WorldWideScience

Sample records for academic achievement including

  1. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  2. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  3. Personality and academic achievement in nniversity students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Niño de Guzmán

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlations among personality, academic performance and other variables in 170 university students were studied, using two instruments validated into the population: the NEOPJ-R, and the EPPS. Other variables as age, study level, self perception of academic achievement and self perception of motivation, and sources of support were included. Jt was confirmed the reliability and validity of both tests and the correlations between them. The results showed associations among academic performance and conscientiousness, endurance,change, and aggression. The academic performance was better explained by achievements triving, deliberation, change, self perception of academic achievement and age.

  4. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  5. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  6. Student Health and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kohl III HW, Dietz WH. Physical education and academic achievement in elementary school: data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. American Journal of Public Health 2008;98(4):721–727. ...

  7. Cognitive Factors in Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuasay, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This review explores the factors of cognitive processing, style, and metacognitive organization as they contribute to academic success. Specific discussions consider aspects of short- and long-term memory, including how these affect learning and academic performance, and the keys to attaining long-term memory capability by involving redundancy,…

  8. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  9. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  10. School sport and academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, John L.; Keane, Francis; Crawford, Susan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Physical Education and School Sport (PESS) is an integral part of the school curriculum in Ireland. Historically the Healthy Body, Healthy Mind philosophy has promoted the inclusion of PESS alongside more cognitive school subjects and research suggests that PESS can promote cognitive function and provide educational benefits. However there is little research on how the choice of school sport influences academic achievement. This case study aims to investigate how partic...

  11. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  12. Academic Hardiness: Mediator between Sense of Belonging to School and Academic Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Noltemeyer, Amity

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) test the relationships between sense of belonging to school, academic hardiness, and academic achievement and (b) examine the mediating role of academic hardiness (including commitment, control, and challenge) on the association between sense of belonging to school and academic achievement. Five hundred and…

  13. Academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement : mediating and additive effects

    OpenAIRE

    Guay, Frédéric; Ratelle, Catherine; Roy, Amélie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between autonomous academic motivation and achievement, or 3) both motivational constructs have an additive effect on academic achievement. A total of 925 hig...

  14. School sport and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John; Keane, Francis; Crawford, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Physical Education and School Sport (PESS) is an integral part of the school curriculum in Ireland. Historically the "Healthy Body, Healthy Mind" philosophy has promoted the inclusion of PESS alongside more cognitive school subjects. Research suggests that PESS can promote cognitive function and provide educational benefits. However, there is little research on how the choice of school sport influences academic achievement. This study investigated how participation in school sport influences the Leaving Certificate points score in an Irish secondary school. In particular, the study will investigate how the particular sport chosen by students participating in school sport during their Leaving Certificate years influences their Leaving Certificate results. We recorded the Leaving Certificate scores and sports participation from 402 boys graduating from a secondary school in the Ireland during 2008-2011. Sports participation was assigned 1 of 4 categories: rugby, rowing, soccer, and no sport. Participation in sports during the Leaving Certificate years conferred a 25.4-point benefit to the final Leaving Certificate score. However, participation in rowing, the only individual sport available in the study, resulted in significantly higher Leaving Certificate scores than rugby, soccer and no sport (p benefit over the next highest group, rugby. Promoting participation in school sport and providing access to a range of team and individual sports throughout the secondary school years may be a beneficial way to improve students' Leaving Certificate results. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  15. Schooling Background and Academic Academic Achievement of Agricultural Students

    OpenAIRE

    N. Jayakumar; M. Surudhi

    2016-01-01

    In our society academic achievement is considered as a key criterion to judge one’s total potentiality and capability. Academic achievement is seen as a students’ grade point averages in many academic settings. Academic achievement has become an index of students’ future in this highly competitive world and Agricultural education is no exception.  Hence it becomes necessary to find out the factors that determine better academic performance. In this context the present study had been carried o...

  16. Schooling Background and Academic Academic Achievement of Agricultural Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In our society academic achievement is considered as a key criterion to judge one’s total potentiality and capability. Academic achievement is seen as a students’ grade point averages in many academic settings. Academic achievement has become an index of students’ future in this highly competitive world and Agricultural education is no exception.  Hence it becomes necessary to find out the factors that determine better academic performance. In this context the present study had been carried out to find out the possible relationship between schooling background and academic achievement of agriculture students. The students admitted in Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College, Kalavai, Vellore between 1999 and 2009 formed the subjects of the study. Findings of the study revealed that determinants like gender, type of school and stream of education had a significant role in the academic achievement of the students. Medium of instruction in HSC did influence the academic achievement but not significantly. It was also found that students who performed well in their HSC did perform well in their undergraduate programme also. This confirms that previous educational outcomes are the most important indicators of student’s future achievement and schooling background has a significant role in academic achievement of students.

  17. Academic Self-Concept, Autonomous Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement: Mediating and Additive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…

  18. Academic Satisfaction Level and Academic Achievement among Students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences: Academic Year 2015-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Khadijeh Jamshidi; Babak Mohammadi; Zahra Mohammadi; Mohammad Karimi Parviz; Roghayeh Poursaberi; Mohammad Mehdi Mohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Academic satisfaction is considered one of the most important factors affecting academic achievement among students. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic satisfaction and academic achievement among students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted with 346 student participants using stratified random sampling. The research instrument included the Student Academic Sa...

  19. Psychological Adjustment and Academic Achievement among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood

    2015-01-01

    This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…

  20. Visual Arts and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcia A.; Larson, Meredith A.

    2007-01-01

    The focus on academic performance testing in elementary schools has caused a decrease in student experience in the arts. Visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, and collage) have been minimized in elementary schools. Without exposure to the special avenues of cognitive development and personal expression nurtured by visual arts, students are…

  1. Visual Arts and Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Marcia A.; Larson, Meredith A

    2007-01-01

    The focus on academic performance testing in elementary schools has caused a decrease in student experience in the arts. Visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, and collage) have been minimized in elementary schools. Without exposure to the special avenues of cognitive development and personal expression nurtured by visual arts, students are not able to meet their full potential. This action research examined the role of visual arts in elementary schools in a rural area of California. ...

  2. Addressing Academic Dishonesty among the Highest Achievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angela D.; Murdock, Tamera B.; Grotewiel, Morgan M.

    2017-01-01

    Although research shows that higher-achieving students report engaging in cheating behaviors less frequently than lower-achieving students, the cheating rates among this population are still startling. Certain aspects of the context of being a high-achieving student support academic dishonesty. We investigate integrity among the highest achievers…

  3. Student self-esteem and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nikoleta M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing belief that academic achievement is the product of a complex network of teacher-student relations, where the identity of successful and unsuccessful student is developing with high, moderate or low self-esteem level. Self-esteem is most often defined as a conscious cognitive-affective expression of self-evaluation which is one of the most immediate indicators of self-concept integration degree. A number of authors view high self-esteem level as an important prerequisite for high academic achievement. In contrast, academic achievement and other experiences related to teaching and learning are considered to exert significant influence on self-esteem and a student should be successful at school first so as to develop a positive self-image and his academic abilities. The debate on what comes first - self-esteem or academic achievement - is in its character more academic than practical. This claim is supported by an increasing number of studies indicating the dynamism and reciprocity of correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem. The paper gives recommendations for educational practice to promote self-esteem and development of personal and social responsibility, which contributes to better student academic achievement. It is pointed out that teacher education in the field is necessary and that self-esteem and responsibility must become essential segments of curricula. Teacher is expected to become sensitive to the needs of students who are at risk to be unsuccessful and to largely apply cooperative learning methods. Findings demonstrate that cooperative learning either sustain or increase student self-esteem, whereas traditional teaching methods, in general, lead to its decline. Cooperative relations improve student self-image in respect of academic abilities and social interactions. Positive feedback, peer support, more frequent experience of learning achievement leads mainly to general increase in self-esteem and

  4. Predicting Academic Achievement and Attainment: The Contribution of Early Academic Skills, Attention Difficulties, and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiner, David L.; Godwin, Jennifer; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Research predicting academic achievement from early academic, attention, and socioemotional skills has largely focused on elementary school outcomes and rarely included peer assessments of social competence. We examined associations between these early child characteristics and academic outcomes into young adulthood using the Fast Track normative…

  5. High academic achievement in psychotic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defries, Z; Grothe, L

    1978-02-01

    The authors studied 21 schizophrenic and borderline college students who achieved B+ or higher grade averages and underwent psychotherapy while in college. High academic achievement was found to provide relief from feelings of worthlessness and ineffectuality resulting from poor relationships with parents, siblings, and peers. Psychotherapy and the permissive yet supportive college atmosphere reinforced the students' self-esteem.

  6. School Segregation and Racial Academic Achievement Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean F. Reardon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is clear that racial segregation is linked to academic achievement gaps, the mechanisms underlying this link have been debated since James Coleman published his eponymous 1966 report. In this paper, I examine sixteen distinct measures of segregation to determine which is most strongly associated with academic achievement gaps. I find clear evidence that one aspect of segregation in particular—the disparity in average school poverty rates between white and black students’ schools—is consistently the single most powerful correlate of achievement gaps, a pattern that holds in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. This implies that high-poverty schools are, on average, much less effective than lower-poverty schools and suggests that strategies that reduce the differential exposure of black, Hispanic, and white students to poor schoolmates may lead to meaningful reductions in academic achievement gaps.

  7. ADHD symptoms, academic achievement, self-perception of academic competence and future orientation: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, Sara; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Yang-Wallentin, Fan

    2013-06-01

    In the investigation of the effect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on school careers there is a need to study the role of adolescent and childhood ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, and to incorporate measures that include the individual's perspective. Our aim was to gain an overview of the long-term development of school careers in relation to ADHD symptoms. We studied associations between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement at different time-points and future orientation at the end of high school, and assessed the role of self-perceptions of academic competence in these associations. Participants were 192 children (47% girls) with a range of ADHD symptoms taken from a community sample. Collecting data at three time points, in 6th, 11th and 12th grade we tested a structural equation model. Results showed that ADHD symptoms in 6th grade negatively affected academic achievement concurrently and longitudinally. ADHD symptoms in 11th grade negatively affected concurrent academic achievement and academic self-perception and future orientation in 12th grade. Academic achievement had a positive influence on academic self-perception and future orientation. Given the other factors, self-perception of academic competence did not contribute to outcomes. We concluded that early ADHD symptoms may cast long shadows on young people's academic progress. This happens mainly by way of stability in symptoms and relations to early low academic achievement. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  8. Academic Achievement and Its Impact on Friend Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flashman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Academic achievement in adolescence is a key determinant of future educational and occupational success. Friends play an important role in the educational process. They provide support and resources and can both encourage and discourage academic achievement. As a result, the friends adolescents make may help to maintain and exacerbate inequality if friends are sorted on the basis of academic achievement. These observations prompt the question: How does academic achievement affect the friendship ties made? Using data from the high schools in the Add Health saturated sample, the author models network change using a stochastic actor-based Markov model for the co-evolution of networks and behavior. This model is carried out at the school level for each of the high schools included in the saturated sample. Results show that in the most typical American schools, similarity in academic achievement is an important and consistent predictor of friendship ties in a dynamic context. High-achieving students are more likely to extend ties to other high-achieving students, net of other sociodemographic, network, and proximity characteristics, while low-achieving students are more likely to extend ties to other low-achieving students. Adolescents respond to changes in academic achievement by changing their friendship ties.

  9. Academic Self-Concept, Achievement Goals, and Achievement: Is Their Relation the Same for Academic Achievers and Underachievers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preckel, Franzis; Brunner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the contribution of achievement goals and academic self-concept for the prediction of unexpected academic achievement (i.e., achievement that is higher or lower than expected with respect to students' cognitive ability) in general and when comparing groups of extreme over- and underachievers. Our sample…

  10. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  11. Does cultural capital really affect academic achievement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides new estimates of the causal effect of cultural capital on academic achievement. The author analyzes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – Children and Young Adults and uses a fixed effect design to address the problem of omitted variable bias which has resulted...

  12. Optimism versus Pessimism and Academic Achievement Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpaz-Itay, Yifat; Kaniel, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This article integrates three central theories of optimism-pessimism (OP). The combination of the shared components of these theories--outcome expectancies, emotions, and behavioral intention--may produce an integrative academic achievement evaluation. Little has been written regarding the differentiation between general and domain-specific OP, a…

  13. Technological Attitude and Academic Achievement of Physics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was aimed at investigating the effect of technological attitude of students on academic achievement in Physics. Four co-education schools were randomly drawn from urban centers of Uyo and Abak Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This gave sample size of 110 senior secondary two ...

  14. Does High School Homework Increase Academic Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff

    2017-01-01

    Although previous research has shown that homework improves students' academic achievement, the majority of these studies use data on students' homework time from retrospective questionnaires, which may be less accurate than time-diary data. We use data from the combined Child Development Supplement (CDS) and the Transition to Adulthood Survey…

  15. Athletics, Athletic Leadership, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…

  16. Relationship between Creativity and Academic Achievement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated relationship between students' creativity and academic achievement as measured by the CGPA scores. Two instruments; Nicolas Holt Creativity Test (NHCT) and Student CGPA Information Format (SCIF) were respectively used to collect data on creativity and students' CGPA scores of a sample of ...

  17. Achievement Difficulties for the Academically Gifted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert R.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies, in a case study, a gifted student who, in consideration of previous academic achievement, should be performing exceptionally well, but has a four-year history of withdrawing from and failing courses, avoids studying, and occasionally rallies at the 11th hour for an average performance. Proposes a learner-centered intervention, in a…

  18. Adolescent discounting behaviour: influences on academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Nikki; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Boschloo, Annemarie; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Lee, N. C., Krabbendam, L., Dekker, S., Boschloo, A., De Groot, R. H. M., & Jolles, J. (2011, June). Adolescent discounting behaviour: influences on academic achievement. Poster presented at the 3rd Biennial Conference of the International Mind, Brain, and Education Society, San Diego, United

  19. Depressive Symptoms, Academic Achievement, and Intelligence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Preiss, M.; Fráňová, Lenka

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2006), s. 57-67 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/05/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : academic achievement * depressive symptoms * intelligence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.410, year: 2006

  20. Is preschool executive function causally related to academic achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to reevaluate the well-established result that preschoolers' performance on executive function tasks are positively associated with their performance on academic achievement tests. The current study replicated the previously established concurrent associations between children's performance on EF tasks and academic achievement tests. Specifically, children's performance on measures of inhibitory and motor control were positively associated with their performance on tests of reading, writing, and mathematics achievement (rs = .2-.5); moreover, although diminished in magnitude, most of these associations held up even after including an earlier measure of academic achievement as a covariate (rs = .1-.3). However, the application of an alternative analytic method, fixed effects analysis, a method that capitalizes on repeated measures data to control for all time stable measured and unmeasured covariates, rendered the apparent positive associations between executive function and academic achievement nonsignificant (rs = .0-.1). Taken together, these results suggest that the well-replicated association between executive function abilities and academic achievement may be spurious. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of utilizing analytic methods and research designs that facilitate strong causal inferences between executive function and academic achievement in early childhood, as well as the limitations of making curriculum development recommendations and/or public policy decisions based on studies that have failed to do so.

  1. Student prosocial behavior and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasenović Vera Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Attention first focuses on the issue of prosocial behavior defining, making it operational and measuring it. Next consideration is given to the ways that prosocial behavior contributes to academic achievement. It is thought that prosocial behavior can produce indirect effects on student prosocial behavior because it is bound to certain academically relevant forms of behavior leading to successful learning and work. Also, correlation is interpreted by means of teacher’s preferences of prosocial students, which is reflected in teacher expectations and behavior towards students but in evaluating their work too. In addition, prosocial behavior may produce direct effects, for it is through peer prosocial interactions that positive intellectual exchange is performed, which contributes to more successful mastering of teaching content. The paper provides a survey of investigations whose results indicate that there exists correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Also, consideration is given to possible methods and treatments for encouraging prosocial behavior in school context, especially the role of teacher in the process and the importance of the program for promoting student prosocial skills.

