online survey, student focus groups, and faculty interviews were used to collect data, which developed recommendations for improving undergraduate academic advising in the biology department. Using Survey Monkey, 35 surveys were returned. Frequency tables, ANOVAs, and t tests produced the results of the survey. The results of the ANOVAs and t tests indicated statically significant differences (p focus groups. The results from the interviews and focus groups indicated that the role of mentor should remain at the faculty level, guiding students in what they can do with their degrees and discussing options that students may not have considered. The proposed model for academic advising may improve student success rates for undergraduates enrolled in the biology department at the current institution, as well as in science-oriented programs at other institutions, by providing better guidance to those who serve them in academic advising.
Pfautz, Charles Van Vleck
Computer assisted guidance systems may adapt well to various models of academic advising, and they have the ability to address the challenge of meeting the diverse advising needs of community college students without sacrificing the integrity of academic advising (Fowkes & McWhirter, 2007). The purpose of this qualitative case study was to assess…
Glennen, Robert E., Ed.; Vowell, Faye N., Ed.
The 22 papers of this monograph review academic advising from the perspective of three types of campus activities: administrative support services, academic advising services, and student support services. The papers include: (1) "Obtaining Presidential Support for Advising" (Robert E. Glennen); (2) "Faculty Affairs" (David H. Goldenberg and Steve…
Objective: Guided by validation theory, this study aims to better understand the role that academic advising plays in international community college students' adjustment. More specifically, this study investigated how academic advising validates or invalidates their academic and social experiences in a community college context. Method: This…
Rice, Kenneth G; Suh, Hanna; Yang, Xiaohui; Choe, Elise; Davis, Don E
We expanded the focus of a prior study of international graduate student advising relationships (Rice et al., 2009) to examine advising experiences of both international and domestic students. International (n = 434) and domestic (n = 387) students completed the Advisory Working Alliance Inventory (AWAI-S; Schlosser & Gelso, 2001) and measures of advising experiences, perceived academic stress, and desire to change advisor. Measurement invariance analyses suggested that a 23-item AWAI-S showed support for scalar invariance. A bifactor structure showed superior fit to the 3-factor model or a second-order factor model for the AWAI-S. International and domestic graduate students did not differ in ratings of general alliance, academic stress, or desire to change advisors. General alliance was strongly related to less academic stress and less desire to change advisors. International students who felt disrespected by their advisors were more likely to be academically stressed than domestic students. Structured mentoring experiences were associated with lower stress and less desire to change, and this effect was similar in both international and domestic students. Overall, results suggested that the current level of measurement, and possibly theory development, regarding the advisory alliance is good at identifying generic satisfaction but weaker at differentiating components of the alliance. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
ESS Reports, 1988
This report presents the results of a student/faculty survey on the academic advising process at the University of Nebraska at Omaha, and highlights issues in improving the advising process. The survey included 195 recent graduates, 269 existing students, and 207 faculty and professional advisors. The study found that 70.8% of students were…
Donaldson, Paul; McKinney, Lyle; Lee, Mimi; Pino, Diana
For this study, we analyzed the relationship between intrusive academic advising and community college student success. Utilizing a qualitative, single-case study design, we conducted interviews with 12 students who participated in an intrusive advising program at a large, urban community college in Texas. Analysis of the interview data revealed…
This study explored the role of academic advising in the experiences of undocumented Latina college students. The study is predicated on Astin's (1984) theory of student involvement, which discusses academic and social involvement as an important antecedent in the psychosocial and academic development of college students, and its influence on…
When both time and financial resources are limited, administrators selectively decide upon proper utilization of current technology and determine whether monies should be expended on new, flashy, and attractive technology realizing that it may not contribute to the advising experience. By obtaining feedback from the students whom the academic…
McBeth, Dani L.; Richardson, Susan M.; Cregler, Louis L.; Meyer, Jodie
Evaluated the effects of a freshman seminar incorporating academic advising in an integrated baccalaureate-medical degree program. Found that participating students were more satisfied, and that their biology grades and first-year grade point averages (GPAs) were higher. (EV)
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene
Review of social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning is applied to academic advising for the purposes of assessing student learning. A brief overview of the history of student learning outcomes in higher education is followed by an explanation of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning constructs and how they…
Hunter, Mary Stuart, Ed.; McCalla-Wriggins, Betsy, Ed.; White, Eric R., Ed.
Grounded in the philosophy that academic advising is a robust form of one-on-one teaching, this monograph places advising in a new light, one that brings it to the center of the institutional mission and activity. This monograph challenges all readers to embrace the tremendous potential that academic advising has for educating today's college…
For decades, advising practitioners and scholars have worked toward developing an identity for advising as a unique field of scholarly inquiry and practice. To date, the identity crisis in advising remains. This study presents an examination and description of the function, purpose, and identity of a university advising system through comparisons…
adults (Levinson, 1978). Research evidence suggests that there is an empirical link between student mentoring and student retention (Campbell & Cambell, ... Kessler, Brown, & Broman, 1981). Unfortunately, males appear to be reluctant to avail themselves for services even when the helper is a peer rather than some ...
Tudor, Thomas R.
Higher education institutions in the United States are under increasing pressure to retain and graduate more students. Traditionally, the academic advisor helps students to meet degree graduation requirements and may also do some minor career advising. A new approach is proposed, in which career coaching with industry help becomes just as…
Lisa J. Barnes
Full Text Available Academic advising is a key role for faculty in the educational process of health professionals; however, the best practice of effective academic advising for occupational and physical therapy students has not been identified in the current literature. The purpose of this quality improvement initiative was to assess and improve the faculty/student advisor/advisee process within occupational and physical therapy programs within a school of allied health professions in the United States in 2015. A quality improvement initiative utilizing quantitative and qualitative information was gathered via survey focused on the assessment and improvement of an advisor/advisee process. The overall initiative utilized an adaptive iterative design incorporating the plan-do-study-act model which included a three-step process over a one year time frame utilizing 2 cohorts, the first with 80 students and the second with 88 students. Baseline data were gathered prior to initiating the new process. A pilot was conducted and assessed during the first semester of the occupational and physical therapy programs. Final information was gathered after one full academic year with final comparisons made to baseline. Defining an effective advisory program with an established framework led to improved awareness and participation by students and faculty. Early initiation of the process combined with increased frequency of interaction led to improved student satisfaction. Based on student perceptions, programmatic policies were initiated to promote advisory meetings early and often to establish a positive relationship. The policies focus on academic advising as one of proactivity in which the advisor serves as a portal which the student may access leading to a more successful academic experience.
Zhang, Yi Leaf; Dinh, Trang V.
In recent years, an increasing number of international students have enrolled in engineering programs in U.S. colleges and universities. These students often encounter challenges, and academic advisors play a significant role in international students' academic success. Using a model of intercultural communication competence, we explored attitudes…
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.
The validity and reliability of three instruments, the "Counselor Rubric for Gauging Student Understanding of Academic Planning," micro-analytic questions, and the "Student Survey for Understanding Academic Planning," all based on social cognitive theory, were tested as means to assess self-efficacy and self-regulated learning in college academic…
Conclusions: Few students were satisfied with the academic support system. We need to train advisors to help them develop their skills and knowledge and to enable them to provide the support needed by the students.
Academic advisors need to be knowledgeable of the ways students learn. To aid advisors in their exploration of learning theories, I provide an overview of the attribution theory of learning, including recent applications of the theory to research in college student learning. An understanding of this theory may help advisors understand student…
Rust, Matthew M.
Liberal education remains a mystery to many of the students enrolled in colleges and universities. Academic advisors, standing at the crossroads of the various curricular and cocurricular experiences that make up a student's liberal education, should be prepared to help students recognize the coherence of their education. This article provides…
Frost, Susan H.
This monograph examines student advising in the higher education setting by focusing on shared responsibility strategies that enhance student motivation and persistence in a diverse student population. In the first two sections, a new concept of advising called developmental advising is described in which the relationship between advisor and…
Einstein, Simon Adrian
The following text is a business plan for SurfScholar - an advising service to attract international students to get entire academic degrees in Portugal’s most dynamic Surf-City: Lisbon. SurfScholar is presented as a viable business concept with environmental, economic and socio-cultural sustainability as guiding principles. For a variety of reasons, Lisbon is becoming an increasingly popular destination for international student mobility. Additionally, Lisbon and its surroundi...
Miller, Lauren Kemner
First-year retention rates have seen minimal gains as high numbers of first-year students are leaving college due to insufficient academic skills and inability to adjust to the academic and social life of college. Programs that provide strategies to improve the transition from high school to college and that help develop skills to facilitate…
Reynolds, Barry Lee
In the age of "publish or perish," publishing academic journal articles is a must, not only for professors but also for graduate students in Taiwan. Increasingly, Taiwanese research universities are requiring masters and PhD students to write theses and dissertations in English, with an added caveat for PhD students to publish two or…
Newell, Emily M.
Through an extensive literature review, student--athlete college transition issues as well as concerns of international student-athletes are identified. Research on general student advising, developmental advising, and mentoring literature points to successful tactics for assisting domestic students, international students, and student-athletes…
Newton, Alex; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon
A conflict of interest (CoI) can occur between public duty and private interest, in which a public official's private-capacity interest could improperly influence the performance of their official duties and responsibilities. The most tangible and commonly considered CoI are financial. However, CoI can also arise due to other types of influence including interpersonal relationships, career progression, or ideology. CoI thus exist in academia, business, government and non-governmental organisations. However, public knowledge of CoI is currently limited due to a lack of information. The mechanisms of managing potential conflicts of interest also remain unclear due to a lack of guidelines. We therefore examined the independence of academic experts and how well potential CoI are identified and addressed in four government and non-governmental organisations in the UK responsible for the development of food policy. Policy analysis. We developed an analytical framework to explore CoI in high-level UK food policy advice, using four case studies. Two government policy-making bodies: Department of Health 'Obesity Review Group' (ORG), 'Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition' (SACN) and two charities: 'Action on Sugar' (AoS), & 'Heart of Mersey' (HoM). Information was obtained from publicly available sources and declarations. We developed a five point ordinal scale based upon the ideology of the Nolan Principles of Public Life. Group members were individually categorised on the ordinal ConScale from "0", (complete independence from the food and drink industry) to "4", (employed by the food and drink industry or a representative organisation). CoI involving various industries have long been evident in policy making, academia and clinical practice. Suggested approaches for managing CoI could be categorised as "deny", "describe", or "diminish". Declared CoI were common in the ORG and SACN. 4 out of 28 ORG members were direct industry employees. In SACN 11 out of 17 members
Full Text Available Abstract Background A conflict of interest (CoI can occur between public duty and private interest, in which a public official’s private-capacity interest could improperly influence the performance of their official duties and responsibilities. The most tangible and commonly considered CoI are financial. However, CoI can also arise due to other types of influence including interpersonal relationships, career progression, or ideology. CoI thus exist in academia, business, government and non-governmental organisations. However, public knowledge of CoI is currently limited due to a lack of information. The mechanisms of managing potential conflicts of interest also remain unclear due to a lack of guidelines. We therefore examined the independence of academic experts and how well potential CoI are identified and addressed in four government and non-governmental organisations in the UK responsible for the development of food policy. Methods Policy analysis. We developed an analytical framework to explore CoI in high-level UK food policy advice, using four case studies. Two government policy-making bodies: Department of Health ‘Obesity Review Group’ (ORG, ‘Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition’ (SACN and two charities: ‘Action on Sugar’ (AoS, & ‘Heart of Mersey’ (HoM. Information was obtained from publicly available sources and declarations. We developed a five point ordinal scale based upon the ideology of the Nolan Principles of Public Life. Group members were individually categorised on the ordinal ConScale from “0”, (complete independence from the food and drink industry to “4”, (employed by the food and drink industry or a representative organisation. Results CoI involving various industries have long been evident in policy making, academia and clinical practice. Suggested approaches for managing CoI could be categorised as “deny”, “describe”, or “diminish”. Declared CoI were common in the ORG and SACN
Guay, Frédéric; Ratelle, Catherine; Roy, Amélie; Litalien, David
Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between autonomous academic motivation and achievement, or 3) both motivational constructs have an additive effect on academic achievement. A total of 925 hig...
This paper deals with the data of dormitory students in National Institute of Technology, Kagoshima College to demonstrate the existence of peer effects in academic performance. The data have unique advantages to avoid the difficulties of the self-selection problem and reflection problem. The data shows freshmen's academic performance and previous year's junior high school records, and roommate's previous year's academic performance for using an instrumental variable method. The results of my...
Gurdeep S Hura
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new user-friendly application enhancing and expanding the current advising services of Gradesfirst currently being used for advising and retention by the Athletic department of UMES with a view to implement new performance activities like mentoring, tutoring, scheduling, and study hall hours into existing tools. This application includes various measurements that can be used to monitor and improve the performance of the students in the Athletic Department of UMES by monitoring students’ weekly study hall hours, and tutoring schedules. It also supervises tutors’ login and logout activities in order to monitor their effectiveness, supervises tutor-tutee interaction, and stores and analyzes the overall academic progress of each student. A dedicated server for providing services will be developed at the local site. The paper has been implemented in three steps. The first step involves the creation of an independent cloud computing environment that provides resources such as database creation, query-based statistical data, performance measures activities, and automated support of performance measures such as advising, mentoring, monitoring and tutoring. The second step involves the creation of an application known as Student Advising and Retention (SAR application in a cloud computing environment. This application has been designed to be a comprehensive database management system which contains relevant data regarding student academic development that supports various strategic advising and monitoring of students. The third step involves the creation of a systematic advising chart and frameworks which help advisors. The paper shows ways of creating the most appropriate advising technique based on the student’s academic needs. The proposed application runs in a Windows-based system. As stated above, the proposed application is expected to enhance and expand the current advising service of Gradesfirst tool. A brief
Paul, W. Kohle; Fitzpatrick, Colleen
Student satisfaction with advising is positively linked to first-year student retention and sophomore persistence to their senior year. However, inconsistencies in the advising literature confound conclusions about the most effective advising approach to elicit student satisfaction. Positive links between the servant leadership approach and…
Full Text Available In 2011, a large organization, with a global mission and traditional structure set out to realign its mission in the context of the rapidly evolving global economy. This created space for a division within the institution to embark on an innovative change agenda with a renewed focus on talent management as an integral part of the change. The essential element of the talent management innovation related to performance evaluation and feedback with the goal of improving performance and results by providing richer feedback to staff. This novel approach involved leveraging the knowledge of neutral, third party Performance Advisers (PA who gathered, reviewed and synthesized information about performance for the purpose of coaching evaluees. Based on follow-up surveys and focus groups, the pilot was broadly considered a success by most participants. A second evaluation approach was applied to assess the richness of the feedback, and to determine whether the coaching experiment produced objective, quantifiable, and verifiable changes in feedback from one performance cycle to the next. The second evaluation leveraged semantic analysis profiles and technologies. The results demonstrate observable and verifiable improvements in the feedback. This research provides important lessons for large, diverse organizations seeking to make changes in traditional performance management systems.
Ryser, Jeannine; Alden, Peg
Advisor perceptions of and responses to the social and emotional needs of college students with learning disabilities (LDs) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) are studied. Through a mixed-method approach of surveys and focus groups, four themes emerged: social-emotional issues that students present in the advising relationship;…
Glennen, Robert E.; And Others
The process and results of team building by Emporia State University's centralized advising center are examined from the perspectives of president, enrollment management, centralized advising, and faculty. The effort demonstrates that administrative, state, and team commitment can produce positive results in freshman retention, higher graduation…
Wyatt, Eric L.
The purpose of the current study was to determine if there was congruence between college students' perceptions of their current academic advisor's advising style and their preferred advisor's academic advising style; examine if the relationship between current and preferred advisor's academic advising styles predicted a student's level of…
Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb
Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…
Basyouni, Sawzan S.
The present study is an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of a selective advising program in reducing the degree of Compulsive Buying Behavior among female students, Faculty of Education at Umm al-Qura University. The sample consisted of (200) female students to verify the validity and reliability of the tool. The quasi-experimental method…
De Gale, S.; Boisselle, L. N.
POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) is a collaborative learning technique that employs guided inquiry within a cyclic system of exploration, concept invention, and application. This action research explores students' academic performance on a unit of organic chemistry work taught using POGIL, in addition to the effect of POGIL on…
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of academic detailing (AD) plus postal prescribing feedback versus postal prescribing feedback alone in reducing: (i) the overall rate of antibiotic; and (ii) proportion of second-line antibiotic prescribing. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of an outreach prescriber adviser service versus a postal prescribing feedback service was evaluated.
Chapman, David W.; Gill, Stephen J.
Examines the college admissions activities that high school counselors believe are most effective in providing accurate information to students. Also examines the current role of the counselor in college advising and reports on what counselors predict will be the trends in college advising. (Author/RC)
A study of the effects of various manifestations of onchocerciasis namely visual impairment, oncho-rashes (papular oncodermatitis) and palpable nodules on academic performance was undertaken with the objective of finding out the manifestation with the most serious negative effect on academic performance. The study ...
Goomas, David T.
In a pilot study at El Centro College, an urban college in the Dallas County Community College District, students in a new-to-college educational framework class were offered an intervention intended to enhance the academic advising process. The intervention consisted of in-class career services advising, degree selection, degree planning, course…
van der Sijde, Peter; McGowan, Pauric; van de Velde, Theodor; Youngleson, Jonathan
The contribution has three parts. In the first part the concept of academic entrepreneurship is explained, defined and put into the context of the entrepreneurial university. In the second part four cases are described: - (1) The Nikos case at the University of Twente: In Nikos teaching, research
Schaeffer, Donna M.; Rouse, Donald
Recently, accrediting bodies are placing great responsibility for accountability on universities and academic schools, departments, and programs. The goal of the increased accountability is improved quality of teaching and learning. In this paper, we describe several levels of accountability for quality teaching and learning in a small, private,…
Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David
Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…
Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)
Kumar, P.K. Sudheesh; P., Dileep
This study is undertaken to examine the effectiveness of a newly constructed psychometric instrument to assess Academic Life Satisfaction along with the components of Emotional Intelligence. The Academic Life Satisfaction Scale is used to predict the scholastic achievement as an index of Academic success. The investigators found that Academic Life…
Sy, Jobila Williams
Although international research regarding advising is burgeoning, most of the research on the role of and advantages related to academic advising has been limited to U.S. colleges and universities. This ethnographic case study conducted at a Liberian university examined the organizational culture of advising from student, faculty, and staff…
Full Text Available The issue of teaching and learning accountability has been discussed for years. This study focuses specifically on advising accountability of management education to explore how faculty advisors communicate with their student advisees using instant messaging (IM to enhance advising presence primarily based on Tetlock’s social contingency model. The dependent relationships between advisor and advisee are considered a cohort, and their collaboration as a community of practice. Of the 254 graduate students in the college of management, the result reveals that their perception of advising accountability has been casually explained by the antecedents, that is, self-efficacy, advising presence, epistemic engagement, advisor credibility, and their flow experience toward using IM to communicate with their thesis advisors. The research finding validates intervening factors between students’ perception of IM self-efficacy and advising accountability of thesis advisors. The findings, regardless of the limited generalization, provide prescriptive implications that educational practitioners can use to evaluate related issues of advising accountability.
Sunstein, Cass R
Findings in behavioral science, including psychology, have influenced policies and reforms in many nations. Choice architecture can affect outcomes even if material incentives are not involved. In some contexts, default rules, simplification, and social norms have had even larger effects than significant economic incentives. Psychological research is helping to inform initiatives in savings, finance, highway safety, consumer protection, energy, climate change, obesity, education, poverty, development, crime, corruption, health, and the environment. No nation has yet created a council of psychological advisers, but the role of behavioral research in policy domains is likely to grow in the coming years, especially in light of the mounting interest in promoting ease and simplification ("navigability"); in increasing effectiveness, economic growth, and competitiveness; and in providing low-cost, choice-preserving approaches.
Matsen, Marie E.
Lane Community College's Computer Assisted Advising Tool (CAAT) is used by counselors to assist students in developing a plan for the completion of a degree or certificate. CAAT was designed to facilitate student advisement from matriculation to graduation by comparing degree requirements with the courses completed by students. Three major sources…
Ayers, Brian S.
This paper discusses the effects of social ideology on academic freedom, beginning with the role of academic freedom, on teaching and research, as well as the professional responsibilities that go along with this freedom. The paper goes on to examine the conflicts faced by academic institutions in balancing academic freedom with the influence of…
Charlie Nutt has been an active member of the National Academic Advising Association (NACADA) since 1991 and currently is the NACADA Executive Director. NACADA promotes and supports quality academic advising in institutions of higher education to enhance the educational development of students. Nutt's current responsibilities as executive director…
Aims: An important aspect of the student’s learning in academic performance is self-regulating. Students without required academic achievement skills need educational approaches to obtain the required insight in self-regulate learning. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of teaching academic skills on academic achievement in the advanced diploma medical emergency students of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. Materials & Methods: The intervening pretest-posttest stu...
Yune, So-Joung; Park, Kwi Hwa; Chung, Wook-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yeoup
This study investigated the relationship among types of attribution tendencies, academic stress, coping efficacy, and academic adjustment in medical students and identified the means by which the academic adjustment of medical students can improve. Four hundred forty-two subjects from 2 medical schools in Korea were analyzed; 202 were male, 206 were female, and 34 did not identify their gender. We surveyed their academic adjustment, attribution tendencies, academic stress, and coping efficacy. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The male group scored higher on academic adjustment, internal attribution tendency, and coping efficacy but lower on academic stress than the female group. Coping efficacy and internal attribution tendency affected the academic adjustment positively while academic stress influenced it negatively. The study indicates that students with higher scores on coping efficacy and internal attribution tendency and who have lower scores on academic stress tend to adjust better academically in medical school. Therefore, these findings may be helpful for medical schools in designing effective academic adjustment programs to improve coping efficacy and internal attribution tendency and reduce academic stress. Further, these findings have important implications for planning learning consultation programs, especially in Year 1.
Tompkins, Tanya L.; Witt, Jody
Although the college years prove to be a vulnerable time for students and a critical period for suicide prevention, few school-based prevention strategies have been empirically evaluated. The current study examined the short-term effects of Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training program that teaches how to recognize warning…
Kim, Young K.; Sax, Linda J.
Using cross-classified multilevel modeling, this study attempted to improve our understanding of the group-level conditional effects of student-faculty interaction by examining the function of academic majors in explaining the effects of student-faculty interaction on students' academic self-concept. The study utilized data on 11,202…
McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap
This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…
O'Donnell, T Kevin
Continued public support for U.S. taxpayer funded programs aimed at reducing agricultural pollutants depends on clear demonstrations of water quality improvements. The objective of this research was to determine if implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) in the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) resulted in changes to atrazine and nitrate (NO(3)-N) loads during storm events. An additional objective was to estimate future monitoring periods necessary to detect a 5, 10, 20, and 25% reduction in atrazine and NO(3)-N event load. The GCEW is a 73 km(2) watershed located in northcentral Missouri, USA. Linear regressions and Akaike Information Criteria were used to determine if reductions in atrazine and NO(3)-N event loads occurred as BMPs were implemented. No effects due to any BMP type were indicated for the period of record. Further investigation of event sampling from the long-term GCEW monitoring program indicated errors in atrazine load calculations may be possible due to pre-existing minimum threshold levels used to trigger autosampling and sample compositing. Variation of event loads was better explained by linear regressions for NO(3)-N than for atrazine. Decommissioning of upstream monitoring stations during the study period represented a missed opportunity to further explain variation of event loads at the watershed outlet. Atrazine requires approximately twice the monitoring period relative to NO(3)-N to detect future reductions in event load. Appropriate matching of pollutant transport mechanisms with autosampling protocols remains a critical information need when setting up or adapting watershed monitoring networks aimed at detecting watershed-scale BMP effects.
Noltemeyer, Amity; Sansosti, Frank J.
This exploratory study examined (a) Integrated Systems Model (ISM) implementation levels, and (b) the effect of implementation of the academic and behavioral components of ISM on student academic outcomes. Participants included 2,660 students attending six suburban elementary schools. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted using a control…
Høigaard, Rune; Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy
This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth-and tenth-grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic…
Hansen, Michele Joann; Trujillo, Daniel J.; Boland, Donna L.; MacKinnon, Joyce L.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the underlying non-cognitive processes and institutional factors that allowed first-year students to enact effective strategies for attaining academic success and persisting despite obstacles. The varying levels of academic preparation and unique obstacles faced by the student participants…
Kader, Fathi Abdul Hamid Abdul; Eissa, Mourad Ali
This study investigated the effect of using time management strategies instruction on improving first year learning disabled students' academic time management and academic self efficacy. A total of 60 students identified with LD participated. The sample was divided into two groups; experimental (n = 30 boys) and control (n = 30 boys). ANCOVA and…
Carlo Rubbia, the author of the Rubbia report on high performance computing and networking, has been called in by the European Commission to advise on the future of the Community's research policy. He is a Nobel Prize winner for physics (1984), and director-general of CERN in Geneva. Rubbia will be one of three internationally reowned European scientists called in by the Commission.
Full Text Available Aims: An important aspect of the student’s learning in academic performance is self-regulating. Students without required academic achievement skills need educational approaches to obtain the required insight in self-regulate learning. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of teaching academic skills on academic achievement in the advanced diploma medical emergency students of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. Materials & Methods: The intervening pretest-posttest study without any control group was a section of a greater action-research study to conduct and implement an educational process. The intervention included two 3-hour educational workshops for ten academic skills at one month interval for 23 advanced diploma medical emergency students of Ilam University of Medical Sciences during their second educational semester in 2014. The study tool was a 10-phrase self-made questionnaire, its validity and reliability was confirmed. Data was analyzed in SPSS 21 software using Paired-T test. Findings: There was an increase in the mean total score of academic skills after the intervention (p=0.009. From ten skills, the differences between the mean scores before and after the intervention were significant only in academic planning skills (p=0.025, the utilization of the memory strengthening methods (p=0.045, and correct study techniques (p=0.031. Academic intervention affected the students’ academic achievement (GPA (p=0.001. Conclusion: Conducting academic skills educational workshops affects the utilization of the skills by the students and their academic achievements.
This study investigated the effects of cognitive style and gender on student's academic achievement in social studies. It was designed to obtain empirical evidence of effects of cognitive style and gender as well as the interaction effects of cognitive style on student's academic achievement in social studies. The subjects of the ...
Van Eck, Richard
This study looks at the roles that competition and context of advisement play in transfer, advisor use, attitude toward mathematics, and attitude toward instruction in a computer-based simulation game that required the use of mathematics skills. It is concluded that for transfer training, non-competitive simulation games might be the best choice,…
Armour, Katherine S.
This study investigated the effect of weekly progress reports on the academic achievement of seventh grade language arts students. It also investigated the effects of weekly progress reports on locus of control attribution and the relationship between academic achievement and locus of control attribution. The study took place in a suburban school…
This study investigated the prevalence, causes and effects of academic corruption in Rivers State universities, Nigeria. Data were collected from 400 respondents using a 'Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Academic Corruption Questionnaire' (PCEACQ). The data were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages.
Full Text Available -1 Writeshops: An effective tool to enable African academics to publish Vincent*, K., T. Cull, (Kulima Integrated Development Solutions, South Africa) E. Archer van Garderen, (CSIR, South Africa) and A. Awiti, (Aga Khan University, Kenya) * Corresponding.... (Pifer and Demissie 2009). The shortage of academic staff, combined with the necessity for researchers to fund (or supplement funding available for) their studies, means that very few African academics have the privilege of dedicating themselves full...
Kauts Amit; Sharma Neelam
Background: Academic performance is concerned with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject or group of subjects after a long period of instruction. Excessive stress hampers students′ performance. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. Materials and Methods: The study started ...
Chrystal-Green, Nancy E
This chapter addresses the roles and responsibilities of advising; specifically, how advisors can cultivate both individual and group settings to be important teaching and learning environments and how to advise with leadership development in mind. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Forrester, William R.; Tashchian, Armen
This study investigated the effects of personality on attitudes toward academic group work among a sample of 225 business students. Data were collected using pre-existing scales for measuring personality and attitudes toward academic group work. Specifically, the Neo-FFI scale was used to measure the five personality dimensions of openness,…
Fageeh, Abdulaziz; Mekheimer, Mohamed Amin A.
This study aimed to recognize the pedagogical effects of Blackboard as a computer-mediated communication (CMC) environment for teaching academic writing and improving students' attitudes toward academic writing. Learners' interactions in the CMC environment of Blackboard were analyzed via a controlled descriptive design to examine how students…
This paper discusses a study investigating students' opinions and reflections on backwash effects of portfolio assessments applied in Academic Writing course. To obtain the data, the researcher carried out interviews with 70 students of English Education Department (EED) of "Universitas Muria Kudus" (UMK) who took Academic Writing I and…
Faculty members in higher education institutions which technology produced in and used actively try to overcome simultaneous one more works because of their intensive works and responsibilities. This study associated simultaneously doing one more academic works to multitasking. Multitasking may have a detrimental effect on academic works since it…
Schiff, Frederick; Ryan, Michael
Reports results of a survey investigating what practices journalism faculty advisers perceive as appropriate and ethical (when advising theses and dissertations) in several potentially troublesome areas: problems with appropriation of student work; problems of joint authorship; appropriateness of adviser input; reasons for writing a thesis or…
... 3235-AK71 Investment Adviser Performance Compensation AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 that permits investment advisers to charge performance based..., Office of Regulatory Policy, Division of Investment Management, Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F...
Lund, Asta Breinholt; Holm, Anders
Parental education and mothers education in particular are believed to play an important role for children’s academic outcomes. This paper analyzes the causal effect of mothers' education on children’s academic performance. Using Danish administrative data on mothers’ education careers, we apply...... a difference-in-differences design to control for the nonrandom selection into maternal education and find that mothers’ education has a positive effect on children’s academic performance. The effect diminishes, the higher the mothers’ initial educational attainment....
This paper discussed the concepts of school library, its roles in the development of education system in Nigeria. The paper also highlighted the services offered in school libraries to support teaching and learning in promoting academic excellence in students performance. It also discussed the functions of school library ...
Lewis, David W.
Considers organizational structures of academic libraries through writings of organizational theorists and related work by librarians and develops an organizational model based on this review. The model comprises a modified professional bureaucratic structure; flexible resource allocation; use of management information systems; export of…
EFFECTS. OF MATERIAL AND NON-MATERIAL. REINFORCERS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF GIRLS. ON HEALTH SCIENCE IN THE SENIOR SECONDARY ... improvement in the students' performance in health science, teachers should always consider it ... methods and their inability to use reinforcement.