  2. Does academic achievement during childhood and adolescence benefit later health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê-Scherban, Félice; Diez Roux, Ana V; Li, Yun; Morgenstern, Hal

    2014-05-01

    Educational disparities in health persist after adjustment for income and occupation, suggesting that other purely cognitive and psychosocial mechanisms may be involved. Unlike occupation- or income-mediated effects, effects of cognitive and psychosocial gains-as reflected in academic achievement-may be apparent even before schooling is completed. We used data spanning 10 years on a national U.S. cohort of 2546 children aged 3-14 years at baseline to estimate the effects of academic achievement, measured by standardized tests of cognitive achievement, on future health. We used marginal structural models to address potential mutual influence of achievement and health on each other over time. One SD higher academic achievement 1997-2002 was associated with a lower prevalence of poorer health status in 2007 in girls (prevalence ratio = 0.87 [(95% confidence interval) 0.78-0.97]) but not in boys (prevalence ratio = 0.96 [0.86-1.08]). Higher achievement was also weakly associated with lower body mass index and less psychological distress among girls only. Academic achievement may benefit future health but a number of questions remain unanswered, including reasons for the gender differences and how academic achievement-related health disparities may progress over the life course and interact with other social determinants of health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Academic Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of School Psychological Climate on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth-and tenth-grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic…

  4. What factors determine academic achievement in high achieving undergraduate medical students? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Hamza M; Al-Drees, Abdulmajeed A; Khalil, Mahmood S; Ahmad, Farah; Ponnamperuma, Gominda G; Amin, Zubair

    2014-04-01

    Medical students' academic achievement is affected by many factors such as motivational beliefs and emotions. Although students with high intellectual capacity are selected to study medicine, their academic performance varies widely. The aim of this study is to explore the high achieving students' perceptions of factors contributing to academic achievement. Focus group discussions (FGD) were carried out with 10 male and 9 female high achieving (scores more than 85% in all tests) students, from the second, third, fourth and fifth academic years. During the FGDs, the students were encouraged to reflect on their learning strategies and activities. The discussion was audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed qualitatively. Factors influencing high academic achievement include: attendance to lectures, early revision, prioritization of learning needs, deep learning, learning in small groups, mind mapping, learning in skills lab, learning with patients, learning from mistakes, time management, and family support. Internal motivation and expected examination results are important drivers of high academic performance. Management of non-academic issues like sleep deprivation, homesickness, language barriers, and stress is also important for academic success. Addressing these factors, which might be unique for a given student community, in a systematic manner would be helpful to improve students' performance.

  5. Note-taking Strategies and Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Haghverdi, Hamid; Biria, Reza; Karimi, Lotfollah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is two fold. That is, revealing the significance, underlying theory and findings concerning note-taking in the literature related and exploring, through a survey study, the Iranian professors‘ and students‘ attitudes towards the effect of teaching note-taking strategies on the students‘ academic achievement. To this end, many previous studies were reviewed and we knew that many scholars, conducting empirical studies, surveys and interviews, have highlighted ...

  6. On the Development of Perfectionism: The Longitudinal Role of Academic Achievement and Academic Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Lavinia E; Stoeber, Joachim; Negru-Subtirica, Oana; Băban, Adriana

    2017-08-01

    Although perfectionism is a prominent personality disposition, only a few longitudinal studies have investigated how perfectionism develops. Theoretical models and qualitative studies have posited that academic success is a developmental antecedent of perfectionism. Yet, quantitative studies tend to interpret the cross-sectional relationships as academic success being an outcome of perfectionism. In light of these gaps in the literature, the present study was the first to investigate the longitudinal relationships between perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, academic achievement, and academic efficacy by examining academic success as an antecedent of perfectionism. The study examined 487 adolescents (aged 12-19 years, 54% female) using a cross-lagged longitudinal design with three time points spaced 4-5 months apart. Results showed that academic achievement predicted relative increases in both perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns, even when including academic efficacy. In addition, academic efficacy predicted relative increases in perfectionistic strivings. This is the first study to show that academic achievement is a common factor in the development of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns, whereas academic efficacy plays a role only in the development of perfectionistic strivings. Implications of the findings for the development of perfectionism are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Scientific-creative thinking and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bermejo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the relationship between scientific-creative thinking construct and academic performance in a sample of adolescents. In addition, the scientific-creative thinking instrument’s reliability will be tested. The sample was composed of 98 students (aged between 12-16 years old attending to a Secondary School in Murcia Region (Spain. The used instruments were: a the Scientific-Creative Thinking Test designed by Hu and Adey (2002, which was adapted to the Spanish culture by the High Abilities research team at Murcia University. The test is composed of 7 task based in the Scientific Creative Structure Model. It assesses the dimensions fluency, flexibility and originality; b The General and Factorial Intelligence Test (IGF/5r; Yuste, 2002, which assess the abilities of general intelligence and logic reasoning, verbal reasoning, numerical reasoning and spatial reasoning; c Students’ academic achievement by domains (scientific-technological, social-linguistic and artistic was collected. The results showed positive and statistical significant correlations between the scientific-creative tasks and academic achievement of different domains.

  8. The Causal Ordering of Self-Concept and Academic Motivation and Its Effect on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb

    2006-01-01

    Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…

  9. Longitudinal Relationship between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, Luís B; Marques, Adilson; Minderico, Claudia; Palmeira, António; Martins, Sandra; Santos, Diana A; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective associations between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and academic achievement in the youth. The sample included 1286 fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-grade students, age 11 to 14 yr (Mage = 11.3 ± 1.1), from 14 schools followed for 3 yr. Academic achievement was assessed using the students' marks at baseline and at follow-up 3 yr apart, in Portuguese, mathematics, foreign language (English), and science. CRF was assessed by the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run test from the Fitnessgram battery. Students were classified as fit-fit, unfit-fit, fit-unfit, and unfit-unfit according to the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run test results at baseline and follow-up. Ordinal regression analyses were performed to examine associations between CRF and academic achievement. Being persistently fit (fit-fit), compared with those classified unfit-unfit, increased the odds of having high levels of academic achievement in Portuguese (odds ratio (OR) = 3.49; 95% CI, 1.97-6.20; P achieving better marks than those persistently unfit-unfit in Portuguese (OR = 2.52; 95% CI, 1.42-4.45; P academic achievement especially in mother tongue and foreign language.

  10. Differences in motivations and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Gamboa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides new evidence on the effect of pupils’ self-motivation on academic achievement in science across countries. By using the OECD´s Programme for International Student Assessment 2006 (PISA 2006 test, we find that self-motivation has a positive effect on students’ performance. Instrumental Variables Quantile Regression is used to analyze the existence of different estimated coefficients over the scores distribution, allowing us to deal with the potential endogeneity of self-motivation. We find that the impact of intrinsic motivation on academic performance depends on the pupil’s score. Our findings support the importance of designing focalized programs for different populations that foster their motivation towards learning.

  11. Academic Achievement and Physical Activity: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Pesce, Caterina; Cavero-Redondo, Iván; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Garrido-Miguel, Miriam; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2017-12-01

    The effect of physical activity (PA) on different areas of academic achievement and classroom behaviors and how different characteristics of PA interventions could modify the effect remain unclear. The objective was twofold: (1) to assess the effect of PA interventions on academic achievement and classroom behaviors in childhood and (2) to determine the characteristics of individuals and PA programs that enhance academic performance. We identified studies from the database inception to October 16, 2016. We selected intervention studies aimed at examining the effect of exercise on academic achievement and classroom behaviors at developmental age. Random-effects models were used to calculate pooled effect size for all primary outcomes (language- and mathematics-related skills, reading, composite score, and time in on-task behavior). Positive values represent a direct relationship between PA programs and academic achievement scores or on-task behaviors. A total of 26 studies (10 205 children, aged from 4 to 13) were included. Pooled effect size (95% confidence interval) estimates were as follows: (1) 0.16 (-0.06 to 0.37) for language-related skills; (2) 0.21 (0.09 to 0.33) for mathematics-related skills; (3) 0.13 (0.02 to 0.24) for reading; (4) 0.26 (0.07 to 0.45) for composite scores; and (5) 0.77 (0.22 to 1.32) for time in on-task behaviors. Limitations included the variety of tools used to measure academic achievement and the limited number of studies that reported the effect of after-school PA interventions. PA, especially physical education, improves classroom behaviors and benefits several aspects of academic achievement, especially mathematics-related skills, reading, and composite scores in youth. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Big Five Factors and academic achievement in Russian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova I.A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Five-Factor Model (FFM of personality traits is one of the most comprehensive personality models in modern psychology. The traits, or domains, of the model, provide an extensive framework, which allows researchers to analyse the correlation between the aspects of personality and various aspects of social behaviour. Academic achievement is a key factor in a subject’s success, and a more comprehensive understanding of its potential factors could improve educational programs and teaching strategies. Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to consider the correlations between the FFM (Big Five personality traits and the academic achievement of university students in various fields of study. Design: This study has adopted a descriptive analytic approach by exploring previous research data. In the present empirical research, the Big Five factors were measured with the Russian NEO Five-Factor Inventory adaptation by S. Biryukov and M. Bodunov. Academic achievement was defined as the average value of the semester final grades. The Spearman correlation analysis was used for statistical analysis. The sample includes 207 first- and second-year university students in the Linguistics Department. Results: The analysis of the published data revealed that Western psychological studies show that consciousness and openness, two values in the model, are more closely connected with the peculiarities of the students’ academic achievement in different fields of study, but similar studies conducted in Russian universities do not fully confirm this data. Findings of our research proved that consciousness is more associated with greater academic achievement of Russian linguistics students in most fields of study compared to the other FFM traits, while other traits showed more specific correlations with particular fields of study. Conclusions: The data suggests that both environmental and internal psychological factors, such as motivation

  13. Social background effects and academic achievement during transition to high school

    OpenAIRE

    Aypay, Ahmet

    2002-01-01

    The study analyzes the factors that influence student transitions to high school, overall high school achievement, math, science, as well as verbal achievement. The sample included students in an Aegean city, Canakkale. The Sample (N=572) included 14 high schools, with the exception of two high schools in this town. The study found little or no effect of SES on academic achievement. Previous academic achievement was positively associated with academic achievement. School typ...

  14. Effect of Teaching Academic Skills on Academic Achievement in Medical Emergency Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otaghi M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: An important aspect of the student’s learning in academic performance is self-regulating. Students without required academic achievement skills need educational approaches to obtain the required insight in self-regulate learning. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of teaching academic skills on academic achievement in the advanced diploma medical emergency students of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. Materials & Methods: The intervening pretest-posttest study without any control group was a section of a greater action-research study to conduct and implement an educational process. The intervention included two 3-hour educational workshops for ten academic skills at one month interval for 23 advanced diploma medical emergency students of Ilam University of Medical Sciences during their second educational semester in 2014. The study tool was a 10-phrase self-made questionnaire, its validity and reliability was confirmed. Data was analyzed in SPSS 21 software using Paired-T test. Findings: There was an increase in the mean total score of academic skills after the intervention (p=0.009. From ten skills, the differences between the mean scores before and after the intervention were significant only in academic planning skills (p=0.025, the utilization of the memory strengthening methods (p=0.045, and correct study techniques (p=0.031. Academic intervention affected the students’ academic achievement (GPA (p=0.001. Conclusion: Conducting academic skills educational workshops affects the utilization of the skills by the students and their academic achievements

  15. Depressive Mood and Social Maladjustment: Differential Effects on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel

    2004-01-01

    The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined…

  16. Poverty, Academic Achievement, and Giftedness: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Corwith, Susan

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we review research on poverty, both poverty rates and the effects of poverty on academic achievement more generally and on the identification and services for low-income gifted children specifically. This review sets the stage for further discussion of the research findings on identification practices including the efficacy of…

  17. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; Rajeswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem on academic achievement among high school students in Miandoab City of Iran. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society includes male and female high…

  18. Academic achievement of junior high school students with sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fijri Auliyanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disorders are prevalent in adolescents and may influence their academic achievement. To date, no study has been done in Indonesia on academic achievement in students with sleep disorders and its related factors. Objective To assess for relationships between academic achievement and related factors, including gender, motivation and learning strategies, IQ level, maternal educational level, socioeconomic status, family structure, after-hours education program, presence of TV/computer in the bedroom, sleep duration during school days, as well as bedtime and wakeup time difference in junior high school students with sleep disorders. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2013. Subjects were students from five junior high schools in Jakarta who fulfilled the criteria for sleep disorders based on the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children questionnaire. Results There were 111 study subjects. The prevalence of sleep disorders was 39.7%, mostly in difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (70.2%. Below-average academic achievement was seen in 47.6% of subjects. Factors significantly related to below-average academic achievement were after-hours education program (prevalence ratio 5.6; 95%CI 1.36 to 23.18; P = 0.017, average IQ level (prevalence ratio 3.26; 95%CI 1.38 to 7.71; P = 0.007, and male gender (prevalence ratio 2.68; 95%CI 1.06 to 6.78; P = 0.037. Conclusion Among junior high school students with sleep disorders, factors related to below-average academic achievement are afterhours education program (more than 2 types, the average IQ level, and male gender.

  19. Stress and Coping in Academically High-Achieving Females Before the Onset of Disordered Eating: The Role of Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    JENNIFER KRAFCHEK

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated the experiences of fourteen academically high-achieving females before the onset of disordered eating and the role of academic achievement in the process of stress and coping. Findings showed that academic achievement was both a coping strategy and a stressor for all participants. A timeline analysis revealed a complex process that involved three phases in the build up of stress before the onset of disordered eating. The role of academic achievement ch...

  20. PREDICTING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT: THE ROLE OF MOTIVATION AND LEARNING STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Beatriz Stover

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study consists in testing a predictive model of academic achievement including motivation and learning strategies as predictors. Motivation is defined as the energy and the direction of behaviors; it is categorized in three types of motivation –intrinsic, extrinsic and amotivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985. Learning strategies are deliberate operations oriented towards information processing in academic activities (Valle, Barca, González & Núñez, 1999. Several studies analysed the relationship between motivation and learning strategies in high school and college environments. Students with higher academic achievement were intrinsically motivated and used a wider variety of learning strategies more frequently. A non-experimental predictive design was developed. The sample was composed by 459 students (55.2% high-schoolers; 44.8% college students. Data were gathered by means of sociodemographic and academic surveys, and also by the local versions of the Academic Motivation Scale –EMA, Echelle de Motivation en Éducation (Stover, de la Iglesia, Rial Boubeta & Fernández Liporace, 2012; Vallerand, Blais, Briere & Pelletier, 1989 and the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory –LASSI (Stover, Uriel & Fernández Liporace, 2012; Weinstein, Schulte & Palmer, 1987. Several path analyses were carried out to test a hypothetical model to predict academic achievement (Kline, 1998. Results indicated that self-determined motivation explained academic achievement through the use of learning strategies. The final model obtained an excellent fit (χ2=16.523, df= 6, p=0.011; GFI=0.987; AGFI=0.955; SRMR=0.0320; NFI=0.913; IFI=0.943; CFI=0.940. Results are discussed considering Self Determination Theory and previous research.

  1. Homework involvement and academic achievement of native and immigrant students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Suárez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Homework is a debated issue in society and its relationship with academic achievement has been deeply studied in the last years. Nowadays, schools are multicultural stages in which students from different cultures and ethnicities work together. In this sense, the present study aims to compare homework involvement and academic achievement in a sample of native and immigrant students, as well as to study immigrant students’ relationship between homework involvement and Math achievement. The sample included 1328 students, 10 to 16 years old from Spanish families (85.6% or are immigrant students or students of immigrant origin (14.4% from South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The study was developed considering three informants: elementary and secondary students, their parents and their teachers.Results showed higher involvement in homework in native students than in immigrant. Between immigrants students, those who are more involved in homework have better academic achievement in Math at secondary grades. There weren’t found gender differences on homework involvement but age differences were reported. Immigrant students are less involved in homework at secondary grades that students in elementary grades. The study highlights the relevance of homework involvement in academic achievement in immigrant students.

  2. Homework Involvement and Academic Achievement of Native and Immigrant Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Natalia; Regueiro, Bibiana; Epstein, Joyce L; Piñeiro, Isabel; Díaz, Sara M; Valle, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Homework is a debated issue in society and its relationship with academic achievement has been deeply studied in the last years. Nowadays, schools are multicultural stages in which students from different cultures and ethnicities work together. In this sense, the present study aims to compare homework involvement and academic achievement in a sample of native and immigrant students, as well as to study immigrant students' relationship between homework involvement and Math achievement. The sample included 1328 students, 10-16 years old from Spanish families (85.6%) or immigrant students or students of immigrant origin (14.4%) from South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The study was developed considering three informants: elementary and secondary students, their parents and their teachers. Results showed higher involvement in homework in native students than in immigrant. Between immigrants students, those who are more involved in homework have better academic achievement in Math at secondary grades. There weren't found gender differences on homework involvement, but age differences were reported. Immigrant students are less involved in homework at secondary grades that students in elementary grades. The study highlights the relevance of homework involvement in academic achievement in immigrant students.