Full Text Available Background: Universities have important responsibilities to prevent physical, emotional, social and academic problems during the course of their study. To achieve this goal, it is necessary that universities offer effective academic advising services to the students. Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of programs offered for developing academic consultants (AC ability by assessing students’ satisfaction with the consultation they recieve. Methods: From a total of 90 ACs and 2,500 students in the Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, 72 AC and 445 students from four colleges (Medicine, Health Sciences, Dentistry, Nursing and Midwifery voluntarily participated in the pretest. 87 ACs were randomly assigned into two groups (Group Bf participated in a workshop designed based on PRECEDE model; Group Cf was offered material relevant to academic consultation. According to the AC groups, the students were divided into groupBs(n=363; their AC have participated in workshop, group Cs (n=408; their AC received Educational Material, and groupDs (n= 190; the student have no active AC. Data collection was conducted by questionnaires, pre-test and post-test (after one academic semester prior to the intervention. Results: Mean scores of knowledge (M=14.77, SD=3.01 (especially in the College of Medicine and Dentistry and attitude (M=61.79, SD=5.78 of AC about offering effective academic advising to the students was improved significantly in both intervention groups, but this effect was more pronounced in group Bf compared with group Cf (M= 1 1.54,SD=2.76; M=59.23,SD=8.6 (n=44, and group Af (the pre-test group (M=10.67,SD=4.2; M=57.2,SD=1 1.6. Students in group Bf significantly were more satisfied with consultation they received and more willing to use consultation services of their ACs. Conclusion: The PRECEDE model's educational workshop program was more effective in modifying the AC ability in offering effective academic advising, guiding, and
Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
Peer victimization is a concern because victimized youth are more likely to have social, emotional, and academic difficulties. The current study examined the link between peer victimization and academic achievement by exploring the indirect effect of academic self-concept on two variables. The sample consisted of 140 middle school students (40%…
M. O. Welcome; E. V. Pereverzeva; V. A. Pereverzev
The regulatory competence of blood glucose homeostasis might determine the degree of academic performance. The aim of this study was to produce a model of students' alcohol use based on glucose homeostasis control and cognitive functions that might define the pathogenetic mechanism of alcohol's effect on academic performance. The study took six hours and thirty minutes on fasting, involving thirteen male students. Disturbances in cognitive functions, precisely a decrease in the effectiveness ...
Academic advising has long been considered a critical factor to student success. With a qualitative, phenomenological research design, this study was undertaken to better understand the lived experiences of academic advisors in communicating with international students in a community college context. Intercultural communication competence was used…
Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio
This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.
Full Text Available This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.
Full Text Available Objective: In this paper, we aimed to investigate the job satisfaction levels of all the academic staff in Trakya University, along with their socioeconomic features.Material and Methods: We used a questionnaire including the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Frequency tables, cross tabulations, Pearson Chi-square, Exact Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn’s Multiple Comparison and Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID tests were used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean age of 560 participants was 33.86±7.33 years, of whom 47% (n=263 were female and 53% (n=297 male. Of the participants, the mean levels were 63.06±10.96 for general, 44.79±7.49 for intrinsic, and 18.27±4.64 for extrinsic job satisfaction. 85.4% of the academic staff (n=478 had a moderate level of satisfaction, whereas 14.6% (n=82 had a higher level. There was a significant relationship between income and job satisfaction levels. With the CHAID analysis, it was determined that job satisfaction had a relationship with age, educational status, total years of service and years of service in the current department. Conclusion: Job satisfaction can reflect the general emotional status of employees. It has a greater importance for the jobs that can affect the extraoccupational lives directly and require constant devotion. Employers should take some measures to increase job satisfaction in order to improve efficiency.
Giacalone, Valarie A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an academic service learning project on ninth-grade students' science achievement and attitudes. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design was used with four classes of one teacher in a rural school. The treatment was an Energy Fair service project. Two treatment classes that were chosen by random assignment (n = 58) were compared to two control classes (n = 64), who performed an alternative assignment. The Energy Fair was conducted for the elementary school students and on a limited basis for fellow students (peers). The academic effect was measured by a teacher-designed end-of-unit ecology test, with a subset of the questions on energy use. Psychological effects were measured by a self-esteem questionnaire, which measured both self-esteem and the satisfaction felt about one's self-esteem. Social effects were measured by three semantic differentials, one each for "adults," "peers," and "elementary students." The teacher was interviewed regarding her observations about the project. Written reflections from both the treatment and control groups were coded and analyzed. Pretest results were divided into thirds of high, medium, and low for all variables to search for the possibility of an attribute-treatment interaction. Analysis of covariance was used to reduce the possibility of pretest bias, to test for significant effects, and to test for a level by treatment interaction. Although the posttest means favored the experimental group, no statistically significant difference was found for academic results. No significant effect was found for either of the psychological measures. No change was found for the social results regarding "adults." A statistically significant effect was found for social results in the categories of "elementary students" and "peers." No statistically significant level by treatment interaction was found. Further research on the effects of academic service learning projects is needed at
Chae, Su Jin; Kim, Miran; Chang, Ki Hong
Academic failure tolerance (AFT) is one of the important psychological concepts in education, but its applications in medical education are rare. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of academic failure tolerance on academic achievement fluctuation among medical school students using a longitudinal research design. The subjects were 43 medical students who responded to the AFT test. This study analyzed the longitudinal data of achievement scores up to the 2nd academic year (2012-2013) among students who were divided into academic achievement improvement and decline groups. Comparing the improvement and decline groups' mean academic achievement fluctuation scores demonstrated that behavior and preferred task difficulty showed high scores whereas feeling scores were lower in the improvement group (pacademic failure, the students favored the more difficult subjects and were more assiduous in their studies. This will form an important basis for enhancing academic achievement among medical students.
Nielsen, Lisbeth Palmhøj; Hansen, Anne Toft
of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employment has a positive effect on children’s academic performance in all specifications, particularly when women work...... part-time. This is in contrast with the larger literature on maternal employment, much of which takes place in other contexts, and which finds no or a small negative effect of maternal employment on children’s cognitive development and academic performance. (JEL J13, J22)...
Puroway, Andrew W.
Advising is not a politically neutral activity. It requires pedagogical grounding that promotes critical reflection and action consistent with praxis. Advisors can turn to literature citing Brazilian educator and critical pedagogue, Paulo Freire, for discussions on praxis, and they can use a Freirian-inspired advising approach to connect the…
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal adviser. 327.6 Section 327... PUBLIC HEARINGS § 327.6 Legal adviser. At each public hearing, the district counsel or his designee may serve as legal advisor to the presiding officer. In appropriate circumstances, the district engineer may...
Howell-Carter, Marya; Nieman-Gonder, Jennifer; Pellegrino, Jennifer; Catapano, Brittani; Hutzel, Kimberly
The MAP (Model Advisement Procedure) is a comprehensive, systematic approach to developmental student advisement. The MAP was implemented to improve advisement consistency, improve student preparation for internships/senior projects, increase career exploration, reduce career uncertainty, and, ultimately, improve student satisfaction with the…
Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R
The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the performance. The RAE remains, even with residual
Full Text Available The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE. This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES, and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders.The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5, in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest.The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the performance.The RAE remains, even
Giones, Ferran; Billström, Anders; Rasmussen, Einar
) performance. A longitudinal sample, between 2000 and 2012, of 125 academic spin-offs of Norway provides valuable insights on how the origin and characteristics of the technology relates to differences in market performance. The results show how different dimensions of innovativeness have a different impact...... on ASOs’ market performance, offering a nuanced view of the relationship between innovativeness and performance in this context. The findings provide insights for policy makers and university managers interested in understanding the effects of their policy choices on academic spin-offs....
Martin, Elaine Russo
The objective of this study is to apply J. Richard Hackman's framework on team effectiveness to academic medical library settings. The study uses a qualitative, multiple case study design, employing interviews and focus groups to examine team effectiveness in three academic medical libraries. Another site was selected as a pilot to validate the research design, field procedures, and methods to be used with the cases. In all, three interviews and twelve focus groups, with approximately seventy-five participants, were conducted at the case study libraries. Hackman identified five conditions leading to team effectiveness and three outcomes dimensions that defined effectiveness. The participants in this study identified additional characteristics of effectiveness that focused on enhanced communication, leadership personality and behavior, and relationship building. The study also revealed an additional outcome dimension related to the evolution of teams. Introducing teams into an organization is not a trivial matter. Hackman's model of effectiveness has implications for designing successful library teams.
Rodriguez, Carmen; Arenz, Bernard
This study was designed to examine the effects of looping, a practice whereby teachers and students stay together for more than one year, on perceived values and academic achievement in language arts at a Fresno Unified School District elementary school in Fresno, CA. Looping has many perceived advantages, such as the development of long-term…
This paper reports the results of an investigation on the effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of physics course. Cooperative learning was employed to experimental group and conventional teaching method was used for control group. Sampling of the study consists of 15-16 years old 220 students at high school in Iran. The progress…
Objective: This study was intended to assess the prevalence, determinants, and effect of khat use on academic performance of high school students in Sidama Ethiopia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2015. We used a stratified sampling technique to draw a total of 1,577students.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of technology on librarians working in academic libraries in Nigeria with particular reference to Delta State. The descriptive survey design was adopted. The twelve (12) tertiary institutions libraries in Delta State were used for the study. The purposive sampling technique ...
Bevel, Raymona K.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between academic optimism (AO) and elementary reading achievement (RA). Design/methodology/approach: Using correlation and hierarchical linear regression, the authors examined school-level effects of AO on fifth grade reading achievement in 29 elementary schools in Alabama.…
This study examined effects of material and non-material reinforcers on academic performance of Abia State Senior Secondary Schools girls on health science. As a quasi-experimental study, 120 SS II students were selected from six secondary schools located in the three Educational zones of the state. From each zone ...
Hendriks, A.A.J.; Kuyper, H.; Lubbers, M.J; Van der Werf, M.P.C.
We investigated whether personality moderates group influence of classmates on academic achievement and whether these so-called context effects can be attributed to peer pressure. The sample consisted of 2498 students in their first year of Dutch secondary education. The data were analyzed by a
Many researchers link social capital theory to education and commonly use examples from the field of education to examine social capital theory. Accordingly, they accept that reflections and contributions of social capital can be observed in the field of education. This paper examines social capital's effects on academic success in education. In…
This study was an attempt to investigate the effects of integrating laboratory work with theory on academic achievement of secondary school physics students. The study was conducted in Oron Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and sixty two (162) senior secondary two (SS2) physics ...
This study inestigated the effects of classroom feedback on the academic performance of senior secondary students in Bassa LGA of Plateau State. The research made use of the experimental design with a total of 60 participants comprising of 33 boys and 27 girls within the age range of 15-17. To achieve the purpose of the ...
Academic Staff Perception on Effective Planning of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Distance Learning Programme. ... study were the use of electronic mail (e-mail), electronic notice board, internet, video conferencing, facsimile machine (fax), disc player, satellite telecommunication, slide audio cassette
Research reports indicate that this negative attitude was caused, majorly, by teachers' conventional (lecture) method of teaching integrated science. Research reports on the effectiveness of constructivist-based teaching strategy revealed that the strategy enhanced students' academic performance. In view of this, this study ...
Mohebi, S; Sharifirad, G H R; Shahsiah, M; Botlani, S; Matlabi, M; Rezaeian, M
Academic anxiety is an important educational problem that affects millions of students in colleges and schools over the world each year. Although a low level of anxiety can cause positive motivation for improvement of educational functioning, high levels of it can cause a disturbance in concentration, attention, storage of knowledge, recall and educational reduction. It has also been recently determined that there is a relationship between anxiety and assertiveness. Therefore, this study is an attempt to determine the effect of assertiveness training on reducing anxiety levels in pre-college academic students in Gonabad city in 2008. In this clinical trial study, all the pre-college students of Gonabad city were invited to participate and 89 students were divided into experimental and control groups. There were 3 questionnaires, namely demographic, academic anxiety and assertiveness Rathus questionnaires in which the validity and reliability were calculated and approved. The intervention for the experimental group was 5 sessions of assertiveness training using the PRECEDE model and 1 session for parents and teachers to help and support the intervention program. We had a post-test 8 weeks after the last training session for each group was conducted. The data was analyzed by SPSS. The results showed that anxiety levels and decisiveness in the target group were moderate to high and it is seen as a significant reverse relationship between these two factors (r = -0.69 and p increase in decisiveness for both groups, but there was not a significant difference between academic anxiety and assertiveness in the control group.before and after the intervention. Due to a significant decrease in anxiety and increased decisiveness in the experimental group, it can be claimed that assertiveness training is an effective non-pharmacological method for reducing academic anxiety and it can improve academic performance.
Kopenhaver, Lillian Lodge
Offers information and guidelines delineating the roles and responsibilities of an adviser to student publications--to safeguard students' First Amendment rights and to ensure that students will have freedom of expression. (RL)
Physicists are among those to call for Europe to retain the post of chief scientific adviser following an open letter signed by nine non-governmental organizations - including Greenpeace - that had said the position should be scrapped.
Braun, Jakob; Zolfagharian, Mohammadali
While there is general consensus that students are more or less participants in their educational experiences, the relationship between student participation and satisfaction has not been extensively examined in higher education literature. Looking to participation research in other literatures serves as a starting point for exploring this link.…
Seaton, Marjorie; Marsh, Herbert W.; Parker, Philip D.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander S.
The reciprocal effects model (REM) predicts a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and academic achievement, whereby prior academic self-concept is associated with future gains in achievement, and prior achievement is related to subsequent academic self-concept. Although research in this area has been extensive, there has been a…
Reeves, Jonathan Bart
This study examined the relationship of two climate constructs in academic optimism and organizational climate as each relates to school effectiveness. Academic optimism is an academic environment comprised of three dimensions: academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust (Hoy, Tarter, & Hoy, 2006). The Organizational Climate…
Ulum, Ömer Gökhan; Kara, Ömer Tugrul
The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the effects of war on Syrian students' academic success. No one can deny the fact that wars have direct and indirect effects on children. Besides, no one can deny the fact that not only soldiers are targets in wars, but also children, women, and even old people are, who altogether make a society.…
van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy J.; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.
This study aims to assess the impact of systematic academic instruction on academic progress and behavioural problems of students with emotional and/or behavioural disorders (EBD) in special education. Earlier studies have noted the importance of a systematic approach as well as the significance of focusing on academic instruction instead of on…
Kauts, Amit; Sharma, Neelam
Academic performance is concerned with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject or group of subjects after a long period of instruction. Excessive stress hampers students' performance. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. The study started with 800 adolescent students; 159 high-stress students and 142 low-stress students were selected on the basis of scores obtained through Stress Battery. Experimental group and control group were given pre test in three subjects, i.e., Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. A yoga module consisting of yoga asanas, pranayama, meditation, and a value orientation program was administered on experimental group for 7 weeks. The experimental and control groups were post-tested for their performance on the three subjects mentioned above. The results show that the students, who practiced yoga performed better in academics. The study further shows that low-stress students performed better than high-stress students, meaning thereby that stress affects the students' performance.
Full Text Available Background: Academic performance is concerned with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject or group of subjects after a long period of instruction. Excessive stress hampers students′ performance. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. Materials and Methods: The study started with 800 adolescent students; 159 high-stress students and 142 low-stress students were selected on the basis of scores obtained through Stress Battery. Experimental group and control group were given pre test in three subjects, i.e., Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. A yoga module consisting of yoga asanas, pranayama, meditation, and a value orientation program was administered on experimental group for 7 weeks. The experimental and control groups were post-tested for their performance on the three subjects mentioned above. Results: The results show that the students, who practiced yoga performed better in academics. The study further shows that low-stress students performed better than high-stress students, meaning thereby that stress affects the students′ performance.
Kauts, Amit; Sharma, Neelam
Background: Academic performance is concerned with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject or group of subjects after a long period of instruction. Excessive stress hampers students’ performance. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. Materials and Methods: The study started with 800 adolescent students; 159 high-stress students and 142 low-stress students were selected on the basis of scores obtained through Stress Battery. Experimental group and control group were given pre test in three subjects, i.e., Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. A yoga module consisting of yoga asanas, pranayama, meditation, and a value orientation program was administered on experimental group for 7 weeks. The experimental and control groups were post-tested for their performance on the three subjects mentioned above. Results: The results show that the students, who practiced yoga performed better in academics. The study further shows that low-stress students performed better than high-stress students, meaning thereby that stress affects the students’ performance. PMID:21234215
Lowry, Glenn R.; Grites, Thomas J.
In a Stockton State advising program focusing on career planning and personal development as well as academic programs, a project undertaken by students in the Information and Systems Sciences program helped improve the student data delivery system and save time. Sample records, flow charts, and costs are provided. (MSE)
Montag, Tamara; Campo, Jill; Weissman, Julie; Walmsley, Angela; Snell, Alex
Utilizing generational theory, we explored the relationship between Millennial characteristics and students' major selection and academic advising experiences. We conducted focus groups of students with senior standing at a private, midwestern university, and we utilized a closed coding technique to analyze the qualitative data. Consistent with…
Full Text Available Peer advising is an integral part of our undergraduate advising system in the Public Health Sciences major at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. The program was developed in 2009 to address the advising needs of a rapidly growing major that went from 25 to over 530 majors between 2007 and 2014. Each year, 9-12 top performing upper-level students are chosen through an intensive application process. A major goal of the program is to provide curriculum and career guidance to students in the major and empower students in their academic and professional pursuits. The year-long program involves several components, including: staffing the drop-in advising center, attending training seminars, developing and presenting workshops for students, meeting prospective students and families, evaluating ways to improve the program, and collaborating on self-directed projects. The peer advisors also provide program staff insight into the needs and perspectives of students in the major. In turn, peer advisors gain valuable leadership and communication skills, and learn strategies for improving student success. The Peer Advising Program builds community and fosters personal and professional development for the peer advisors. In this paper, we will discuss the undergraduate peer advising model, the benefits and challenges of the program, and lessons learned. Several methods were used to understand the perceived benefits and challenges of the program and experiences of students who utilized the Peer Advising Center. The data for this evaluation were drawn from three sources: 1 archival records from the Peer Advising Center; 2 feedback from peer advisors who completed the year-long internship; and 3 a survey of students who utilized the Peer Advising Center. Results of this preliminary evaluation indicate that peer advisors gain valuable skills that they can carry into their professional world. The program is also a way to engage students in building community
Shapiro, Cory Adam
The purpose for this doctoral action research study was to discover if and how an updated training and development curriculum benefited residential student organization advisers at Arizona State University (ASU). Eleven advisers of residential student organizations completed a pilot training and development program and agreed to participate in a…
Written by one of the world's leading groups in the area of Bayesian identification, control, and decision making, this book provides the theoretical and algorithmic basis of optimized probabilistic advising. Starting from abstract ideas and formulations, and culminating in detailed algorithms, the book comprises a unified treatment of an important problem of the design of advisory systems supporting supervisors of complex processes. It introduces the theoretical and algorithmic basis of developed advising, relying on novel and powerful combination black-box modelling by dynamic mixture models
Russo Martin, Elaine
Objectives: The objective of this study is to apply J. Richard Hackman's framework on team effectiveness to academic medical library settings. Methods: The study uses a qualitative, multiple case study design, employing interviews and focus groups to examine team effectiveness in three academic medical libraries. Another site was selected as a pilot to validate the research design, field procedures, and methods to be used with the cases. In all, three interviews and twelve focus groups, with approximately seventy-five participants, were conducted at the case study libraries. Findings: Hackman identified five conditions leading to team effectiveness and three outcomes dimensions that defined effectiveness. The participants in this study identified additional characteristics of effectiveness that focused on enhanced communication, leadership personality and behavior, and relationship building. The study also revealed an additional outcome dimension related to the evolution of teams. Conclusions: Introducing teams into an organization is not a trivial matter. Hackman's model of effectiveness has implications for designing successful library teams. PMID:16888659
BURCU KÜMBÜL GÜLER
Full Text Available The present study, in the field of psychology’s current trend positive psychology, explores the effect of optimism in university students on their life satisfaction and academic achievement. To a sample of 443 Turkish university students, a questionnaire was delivered including the scales of optimism, life satisfaction, academic achievement, monthly household income, montly personal expenditure level, satisfaction with the department, unemployment concern, career expectation for the future, place of living, religious belief and some other demographical information. As a result, optimism and life satisfaction were found to be significantly positively correlated, however there was no correlation between optimism and academic achievement. According to OLS Regression analysis; females, those who are more satisfied with their lives, who have not girl/boy friend, whose parents live together, whose religious belief is higher, whose departments are higher in the preference rank and whose monthly expenditure level is lower have higher GPAs than their counterparts. In the other OLS regression analysis where the dependent variable is life satisfactio; females, optimists, whose religious belief is higher, who have lived mostly in urban, who have not unemployment concern, who have good career expectations and whose monthly expenditure is higher are more satisfied with their lives than their counterparts.
Drago, Anthony; Rheinheimer, David C.; Detweiler, Thomas N.
This study investigated the connection between locus of control (LOC), academic self-efficacy (ASE), and academic performance, and whether these variables are affected by tutoring. Additional variables of interest, including gender, students' Pell Grant status, ethnicity, and class size, were also considered for the research models. The population…
...] Political Contributions by Certain Investment Advisers AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION... Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (``Advisers Act'') to correct an inadvertent error in the rule as published...-6787 or [email protected] , Office of Investment Adviser Regulation, Division of Investment Management, U...
Shaffer, Leigh S.; Zalewski, Jacqueline M.
We began this series by addressing the challenges of career advising in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous environment. In this article, we define human capital and suggest that advisors encourage students to utilize the principle of maximizing human capital when making decisions. We describe the personal traits and attitudes needed to…
Gordon, Virginia; Steele, Peg
The American workplace today is unlike any other in history because for the first time it is made up of four distinct generations. The advising workplaces on today's college campuses mirror this generational diversity. Four generations and their different perceptions of work attitudes and values, management expectations, communication patterns,…
Ellen José van der Gaag
Full Text Available In children, little is known about lipid profiles and the influence of dietary habits. In the past, we developed a dietary advice for optimizing the immune system, which comprised green vegetables, beef, whole milk, and full-fat butter. However, there are concerns about a possible negative influence of the full-fat dairy products of the diet on the lipid profile. We investigated the effect of the developed dietary advice on the lipid profile and BMI (body mass index/BMI-z-score of children. In this retrospective cohort study, we included children aged 1–16 years, of whom a lipid profile was determined in the period between June 2011 and November 2013 in our hospital. Children who adhered to the dietary advice were assigned to the exposed group and the remaining children were assigned to the unexposed group. After following the dietary advice for at least three months, there was a statistically significant reduction in the cholesterol/HDL (high-density lipoproteins ratio (p < 0.001 and non-HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.044 and a statistically significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.009 in the exposed group, while there was no difference in the BMI and BMI z-scores. The dietary advice has no adverse effect on the lipid profile, BMI, and BMI z-scores in children, but has a significant beneficial effect on the cholesterol/HDL ratio, non-HDL-cholesterol, and the HDL-cholesterol.
Llorca, Anna; Cristina Richaud, María; Malonda, Elisabeth
The aim of the present study is to analyze the relation between authoritative and permissive parenting styles with the kinds of adolescent peer relationships (attachment, victimization, or aggression), and of the latter ones, in turn, with academic self-efficacy, and academic performance, in three waves that range from the early-mid adolescence to late adolescence. Five hundred Spanish adolescents, of both sexes, participated in a three-wave longitudinal study in Valencia, Spain. In the first wave, adolescents were either in the third year of secondary school or the fourth year of secondary school. The mean age in the first wave was 14.70 ( SD = 0.68; range = 13-16 years). Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (Schaefer, 1965; Samper et al., 2006), Peer Attachment (from the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment by Armsden and Greenberg, 1987), Victimization (from the Kit at School, Buhs et al., 2010), Physical and Verbal Aggression Scale (Caprara and Pastorelli, 1993; Del Barrio et al., 2001), items of academic self-efficacy, and items of academic performance were administered. Structural equations modeling-path analysis was employed to explore the proposed models. The results indicated that parenting styles relate to the way the adolescents develops attachments to their peers and to academic self-efficacy. The mother's permissive style is an important positive predictor of aggressive behavior and a negative predictor of attachment to their peers. At the end, peer relations and academic self-efficacy are mediator variables between parenting styles and academic performance.
Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Mo; Li, Juan; Yu, Guoliang; Bi, Yan-Ling
Using an experimental design, the effect of concealing academic achievement information on adolescents' self-concept was examined in the current study. Specifically, adolescents with low academic achievement and adolescents with average to high academic achievement (N = 129) were randomly assigned to different interview contexts wherein…
Sinha, Sudhir K.
This quantitative study examined the effects of extracurricular activities on academic achievement of seventh and eighth graders. This study compared the academic achievements of participants and non-participants in Mathematics and Language Arts. The three different measurements used for the academic achievement were TCAP, ThinkLink, and GPA…
Haricombe, Lorraine J.
Describes a study that used quantitative data from a mailed survey and qualitative data produced from focused interviews to explore what effects an academic boycott had on faculty members at South African universities. Differences in the effects of the boycott in science and technology, humanities, and social science are examined. (Contains 15…
The impact of cognitive factors on academic achievement is well documented. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating effects of non-cognitive, motivational and situational factors on academic achievement among nursing students. The aim of this study is to explore the direct and/or indirect effects of academic self-concept on academic achievement, and examine whether intrinsic motivation moderates the negative effect of test anxiety on academic achievement. This descriptive-correlational study was carried out on a convenience sample of 170 undergraduate nursing students, in an academic college in northern Israel. Academic motivation, academic self-concept and test anxiety scales were used as measuring instruments. Bootstrapping with resampling strategies was used for testing multiple mediators' model and examining the moderator effect. A higher self-concept was found to be directly related to greater academic achievement. Test anxiety and intrinsic motivation were found to be significant mediators in the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement. In addition, intrinsic motivation significantly moderated the negative effect of test anxiety on academic achievement. The results suggested that institutions should pay more attention to the enhancement of motivational factors (e.g., self-concept and motivation) and alleviate the negative impact of situational factors (e.g., test anxiety) when offering psycho-educational interventions designed to improve nursing students' academic achievements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The relationship between American presidents and science has always been surprisingly idiosyncratic. Chief executives from Franklin Roosevelt to Ronald Reagan have adopted very different approaches to dealing with the scientific community. The early history of presidential science advising is the story of a few energetic individuals who sought to influence government policy when there was no established method for scientists to approach the White House. President Eisenhower created such a channel in 1957 with the President's Science Advisory Committee [PSAC]. Under Ike, advising the president became for the first time a systematic and formal enterprise for scientists. But the decades after Sputnik witnesses a steady waning of the importance of the president's scientists. This decline was accelerated by the Vietnam war and controversies over anti-ballistic missile defense and the supersonic transport, culminating in the abolition of PSAC by the Nixon administration in 1973. To some observers, science advising reached its nadir a decade later, with President Reagan's announcement of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). The advent of "Star Wars" demonstrated the influence of a small, select group of politically-active scientists: a consultative process reminscient of the ad hoc situation pre-PSAC.
Llorca, Anna; Cristina Richaud, María; Malonda, Elisabeth
The aim of the present study is to analyze the relation between authoritative and permissive parenting styles with the kinds of adolescent peer relationships (attachment, victimization, or aggression), and of the latter ones, in turn, with academic self-efficacy, and academic performance, in three waves that range from the early-mid adolescence to late adolescence. Five hundred Spanish adolescents, of both sexes, participated in a three-wave longitudinal study in Valencia, Spain. In the first wave, adolescents were either in the third year of secondary school or the fourth year of secondary school. The mean age in the first wave was 14.70 (SD = 0.68; range = 13–16 years). Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (Schaefer, 1965; Samper et al., 2006), Peer Attachment (from the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment by Armsden and Greenberg, 1987), Victimization (from the Kit at School, Buhs et al., 2010), Physical and Verbal Aggression Scale (Caprara and Pastorelli, 1993; Del Barrio et al., 2001), items of academic self-efficacy, and items of academic performance were administered. Structural equations modeling—path analysis was employed to explore the proposed models. The results indicated that parenting styles relate to the way the adolescents develops attachments to their peers and to academic self-efficacy. The mother's permissive style is an important positive predictor of aggressive behavior and a negative predictor of attachment to their peers. At the end, peer relations and academic self-efficacy are mediator variables between parenting styles and academic performance. PMID:29326615
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze the relation between authoritative and permissive parenting styles with the kinds of adolescent peer relationships (attachment, victimization, or aggression, and of the latter ones, in turn, with academic self-efficacy, and academic performance, in three waves that range from the early-mid adolescence to late adolescence. Five hundred Spanish adolescents, of both sexes, participated in a three-wave longitudinal study in Valencia, Spain. In the first wave, adolescents were either in the third year of secondary school or the fourth year of secondary school. The mean age in the first wave was 14.70 (SD = 0.68; range = 13–16 years. Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (Schaefer, 1965; Samper et al., 2006, Peer Attachment (from the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment by Armsden and Greenberg, 1987, Victimization (from the Kit at School, Buhs et al., 2010, Physical and Verbal Aggression Scale (Caprara and Pastorelli, 1993; Del Barrio et al., 2001, items of academic self-efficacy, and items of academic performance were administered. Structural equations modeling—path analysis was employed to explore the proposed models. The results indicated that parenting styles relate to the way the adolescents develops attachments to their peers and to academic self-efficacy. The mother's permissive style is an important positive predictor of aggressive behavior and a negative predictor of attachment to their peers. At the end, peer relations and academic self-efficacy are mediator variables between parenting styles and academic performance.
De Feyter, Tim; Caers, Ralf; Vigna, Claudia; Berings, Dries
The main purpose of this study is to unravel the impact of the Big Five personality factors on academic performance. We propose a theoretical model with conditional indirect effects of the Big Five personality factors on academic performance through their impact upon academic motivation. To clarify the mixed results of previous studies concerning…
Wouters, Sofie; Germeijs, Veerle; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine
Academic self-concept is considered a relevant psychological construct influencing many educational outcomes directly or indirectly. Therefore, the major focus of the current study is on the predictors and effects of academic self-concept in late adolescence. First, we studied the simultaneous effects of individual, class-average and school-average achievement (i.e., assessed by school grades) on academic self-concept in the final year of high school, thereby replicating and extending previous research on the big-fish-little-pond effect model. Second, the predictive value of high school academic self-concept for academic adjustment and success in the first year of higher education was examined. The sample comprised 536 twelfth grade students (44% boys) recruited from 24 schools (67 classes) that were representative with regard to geographical region and educational network in Flanders. Structural equation modeling showed that, when examining the joint contribution of school- and class-average achievement, only class-average achievement was significantly and negatively associated with academic self-concept. Furthermore, a significant effect of academic self-concept in high school on academic adjustment and success in higher education (in addition to any effects of high school academic achievement) was found. These results highlight the importance of considering academic self-concept in educational research and policy. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Jacot Sadowski, Isabelle; Humair, Jean-Paul; Cornuz, Jacques
Questions about electronic cigarettes, also called electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), are very common when advising patients to stop smoking in medical practice. It is widely recognized that the risks of vaping are significantly lower than those of smoking, although there are uncertainties about its long-term health effects. Some studies suggest that vaping helps to stop smoking. Effective smoking cessation medications should be recommended in first line but vaping should not be discouraged when patients choose to use this device, as the main aim is smoking cessation. This paper proposes recommendations about vaping in common situations in medical practice with smokers.
Christian, Tiffany Y.; Sprinkle, Julie E.
Student advising has been a staple of the college experience for decades. However, the importance of advising differs greatly through the lens of the observer. Students may feel that advising is a "waste of time" or that they already know what they need to take to meet degree requirements. Conversely, other students may want the added…
Hu, Dehua; Luo, Aijing; Liu, Haixia
OA is to become the future of academic library exchanges in China. With the government's support and promotion of OA, more and more Chinese academic libraries have been committed to participating in OA. The rapid development of OA not only has changed the model of traditional scholarly communication and brought a free communication environment of…
Bendicho, Peña Fabiani; Mora, Carlos Efren; Añorbe-Díaz, Beatriz; Rivero-Rodríguez, Pedro
Students suffer academic procrastination while dealing with frequent deadlines and working under pressure. This causes to delay their coursework and may affect their academic progress, despite feeling worse. Triggering students' motivation, like introducing technologies, helps to reduce procrastination. In this context, Augmented Reality has been…
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette
The Problem: Problems that might be expected to affect perceived academic performance were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: Breakup Distress Scale scores, less time since the breakup and no new relationship contributed to 16% of the variance on perceived academic performance. Variables that were related to academic…
de Graaf, G; van Hove, G; Haveman, M
Studies from the UK have shown that children with Down syndrome acquire more academic skills in regular education. Does this likewise hold true for the Dutch situation, even after the effect of selective placement has been taken into account? In 2006, an extensive questionnaire was sent to 160 parents of (specially and regularly placed) children with Down syndrome (born 1993-2000) in primary education in the Netherlands with a response rate of 76%. Questions were related to the child's school history, academic and non-academic skills, intelligence quotient, parental educational level, the extent to which parents worked on academics with their child at home, and the amount of academic instructional time at school. Academic skills were predicted with the other variables as independents. For the children in regular schools much more time proved to be spent on academics. Academic performance appeared to be predicted reasonably well on the basis of age, non-academic skills, parental educational level and the extent to which parents worked at home on academics. However, more variance could be predicted when the total amount of years that the child spent in regular education was added, especially regarding reading and to a lesser extent regarding writing and math. In addition, we could prove that this finding could not be accounted for by endogenity. Regularly placed children with Down syndrome learn more academics. However, this is not a straight consequence of inclusive placement and age alone, but is also determined by factors such as cognitive functioning, non-academic skills, parental educational level and the extent to which parents worked at home on academics. Nevertheless, it could be proven that the more advanced academic skills of the regularly placed children are not only due to selective placement. The positive effect of regular school on academics appeared to be most pronounced for reading skills. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability
Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.
Objectives: This study examined the effects of Check & Connect (C&C) on the attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes of at-risk youth in a field-based effectiveness trial. Method: A multisite randomized block design was used, wherein 260 primarily Hispanic (89%) and economically disadvantaged (74%) students were randomized to treatment…
Nicholson, Heather; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Van Heest, Jaci
A multiple baseline design was used to examine the effects of participation in antecedent physical activity on the academic engagement of four elementary-school children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The results indicated large effect sizes for academic engaged time for all four students. It was suggested that physical activity in…
Ramachandaran, Sharmila Devi; Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Idris, Khairuddin
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of the use of spiritual intelligence into women academic leadership practices. The study designed to provide a clear understanding of the effectiveness of the use of spiritual intelligence practices within women academic leadership practices. In addition, the study will be an ideal…
Manjarres-Henriquez, Liney; Gutierrez-Gracia, Antonio; Carrion-Garcia, Andres; Vega-Jurado, Jaider
This paper evaluates whether university-industry relationships (UIR) and academic research activities have complementary effects on the scientific production of university lecturers. The analysis is based on a case study of two Spanish universities. We find that the effects of R&D contracts with industry, and academic research activity on…
Mahesan, Nishanthan; Crichton, Siobhan; Sewell, Hannah; Howell, Simon
The choice of whether to undertake an intercalated Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree is one of the most important decisions that students must make during their time at medical school. An effect on exam performance would improve a student's academic ranking, giving them a competitive edge when applying for foundation posts. Retrospective data analysis of anonymised student records. The effects of intercalating on final year exam results, Foundation Programme score, application form score (from white-space questions), quartile rank score, and success with securing Foundation School of choice were assessed using linear and ordered logistic regression models, adjusted for course type, year of graduation, graduate status and baseline (Year 1) performance. The study included 1158 students, with 54% choosing to do an intercalated BSc, and 9.8% opting to do so at an external institution. Doing an intercalated BSc was significantly associated with improved outcome in Year 5 exams (P = 0.004). This was irrespective of the year students chose to intercalate, with no significant difference between those that intercalated after years 2, 3 and 4 (p = 0.3096). There were also higher foundation application scores (P BSc leads to an improvement in subsequent exam results and develops the skills necessary to produce a strong foundation programme application. It also leads to greater success with securing preferred Foundation School posts in students. Differences between internally- and externally-intercalating students may be due to varying course structures or greater challenge in adjusting to a new study environment.
The study analyzes the factors that influence student transitions to high school, overall high school achievement, math, science, as well as verbal achievement. The sample included students in an Aegean city, Canakkale. The Sample (N=572) included 14 high schools, with the exception of two high schools in this town. The study found little or no effect of SES on academic achievement. Previous academic achievement was positively associated with academic achievement. School typ...
Sharifirad, Gholam R.; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Jazini, Akram; Etemadi, Zinat S.
Background: Communication is the most important part of any educational process, the aim of which is to transfer or exchange ideas and thoughts. It would be provided appropriately if academic members had the communication skills. Considering the important role of academic members in the educational process, in this study, the knowledge, attitude and performance of academic members of School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were investigated with regard to effective communica...
Aim: Sleep problems are common in students with one third of university students reporting insufficient sleep. It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students. Material and Method: Self-reported sleep data and academic performance of 131 first grade medical students were collected. To all students e...
This article looks at the current UK guidelines for a healthy diet for the general population and considers the current debates and changes within that advice and how they may affect health outcomes. It is impossible to read a newspaper, magazine or social media article without being exposed to dietary advice, nutritional research or the latest diet craze. It is essential that nurses are able to advise their patients on research-based UK guidelines for a healthy diet, and be able to respond to patient questions on diet-related matters, ensuring the information they give is not based on current media opinion or celebrity views. This paper summarises the evidence found within current guidelines to help nurses ensure their practice is evidence based. This will help meet the requirements of the Nursing and Midwofery Council's (2015) Code, including delivering fundamentals of care and being able to practise in line with best available evidence.
Teaching and research are often the most focused upon aspects of working within academia in criminology and criminal justice (Sitren & Applegate, 2012; Jonson & Moon, 2014; Pratt, 2014), but an overlooked and underappreciated part of an undergraduate's overall higher education success is academic advising (Light, 2001). There has been…
The Association of American Colleges and Universities presented and promoted integrative liberal learning as a collaborative goal that all institutions of higher education must strive to achieve. The similarities between the goals of integrative liberal learning and the Standards for Academic Advising by the Council for the Advancement of…
González-Ávila, Gabriel; Bello-Villalobos, Herlinda
In the formative period of the courses taken in medical specializations, new and greater responsibilities are accepted by physicians in personal and academic spheres. The interaction of several factors that encompass the practice of these physicians could surpass their capacity to cope, causing on these professionals a high level of stress and professional exhaustion, which will affect their academic development. The objective of this research was to establish if the occupational stress of these medical residents affects their academic progress. We administered the Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to 52 residents of three specializations in Oncology (Medical Oncology, Surgical Oncology, and Radio-Oncology). These residents accepted voluntarily at the same time of their third cognitive exam. The prevalence of burnout syndrome was 13.5 %, with a high frequency among medical residents of first degree. Medical Oncology residents showed a higher emotional exhaustion and lower personal fulfillment. Considering the three specializations, the academic progress was higher in the third year, with a significant difference to Surgical Oncology and Medical Oncology (p = 0.026 and 0.015, respectively). No significant difference was found between burnout syndrome, academic progress and sociodemographic characteristics. The presence of burnout syndrome does not affect the academic progress of Oncology medical residents.
Full Text Available Abstract Earlier studies show an effect of self-efficacy on students’ learning and achievement. Self efficacy has operationally defined as one’s belief that people can successfully perform a given task. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss how self-efficacy developed and the way it influences students’ academic performance in addition to social interaction with peers. A scenario was given to Pakistani high school students by solving mathematical problems. Present study was designed to study the impact of self-efficacy on 15 boys, students of the 5th grade of a local school. Hague’s (1990 Urdu Self-efficacy scale was administered. It was found that students with high self-efficacy obtained higher scores on 50 mathematical problems test. Further, content analysis of interviewees’ responses showed that students with high self-efficacy planned to study complex subjects in future. A cross-cultural study is strongly recommended in this issue that determines the students’ future.
Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.
The present study evaluates the effectiveness of Check & Connect (C&C) in a randomly assigned sample of students who were all receiving Communities in Schools (CIS) services. The research questions for the study include: Are there differences in attendance, academics, and behavior for CIS students who also receive C&C compared to…
Jeynes, William H.
Using data from the 1992 National Education Longitudinal Survey, this study examined the effects of student religious commitment on academic achievement. Results indicate that very religious urban and non-urban children performed better on most academic measures than their less religious counterparts, even when controlling for race, gender, and…
Akin Kösterelioglu, Meltem; Kösterelioglu, Ilker
This study aims to identify the effects of high school students' perceptions of school life quality on their academic motivation levels. The study was conducted on a sample of high school students (n = 2371) in Amasya Province in the fall semester of 2013-2014 academic year. Study sample was selected with the help of cluster sampling method. Data…
Bilodeau, Cynthia; Meissner, John
This study investigated the effectiveness of a combined academic and personal counselling initiative on student performance and emotional well-being outcomes of 289 at-risk students at a Canadian University. Criterion for risk included academic struggles, mental health distress, or both. The program was developed to be tailored to individual…
Grunefeld, Hetty; van Tartwijk, Jan; Jongen, Havva; Wubbels, Theo
This article describes and assesses the design and effects of one of the first academic development programmes on Leadership for Educational Change. The participants are senior academics, involved in leadership of teaching and learning. We report on an evaluation using a mixed-method approach employing a self-report questionnaire administered to…
The effect of self-regulated learning on academic achievement of secondary school physics students. ... The study was carried out in Onitsha education zone of Nigeria with a population of 12,104 science students. A sample of 60 ... Keywords: self-regulated learning, academic achievement in physics, learning physics ...
Grunefeld, Hetty; van Tartwijk, Jan; Jongen, Havva; Wubbels, Theo
This article describes and assesses the design and effects of one of the first academic development programmes on Leadership for Educational Change. The participants are senior academics, involved in leadership of teaching and learning. We report on an evaluation using a mixed-method approach
Seabi, Joseph; Payne, Jarrod
Purpose: Academic achievement of first year university students in the international arena, as well as in South Africa, has been a point of concern for all stakeholders because of high failure and dropout rates. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of identity processing styles on academic achievement in first year university…
Heaton, Patrick Michael
The purpose of this study was to examine what effect the Freshmen Interest Group (FIG) program, a variation of a non-residential learning community had on academic achievement scores and institutional rates of persistence. Study variables included: gender; race; pre-collegiate academic achievement (GPA scores); educational preferences (major…
Powell, S; Nelson, B
The effects of choosing academic assignments on the undesirable behaviors manifested by a second-grade student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed. This study extended Dunlap et al.'s (1994) research on choice making as a form of antecedent control. A reversal design showed that undesirable behaviors decreased when the student was given a choice of academic assignments.
Case, Bettye Anne; Guan, Yuanying Michelle; Paris, Stephen
Some challenges to increasing actuarial science program size through recruiting broadly among potential students are identified. Possible solutions depend on the structures and culture of the school. Up to three student cohorts may result from partition of potential students by the levels of academic progress before program entry: students…
This paper analyzes the impact of academic inbreeding in relation to academic research, and proposes a new conceptual framework for its analysis. We find that mobility (or lack of) at the early research career stage is decisive in influencing academic behaviors and scientific productivity. Less mobile academics have more inward oriented…
group before and after intervention (p=.000. It can be concluded from results that cooperative learning activities had a positive effect on academic achievement of students enrolled in the subject of Education. This study is a contribution in knowledge body of teaching methods for social sciences. This had clarified that cooperative learning activities are equally helpful for the subject that was considered truly a lecture subject. The teachers can use this teaching method in their classes.
Sasson, Irit; Cohen, Donita
Israel suffers from a growing problem of socio-economic gaps between those who live in the center of the country and residents of outlying areas. As a result, there is a low level of accessibility to higher education among the peripheral population. The goal of the Sidney Warren Science Education Center for Youth at Tel-Hai College is to strengthen the potential of middle and high school students and encourage them to pursue higher education, with an emphasis on majoring in science and technology. This study investigated the implementation and evaluation of the enrichment science academic program, as an example of informal learning environment, with an emphasis on physics studies. About 500 students conducted feedback survey after participating in science activities in four domains: biology, chemistry, physics, and computer science. Results indicated high level of satisfaction among the students. No differences were found with respect to gender excluding in physics with a positive attitudes advantage among boys. In order to get a deeper understanding of this finding, about 70 additional students conducted special questionnaires, both 1 week before the physics enrichment day and at the end of that day. Questionnaires were intended to assess both their attitudes toward physics and their knowledge and conceptions of the physical concept "pressure." We found that the activity moderately improved boys' attitudes toward physics, but that girls displayed decreased interest in and lower self-efficacy toward physics. Research results were used to the improvement of the instructional design of the physics activity demonstrating internal evaluation process for effective intervention.
Sasson, Irit; Cohen, Donita
Israel suffers from a growing problem of socio-economic gaps between those who live in the center of the country and residents of outlying areas. As a result, there is a low level of accessibility to higher education among the peripheral population. The goal of the Sidney Warren Science Education Center for Youth at Tel-Hai College is to strengthen the potential of middle and high school students and encourage them to pursue higher education, with an emphasis on majoring in science and technology. This study investigated the implementation and evaluation of the enrichment science academic program, as an example of informal learning environment, with an emphasis on physics studies. About 500 students conducted feedback survey after participating in science activities in four domains: biology, chemistry, physics, and computer science. Results indicated high level of satisfaction among the students. No differences were found with respect to gender excluding in physics with a positive attitudes advantage among boys. In order to get a deeper understanding of this finding, about 70 additional students conducted special questionnaires, both 1 week before the physics enrichment day and at the end of that day. Questionnaires were intended to assess both their attitudes toward physics and their knowledge and conceptions of the physical concept "pressure." We found that the activity moderately improved boys' attitudes toward physics, but that girls displayed decreased interest in and lower self-efficacy toward physics. Research results were used to the improvement of the instructional design of the physics activity demonstrating internal evaluation process for effective intervention.
Rice, Kenneth G; Lopez, Frederick G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Stinson, Jennifer M
Using a randomized, between-subjects experimental design, we tested hypotheses that self-critical perfectionism would moderate the effects of subtle stereotype threat (ST) for women and students in underrepresented racial/ethnic groups who are pursuing traditional degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). A diverse sample of freshmen students (N = 294) was recruited from 2 major universities. Students were blocked by gender and race/ethnicity and randomly assigned to experience subtle ST or no ST. Participants in the subtle ST condition were primed to consider their gender, race, and ethnicity prior to completing measures of science self-efficacy. Those in the control condition completed the measures without such priming. Controlling for prior academic performance and university context, ST priming significantly interacted (a) with self-critical perfectionism to predict coping self-efficacy scores and (b) with race/ethnicity to predict end-of-semester STEM grades. A 3-way interaction of ST priming, sex, and self-critical perfectionism also predicted students' grades in courses wherein women and men were more proportionally represented. The Sex × Self-Critical Perfectionism interaction was not significant for those in the ST group but was for those in the control group. Men in the control group had higher grade-point averages (GPAs) at low levels of self-critical perfectionism than they had at higher levels of perfectionism. In contrast, women had lower GPAs when self-critical perfectionism was low, but their GPAs were higher when self-critical perfectionism was high. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for self-efficacy and performance in the pursuit of a STEM major.
characteristics. For high-status researchers who have already achieved high levels of visibility outside academia, the influence of their self-monitoring score is less pronounced. This applies also to academics who are extrinsically motivated in their jobs and who value tangible benefits. Individuals who operate......According to self-monitoring theory, individuals differ in the extent to which they are willing and able to monitor and control their self-expression in social situations. Using data from a survey administered to 6,000 academics in physical sciences faculties in UK universities, this paper suggests...
Susan S. Janer
Full Text Available This descriptive action research focused on the satisfaction of the students on the advising practices of their thesis advisers. The 28 respondents of the study were purposively and incidentally chosen. The findings, derived from the use of unstructured interview and survey questionnaire, revealed that most of the students are satisfied with their thesis advisers in terms of their knowledge of student’s research, professional characteristics and qualities, and personality factors as revealed by the overall weighted mean values of 2.68, 2.72, and 2.72 respectively. The students along thesis advising observed various practices of the faculty members. Students chose their advisers based on their availability, field of specialization, and coaching and mentoring abilities. Based on the findings, this study recommends that the faculty members be given more training to further enhance their abilities in thesis advising. The college may also tap other research-reputable faculty members to become research advisers. An orientation activity among the students may also be conducted to assist them in choosing the faculty member with an appropriate research reputation and also to brief them on the roles they will play as thesis advisers. The need to revisit the policies of the School of Graduate Studies (SGS is also highly recommended. Hence, this study proposes some amendments on the existing guidelines of the department along thesis advising.
This study focused on training students in skills essential to making oral presentations based on original and independent research work as part of their English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course. As a result of the training, students showed an increase in the successful use of research-related skills and a great improvement in their ability to…
Trolian, Teniell L.; Jach, Elizabeth A.; Hanson, Jana M.; Pascarella, Ernest T.
Using data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, we examined the influence of student-faculty interactions on student academic motivation over 4 years of college. Results suggest that several forms of student-faculty interaction, such as quality of faculty contact, frequency of faculty contact, research with faculty, personal…
Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel
The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined…
The main intent of this study was to identify the impact of using learning log as a learning strategy on the academic performance of university students. Second year psychology students were included as subjects of this study. In the beginning of the study, the students were divided into two: experimental group (N = 60) and ...
Bipp, Tanja; Kleingeld, Ad; van Mierlo, Heleen; Kunde, Wilfried
We investigated the impact of subconscious goals on academic performance in two field experiments. We show that unobtrusive priming of goals with regard to achievement motivation by means of a photograph improves performance in different educational contexts. High-school students who were exposed to an achievement-related photograph achieved…
Honigfeld, Lisa; Chandhok, Laura; Spiegelman, Kenneth
Use of formal developmental screening tools in the pediatric medical home improves early identification of children with developmental delays and disorders, including Autism Spectrum Disorders. A pilot study evaluated the impact of an academic detailing module in which trainers visited 43 pediatric primary care practices to provide education about…
affect or influence the academic performance of secondary school students. Information on the incidence will sensitize the family/guardians and relevant policy-makers to the magnitude of child labour as an aspect of child abuse and neglect in the area of study. Furthermore, the study would review the pattern of relationship ...
The history of Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU)'s strike can be traced back to 1978, the period of the beginning of the decline in the oil boom, when the country faced the consequences of the failure by its rulers to use the oil wealth to generate production and a social welfare system. Military dictatorship had ...
Social media as typified in library 2.0 model are increasingly becoming part of ... specific reference to performance, responsibility and perception about learning new technology as well as to know the sources of ... How do librarians working in academic libraries in Delta State perceive the impact of technology in relation to ...
The focus of this study is on child labour as an aspect of child abuse and neglect. The goal of the research on child abuse and academic performance of children who participate in it as a routine scholars and people have defined child labour in several ways. In a nutshell it is the exploitation of children, premature ...
Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Sohrabi, Zohreh; Masiello, Italo
During the last two decades, medical education in Iran has shifted from elite to mass education, with a considerable increase in number of schools, faculties, and programs. Because of this transformation, it is a good case now to explore academic leadership in a non-western country. The objective of this study was to explore the views on effective academic leadership requirements held by key informants in Iran's medical education system. A nominal group study was conducted by strategic sampling in which participants were requested to discuss and report on requirements for academic leadership, suggestions and barriers. Written notes from the discussions were transcribed and subjected to content analysis. Six themes of effective academic leadership emerged: 1)shared vision, goal, and strategy, 2) teaching and research leadership, 3) fair and efficient management, 4) mutual trust and respect, 5) development and recognition, and 6) transformational leadership. Current Iranian academic leadership suffers from lack of meritocracy, conservative leaders, politicization, bureaucracy, and belief in misconceptions. The structure of the Iranian medical university system is not supportive of effective academic leadership. However, participants' views on effective academic leadership are in line with what is also found in the western literature, that is, if the managers could create the premises for a supportive and transformational leadership, they could generate mutual trust and respect in academia and increase scientific production.
Erik Teguh Prakoso
The results showed that based on the analysis of different test Wilcoxon between pretest and posttest generate value significant (two-tailed <0.05 is 0.043, which means the provision of treatment through counseling biblio effective to reduce the level of student academic procrastination. Based on the results of data presentation can be concluded that the study subjects experienced the difference after the treatment is done, so it can be said that the biblio effective counseling to reduce the level of academic procrastination. Keywords: Academic Procrastination, Biblio counseling
Marsh, Herbert W; Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Köller, Olaf; Baumert, Jürgen
Reciprocal effects models of longitudinal data show that academic self-concept is both a cause and an effect of achievement. In this study this model was extended to juxtapose self-concept with academic interest. Based on longitudinal data from 2 nationally representative samples of German 7th-grade students (Study 1: N = 5,649, M age = 13.4; Study 2: N = 2,264, M age = 13.7 years), prior self-concept significantly affected subsequent math interest, school grades, and standardized test scores, whereas prior math interest had only a small effect on subsequent math self-concept. Despite stereotypic gender differences in means, linkages relating these constructs were invariant over gender. These results demonstrate the positive effects of academic self-concept on a variety of academic outcomes and integrate self-concept with the developmental motivation literature.
Soo Jin Lee
Conclusion: This study showed that personality might account for the burnout level in medical education. The importance of character dimension for modulating the effects of temperament traits on academic burnout was discussed for future research.
Noh, Hyunkyung; Chang, Eunbi; Jang, Yoojin; Lee, Ji Hae; Lee, Sang Min
Statistical suppressor effects in prediction models can provide evidence of the interdependent relationship of independent variables. In this study, the suppressor effects of positive and negative religious coping on academic burnout were examined using longitudinal data. First, 388 middle school students reported their type of religion and use of positive and negative religious coping strategies. Four months later, they also reported their level of academic burnout. From structural equation modeling, significant suppressor effects were found among religious students. That is, the coefficients became larger when both positive and negative religious coping predicted academic burnout simultaneously, compared to when each religious coping predicted academic burnout alone. However, suppressor effects were not found among non-religious students.
According to self-monitoring theory, individuals differ in the extent to which they are willing and able to monitor and control their self-expression in social situations. Using data from a survey administered to 6,000 academics in physical sciences faculties in UK universities, this paper suggests...... that high self-monitoring individuals collaborate more with industry than their low self-monitoring colleagues, across a variety of channels of interaction. Furthermore, the influence of self-monitoring on researchers? collaboration activities is moderated by both individual and environmental...... characteristics. For high-status researchers who have already achieved high levels of visibility outside academia, the influence of their self-monitoring score is less pronounced. This applies also to academics who are extrinsically motivated in their jobs and who value tangible benefits. Individuals who operate...
Stackhouse, Omega N.
The problem addressed in this study was that little was known about the impact on student academic achievement, when grouped by learning style, in a multiple intelligence based science curriculum. The larger problem was that many students were frequently unengaged and, consequently, low achieving in their science courses. This quantitative study used an ex post facto research design to better understand the impact of student learning style on the academic success of students in a Multiple Intelligence Theory based course room. Gardner's work on Multiple Intelligence served as the conceptual framework for this study. The research question for this study asked if academic instruction that employs multiple intelligence theories has a relationship with students' academic achievement differently according to their learning style group (auditory, visual, and kinesthetic). Existing data from 85 students were placed into 1 of 3 groups: (a) Auditory, (b) Visual, or (c) Kinesthetic Learning Style) using existing data from a student inventory instrument. The independent variable was existing data from student inventories of learning style and the dependent variable was existing student scores from the Physical Science End of Course Test. Existing data were taken from students that were all taught with the same strategies in similar classroom environments. The Physical Science End of Course Test was developed with stringent measures to protect validity by the developer, McGraw-Hill. Cronbach's Alpha was conducted to determine the internal reliability coefficient of the student inventory. The impact for social change is that adding to the body of knowledge regarding student learning style and science curriculum provides valuable information for teachers, administrators, and school policy makers. This will allow teachers to better prepare to engage their students' and to prepare them for their place in society.
Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.
To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…
to air advising. It is important for surface components to artic - ulate their air advising requirements through their geographic combatant commands...improve their political , military, and economic stability and security. However, the Air Force can deliver even more positive foreign policy
Hastings, Lindsay J; Kane, Cindy
Mentoring, coaching, and advising are often confused as similar interactions with developmental intent, yet their scope, purpose, and utility in leadership development are distinct. The purpose of this chapter is to provide clarity as to what constitutes mentoring, coaching, and advising for leadership development and to compare and contrast each relationship type. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Khajuria, A; Cheng, K; Levy, J
Background Academic medicine is crucial for healthcare advancement. However, recruitment of junior doctors into academia remains an area of concern globally. In the UK, a national integrated clinical academic pathway was developed to address these issues, with the Academic Foundation Programme as the 'first opportunity for research'. We aimed to evaluate whether a focused course on academic medicine could enhance knowledge, confidence and preparedness of candidates wishing to apply for an academic programme. Methods UK medical students attended a national course conducted by current UK Academic Foundation Programme doctors that comprised lectures on academic medicine and various aspects of the Academic Foundation Programme. An online questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted with participants rating measures including knowledge, preparedness and confidence related to Academic Foundation Programme applications. Outcomes were measured using Likert scales (1=low; 5=high). Results In total, 103 out of 155 attendees from 11 different UK medical schools responded to the survey (66% response rate). Pre and post-course data showed increase in participants' knowledge (median score 2 vs 4, p Programme. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first study in the available literature that demonstrates a focused course on academic medicine may enhance UK medical students' knowledge, confidence and preparedness in applying for a clinical academic programme. Further research will ascertain whether such courses can augment trainee numbers undertaking and remaining within academic medicine.
Patrzek, Justine; Sattler, Sebastian; van Veen, Floris; Grunschel, Carola; Fries, Stefan
In prior studies, academic procrastination has been discussed as an influencing factor of academic misconduct. However, empirical studies were conducted solely cross-sectionally and investigated only a few forms of academic misconduct. This large scale web-based study examined the responses of between 1359 and 2207 participants from different…
Full Text Available A very warm welcome to the first issue of SiSAL journal of 2012, a special issue associated with the recent IATEFL Learner Autonomy SIG-sponsored conference, Advising for Language Learner Autonomy, held on November 12, 2011, at Kanda University of International Studies. This issue features papers from presenters at the conference who are all involved in advising for language learning (ALL. This conference was the first to be entirely dedicated to the field of language advising, and as such marks another significant landmark in the journey of ALL towards being fully recognized as a professional field in its own right (previous landmarks being the publication of the first book on advising in 2001 by Mozzon-McPherson and Vismans, a special issue of System in 2007, and the introduction of a professional qualification in learning advising at the University of Hull.
Danguecan, Ashley N; Smith, Mary Lou
Academic difficulties are common in children with epilepsy, although little is known about the effect of various seizure-related and cognitive variables. Given that persistent seizures may negatively impact academics, and that working memory is predictive of academic abilities, we examined the effects of recent seizures and working memory on word reading, spelling, and arithmetic in pediatric epilepsy. We hypothesized that persistent seizures would be associated with lower working memory ability, which would in turn result in poorer academic performance. Our sample consisted of 91 children with epilepsy being treated at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada, who underwent neuropsychological testing between 2002 and 2009 to help determine surgical candidacy. Four to 11 years later, follow-up testing was conducted on both surgical (n=61) and non-surgical (n=30) patients. Seizure status was defined by the presence or absence of seizures within the preceding 12 months. 5000 bias-corrected bootstrap resamples with replacement were used to calculate the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the indirect effect of seizure status on academics through working memory, controlling for baseline academic functioning. Persistent seizures were associated with reduced working memory, which was in turn associated with lower reading (B=-4.64, 95% CI [-10.21, -1.30]), spelling (B=-7.09, 95% CI [-13.97, -2.56], and arithmetic scores (B=-8.04, 95% CI [-13.66, -3.58] at follow-up. For children with intractable epilepsy, working memory deficits present a significant barrier to the development of academic skills. Working memory interventions may be a helpful adjunct to academic remediation in this population to facilitate academic progress. (JINS, 2017, 23, 594-604).
Foley, Kevin T; Luz, Clare C; Hanson, Katherine V; Hao, Yuning; Ray, Elisia M
A workforce that understands principles of geriatric medicine is critical to addressing the care needs of the growing elderly population. This will be impossible without a substantial increase in academicians engaged in education and aging research. Limited support of early-career clinician-educators is a major barrier to attaining this goal. The Geriatric Academic Career Award (GACA) was a vital resource that benefitted 222 junior faculty members. GACA availability was interrupted in 2006, followed by permanent discontinuation after the Geriatrics Workforce Education Program (GWEP) subsumed it in 2015, leaving aspiring clinician-educators with no similar alternatives. GACA recipients were surveyed in this cross-sectional, multimethod study to assess the effect of the award on career development, creation and dissemination of educational products, funding discontinuation consequences, and implications of program closure for the future of geriatric health care. Uninterrupted funding resulted in fulfillment of GACA goals (94%) and overall career success (96%). Collectively, awardees reached more than 40,700 learners. Funding interruption led to 55% working additional hours over and above an increased clinical workload to continue their GACA-related research and scholarship. Others terminated GACA projects (36%) or abandoned academic medicine altogether. Of respondents currently at GWEP sites (43%), only 13% report a GWEP budget including GACA-like support. Those with GWEP roles attributed their current standing to experience gained through GACA funding. These consequences are alarming and represent a major setback to academic geriatrics. GACA's singular contribution to the mission of geriatric medicine must prompt vigorous efforts to restore it as a distinct funding opportunity. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Liem, Gregory Arief D
Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and social achievement goals in outcome variables relevant to academic (achievement, effort/persistence), social (peer relationship satisfaction, loneliness), and socio-academic (cooperative learning, competitive learning, socially regulated, and self-regulated learning) functioning. A total of 356 Indonesian high-school students (mean age = 16 years; 36% girls) participated in the study. A self-report survey comprising items drawn from pre-existing instruments was administered to measure distinct dimensions of achievement goals and outcomes under focus. Regression analysis was performed to examine additive, interactive, and specialized effects of achievement goals on outcomes. Aligned with the hierarchical model of goal relationships (Wentzel, 2000, Contemp. Educ. Psychol., 25, 105), academic and social achievement goals bore additive effects on most outcomes. Findings also revealed a specialized effect on academic achievement and notable interactive effects on cooperative learning. In general, mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were more adaptive than their avoidance counterparts. The effects of social development goals were positive, whereas those of social demonstration-approach goals were mixed. Contrary to prior findings, social demonstration-avoidance goals did not appear to be inimical for school functioning. Findings underscore the importance of both academic and social achievement goals in day-to-day school functioning and the need to consider the meaning of goals and the coordination of multiple goals from cultural lenses. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Respondek, Lisa; Seufert, Tina; Stupnisky, Robert; Nett, Ulrike E.