  3. Social-Emotional Learning and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan P. McCormick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social-emotional learning (SEL programs have demonstrated positive effects on children’s social-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes, as well as classroom climate. Some programs also theorize that program impacts on children’s outcomes will be partially explained by improvements in classroom social processes, namely classroom emotional support and organization. Yet there is little empirical evidence for this hypothesis. Using data from the evaluation of the SEL program INSIGHTS, this article tests whether assignment to INSIGHTS improved low-income kindergarten and first grade students’ math and reading achievement by first enhancing classroom emotional support and organization. Multilevel regression analyses, instrumental variables estimation, and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW were used to conduct quantitative analyses. Across methods, the impact of INSIGHTS on math and reading achievement in first grade was partially explained by gains in both classroom emotional support and organization. The IPTW method revealed that the program impact on reading achievement in first grade was partially explained through an improvement in classroom organization. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  4. Surgery resident learning styles and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contessa, Jack; Ciardiello, Kenneth A; Perlman, Stacie

    2005-01-01

    To determine if surgical residents share a preferred learning style as measured by Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI) and if a relationship exists between resident learning style and achievement as measured by a standardized examination (AME). Also, core faculty learning styles were assessed to determine if faculty and residents share a preferred learning style. Kolb's LSI, Version 3, was administered to 16 surgical residents and the residency program's core faculty of 6 attending physicians. To measure academic achievement, the American Medical Education (AME) examination was administered to residents. The Hospital of Saint Raphael, General Surgery Residency Program, New Haven, Connecticut. Both instruments were administered to residents during protected core curriculum time. Core faculty were administered the LSI on an individual basis. Surgical residents of the Hospital of Saint Raphael's General Surgery Residency Program and 6 core faculty members Analysis of resident learning style preference revealed Converging as the most commonly occurring style for residents (7) followed by Accommodating (5), Assimilating (3), and Diverging (1). The predominant learning style for core faculty was also Converging (4) with 2 Divergers. The average score for the Convergers on the AME was 62.6 compared with 42 for the next most frequently occurring learning style, Accommodators. In this surgical residency program, a preferred learning style for residents seems to exist (Converging), which confirms what previous studies have found. Additionally, residents with this learning style attained a higher average achievement score as measured by the AME. Also, core faculty share the same preferential learning style as this subset of residents.

  5. Developmental Pathways from Parental Substance Use to Childhood Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S.; Saar, Naomi S.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the pathways to childhood academic achievement in 209 African American and Puerto Rican children and their mothers. There were three pathways to childhood academic achievement: (a) the mother-child relationship and the child’s personality mediated between parental substance use and childhood academic achievement; (b) the child’s personality mediated between parental education and childhood academic achievement; and (c) there was a direct relationship between the child’s gender and childhood academic achievement. Policy and clinical implications suggest the importance of increasing educational opportunities for all parents, providing substance use treatment and self-esteem workshops, and altering the school curriculum. PMID:20525035

  6. Superstorm Sandy and the academic achievement of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Matthew D; Lockwood, Brian; Comiskey, John G

    2017-10-01

    Much of the literature on the consequences of natural disasters has focused on their physical and psychological ramifications. Few researchers have considered how the impacts of a natural disaster can influence academic achievement. This study analyses data collected from nearly 300 students at a mid-sized, private university in the northeast United States to determine if the effects of Cyclone Sandy in 2012 are associated with measures of academic achievement. The findings reveal that experiencing headaches after the event resulted in a higher likelihood of students suffering a loss of academic motivation. In addition, experiencing headaches and a loss of academic motivation were correlated with a lower grade point average (GPA) during the semester in which Sandy made landfall. However, the more direct effects of the superstorm, including displacement and a loss of power, did not have a significant bearing on academic achievement. Lastly, the paper examines the implications for higher education policy and future research. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  7. School Adjustment And Academic Achievement Among Tribal Dolescents In Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ch. Beda Devi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study is an attempt to examine school adjustment and academic achievement among tribal adolescent students in two districts of Manipur. The study also attempts to examine the high and low academic achievers of tribal students of the two areas. The sample comprised of 629 XI standard tribal adolescent students. Out of which 136 were from Imphal West and 493 were from Ukhrul district. A standardized school adjustment inventory for adolescent students developed by the investigator was used. For academic achievement the last public examination i.e. H.S.L.C. marks were used as the index of academic achievement. The findings revealed that a low positive correlation between school adjustment and academic achievement in both the districts. It was also reveals that high academic achievers had better adaptability in school than that of low academic achievers

  8. Academic achievement of children and adolescents with oral clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Collet, Brent; Barron, Sheila; Romitti, Paul A; Ansley, Timothy N; Speltz, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies of academic achievement of children with oral clefts have mostly relied on small, clinic-based samples prone to ascertainment bias. In the first study in the United States to use a population-based sample with direct assessment, we evaluated the academic achievement of children with oral clefts relative to their classmates. Children born with isolated oral clefts in Iowa from 1983 to 2003 were identified from the Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders and matched to unaffected classmates by gender, school/school district, and month and year of birth. Academic achievement was assessed by using standardized tests of academic progress developed by the Iowa Testing Programs. Iowa Testing Programs data were linked to birth certificates for all children. Regression models controlled for household demographic and socioeconomic factors. The analytical sample included 588 children with clefts contributing 3735 child-grade observations and 1874 classmates contributing 13 159 child-grade observations. Children with oral clefts had lower scores than their classmates across all domains and school levels, with a 5-percentile difference in the overall composite score. Children with clefts were approximately one-half grade level behind their classmates and had higher rates of academic underachievement and use of special education services by 8 percentage points. Group differences were slightly lower but remained large and significant after adjusting for many background characteristics. Children with oral clefts underperformed across all academic areas and grade levels compared with their classmates. The results support a model of early testing and intervention among affected children to identify and reduce academic deficits. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Student Involvement in GEAR UP and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Renea F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between GEAR UP academic support services and student achievement. GEAR UP is an evidence-based college readiness program. This study focused on a subset of academic support services designed to impact student achievement including: academic mentoring, math tutoring, English tutoring, study…

  10. Exploring Processes Linking Shyness and Academic Achievement in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kathleen; Coplan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to explore the relations between shyness, academic engagement, and academic achievement in childhood. Participants were (n = 125) children (aged 9-13 years) attending public school boards in Canada. Children completed self reports of shyness and were administered a test of nonverbal IQ. Academic achievement was…

  11. Adolescent environmental tobacco smoke exposure predicts academic achievement test failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Bradley N; Wileyto, E Paul; Murphy, Michael F G; Munafò, Marcus R

    2007-10-01

    Research has linked prenatal tobacco exposure to neurocognitive and behavioral problems that can disrupt learning and school performance in childhood. Less is known about its effects on academic achievement in adolescence when controlling for known confounding factors (e.g., environmental tobacco smoke [ETS]). We hypothesized that prenatal tobacco exposure would decrease the likelihood of passing academic achievement tests taken at 16 and 18 years of age. This study was a longitudinal analysis of birth cohort data including 6,380 pregnant women and offspring from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS). Academic pass/fail performance was measured on British standardized achievement tests ("Ordinary Level" [O-Level] and Advanced Level: [A-Level]). Prenatal tobacco exposure plus controlling variables (ETS, teen offspring smoking and gender, maternal age at pregnancy, maternal smoking before pregnancy, and socioeconomic status) were included in regression models predicting O- and A-Level test failure. Significant predictors of test failure in the O-Level model included exposure to maternal (OR = 0.71, p teen smoking, female gender, and lower SES. Prenatal tobacco exposure did not influence failure. Similar factors emerged in the A-Level model except that male gender contributed to likelihood of failure. Prenatal exposure remained nonsignificant. Our model suggests that adolescent exposure to ETS, not prenatal tobacco exposure, predicted failure on both O- and A-Level achievement tests when controlling for other factors known to influence achievement. Although this study has limitations, results bolster growing evidence of academic-related ETS consequences in adolescence.

  12. Association between substandard classroom ventilation rates and students' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U; Moschandreas, D J; Shaughnessy, R J

    2011-04-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between classroom ventilation rates and academic achievement. One hundred elementary schools of two school districts in the southwest United States were included in the study. Ventilation rates were estimated from fifth-grade classrooms (one per school) using CO(2) concentrations measured during occupied school days. In addition, standardized test scores and background data related to students in the classrooms studied were obtained from the districts. Of 100 classrooms, 87 had ventilation rates below recommended guidelines based on ASHRAE Standard 62 as of 2004. There is a linear association between classroom ventilation rates and students' academic achievement within the range of 0.9-7.1 l/s per person. For every unit (1 l/s per person) increase in the ventilation rate within that range, the proportion of students passing standardized test (i.e., scoring satisfactory or above) is expected to increase by 2.9% (95%CI 0.9-4.8%) for math and 2.7% (0.5-4.9%) for reading. The linear relationship observed may level off or change direction with higher ventilation rates, but given the limited number of observations, we were unable to test this hypothesis. A larger sample size is needed for estimating the effect of classroom ventilation rates higher than 7.1 l/s per person on academic achievement. The results of this study suggest that increasing the ventilation rates toward recommended guideline ventilation rates in classrooms should translate into improved academic achievement of students. More studies are needed to fully understand the relationships between ventilation rate, other indoor environmental quality parameters, and their effects on students' health and achievement. Achieving the recommended guidelines and pursuing better understanding of the underlying relationships would ultimately support both sustainable and productive school environments for students and personnel. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Does Enjoying Friendship Help or Impede Academic Achievement? Academic and Social Intrinsic Value Profiles Predict Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunjin; Lee, You-kyung

    2018-01-01

    We examine the intrinsic value students placed on schoolwork (i.e. academic intrinsic value) and social relationships (i.e. social intrinsic value). We then look at how these values predict middle and high school achievement. To do this, we came up with four profiles based on cluster analyses of 6,562 South Korean middle school students. The four…

  14. Academic Achievement and Memory Differences among Specific Learning Disabilities Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Miller, Daniel C.; Maricle, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading, writing, and math are academic skills involving a number of different executive functions, particularly working memory. Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) may present myriad academic difficulties, depending on their specific area(s) of processing weakness. is study examined differences in academic achievement and working…

  15. Gender as a predictor for academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Lestari

    2012-07-01

    penting profesionalisme, keberhasilan akademik mahasiswa   Abstract   Background: Professionalism is central to maintaining public’s trust in medical profession. Building professionalism during their study time in medical education is possible method to equip students with core attributes of professional behavior of doctor. However, the professional practice might influence not only their future job, but also their recent performance as students. This study aimed to identify the correlation between students’ demographic factors and core attributes of professionalism related to good grade point average achievement. Methods: Fourth year students of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Islam Sultan Agung Islamic in Semarang Indonesia took part in this cross sectional study. The core attributes of professionalism were assessed using short inventory “Assessment of Medical Student Professionalism”, which was developed by some experts using Delphi method. The students’ grade point average (GPA data were collected from the Information Technology Unit of the faculty. Analysis data using Cox-regression with constant time. Results: A total amount of 207 (out of 240 students participated in this study. Our final model indicates that none of the core attributes professionalism which predicts good grade point average (GPA achievement. Female than male students had 35% increased to be good GPA achievement [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.05-1.74]. Conclusion: Female but none of the core attribute of professionalism students was noted to increase academic grade point average. (Health Science Indones 2010; 1: 43 - 50

  16. EFFECT OF OPTIMISM ON LIFE SATISFACTION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURCU KÜMBÜL GÜLER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study, in the field of psychology’s current trend positive psychology, explores the effect of optimism in university students on their life satisfaction and academic achievement. To a sample of 443 Turkish university students, a questionnaire was delivered including the scales of optimism, life satisfaction, academic achievement, monthly household income, montly personal expenditure level, satisfaction with the department, unemployment concern, career expectation for the future, place of living, religious belief and some other demographical information. As a result, optimism and life satisfaction were found to be significantly positively correlated, however there was no correlation between optimism and academic achievement. According to OLS Regression analysis; females, those who are more satisfied with their lives, who have not girl/boy friend, whose parents live together, whose religious belief is higher, whose departments are higher in the preference rank and whose monthly expenditure level is lower have higher GPAs than their counterparts. In the other OLS regression analysis where the dependent variable is life satisfactio; females, optimists, whose religious belief is higher, who have lived mostly in urban, who have not unemployment concern, who have good career expectations and whose monthly expenditure is higher are more satisfied with their lives than their counterparts.

  17. Academic Anxiety, Locus of Control, and Achievement in Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Paul L.; Smith, Douglas U.

    1981-01-01

    Relationships among prior achievement, academic anxiety, locus of control, and performance in the first year of medical school were examined. Academic anxiety was found to be significantly related to first-year performance and when combined with a measure of prior achievement, resulted in a significant increase in prediction. (Author/MLW)

  18. A Study of Motivational Influences on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of motivation on academic achievement. The theoretical rationale for the study is grounded in bridging two influential yet isolated literatures of motivation: goal setting theory and achievement goal theory. Although it is clear that academic performance should be influenced by assigned learning goals,…

  19. Creativity and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Aleksandra; Karwowski, Maciej; Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a meta-analysis of 120 studies (total N = 52,578; 782 effects) examining the relationship between creativity and academic achievement in research conducted since the 1960s. Average correlation between creativity and academic achievement was r = 0.22, 95% CI [0.19, 0.24]. An analysis of moderators revealed that this…

  20. The Effect of Weekly Progress Reports on Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Katherine S.

    This study investigated the effect of weekly progress reports on the academic achievement of seventh grade language arts students. It also investigated the effects of weekly progress reports on locus of control attribution and the relationship between academic achievement and locus of control attribution. The study took place in a suburban school…

  1. Student Participation and Parental Involvement in Relation to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niia, Anna; Almqvist, Lena; Brunnberg, Elinor; Granlund, Mats

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that students, teachers, and parents in Swedish schools ascribe differing meanings and significance to students' participation in school in relation to academic achievement. Students see participation as mainly related to social interaction and not academic achievement, whilst teachers view students' participation as more closely…

  2. Investigating Academic Achievements and Critical Thinking Dispositions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöl, Ibrahim; Bekmezci, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic achievements and critical thinking dispositions of teacher candidates in Faculty of Education and to find out whether critical thinking dispositions and academic achievements scores of teacher candidates differ according to different variables. The population consists of the…

  3. The Impact of Learning Time on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Su Jin; Wassmer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    As schools aim to raise student academic achievement levels and districts wrangle with decreased funding, it is essential to understand the relationship between learning time and academic achievement. Using regression analysis and a data set drawn from California's elementary school sites, we find a statistically significant and positive…

  4. Multidimensional Parents' Action on Adolescents Academic Achievement in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, William Koh Siaw; Lan, Ong Saw

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an initial examination of the norm activities of what parents do at home to their adolescence school-going children and eventually how these factors contribute to their academic achievement. The notion that parental involvement was crucial to their children academic achievement and well being was reinvestigated by utilizing a…

  5. Children‟s Attachment Styles, Academic Achievement and Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children‟s Attachment Styles, Academic Achievement and Social Competence at Early Childhood. ... This is an expost facto research designed to determine the influence of children‟s attachment styles on academic achievement and social competence of pre-primary school pupils in Owerri metropolis of Imo State.

  6. Personality Type and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Arul A. S.; Lawrence, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality is the man. The successful living of an individual, as a man, depends to a large extent on the academic achievement of that individual, as a student. This article attempts to find out personality type, academic achievement of secondary school students and relationship between them by selecting a sample of 300 secondary school students…

  7. How Distorted Thinking Influence Arab Children Academic Achievement in Israel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gith, Emad

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between the parents Cognitive Distortion and Arab children academic achievements in Israel. 52 fifth grade Arab Children and their parents from Israel were participated. The results indicated that parent's cognitive distortion related negatively to children academic achievements; there…

  8. The Role of Physical Fitness in Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the research indicating a direct relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement, physical fitness levels of students are decreasing in many schools, along with opportunities for physical fitness. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement, as…

  9. Academic achievement and self-concept of male and female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the data analysis, academic achievement and self concept were discovered to be gender sensitive. The study revealed that male students had higher mean scores in self-concept and academic achievement than the females. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups at 0.05 level of ...

  10. Academic Achievement Performance of University Students with Disability: Exploring the Influence of Non-Academic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryer, Rachel; Henning, Marcus A.; Tyson, Graham A.; Shaw, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether: (1) the non-academic constructs of psychological well-being, motivation to learn and quality of life (QOL) explained the variance in the academic achievement of students with disability; and (2) students with a mental health disability (MHD) differed from students with other disability on academic achievement and on…

  11. Study of academic achievements using spatial analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C.; Velilla, C.; Sánchez-Girón, V.