The present study addressed concerns over the high risk of university students' academic failure. It examined how perceived academic control and academic emotions predict undergraduate students' academic success, conceptualized as both low dropout intention and high achievement (indicated by GPA). A cross-sectional survey was administered to 883 undergraduate students across all disciplines of a German STEM orientated university. The study additionally compared freshman students (N = 597) vs. second-year students (N = 286). Using structural equation modeling, for the overall sample of undergraduate students we found that perceived academic control positively predicted enjoyment and achievement, as well as negatively predicted boredom and anxiety. The prediction of dropout intention by perceived academic control was fully mediated via anxiety. When taking perceived academic control into account, we found no specific impact of enjoyment or boredom on the intention to dropout and no specific impact of all three academic emotions on achievement. The multi-group analysis showed, however, that perceived academic control, enjoyment, and boredom among second-year students had a direct relationship with dropout intention. A major contribution of the present study was demonstrating the important roles of perceived academic control and anxiety in undergraduate students' academic success. Concerning corresponding institutional support and future research, the results suggested distinguishing incoming from advanced undergraduate students. PMID:28326043
Levine, Rachel B; Cayea, Danelle; Shochet, Robert B; Wright, Scott M
Advising medical students is a challenging task. Faculty who serve as advisors for students require specific skills and knowledge to do their jobs effectively. Career choice is one of the many complex issues about which medical students often seek assistance from a faculty advisor. The authors present a case of a third-year medical student with career indecision, with a focus on the various factors that may be influencing her thinking about career choice. Key advising principles are provided as a framework for the discussion of the case and include reflection, self-disclosure, active listening, support and advocacy, confidentiality, and problem solving. These principles were developed as part of the Advising Case Conference series of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Colleges Advisory Program. Emergent themes from the case included a student's evolving professional identity, a student's distress and burnout, lifestyle considerations, and advisor bias and self-awareness. The authors propose reflective questions to enhance meaningful discussions between the advisor and student and assist in problem solving. Many of these questions, together with the key advising principles, are generalizable to a variety of advising scenarios between advisors and learners at all levels of training.
Devi M R, Renuka; Devaki, P R; Madhavan, Madhanika; Saikumar, P
The adjustment difficulties of college students have been an emerging issue. Many studies have proved that the adjustment difficulties like appetite disturbance, concentration problems and depression are most evident in freshmen. To help college students in resolving their adjustment issues, we made efforts in the form of establishing a counselling system to provide intervention to the students, so that their social and emotional problems did not interfere with their academic performances, for the current study. We chose to examine the relationship between the college counselling experience and the academic performance in a sample of freshmen. To explore the relationship and the effect of counselling on the academic performance of college students. 1. To find the relationship between the academic performance and counselling. 2. To find the relationship between the number of sessions and the academic performance. Fifty Four First MBBS college students of the SBMCH 2007-2008 batch, who underwent face to face individual intake interviews with college faculty members, were given questionnaires and the analysis was based on their response to the questions and their academic performance. This study showed that there was an increase in the average marks by about 15%-25% among 43% of the students and by about 10% -15% of marks among 13% of the students. There was no marked improvement among 31% of them and there was no change in 4% of the students .The second part of the study showed that the number of sessions correlated positively with the academic performance. This study showed that the counselling services in colleges had been effective in easing out the students' personal difficulties. The constructive support which was received from individual counselling seemed to have a positive influence on the academic performance and the number of sessions correlated positively with the academic performance.
DuPaul, G J; Ervin, R A; Hook, C L; McGoey, K E
We investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the classroom behavior and academic performance of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typical instructional activities were contrasted with CWPT for 18 children with ADHD and 10 peer comparison students attending first- through fifth-grade general education classes. CWPT led to increases in active engagement in academic tasks along with reductions in off-task behavior for most participants. Of students with ADHD, 50% exhibited improvements in academic performance in math or spelling during CWPT conditions, as measured by a treatment success index. Participating teachers and students reported a high level of satisfaction with intervention procedures. Our results suggest that peer tutoring appears to be an effective strategy for addressing the academic and behavioral difficulties associated with ADHD in general education settings.
Academic mentorship is a professional development strategy that enables fledgling professionals to take advantage of the skills and expertise of the senior members for professional growth. Although widely practiced in many other professions, academic mentorship has not been widely reported in medical librarianship. Drawing upon personal experience, the author reports the success story of an academic mentorship program implemented in an academic medical library and argues for academic mentorship to be widely adopted in academic medical libraries. This paper first reviews the literature on the concept of mentoring in an academic setting, and then describes the background, rationale, methods, and results of the mentorship programs the author has experienced. Lastly, based upon an analysis of several surveys and studies on coping skills for quality job performance of health sciences reference librarians, the paper discusses mentorship as one effective means to ease a new medical reference librarian's transition from his/her pre-service experience to the professional world of medical librarianship. It calls on other health sciences librarians to consider developing their own mentorship programs to promote their professional development and personal growth.
Bahadır Köksalan; Tuncay Sevindik; Atınç Olcay
The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of web based teaching method on the academic achievement level of undergraduate students in Tourism Education department in the fall semester of 2009-2010 academic year. The research was carried out with 50 students (25 students in control group, 25 students in experimental group) who were studying at Tourism and Travel Management; and Tourism and Hotel Management Programs in Tourism and Hotel Management Vocational High School at Gazia...
Owusu, Patrick; Essel, George
This thesis examines the impact of stress on students’ academic performance and stress management among students of Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences. The main objectives were to ascertain or identify the extent to which stress affects students’ academic success, health and general lifestyle, as well as to in-quire and bring to light measures to counteract the effects of existing stress in students. A quantitative method was used in gathering and analysis the data. For this purpos...
Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Sohrabi, Zohreh; Masiello, Italo
Abstract Background During the last two decades, medical education in Iran has shifted from elite to mass education, with a considerable increase in number of schools, faculties, and programs. Because of this transformation, it is a good case now to explore academic leadership in a non-western country. The objective of this study was to explore the views on effective academic leadership requirements held by key informants in Iran's medical education system. Methods A nominal group study was c...
Sticca, Fabio; Goetz, Thomas; Nett, Ulrike E.; Hubbard, Kyle; Haag, Ludwig
This study examined the short- and long-term effects of self-enhancement (i.e., overreporting of academic grades) on academic self-concept and academic achievement. A total of 916, 719, and 647 students participated in the first, second, and third waves of assessment, respectively (mean age at T1 = 15.6 years). At each assessment, students…
Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J
The literature has documented theoretical/conceptual models delineating the facilitating role of peer relationships in academic and non-academic outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which peer relationships link to those outcomes is an area requiring further research. The study examined the role of adolescents' perceptions of their relationships with same-sex and opposite-sex peers in predicting their academic performance and general self-esteem and the potentially mediating role of school engagement in linking these perceived peer relationships with academic and non-academic outcomes. The sample comprised 1,436 high-school students (670 boys, 756 girls; 711 early adolescents, 723 later adolescents). Self-report measures and objective achievement tests were used. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to test the hypothesized model and its invariance across gender and age groups. Perceived same-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with academic performance and general self-esteem. Perceived opposite-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with general self-esteem and an indirect positive link with academic performance, but mediation via school engagement was not as strong as that of perceived same-sex peer relationships. These findings generalized across gender and age groups. Adolescents' same-sex and opposite-sex peer relationships seem to positively impact their academic performance and general self-esteem in distinct ways. It appears that school engagement plays an important role in mediating these peer relationship effects, particularly those of same-sex peer relationships, on academic and non-academic functioning. Implications for psycho-educational theory, measurement, and practice are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Jørgensen, Jens Bæk; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard
The Adviser Portal (AP) is a new IT system for 15 Danish banks. The main goal of AP is to increase the efficiency and quality of bank advisers’ work. Re- quirements engineering for AP includes describing new work processes that must be supported by AP using a combination of: (1) prose and informal...... drawings; (2) The Adviser Portal (AP) is a new IT system for 15 Danish banks. The main goal of AP is to increase the efficiency and quality of bank advisers' work. Requirements engineering for AP includes describing new work processes that musty be supported by AP using a combination of: (1) prose......, important work process....
Kimberly Renee Glenn
Full Text Available Background: Online learning has recently garnered increased attention as technology use in the classroom grows. However, most of the published approaches regarding this topic in postgraduate education centers on clinical environments. Models of partnerships between applied public health agencies and academic centers to produce mutually beneficial online learning opportunities for graduate-level public health courses have not been explored in the literature.Methods: East Tennessee State University (ETSU and the Tennessee Department of Health (TDH partnered to build three online, asynchronous epidemiology modules for an interdisciplinary audience of graduate students. The goal of the modules were to 1 introduce students to a public health issue, 2 provide students with hands-on learning about data and information available through TDH, and 3 allow students to connect theory to practice by having them create a product for use by TDH. TDH created topic-specific modules that would be used within the infectious disease, chronic disease and cancer epidemiology courses and piloted during the 2015-2016 academic term.Results: Conference calls between the two institutions occurred in the spring and the summer of 2015. Two of the three epidemiology modules were presented to ETSU staff for critique and edits at an in-person meeting during the summer. The methods of delivery for each section within a module varied from recorded webinar format to self-guided instruction. One module utilized available learning tools provided by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention while the other module was constructed entirely using TDH data. Both modules included various exercises and assignments to be conducted in-class and as homework, and concluded with the student being asked to construct a learning product as a final project. The ETSU-TDH team decided that this learning product would be provided back to TDH for possible future use. Discussion: The innovative
Weir, Michael J.
In the United States, undergraduate underrepresented minority (URM) students tend to change out of declared majors in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines at a rate of nearly sixty percent prior to earning a post secondary degree. This phenomenon contributes to a general concern that the United States is not producing enough STEM trained skilled workers to meet future employment needs of industry and government. Although there has been research developed to examine how to increase the numbers of URM students enrolling in STEM programs at higher education institutions, retention of these students remains critical. One area of increasing focus for researchers is to understand how multiple factors impact the college experience of URM students and how those factors may contribute to the student decision to persist in earning a STEM disciple degree. This research study is a phenomenological mixed method study that examines how students experience the phenomenon of advising and the influence of the advising experience of undergraduate URM students on their likelihood of persisting in STEM at a northeast US technology oriented post secondary institution. Persistence, from the perspective of the student, is driven by cognitive psychological attributes such as confidence, motivation and self-efficacy. Utilizing a Social Cognitive theoretical framework, this study examines how three distinct undergraduate URM student populations enrolled in; an Academic Services Program, Honors College, and the general undergraduate population at this institution experience advising and how their experiences may influence their propensity to persist in earning a STEM oriented degree.
Gozuyesil, Eda; Dikici, Ayhan
This study's aim is to measure the effect sizes of the quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of brain-based learning on students' academic achievement and to examine with the meta-analytical method if there is a significant difference in effect in terms of the factors of education level, subject matter, sampling size, and the…
de Boer, Hester; Donker, Anouk; Kostons, Danny; van der Werf, Greetje
Meta-analyses have shown the positive effects of strategy instruction on student performance; however, little meta-analytical research has been conducted on its long-term effects. We examined the long-term effects of 48 metacognitive strategy instruction interventions on student academic
Ljubica Marjanovič Umek
Full Text Available The aim of our research was to check the assumed path model of causal relationships between adolescent's psychological characteristics (language competence, intellectual ability, and personality dimensions, parental education, and adolescent's academic achievement. Adolescents (N = 427; among them 225 girls and 202 boys, who were attending the ninth grade of elementary school in the school year 2005/2006, and their parents participated in the study. Adolescent's academic achievement was assessed by the results of national examinations in Slovene and mathematics, teachers' marks in Slovene and mathematics, and adolescent's general school success. The results of structural equation modelling showed a good fit of the assumed path model if it included the direct effect of adolescent's psychological characteristics and parental education on adolescent's academic achievement and also the indirect effect of parental education and three personality dimensions (Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness/Intellect through the adolescent's language competence and general intelligence. The fit of the adopted path model was acceptable regardless of the way in which academic achievement was assessed and regardless of the sex of the participants. The most important predictors of the academic achievement were language competence, general intelligence, and personality dimensions Conscientiousness and Openness/Intellect. With the assumed path model of casual relationships we could explain between 53% and 63% of differences in adolescents' academic achievement.
Su Jin Chae
Full Text Available Purpose This study is aimed at identifying the relationships between medical school students’ academic burnout, empathy, and calling, and determining whether their calling has a mediating effect on the relationship between academic burnout and empathy. Methods A mixed method study was conducted. One hundred twenty-seven medical students completed a survey. Scales measuring academic burnout, medical students’ empathy, and calling were utilized. For statistical analysis, correlation analysis, descriptive statistics analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. For qualitative approach, eight medical students participated in a focus group interview. Results The study found that empathy has a statistically significant, negative correlation with academic burnout, while having a significant, positive correlation with calling. Sense of calling proved to be an effective mediator of the relationship between academic burnout and empathy. Conclusion This result demonstrates that calling is a key variable that mediates the relationship between medical students’ academic burnout and empathy. As such, this study provides baseline data for an education that could improve medical students’ empathy skills.
Chae, Su Jin; Jeong, So Mi; Chung, Yoon-Sok
This study is aimed at identifying the relationships between medical school students' academic burnout, empathy, and calling, and determining whether their calling has a mediating effect on the relationship between academic burnout and empathy. A mixed method study was conducted. One hundred twenty-seven medical students completed a survey. Scales measuring academic burnout, medical students' empathy, and calling were utilized. For statistical analysis, correlation analysis, descriptive statistics analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. For qualitative approach, eight medical students participated in a focus group interview. The study found that empathy has a statistically significant, negative correlation with academic burnout, while having a significant, positive correlation with calling. Sense of calling proved to be an effective mediator of the relationship between academic burnout and empathy. This result demonstrates that calling is a key variable that mediates the relationship between medical students' academic burnout and empathy. As such, this study provides baseline data for an education that could improve medical students' empathy skills.
Holland, Alice Ann; Hughes, Carroll W; Harder, Lana; Silver, Cheryl; Bowers, Daniel C; Stavinoha, Peter L
It has been proposed previously that extrinsic motivation may enable survivors of childhood medulloblastoma to significantly improve aspects of neurocognitive performance. In healthy populations, enhanced motivation has been shown to promote academic fluency, a domain likely more relevant to the educational outcomes of pediatric medulloblastoma survivors than academic skill development. The present study investigates the effect of enhanced extrinsic motivation on fluent (i.e., accurate and efficient) academic performance in pediatric medulloblastoma survivors. Participants were 36 children, ages 7-18, who had completed treatment for medulloblastoma. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery that included administration of equivalent tasks on Forms A and B of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Half were randomly assigned to an incentive condition prior to the administration of Form B. Provision of a performance-based incentive resulted in statistically significant improvement, but not normalization of function, in performance on measures of academic fluency. No demographic, treatment-related, academic, neuropsychological, or self-perception variables predicted response to incentive. Findings suggest that academic performance of survivors may significantly improve under highly motivating conditions. In addition to implications for educational services, this finding raises the novel possibility that decreased motivation represents an inherent neuropsychological deficit in this population and provides a rationale for further investigation of factors affecting individual differences in motivational processes. Further, by examining effort in a context where effort is not inherently suspect, present findings also significantly contribute to the debate regarding the effects of effort and motivation on neuropsychological performance.
Dunifon, Rachel; Toft Hansen, Anne; Nicholson, Sean
of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employment has a positive effect on children’s academic performance in all specifications, particularly when women work...... part-time. This is in contrast with the larger literature on maternal employment, much of which takes place in other contexts, and which finds no or a small negative effect of maternal employment on children’s cognitive development and academic performance....
Lee, Soo Jin; Choi, Young Jun; Chae, Han
Previous studies suggest that personality traits play an important role in academic burnout. The aim of this study was to investigate how Cloninger's temperament and character traits explain academic burnout in a highly competitive environment of medical school. A total of 184 Korean medical students participated in the survey. The Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory was measured around the beginning of the semester and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey at the end of the semester. The correlations and stepwise regression analysis were conducted to explain the association between personality traits and academic burnout. In addition, latent profile analysis and profile analysis were employed to distinguish and explain differences of personality traits among latent academic burnout subgroups. The higher harm avoidance of temperament and lower self-directedness and cooperativeness of character predicted the subscales of academic burnout in medical students. The Temperament and Character Inventory personality profile of high, middle, and low latent burnout subgroups were significantly different. This study showed that personality might account for the burnout level in medical education. The importance of character dimension for modulating the effects of temperament traits on academic burnout was discussed for future research.
Full Text Available Aim: Sleep problems are common in students with one third of university students reporting insufficient sleep. It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students. Material and Method: Self-reported sleep data and academic performance of 131 first grade medical students were collected. To all students enrolled Pittsburg Sleep Quality Scale in the assessment of sleep quality and Epworth Sleepiness Scale for assessment of daytime sleepiness in the evaluation.The students were divided into two subgroups and the intervention group received a 30 minute structured sleep hygiene education. Global academic performance was assessed by grade point average at the end of the year. Results: Mean Pittsburgh sleep quality index score of the students was 7.9±3.5 and 106 (82.8% of then had a score %u22655.After intervention, .the worse the initial sleep quality, the more improvement by the sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance. Discussion: An education on sleep hygiene might improve subjective sleep quality and academic performance of medical students.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate full-day kindergarten, as a means of improving later academic achievement. A total of 208 students who had continuous enrollment for three consecutive school years from a school district in southern California participated in the study. The sample contained 165 students who had attended the traditional half-day kindergarten program with 43 attending a hybrid all-day kindergarten program. All students were administered the California Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR assessment and the California Achievement Test 6th Edition (CAT 6 survey exams. Using stepwise multiple regression, several independent variables were introduced into the regression equation to obtain a Prediction Model of Student Success. The English language arts and math scores of the California STAR Assessment were used as the dependent variable separately. A significant model was not developed. Using an independent-sample T Test procedure, comparing the two groups, was also preformed revealing that there were no significant differences in students who attended the all-day kindergarten program and students who attended a traditional kindergarten program.
Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit
This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…
Kulophas, Dhirapat; Hallinger, Philip; Ruengtrakul, Auyporn; Wongwanich, Suwimon
Purpose: In the context of Thailand's progress towards education reform, scholars have identified a lack of effective school-level leadership as an impeding factor. The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a theoretical model of authentic leadership effects on teacher academic optimism and work engagement. Authentic leadership was…
Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah
The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…
Shamblen, Stephen R.; Ringwalt, Chris
Project SUCCESS (PS) is a substance use prevention program that targets indicated high school students. We used archival data to explore the program's effects on students' academic achievement and disciplinary problems. It is essential to demonstrate such effects, if prevention curricula are to survive in schools that face multiple competing…
Luiselli, James K.; Putnam, Robert F.; Handler, Marcie W.; Feinberg, Adam B.
Many students attending public schools exhibit discipline problems such as disruptive classroom behaviour, vandalism, bullying, and violence. Establishing effective discipline practices is critical to ensure academic success and to provide a safe learning environment. In this article, we describe the effects of whole-school positive behaviour…
Kolawole, E. B.
This study investigated the effects of the cooperative and competitive learning on academic performance of students in mathematics in order to find out which one of them is the more effective learning strategy. The sample of the study was 400 Senior Secondary Schools III, Mathematics students made up of 240 boys and 160 girls randomly selected…
AbdulRaheem, Yusuf; Yusuf, Hamdallat T.; Odutayo, Adesegun O.
Peer tutoring has generated a great deal of scholarly interest in the field of education. It is viewed as an essential instructional strategy for inclusive education because it constitutes one of the strongholds of cooperative learning. This study examines the effect of peer tutoring and the moderating effect of gender on the academic performance…
The author presents new evidence on the effects of attendance on academic performance. He used a large panel data set for introductory microeconomics students to explicitly take into account the effect of unobservable factors correlated with attendance, such as ability, effort, and motivation. He found that neither proxy variables nor instrumental…
de Boer, Hester; Donker, Anouk S.; van der Werf, Margaretha P.C.
This meta-analysis examined the influence of attributes related to the implementation of learning strategy instruction interventions on students’ academic performance, and also examined how the attributes related to the method of testing the intervention effects affected the actual effects measured.
This paper investigates the experimental studies which test the effectiveness of the concept mapping instructional strategy compared to the traditional teaching method. Meta-analysis was used to calculate the effect size of the concept mapping strategy on academic success. Therefore, the analysis includes experimental studies conducted in Turkey…
Amador, Paul Vincent
The arrival of a new generation of students, known as the Net Generation (Junco, 2010), into colleges and universities has demanded changes to the traditional administrative and support services provided on campuses across the nation. In times of ever-changing technological advances, colleges and universities have begun to utilize new and…
Suhail Mahmoud AL-ZOUBI
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the effect of enrichment programs on the academic achievement of gifted and talented students. The sample of the study consisted of (30 gifted and talented students studying at Al-Kourah Pioneer Center for gifted and talented students (APCGTS, Jordan. An achievement test was developed and applied on the sample of the study as a pretest and posttest. The results showed the effects of enrichment programs at APCGTS on improving the academic achievement of gifted and talented students.
Pinxten, Maarten; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; D'Haenens, Ellen
The relation between academic self-concept and achievement has been examined in a large number of studies. The majority of these studies have found evidence for a reciprocal effects model. However, there is an ongoing debate on how students' achievement should be measured and whether the type of achievement indicator (grades, tests, teacher ratings) affects the causal pattern found in these studies. The study aims at clarifying how the types of achievement measures and the way they are modelled can affect the results of causal ordering studies. In that sense, the study will yield recommendations for researchers in this domain and also provide some direction for practitioners seeking ways to enhance their students' achievement and/or academic self-concept. Repeated measures of academic self-concept and achievement (standardized tests and teacher ratings) were examined in a sample of 1,753 students in Grades 7, 8, 10, and 12. Structural equation modelling was used. Several models (with different types and numbers of achievement measures) were compared. Only small differences were found between models using one or two indicators of achievement. All models generally supported the reciprocal effects model. However, the final model, wherein tests and teacher ratings were used as separate latent variables, showed different developmental patterns in the causal relation between academic self-concept and achievement. Researchers should interpret the results of causal ordering studies discerningly because the type of measure chosen as an indicator of achievement might affect the causal pattern between academic self-concept and achievement.
María Dolores Guerra-Martín
Full Text Available In response to the increase of Higher Education support provided to tutoring programs, this paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a tutoring program to improve the academic performance of at-risk students enrolled in the last year of a nursing degree characterized by academic failure (failed courses. A controlled experimental study was carried out to evaluate a tutoring program that included a minimum of nine meetings performed by an expert professor as tutor. A questionnaire for assessing the academic needs was designed and interventions were performed when responses were: nothing, a little or something. Medium to large effects were found in the progress of failed course to passed course (p =.000, rφ = .30, improving the information about courses (p < .001, d = 2.01, the information comprehension (p < .001, d = 0.85 and the strategies to improve academic performance (p < .001, d = 1.37. The intervention group students’ response highlighted program satisfaction and effectiveness. The significance of the study lies in reinforcing the formal tutoring as a tool to improve academic performance in at-risk students.
Goldstein, Howard; Ziolkowski, Robyn A.; Bojczyk, Kathryn E.; Marty, Ana; Schneider, Naomi; Harpring, Jayme; Haring, Christa D.
Purpose: This study investigated cumulative effects of language learning, specifically whether prior vocabulary knowledge or special education status moderated the effects of academic vocabulary instruction in high-poverty schools. Method: Effects of a supplemental intervention targeting academic vocabulary in first through third grades were…
... Academic Affairs. 17.251 Section 17.251 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants for Exchange of Information § 17.251 The Subcommittee on Academic Affairs. There is... Subcommittee on Academic Affairs, and the Subcommittee shall advise the Secretary, through the Under Secretary...
Dvorsky, Melissa R; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W; Becker, Stephen P
There is considerable evidence that externalizing disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) put youth at risk for a range of adverse academic outcomes. It is importantly to note that some youth avoid these negative outcomes, yet there is a gap in our understanding of these resilient youth. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally evaluate social acceptance and social skills as potential protective factors of the associations between inattentive, hyperactive/impulsive, and oppositional defiant behaviors with academic outcomes. Participants included a sample of 93 middle school students comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD. Parents and adolescents completed ratings of social skills and perceived social acceptance. School grades and teacher-rated academic impairment were assessed 18 months later as longitudinal academic functioning outcomes. Inattention and social acceptance were associated with academic outcomes 18 months later. Regression analyses revealed that parent- and adolescent-rated social acceptance demonstrated promotive effects for grades and against teacher-rated academic impairment. Further, social acceptance significantly interacted with inattention in predicting school grades, such that high parent- and adolescent-rated social acceptance significantly attenuated the relationship between inattention and poor grades, even after controlling for baseline grades and intelligence. The presence of social acceptance was especially critical for adolescents with high levels of inattention. Specifically, adolescents with high inattention and high social acceptance had a mean grade point average of 2.5, and adolescents with high inattention and low social acceptance had a mean grade point average of 1.5. These findings demonstrate that social acceptance may be an important intervention target for improving academic outcomes among adolescents with ADHD.
Preckel, Franzis; Götz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne
Securing appropriate challenge or preventing boredom is one of the reasons frequently used to justify ability grouping of gifted students, which has been shown to have beneficial effects for achievement. On the other hand, critics stress psychosocial costs, such as detrimental effects on academic self-concept (contrast or big-fish-little-pond effect). The effects of full-time ability grouping in special classrooms for the gifted on students' academic self-concept and their experience of boredom in mathematics classes were investigated. The sample comprised 186 ninth-grade students (106 male) from eight classes at one Austrian high school. Four of these classes were part of a gifted track beginning from school year 9 on (N=93). Students were assessed repeatedly within the first half of the school year, three times via self-report questionnaires and once by applying a standardized IQ-test. Students in gifted classes reported a decrease in maths academic self-concept which was most pronounced early in the academic year. Interventions to counterbalance the negative effect of exposure to a high-ability reference group should therefore be implemented when ability grouping begins. No evidence for the boredom hypothesis was found (higher levels of boredom among gifted students in regular classes). However, students clearly differed in the reasons they stated for experiencing boredom. Boredom attributions changed over time and supported the assumption that gifted classes provide more appropriate levels of challenge.
Preckel, Franzis; Schmidt, Isabelle; Stumpf, Eva; Motschenbacher, Monika; Vogl, Katharina; Schneider, Wolfgang
According to the reciprocal-effects model (REM), prior academic self-concept (ASC) has a positive effect on subsequent achievement beyond what can be explained in terms of prior achievement and vice versa. The present study investigated the REM for students studying in special classes for the gifted compared to students studying in regular…
Zhang, Yonghong; Luo, Xi; Che, Xianwei; Duan, Wenjie
The literature has shown that self-compassion is a protective factor of an individual's emotional response to chronic stress. However, this stress-buffering effect has not been completely analyzed in individuals who report significantly high academic stress. The present study explored the role of self-compassion in a group of undergraduate students who experience chronic academic stress. A total of 208 undergraduate students who were preparing for the Postgraduate Entrance Examination (PEE) were recruited and completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Event Check List, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Differences analysis confirmed that the participants reported significantly higher academic stress than their peers who were not preparing for PEE. Self-compassion positively related to positive affect but negatively related to negative affect and learning stress. Further analysis showed that self-compassion negatively mediated the relationship between chronic academic stress and negative affect. Findings imply that self-compassion-centered interventions can be developed in the educational context to assist students cope with chronic academic stress.
Full Text Available The literature has shown that self-compassion is a protective factor of an individual’s emo-tional response to chronic stress. However, this stress-buffering effect has not been complete-ly analyzed in individuals who report significantly high academic stress. The present study explored the role of self-compassion in a group of undergraduate students who experience chronic academic stress. A total of 208 undergraduate students who were preparing for the Postgraduate Entrance Examination (PEE were recruited and completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Event Check List, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Differences analysis confirmed that the participants reported significantly higher academic stress than their peers who were not preparing for PEE. Self-compassion positively related to positive affect but negatively related to negative affect and learning stress. Further analysis showed that self-compassion negatively mediated the relationship be-tween chronic academic stress and negative affect. Findings imply that self-compassion-centered interventions can be developed in the educational context to assist students cope with chronic academic stress.
Full Text Available Technology mediated learning brings together the users with shared interests. This method makes learners informally engaged in language learning. This study intended to investigate the effect of technology mediated instruction on cognitive scaffolding, academic performance and motivation. Employing a quasi-experimental research, 80 learners from two intact classes at Islamic Azad University, Osku Branch were selected as the experimental and control groups. Telegram as a tool was used in the experimental group, while the control group received traditional way of instruction. Critical ethnography approach was implemented to consider the amount of cognitive scaffolding. To measure the students’ motivational level in both groups, Course Interest Survey (CIS was administered at the end of the semester. The total average score for each group was calculated. To compare students’ academic achievement, their average scores in the final academic test were considered. An Independent samples t-test in was used to compare the mean scores. The results indicated that technology mediated learning brought about cognitive scaffolding and the students in the experimental group outperformed the control group in terms of motivation and academic achievement. The results of the study suggest that to bring about academically successful students, practitioners should use technology mediated instruction.
Sharifirad, Gholam R; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Jazini, Akram; Etemadi, Zinat S
Communication is the most important part of any educational process, the aim of which is to transfer or exchange ideas and thoughts. It would be provided appropriately if academic members had the communication skills. Considering the important role of academic members in the educational process, in this study, the knowledge, attitude and performance of academic members of School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were investigated with regard to effective communication skills. In this descriptive-analytic study, all academic members of the School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were studied during the second academic semester of 2006-2007. The data were collected by a valid and reliable three-part questionnaire including knowledge (8 questions and maximum score of 8), attitude (31 questions and maximum score of 155) and observational communication skills checklist (20 questions and maximum score of 20). The obtained data were analyzed by calculating central indices using SPSS software. The mean knowledge score of studied people in terms of communicational skills, attitude and performance were 4.1 out of 8, 114.4 out of 155 and 16.3 out of 20, respectively. Although the information of the participants of this study in terms of communication skills was not sufficient, they seemed to have a positive attitude and relatively acceptable performance in communication skills.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of multiple intelligence applications on academic achievement in Turkey. Accordingly, findings of independent research studies aimed to find out effectiveness of multiple intelligence applications are gathered in a meta-analysis. Total of 71 studies, 66 dissertations and 7 articles were included in the meta-analysis meeting the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis calculations resulted that the multiple intelligence applications have a large and positive effect on academic achievement. It was also revealed that the effect of multiple intelligence applications vary by application period. Thus, as the application period increases, the effect of multiple intelligence application also increases. On the other side, effectiveness of the applications does not vary by; the type of the course, level of the class and the type of the research. Some suggestions made according to the research findings.
Bowers, Erica; Fitts, Shanan; Quirk, Mathew; Jung, Woo
The development of academic English and advanced literacy is crucial for student success, especially for English language learners. In this study, researchers used a survey to investigate which instructional strategies 108 fourth- and fifth-grade teachers learned in professional development and found to be effective for providing English learners…
O'Malley, Patricia; Lewis, M. E. B.; Donehower, Claire; Stone, David
This single subject design study (ABAB) investigated the effects of using iPads in a classwide academic intervention to increase independent task completion and basic math skills of seven students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) enrolled in a special education school. The study also examined the advantages of and challenges to using…
Welsch, David M.; Zimmer, David M.
This paper draws attention to a subtle, but concerning, empirical challenge common in panel data models that seek to estimate the relationship between student transfers and district academic performance. Specifically, if such models have a dynamic element, and if the estimator controls for unobserved traits by including district-level effects,…
O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Eklund, Katie
School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family…
Hall, Pamela D.
Studies the effect of meditation on the academic performance of 56 undergraduate students during a full semester. Results revealed semester grade point averages and cumulative grade point averages of the meditation group to be significantly higher those of the non-meditation group. (MMU)
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of loneliness on academic participation and success among 213 students studying at Usak University. A total of 213 international students studying at Usak University, including 151 males and 62 females, were selected and participated in the research voluntarily. In the study, feelings of…
It is now a universally acknowledged fact that information is a vital resource for national development and success of librarians. It is the position of the authors that ICT is a tool for effective performance by academic librarians. Three university libraries in Edo State of Nigeria provided the data and institutional setting.
Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde; Van Damme, Jan; Verschueren, Karine
The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) model predicts students' academic self-concept to be negatively predicted by the achievement level of their reference group, controlling for individual achievement. Despite an abundance of empirical evidence supporting the BFLPE, there have been relatively few studies searching for possible moderators.…
You, Ji Won
This study aimed to investigate the effect of academic procrastination on e-learning course achievement. Because all of the interactions among students, instructors, and contents in an e-learning environment were automatically recorded in a learning management system (LMS), procrastination such as the delays in weekly scheduled learning and late…
Bunce, Louise; Baird, Amy; Jones, Siân E.
Students studying at universities in England have been defined as customers by the government since the introduction of student tuition fees. Although this approach has been rejected by educators, there is a lack of empirical evidence about the extent to which students express a consumer orientation and its effects on academic performance. These…
Wehrens, Maike J. P. W.; Kuyper, Hans; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Buunk, Abraham P.; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.
The present study was part of a large-scale cohort study among several thousand students in the Netherlands. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of comparison choice, i.e., comparison with a target performing better or worse than oneself, and academic comparative
Yapici, I. Ümit
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…
Akuegwu, Basil A.; Nwi-ue, Felix D.
This study assessed Heads of Departments' effectiveness in providing academic leadership at the departmental level. I research question and 2 hypotheses were formulated to give direction to this investigation. Survey design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised 110 Heads of Departments from 2 universities in Cross River…
Jeynes, William H.
Used data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey to study the effects of remarriage following divorce on children's academic achievement. Results indicate that children from reconstituted families score no higher, and often lower than children of divorce from single-parent families. (SLD)
Harrison, Carole S.; And Others
Reports on a study of 142 college music theory students on the influence of musical aptitude, academic ability, music experience, and motivation on the development of aural skills. Finds that musical aptitude had the largest effect on performance and motivation for music did not affect aural skills performance. (CFR)
The current emphasis on performance standards and testing has led schools to look to the after-school hours as time that can be spent developing children's academic skills. This Spanish-language digest describes types of after-school programs and discusses recent research on who participates and the effects of participation on children's school…
Zook, J. M.; Herman, A. P.
This study examined the effects of instructor support and students' global academic motivation on students' course-specific intrinsic motivation. The authors hypothesized, based on self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), that instructor support for students' psychological needs would enhance intrinsic motivation. Students reported their…
Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-man
We investigated the effect of participating in two domains of extracurricular activities (sports and performance arts/clubs) in Grades 7 and 8 on Grade 9 academic motivation and letter grades, above baseline performance. Participants were 483 students (55% male; 33% Euro-American, 25% African American, and 39% Latino). Propensity score weighting…
This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…
Harris, Jennifer L.; Al-Bataineh, Mohammed T.; Al-Bataineh, Adel
This research was a quantitative study using 4th grade participants from a Title 1 elementary school in Central Illinois. This study set out to determine whether one to one technology (1:1 will be used hereafter) truly impacts and effects the academic achievement of students. This study's second goal was to determine whether 1:1 Technology also…
Olley, Rivka I.; Cohn, Andrea; Cowan, Katherine C.
Effective discipline is essential to creating safe, supportive learning environments for all students, which is critical to academic achievement. Since the passage of zero tolerance policies in the early 1990s, many school districts have relied on punitive discipline focused on harsh strategies such as using suspension and expulsion as primary…
Lin, Wei-Sheng; Hsu, Yuling; Liang, Chaoyun
Three studies were combined to examine the effects of creativity and imagination on the academic performance of design students. Study 1 conducted an exploratory factor analysis to determine the most appropriate structure of the Creativity Capability Scale (CCS) in a sample of 313 college students. The scale was a new self-report measure, and it…
Jozwik, Sara L.; Douglas, Karen H.
We provided a multicomponent academic vocabulary intervention to six English learners with learning difficulties in a fifth-grade general education setting. A multiple probe design across word sets and replicated across students evaluated the effects of the intervention on students' use of expressive language to read and define content-specific…
Bourgoyne, Ashley; Alt, Mary
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify effects of variability of visual input on development of conceptual representations of academic concepts for college-age students with normal language (NL) and those with language-learning disabilities (LLD). Method: Students with NL (n = 11) and LLD (n = 11) participated in a computer-based…
Richmond, Aaron S.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Curl, Layton S.; Broussard, Kristin A.
During the past decades, little research has investigated the effects of immersion scheduling on the psychology classroom. Therefore, we sought to compare academic performance of students in 2-week immersion psychology courses to that of students in traditional 16-week courses. In Study 1, students who received instruction in a 2-week immersion…
Hosal-Akman, Nazli; Simga-Mugan, Can
This study explores the effect of teaching methods on the academic performance of students in accounting courses. The study was carried out over two semesters at a well-known university in Turkey in principles of financial accounting and managerial accounting courses. Students enrolled in the courses were assigned to treatment and control groups.…
Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.
This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…
F.M. van Blankenstein (Floris); D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); C.P.M. van der Vleuten (Cees); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)
textabstractThis study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion
In this study, the effects of family leadership orientation on social entrepreneurship, generativity and academic education success were examined with the views of college students. The study was conducted at a state university in Central Anatolia in Turkey. 402 college students who attending at three different colleges voluntarily participated in…
Frierson, Henry T., Jr.
One hundred fifty-two senior nursing students at a traditionally Black college participated in a study to determine the effect on academic performance of: (1) test-taking instruction; (2) a combination of test-taking instruction with cooperative learning procedures; or (3) no intervention. Spring semester grades were used to represent academic…
Abdi, Ali; Laei, Susan; Ahmadyan, Hamze
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Teaching Strategy based on Multiple Intelligences on students' academic achievement in sciences course. Totally 40 students from two different classes (Experimental N = 20 and Control N = 20) participated in the study. They were in the fifth grade of elementary school and were selected…
Frost, Mandy J.
This quantitative ex post facto study investigated the effects of career academies on academic achievement and college readiness. A total of 1,206 12th-grade participants (196 career academy and 1,010 nonacademy students) were used in this study. These participants came from six high schools located in one large urban school district. Each of the…
Henry, Kimberly L.
Background: The primary aim was to examine correlated growth trajectories and reciprocal effects between academic achievement and drug use over the course of junior high school. Methods: One hundred and three male and 98 female students from 3 rural junior high schools were surveyed 4 times over the course of 3 years. Dual trajectory latent growth…
Wu, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Shin-Ting
The primary purpose of this study was to utilize a multidimensional perspective to examine whether children's self-concept served as a mediator between academic achievement and depression, and to further investigate whether this mediation effect was moderated by the ages of children. The participants consisted of 632 Taiwanese children in the…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of inquiry-based learning method on students' academic achievement in sciences lesson. A total of 40 fifth grade students from two different classes were involved in the study. They were selected through purposive sampling method. The group which was assigned as experimental group was…
Ozerbas, Mehmet Arif; Erdogan, Bilge Has
This study aimed to observe whether the learning environment created by digital classroom technologies has any effect on the academic success and online technologies self-efficacy of 7th grade students. In this study, an experimental design with a pre-test/post-test control group was used. The research was conducted with 58 students in a secondary…
Donker, Anouk; de Boer, Hester; Kostons, Danny; Dignath -van Ewijk, Charlotte; van der Werf, Margaretha
In this meta-analysis the results of studies on learning strategy instruction focused on improving self-regulated learning were brought together to determine which specific strategies were the most effective in increasing academic performance. The meta-analysis included 58 studies in primary and
Countries’ success in the knowledge economy increasingly rely on highly-skilled and qualified people, which in turn, requires rapid, effective, and less expensive education and training. In this context, e-Learning has emerged; e-Learning is scalable, less expensive than traditional learning, and clearly advantageous for learners to access educational information and content anywhere and anytime. However, for evaluating the effectiveness of e-learning programs, a definition of ‘effectiveness’...
Job Veronika; Friese Malte; Bernecker Katharina
Research suggests that regular practice can improve self control usually indicated by self report measures assessed during or shortly after the practice intervention. The present study looked at objectively measured end of the year grade point average (GPA) as the focal outcome of a self control training intervention. Participants in the self control training conditions squeezed a handgrip twice a day for two weeks. To isolate placebo effects expectations about the effect of the training were...
Zion, George H.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between students' high school Project Lead They Way participation and their subsequent academic success in post-secondary engineering studies and to assess to what degree, if any, their level of Project Lead The Way (PLTW) participation, gender, and AALANA status (African American, Latino/a American and Native American) effected this success. PLTW is the nation's single largest provider of pre-engineering curriculums, the subject of this research study, currently being offered in over 3,200 secondary schools nationwide. Despite this level of integration, the amount of research on PLTW's effectiveness has been very limited. To date, the majority of the literature on PLTW has examined its impact on students' high school academic performance or their desire to further their engineering studies. The findings from these studies have been overwhelmingly positive, indicating that PLTW students often had greater achievements in math and science and either plan to, or have actually enrolled, in post-secondary studies at higher rates. Nevertheless, the amount of literature on PLTW's effects on students' academic success in post-secondary engineering studies is very limited. Furthermore, no research has yet to examine for the moderating effects of gender, ethnicity, or level of PLTW participation on students' post-secondary academics success. The population of interest for this research study was 1,478 students who entered an undergraduate engineering program from 2007 to 2009 at a privately endowed, co-educational university located in the northeastern United States. The findings of this research study were that virtually all the effects of PLTW participation, gender, and AALANA status had on academic success were observed during students' freshmen and sophomore years. These effects were positive for PLTW participation, and adverse for female and AALANA students. Additionally, PLTW participation, gender, and
Conway, James M.; DiPlacido, Joanne
This study focused on first-semester college students, investigating (a) indirect effects of aggregate alcohol use on grade point average (GPA) through academic effort (skipping class and time on schoolwork) and (b) daily effects of alcohol use on reduced effort. Eighty students reported daily alcohol use and academic effort (skipping class and…
Full Text Available Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS, which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this purpose, the participating students’ online learning behaviors in LMS were examined by using learning analytics for 14 weeks, and the relationship between students’ behaviors and their academic achievements was analyzed, followed by an analysis of their views about the influence of LMS on their academic achievement. The present study, in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected, was carried out with the explanatory mixed method. A total of 71 undergraduate students participated in the study. The results revealed that the students used LMSs as a support to face-to-face education more intensively on course days (at the beginning of the related lessons and at nights on course days and that they activated the content elements the most. Lastly, almost all the students agreed that LMSs helped increase their academic achievement only when LMSs included such features as effectiveness, interaction, reinforcement, attractive design, social media support, and accessibility.
Titz, Cora; Karbach, Julia
The aim of this review is to illustrate the role of working memory and executive functions for scholastic achievement as an introduction to the question of whether and how working memory and executive control training may improve academic abilities. The review of current research showed limited but converging evidence for positive effects of process-based complex working-memory training on academic abilities, particularly in the domain of reading. These benefits occurred in children suffering from cognitive and academic deficits as well as in healthy students. Transfer of training to mathematical abilities seemed to be very limited and to depend on the training regime and the characteristics of the study sample. A core issue in training research is whether high- or low-achieving children benefit more from cognitive training. Individual differences in terms of training-related benefits suggested that process-based working memory and executive control training often induced compensation effects with larger benefits in low performing individuals. Finally, we discuss the effects of process-based training in relation to other types of interventions aimed at improving academic achievement.
Full Text Available Racial disparities in achievement are a persistent fact of the US educational system. An often cited but rarely directly studied explanation for these disparities is that adolescents from different racial and ethnic backgrounds are exposed to different peers and have different friends. In this article I identify the impact of friends on racial and ethnic achievement disparities. Using data from Add Health and an instrumental variable approach, I show that the achievement characteristics of youths’ friends drive friend effects; adolescents with friends with higher grades are more likely to increase their grades compared to those with lower-achieving friends. Although these effects do not differ across race/ethnicity, given differences in friendship patterns, if black and Latino adolescents had friends with the achievement characteristics of white students, the GPA gap would be 17 to 19 percent smaller. Although modest, this effect represents an important and often overlooked source of difference among black and Latino youth.
Google is Our Friend,” and “ Plagiarism 101.” Also unlike the hard-to-find blogs, many academic libraries, including both Hollins University and Urbana...Effective Web 2.0 Use in Academic Libraries by Hanna C. Bachrach Pratt Institute...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 2.0 Use in Academic Libraries 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Bachrach
This study was designed to find out students' perception of teachers' effectiveness and how it affects students' performance in Agricultural Sciences. The study was carried out in four randomly selected secondary schools in Calabar South Local government Area of Cross River state, Nigeria. The research formulated three ...
This article examines the effect of Video-based Supplemental Instruction on the performance in Mathematics of students whose matric marks did not enable them to be directly admitted to the Science Faculty at the University of Port Elizabeth. Fifteen students who received Video-based Supplemental Instruction in ...
Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Marsh, Herbert W.; Murayama, Kou; Goetz, Thomas
A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement in Mathematics (PALMA) longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents' development in mathematics (Grades 5-9; N = 3,425 German students; mean starting…
Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe
This article reports the findings of a bibliometric study of the measurable effects of experience and prestige on researchers' citing behavior. All single authors from two econometrics journals over a 10-year time period form the basis of the analysis of how experience and prestige affect...... suggestions for future research within this new and promising area....
The problem facing most establishments including libraries in developing countries like Nigeria is the collection and management of information. Information management aims at improving the effectiveness of organizations by managing information as a resource-providing access to relevant information in a timely and ...
Morgan, Peter Wallace
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extended instruction in high school chemistry on the academic self-concept of students and determine what parts of the learning experience need to be addressed to make the interaction a more positive one. Fifty-seven students from three metropolitan public schools, who were enrolled in college preparatory chemistry classes, were asked to complete a written instrument, before and after extended chemistry instruction, that measures academic self-concept. Twenty-one of the students who took part in the written task volunteered to answer some in-depth interview questions concerning their academic self-concept and its relationship to chemistry instruction. Student responses, instrument scores, and student chemistry grades were analyzed for a variety of chemistry learning--academic self-concept connections and interactions. Results showed that there was a positive interaction for less than half of the students involved in the interview sessions. The results from the written instrument showed similar findings. Comparing chemistry grades and academic self-concept revealed an uncertain connection between the two, especially for students with strong academic self-concepts. Students felt that the laboratory experience was often disconnected from the remainder of chemistry instruction and recommended that the laboratory experience be integrated with classroom work. Students also expressed concerns regarding the volume of algorithmic mathematical calculations associated with college preparatory chemistry instruction. Results of this study suggest that secondary chemistry instruction must become more aware of the affective domain of learning and develop a mindful awareness of its connection to the cognitive domain if chemistry teaching and learning is going to better facilitate the intellectual growth of secondary students.
Full Text Available Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behaviour, cognitive and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behaviour is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behaviour and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behaviour in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality and SBPs have a positive effect on children’s academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behaviour in class.
Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise
Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behavior is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases, and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs) were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behavior in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality) and SBPs have a positive effect on children's academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behavior in class.
Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Marsh, Herbert, W.; Murayama, Kou; Goetz, Thomas
A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the PALMA longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents’ development in mathematics (grades 5-9; N=3,425 German students; mean starting age=11.7 years; representative sample). Structural equation modeling showed that positive emotions (enjoyment, pride) positively predicted subsequent achievement (math end-of-the-year grades and test scores), and that achievem...
Shira Fano; Paolo Pellizzari
In this paper we investigate the effects of using a Facebook page exclusively devoted to a first year Mathematics course in a large Italian public university. Posts and discussions supported traditional face-to-face lectures and students could freely post queries and get help from professors and peers. We use a newly constructed dataset to measure how this influences the grade they achieved and the probability of getting a passing grade. Firstly, we find that active students, who read and pos...
Mirzamani, S Mahmood; Ashoori, Mohammad; Sereshki, Narges Adib
This study investigates the effect of social and token economy reinforcements on academic achievement of 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in an experimental science class in Tehran Province. The method used for this study was experimental by pre-test, post- test with a control group. The boy students with intellectual disabilities from three junior high schools participated in this study. The sample consisted of thirty, 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in the selected schools; the schools were chosen by the multi-stage cluster method. To measure the progress of students in the science class, a teacher made test and the Wechsler intelligence test for matching the groups for IQ were used. To ensure validity, the content validity criteria depended tests calculated by the Lashe method and teachers' perspective were used. The reliability coefficient was obtained by the reliability coefficient of related tests; the percent agreement method and the obtained data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis and Shefe prosecution test. The results showed that there was a significant increase in academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities when using token economy than using social reinforcements compared with the control group. Also, when using social reinforcements, the academic achievement of students was more than the control group. Token economy and social reinforcements increased the academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities in the science class; and also the effect of token economy reinforcements was more than social reinforcements on the subjects.
Wolka, Eskinder; Shiferaw, Solomon; Biadgilign, Sibhatu
The present study aimed to assess the effect of iodine deficiency on academic achievement of schoolchildren in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia. School-based comparative cross-sectional study. Primary school in Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia. A sample population of 270 children with goitre and 264 without goitre. All students in each class were examined for the presence of goitre and classified based on WHO recommendations. Among children with goitre, a higher proportion (54·8 %) was female and the proportion increased with age. The odds of scoring low on school performance was higher among children whose fathers were illiterate (adjusted OR = 1·9; 95 % CI 1·1, 3·5) and those who were absent for more than 5 d in the last academic year (adjusted OR = 1·5; 95 % CI 1·1, 2·3). Goitre was significantly associated with low academic achievement (adjusted OR = 1·8; 95 % CI 1·2, 2·5). The study showed that the presence of goitre has a negative effect on academic achievement even after accounting for parental education and absenteeism from school. Awareness of endemic goitre and its impact on school performance, and an emphasis on prevention and control by concerned bodies, are recommended to alleviate the problem.
Kintner, Eileen; Cook, Gwendolyn; Marti, C Nathan; Stoddard, Debbie; Gomes, Melissa; Harmon, Phyllis; Van Egeren, Laurie A
Asthma morbidity and mortality is higher among older school-age children and early adolescents than other age groups across the lifespan. NIH recommended expanding asthma education to schools and community settings to meet cognitive outcomes that have an impact on morbidity and mortality. Guided by the acceptance of asthma model, an evidence-guided, comprehensive school-based academic health education and counseling program, Staying Healthy-Asthma Responsible & Prepared™ (SHARP), was developed. The program complements existing school curricula by integrating biology, psychology, and sociology content with related spelling, math, and reading and writing assignments. Feasibility, benefits, and efficacy have been established. We compared the effectiveness of SHARP to a non-academic program, Open Airways for Schools, in improving asthma knowledge and reasoning about symptom management. A two-group, cluster-randomized, single-blinded design was used with a sample of 205 students in grades 4-5 with asthma and their caregivers. Schools were matched prior to randomization. The unit of analysis was the student. Certified elementary school teachers delivered the programs during instructional time. Data were collected from student/caregiver dyads at baseline and at 1, 12, and 24 months after the intervention. In multilevel modeling, students enrolled in the academic SHARP program demonstrated significant (pimprovement in asthma knowledge and reasoning over students enrolled in the non-academic program. Knowledge advantages were retained at 24 months. Findings support delivery in schools of the SHARP academic health education program for students with asthma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS), which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this pur...
This paper presents new evidence on the effects of attendance on academic performance. We exploit a large panel data set for Introductory Microeconomics students to explicitly take into account the effect of unobservable factors correlated with attendance, such as ability, effort and motivation. We find that neither proxy variables nor instrumental variables provide a viable solution to the omitted variable bias. Panel estimators indicate that attendance has a positive and significant impact ...
BEKDEMİR, ÜNSAL; TAĞRİKULU, PINAR
Media tools change and transform according to the wants and needs of the society. A new concept has entered our lives as a result of these changes: social media. Popular social media tools such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Wikipedia, Youtube, Whatsapp, Snapchat are used commonly, especially among young people. The effects of using social media tools are gathered under a wide range. The purpose of this study is to show the academic and social effects of using social media on university stu...
Hyder O. Mirghani, M.D
Objectives: There is increasing awareness about the effects of circadian misalignment on health and work. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of chronotype on academic achievement among medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among 140 medical students (64 who averaged an A grade and 76 who averaged a C grade) completing the clinical phase at the medical college of Omdurman University, Sudan. The participants were asked to sign a writ...
Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L.; Dye, Louise
Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic perf...
Katie eAdolphus; Clare L Lawton; Louise eDye
Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behaviour, cognitive and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic perf...
Full Text Available The effect of frequent examinations on the students' learning has had inconsistent results. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of frequent announced quizzes on the learning of a representative sample of Iranian medical students.This experimental study was conducted among 37 fifth semester medical students who had taken the course in Protozoology and Helminthology, in which the same basic information were provided about different types of protozoa and worms. Initially, in the teaching of helminthology, ten routine sessions were handled with lectures and interactive questions and answers. Then at the beginning of the protozoology topic in the beginning of all of the next 9 sessions, the students were informed that they will have a quiz at the end of each session. At the end of the semester, the total scores of quizzes were compared with the mean final scores of protozoology and helminthology using paired t and repeated measure tests.The mean final scores of the protozoology lesson were not significantly different from that of the helminthology (10.45 ± 2.75 vs.11.25 ± 2.56 on the scale of 20, respectively, P=0.13. There was no significant difference in the mean score of the five quizzes compared with the mean final term score of protozoology. The overall mean scores in the helminthology lesson (11.25±2.56, protozoology lesson (10.45±2.75, and the quizzes (9.16 ± 3.55 were significantly different (P <0.0001.Frequent announced quizzes were not effective on increasing the medical students' motivation and learning.
Bharwani, Aleem; Kline, Theresa; Patterson, Margaret; Craighead, Peter
Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance. Contextual factors included sufficient resources allocated to the programme, opportunities for learners to practise leadership skills, a competent team around the leader once that person is in place, clear expectations for the leader and a culture that fosters open communication. Contextual barriers included highly bureaucratic structures, fear-of-failure and non-trusting cultures and inappropriate performance systems. Programmes were advised to select participants based on self-awareness, strong communication skills and an innovative thinking style. Filling specific knowledge and skill gaps, particularly for those not trained in medical school, was viewed as essential. Ineffective decision-making styles and tendencies to get involved in day-to-day activities were barriers to the development of academic health leaders. Originality/value Programmes designed to develop academic health-care leaders will be most effective if they develop leadership at all levels; ensure that the organisation's culture, structure and processes reinforce positive leadership practices; and recognise the critical role of teams in supporting its leaders.
Giri, Rabishankar; Kar, Debal C; Sen , B K
The postings in library’s Facebook page were gleaned and analysed. Data of important metrics of Facebook post usage was taken from ‘Facebook Insight’ metrics of Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women Library’s Facebook page. Alongside, library usage data was used to understand the change in behaviour of library usage. The findings provide further support to the view that social network sites (i.e., Facebook) have the potential to be a cost-effective means of engaging u...
...) pension consultants; (iii) investment advisers affiliated with an adviser registered with the Commission... Exchange Commission 31 Parts 275 and 279 Rules Implementing Amendments to the Investment Advisers Act of... Implementing Amendments to the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission...
... Builder Trust and Olive Street Investment Advisers, LLC; Notice of Application July 9, 2013. AGENCY...: Bridge Builder Trust (the ``Trust'') and Olive Street Investment Advisers (the ``Adviser'') (collectively... Financial Way, Suite 100, Glendora, CA 91741; The Adviser: James A. Tricarico, Olive Street Investment...
Advising in austerity provides a lively and thought-provoking account of the conditions, consequences and challenges of advice work in the UK. It examines how advisors negotiate the private troubles of those who come to Citizens Advice Bureaux (CAB) and construct ways forward.
...'') (opposing the Study's findings and, among other things, stating that ``stronger analytical and empirical... recognize that retail customers are unlikely to have significant empirical and quantitative information. We... interest\\21\\ and disclosure practices of investment advisers and broker-dealers, as well as the economics...
Hartman, Rhona C.; Baker, Bonnie
This fact sheet suggests several strategies for counseling students with disabilities who are considering postsecondary education opportunities. It was designed to assist those who advise or counsel students with disabilities in high school, community and junior colleges, career training schools, vocational technical schools, 4-year colleges,…
Guthrie, Kathy L; Meriwether, Jason L
The increasing population of students engaging in online and digital spaces poses unique leadership development challenges in mentoring, coaching, and advising. This chapter discusses the importance of using digital spaces for leadership development and students' sense of belonging. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bureau, Daniel A; Lawhead, Justin
Leadership educators must demonstrate the contributions their programs make to the learning and development of students. This chapter provides an overview of assessment principles for educators to apply in their practices of mentoring, coaching, and advising. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Estelle van Tonder
Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for creating customer loyalty towards independent financial advisers in South Africa. Motivation: To succeed, financial advisers need to build good relationships with clients and ensure they remain loyal to them in the long term. Research design, approach and method: A convenience non-probability sampling technique was applied, and altogether 262 self-administered questionnaires were completed and used in the analysis. Descriptive and standard multiple regression analysis and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA technique were used to test four hypotheses formulated for the study. Main findings: Relationship commitment must be established in a trustworthy environment, regardless of the type of province where the business is operated. Practical/managerial implications: In urban provinces (such as Gauteng both trusting relationships and commitment could lead to customer loyalty; in semi-urban provinces (such as North-West only the commitment variable might do so. Independent financial advisers in both provinces should explore additional factors that could foster customer loyalty. Contributions: The research findings of this study challenge the seminal work of Morgan and Hunt (1994 by establishing that in South Africa, the extent to which trust and commitment predicts customer loyalty is specific to both industrial and geographical location. This study further provides customer loyalty guidelines for independent financial advisers in South Africa.
... by which public contracts are awarded. Similarly, investment advisers that seek to influence... enterprise corruption and State securities fraud for selling access to management of public funds in return... the award of advisory contracts by public pension plans, by making political contributions to, or...
Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W
Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.
Barkhuizen, Nicolene; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; van de Vijver, Fons J R
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among dispositional optimism, job demands and resources, burnout, work engagement, ill health and organizational commitment of South African academic staff in higher education institutions. A cross-sectional survey design was used, with stratified random samples (N = 595) taken of academics in South African higher education institutions. The results confirmed that job demands and a lack of job resources contributed to burnout, whereas job resources contributed to work engagement. Dispositional optimism had a strong direct effect on perceptions of job resources as well as strong indirect effects (via job resources) on burnout, work engagement, ill health and organizational commitment. The results of this study extend the dual-process model of burnout and engagement by demonstrating the strong effects of dispositional optimism on the constructs in the model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Foschi, Martha; Valenzuela, Jerilee
This experiment recreates several features of the selection of candidates for junior professional positions. The situation of central interest involves an assessor (either male or female) and a pair consisting of a male and a female applicant with either equivalent or slightly different academic records. We also investigate effects from quality of record (either excellent or poor) and type of decision (namely, choice between applicants, and ratings of competence and suitability). Our hypotheses consider both gender as social status and as social identity, and predict different outcomes depending on decision type. In line with those predictions, findings show that, at both levels of performance, the question about competence elicited effects only from the two applicants' relative academic standing, while the choice and suitability measures show effects from that standing as well as from sex category of applicant and of assessor. Results and their interpretation are presented and discussed in detail. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Marsh, Herbert W; Murayama, Kou; Goetz, Thomas
A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement in Mathematics (PALMA) longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents' development in mathematics (Grades 5-9; N = 3,425 German students; mean starting age = 11.7 years; representative sample). Structural equation modeling showed that positive emotions (enjoyment, pride) positively predicted subsequent achievement (math end-of-the-year grades and test scores), and that achievement positively predicted these emotions, controlling for students' gender, intelligence, and family socioeconomic status. Negative emotions (anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, hopelessness) negatively predicted achievement, and achievement negatively predicted these emotions. The findings were robust across waves, achievement indicators, and school tracks, highlighting the importance of emotions for students' achievement and of achievement for the development of emotions. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele
This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…
Fought, Rick L; Misawa, Mitsunori
This study sought to better understand effective leadership through the lived experiences of academic health sciences library directors. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with eight academic health sciences library directors to capture the essence of their shared leadership experiences. The research question that guided the study was: How do academic health sciences library directors understand their leadership effectiveness? The interviews were transcribed and coded, and the data were analyzed thematically. Three main themes emerged from data after analysis: assessment of the environment, strategies and decisions, and critical skills. Assessment of the environment includes awareness not only of trends in libraries and technology, but also the trends in health information, higher education, and current events and politics of their institutions and states. The strategies and decisions theme is about the ability to think both in the long-term and short-term when leading the library. Finally, critical skills are those leadership skills that the research participants identified as most important to their leadership effectiveness. The study identified three main themes capturing the essence of the research participants' leadership experiences. The three themes constitute a wide array of leadership skills that are important to learn, understand, and develop to increase leadership effectiveness. Effective leadership is fundamental to obtaining long-term strategic goals and is critical to the long-term future of the libraries.
Henry, Kimberly L
The primary aim was to examine correlated growth trajectories and reciprocal effects between academic achievement and drug use over the course of junior high school. One hundred and three male and 98 female students from 3 rural junior high schools were surveyed 4 times over the course of 3 years. Dual trajectory latent growth models were estimated. Growth trajectories of school achievement and drug use over the course of junior high were highly correlated. Students who demonstrated deteriorating achievement during the course of junior high school showed an increase in drug use during this same time frame. Cross-process regressions indicated that students who demonstrated superior academic achievement in sixth grade exhibited a shallower rate of increase in drug use (ie, their drug use escalated to a lesser extent). The processes of academic disengagement (as marked by deteriorating grades) and drug use during adolescence appear to be related to one another. Prevention initiatives aimed at keeping adolescents academically engaged in school may have protective benefits against escalation of drug use.
Jevremov Tanja D.
Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in the paper was to study the basic aspects of teaching quality and to establish the effects of students' academic characteristics on teaching quality evaluation. The sample consisted of 534 students of the Faculty of Philosophy in Novi Sad. The students completed an evaluation questionnaire on a voluntary basis as part of the Faculty's internal quality control. Analysis has yielded three components of teaching quality: organization of teaching, curriculum and classroom instruction. The findings indicate that fourth-year undergraduates are less satisfied with the quality of teaching organization i.e. with teachers' competences than students in other years of study. On the other hand, second-year undergraduates and M.A. and PhD students tend to assess classroom instruction more positively than other students. There is significant statistical correlation between academic achievement and satisfaction with classroom instruction in all years of undergraduate studies, while a significant correlation of academic achievement with satisfaction with classroom instruction and curriculum was obtained from fourth-year students and M.A. and PhD students. The findings indicate the importance of taking into consideration the academic characteristics of students when analyzing the results of students' evaluation of teaching quality.
Vera Rosemary Ankoma-Sey
Full Text Available In all facets of life, supervision has become a cross-cutting edge tool and a pivot around which performance revolves. There are widespread and on-going debates centred on the influence of effective supervision on academic performance in our academic institutions. This study examined the role of supervision on academic performance in Senior High Schools (SHS in Ghana. The study was based on the collegial model of educational management and the supervision model, Theory Y as proposed by Douglas McGregor. This study employed the descriptive research survey design. Through a questionnaire, data analysed was collected from 963 respondents who were purposively selected from randomised schools in each region comprising of headmasters, their assistants and heads of department of 155 SHSs across Ghana. The WAEC results (2006-2009 and 2011 of the sampled schools were analysed. Reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was Cronbach’s alpha (α = 0.826. The Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS version 18 software was employed in the analyses of data using, mean, standard deviation, correlation and independent t-test. The study revealed that there was a positive weak significant relationship between supervision roles of heads and academic performance of students. Moreso, there was a positive weak significant relationship between gender of heads and their supervision roles. The study recommended that supervision should be intensified in SHS. Heads of SHS should be re-orientated in the new trends of supervision in schools.