    2012-04-01

    In the 2010/12 academic year the College of Agricultural Engineering of the Technical University of Madrid implemented three new degrees all of them adapted to the European Space for Higher Education. These degrees are namely: Graduate in Agricultural Engineering and Science, Graduate in Food Engineering and Graduate in Agro-Environmental Engineering. A total of 382 new incoming students were finally registered and a survey study was carried out with these students about their academic achievement with the aim of finding the level of dependence among the following variables: the final mark in their secondary studies, the option followed in the secondary studies (Art, Science and Technology, and Humanities and Social Sciences), the mark obtained in the entering examination to the university and in which of the two opportunities per year this examination takes place the latter mark was obtained. Similarly, another group of 77 students were evaluated independently to the former group. These students were those entering the College in the previous academic year (2009/10) and decided to change their curricula to the new ones. Subsequently, using the tools of spatial analysis of geographic information systems, we analyzed the possible relationship between the success or failure at school and the socioeconomic profile of new students in a grade. For this purpose every student was referenced assigning UTM coordinates to their postal addresses. Furthermore, all students' secondary schools were geographically coded considering their typology (public, private, and private subsidized) and fares. Each student was represented by its average geometric point in order to be correlated to their respective record. Following this procedure a map of the performance of each student could be drawn. This map can be used as a reference system, as it includes variables as the distance from the student home to the College, that can be used as a tool to calculate the probability of success or

  12. Influences on Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheak Song

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Employing education production function approach, this article investigates the influences of school and pupil background factors on academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia. Based on achievement data of 1,080 Grade 6 pupils from one rural and one semi-urban area, the study reveals that school and teacher quality exerts a considerable effect on pupils’ performance. Teachers’ experience and teacher guides are positively correlated with academic achievement, while instructional time loss is significantly associated with poor performance. In light of these results, policies to boost academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia are discussed.

  13. Academic achievement and time concept of the learner | Grobler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The time concept and academic achievement of a group of high school learners were investigated and the results are described in this article. The focus was on: the differences between the time concept of high achievers and the time concept of low achievers; the differences in the time concept of high achievers and low ...

  14. Effect of Teaching Academic Skills on Academic Achievement in Medical Emergency Students

    OpenAIRE

    Otaghi M

    2015-01-01

    Aims: An important aspect of the student’s learning in academic performance is self-regulating. Students without required academic achievement skills need educational approaches to obtain the required insight in self-regulate learning. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of teaching academic skills on academic achievement in the advanced diploma medical emergency students of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. Materials & Methods: The intervening pretest-posttest stu...

  15. A Study on Attendance and Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Kristian J.; Bignoux, Stephane

    In this study we attempt to answer Romer’s (1993) question: “Should attendance be mandatory?” Contrary to many existing studies, we conclude that in the case of business and management programs the answer is ‘no’. In a study of over 900 undergraduate strategy students, spanning four academic years......, we examine the link between attendance and exam results. Unlike prior research on this topic, our findings show that attendance is not the best determinant of student performance. We find instead that the best determinant of student performance for third year bachelor students is their over......-all degree classification, which we see as a proxy for academic ability. We suggest that attendance may simply be a reflection of student conscientiousness, engagement and motivation. We also challenge the assumptions about gender differences found in prior research on student attendance and student...

  16. A Study on Attendance and Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Kristian J.; Bignoux, Stephane

    In this study we attempt to answer Romer’s (1993) question: “Should attendance be mandatory?” Contrary to many existing studies, we conclude that in the case of business and management programs the answer is ‘no’. In a study of over 900 undergraduate strategy students, spanning four academic years......-all degree classification, which we see as a proxy for academic ability. We suggest that attendance may simply be a reflection of student conscientiousness, engagement and motivation. We also challenge the assumptions about gender differences found in prior research on student attendance and student......, we examine the link between attendance and exam results. Unlike prior research on this topic, our findings show that attendance is not the best determinant of student performance. We find instead that the best determinant of student performance for third year bachelor students is their over...

  17. Influences on Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Sopheak Song

    2012-01-01

    Employing education production function approach, this article investigates the influences of school and pupil background factors on academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia. Based on achievement data of 1,080 Grade 6 pupils from one rural and one semi-urban area, the study reveals that school and teacher quality exerts a considerable effect on pupils’ performance. Teachers’ experience and teacher guides are positively correlated with academic achievement, while instructional...

  18. Positive Academic Emotions Moderate the Relationship between Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Felicidad T.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research has shown how academic emotions are related to achievement and to cognitive/motivational variables that promote achievement. Mediated models have been proposed to account for the relationships among academic emotions, cognitive/motivational variables, and achievement, and research has supported such mediated models,…

  19. Adolescent Academic Achievement, Bullying Behavior, and the Frequency of Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Tina L.

    2010-01-01

    Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I investigated the relationships among bullying behaviors, internet use, and academic achievement for Black, Hispanic, and White boys and girls. I assessed three measures of academic achievement, including scores on mathematics, reading comprehension, and vocabulary.…

  20. Exploring the Effect of a Non-Residential Learning Community on Academic Achievement and Institutional Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Patrick Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what effect the Freshmen Interest Group (FIG) program, a variation of a non-residential learning community had on academic achievement scores and institutional rates of persistence. Study variables included: gender; race; pre-collegiate academic achievement (GPA scores); educational preferences (major…

  1. Sex differences in educational encouragement and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aqeel

    2012-08-01

    Sex differences in educational encouragement and their predictiveness of academic achievement were examined among 442 secondary school students (M age = 13.2 yr., SD = 1.9). Education-related encouragement received from mothers, fathers, friends, and teachers was assessed. Academic achievement was based on student self-reports and grades. Female adolescents reported receiving statistically significantly more educational encouragement from their mothers, fathers, friends, and teachers than did male adolescents. In regression, sex and educational encouragement from parents, friends, and teachers were found to be significant predictors of academic achievement.

  2. Scientific-creative thinking and academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Bermejo; María José Ruiz; Carmen Ferrándiz; Gloria Soto; Marta Sainz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the relationship between scientific-creative thinking construct and academic performance in a sample of adolescents. In addition, the scientific-creative thinking instrument’s reliability will be tested. The sample was composed of 98 students (aged between 12-16 years old) attending to a Secondary School in Murcia Region (Spain). The used instruments were: a) the Scientific-Creative Thinking Test designed by Hu and Adey (2002), which was adapted to the Spanish...

  3. Identifying Achievement Goals and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement in Undergraduate Pharmacy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Alrakaf, Saleh; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement.

  4. Special education and later academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Jennifer; Huntington, Noelle; Molino, Janine; Barbaresi, William

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether grade at entry to special education is associated with improved reading achievement in children with reading disorders (RD) and whether the effect of grade at entry to special education differs by socioeconomic status (SES). The authors conducted a secondary data analysis using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative cohort of children followed longitudinally from kindergarten through eighth grade (1998-2007). Using data from the fifth grade wave of ECLS-K, the authors identified children with RD (n = 290). The outcome of interest was change in score on the reading achievement test, which was developed by ECLS-K staff, between first and fifth grade. Using multiple linear regression, the authors modeled outcome as a function of a child's grade at entry to special education, controlling for several covariates. Early entry to special education (by first grade vs second or third grade) was associated with larger gains in reading achievement between first and fifth grade (p special education by first grade versus second grade gained 4.5 more points on the reading achievement test (p special education by first grade versus third grade gained 1.7 more points on the reading achievement test (p special education between children from families of low and higher SES. For children with RD, early entry to special education is associated with improved reading achievement during elementary school.

  5. The Relationship between Learning Style and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell-Moskwa, Claire

    A study investigated the correlation between students' learning styles and their academic achievement on report cards and standardized tests. Subjects were 58 fifth-grade students in a suburban middle school. The "Learning Style Inventory" by Brown and Cooper was administered to this population, and students' academic averages and…

  6. Behavioral Regulation and Early Academic Achievement in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan C.; Chen, Fu-Mei; Chen, Jo-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Behavioral regulation (the integration of attention, working memory, and inhibitory control) is critical for school readiness and early academic achievement. In Taiwan, however, where academic success is highly valued, there is a dearth of assessments available to measure young children's behavioral regulation. The present study…

  7. The Relationship between Frustration Intolerance and Academic Achievement in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Traditional measures of predicting academic achievement in college such as high school grades and standardized test scores account for approximately 25% of the difference between predicted and actual grade point average (GPA). Researchers have also examined the relationship between psychological factors and academic self-efficacy which may account…

  8. Financial Stress, Coping Strategy, and Academic Achievement of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Sonya L.; Mendiola, Melanie R.; Schink, Gregory H.; Tibbetts, Racquel H.; Jones, Scott H.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of financial stress on college students can range from psychological distress to adverse academic outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify how resources and perceptions alter the amount of financial stress felt by college students and how this relates to academic achievement. Results from 2,236 Midwestern college students…

  9. Family Income, School Attendance, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and…

  10. Academic Self-Efficacy and Prospective ELT Teachers' Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariçoban, Arif; Behjoo, Bahram Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to scrutinize the possible relationship between academic self-efficacy beliefs and foreign language achievement among prospective ELT teachers. To do so, the data for the study were collected through a questionnaire, "College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale" adapted from Owen & Froman (1988), consisting of 33 items…

  11. Gendered Habitus and Gender Differences in Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, Jason; Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance

    2014-01-01

    Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction posits that students' habitus--learned behavioural and perceptual dispositions rooted in family upbringing--is a formative influence on how they react to their educational environments, affecting academic practices and academic achievement. Although originally conceived as a "class"…

  12. Objective Academic Achievement and Subjective Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between objective academic achievement (OAA) and subjective well-being (SWB). Using a sample of 515 adolescents from ten different high schools across a small country, semi-structured interviews, academic records and observations provided relevant data for the study. OAA was measured from examination results…

  13. Exploring the Impact of Internet Addiction on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyitoglu, Orhan; Çeliköz, Nadir

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an account of the phenomenon of internet addiction from the perspective of academic achievement. In other words, this study aimed to explore the relation between academic performance of Turkish high school students in such different subject as Maths, English, History, GPA and their use of internet. Different school subjects…

  14. Academic Self-Efficacy of High Achieving Students in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Lavadores, Ana Karen; Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Pinto-Sosa, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore for differences in the academic self-efficacy of Mexican high school students. A gird questionnaire was administered to 1,460 students form private and public schools. As expected, high achieving students showed significantly higher academic self-efficacy that their peers. However, interesting gender…

  15. Adolescent Mental Health, Behavior Problems, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health…

  16. Hispanic Cultural Survival and Academic Achievement: A Partnership That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Manuel G.

    The life of Benito Juarez--who broke all odds to achieve academically, politically, and socially--serves proof that Hispanics can achieve without sacrificing their cultural heritage. The current educational achievement of Hispanics in California and elsewhere in the nation is a matter for serious consideration. Nearly 50% of all Hispanics enrolled…

  17. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup.

  18. Predictors of academic achievement and academic self-concept; a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, R D

    1997-09-01

    A large body of research supports the existence of an academic achievement--self-concept relationship. Path analyses mostly show academic achievement to be causally predominant in this relationship. This study aims to replicate these findings among Belgian primary school-age children, controlling for a number of other relevant variables such as school commitment, parental socio-economic status (SES), gender and teacher expectations. The longitudinal design of this study makes it particularly suited for this purpose. Data were analysed using correlation, regressions of time 1 independent variables on time 2 dependent variables, multiple classification analysis and path analysis using LISREL. Academic self-concept and academic achievement were found to be strong predictors of one another, even controlling for other variables and stability of both over time. The only other variable to enter significantly into regressions on time 2 academic achievement and academic self-concept was parental socio-economic status (SES). Both the regression analyses and path analysis undertaken specifically to test causal predominance found achievement to be causally predominant in this sample. The fact that academic achievement was causally predominant over academic self-concept, that global self-esteem was not a significant predictor of achievement, and the significant contribution of parental SES to achievement all suggest that self-esteem enhancement in itself cannot be a solution to the problem of academic failure.

  19. Academic Identity Status, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…

  20. Self esteem, academic achievement motivation and personality as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    viz: self-esteem, personality trait, academic achievement), on the sexual behaviour of 384 randomly selected Nigerian adolescents. Four research questions were answered using 0.05 level of significance as point of judgment of findings on ...

  1. Relationship between the Learning Styles Preferences and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, H.; Samad, N. Abd; Faiz, N. S. Mohd; Roddin, R.; Kankia, J. D.

    2017-08-01

    The individual learning differences that have been much explored relate to differences in personality, learning styles, strategies and conceptual of learning. This article studies the learning style profile exhibited by students towards the academic achievement in Malaysian Polytechnic. The relationship between learning styles of Polytechnic students and their academic achievement based on VARK learning styles model. The target population was international business students of Malaysian Polytechnic. By means of randomly sampling method, 103 students were selected as sample of research. By descriptive - survey research method and a questionnaire adapted from VARK Learning Style Index, required data were collected. According to the results, no significantly difference between learning style and academic achievement of students. Students academic achievement was quite similar to their individual learning styles. These facts reveal that each learning style has its own strengths and weaknesses.

  2. Long-Term Outcomes of ADHD: Academic Achievement and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L Eugene; Hodgkins, Paul; Kahle, Jennifer; Madhoo, Manisha; Kewley, Geoff

    2015-01-12

    The aim of this study was to synthesize published data regarding long-term effects of ADHD on information learned (measured via achievement tests) and success within the school environment (academic performance). A systematic search identified 176 studies (1980-2012) of long-term (≥2 years) academic outcomes with ADHD. Achievement test outcomes (79%) and academic performance outcomes (75%) were worse in individuals with untreated ADHD compared with non-ADHD controls, also when IQ difference was controlled (72% and 81%, respectively). Improvement in both outcome groups was associated with treatment, more often for achievement test scores (79%) than academic performance (42%), also when IQ was controlled (100% and 57%, respectively). More achievement test and academic performance outcomes improved with multimodal (100% and 67%, respectively) than pharmacological (75% and 33%) or non-pharmacological (75% and 50%) treatment alone. ADHD adversely affects long-term academic outcomes. A greater proportion of achievement test outcomes improved with treatment compared with academic performance. Both improved most consistently with multimodal treatment. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  3. Incremental validity of emotional intelligence ability in predicting academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    We tested the incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence (El) in predicting academic achievement in undergraduate students, controlling for cognitive abilities and personality traits. Academic achievement has been conceptualized in terms of the number of exams, grade point average, and study time taken to prepare for each exam. Additionally, gender differences were taken into account in these relationships. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, the reduced version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and academic achievement measures. Results showed that El abilities were positively related to academic achievement indices, such as the number of exams and grade point average; total El ability and the Perceiving branch were negatively associated with the study time spent preparing for exams. Furthermore, El ability adds a percentage of incremental variance with respect to cognitive ability and personality variables in explaining scholastic success. The magnitude of the associations between El abilities and academic achievement measures was generally higher for men than for women. Jointly considered, the present findings support the incremental validity of the MSCEIT and provide positive indications of the importance of El in students' academic development. The helpfulness of El training in the context of academic institutions is discussed.

  4. An Academic Achievement Calculator for Clinician-Educators in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Steven; Mahoney, Megan; Singh, Baldeep; Schillinger, Erika

    2017-09-01

    Academic medical centers need better ways to quantify the diverse academic contributions of primary care clinician-educators. We examined the feasibility and acceptability of an "academic achievement calculator" that quantifies academic activities using a point system. A cohort of 16 clinician-educators at a single academic medical center volunteered to assess the calculator using a questionnaire. Key measures included time needed to complete the calculator, how well it reflected participants' academic activities, whether it increased their awareness of academic opportunities, whether they intend to pursue more academic work, and their overall satisfaction with the calculator. Most participants (69%) completed the calculator in less than 20 minutes. Three-quarters (75%) reported that the calculator reflected the breadth of their academic work either "very well" or "extremely well". The majority (81%) stated that it increased their awareness of opportunities for academic engagement, and that they intend to pursue more academic activities. Overall, three-quarters (75%) were "very satisfied" or "extremely satisfied" with the calculator. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a tool designed to quantify the diverse academic activities of primary care clinician-educators. In this pilot study, we found that the use of an academic achievement calculator may be feasible and acceptable. This tool, if paired with an annual bonus plan, could help incentivize and reward academic contributions among primary care clinician-educators, and assist department leaders with the promotion process.

  5. Identifying achievement goals and their relationship to academic achievement in undergraduate pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrakaf, Saleh; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-09-15

    To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to first-year and third-year students during class time. Students' grades were obtained from course coordinators. More first-year students adopted performance-approach and mastery-approach goals than did third-year students. Performance-approach goals were positively correlated with academic achievement in the first year. Chinese Australian students scored the highest in adopting performance-approach goals. Vietnamese Australian students adopted mastery-avoidance goals more than other ethnicities. First-year students were more strongly performance approach goal-oriented than third-year students. Adopting performance-approach goals was positively correlated with academic achievement, while adopting avoidance goals was not. Ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of achievement goals and academic achievement.

  6. Is Preschool Executive Function Causally Related to Academic Achievement?

    OpenAIRE

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Kupersmidt, Janis; Voegler-Lee, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to re-evaluate the well-established result that preschoolers’ performance on executive function tasks are positively associated with their performance on academic achievement tests. The current study replicated the previously established concurrent associations between children’s performance on EF tasks and academic achievement tests. Specifically, children’s performance on measures of inhibitory and motor control were positively associated with their p...

  7. Catholic High Schools and Rural Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1997-01-01

    A study of national longitudinal data examined effects of rural Catholic high schools on mathematics achievement, high school graduation rates, and the likelihood that high school graduates attend college. Findings indicate that rural Catholic high schools had a positive effect on mathematics test scores and no effect on graduation rates or rates…

  8. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  9. RELATIONSHIP OF ACADEMIC MOTIVATION WITH ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. Gupta; Rashmi Mili

    2017-01-01

    In the present day world, it has been observed that there is an increase in lack of motivation among the students towards their academics especially when they reach high school because at this stage their attention is diverted and divided among many things like peer group, heterogeneous relations, fashion and incessant entertainment and this hampers their academic performance. So, the present paper is an attempt to find out the relationship between Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement...

  10. A mediation analysis of achievement motives, goals, learning strategies, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese

    2010-12-01

    Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. To investigate the relationship between achievement motives, achievement goals, learning strategies (deep, surface, and strategic), and academic achievement in a hierarchical model. Participants were 229 undergraduate students (mean age: 21.2 years) of psychology and economics at the University of Bergen, Norway. Variables were measured by means of items from the Achievement Motives Scale (AMS), the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students, and an achievement goal scale. Correlation analysis showed that academic achievement (examination grade) was positively correlated with performance-approach goal, mastery goal, and strategic learning strategies, and negatively correlated with performance-avoidance goal and surface learning strategy. A path analysis (structural equation model) showed that achievement goals were mediators between achievement motives and learning strategies, and that strategic learning strategies mediated the relationship between achievement goals and academic achievement. This study integrated previous findings from several studies and provided new evidence on the direct and indirect effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement.

  11. [Academic achievement, engagement and burnout among first year medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez H, Paula; Pérez V, Cristhian; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; McColl C, Peter; Torres A, Graciela; Meyer K, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Stress may affect the sense of wellbeing and academic achievement of university students. To assess the relationship of academic engagement and burnout with academic achievement among first year medical students. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student and Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS) were applied to 277 first year medical students of four universities. Their results were correlated with the grades obtained in the different courses. Moderately high engagement and low burnout levels were detected. There was a high level of satisfaction with studies and a moderate exhaustion level. Academic achievement was associated with the degree of engagement with studies but not with burnout. Conglomerate analysis detected a group of students with high levels of wellbeing, characterized by high levels of academic engagement and low burnout. Other group had moderate levels of engagement and lack of personal fulfilment. Other group, identified as extenuated, had high levels of personal exhaustion and depersonalization. Finally the disassociated group had a low academic engagement, low emotional exhaustion, high levels of depersonalization and lack of personal fulfillment. Academic achievement is associated with the level of engagement with studies but not with burnout.

  12. Academic Achievement, Academic Self-Concept, and Academic Motivation of Immigrant Adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the self-reported academic achievement, academic self-concept, and academic motivation of 573 immigrant and nonimmigrant adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) secondary schools. Descriptive Discriminant Analyses indicated that the immigrant adolescents had higher performance in mathematics, higher math and school…

  13. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Muscular Strength as Mediators of the Influence of Fatness on Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Olloquequi, Jordi; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-08-01

    To examine the combined association of fatness and physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory fitness [CRF] and muscular strength) with academic achievement, and to determine whether CRF and muscular strength are mediators of the association between fatness and academic achievement in a nationally representative sample of adolescents from Chile. Data were obtained for a sample of 36 870 adolescents (mean age, 13.8 years; 55.2% boys) from the Chilean System for the Assessment of Educational Quality test for eighth grade in 2011, 2013, and 2014. Physical fitness tests included CRF (20-m shuttle run) and muscular strength (standing long jump). Weight, height, and waist circumference were assessed, and body mass index and waist circumference-to-height ratio were calculated. Academic achievement in language and mathematics was assessed using standardized tests. The PROCESS script developed by Hayes was used for mediation analysis. Compared with unfit and high-fatness adolescents, fit and low-fatness adolescents had significantly higher odds for attaining high academic achievement in language and mathematics. However, in language, unfit and low-fatness adolescents did not have significantly higher odds for obtaining high academic achievement. Those with high fatness had higher academic achievement (both language and mathematics) if they were fit. Linear regression models suggest a partial or full mediation of physical fitness in the association of fatness variables with academic achievement. CRF and muscular strength may attenuate or even counteract the adverse influence of fatness on academic achievement in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cooperative learning: does it improve the academic achievement of students with handicaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateyama-Sniezek, K M

    1990-02-01

    This article reviews the research on the effects of cooperative learning on the academic achievement of students with handicaps. Journal articles that included students with handicaps in the sample (achievement as a dependent variable and cooperative learning as an independent variable) were selected for inclusion. A limited number of studies (12) met the selection criteria, and the findings were inconsistent. More research is needed before teachers are encouraged to use cooperative learning methods to promote the academic achievement of mainstreamed special education students.

  15. Causal ordering of academic self-concept and achievement: effects of type of achievement measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Maarten; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; D'Haenens, Ellen

    2010-12-01

    The relation between academic self-concept and achievement has been examined in a large number of studies. The majority of these studies have found evidence for a reciprocal effects model. However, there is an ongoing debate on how students' achievement should be measured and whether the type of achievement indicator (grades, tests, teacher ratings) affects the causal pattern found in these studies. The study aims at clarifying how the types of achievement measures and the way they are modelled can affect the results of causal ordering studies. In that sense, the study will yield recommendations for researchers in this domain and also provide some direction for practitioners seeking ways to enhance their students' achievement and/or academic self-concept. Repeated measures of academic self-concept and achievement (standardized tests and teacher ratings) were examined in a sample of 1,753 students in Grades 7, 8, 10, and 12. Structural equation modelling was used. Several models (with different types and numbers of achievement measures) were compared. Only small differences were found between models using one or two indicators of achievement. All models generally supported the reciprocal effects model. However, the final model, wherein tests and teacher ratings were used as separate latent variables, showed different developmental patterns in the causal relation between academic self-concept and achievement. Researchers should interpret the results of causal ordering studies discerningly because the type of measure chosen as an indicator of achievement might affect the causal pattern between academic self-concept and achievement.

  16. Academic achievement in children with oral clefts versus unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Brent R; Wehby, George L; Barron, Sheila; Romitti, Paul A; Ansley, Timothy N; Speltz, Matthew L

    2014-08-01

    To compare academic achievement in children with oral-facial clefts (OFC) with their unaffected siblings. 256 children with OFC were identified from the Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders, and 387 unaffected siblings were identified from birth certificates. These data were linked to Iowa Testing Programs achievement data. We compared academic achievement in children with OFC with their unaffected siblings using linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. In post hoc analyses, we explored modifiers of siblings' academic performance. Achievement scores were similar between children with OFC and their siblings. Children with cleft palate only were significantly more likely to use special education than their unaffected siblings. Siblings' academic achievement was inversely related to distance in birth order and age from the affected child. Children with OFC and their siblings received similar achievement scores. Younger siblings, in particular, may share a vulnerability to poor academic outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Effects of Academic Optimism on Elementary Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevel, Raymona K.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between academic optimism (AO) and elementary reading achievement (RA). Design/methodology/approach: Using correlation and hierarchical linear regression, the authors examined school-level effects of AO on fifth grade reading achievement in 29 elementary schools in Alabama.…

  18. Athletics and Academic Achievement in Latino Youth: A Cautionary Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Harklau, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Participation in extracurricular activities has been associated with enhanced academic achievement in Latino youth. Based on a longitudinal case study of one immigrant adolescent, this article finds that athletic participation is in itself neither a wholly positive or negative influence on Latino school achievement. Rather, effects of…

  19. Family Status and Students' Academic Achievement in Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Modern Education ... To achieve this goal, students from Katsina State Science and Technical Education Board (STEB) were purposively selected for the study. ... Parents' education and occupation, family type, dependency ratio, and family feeding significantly correlated with students' academic achievement in ...

  20. Academic Achievement of University Students with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Åke; Taube, Karin; Ahl, Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Broadened recruitment to higher education is on the agenda in many countries, and it is also widely recognized that the number of dyslexic students entering higher education is increasing. In Sweden, as in many other European countries, higher education institutions are required to accommodate students with dyslexia. The present study focuses on the study outcome for 50 students with diagnosed dyslexia, mainly in teacher education and nurses' training, at three universities in Northern Sweden. The students trusted their own ability to find information on the Internet but mistrusted their own abilities in reading course books and articles in English and in taking notes. The mean rate of study was 23.5 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System credits per semester, which is slightly below the national baseline of 26.7. The results show that more than half of the students are examined at a normal rate of study but that about one fifth have a very low rate of study. Messages Most students with dyslexia can compensate for their reading problems. Taking notes during lessons and reading in foreign language may be especially difficult for students with dyslexia. Diagnoses should distinguish between reading comprehension and word decoding. More than half of the students with dyslexia can achieve at a normal rate of study. One-fifth of the students with dyslexia may need a longer period of study than other students. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Parenting Style as a Moderator for Students' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet Fin; Lau, Poh Li

    2012-08-01

    Parenting styles have always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a person's development. The purpose of this study is to test the structural equation model of academic achievement among the students using parenting styles as a moderator. The sample comprised 493 students from eight schools. Parenting styles are determined using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (Buri in J Pers Assess 57:110-119, 1991). Academic achievement is measured based on the students' performance in the Lower Secondary Assessment. Data were analyzed using structural equation modelling. Results demonstrated that model of authoritative and model of authoritarian fit the data of this study well. Both authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles are the most common practice of the parents. Parenting styles have been found to be a moderator of this study. The results indicated that parenting styles moderated the effect of academic self-concept on academic achievement. The impact of academic self-concept on academic achievement is found to be greater for the authoritative than the authoritarian parenting style.

  2. The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-05-01

    Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college.

  3. The Effects of Poverty on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Misty; Tissington, Laura D.

    2011-01-01

    Poverty, which forms a specific culture and way of life, is a growing issue in the United States. The number of Americans living in poverty is continually increasing. Poverty indicates the extent to which an individual does without resources. Resources can include financial, emotional, mental, spiritual, and physical resources as well as support…

  4. Chronic sleep reduction is associated with academic achievement and study concentration in higher education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Vermeulen, Marije C M; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Gordijn, Marijke C M; Hamburger, Hans L; Meijer, Anne M; van Rijn, Karin J; Vlak, Monique; Weysen, Tim

    2018-04-01

    Inadequate sleep impairs cognitive function and has been associated with worse academic achievement in higher education students; however, studies that control for relevant background factors and include knowledge on sleep hygiene are scarce. This study examined the association of chronic sleep reduction (i.e. symptoms of chronic sleep reduction such as shortness of sleep, sleepiness and irritation), subjective sleep quality and sleep hygiene knowledge with academic achievement (grades and study credits) and study concentration among 1378 higher education students (71% female, mean age 21.73 years, SD = 3.22) in the Netherlands. Demographic, health, lifestyle and study behaviour characteristics were included as covariates in hierarchical regression analyses. After controlling for significant covariates, only chronic sleep reduction remained a significant predictor of lower grades (last exam, average in current academic year). Better sleep quality and sleep hygiene knowledge were associated with better academic achievement, but significance was lost after controlling for covariates, except for a remaining positive association between sleep hygiene beliefs and grades in the current academic year. Moreover, better sleep quality and lower scores on chronic sleep reduction were associated with better study concentration after controlling for significant covariates. To conclude, chronic sleep reduction is associated with academic achievement and study concentration in higher education students. Inadequate sleep hygiene knowledge is moderately associated with worse academic achievement. Future research should investigate whether sleep hygiene interventions improve academic achievement in students of higher education. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Peace of Mind, Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement in Filipino High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datu, Jesus Alfonso D

    2017-04-09

    Recent literature has recognized the advantageous role of low-arousal positive affect such as feelings of peacefulness and internal harmony in collectivist cultures. However, limited research has explored the benefits of low-arousal affective states in the educational setting. The current study examined the link of peace of mind (PoM) to academic motivation (i.e., amotivation, controlled motivation, and autonomous motivation) and academic achievement among 525 Filipino high school students. Findings revealed that PoM was positively associated with academic achievement β = .16, p motivation β = .48, p motivation β = .25, p motivation was positively associated with academic achievement β = .52, p motivation. In terms of the effect sizes, the findings showed that PoM explained about 1% to 18% of the variance in academic achievement and motivation. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are elucidated.

  6. Can the Academic Achievement of Korean Students Be Portrayed as a Product of "Shadow Achievement"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of private tutoring expenditure on two types of Korean students' academic achievements as measured by standardized test achievement and by school performance achievement, applying 5-year data from Korean Educational Longitudinal Study (KELS). It was found that private tutoring expenditure…

  7. Influence of Emotional Intelligence and Need for Achievement on Interpersonal Relations and Academic Achievement of Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Olukayode Ayooluwa; Ogunmwonyi, Edosa; Okediji, Abayomi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined influence of emotional intelligence and need for achievement on interpersonal relations and academic achievement of undergraduates. Questionnaires were administered to one hundred and ten (110) subjects. The independent variables are emotional intelligence and need for achievement, while the dependent variables are…

  8. The relationship between Persecution and perfectionism with Academic achievement and Burnout in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Dasht Bozorgi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Persecution, Maladjustment perfectionism and Adjustment perfectionism with Academic achievement and Academic Burnout among medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional and correlational study which was performed by medical students from the Medical University of Gondi Shapoor in Ahvaz in 2015. The sample group included 200 medical students who were selected by random-stratified sampling. Procrastination Assessment Scale, Perfectionism Inventory, Academic Burnout Inventory were used for collecting data. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS 20 software using Pearson correlation coefficient and Canonical Correlation Analysis. Results: The findings indicated that there is a significant relationship between the Predicting Variables (Persecution, Maladjustment perfectionism and Adjustment perfectionism and the Criteria Variables (Academic achievement and Academic Burnout. The amount of Canonical Correlation (0.91, (P<0.05 is an indication of a significant relationship between the two sets of variables. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that academic achievement not Academic Burnout was predicted by Persecution, Maladjustment perfectionism and adjustment perfectionism. Maladjustment perfectionism showed the greatest relationship with academic achievement. So Persecution, Maladjustment perfectionism and adjustment perfectionism can interfere with academic achievement.

  9. 78 FR 69336 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department... rulemaking regarding modified academic achievement standards and alternate assessments based on those modified academic achievement standards. This notice established an October 7, 2013, deadline for the...

  10. EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF INTERNET ADDICTION ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan Iyitoğlu; Nadir Çeliköz

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an account of the phenomenon of internet addiction from the perspective of academic achievement. In other words, this study aimed to explore the relation between academic performance of Turkish high school students in such different subject as Maths, English, History, GPA and their use of internet. Different school subjects were selected consciously as the predictor of success in different domains such as social sciences, language, mathematics and the mean of them (GPA). I...

  11. Achievement motives, self-efficacy, achievement goals, and academic achievement at multiple stages of education: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnebekk, Gunnar; Diseth, Age; Ulriksen, Robin

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigated the joint effects of achievement motives, self-efficacy, and achievement goals as predictors of subsequent academic achievement among educational science students. A longitudinal research design allowed for measurement of motivational variables at several stages of education during bachelor courses (subsequent to the introductory courses), firstly by measuring achievement motives, secondly by self-efficacy and achievement goals. Subsequently, students' academic achievement level was measured at four different points in time, until they finished the last course for their bachelor degrees. A multivariate path analysis showed consistent relations between the motivational variables. The motive to avoid failure positively predicted the adoption of avoidance goals (both mastery and performance) and negatively predicted self-efficacy. Academic achievement was mainly predicted by the motive for success and performance-avoidance goals. The path analysis also showed strong relationships between the examination grades at different points in time.

  12. "Is it beneficial to stress grades to my child?" - Relationships between parental attitudes towards academic achievement, motivation, academic self-concept and academic achievement in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto, Francisco José Brito

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyse the relations of parental attitudes towards academic achievement (process-centred vs. performance-centred) with self-representations, motivational orientations and academic achievement. Participants were 498 students attending 7th and 9th grades. To collect data we used a self-concept scale (Peixoto & Almeida, 1999), a scale of motivational orientations (Skaalvik, 1997), and a scale to assess parental attitudes towards academic performance (Antunes & Fo...