Basha, Sakeenabi; Mohamed, Roshan Noor; Swamy, Hiremath Shivalinga; Parameshwarappa, Poornima
To evaluate the psychological impact and effect on academic performance of untreated gross dental malocclusion in adolescents. A total of 366 (181 girls and 185 boys) adolescents with gross dental malocclusion were selected for the study group. A modified oral aesthetic subjective impact scale questionnaire was applied in face-to-face interviews. Similar data were collected from parents, schoolteachers and one friend of each adolescent selected for the study. Academic performance was evaluated from school records and compared with a control group of 400 adolescents (200 girls and 200 boys) having normal occlusion and an aesthetically pleasing facial appearance. The Kruskal-Wallis H and chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. The correlation between the academic performance of adolescents and the psychological impact of malocclusion was assessed using the Spearman rank correlation. Significant numbers of adolescents (81.1%) were concerned about the appearance of their teeth, with significant gender variation (0.02). 88.5% of the adolescents received comments from others about their appearance. The results differed significantly by gender for 'avoiding smiling' (p = 0.02) and 'participation in social activities' (p = 0.02). The evaluation of academic performance showed that 42.1% of the adolescents with gross dental malocclusion performed below average; this also differed statistically significantly by gender (p = 0.04). Untreated gross dental malocclusion significantly affects the psychosocial well-being of adolescents, who may avoid participating in social activities and tend to underperform in school.
The purpose of the study was to investigate if academic and social self-concept and motivation to improve in academic school subjects mediated the negative effect of summative assessment (grades) for low-ability students' achievement in compulsory school. In two previous studies, summative assessment (grading) was found to have a differentiating…
Aslan Efe, Hulya
This study aims to investigate the effects of using diorama on 7th grade students' academic achievement and science learning skills in "human being and environment relation" unit. The participants were 49 (E:25, C:24) 7th grade students studying during 2015-16 academic year in Diyarbakir, Turkey. An achievement test and "science…
Bagabas, Hanan Ali
The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of computerized instructional packages on concept acquisition and improving academic achievement among deaf students in Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of (16) third-grade female deaf students in prep stage for the first semester of the academic year 2013/2014, randomly selected from…
de Greeff, Johannes W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris
Background: Preventing overweight and improving physical fitness in primary school children is a worldwide challenge, and physically active intervention programs usually come with the cost of academic instruction time. This study aimed to investigate effects of physically active academic lessons on body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in…
The main aim of this thesis was to examine the effects of physically active ‘Fit & Vaardig op school’ (F&V) lessons on the academic achievement of socially disadvantaged children (SDC) and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC). SDC have performed worse academically than non-SDC for decades.
de Greeff, Johannes W; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J; Bosker, Roel J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris
BACKGROUND: Preventing overweight and improving physical fitness in primary school children is a worldwide challenge, and physically active intervention programs usually come with the cost of academic instruction time. This study aimed to investigate effects of physically active academic lessons on
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of ill health and neuro-disability in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Impaired cognition is a common outcome of malaria with neurological involvement. There is also a possibility that academic achievement may be affected by malaria with neurological involvement given the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. This study investigated the effect of malaria with neurological involvement on cognitive ability, behaviour and academic achievement. Methods This prospective case-control study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-two children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were followed up and given assessments for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills and attention, behaviour (internalizing and externalizing problems and academic achievement (arithmetic, spelling and reading three months after the illness. Sixty-one community controls recruited from the homes or neighbouring families of the cases were also given the same assessments. Tests scores of the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance with age, sex, level of education, nutritional status and quality of the home environment as covariates. This study was approved by the relevant ethical bodies and informed consent sought from the caregivers. Results Children in the malaria group had more behavioural problems than the community controls for internalizing problems (estimated mean difference = -3.71, 95% confidence interval (CI, = -6.34 to -1.08, p = 0.007. There was marginal evidence of lower attention scores (0.40, CI = -0.05 to 0.86, p = 0.09. However, excluding one child from the analyses who was unable to perform the tests affected the attention scores to borderline significance (0.32, CI, = 0.01 to 0.62, p = 0.05. No significant differences were observed in other cognitive abilities or in academic
... capital investment. Often these companies are formed from ideas and entrepreneurs that come out of... Companies 2. Management Involvement 3. Limitation on Leverage 4. No Redemption Rights 5. Represents Itself... and (iii) does not act as an investment adviser to a registered investment company or a company that...
Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James Clyde; Amato, Paul R
Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) were used to test the hypothesis that approaches to learning (ATL) mediates the link between parental divorce and academic achievement. Fixed effects regression was utilized to test for mediation, and subsequent moderation analyses examining gender and age at time of divorce also were conducted. Results indicated that divorce was associated with less growth in test scores and that ATL mediated 18% and 12% of this association in reading and mathematics respectively. Parental divorce also was associated with larger negative effects for children who experienced divorce at an older age as well as for girls' mathematics test scores. These findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of parental divorce on children's academic achievement and underscore the importance of focusing on the variability of child outcomes following parental divorce. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Academic achievement is the main measure of the level of education attained, which is meant to achieve the curriculum objective of success and priority. The study investigated effect of emotional intelligence and academic procrastination on academic achievement of students in two Nigerian Universities. The study adopted ...
Scielzo, Shannon; Neeper, Michael; Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A.
We used an online academic-advising program to examine the effects of preparatory training designed to elicit high states of learning-goal orientation and low states of avoid goal orientation. Results indicate that training was effective in some cases for manipulating states of goal orientation. The training did not directly affect behaviors as…
Maârof Bin Redzuan, Haslinda Abdullah, Aida Mehrad, Hanina Halimatussadiah
Based on last due decades, job satisfaction assumed as one of the imperative organizational factors that has great role among staff at workplace; furthermore,focusing on this important factor and finding effective items that impact on the level of job satisfaction is very essential. The main purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between gender and job satisfaction of academic staff at public universities in Malaysia. The Job Descriptive Index inventory (JDI) was used to mea...
Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Kramer, Arthur F.
The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive te...
Tolbert, Pamela S.; Simons, Tal; Andrews, Alice; Rhee, Jaehoon
Using data collected from a sample of 50 academic departments over the years 1977-88, the authors test several hypotheses about the effects of departmental gender composition on faculty turnover. They find that as the proportion of women in a department grew, turnover among women also increased, confirming the prediction that increases in the relative size of a minority will result in increased intergroup competition and conflict. The evidence also suggests, however, that when the proportion ...
Stoner, G; Carey, S P; Ikeda, M J; Shinn, M R
Two case studies were conducted to investigate the utility of curriculum-based measurement of math and reading for evaluating the effects of methylphenidate on the academic performance of 2 students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Following baseline measurement, double-blind placebo-controlled procedures were employed to evaluate each student's response to three levels (5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg) of the medication. Results of the first study suggest that the curriculum-b...
Pilcher, June J.; Morris, Drew M.; Bryant, Stewart A.; Merritt, Paul A.; Feigl, Hayley B.
There is growing interest in using activity workstations as a method of increasing light physical activity in normally sedentary environments. The current study (N = 117) compared the effects of studying in college students while slowly pedaling a stationary bike with a desktop with studying at traditional desks across 10 weeks in an academic semester. The students were assigned to study either on the stationary bike or at a traditional desk located in the campus library for a minimum of 2 h ...
Scott E. Carrell; Teny Maghakian; James E. West
Recent sleep research finds that many adolescents are sleep-deprived because of both early school start times and changing sleep patterns during the teen years. This study identifies the causal effect of school start time on academic achievement by using two policy changes in the daily schedule at the US Air Force Academy along with the randomized placement of freshman students to courses and instructors. Results show that starting the school day 50 minutes later has a significant positive ef...
Goulas, Sofoklis; Megalokonomou, Rigissa
We use a natural experiment that relaxed class attendance requirements for one school year to explore students' marginal propensity to skip class, and to examine the effects of their absences on scholastic outcomes. We exploit exogenous variation resulting from a one-time policy Greece implemented allowing high school students to miss 30 percent more class hours without penalty during the 2009-10 academic year, a period when officials feared outbreaks of swine flu. Using a new dataset, we ana...
Ecaterina Daniela ZECA
Full Text Available Academic Marketing is an investment in a future dominated by The Forth Industrial Revolution and Globalization and not an expense. This aspect will basically alter our way to teach and to learn. In its dimensions, arguably changes will be like anything we has seen before. We try to assess how will be all unfold but, anyway, academic field response at this challenge should be integrated and comprehensive, involving all stakeholders both public and private sectors, because these changes herald upheaval of whole organizations. The educational service is a special one, delivered today but with effects in the future, the future of the individual, the future of generation, the future of nations. The educational service policy adapted to the requirements of time, brings to the front the opportunity of academic marketing. To analyze demand in a professional way, to measure trends and correlated university programs with the forecast demand for jobs, it is the subject. In the case of academic education, we are talking also about cost, distribution and promotion policies, but being a special service we also discuss about ethic boundaries. This work is an open chapter focusing studies on academic megamarketing, the work keeping up with the pace of change, students enrolment mobility, overtakes job market, and an imposed win-win-win formula, applied for students, local community and academic field.
Marsh, Herbert W.
Attending academically selective schools is intended to have positive effects, but a growing body of theoretical and empirical research demonstrates that the effects are negative for academic self-concept. The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), based on social comparison theory, posits that equally able students will have lower academic…
Hughes, Jan N; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-Man
Students who participate in extracurricular activities in middle school exhibit higher levels of academic motivation and achievement, including graduation from high school. However, the mechanisms responsible for these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Guided by the bioecological models of development, this study tested the indirect effects of participation in grade 8 in school sports or performance arts and clubs on grade 9 academic achievement, academic competence beliefs, and school belonging, via adolescents' perceptions of their friends' prosocial norms. Participants were 495 (45 % female) ethnically diverse students (mean age at grade 8 = 13.9 years; SD = .58) who were recruited into a longitudinal study on the basis of below average literacy in grade 1. Using weighted propensity score analyses to control for potential confounders, results of longitudinal SEM found indirect effect of participation in sports, but not of participation in performance arts and clubs, on grade 9 outcomes noted above. Implications of findings for improving educational attainment of at-risk youth are discussed.
Hughes, Jan N.; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-man
Students who participate in extracurricular activities in middle school exhibit higher levels of academic motivation and achievement, including graduation from high school. However, the mechanisms responsible for these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Guided by the bioecological models of development, this study tested the indirect effects of participation in grade 8 in school sports or performance arts and clubs on grade 9 academic achievement, academic competence beliefs, and school belonging, via adolescents’ perceptions of their friends’ prosocial norms. Participants were 495 (45% female) ethnically diverse students (mean age at grade 8 = 13.9 years; SD =.58) who were recruited into a longitudinal study on the basis of below average literacy in grade 1. Using weighted propensity score analyses to control for potential confounders, results of longitudinal SEM found indirect effect of participation in sports, but not of participation in performance arts and clubs, on grade 9 outcomes noted above. Implications of findings for improving educational attainment of at-risk youth are discussed. PMID:27299761
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal design study consists of 7th and 8th graders (n = 670, 50% male) from an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse middle school. Victimization was measured using 10 items that assessed frequency of verbal, physical, and relational victimization experiences, and outcomes were assessed with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (2nd ed.) and school records. There was support for gender differences in frequency of peer victimization experiences based on type of victimization. More specifically, boys reported higher levels of physical and verbal victimization, and girls reported higher levels of relational victimization. In addition, there were statistically significant differences between boys and girls on the relation between victimization and anxiety, attendance, and grades, with girls experiencing more maladjustment than boys in response to peer victimization. Finally, results demonstrated no gender differences in indirect effects of psychological adjustment on the relation between peer victimization and academic outcomes, whether victimization was physical, verbal, and relational. These findings highlight the importance of addressing social-emotional functioning as well as peer victimization in the schools for both boys and girls, as both affect students' academic functioning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Chung, Eun-Kyung; Nam, Kwang-Il; Oh, Sun-A; Han, Eui-Ryoung; Woo, Young-Jong; Hitchcock, Maurice A
We presented two kinds of advance organizers (AOs), video clips and prosection, for a gross anatomy dissection course and compared their effects on academic achievement and student perception of the learning experience. In total, 141 students at Chonnam National University Medical School were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 (n = 70) was provided with video clips AO, whereas Group 2 (n = 71) was provided with prosection AO, the use of cadaveric specimens dissected by the course instructor. Student self-assessment scores regarding the learning objectives of upper limb anatomy improved significantly in both groups. Academic achievement scores in Group 2 were significantly higher than those in Group 1, although the self-assessment scores were not significantly different between the groups. Additionally, students in Group 2 responded significantly more positively to the statements about perception of the learning experience such as helping them understand the course content and concepts, decreasing anxiety about the dissection course, and participating actively in the dissection. It would seem that the application of prosection as an AO improved academic achievement and increased student engagement and satisfaction. This study will contribute to designing effective AOs and developing a teaching and learning strategy for a gross anatomy dissection course. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li
Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems.
Halboub, E; Othathi, F; Mutawwam, F; Madkhali, S; Somaili, D; Alahmar, N
We investigated the effect of social networking (SN) on academic achievement of dental students at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed during the 2015/16 academic year to all dental students and data were analysed by SPSS version 21. There were 348 participants (70% response rate) and 53% were male. Fifty-one percent of participants reported that they studied just before examinations, and 51% scored 3.5-4.5 Grade Point Average (GPA) in the last semester. Up to 98% of the participants reported using their smartphones/ computers for SN, with 93% doing so on a daily basis, and 66% reported SN during lectures, laboratories and clinics. Fifty-seven percent thought that SN affected their study negatively, and 65% thought that their GPA would improve if they stopped or reduced SN. Students who spent more hours each day on SN had lower GPA scores. SN negatively affected the academic achievement of dental students. Further evaluation and tailored educational programmes are needed to increase students' awareness about the negative effects of SN.
Emond, Michael; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Kosmerly, Stacey; Robinson, Adele Lafrance; Stillar, Amanda; Van Blyderveen, Sherry
It is well established that stress is related to changes in eating patterns. Some individuals are more likely to increase their overall food intake under conditions of stress, whereas others are more likely to consume less food when stressed. Attachment style has been linked to disordered eating and eating disorders; however, comparisons of eating behaviors under attachment versus other types of stress have yet to be explored. The present laboratory study examined the eating patterns in self-identified stress-undereaters and stress-eaters under various types of stress. More specifically, the study examined the effects of academic and attachment stress on calorie, carbohydrate and sugar consumption within these two groups. Under the guise of critiquing student films, university students viewed either one of two stress-inducing videos (academic stress or attachment stress, both designed to be emotionally arousing) or a control video (designed to be emotionally neutral), and their food intake was recorded. Results demonstrated that the video manipulations were effective in inducing stress. Differential patterns of eating were noted based on group and stress condition. Specifically, stress-undereaters ate fewer calories, carbohydrates and sugars than stress-eaters in the academic stress condition, but not in the attachment stress or control condition. Findings suggest that specific types of stressors may influence eating behaviors differently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of thematic-based instruction on elementary students’ academic achievement and attitudes towards English course. The research was carried out in 2011–2012 education-instruction year in an elementary school in Niğde province. Totally 60 students in two different classes in the 6th grade of this school participated in the study. The pre/post-test control group quasi-experimental research model was used in this study. In order to test the significance between the groups, the independent samples t test was adopted in the study. The results of the research showed a significant difference amongst academic achievement and attitudes towards course in favor of the experimental group.
Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary
Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Dickinson Ben D.
Full Text Available Purpose. For schools, the increasingly imposed requirement to achieve well in academic tests puts increasing emphasis on improving academic achievement. While treadmill exercise has been shown to have beneficial effects on cognitive function and cycling ergometers produce stronger effect sizes than treadmill running, it is impractical for schools to use these on a whole-class basis. There is a need to examine if more ecologically valid modes of exercise might have a similar impact on academic achievement. Circuit training is one such modality shown to benefit cognitive function and recall ability and is easily operationalised within schools. Methods. In a repeated measures design, twenty-six children (17 boys, 8 girls aged 10-11 years (mean age 10.3; SD ± 0.46 years completed the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 4 at rest and following 30 minutes of exercise. Results. Standardised scores for word reading were significantly higher post exercise (F(1,18 = 49.9, p = 0.0001 compared to rest. In contrast, standardised scores for sentence comprehension (F(1,18 = 0.078, p = 0.783, spelling (F(1,18 = 4.07, p = 0.06 mathematics (F(1,18 = 1.257, p = 0.277, and reading (F(1,18 = 2.09, p = 0.165 were not significantly different between rest and exercise conditions. Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest acute bouts of circuit based exercise enhances word reading but not other areas of academic ability in 10-11 year old children. These findings support prior research that indicates acute bouts of exercise can selectively improve cognition in children.
Han, Cheon-woo; Farruggia, Susan P.; Moss, Thomas P.
Noncognitive factors, such as academic self-efficacy, motivation, and sense of belonging, predict college students' academic performance and retention. It is unclear if varying profiles of academic mindset are differentially associated with student success. We examined first-year college students' academic mindsets (perceived academic…
Nuttall, Ena Vazquez; And Others
Family constellation variables such as family size, birth order, spacing of children, and crowding were significantly associated with academic achievement when IQ was controlled. The effects of family constellation variables were found to be sex specific. (RC)
Full Text Available Scholarly affinities are one of the most fundamental hidden dynamics that drive scientific development. Some affinities are actual, and consequently can be measured through classical academic metrics such as co-authoring. Other affinities are potential, and therefore do not leave visible traces in information systems; for instance, some peers may share interests without actually knowing it. This article illustrates the development of a map of affinities for academic collectives, designed to be relevant to three audiences: the management, the scholars themselves, and the external public. Our case study involves the School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering of EPFL, hereinafter ENAC. The school consists of around 1,000 scholars, 70 laboratories, and 3 institutes. The actual affinities are modeled using the data available from the information systems reporting publications, teaching, and advising scholars, whereas the potential affinities are addressed through text mining of the publications. The major challenge for designing such a map is to represent the multi-dimensionality and multi-scale nature of the information. The affinities are not limited to the computation of heterogeneous sources of information; they also apply at different scales. The map, thus, shows local affinities inside a given laboratory, as well as global affinities among laboratories. This article presents a graphical grammar to represent affinities. Its effectiveness is illustrated by two actualizations of the design proposal: an interactive online system in which the map can be parameterized, and a large-scale carpet of 250 square meters. In both cases, we discuss how the materiality influences the representation of data, in particular the way key questions could be appropriately addressed considering the three target audiences: the insights gained by the management and their consequences in terms of governance, the understanding of the scholars’ own
Wouters, Sofie; De Fraine, Bieke; Colpin, Hilde; Van Damme, Jan; Verschueren, Karine
Academic self-concept has received a great deal of attention in recent educational research because it mediates many other educational outcomes. Therefore, it is important to find out how students' academic self-concept develops. We examined the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) dynamically by investigating the effect of track changes in high…
Thompson, Shane Ellis
My dissertation consists of three chapters that focus on the economics of education. In particular I look at public school financing, gender discrimination in advising, and the effectiveness of out-of-school-time programs for disadvantaged schools. The first chapter analyzes the effect of an extremely large funding shock on Wyoming public schools…
Joshua L Rosenbloom
Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between Research & Development (R&D funding and the production of knowledge by academic chemists. Using articles published, either raw counts or adjusted for quality, we find a strong, positive causal effect of funding on knowledge production. This effect is similar across subsets of universities, suggesting a relatively efficient allocation of R&D funds. Finally, we document a rapid acceleration in the rate at which chemical knowledge was produced in the late 1990s and early 2000s relative to the financial and human resources devoted to its production.
Rosenbloom, Joshua L; Ginther, Donna K; Juhl, Ted; Heppert, Joseph A
This article examines the relationship between Research & Development (R&D) funding and the production of knowledge by academic chemists. Using articles published, either raw counts or adjusted for quality, we find a strong, positive causal effect of funding on knowledge production. This effect is similar across subsets of universities, suggesting a relatively efficient allocation of R&D funds. Finally, we document a rapid acceleration in the rate at which chemical knowledge was produced in the late 1990s and early 2000s relative to the financial and human resources devoted to its production.
Full Text Available In the light of the changing tertiary education arena in South Africa, the Department of Public Management and Governance in the School for Social and Government Studies of the Arts Faculty, North-West University (NWU had to revisit its policy on macro organisational aspects. Issues such as more effective communication mediums, the merging and alignment of the University’s three campuses, the nature of the ever-increasing competition in the tertiary residential and distance teaching environment, the range, variety and quality of its products and the facilitation and rendering of an improved tertiary teaching service were identified. In this article the typical nature of the intra, inter and extra academic liaison regarding the Department at NWU are highlighted and some recommendations on more effective communication and work procedures as a result of academic liaison are presented. Examples being that academics and practitioners need to meet more frequently, upgrade effective communication media among them and undertake joint research in a more cooperative manner.
Marilyn C. Welsh
Full Text Available College students who report a history of childhood maltreatment may be at risk for poor outcomes. In the current study, we conducted an exploratory analysis to examine potential models that statistically mediate associations between aspects of maltreatment and aspects of academic outcome, with a particular focus on executive functions (EF. Consistent with contemporary EF research, we distinguished between relatively “cool” EF tasks (i.e., performed in a context relatively free of emotional or motivational valence and “hot” EF tasks that emphasize performance under more emotionally arousing conditions. Sixty-one male and female college undergraduates self-reported childhood maltreatment history (emotional abuse and neglect, physical abuse and neglect, and sexual abuse on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and were given two EF measures: (1 Go-No-Go (GNG test that included a Color Condition (cool; Neutral Face Condition (warm; and Emotion Face condition (hot, and (2 Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, a measure of risky decision making that reflects hot EF. Academic outcomes were: (1 grade point average (GPA: first-semester, cumulative, and semester concurrent with testing, and (2 Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ. Correlational patterns suggested two EF scores as potential mediators: GNG reaction time (RT in the Neutral Face condition, and IGT Block 2 adaptive responding. Indirect effects analyses indicated that IGT Block 2 adaptive responding has an indirect effect on the relationship between CTQ Total score and 1st semester GPA, and between CTQ Emotional Abuse and concurrent GPA. Regarding college adaptation, we identified a consistent indirect effect of GNG Neutral Face RT on the relationship between CTQ Emotional Neglect and SACQ total, academic, social, and personal–emotional adaption scores. Our results demonstrate that higher scores on a child maltreatment history self-report negatively predict college academic
Welsh, Marilyn C; Peterson, Eric; Jameson, Molly M
College students who report a history of childhood maltreatment may be at risk for poor outcomes. In the current study, we conducted an exploratory analysis to examine potential models that statistically mediate associations between aspects of maltreatment and aspects of academic outcome, with a particular focus on executive functions (EF). Consistent with contemporary EF research, we distinguished between relatively "cool" EF tasks (i.e., performed in a context relatively free of emotional or motivational valence) and "hot" EF tasks that emphasize performance under more emotionally arousing conditions. Sixty-one male and female college undergraduates self-reported childhood maltreatment history (emotional abuse and neglect, physical abuse and neglect, and sexual abuse) on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and were given two EF measures: (1) Go-No-Go (GNG) test that included a Color Condition (cool); Neutral Face Condition (warm); and Emotion Face condition (hot), and (2) Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a measure of risky decision making that reflects hot EF. Academic outcomes were: (1) grade point average (GPA: first-semester, cumulative, and semester concurrent with testing), and (2) Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ). Correlational patterns suggested two EF scores as potential mediators: GNG reaction time (RT) in the Neutral Face condition, and IGT Block 2 adaptive responding. Indirect effects analyses indicated that IGT Block 2 adaptive responding has an indirect effect on the relationship between CTQ Total score and 1st semester GPA, and between CTQ Emotional Abuse and concurrent GPA. Regarding college adaptation, we identified a consistent indirect effect of GNG Neutral Face RT on the relationship between CTQ Emotional Neglect and SACQ total, academic, social, and personal-emotional adaption scores. Our results demonstrate that higher scores on a child maltreatment history self-report negatively predict college academic outcomes as assessed
Batstra, L; Hadders-Algra, M; Neeleman, J
Aim: To examine effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on academic achievement and emotional and behavioural problems during childhood. Methods: Least squares regression was used to examine associations between maternal smoking prior to delivery and subsequent academic performance and
Full Text Available Mentoring can be expressed as a supportive relationship in which an experienced person transfers his or her expertise and knowledge to someone else. Universities are one of the most appropriate environments that this process, the samples of which can be seen in many sectors, is experienced. Academicianship is one of the professions in which the mentoring process is the most intense and most-needed. This study was aimed to investigate how research assistants perceive the academic mentor and mentee relationship, how these perceptions are related to the desired working behaviour, performance, and organizational effectiveness, and how these relationships affect “organizational commitment,” which has an increasing importance. Thus, both a sample based on the academic mentoring process was obtained and the academic mentoring process, as a factor affecting the organizational commitment, was studied. As a result of the research, it was found that there was a positive relationship between perceived mentoring and organizational commitment, affective commitment from subcategories of commitment. The relationship between normative commitment and organizational commitment were also found to be positive and meaningful. However, no relationship between perceived mentoring and continuance was found, and the established regression model did not make sense either.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of web based teaching method on the academic achievement level of undergraduate students in Tourism Education department in the fall semester of 2009-2010 academic year. The research was carried out with 50 students (25 students in control group, 25 students in experimental group who were studying at Tourism and Travel Management; and Tourism and Hotel Management Programs in Tourism and Hotel Management Vocational High School at Gaziantep University. The research procedure included both pre-test/post-test and experimental-control group research models. While creating control and experimental groups, the researchers took into consideration neutrality, academic success, internet access, knowledge level of internet and computer use as well as of web based learning. The GTOI/SEYH 111 Communication Course was delivered both in webbased learning method and traditional face-to-face method. In the course, basic concepts, verbal-nonverbal communication, written communication with the communication issues were taught to experimental group with web-based teaching method and they were taught to control group with traditional methods (lecturing, question-answer, simulation
Jeffrey L. Fannin
Full Text Available This paper presents research data that demonstrates changes in neuronal patterns to achieve optimally balanced brain performance. The optimally balanced brain state is applied in academics, consulting and business coaching to change subconscious belief patterns that tend to minimize effective thought and behavior. This kind of research might well be very important and useful in processes oriented toward integrating academic, consulting, business coaching activities, and similar processes. It may also be significant in finding ways of integrating research and education. The author based his conclusion on the documentation of one hundred twenty-five cases where data was gathered over a 12 month period, in three different locations, with different EEG technicians, using two different types of EEG equipment; the pvalue is <=0.010. Consequently the conclusions are well supported. The creation of the essential neuropathways, indicated by the author might certainly help in processes oriented to integrate academic informing in its three main components (research, education and consulting, as well as in improving the performance of each of these three activities.
Cekolin, Catherine Helen
This study investigated the effects of self-regulated learning strategy instruction on strategy use and academic achievement in middle school science classes. Gender differences in strategy use and academic achievement were evaluated. The research questions focused on the development of instructional strategies to help students become self-regulated learners. Groups of students were given the opportunity to use self-regulated learning strategies with and without prompting. Gender differences within instructional group and strategy use were evaluated. According to these research findings, prompting appears to be a critical component of self-regulated learning strategy instruction with all groups. Selected groups showed greater increases in both academic achievement and self-regulated learning strategy use when prompting was a component of self-regulated learning strategy instruction. Students who demonstrated either below average self-regulated learning strategy skills, or lower GPAs showed the greatest gain from prompting plus instruction. Gender differences were demonstrated, with females showing greater self-regulated learning strategy use compared to males. The findings from this study emphasize the importance of self-regulated learning strategy instruction, especially for middle school students.
Schneeweiss, R; Ellsbury, K; Hart, L G; Geyman, J P
Academic medical centers are facing the need to expand their primary care referral base in an increasingly competitive medical environment. This study describes the medical care provided during a 1-year period to 6304 patients registered with a family practice clinic located in an academic medical center. The relative distribution of primary care, secondary referrals, inpatient admissions, and their associated costs are presented. The multiplier effect of the primary care clinic on the academic medical center was substantial. For every $1 billed for ambulatory primary care, there was $6.40 billed elsewhere in the system. Each full-time equivalent family physician generated a calculated sum of $784,752 in direct, billed charges for the hospital and $241,276 in professional fees for the other specialty consultants. The cost of supporting a primary care clinic is likely to be more than offset by the revenues generated from the use of hospital and referral services by patients who received care in the primary care setting.
Joshua Ugbede Adama
Full Text Available Student housing plays an essential role in the attainment of quality education. However, there has been significant evidence as regards the inadequacy of this essential facility among public universities in Nigeria. It was further observed that there is a paucity of information as regards this situation within the private institutions in the country. Based on this background this research was conducted to assess the students’ housing in private institutions, by determining the factors influencing students’ choice of residence and its effect on their academic performance. The study adopted a survey approach, with 216 students sampled through a structured questionnaire. Data gathered were analyzed using frequency, mean item score, and Mann-Whitney UTest. Results revealed that although gender has no relationship with students’ choice of residence, age and academic level does. The major factors influencing students’ choice of residence are: accommodation fee, quality of the environment, need for privacy, influence of friends/desire to be close to friends, and number of students within the building. The study also revealed that students’ on-campus rarely miss classes due to distance of their residence from their lecture halls, unlike their mates staying off-campus. However, they tend to miss classes as a result of inadequacy of needed facilities; a situation that is uncommon among those staying off-campus. As regards students Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA as a measure of their performance, the residence of students does not have any statistical relationship with their academic grades.
Moore, Dale A; Truscott, Marla L; St Clair, Lisa; Klingborg, Donald J
Assuming leadership roles in veterinary student governance or club activities could be considered an added stressor for students because of the impact on time available for personal and academic activities. The study reported here evaluated the effects of participation in a leadership program and leadership activity across two classes of veterinary students on measures of stress, using the Derogatis Stress Profile (DSP), and on veterinary school academic performance, measured as annual grade-point average (GPA) over a three-year period. Program participants and their classmates completed the DSP three times across the first three years of veterinary school. On average, participating students reported self-declared stress levels that were higher and measured DSP stress levels that were lower than those of the general population. Students were more likely to assume elected or appointed leadership roles while in their first three years of the veterinary degree program if they participated in the optional leadership program and demonstrated lower stress in several dimensions. Some increased stress, as measured in some of the DSP stress dimensions, had a small but statistically significant influence on professional school GPA. The study determined that the most important predictors of students' cumulative GPA across the three-year period were the GPA from the last 45 credits of pre-veterinary coursework and their quantitative GRE scores. The results of the study indicate that neither participation in the leadership program nor taking on leadership roles within veterinary school appeared to influence veterinary school academic performance or to increase stress.
Full Text Available Academic engagement during the high school years, a period in which young people go through tremendous change, is one of the key predictors of success for college entrance and later developmental periods. This study aims to evaluate the effect of immigration on the academic achievement of high school students. Participants were 1016 students (545 male, 567 female attending high schools from four provinces in Istanbul that have the highest rates of immigration (Zeytinburnu, Gaziosmanpasa, Büyükçekmece and Esenyurt Regions. The sample was drawn from students in all four years of High School. This study provides a snapshot of migrant students’ academic achievement profiles as well as the demographic determinants that might have an influence on their performance such as gender, number of siblings, generation, working status and selected majors variables. Results demonstrated that third generation have higher English score but lower Turkish language score than the first generation, gender plays a significant role on English and Turkish Language score but not on Math score.