  13. Association of Child Poverty, Brain Development, and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Nicole L; Hanson, Jamie L; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2015-09-01

    Children living in poverty generally perform poorly in school, with markedly lower standardized test scores and lower educational attainment. The longer children live in poverty, the greater their academic deficits. These patterns persist to adulthood, contributing to lifetime-reduced occupational attainment. To determine whether atypical patterns of structural brain development mediate the relationship between household poverty and impaired academic performance. Longitudinal cohort study analyzing 823 magnetic resonance imaging scans of 389 typically developing children and adolescents aged 4 to 22 years from the National Institutes of Health Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development with complete sociodemographic and neuroimaging data. Data collection began in November 2001 and ended in August 2007. Participants were screened for a variety of factors suspected to adversely affect brain development, recruited at 6 data collection sites across the United States, assessed at baseline, and followed up at 24-month intervals for a total of 3 periods. Each study center used community-based sampling to reflect regional and overall US demographics of income, race, and ethnicity based on the US Department of Housing and Urban Development definitions of area income. One-quarter of sample households reported the total family income below 200% of the federal poverty level. Repeated observations were available for 301 participants. Household poverty measured by family income and adjusted for family size as a percentage of the federal poverty level. Children's scores on cognitive and academic achievement assessments and brain tissue, including gray matter of the total brain, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and hippocampus. Poverty is tied to structural differences in several areas of the brain associated with school readiness skills, with the largest influence observed among children from the poorest households. Regional gray matter volumes of children below 1

  14. Associations between Dietary Intake and Academic Achievement in College Students: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The impact of diet on academic achievement is a growing area of research. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence examining dietary intake and academic achievement in college/university students. Eight electronic databases were searched for studies published in English to January 2016. To be included, studies must have been conducted in higher education (i.e., college, university) students, reported measures of dietary intake and academic achievement, and reported the association between these. Data were extracted using a standardised tool, and studies were assessed for methodological quality. Seven studies were included, with four rated as positive quality, and the remaining three rated as neutral. Most studies were cross-sectional (n = 4), and conducted in America (n = 5). The most common dietary outcomes were fruit and vegetable (n = 3), and breakfast consumption (n = 3). Standardised grade point average (GPA) was the most common measure of academic achievement (n = 4). Five studies reported small to moderate significant positive associations between diet and academic achievement, including for breakfast, regular meal consumption, and meeting national recommendations for fruit intake. This review examines the current evidence regarding diet and academic achievement in college/university students. The results demonstrate that few studies exist in this population group. Future studies should consider the use of validated dietary assessment methods, comprehensive measures of overall diet, and use standardised assessment and reporting of academic outcomes. PMID:28946663

  15. Associations between Dietary Intake and Academic Achievement in College Students: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Whatnall, Megan C; Patterson, Amanda J; Hutchesson, Melinda J

    2017-09-25

    The impact of diet on academic achievement is a growing area of research. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence examining dietary intake and academic achievement in college/university students. Eight electronic databases were searched for studies published in English to January 2016. To be included, studies must have been conducted in higher education (i.e., college, university) students, reported measures of dietary intake and academic achievement, and reported the association between these. Data were extracted using a standardised tool, and studies were assessed for methodological quality. Seven studies were included, with four rated as positive quality, and the remaining three rated as neutral. Most studies were cross-sectional ( n = 4), and conducted in America ( n = 5). The most common dietary outcomes were fruit and vegetable ( n = 3), and breakfast consumption ( n = 3). Standardised grade point average (GPA) was the most common measure of academic achievement ( n = 4). Five studies reported small to moderate significant positive associations between diet and academic achievement, including for breakfast, regular meal consumption, and meeting national recommendations for fruit intake. This review examines the current evidence regarding diet and academic achievement in college/university students. The results demonstrate that few studies exist in this population group. Future studies should consider the use of validated dietary assessment methods, comprehensive measures of overall diet, and use standardised assessment and reporting of academic outcomes.

  16. The Beliefs of Students, Parents and Teachers about Internal Factors of Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Smrtnik Vitulić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to determine the beliefs of students, teachers and parents about the internal factors of academic achievement and to verify whether their beliefs vary. In this paper the beliefs about the internal factors of academic achievement: personality traits, intellectual ability, language competence, interest in the subject and locus of control are thematised. The sample included 516 students from grades 5, 7 and 9 of 12 different basic schools in central Slovenia, 408 of their parents and 195 teachers. Amongst the broad range of personality traits in the survey questionnaire, parents selected openness and conscientiousness as the most important traits for academic success, while students selected openness and extroversion, and teachers selected agreeableness and emotional stability. In the opinion of the participants in the research, amongst other internal factors of academic success emphasised, those that have the greatest influence on academic achievement are interest in the subject and internal locus of control, while students’ intellectual ability and language competence are attributed slightly less importance. Beliefs regarding the individual factors of academic achievement vary between the groups of participants. In the future, it would be sensible to encourage students, teachers and parents to reflect on the meaning of the individual factors of academic achievement, and especially to speak with them about the factors on which each respective group can exert an influence in order to improve students’ academic achievement.

  17. The Relationship among Achievement Motivation Orientations, Achievement Goals, and Academic Achievement and Interest: A Multiple Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; Patrick, Rosan R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships among achievement motivation orientations and academic achievement and interest and whether achievement goals mediate these relationships. A sample of 503 students aged 14-16 years from 8 secondary schools in two Australia cities responded to a questionnaire package, comprising measures…

  18. Classroom goal structure, student motivation, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meece, Judith L; Anderman, Eric M; Anderman, Lynley H

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, achievement goal theory has emerged as one of the most prominent theories of achievement motivation. This chapter uses an achievement goal framework to examine the influence of classroom and school environments on students' academic motivation and achievement. Considerable evidence suggests that elementary and secondary students show the most positive motivation and learning patterns when their school settings emphasize mastery, understanding, and improving skills and knowledge. Whereas school environments that are focused on demonstrating high ability and competing for grades can increase the academic performance of some students, research suggests that many young people experience diminished motivation under these conditions. The implications of achievement goal theory for examining the impact of school reform are discussed.

  19. Academic achievement one year after resective epilepsy surgery in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puka, Klajdi; Khattab, Maryam; Kerr, Elizabeth N; Smith, Mary Lou

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have examined the academic functioning of children following pediatric epilepsy surgery. Although intellectual functioning has been more thoroughly investigated, children with epilepsy may experience additional difficulties with academic skills. This study examined the academic outcomes of a cohort of children who underwent pediatric epilepsy surgery on an average 1.2 (standard deviation [SD]: 0.3) years prior. Participants were 136 children (mean age: 14.3 years, [SD]: 3.7 years) who had undergone resective epilepsy surgery. Academic functioning was assessed presurgery and postsurgery using standardized tests of reading, reading comprehension, arithmetic, and spelling. At baseline, 65% of the children displayed low achievement (1 SD below test mean), and 28% had underachievement (1 SD below baseline IQ) in at least one academic domain. Examining change over time revealed that reading, numeral operations, and spelling significantly declined among all patients; seizure freedom at follow-up (attained in 64% of the patients) did not influence this relationship. Reading comprehension and IQ remained unchanged. Similar findings were found when examining patients with a baseline IQ of ≥ 70 and when controlling for IQ. Regression analyses revealed that after controlling for IQ, demographic and seizure-related variables were not significantly associated with academic achievement at follow-up. Results show baseline academic difficulties and deteriorations following surgery that go beyond IQ. Further investigations are required to determine whether the observed deteriorations result from the development of the child, the course of the disorder, or the epilepsy surgery itself. Long-term studies are warranted to identify the progression of academic achievement and whether the observed deteriorations represent a temporal disruption in function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Academic motivation mediates the influence of temporal discounting on academic achievement during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Nikki; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Boschloo, Annemarie; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Lee, N. C., Krabbendam, L., Dekker, S. J., Boschloo, A. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Jolles, J. (2012). Academic motivation mediates the influence of temporal discounting on academic achievement during adolescence. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 1(1), 43-48.

  1. Relationships among Properties of College Students' Self-Set Academic Goals and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acee, Taylor W.; Cho, Yoonjung; Kim, Jung-In; Weinstein, Claire Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among properties of college students' self-set academic goals and academic achievement, using multiple theoretical perspectives. Using a personal goal-based research methodology, college students enrolled in a learning-to-learn course (N = 130) were asked to list 20 of their…

  2. Academic Identification as a Mediator of the Relationship between Parental Socialization and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strambler, Michael J.; Linke, Lance H.; Ward, Nadia L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether academic identification, or one's psychological and emotional investment in academics, mediates the association between child-reported parental educational socialization and standardized achievement test scores among a predominantly ethnic minority sample of 367 urban middle school students. We predicted that academic…

  3. Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

  4. Rigor and academic achievement: Career academies versus traditional class structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyees, Linda L.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students who attended high school Career Academy classes, as part of Career and Technical Education, showed greater academic achievement than students who attended traditional high school classes. While all participants attended schools in the same school district, and were seeking the same goal of graduation with a standard diploma, the Career Academy students had the benefit of all classes being directed by a team of teachers who helped them connect their learning to their desired career through collaborative learning projects and assignments. The traditional high school classes taught each subject independent of other subjects and did not have specific connections to desired career goals of the students. The study used a causal-comparative research design and the participants included 1,142 students from 11th and 12th grades who attended 9 high schools in a diversely populated area of central Florida with 571 enrolled in the Career Academies and 571 enrolled in traditional classes. The 10th-grade FCAT scores served as the dependent variable. All students attended similar classes with similar content, making the primary variable the difference in academic gains between students participating in the Career Academy design and the traditional design classes. Using the Man-Whitney U Test resulted in the Career Academy group achieving the higher scores overall. This resulted in rejection of the first null-hypothesis. Further examination determined that the 10th-grade FCAT scores were greater for the average students group, which comprised the largest portion of the participant group, also resulted in rejection of the second null-hypothesis. The gifted and at-risk student group scores resulted in failure to reject the third and fourth null-hypotheses.

  5. Psychological Determinants of Academic Achievement in Accounting: Evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Paiva Naves Mamede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of this research was to investigate the association between psychological variables and academic performance of 494 students of acco unting o f a Brazilian public U niversity. W e seek , therefore, to highlight some psychological variables to understand the behavior of students of accounting courses. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire based on five psychological constructs: self - efficacy, self - esteem, optimism, locus of control and self - control. Regression analyses were used to identify the influence of the explanatory variables on the academic performance coefficient, with the main results showing that: (i the variable smo king has a direct impact on the academic achievement of students; (ii the academic performance of women is higher than that of men; (i ii students within the age range of 20 to 40 years have significantly lower performance than students of other age range s, and ( i v the variable experience time in accounting is related with the students' performance.

  6. The Effects of Looping on Perceived Values and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carmen; Arenz, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of looping, a practice whereby teachers and students stay together for more than one year, on perceived values and academic achievement in language arts at a Fresno Unified School District elementary school in Fresno, CA. Looping has many perceived advantages, such as the development of long-term…

  7. Parenting Style as a Moderator for Students' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet Fin; Lau, Poh Li

    2012-01-01

    Parenting styles have always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a person's development. The purpose of this study is to test the structural equation model of academic achievement among the students using parenting styles as a moderator. The sample comprised 493 students from eight schools. Parenting styles are determined using the…

  8. Academic Achievement among Adolescents in Cambodia: Does Caregiver Trauma Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Sothy; Mulsow, Miriam; Cleveland, Harrington; Hart, Sybil L.

    2009-01-01

    How will hostilities occurring around today's world influence future generations in affected areas? Cambodia may be one place where this question can be answered, and academic achievement is one way to measure these effects. Cambodian adolescent/caregiver dyads (n=288) were examined for links between caregiver trauma history and adolescent…

  9. School Climate and Academic Achievement in Suburban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Tracey N.

    2016-01-01

    School climate research has indicated a relationship between the climate of a school and academic achievement. The majority of explanatory models have been developed in urban schools with less attention given to suburban schools. Due to the process of formation of suburban schools, there is a likelihood these campuses differ from the traditional…

  10. Social Intelligence and Academic Achievement as Predictors of Adolescent Popularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Noortje; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Segers, Eliane; Spijkerman, Renske

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the effects of social intelligence and cognitive intelligence, as measured by academic achievement, on adolescent popularity in two school contexts. A distinction was made between sociometric popularity, a measure of acceptance, and perceived popularity, a measure of social dominance. Participants were 512, 14-15 year-old…

  11. Effect of Cooperative Learning on Academic Achievement of Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, Mohammadreza

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation on the effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of physics course. Cooperative learning was employed to experimental group and conventional teaching method was used for control group. Sampling of the study consists of 15-16 years old 220 students at high school in Iran. The progress…

  12. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Students in Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors affecting academic achievement ofstudents in Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in ChristianReligious Knowledge. A total of three hundred students in SS III from five secondary schools were randomly selected and used as sample for the study. Five hypotheses were tested, ...

  13. Correlation of nutritional status with academic achievement in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinurat, R. S.; Sembiring, T.; Azlin, E.; Faranita, T.; Pratita, W.

    2018-03-01

    Malnutrition is considered a problem that limits learning ability (cognitive function), which is related to poor academic achievement results. This study aimed to determine the relationship of nutritional status with academic achievement in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 126 junior high school students ranging from 12 to 15 years in Batubara, North Sumatra in January 2015. Nutritional status is determined by weight for height. Academic achievement was recorded from the final results of their school exams. The value of intelligence quotient (IQ) was assessed by using the Aptitude Test. Data were then analyzed by using Spearman correlation and Chi-Square test. In conclusion, there was no significant difference between nutritional status with IQ score (p=0,540) but showed a significant relationship (p=0.003) between normal nutritional status with the total value of the report card with positive weak correlation strength (r=0.342). There was also a significant difference (p=0.020) and moderate positive correlation (r=0.541) between overweight with academic achievement based on mathematics.

  14. Homework, Motivation, and Academic Achievement in a College Genetics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchard, Matthew; Daniel, Kristy L.; Maroo, Jill; Mishra, Chandrani; McLean, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a mixed methods study in an upper-level genetics course exploring the relationships between student motivation, homework completion, and academic achievement at the college level. We used data from an open-ended questionnaire, homework grades and completion reports, and exam scores. We used these data sources to measure self-perceived…

  15. Talented athletes and academic achievements : a comparison over 14 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the academic achievements of 200 talented athletes in 1992/1993 and 200 in 2006/2007, aged 14-16 years. When compared with the national average, the athletes in 2006/2007 attended pre-university classes more often (2 = 57.001, p.05). Of the

  16. Integrating Technology for Academic Achievement in Phonics and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Hope I.

    2010-01-01

    With the push for teacher accountability and the controversy concerning high-stakes testing, more teachers are looking for systematic ways to increase academic achievement. If the U.S. is to regain its global position as number 1 in the education arena, education policy must dictate that teachers integrate technology as a regular part of core…

  17. Predictive value of parenting styles on the academic achievement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between parenting styles and the academic achievement level of secondary school students in Benin City. A correlational research design was adopted in this study. Multistage random sampling procedure was used to obtain the sample of two hundred and thirty eight (238) ...

  18. Magnitude of stress and academic achievement of female students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress is a universal phenomenon which no human being is free from. This paper examined the magnitude of stress and academic achievement of female students of the University of Ilorin. It was a description survey type. The target population comprised the 400 level female students from the four randomly selected ...

  19. Academic achievement of physics education students' in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to find out factors affecting the academic achievement of physics education students' in Benue State University and University of Agriculture, Makurdi. The study sought answers to four research questions. The research was carried out using a sample size of 108 students of the department of ...

  20. How Does Grit Impact College Students' Academic Achievement in Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazelais, Paul; Lemay, David John; Doleck, Tenzin

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that achievement is not solely based on the cognitive abilities of the learner, but rather on the combination of cognitive ability and personality traits. This paper explores how grit affects student academic performance and success in first-year college physics students in the context of a Quebec Collège d'enseignement…

  1. Gender as predictor of academic achievement in English among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of gender on academic achievement in English Language among senior secondary school students in Calabar metropolis, Cross River State. The researchers adopted survey designfor the study. The study sample comprise 660 Senior Secondary School two (SSS II) students drawn from ...

  2. Adaptive Skills and Academic Achievement in Latino Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Tara C.; Gordon, Melissa; Harrell-Williams, Leigh; Diliberto, Rachele A.; Parke, Elyse M.

    2017-01-01

    Interventions developed to improve adaptive skills can improve academic achievement. The authors expanded this line of research by examining the relationship between performance on a state proficiency exam and adaptive skills classifications on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition parent and teacher reports. Participants…

  3. Personality as a moderator of context effects on academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.A.J.; Kuyper, H.; Lubbers, M.J; Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    We investigated whether personality moderates group influence of classmates on academic achievement and whether these so-called context effects can be attributed to peer pressure. The sample consisted of 2498 students in their first year of Dutch secondary education. The data were analyzed by a

  4. Qualitative Review Synthesis: The Relationship between Inattention and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah Anne; Dueck, Katherine; Rogers, Maria; Tannock, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Background: A body of literature has emerged that links inattentive symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to poor academic achievement. Major variation across studies renders conclusions about this relationship complex. Purpose: This review will provide a qualitative synthesis of these studies that (1) use community samples…

  5. The Impact of Parental Involvement on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sylvia A.

    2017-01-01

    Education begins at home. The responsibility to socialize and educate children is a shared obligation between parents and schools. In order for a child to reach academic achievement, parents must be involved and participate in the educational process. The more parental involvement, the more students are likely to become productive members of…

  6. Confidence: The Best Non-Cognitive Predictor of Academic Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar; Morony, Suzanne; Lee, Yim Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify non-cognitive predictors of academic achievement and school success have largely focused on self-constructs such as self-efficacy, self-concept and anxiety that are measured with respect to a specific domain (e.g. mathematics). We extend the measurement of the non-cognitive realm in education to incorporate both social…

  7. Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement in Malaysian Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnin, Azlina Mohd

    2007-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the ability of self-regulated learning (SRL) as measured by the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaires (MSLQ) to predict academic achievement among undergraduates in Malaysia. A total of 460 second-year engineering undergraduates from the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia participated in the study. Academic…

  8. Strategic Learning Abilities as a Predictor of Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Howard T.; Weinstein, Claire E.; Laitusis, Vytas

    The importance of learning and study strategies in fostering academic achievement has generated a demand for assessing these behaviors. The Learning and Study Strategies Inventory-High School version (LASSI-HS) is one of the most popular of these assessment devices. This study analyzed the second order latent structure of the inventory, using a…

  9. Class Size and Academic Achievement in Introductory Political Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Terri L.