High attrition among undergraduate Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) majors has led national and business leaders in the United States to call for both research and educational reform within the collegiate STEM classrooms. Included among suggestions for reform are ideas to improve retention of first-year students and to improve critical thinking and depth of knowledge, instead of covering large quantities of materials. Past research on graphic organizers suggest these tools assist students in learning information and facilitate conceptual and critical thinking. Despite their widespread use in high school science departments, collegiate humanities departments, and even medical schools, their use is considerably less prevalent in the undergraduate biology classroom. In addition to their lack of use, little research has been conducted on their academic benefits in the collegiate classroom. Based on national calls for improving retention among undergraduate STEM majors and research suggesting that academic success during an individual first major's related course highly determine if that individual will continue on in their intended major, the researcher of this dissertation chose to conduct research on an introductory general biology class. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the research in this dissertation examines the effectiveness of graphic organizers in promoting academic success and also examines their influence on student attitudes. This research is grounded in the theories of constructivism and cognitive load theory. Constructivism suggests that individuals must build their knowledge from their personal experiences, while the cognitive load theory recognizes the limited nature of one's working memory and suggests that instructional practices minimize cognitive overload. The results of this dissertation suggest that the use of graphic organizers in an undergraduate general biology classroom can increase students' academic
Nadezhda A. Kizatova
Full Text Available The results of the research presented in this article are within the framework of the research area engaged in development of basic provisions and methodologies for managing educational institutions and, in particular, working out methods and algorithms for financial analysis and educational and research management in universities. Drawing upon the per-capita normative financing methodology, which is currently used in Russia, as well as the structure of the existing and prospective educational standards and curricular, main provisions of strategic development plans for university structural subdivisions, the authors propose a dynamic financial and mathematical model of building salary funds for departments, institutes and university in general. The article specifically describes the methodology of financial support of effective medium-term contracts for academic and teaching staff. The practical implementation of this model will result in higher motivation of the staff and will ensure improvement in educational institutions performance. An effective contract contributes to better staff’s performance, their input in implementing strategies, programmes and projects for developing institutes, departments and university as a whole, which gives rise to the effectiveness of the whole educational institution. Besides, the developed dynamic financial and mathematical model makes it possible to offer methodology for planning financial support for implementing effective medium-term contract for academic and teaching staff. The methodology takes into account the specific features of educational process organization in the long-term, the incorporation of various disciplines in the curriculum, with possible curriculum changes during the planning period, the student contingent adjustment, and admissible integration of different student groups into academic shifts. In its turn, all this provides an educational institution with an opportunity of planning a
Hughes, Jan N; Im, Myung Hee; Wehrly, Sarah E
This longitudinal study examined the prospective relations between 713 elementary students' individual peer teacher support reputation (PTSR) and a measure of the classroom-wide dispersion of peer nominations of teacher support (Centralization of Teacher Support) on students' peer relatedness (i.e., peer acceptance and peer academic reputation) and academic motivation (i.e., academic self-efficacy and teacher-rated behavioral engagement). PTSR was measured as the proportion of classmates who nominated a given student on a descriptor of teacher-student support. Centralization of Teacher Support was assessed using social network analysis to identify the degree to which peer nominations of teacher support in a classroom centered on a few students. PTSR predicted changes in all student outcomes, above academic achievement and relevant covariates. Centralization of Teacher Support predicted changes in students' peer academic reputation, net the effect of PTSR and covariates. Students' academic achievement moderated effects of PTSR and Centralization of Teacher Support on some outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of peers' perceptions of teacher support and of the structure of those perceptions for children's social and academic outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article reports some of the findings from research conducted by the author, who was also the principal of Saint Stephen's College, a coeducational independent school in South-east Queensland. The school was in the early stages of transitioning to a new organisational architecture (the way the physical, digital and human resources are aligned)…
To compare the effectiveness of peer assisted learning versus expert assisted learning in terms of academic scores. Cross over-randomized control trial followed by a cross-sectional survey. Fatima Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, during January to October 2012. This study was conducted on 4th year MBBS students. The students were randomly divided in two groups by lottery method following their roll numbers. The groups A and B were dealt with Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) and Expert Assisted Learning (EAL) respectively. Effectiveness of both methods of learning was calculated on the basis of academic scores obtained in MCQ tests. One best answer type of MCQs were used and their construct validity was checked by other senior faculty members. After crossover of groups and altered teaching strategy, academic scores were compared again within the group and the comparable group. Student's views about this technique were measured by Likert's scale. P-values were obtained by applying independent and paired t-tests and considered statistically significant at ≥ 0.05. There were 70 students of 4th year MBBS which included 24 (34.3%) males and 46 (65.7%) females. TheCrohnbach's alpha value of these MCQs was 0.64. Scores of MCQ test were compared by applying independent t-test and p-value obtained was 0.971; after cross over p-value was 0.468 which was not significant between the results obtained by two learning strategies. Twenty five students (46.3%) said that PAL is an effective technique. Thirty eight (70.4%) students found it easy to communicate with a peer. For incorporation of PAL in curriculum of community medicine, 24 (44.4%) students voted in its favour. Peer assisted learning has proved of equivalent efficacy in terms of students score in MCQs test as expert assisted learning.
Akl, Elie A.; Meerpohl, Joerg J.; Raad, Dany; Piaggio, Giulia; Mattioni, Manlio; Paggi, Marco G.; Gurtner, Aymone; Mattarocci, Stefano; Tahir, Rizwan; Muti, Paola; Schünemann, Holger J.
Background: Many academic medical centres have introduced strategies to assess the productivity of faculty as part of compensation schemes. We conducted a systematic review of the effects of such strategies on faculty productivity. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, Healthstar, Embase and PsycInfo databases from their date of inception up to October 2011. We included studies that assessed academic productivity in clinical, research, teaching and administrative activities, as well as compensation, promotion processes and satisfaction. Results: Of 531 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, we included 9 articles reporting on eight studies. The introduction of strategies for assessing academic productivity as part of compensation schemes resulted in increases in clinical productivity (in six of six studies) in terms of clinical revenue, the work component of relative-value units (these units are nonmonetary standard units of measure used to indicate the value of services provided), patient satisfaction and other departmentally used standards. Increases in research productivity were noted (in five of six studies) in terms of funding and publications. There was no change in teaching productivity (in two of five studies) in terms of educational output. Such strategies also resulted in increases in compensation at both individual and group levels (in three studies), with two studies reporting a change in distribution of compensation in favour of junior faculty. None of the studies assessed effects on administrative productivity or promotion processes. The overall quality of evidence was low. Interpretation: Strategies introduced to assess productivity as part of a compensation scheme appeared to improve productivity in research activities and possibly improved clinical productivity, but they had no effect in the area of teaching. Compensation increased at both group and individual levels, particularly among junior faculty. Higher quality evidence about the benefits
Lists general principles that media advisers should follow, the 12 points agreed upon as the Journalism Education Association's (JEA) Code of Ethics for Advisers, and a list of Web sites that deal with journalism ethics. (PA)
Fedewa, Alicia L; Fettrow, Elizabeth; Erwin, Heather; Ahn, Soyeon; Farook, Minnah
This study investigated the academic achievement and physical activity differences between types of activity breaks implemented in elementary school classrooms. This study evaluated whether there was a difference between the impact of purely aerobic-based movement breaks and the impact of academic-based breaks on children's academic achievement outcomes. Participants included 460 children in 3rd grade through 5th grade at 4 elementary schools. There were 176 children in the schools that engaged in academic-based breaks and 284 in the schools that engaged in aerobic-only breaks. Schools were randomly assigned at the school level to implement either aerobic movement breaks with academic content infused within the breaks ("academic-based breaks") or aerobic-only movement breaks without the addition of academic material ("aerobic-only breaks") for approximately 10 min of activity per day. Math and reading achievement as well as children's step counts were measured before and after the intervention. A mixed-effects (multilevel-growth) model, in which the repeated measures of individuals nested within a classroom are analyzed, was used to answer all posited research questions. Small to moderate effect sizes (ES) indicating gains in reading achievement (ES = .13) and steps (ES = .33) were found for classrooms that used aerobic-only movement breaks compared with those that used academic-based breaks. The type of movement breaks that are implemented in classrooms may have differential outcomes for children's achievement and activity levels. Results from the present study indicate that children who were given aerobic-only movement breaks had slightly larger gains in reading achievement and physical activity levels than children who were given academic-based breaks.
Marsh, Herbert W.
Given that the Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effect, the negative effect of school-average achievement on academic self-concept, is one of the most robust findings in educational psychology (Marsh, Seaton et al., 2007), this research extends the theoretical model, based on social comparison theory, to study relative year in school effects (e.g., being 1…
Van Eck, Richard
This study looked at the effect of contextual advisement and competition on transfer of mathematics skills in a computer-based instructional simulation game and simulation in which game participants helped their "aunt and uncle" fix up a house. Competition referred to whether or not the participant was playing against a computer…
Milošević Nikoleta M.
Full Text Available Cooperation between a family and school makes provisions for solving problems students face in their interpersonal relations and academic achievement. We are singling out a view of the effects of a micro-system on child's development, which states that immediate interrelations in a micro-system - a family - can effect interrelations in another micro-system -peer groups - or can effect academic achievement. The majority of authors agree that modes and spheres of influences that family exerts are numerous and diverse and that they depend on characteristics of a broader social and cultural community where a child is growing up as well as on parents' abilities and preparations. How successful the family-school cooperation will be is largely determined by teacher's personality and the way he/she is communicating with parents. A joint planning and implementation of decisions reached, identical norms of behavior, commonly adopted goals are a prerequisite for a child's normal development. It is pointed out that school should plan and organize its activities (courses, seminars, forums lectures, discussions, so as to popularize knowledge of pedagogy and psychology among parents as well as teacher training in communication competence.
Sichani, Mehrdad Mohammadi; Mobarakeh, Shadi Reissizadeh; Omid, Athar
Recently, medical education has made significant progress, and medical teachers are trying to find methods that have most impressive effects on learning. One of the useful learning methods is student active participation. One of the helpful teaching aids in this method is mobile technology. The present study aimed to determine the effect of sending educational questions through short message service (SMS) on academic achievement and satisfaction of medical students and compare that with lecture teaching. In an semi-experimental, two chapters of urology reference book, Smiths General Urology 17 th edition, were taught to 47 medical students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in urology course in 2013 academic year. Kidney tumors chapter was educated by sending questions through SMS, and bladder tumors part was taught in a lecture session. For each method, pretest and posttest were held, each consisting of thirty multiple choice questions. To examine the knowledge retention, a test session was held on the same terms for each chapter, 1 month later. At the end, survey forms were distributed to assess student's satisfaction with SMS learning method. Data were analyzed through using SPSS 20. The findings demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the two learning methods in the medication test scores. Evaluation of the satisfaction showed 78.72% of participants were not satisfied. The results of the study showed that distance learning through SMS in medical students could lead to increase knowledge, however, it was not effective on their satisfaction.
Little, Timothy W.
This experimental study was designed to determine the effect of digital game-based learning on student engagement and academic achievement. The sample was comprised of 34 students enrolled in a secondary Biology class in a rural public school. The study utilized an experimental pretest-posttest design with switching replications. After random assignment, students participated in one of two supplemental learning activities: playing a digital game designed to review science concepts or participating in a lab to review the same concepts. Students subsequently switched activities. Student achievement data were collected on mastery of science concepts, and student engagement data were collected utilizing self- and teacher-reported measures. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Results demonstrated that the digital game was as effective as the lab activity at increasing teacher-reported student engagement and academic achievement. These findings may be of interest to school administrators or directors of teacher preparation programs on the potential effectiveness of digital games as a learning tool.
In this experimental research, the effects of cooperative learning method supported by multiple intelligence theory on elementary 4th grade students’ academic achievement was investigated.The study, which lasted five weeks, was carried out at public school in the discrit of Yüreir-Adana in 2004-2005 academic year. The participants of the study were 46 students that They were divided in a experimental group and control group. For the purpose of thisstudy, the experimental group was instructed ...
Visser, Lennart; Schoonenboom, Judith; Korthagen, Fred A. J.
This study reports on the effect of a newly developed 4-week strengths-based training approach to overcome academic procrastination, given to first-year elementary teacher education students (N = 54). The training was based on a strengths-based approach, in which elements of the cognitive behavioral approach were also used. The purpose of the training was to promote awareness of the personal strengths of students who experience academic procrastination regularly and to teach them how to use t...
Abbas, “A Profile of Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan,” CTC Sentinel 1, no. 2 (January, 2008) http://www.ctc.usma.edu/sentinel/CTCSentinel-Vol1Iss2.pdf...cleared barangays . As such, they are familiar with the inhabitants and thus they can easily identify the rebels among the people 97 Robert...Army War College, 2008), 43. 99 Felter, Taking Guns to a Knife Fight, 43. 100 Barangay is a Tagalog version of the Spanish word barrio, meaning
This study investigated the extent to which doctoral advisors provided mentoring to their students and if mentor support influenced doctoral student outcomes. Survey results from 477 respondents, across disciplines at two universities, indicated that most students believed mentoring was important and over half of them received mentoring support…
Pilcher, June J; Morris, Drew M; Bryant, Stewart A; Merritt, Paul A; Feigl, Hayley B
There is growing interest in using activity workstations as a method of increasing light physical activity in normally sedentary environments. The current study ( N = 117) compared the effects of studying in college students while slowly pedaling a stationary bike with a desktop with studying at traditional desks across 10 weeks in an academic semester. The students were assigned to study either on the stationary bike or at a traditional desk located in the campus library for a minimum of 2 h a week. During the 10 weeks, the students studied for tests or worked on other required academic activities while working at their assigned desk. In addition, the participants completed a pre survey, weekly surveys, and a post survey. We found that although students studying at the traditional desks reported more ease of studying and more effective studying than those using the stationary bikes, the two groups performed equally well on tests in an introductory psychology course. Moreover, the students using the traditional desks reported a decrease in sleep quality later in the semester while those using the activity workstation reported stable levels of sleep quality. The current results indicate that activity workstations could be implemented in university settings to encourage light physical activity without negatively affecting academic performance while providing possible long-term health and well-being benefits. Furthermore, the results suggests that activity workstations could be a means of combating sedentary behavior in environments where individuals are expected to sit either while waiting (e.g., doctor's waiting rooms, airports) or when completing a necessary task (e.g., the workplace, educational settings).
June J. Pilcher
Full Text Available There is growing interest in using activity workstations as a method of increasing light physical activity in normally sedentary environments. The current study (N = 117 compared the effects of studying in college students while slowly pedaling a stationary bike with a desktop with studying at traditional desks across 10 weeks in an academic semester. The students were assigned to study either on the stationary bike or at a traditional desk located in the campus library for a minimum of 2 h a week. During the 10 weeks, the students studied for tests or worked on other required academic activities while working at their assigned desk. In addition, the participants completed a pre survey, weekly surveys, and a post survey. We found that although students studying at the traditional desks reported more ease of studying and more effective studying than those using the stationary bikes, the two groups performed equally well on tests in an introductory psychology course. Moreover, the students using the traditional desks reported a decrease in sleep quality later in the semester while those using the activity workstation reported stable levels of sleep quality. The current results indicate that activity workstations could be implemented in university settings to encourage light physical activity without negatively affecting academic performance while providing possible long-term health and well-being benefits. Furthermore, the results suggests that activity workstations could be a means of combating sedentary behavior in environments where individuals are expected to sit either while waiting (e.g., doctor's waiting rooms, airports or when completing a necessary task (e.g., the workplace, educational settings.
Wright, Tiffanie L.
The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended
Muñoz-García, Antonio; Aviles-Herrera, María José
Recent research has shown an increase in academic dishonesty in different educational systems and levels, and negative effects on the academic institution, society and the students themselves. In order to describe the differential perception of academic dishonesty by Spanish secondary school and university students, and to study its consequences…
O'Mealia, Melinda M.
The purpose of this research effort was to examine the Rutgers University pre-health students' advising utilization and the association of advising to medical school admission, for 2012-2016. A variety of variables allied with the Social Cognitive Career Theory and advising practice shaped the examination framework. Specifically, the researcher…
Gleason, Katie A.; Kwok, Oi-man; Hughes, Jan N.
Using latent variable structural equation modeling, we tested a theoretical model positing that grade retention has a positive effect on children’s teacher- and peer-rated academic competencies and on sociometric measures of peer acceptance. We also expected that the positive effect of grade retention on peer acceptance would be mediated by children’s ability to meet academic challenges in their classrooms. Participants were 350 (52.6% male) ethnically diverse and academically at-risk first graders attending 1 of 3 school districts in Texas. An individually administered test of academic achievement, teacher-report and peer-report measures of academic competence, and peer-report measures of peer acceptance were collected on children in first grade and 1 year later, at which time 63 children were repeating first grade and 287 were in second grade. The hypothesized model provided a good fit to the data. Children’s academic competencies, as perceived by peers and teachers, fully mediated the effect of retention on subsequent peer acceptance. PMID:20431696
Gold, Andrew M.
Academic and workplace dishonesty have become a growing and costly problem within society. While academic misconduct is nothing new, over the past 40 years the problem appears to be getting worse. The literature indicated a steady increase in academic cheating rates over the past four decades from 50% to as much as 75%. Compounding this problem…
Liem, Gregory Arief D.
Background: Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Aims: Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and…
This paper measures determinants of individual academic achievements. In addition to an extensive list of individual characteristics, skills obtained during study and socio-economic background factors, many dimensions of selectivity into academic study subjects are shown to drive individual academic
This paper measures determinants of individual academic achievements. In addition to an extensive list of individual characteristics, skills obtained during study and socio-economic background factors, many dimensions of selectivity into academic study subjects are shown to drive individual academic
Vagos, Paula; Pereira, Anabela; Warner, Carrie Masia
Social fears are common among adolescents and may considerably impair their lives. Even so, most adolescents do not seek professional help for these difficulties, making it important to promote evidence-based and preventive interventions in community samples. This research presents the effectiveness of an intervention with a group of five female adolescents who reported serious interference of their social fears in their daily life. At post-intervention, effectiveness was noticeable by high recovery, reliable individual change, and intragroup statistical change. The intervention showed impact for measures of social anxiety, avoidance, and assertiveness, and such impact was steady at 3-month follow-up. These findings add to the cumulative and transcultural evidence on the effectiveness of Skills for Academic and Social Success (SASS).
Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a genetic condition that mainly involves the nervous system. There are two types: NF1 affects about one in 2,500 of the population worldwide and NF2 affects one in 35,000. Both types result in complex health problems for patients and can pose significant challenges for all those involved in their management. Established in 1981, The Neuro Foundation is a patient-focused charity that funds a network of specialist advisers who work in partnership with the NHS to offer support and advice for families affected by NF and the professionals who care for them. With a significant level of autonomy, the specialist adviser role is flexible in matching the needs of those affected while working cooperatively alongside the national specialist services for NF1 and NF2. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Hyder O. Mirghani, M.D
Full Text Available Objectives: There is increasing awareness about the effects of circadian misalignment on health and work. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of chronotype on academic achievement among medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among 140 medical students (64 who averaged an A grade and 76 who averaged a C grade completing the clinical phase at the medical college of Omdurman University, Sudan. The participants were asked to sign a written informed consent and to keep a diary detailing their bedtime, wake-up time, sleep latency, and sleep duration during working days and weekends. Then, the participants were invited to respond to a questionnaire. The chronotype was calculated from the mid-sleep time during the weekend and sleep debt. Various sleep parameters were then compared between the two groups. A t-test and logistic regression analysis were used to test the statistical significance. Results: The medical students with average grades were more of the evening chronotype than the students with excellent grades (pÂ Â 0.05. Conclusion: Students whose average grade was a C were more likely to have a later bedtimes during weekdays and weekends, sleep more during weekends, and were more evening. Keywords: Academic performance, Chronotype, Medical students, Sleep duration, Sleep pattern
Wahlstrom, Kyla L; Owens, Judith A
The investigation of the relationship between the time of day that school begins and the effects it could have on students began in the mid-1990s. Since that time, many articles have been written either for the medical literature or the educational literature. This review is intended to bridge that gap by examining together the findings for both academic and health outcomes, exploring what we know and what is needed in further investigation. Teens who are sleep deficient (defined as obtaining less than 8 h per night) because of early starting time for their school are much more likely to engage in risky behaviours, such as drug, cigarette and alcohol use, have significant feelings of depression, get lower grades and are at greater risk for car crashes. Many studies of academic performance and later school start time indicate benefits, although further research is needed to understand the related mechanisms that contribute to improvements in achievement. Recent research in adolescent sleep and outcomes is being shaped by not only measuring sleep duration, but also examining the timing in which sleep occurs. Early school starting time for middle and high students has a clear, deleterious effect on their health and well being. Most recently, sleep deficit in teens is being viewed as a public health issue that needs a wider discussion about its impact and it necessitates improved public education about the sleep phase shift that occurs during adolescence.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a significant effect of project based learning approach on seventh grade students’ academic achievement in the structure and properties of matter. In the study, according to the characteristics of quantitative research methods, pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design was used to test the effect of project-based learning and traditional methods on seventh grade students’ academic achievement. Convenience sampling was preferred and 38 students participated in this study. The structure and properties of matter achievement test, lesson plans, and observation checklist were used as data collection instruments. In order to analyze the data obtained from the structure and properties of matter achievement test, independent samples t-test was performed. Based on the results, there is no significant difference between the experimental and control groups' scores which is obtained from their "Achievement test" post-test performance. Discussions based on literature were carried out and suggestions were performed as pre-activities based on project based learning should be performed for the adaptation of students and teachers before treatment.
Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Sachin; Gupta, Surbhi; Vaish, Supriya; Misra, Rajesh
Stress, a universal phenomenon, affects an individual's productivity either by increasing it ('eustress') or decreasing it ('distress'). It is widely acknowledged that the medical fraternity is predisposed to enormous stress. The same may be true for the budding medicos- the undergraduate medical students. In our study we attempted to identify situations that predisposed the medical students to stress and their effects on academic performance and to suggest certain coping mechanisms. firstly to explore common sources of stress in medical students, secondly to establish correlation of stress, gender, attendance, and academic performance if any. 114 medical undergraduates were assessed for the common sources of stress and the level of stress using semi structured Performa and stress scale. The results were compared and correlated with various variables like attendance, demographic factors, average marks etc. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for statistical correlation amongst different variables. Stress shows beneficial effects in females when compared to males. High attendance and better day to day performance in female medical students was associated with more amount of stress when compared to male students. Thus, stress among medical students should be acknowledged and attempts should be made to alleviate it.
Shehu, A U; Idris, S H
The use of Marijuana is on the increase worldwide especially among adolescents and youths. Marijuana smoking has gained a foothold in our environment because of peer group influence, accessibility and availability. Its medico-social effects could ruin the life and future of our youths. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the factors that influence secondary school students in Zaria LGA to smoke and the effects on academic performance. A cross-sectional descriptive study was employed to generate data among secondary school students. A multi-stage sampling technique was used. Data was collected with the use of a structured, pre tested self-administered questionnaire. F2 test was used to test for significance of association between categorical variables. Of the 350 respondents, 262 (74.9%) were males, while 88 (25.1%) were females. The study shows that 33 of the students smoke marijuana giving a prevalence of 9.4%. There were more smokers in the age group 15-19 years (54.6%). Other factors that influence marijuana smoking include family background, peer pressure and attendance of social functions. There was better academic performance (51.1%) among non smokers as compared to smokers (27.2%), and this was found to be statistically significant (chi2 = 11.73, df = 5, P attendance of social function influence marijuana smoking. A comprehensive school health education program should be instituted to curtail this menace.
Sivarajah, Sivajanani; Smith, Sandy M; Thomas, Sean C
Human exposure to green space and vegetation is widely recognized to result in physical and mental health benefits; however, to date, the specific effects of tree cover, diversity, and species composition on student academic performance have not been investigated. We compiled standardized performance scores in Grades 3 and 6 for the collective student body in 387 schools across the Toronto District School Board (TDSB), and examined variation in relation to tree cover, tree diversity, and tree species composition based on comprehensive inventories of trees on school properties combined with aerial-photo-based assessments of tree cover. Analyses accounted for variation due to socioeconomic factors using the learning opportunity index (LOI), a regional composite index of external challenges to learning that incorporates income and other factors, such as students with English as a second language. As expected, LOI had the greatest influence on student academic performance; however, the proportion of tree cover, as distinct from other types of "green space" such as grass, was found to be a significant positive predictor of student performance, accounting for 13% of the variance explained in a statistical model predicting mean student performance assessments. The effects of tree cover and species composition were most pronounced in schools that showed the highest level of external challenges, suggesting the importance of urban forestry investments in these schools.
Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae
The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.
Paulo N. Vilia
Full Text Available Science education plays a critical role as political priority due to its fundamental importance in engaging students to pursue technological careers considered essential in modern societies, in order to face scientific development challenges. High-level achievement on science education and positive attitudes toward science constitutes a crucial challenge for formal education. Several studies indicate close relationships between students’ attitudes, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of student’s attitudes toward the school discipline of Physics and Chemistry and their reasoning abilities on academic achievement on that school subject, among Portuguese 9th grade students using the data collected during the Project Academic Performance and Development: a longitudinal study on the effects of school transitions in Portuguese students (PTDC/CPE-CED/104884/2008. The participants were 470 students (267 girls – 56.8% and 203 boys – 43.2%, aged 14–16 years old (μ = 14.3 ± 0.58. The attitude data were collected using the Attitude toward Physics-Chemistry Questionnaire (ATPCQ and, the Reasoning Test Battery (RTB was used to assess the students reasoning abilities. Achievement was measured using the students’ quarterly (9-week grades in the physics and chemistry subject. The relationships between the attitude dimensions toward Physics-chemistry and the reasoning dimensions and achievement in each of the three school terms were assessed by multiple regression stepwise analyses and standardized regression coefficients (β, calculated with IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. Both variables studied proved to be significant predictor variables of school achievement. The models obtained from the use of both variables were always stronger accounting for higher proportions of student’s grade variations. The results show that ATPCQ and RTB had a significantly positive relationship with
Vilia, Paulo N; Candeias, Adelinda A; Neto, António S; Franco, Maria Da Glória S; Melo, Madalena
Science education plays a critical role as political priority due to its fundamental importance in engaging students to pursue technological careers considered essential in modern societies, in order to face scientific development challenges. High-level achievement on science education and positive attitudes toward science constitutes a crucial challenge for formal education. Several studies indicate close relationships between students' attitudes, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of student's attitudes toward the school discipline of Physics and Chemistry and their reasoning abilities on academic achievement on that school subject, among Portuguese 9th grade students using the data collected during the Project Academic Performance and Development: a longitudinal study on the effects of school transitions in Portuguese students (PTDC/CPE-CED/104884/2008). The participants were 470 students (267 girls - 56.8% and 203 boys - 43.2%), aged 14-16 years old (μ = 14.3 ± 0.58). The attitude data were collected using the Attitude toward Physics-Chemistry Questionnaire (ATPCQ) and, the Reasoning Test Battery (RTB) was used to assess the students reasoning abilities. Achievement was measured using the students' quarterly (9-week) grades in the physics and chemistry subject. The relationships between the attitude dimensions toward Physics-chemistry and the reasoning dimensions and achievement in each of the three school terms were assessed by multiple regression stepwise analyses and standardized regression coefficients (β), calculated with IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. Both variables studied proved to be significant predictor variables of school achievement. The models obtained from the use of both variables were always stronger accounting for higher proportions of student's grade variations. The results show that ATPCQ and RTB had a significantly positive relationship with student's achievement in
Turgut, Sedat; Temur, Özlem Dogan
In this research, the effects of using game in mathematics teaching process on academic achievement in Turkey were examined by metaanalysis method. For this purpose, the average effect size value and the average effect size values of the moderator variables (education level, the field of education, game type, implementation period and sample size)…
Hashim, Hairul A; Freddy, Golok; Rosmatunisah, Ali
The current study was undertaken to examine the associations between self-determination, exercise habit, anxiety, depression, stress, and academic achievement among adolescents aged 13 and 14 years in eastern Malaysia. The sample consisted of 750 secondary school students (mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 0.49). Participants completed self-report measures of exercise behavioral regulation, negative affect, and exercise habit strength. Midyear exam results were used as an indicator of academic performance. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results of structural equation modeling revealed a close model fit for the hypothesized model, which indicates that higher levels of self-determination were positively associated with habituated exercise behavior. In turn, exercise habit strength fostered academic achievement and buffered the debilitative effect of stress, depression, and anxiety on student academic performance. The analysis of model invariance revealed a nonsignificant difference between male and female subjects. The findings support the notion that habituated exercise fosters academic performance. In addition, we found that habituated exercise buffers the combined effects of stress, anxiety and depression on academic performance. The finding also supports the roles of self-determination in promoting exercise habituation.
Resaland, G K; Moe, V F; Bartholomew, J B; Andersen, L B; McKay, H A; Anderssen, S A; Aadland, E
Active learning combines academic content with physical activity (PA) to increase child PA and academic performance, but the impact of active learning is mixed. It may be that this is a moderated relationship in which active learning is beneficial for only some children. This paper examine the impact of baseline academic performance and gender as moderators for the effects of active learning on children's academic performance. In the ASK-study, 1129 fifth-graders from 57 Norwegian elementary schools were randomized by school to intervention or control in a physical activity intervention between November 2014 and June 2015. Academic performance in numeracy, reading, and English was measured and a composite score was calculated. Children were split into low, middle and high academic performing tertiles. 3-way-interactions for group (intervention, control)∗gender (boys, girls)∗academic performance (tertiles) were investigated using mixed model regression. There was a significant, 3-way-interaction (p=0.044). Both boys (ES=0.11) and girls (ES=0.18) in the low performing tertile had a similar beneficial trend. In contrast, middle (ES=0.03) and high performing boys (ES=0.09) responded with small beneficial trends, while middle (ES=-0.11) and high performing girls (ES=-0.06) responded with negative trends. ASK was associated with a significant increase in academic performance for low performing children. It is likely that active learning benefited children most in need of adapted education but it may have a null or negative effect for those girls who are already performing well in the sedentary classroom. Differences in gendered responses are discussed as a possible explanation for these results. Clinicaltrials.gov registry, trial registration number: NCT02132494. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gigliette, Linda Marie
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of a trust-building technique called "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) on the level of student-teacher trust and students' science academic achievement. The existing literature was reviewed under the constructs of trust, types of trust, trust-building strategies, and student academic achievement. The identified problem is a lack of research into the effect of trust from the high school student perspective and the effect of trust on student academic achievement in science. In addition, there is no empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of the "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention. The study involved a volunteer, convenience sample of 9th-grade science students at one high school in Northern California (N=240). The study employed a quasi-experimental, pretest, posttest non-equivalent control group design to examine the level of student trust in the teacher, using the "Student trust in faculty scale" (Forsyth, Adams, & Hoy, 2011, p. 180), and the students' academic achievement, according to the Integrated Process Skills Test II (Okey, Wise, & Burns, 1982). The independent variable was the "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention; the two dependent variables were the level of student-teacher trust and student academic achievement. The composite data from the "Student trust in faculty scale" and the academic achievement test were evaluated by a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results of this study indicated that the null hypothesis was accepted. The "positive-framing" (Lemov, 2010, p. 204) trust-building intervention did not have a significant effect on either the student-teacher trust level or academic achievement in science.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between multiple intelligence strengths and alternative teaching methods on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding and attitudes. The design was a quasi-experimental study, in which students enrolled in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, a developmental biology course, received lecture only, problem-based learning with lecture, or peer teaching with lecture. These students completed the Multiple Intelligence Inventory to determine their intelligence strengths, the Students' Motivation Toward Science Learning questionnaire to determine student attitudes towards learning in science, multiple choice tests to determine academic achievement, and open-ended questions to determine conceptual understanding. Effects of intelligence types and teaching methods on academic achievement and conceptual understanding were determined statistically by repeated measures ANOVAs. No significance occurred in academic achievement scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in logical-mathematical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and intrapersonal intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by problem-based learning (PBL) as compared to peer teaching (PT). No significance occurred in conceptual understanding scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and spatial intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by lecture as compared to PBL. Students with
Visser, Lennart; Schoonenboom, Judith; Korthagen, Fred A J
This study reports on the effect of a newly developed 4-week strengths-based training approach to overcome academic procrastination, given to first-year elementary teacher education students ( N = 54). The training was based on a strengths-based approach, in which elements of the cognitive behavioral approach were also used. The purpose of the training was to promote awareness of the personal strengths of students who experience academic procrastination regularly and to teach them how to use their personal strengths in situations in which they usually tend to procrastinate. With a pretest-posttest control group design (two experimental groups: n = 31, control group: n = 23), the effect of the training on academic procrastination was studied after 1, 11, and 24 weeks. Results of a one-way analysis of covariance revealed a significant short-term effect of the training. In the long term (after 11 and 24 weeks), the scores for academic procrastination for the intervention groups remained stable, whereas the scores for academic procrastination for the control group decreased to the same level as those of the intervention groups. The findings of this study suggest that a strengths-based approach can be helpful to students at an early stage of their academic studies to initiate their individual process of dealing with academic procrastination. The findings for the long term show the importance of measuring the outcomes of an intervention not only shortly after the intervention but also in the long term. Further research is needed to find out how the short-term effect can be maintained in the long-term.
Full Text Available This study reports on the effect of a newly developed 4-week strengths-based training approach to overcome academic procrastination, given to first-year elementary teacher education students (N = 54. The training was based on a strengths-based approach, in which elements of the cognitive behavioral approach were also used. The purpose of the training was to promote awareness of the personal strengths of students who experience academic procrastination regularly and to teach them how to use their personal strengths in situations in which they usually tend to procrastinate. With a pretest-posttest control group design (two experimental groups: n = 31, control group: n = 23, the effect of the training on academic procrastination was studied after 1, 11, and 24 weeks. Results of a one-way analysis of covariance revealed a significant short-term effect of the training. In the long term (after 11 and 24 weeks, the scores for academic procrastination for the intervention groups remained stable, whereas the scores for academic procrastination for the control group decreased to the same level as those of the intervention groups. The findings of this study suggest that a strengths-based approach can be helpful to students at an early stage of their academic studies to initiate their individual process of dealing with academic procrastination. The findings for the long term show the importance of measuring the outcomes of an intervention not only shortly after the intervention but also in the long term. Further research is needed to find out how the short-term effect can be maintained in the long-term.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Jigsaw and Ask Together Learn Together technique used in the application of cooperative learning model on the academic success of social studies of 6th degree students. Experimental research design, including pretest and post-test, was used in the study. Work group of the study consisted of 54 6th grade students studying in three different classes of a secondary school in Trabzon between 2015-2016 school years. The study was conducted with two experimental groups and one control group. The related unit was taught via the related techniques for four weeks with experimental groups. Academic Success Test (AST was used as data collection tool of the study. The pre-test and post test scores of experimental and control groups from AST were analysed by using ANOVA and ANCOVA. According to the AST pre-test and posttest results of research groups, there was no significant difference between pre-test and posttest scores of Jigsaw and Ask Together Learn Together technique students in experimental groups, while significant difference was measured between experimental groups and control group.
Vala Ali Rohani
Full Text Available Abundance of information in recent years has become a serious challenge for web users. Recommender systems (RSs have been often utilized to alleviate this issue. RSs prune large information spaces to recommend the most relevant items to users by considering their preferences. Nonetheless, in situations where users or items have few opinions, the recommendations cannot be made properly. This notable shortcoming in practical RSs is called cold-start problem. In the present study, we propose a novel approach to address this problem by incorporating social networking features. Coined as enhanced content-based algorithm using social networking (ECSN, the proposed algorithm considers the submitted ratings of faculty mates and friends besides user’s own preferences. The effectiveness of ECSN algorithm was evaluated by implementing it in MyExpert, a newly designed academic social network (ASN for academics in Malaysia. Real feedbacks from live interactions of MyExpert users with the recommended items are recorded for 12 consecutive weeks in which four different algorithms, namely, random, collaborative, content-based, and ECSN were applied every three weeks. The empirical results show significant performance of ECSN in mitigating the cold-start problem besides improving the prediction accuracy of recommendations when compared with other studied recommender algorithms.
Vizeshfar, Fatemeh; Torabizadeh, Camellia
The recognition of learning styles and teaching based on that recognition will help lecturers use suitable methods of teaching. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of education based on dominant learning styles on the academic achievement of nursing students. The population of this quasi-experimental research consisted of 40 third-semester nursing students. The data were collected by using Kolb's Learning Style questionnaire. To determine the dominant learning style of the students, the researchers had them take a pre-test; then, based on the dominant learning style, the students were taught through group discussion. A formative exam and a summative exam were taken. The most and least preferred learning styles of the participants were the divergent style and the assimilative style respectively. Education based on learning styles, particularly for college students, can not only enhance students' academic achievement and teachers' professional satisfaction, but can help with training professional nurses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Shireen, Erum; Haider, Saida; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen
Examination stress is a psychological stress that activate hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis to increase circulating levels of glucocorticoids. The fat derived hormone leptin is also released in response to stress-inducing condition. To workout the role of leptin and cortisol in response to perceived levels of examination stress and their effects on academic performance. The present study was designed to monitor the relationship of self reported perceived levels of examination stress on serum levels of cortisol and leptin in female students going to appear in university examination. Fifty-six female undergraduate students participated in the study. Examination stress, appetite levels were assessed by a questionnaire and blood samples were collected one hour before appearing in the examination. Performance was evaluated from the marks obtained in that particular examination. Serum cortisol levels increased with an increase in the intensity of perceived examination stress. Serum leptin levels increased only in the group under moderate stress while increases in mild and severe stress group were not significant. Mild to moderate stress enhanced performance but severe stress decreased it. The present study shows an inverted U-shaped relationship between self reported different levels of perceived examination stress and academic performance.
von Hippel, Paul T; Bradbury, W Kyle
Foundations and governments fund a number of programs that provide grants to improve school physical education or other forms of school-based physical activity. The effects of these grant programs are unknown. We evaluate the effects of Texas Fitness Now, a program in which the state of Texas granted $37 million to improve physical education in high-poverty middle schools over the 4 school years from 2007-08 to 2010-11. The stated goals of Texas Fitness Now were to reduce obesity, increase fitness, and raise academic achievement. We summarize how Texas Fitness Now funds were spent and estimate the impact of Texas Fitness Now using a fixed-effects longitudinal model that exploits changes in schools' eligibility over time. Changes in eligibility occurred when eligibility expanded to new schools after year 2 and when the program was terminated after year 4. Most Texas Fitness Now funds were spent on sports and fitness equipment. Smaller amounts were spent on anti-obesity curricula. Texas Fitness Now improved strength and flexibility, especially among girls, but it did not improve BMI or academic achievement, and it had mixed effects on aerobic capacity. The fitness benefits were not lost in the year after the program ended, perhaps because schools kept the equipment that they had bought during their years of eligibility. The results of Texas Fitness Now were typical for an intervention that relied almost exclusively on physical activity. Programs that improve BMI as well as fitness tend to have a more fully developed nutrition component. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Browman, Alexander S; Destin, Mesmin
Persistent academic achievement gaps exist between university students from high and low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. The current research proposes that the extent to which a university is perceived as actively supporting versus passively neglecting students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds can influence low-SES students' academic motivation and self-concepts. In Experiments 1 and 2, low-SES students exposed to cues suggestive of an institution's warmth toward socioeconomic diversity demonstrated greater academic efficacy, expectations, and implicit associations with high academic achievement compared with those exposed to cues indicating institutional chilliness. Exploring the phenomenology underlying these effects, Experiment 3 demonstrated that warmth cues led low-SES students to perceive their socioeconomic background as a better match with the rest of the student body and to perceive the university as more socioeconomically diverse than did chilliness cues. Contributions to our understanding of low-SES students' psychological experiences in academic settings and practical implications for academic institutions are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Leasa, Marleny; Duran Corebima, Aloysius
Learning models and academic ability may affect students’ achievement in science. This study, thus aimed to investigate the effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on elementary students’ cognitive achievement in natural science. This study employed a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group with 2 x 2 factorial. There were two learning models compared NHT and the conventional, and two academic ability high and low. The results of ana Cova test confirmed the difference in the students’ cognitive achievement based on learning models and general academic ability. However, the interaction between learning models and academic ability did not affect the students’ cognitive achievement. In conclusion, teachers are strongly recommended to be more creative in designing learning using other types of cooperative learning models. Also, schools are required to create a better learning environment which is more cooperative to avoid unfair competition among students in the classroom and as a result improve the students’ academic ability. Further research needs to be conducted to explore the contribution of other aspects in cooperative learning toward cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability.
Edward J. Jedlicka
Full Text Available Cognitive training is emerging as a viable intervention for remediating cognitive skill deficits and associated academic struggles. This study investigated whether trainer-delivered cognitive training reduced parent-reported academic difficulties and oppositional behavior for school-age children with learning struggles compared with a no-contact control group. Three groups were surveyed using a standardized rating scale: parents of clients ages 5–18 who had completed the 60-h ThinkRx cognitive training program (n = 67, parents of clients ages 5–18 who had completed the 120-h ReadRx cognitive training with reading program (n = 53, and parents of clients ages 5–18 who completed initial testing but did not enroll in a training program (n = 58. Results indicated there were statistically significant differences overall between the intervention groups and the control group on all measures of academic difficulties. Both intervention groups saw a reduction in academic difficulty ratings following training while the control group saw an increase in academic difficulty during a comparable time interval. Differences between groups on ratings of oppositional behavior were not significant. Both intervention groups achieved statistically significant changes on objective cognitive test measures as well. Although the study is limited by lack of randomization in the sampling, the results and transfer effects are encouraging for evaluating the use of one-on-one cognitive training to enhance academic skills and behavior.
Ohi, T.; Saiki, A.; Terashita, N.; Sasaki, K.
Development of an operator support system has come to be an important subject for Nuclear Power Plants. An expert system for advising operational procedures for nuclear power plants was developed to provide operators with adequate operation plans. The system consists of two parts. One is the operation interpretation module that uses the knowledge base of operational procudures represented in the form of an extended Petri net model. The other is the operation consultation module that uses a hierarchical qualitative model of a nuclear power plant. The structure of each knowledge base and the method of inference to generate adequate operations plan were investigated. The availability of our concept has been confirmed by the protorype system for CVCS (Chemical and Volume Control System) of PWR. This concept can be applied to the operator support system to supply operation guidance under anomalous plant conditions
, it is hoped that this will contribute to a new and more unified research agenda for the development of safety-critical, interactive systems. One of thetraining instruments is the Young Researchers Workshop, which is arranged and coordinated by the young researchers themselves. It is an event where the young......The research training network Analysis Design and Validation of Interactive Safety-critical and Error-tolerant Systems (ADVISES) focus on coaching and supervising Post Docs and Ph.D. students. The main objective is to provide a multi-disciplinary researchtraining that can combat the impact of human...... error during the design, operation and management of safety-critical, interactive systems. Additionally, the exchange of knowledge, practices, tools and experience between adjacent (but still too distinct)disciplines can lead to the efficient integration of complementary research methods. Ultimately...
Gannouni, Kais; Ramboarison-Lalao, Lovanirina
When exploring the effects of leadership on students, most studies have focused on either how leadership affects the students' academic outcomes or how it contributes to their personal development. This study merged both approaches and aimed to measure the mediating effects of self-efficacy and self-determination among leadership, students'…
Lewis, Traschell S.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected Advanced Placement (AP) programs on the academic performance and college readiness of high school students. Specifically, the researcher was concerned with ascertaining the effectiveness of social science, math, science, English, music/art and language AP programs on the…
Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lee, Sang Min
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Demand Control Model (DCM) and the Effort Reward Imbalance Model (ERIM) on academic burnout for Korean students. Specifically, this study identified the effects of the predictor variables based on DCM and ERIM (i.e., demand, control, effort, reward, Demand Control Ratio, Effort Reward…
Enthusiasm is widely regarded as one of the most essential and desirable qualities and characteristics of effective teachers. This study is designed to assess the effects of teacher enthusiasm on student classroom engagement, learning goal orientation, and academic self-efficacy. Participants include 165 college students enrolled in basic…
Lieberman, Steven A; Ainsworth, Michael A; Asimakis, Gregory K; Thomas, Lauree; Cain, Lisa D; Mancuso, Melodee G; Rabek, Jeffrey P; Zhang, Ni; Frye, Ann W
Calls for medical curriculum reform and increased student diversity in the USA have seen mixed success: performance outcomes following curriculum revisions have been inconsistent and national matriculation of under-represented minority (URM) students has not met aspirations. Published innovations in curricula, academic support and pipeline programmes usually describe isolated interventions that fail to affect curriculum-level outcomes. United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 performance and graduation rates were analysed for three classes of medical students before (matriculated 1995-1997, n=517) and after (matriculated 2003-2005, n=597) implementing broad-based reforms in our education system. The changes in pipeline recruitment and preparation programmes, instructional methods, assessment systems, academic support and board preparation were based on sound educational principles and best practices. Post-reform classes were diverse with respect to ethnicity (25.8% URM students), gender (51.8% female), and Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) score (range 20-40; 24.1% scored ≤ 25). Mean±standard deviation MCAT scores were minimally changed (from 27.2±4.7 to 27.8±3.6). The Step 1 failure rate decreased by 69.3% and mean score increased by 14.0 points (effect size: d=0.67) overall. Improvements were greater among women (failure rate decreased by 78.9%, mean score increased by 15.6 points; d=0.76) and URM students (failure rate decreased by 76.5%, mean score increased by 14.6 points; d=0.74), especially African-American students (failure rate decreased by 93.6%, mean score increased by 20.8 points; d=1.12). Step 1 scores increased across the entire MCAT range. Four- and 5-year graduation rates increased by 7.1% and 5.8%, respectively. The effect sizes in these performance improvements surpassed those previously reported for isolated interventions in curriculum and student support. This success is likely to have resulted from the broad
Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra
Full Text Available Academic procrastination is a serious problem among student. Academic procrastination refers to delaying in doing assignments and preparing for examinations until the last period of examination time and submission date of assignments. To solve this problem we could use cognitive restructuring technique. The purposes of this research are to gain the description of academic procrastination decrease by implementing the cognitive restructuring technique. This research used a single subject research as the research design. The type of the single subject research which used in this research is multiple baselines. The result of this research shows that academic procrastination had significant decrease by implementation the cognitive restructuring technique. This research gives advice for two parts. First, it will be better if counselor implement the cognitive restructuring technique to decreasing academic procrastination. Second, it will be better if stakeholder of school gives support to counselor for implementation the cognitive restructuring technique to decrease academic procrastination.
Barton, Alison L; Hirsch, Jameson K
Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants were 524 undergraduate students at a single institution (52% female; age range = 18-22). Data collection was completed in May 2011. Cross-sectional design. Participants completed online self-report measures of parenting styles, academic entitlement, stress, depressive symptoms, and well-being. Permissive parenting was associated with greater academic entitlement and, in turn, to more perceived stress and poorer mental health. Mother/father differences were found in some cases. Academic entitlement may partially explain why permissive parenting is detrimentally related to mental health for college students. Implications for academic affairs and counseling include helping students develop an appreciation of the role of self-regulation in college success.
The vast majority of health care professionals are unaware of the negative impact of upper airway obstruction (mouth breathing) on normal facial growth and physiologic health. Children whose mouth breathing is untreated may develop long, narrow faces, narrow mouths, high palatal vaults, dental malocclusion, gummy smiles, and many other unattractive facial features, such as skeletal Class II or Class III facial profiles. These children do not sleep well at night due to obstructed airways; this lack of sleep can adversely affect their growth and academic performance. Many of these children are misdiagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity. It is important for the entire health care community (including general and pediatric dentists) to screen and diagnose for mouth breathing in adults and in children as young as 5 years of age. If mouth breathing is treated early, its negative effect on facial and dental development and the medical and social problems associated with it can be reduced or averted.
Kovács, Karolina Eszter
Full Text Available The frequency of health-risk behaviours like smoking, alcohol consumption and substance use is usually higher in adolescence. In addition, its appearance is higher among students coming from non-intact families. These factors also have a strong influence on academic achievement as students from fragile families and students having these health-damaging habits tend to be less effective. According to our results, four different student clusters can be detected regarding health behaviour (traditional risk-takers, hard risk-takers, ambivalent students and risk-avoiders. Ambivalent students reached the best achievement while hard risk-takers showed the poorest efficacy. Finally, students from intact families showed better results compared to their peers from single-parent or patchwork families.
Ahmadi, F.; Hamidi, F.; Mohammadzadeh, A.; Ahmadi, M. K. A.
The present research as a per and post tests design with control group investigates the effectiveness of problem solving method as independent variable on academic achievement of students in the second grade of high school in the physics topic of dynamics. The sample consists of four random groups as experimental and control groups which were chosen from the students of the second grade of high school. Each sample consists of 25 participants. The experimental groups were taught in problem solving method without any changing in method for control groups. Data was analyzed using Mixed Analysis Of Variance (MANOVA). Result showed a significant difference between two methods of learning (P<0.05). Further the evaluation of their attitude about problem solving method has been showed that a significant percentage of participants in experimental group were interested to continue that method in other physical topics.
Kidron, Rachel; Kaganovskiy, Leon; Baron-Cohen, Simon
This study tests if the drives to empathize (E) and systemize (S), measured by the Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R) and Empathy Quotient (EQ), show effects of sex and academic degree. The responses of 419 students from the Humanities and the Physical Sciences were analyzed in terms of the E-S theory predictions. Results confirm that there is an interaction between sex, degree and the drive to empathize relative to systemize. Female students in the Humanities on average had a stronger drive to empathize than to systemize in comparison to males in the Humanities. Male students in the Sciences on average had a stronger drive to systemize than to empathize in comparison to females in the Sciences. Finally, students in the sciences on average had a stronger drive to systemize more than to empathize, irrespective of their sex. The reverse is true for students in the Humanities. These results strongly replicate earlier findings.
Juan F. Muñoz-Olano; Camilo Hurtado-Parrado
Nearly 50% of the college population struggles with academic procrastination, which is an impulsivity problem that often leads to emotional difficulties and college dropout. This study aimed to assess whether an online intervention on clarification of academic goals could reduce impulsivity and academic procrastination in college students. Forty-eight participants were assigned to three different types of interventions: (a) SMART-type goal clarification treatment (setting specific, measurable...
Edefonti, Valeria; Rosato, Valentina; Parpinel, Maria; Nebbia, Gabriella; Fiorica, Lorenzo; Fossali, Emilio; Ferraroni, Monica; Decarli, Adriano; Agostoni, Carlo
Most studies that assess the effects of breakfast on subsequent mental abilities compared performance in subjects who had or had not consumed this meal. However, characteristics of breakfast itself may induce metabolic and hormonal alterations of the gastrointestinal tract and potentially modify cognitive performance. Moreover, as far as the evidence on the positive effects of having breakfast is becoming more robust, interest may shift to the specific characteristics of an adequate breakfast. The objective was to summarize existing evidence on the role of nutrient composition or energy intake at breakfast on the accomplishment of school-related tasks and cognition. We conducted a systematic review of the literature through the PubMed database. From the literature search, we identified 102 articles, 15 of which met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 3 studies provided information on the relation between cognitive and academic performance and energy intake at breakfast, 11 provided the same information for the macronutrient composition of breakfast, and 1 investigated both the aspects. Eleven studies considered breakfast meals differing in glycemic index/load. Selected studies were generally carried out in well-nourished children and adults of both sexes from general education. They were mostly experimental studies of short duration and had a limited number of subjects. Cognitive and academic performance was investigated by looking at multiple domains, including memory, attention, reasoning, learning, and verbal and math abilities, with a variety of test batteries scheduled at different time points in the morning. Breakfast options differed in terms of included foods and place and time of administration. There is insufficient quantity and consistency among studies to draw firm conclusions. However, whereas the hypothesis of a better and more sustained performance with a breakfast providing >20% daily energy intake still needs substantiation, there does appear to be
This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…
Mahapatra, Krushna; Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif
Municipality energy advice services were re-introduced in Sweden in 1998 as a way of advising end-users, mainly owners of detached houses, on energy issues. In this paper, we investigate Swedish energy advisers' perceptions of homeowners' awareness of the energy advice service and their perceived ability to fulfil homeowners' expectations. Our study is based on a mail-in questionnaire survey conducted in 2009 and distributed to municipality energy advisers in all municipalities in Sweden. About 66% of the energy advisers responded. The results show that 43% of the energy advisers thought that fewer than 50% of the homeowners were aware of the service and that mass media advertisements and presentations at different organisations could improve homeowner awareness. Energy adviser attitudes, job satisfaction, and the perception that the advisers possessed up-to-date and good knowledge and sufficient financial resources to execute their duties had a significant influence on their perceived ability to fulfil homeowner expectations. Increased training in technical aspects of energy measures and increased financial support were the two measures most widely suggested as a means to improve energy advisers' performance. - Highlights: → Survey of Swedish energy advisers about their perceptions of energy advice service. → 43% of the respondents thought that fewer than 50% of the homeowners were aware of the service. → About half of the respondents reported that they were able to fulfil homeowners' expectations. → More training and financial support were two widely suggested means to improve advisers' performance.
Full Text Available The current paper investigated the effects of information and communication technology on the students’ academic achievement and retention in chemistry. Fifty students of 9th grade were selected randomly from Kohsar Public School and College Latamber Karak. The students were grouped into equivalent groups based on pretest score. In order to collect data, pretest posttest equivalent groups design was used. Mean, standard deviation and independent samples t-test were applied through SPSS for data analysis. Based on statistical analysis, it came to light that information and communication technology positively affects students’ academic achievement and retention and ICT was found more compelling, effective and valuable in teaching of chemistry when contrasted with conventional techniques of teaching. It is recommended that information and communication technology should be used in teaching chemistry for enhancing students’ academic achievement at secondary level.
Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to examine the effect of “Development of Efficient Studying Skills Curriculum” on academic achievements and studying skills of 7th grade primary school students. In this study, pre test post test from experiment models and semi experimental model with control group were preferred. The reason for the preference is our wish to make a comparison between the group on which curriculum was implemented (experiment group, and the group on which curriculum was not implemented (control group in terms of academic achievement, and acquiring efficient studying skills. Study population of this research covers 7th grade students from Refika Küçükçalık Primary School in Kocasinan district of Kayseri which is located in the middle of Turkey during 2011 2012 academic year (8 units, 320 students. Sample of the study was determined according to purposive sampling which is one of non probability sampling types. Obtained data were analysed employing Covariance Analysis (ANCOVA. As a result, this research indicated that students can acquire efficientstudying skills by means of Curriculum for Developing Efficient Studying Skills and they increase their academic achievements thanks to these studying habits. In this sense, if quality of education is desired to be increased, students with high level of academic achievements are intended and growing youth is expected to compete with the young population of other states with the effect of globalization, it is necessary to make students acquire efficient studying skills.
Oh, Insoo; Song, Jiyeon
The current study examined the mediating effects of emotional/behavioral problems and academic competence between parental abuse/neglect and a child's school adjustment by investigating 2070 student surveys from the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS). A path analysis yielded the following key findings. Firstly, childhood abuse and neglect showed a significant negative and direct effect on school adjustment. It is particularly important to note that the effect of neglect was bigger than that of abuse in this study. Secondly, emotional/behavioral problems were found to partially mediate between abuse/neglect and school adjustment. Thirdly, academic competence partially mediated the effect of neglect on school adjustment, while it did not mediate the effect of abuse on school adjustment. The indirect effect of parental neglect via emotional/behavioral problems and academic competence was stronger than that of parental abuse. The influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's school adjustments was discussed in terms of emotional/behavioral problems and academic competence considering unique Korean cultural context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald
Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…
Herring, Rita L.
The purposes of this research study were to (a) compare the effectiveness of years of traditional textbook instruction with the effectiveness of kinesthetic-based instruction in science on student test scores on the IOWA: Test of Basic Skills (ITBS), (b) compare the effectiveness of traditional and kinesthetic science teaching on teacher and student experiences in science through interviews with teachers and students, and (c) assess the opinions of students receiving kinesthetic-based and text-based book instruction in science. The study group involved students in fifth grade who had experienced kinesthetic-based instruction for 4 years, two classroom teachers per grade level who provided textbook-based instruction in science, and one classroom teacher per grade level who provided kinesthetic-based instruction in science. The same science curriculum was studied in all classrooms. The IOWA Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) scores from 1999 and 2000 for second and third grade were analyzed to compare the effects of kinesthetic-based and textbook-based instruction on student academic achievement in science. No significant differences were found between study and control groups. In addition, interviews were conducted with students and teachers. Themes that emerged from the data were (a) kinesthetic teaching of science is more fun for teachers and students than traditionally taught science, (b) there are differences in learning styles for students and teachers, and (c) experiences in science class can be rewarding. One recommendation for practice would include using a larger sample.
Braxton, John M.
A study applying anomie theory to behavior of college faculty, especially as alienation from the academic reward system results in deviation from professional norms of communality, disinterestedness, universalism, and organized skepticism, is reported. Implications for use of norms as interpretive devices, ambivalence of academics toward norms,…
Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Rozelle, Scott; Loyalka, Prashant
We examine the impact of primary school mergers on academic performance of students using a dataset that we collected using a survey designed specifically to examine changes in the academic performance of students before and after their schools were merged. We use difference-in-differences and propensity score matching approaches and demonstrate…
Barton, Alison L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.
Objective: Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants:…
Haines, Mary E.; And Others
Assessed college students on measures of depression, concentration, and academic performance. Depression was negatively related to academic performance, although the relationship between depression and cognitive functioning was not detected on a brief measure of concentration. Suggests that isolated testing sessions may mask the detrimental…
Ramsey, Laura R.; Betz, Diana E.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise
Academic environments can feel unwelcoming for women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. Two studies examined academic environments of female undergraduates majoring in STEM fields at a university in the United States. In Study 1, we compared women in STEM who are in a welcoming environment to those in a traditional STEM…
Guerra-Martín, María Dolores; Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador
In response to the increase of Higher Education support provided to tutoring programs, this paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a tutoring program to improve the academic performance of at-risk students enrolled in the last year of a nursing degree characterized by academic failure (failed courses). A controlled…
Several strands of applied linguistic research have emphasized the importance of genre awareness for academic writing students. Although metacognitive behaviors have been linked to L2 writing proficiency and performance, there is still the need for an account of how and why different metacognitive behaviors can help L2 academic writers to apply…
Kikas, Eve; Peets, Kätlin; Hodges, Ernest V E
The goal of this study was to examine the influence of collective student characteristics (academic skills and task persistence at the beginning of first grade) and different teaching practices (child-centered, teacher-directed, and child-dominated) on the development of academic skills and task
Williams, Jannine; Mavin, Sharon
Within the academic career literature, disabled academics are under-researched, despite calls for career theory development through the exploration of marginalized groups' career experiences and the boundaries which shape these experiences. Here, boundaries refer to the symbolic resources which become reified to construct social boundaries…
Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching
English as Foreign Language (EFL) students face additional difficulties for academic writing largely due to their level of language competency. An appropriate structural process of writing can help students develop their academic writing skills. This study explored the use of the e-readers to facilitate EFL students' process-based academic…
Madden, Nancy A.; Slavin, Robert E.
Six classes enrolling academically handicapped and normal-progress elementary students were randomly assigned to study mathematics cooperatively or under a traditional classroom structure. Results indicated that cooperative techniques improved social acceptance, academic achievement, and self-esteem. (Author/CL)
Payan, Janice; Reardon, James; McCorkle, Denny E.
Two trends in marketing higher education include (a) growing opportunities for intercultural encounters in the classroom and (b) a growing concern about student academic honesty. Research regarding the relationship between specific cultural measures and academic honesty is sparse in the context of marketing and business programs in higher…
Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa
We consider the academic performance of Italian university graduates and their labor market position 3 years after graduation. Our data confirm the common finding that female students outperform male students in academia but are overcome in the labor market. Assuming that academic competition is fair and that individual talent is equally…
In 1942, Katherine Frost Bruner published an article titled “Of psychological writing: Being some valedictory remarks on style.” It was published in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, the journal for which she served as editorial assistant between 1937 and 1941. Her collection of advice to writing scholars has been widely quoted, including by several editions of The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The most frequently quoted message in Bruner’s article deals with the importance of making sure that references in academic texts are complete and accurate. Exploring the citation history of this particular message reveals an ironic point: the great majority of those who have quoted Bruner’s words on reference accuracy have not done so accurately. The case may serve as a reminder of the importance of the basic academic principle of striving to use primary sources. The most startling finding in this study is how frequently this principle is violated, even by authors who advise and educate academic writers. PMID:28479644
Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine
Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151
Suraya, Faryal; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Almubarak, Zaid; Alqaseem, Yazeed Abdullah
The aim was to investigate the effect of obesity on academic grades among Saudi female medical students. This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Plastic Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period November 2014 to June 2015. In all 191 second and third year female medical students with an average age of 21.31 years and body mass indices 15-40 were included. An English language questionnaire was established to obtain the information about age, gender, body mass index, level of study and the academic grades [Grade Point Average-GPA]. Female medical students with BMI 21-25 and 26-30 achieved high GPA while female medical students with higher BMI 31-35 and greater than 36 obtained low GPA. High BMI in female medical students impair the academic performance. The academic institutes must establish extra-curricular physical fitness policies to minimize the obesity and achieve better health and academic outcomes.
Ickovics, Jeannette R; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine
The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Dubois, M.; Bobillier Chaumon, M.-E.; Retour, Didier
International audience; The object of this article is the development of customer banking skills as a result of using online banking and its impact on the competence of customer advisers in face-to-face customer contacts. We focus on the use of software applications by customer advisers (CA) during customer contacts. The main results show that online banking enables customers to develop a range of banking skills. In order to deliver the service required by the context, advisers select the req...
Shumway, Brian S; Bernstein, Mark L; Qian, Chen; Kulkarni, Manjiri Y; Rai, Shesh N
Decreased lecture attendance in undergraduate and health science professions education has been noted throughout the world. The limited study of the effect of lecture attendance on dental students' performance has yielded mixed results, with some studies finding a positive effect and others reporting no association. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lecture attendance on dental students' final grades in an oral pathology course at one U.S. dental school. Due to a curriculum change, second- and third-year students (N=233) were concurrently enrolled in the spring 2016 oral pathology (OP) course. Students' course grades were compared to attendance percentage (Att), grades in prerequisite basic science (PBS) courses, and Academic Average and Total Science (TS) scores on the Dental Admission Test. The results showed that both Att (p=0.011) and TS score (pattendance in OP should be encouraged but viewed in light of the finding that it was not as strongly correlated as PBS course performance and was a weaker predictor than TS score. Students with lower TS scores and PBS course grades should be encouraged to use additional supports such as tutoring to improve their performance in OP.