    2016-01-01

    Research on the influence of class size on student academic achievement is important for university instructors, administrators, and students. The article examines the influence of class size--a small section versus a large section--in introductory political science courses on student grades in two comparable semesters. It is expected that…

  10. Self-concept and Academic Achievement of Delinquent and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    ramifications, delinquency has destructive and dysfunctional effects on the lives of individuals involved. Delinquency becomes problematic because it affects the delinquent academic achievement and diverts resources into efforts at social control when those resources could be more carefully diverted elsewhere. Continued ...

  11. Teachers' Expectations on Academic Achievement and Social Skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers' expectation on academic achievement was positively correlated with their expectation on social skill and behaviour. Sex and training and/or courses on special needs education taken were not found to be contributing to their expectations. Though teaching experience could be established as influencing teacher ...

  12. Intelligence and Academic Achievement With Asymptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Adriana S; Lanzieri, Tatiana M; Claussen, Angelika H; Vinson, Sherry S; Turcich, Marie R; Iovino, Isabella R; Voigt, Robert G; Caviness, A Chantal; Miller, Jerry A; Williamson, W Daniel; Hales, Craig M; Bialek, Stephanie R; Demmler-Harrison, Gail

    2017-11-01

    To examine intelligence, language, and academic achievement through 18 years of age among children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified through hospital-based newborn screening who were asymptomatic at birth compared with uninfected infants. We used growth curve modeling to analyze trends in IQ (full-scale, verbal, and nonverbal intelligence), receptive and expressive vocabulary, and academic achievement in math and reading. Separate models were fit for each outcome, modeling the change in overall scores with increasing age for patients with normal hearing ( n = 78) or with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) diagnosed by 2 years of age ( n = 11) and controls ( n = 40). Patients with SNHL had full-scale intelligence and receptive vocabulary scores that were 7.0 and 13.1 points lower, respectively, compared with controls, but no significant differences were noted in these scores among patients with normal hearing and controls. No significant differences were noted in scores for verbal and nonverbal intelligence, expressive vocabulary, and academic achievement in math and reading among patients with normal hearing or with SNHL and controls. Infants with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified through newborn screening with normal hearing by age 2 years do not appear to have differences in IQ, vocabulary or academic achievement scores during childhood, or adolescence compared with uninfected children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations Supports Canadian Children's Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin L; Montemurro, Genevieve; Storey, Kate E; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to determine if adherence to established Canadian, American, and WHO-developed nutrition recommendations supported children's academic achievement. Data from a health survey of 1595 grade 5 students in Alberta, Canada, was used. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to recommendations for food group servings, saturated fat intake, and free sugars intake was assessed. Survey data were linked to grade 6 standardized exam results. Multivariable mixed effects linear regression models were employed to assess the association between adherence to recommendations and academic achievement. Boys who met current recommendations for free sugars scored on average 5.67% better on exams (β: 5.67; 95% CI: 3.14, 8.29). Boys who met recommendations for milk and alternatives scored 3.45% better on exams (β: 3.45; 95% CI: 0.67, 6.23). Though results indicated that adhering to dietary recommendations was beneficial for girls' academic achievement, no result was statistically significant. Adherence to current dietary recommendations has benefits for children's academic achievement. This evidence may be used to inform continued development and promotion of dietary recommendations and to support school-based nutrition initiatives.

  14. Teacher ratings of academic achievement of children between 6 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated teacher ratings of the impact of parental divorce on academic achievement of children between 6 and 12 years old up to 12 months after their parents divorced. A purposive sample of 120 children attending four different primary schools in a small South African town took part in the study. One third (n = 40) of ...

  15. gender as predictor of academic achievement in english among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    The study examined the influence of gender on academic achievement in English Language among senior secondary school students in Calabar metropolis, Cross River State. The researchers adopted survey designfor the study. The study sample comprise 660 Senior Secondary School two (SSS II) students drawn from ...

  16. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born…

  17. Cambodian Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement: The Role of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Sothy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of parents' cultural beliefs and attitudes with respect to fate, traditional gender roles, aspirations, and involvement in children's academic achievement in Cambodia. Based on Coleman's social capital theory, a good parent-child relationship enables children's school success because resources are created as a…

  18. Disparity in Academic Achievement in Selected Colleges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out by employing closed-ended questionnaires addressing issues attributing to academic achievements like gender stereotype, admission procedure, institutional satisfaction, parental style, learning style, personality style and accommodation issues and Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of ...

  19. Improving academic achievement after First year Studentship in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study therefore recommended that the negative experiences should be part of the orientation given to first year students in the University. Second, that universities should not use the grade point average obtained during the first year to compute the final GPA for graduating students. Keywords:Academic Achievement ...

  20. Self-concept and Academic Achievement of Delinquent and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Abstract. This study investigated self concept and academic achievement of delinquent and non-delinquent students. A total of 120 subjects comprising of 60 non-delinquent students randomly selected from two secondary schools and 60 delinquent inmate from Boys Approved. Remand home for delinquents in Imo state ...

  1. Associations between the duration of active commuting to school and academic achievement in rural Chilean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Saavedra, Jose M; Olloquequi, Jordi; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-04-04

    Habitual active commuting to school may be positively associated with academic achievement. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between duration of walking or otherwise actively commuting to school and academic achievement. This cross-sectional study included 389 adolescents from seven rural schools (12-13 years). Mode and duration of active commuting to school (use of active means such as walking or biking to and from school) and screen time were self-reported. Academic achievement was determined by the outcome in basic grades (language and mathematics). Active commuting to school was not associated with higher scores in any grades after adjustment for potential confounders. No evidence was found of interactions between gender and academic achievement, but there was interaction with duration of walking (60 min). Adjusted binary logistic regression analysis suggested that adolescents who spent between 30 and 60 min actively commuting were more likely to obtain high academic achievement (language and mathematics). Thirty to 60 min of ACS may have a positive influence on academic achievement in adolescents, so, it is necessary to make recommendations for the children to walk from and/or to school. This could help society to recognize the relevance of physical activity to health as well as to academic performance.

  2. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  3. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  4. Using the 2 x 2 Framework of Achievement Goals to Predict Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul; Larkin, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has established how achievement emotions are related to the trichotomous model of achievement goals, and how they predict academic performance. In our study we examine relations using an additional, mastery-avoidance goal, and whether outcome-focused emotions are predicted by mastery as well as performance goals. Results showed that…

  5. The Link between Musical Achievement and Academic Achievement of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    During the twentieth century it has been theorized that there is a link between musical achievement and academic achievement of young children. In support of this controversial view, many educators and music specialists promote the relationship between, parent, teacher, and child. The theory is: with cooperative learning experiences in the study…

  6. Structure of Black Male Students Academic Achievement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascoe, Barbara

    Educational policies and practices have been largely unsuccessful in closing the achievement gap between Black and White students "Schwartz, 2001". This achievement gap is especially problematic for Black students in science "Maton, Hrabrowski, - Schmitt, 2000. Given the fact that the Black-White achievement gap is still an enigma, the purpose of this article is to address the Black female-Black male academic achievement gap in science majors. Addressing barriers that Black male students may experience as college science and engineering majors, this article presents marketing strategies relative to politics, emotional intelligence, and issues with respect to how science teaching, and Black male students' responses to it, are different. Many Black male students may need to experience a paradigm shift, which structures and enhances their science achievement. Paradigm shifts are necessary because exceptional academic ability and motivation are not enough to get Black males from their first year in a science, technology, education, and mathematics "STEM" major to a bachelor's degree in science and engineering. The conclusions focus on the balance of truth-slippery slopes concerning the confluence of science teachers' further ado and Black male students' theories, methods, and values that position their academic achievement in science and engineering majors.

  7. Discrepancies between academic achievement and intellectual ability in higher-functioning school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Annette; Rivera, Vanessa; Bryan, Matthew; Cali, Philip; Dawson, Geraldine

    2011-08-01

    Academic achievement patterns and their relationships with intellectual ability, social abilities, and problem behavior are described in a sample of 30 higher-functioning, 9-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both social abilities and problem behavior have been found to be predictive of academic achievement in typically developing children but this has not been well studied in children with ASD. Participants were tested for academic achievement and intellectual ability at age 9. Problem behaviors were assessed through parent report and social functioning through teacher report at age 6 and 9. Significant discrepancies between children's actual academic achievement and their expected achievement based on their intellectual ability were found in 27 of 30 (90%) children. Both lower than expected and higher than expected achievement was observed. Children with improved social skills at age 6 demonstrated higher levels of academic achievement, specifically word reading, at age 9. No relationship was found between children's level of problem behavior and level of academic achievement. These results suggest that the large majority of higher-functioning children with ASD show discrepancies between actual achievement levels and levels predicted by their intellectual ability. In some cases, children are achieving higher than expected, whereas in others, they are achieving lower than expected. Improved social abilities may contribute to academic achievement. Future studies should further explore factors that can promote strong academic achievement, including studies that examine whether intervention to improve social functioning can support academic achievement in children with ASD.

  8. Identifying Achievement Goals and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement in Undergraduate Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement. Methods. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to first-year and third-year students during class time. Students’ grades were obtained from course coordinators. Results. More first-year students adopted performance-approach and mastery-approach goals than did third-year students. Performance-approach goals were positively correlated with academic achievement in the first year. Chinese Australian students scored the highest in adopting performance-approach goals. Vietnamese Australian students adopted mastery-avoidance goals more than other ethnicities. First-year students were more strongly performance approach goal-oriented than third-year students. Conclusion. Adopting performance-approach goals was positively correlated with academic achievement, while adopting avoidance goals was not. Ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of achievement goals and academic achievement. PMID:25258438

  9. Cognitive Predictors of Academic Achievement in Young Children 1 Year Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John B.; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Walz, Nicolay C.; Wade, Shari L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine cognitive predictors of academic achievement in young children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury (OI) shortly after injury and 1 year post-injury. Methods Participants included 3 to 6 year old children, 63 with TBI (46 with moderate TBI and 17 with severe TBI) and a comparison group of 80 children with OI. Academic achievement was assessed approximately 1 month and 12 months post injury, using three subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Third Edition and the School Readiness Composite from the Bracken Basic Concepts Scale-Revised. General intellectual functioning, memory, and executive functions were measured at the initial assessment using standardized tests. Results Hierarchical linear regression was used to predict academic achievement at the initial and 1-year follow-up assessments. Memory and executive functions were significant predictors of academic achievement at both assessments, after controlling for group membership and demographic variables. Executive function remained a significant predictor of some outcomes after taking general intellectual functioning into account. Predictive relationships did not vary across the TBI and OI groups. Similar results were obtained when regression analyses were completed with only TBI participants using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score as a predictor, although memory and executive functioning were somewhat less robust in predicting academic achievement than before. Conclusions Both memory and executive function predict academic achievement following TBI in preschool children, although some of the associations may be accounted for by general intellectual functioning. PMID:22563873

  10. Students' academic self-efficacy viz-a-viz their academic achievement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-efficacy predicts academic achievement by influencing the effect of skills, previous experience, mental ability, or other self-beliefs on subsequent achievement. Students with high self-efficacy set challenging goals engage in more effective learning strategy use and persevere when encountered by difficult tasks.

  11. The effect of psychological factors and parental education on adolescents' academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to check the assumed path model of causal relationships between adolescent's psychological characteristics (language competence, intellectual ability, and personality dimensions, parental education, and adolescent's academic achievement. Adolescents (N = 427; among them 225 girls and 202 boys, who were attending the ninth grade of elementary school in the school year 2005/2006, and their parents participated in the study. Adolescent's academic achievement was assessed by the results of national examinations in Slovene and mathematics, teachers' marks in Slovene and mathematics, and adolescent's general school success. The results of structural equation modelling showed a good fit of the assumed path model if it included the direct effect of adolescent's psychological characteristics and parental education on adolescent's academic achievement and also the indirect effect of parental education and three personality dimensions (Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness/Intellect through the adolescent's language competence and general intelligence. The fit of the adopted path model was acceptable regardless of the way in which academic achievement was assessed and regardless of the sex of the participants. The most important predictors of the academic achievement were language competence, general intelligence, and personality dimensions Conscientiousness and Openness/Intellect. With the assumed path model of casual relationships we could explain between 53% and 63% of differences in adolescents' academic achievement.

  12. 29 CFR 516.3 - Bona fide executive, administrative, and professional employees (including academic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employees (including academic administrative personnel and teachers in elementary or secondary schools), and... professional employees (including academic administrative personnel and teachers in elementary or secondary... employed in the capacity of academic administrative personnel or teachers in elementary or secondary...

  13. Neighborhood Influences on the Academic Achievement of Extremely Low Birth Weight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borawski, Elaine; Schluchter, Mark; Taylor, H.Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Hack, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine neighborhood effects on academic achievement of children with extremely low birth weight (ELBW <1000 g) and normal birth weight (NBW) controls. Methods The study included 183 8-year-old children with ELBW born during 1992–1995 and 176 sociodemographically similar NBW controls. Academic achievement was measured via The Woodcock–Johnson III Academic Skills Cluster. Results Children with ELBW had significantly lower achievement scores (89 ± 16 vs. 97 ± 13). A multilevel estimation of predictors of academic achievement revealed that neighborhood poverty was significantly associated with lower achievement (β = −.17; 95% CI −.3, −.05; p < .01). Additional correlates included birth weight status, male sex, and parent ratings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Family characteristics included maternal education and parent protection. Conclusions Neighborhood characteristics affect academic achievement of both children with ELBW and NBW controls, over and above individual and family influences. Interventions designed to address family and neighborhood factors may potentially improve these outcomes. PMID:19584171

  14. Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Academic Achievement and Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, appraise and control one's emotions. It is the ability to motivate oneself even in stressful situations, to control impulsive behaviour and to manage feelings in perfect way. Emotional intelligence can be considered as a set of skills which contribute to the proper assessment and regulation of emotions, and the utilization of feelings for best achievement in academics, profession and life. Emotional Intelligence is an important predictor of success in life and has significant role in stress management and academic achievement. Students who are high academic performers, usually have higher emotional intelligence scores compared with children with scholastic backwardness. Individuals with high emotional intelligence will correctly understand emotional issues, manage stressful situations successfully and regulate emotions in the best way. They are balanced, empathetic, self-aware and sociable. They have very strong will-power and are intrinsically motivated. Emotional intelligence is also a crucial factor needed for successful leadership. It has significant role in academic and organizational success.

  15. English academic language skills: Perceived difficulties by undergraduate and graduate students, and their academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Berman

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An EAP needs survey conducted at a major Canadian university among first-year Bachelor's- and Master's-level students reveals that native speakers (NS and non-native speakers (NNS of English perceive that the language skills that are necessary for academic study are of different levels of difficulty. Furthermore, English language difficulties appear to negatively affect the academic achievement of NNS graduate students as compared to their NS peers. However, such difficulties, although acknowledged to exist by NNS undergraduates, do not appear to affect their academic performance as compared with that of their NS counterparts.

  16. Online formative tests linked to microlectures improving academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Rianne A M; de Kleijn, Renske A M; Freriksen, Astrid W M; van Emst, Maarten G; Veeneklaas, Rob J; van Hoeij, Maggy J W; Spinder, Matty; Ritzen, Magda J; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; van Rijen, Harold V M

    2013-12-01

    Online formative tests (OFTs) are powerful tools to direct student learning behavior, especially when enriched with specific feedback. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of OFTs enriched with hyperlinks to microlectures on examination scores. OFTs, available one week preceding each midterm and the final exams, could be used voluntarily. The use of OFTs was related to scores on midterm and final exams using ANOVA, with prior academic achievement as a covariate. On average, 74% of all students used the online formative tests (OFT+) while preparing for the summative midterm exam. OFT+ students obtained significantly higher grades compared to OFT-students, both without and with correction for previous academic achievement. Two out of three final exam scores did not significantly improve. Students using online formative tests linked to microlectures receive higher grades especially in highly aligned summative tests.

  17. Correlation of Breakfast with Academic Achievement Primary School Student

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmiwati, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background : School –age children is an investment of a nation, because they are the future generation. Quality of the nation in the future is determined by the quality of today's children. Efforts to increase human resources should be done early, systematic and continuous. Optimal child development depends on good nutrition both in quality and quantity. This research is done in an effort to see the correlation of breakfast with increased academic achievement at primary school age children. M...

  18. Objectively measured sedentary time and academic achievement in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Luís Carlos Oliveira; Santos, Rute; Mota, Jorge; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira; Lopes, Vítor

    2016-01-01

    Published online: 26 Apr 2016. [Epub ahead of print] This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between objectively measured total sedentary time and academic achievement (AA) in Portuguese children. The sample comprised of 213 children (51.6% girls) aged 9.46 ± 0.43 years, from the north of Portugal. Sedentary time was measured with accelerometry, and AA was assessed using the Portuguese Language and Mathematics National Exams results. Multilevel linear regression models were fitted to...

  19. Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Academic Achievement and Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, appraise and control one's emotions. It is the ability to motivate oneself even in stressful situations, to control impulsive behaviour and to manage feelings in perfect way. Emotional intelligence can be considered as a set of skills which contribute to the proper assessment and regulation of emotions, and the utilization of feelings for best achievement in academics, profession and life. Emotional Intelligence is an important predictor of s...

  20. Study strategies and beliefs about learning as a function of academic achievement and achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Jason; Toftness, Alexander R; Armstrong, Patrick I; Carpenter, Shana K; Manz, Carly L; Coffman, Clark R; Lamm, Monica H

    2018-05-01

    Prior research by Hartwig and Dunlosky [(2012). Study strategies of college students: Are self-testing and scheduling related to achievement? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(1), 126-134] has demonstrated that beliefs about learning and study strategies endorsed by students are related to academic achievement: higher performing students tend to choose more effective study strategies and are more aware of the benefits of self-testing. We examined whether students' achievement goals, independent of academic achievement, predicted beliefs about learning and endorsement of study strategies. We administered Hartwig and Dunlosky's survey, along with the Achievement Goals Questionnaire [Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80, 501-519] to a large undergraduate biology course. Similar to results by Hartwig and Dunlosky, we found that high-performing students (relative to low-performing students) were more likely to endorse self-testing, less likely to cram, and more likely to plan a study schedule ahead of time. Independent of achievement, however, achievement goals were stronger predictors of certain study behaviours. In particular, avoidance goals (e.g., fear of failure) coincided with increased use of cramming and the tendency to be driven by impending deadlines. Results suggest that individual differences in student achievement, as well as the underlying reasons for achievement, are important predictors of students' approaches to studying.

  1. Family income, school attendance, and academic achievement in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam

    2014-03-01

    Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and academic achievement among a diverse sample of children from kindergarten to 4th grade (N = 35,419) using both random and within-child fixed-effects models. Generally, results suggest that the receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and duration of receipt have small but positive associations with school absences and tardies. Poor attendance patterns predict poorer grades, with absences more associated with grades than tardies. Given the small associations between receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and school attendance, and between the duration of receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and children's grades, results do not provide strong evidence that absences and tardies meaningfully attenuate relations between the duration of low family income and student achievement; poorer attendance and persistent low income independently predict poorer grades. Implications for policy and future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Is there an association between dietary intake and academic achievement: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, T; Goldman, S; Pursey, K; Lim, R

    2017-04-01

    The majority of literature examining the effect of dietary behaviour on academic achievement has focused on breakfast consumption only. Here, we aim to systematically review the literature investigating the broader effects of dietary intake and behaviours on school-aged children's academic achievement. A search was undertaken across seven databases using keywords. For studies to be included, they needed to be conducted in: school-aged children (5-18 years); assess and report: (i) a measure of academic performance; (ii) a measure of dietary intake/behaviour; and (iii) the association between dietary intake/behaviours and academic performance. Forty studies were included in the review. The majority of studies were cross-sectional in design (n = 33) and studied children aged >10 years, with very few reports in younger age groups. More than 30 different dietary assessment tools were used, with only 40% of those using a validated/standardised assessment method. Half the studies collected outcomes of academic achievement objectively from a recognised educational authority, whereas 10 studies used self-reported measures. The dietary outcomes most commonly reported to have positive associations with academic achievement were: breakfast consumption (n = 12) and global diet quality/meal patterns (n = 7), whereas negative associations reported with junk/fast food (n = 9). This review highlights that moderate associations exist for dietary intakes characterised by regular breakfast consumption, lower intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and overall diet quality with respect to outcomes of academic achievement. Future studies should consider the use of validated dietary assessment methods and standardised reporting of academic achievement. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Bonding, Achievement, and Activities: School Bonding, Academic Achievement, and Participation in Extracurricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Anissa K.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing a single-group interrupted time series design (Creswell, 2003), this pilot study examined the relationship between academic achievement, school bonding, and the extracurricular activity participation of "uninvolved" students (n=11) who participated in a voluntary support group at a suburban high school in the southeast. Results…

  4. PERSISTENCE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN NATURAL SCIENCES STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr I Krupnov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of empirical study of the association between variables of persistence and academic achievement in foreign languages. The sample includes students of the Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Natural Science at the RUDN University ( n = 115, divided into 5 subsamples, two of which are featured in the present study (the most and the least successful students subsamples. Persistence as a personality trait is studied within A.I. Krupnov’s system-functional approach. A.I. Krupnov’s paper-and-pencil test was used to measure persistence variables. Academic achievement was measured according to the four parameters: Phonetics, Grammar, Speaking and Political vocabulary based on the grades students received during the academic year. The analysis revealed that persistence displays different associations with academic achievement variables in more and less successful students subsamples, the general prominence of this trait is more important for unsuccessful students. Phonetics is the academic achievement variable most associated with persistence due to its nature, a skill one can acquire through hard work and practice which is the definition of persistence. Grammar as an academic achievement variable is not associated with persistence and probably relates to other factors. Unsuccessful students may have difficulties in separating various aspects of language acquisition from each other which should be taken into consideration by the teachers.

  5. Is alcohol consumption associated with poor academic achievement in university students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Alcohol consumption showed negative associations with motivation for and subjectively achieved academic performance. University alcohol prevention activities might have positive impact on students′ academic success.

  6. True grit and genetics: Predicting academic achievement from personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimfeld, Kaili; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Grit-perseverance and passion for long-term goals-has been shown to be a significant predictor of academic success, even after controlling for other personality factors. Here, for the first time, we use a U.K.-representative sample and a genetically sensitive design to unpack the etiology of Grit and its prediction of academic achievement in comparison to well-established personality traits. For 4,642 16-year-olds (2,321 twin pairs), we used the Grit-S scale (perseverance of effort and consistency of interest), along with the Big Five personality traits, to predict grades on the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) exams, which are administered U.K.-wide at the end of compulsory education. Twin analyses of Grit perseverance yielded a heritability estimate of 37% (20% for consistency of interest) and no evidence for shared environmental influence. Personality, primarily conscientiousness, predicts about 6% of the variance in GCSE grades, but Grit adds little to this prediction. Moreover, multivariate twin analyses showed that roughly two-thirds of the GCSE prediction is mediated genetically. Grit perseverance of effort and Big Five conscientiousness are to a large extent the same trait both phenotypically (r = 0.53) and genetically (genetic correlation = 0.86). We conclude that the etiology of Grit is highly similar to other personality traits, not only in showing substantial genetic influence but also in showing no influence of shared environmental factors. Personality significantly predicts academic achievement, but Grit adds little phenotypically or genetically to the prediction of academic achievement beyond traditional personality factors, especially conscientiousness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Academic Achievements Control by Monitoring Behavioral Factors in E-learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kosonogova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A control model is one or more functional relationships to tie student’s measureable parameters and test tasks to the assessment of the outcomes achieved. The control models are used to measure the level of academic achievements.The article surveys the academic achievement control models used in e-learning systems. It discusses a G. Rasch technique, which allows tracking the academic progress within the scope of the Item Response Theory. In traditional interpretation the G. Rasch model links the level of academic achievements and the level of the test task difficulties to the probability of their correct execution. This approach has been modified. A modified approach, firstly, takes into account the behavioral factors in measuring the level of achievements; secondly, it enables to include nonmonotonic variables in a mathematical G. Rasch model. Behavioral factors are thought of as acts committed by students when working in the e-learning system, for example, access to prompt messages (or tooltips, preview of browsing fragments of the learning content, skip of test tasks, etc. The article introduces quantitative metrics of these factors based on the fuzzy sets. Experiments are conducted to confirm a non-monotonic nature of the impact some behavioral factors have on the level of academic achievements.The results presented in the article are of practical application to measuring the level of academic achievements during e-learning process. Obtaining the objective quantitative assessments of academic achievements allows proceeding to the adaptive learning organization. The work is fulfilled within the framework of the Project RFMEF157714X0135.

  8. CAEP 2015 Academic Symposium: Current State and Recommendations to Achieve Adequate and Sustainable Funding for Emergency Medicine Academic Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Eddy S; Artz, Jennifer D; Wilkie, Ryan D; Stiell, Ian G; Topping, Claude; Belanger, François P; Afilalo, Marc; Renouf, Tia; Crocco, Anthony; Wyatt, Kelly; Christenson, Jim

    2016-05-01

    To describe the current state of academic emergency medicine (EM) funding in Canada and develop recommendations to grow and establish sustainable funding. A panel of eight leaders from different EM academic units was assembled. Using mixed methods (including a literature review, sharing of professional experiences, a survey of current EM academic heads, and data previously collected from an environmental scan), 10 recommendations were drafted and presented at an academic symposium. Attendee feedback was incorporated, and the second set of draft recommendations was further distributed to the Canadian Association Emergency Physicians (CAEP) Academic Section for additional comments before being finalized. Recommendations were developed around the funding challenges identified and solutions developed by academic EM university-based units across Canada. A strategic plan was seen as integral to achieving strong funding of an EM unit, especially when it aligned with departmental and institutional priorities. A business plan, although occasionally overlooked, was deemed an important component for planning and sustaining the academic mission. A number of recommendations surrounding philanthropy consisted of creating partnerships with existing foundations and engaging multiple stakeholders and communities. Synergy between academic and clinical EM departments was also viewed as an opportunity to ensure integration of common missions. Education and networking for current and future leaders were also viewed as invaluable to ensure that opportunities are optimized through strong leadership development and shared experiences to further the EM academic missions across the country. These recommendations were designed to improve the financial circumstances for many Canadian EM units. There is a considerable wealth of resources that can contribute to financial stability for an academic unit, and an annual networking meeting and continuing education on these issues will facilitate

  9. After exit: Academic achievement patterns of former English language learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester J. de Jong

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available With few exceptions, accountability systems for programs for English language learners (ELLs have focused on the achievement patterns of ELLs who are still considered “limited English proficient” and program evaluations have been unable to answer the question whether ELLs actually catch up with English proficient peers after attending a bilingual or English as a Second Language (ESL program. Disaggregating data for former ELLs can therefore provide important information for long-term district and program accountability. The study was concerned with the achievement patterns in English language arts, Math, and Science of former ELLs who attended a bilingual and a English as a Second Language (ESL program. It also explored whether length of program participation and grade level exited played a significant role in predicting academic achievement patterns for these exited students. Results indicate that 4th grade students more closely paralleled non- ELL students’ achievement patterns than 8th grade students, particularly for the BE students. While length of program participation is not a significant predictor of former ELLs’ academic success, exit grade does emerge as an important variable to take into consideration in setting exit guidelines.

  10. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-12-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born females, and immigrant females on their scores on teacher-assigned grades in science and on the SAIP science literacy test, and across a range of dispositions, beliefs, and behaviors suggested in the literature as predictive of achievement in science. Study findings show that Canadian-born students, particularly boys, have higher performance in the science literacy test despite their lower achievement in the science classroom and the least investments of time in doing science homework. In contrast, immigrant female students demonstrate the highest academic effort and achievement in science courses which are not matched by similar results in the science literacy test. We discuss these results in relation to different socialization experiences with science and technology that limit female and immigrant students' abilities to transfer knowledge to new situations that have not been learned in the classroom.

  11. Academic achievement despite child maltreatment: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohey, Carol; Renner, Lynette M; Hua, Lei; Zhang, Ying J; Whitney, Stephen D

    2011-09-01

    Although researchers have concluded that child maltreatment has a negative effect on children's learning and academic achievement, not all children are negatively affected by maltreatment, and some children seem to succeed academically despite being maltreated. Drawing on risk and resilience theory, we examined a broad range of potential risk, promotive, and protective factors within children and their environments along with characteristics of the maltreatment to account for variability in test scores. A national longitudinal probability sample of 702 maltreated school-aged children, ages 6-10, and their caregivers was used to predict reading and math scores among maltreated children over three years. We found that chronic maltreatment, poorer daily living skills, and lower intelligence explained a substantial proportion of the variance in maltreated children's math scores (39%), whereas type of maltreatment, poorer daily living skills and lower intelligence explained a substantial proportion of the variance in reading scores (54%) over time. Contrary to our prediction, having a behavior problem seemed to protect chronically maltreated children from poorer performance in math over time. To increase academic achievement among maltreated children, it is imperative that we prevent chronic maltreatment and help children increase their competency on daily living skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coaching: a new model for academic and career achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Deiorio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individualized education is emerging as an innovative model for physician training. This requires faculty coaching to guide learners’ achievements in academic performance, competency development, and career progression. In addition, coaching can foster self-reflection and self-monitoring using a data-guided approach to support lifelong learning. Context: Coaching differs from mentoring or advising, and its application in medical education is novel. Because of this, definitions of the concept and the constructs of coaching as applied to medical education are needed to accurately assess the coaching relationship and coaching processes. These can then be linked to learner outcomes to inform how coaching serves as a modifier of academic and competency achievement and career satisfaction. Innovation: We developed definitions and constructs for academic coaching in medical education based on review of existing education and non-education coaching literature. These constructs focus on 1 establishing relationship principles, 2 conducting learner assessments, 3 developing and implementing an action plan, and 4 assessing results and revising plans accordingly. Implication: Coaching is emerging as an important construct in the context of medical education. This article lays the vital groundwork needed for evaluation of coaching programs aimed at producing outstanding physicians.

  13. Leveraging Mindsets to Promote Academic Achievement: Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Aneeta; Savani, Krishna; Chugh, Dolly; Dweck, Carol S

    2015-11-01

    The United States must improve its students' educational achievement. Race, gender, and social class gaps persist, and, overall, U.S. students rank poorly among peers globally. Scientific research shows that students' psychology-their "academic mindsets"-have a critical role in educational achievement. Yet policymakers have not taken full advantage of cost-effective and well-validated mindset interventions. In this article, we present two key academic mindsets. The first, a growth mindset, refers to the belief that intelligence can be developed over time. The second, a belonging mindset, refers to the belief that people like you belong in your school or in a given academic field. Extensive research shows that fostering these mindsets can improve students' motivation; raise grades; and reduce racial, gender, and social class gaps. Of course, mindsets are not a panacea, but with proper implementation they can be an excellent point of entry. We show how policy at all levels (federal, state, and local) can leverage mindsets to lift the nation's educational outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Coaching: a new model for academic and career achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiorio, Nicole M; Carney, Patricia A; Kahl, Leslie E; Bonura, Erin M; Juve, Amy Miller

    2016-01-01

    Individualized education is emerging as an innovative model for physician training. This requires faculty coaching to guide learners' achievements in academic performance, competency development, and career progression. In addition, coaching can foster self-reflection and self-monitoring using a data-guided approach to support lifelong learning. Coaching differs from mentoring or advising, and its application in medical education is novel. Because of this, definitions of the concept and the constructs of coaching as applied to medical education are needed to accurately assess the coaching relationship and coaching processes. These can then be linked to learner outcomes to inform how coaching serves as a modifier of academic and competency achievement and career satisfaction. We developed definitions and constructs for academic coaching in medical education based on review of existing education and non-education coaching literature. These constructs focus on 1) establishing relationship principles, 2) conducting learner assessments, 3) developing and implementing an action plan, and 4) assessing results and revising plans accordingly. Coaching is emerging as an important construct in the context of medical education. This article lays the vital groundwork needed for evaluation of coaching programs aimed at producing outstanding physicians.

  15. Peers for Promotion: Achieving Academic Advancement through Facilitated Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockene, Judith K.; Milner, Robert J.; Thorndyke, Luanne E.; Congdon, John; Cain, Joanna M.

    2017-01-01

    The promotion process is challenging, particularly for non-tenure track faculty in academic medicine. To address this challenge, we implemented a facilitated peer mentoring program that included a structured curriculum with regular meetings, guided by two senior faculty mentors. Participants expressed satisfaction with the program, showed…

  16. Psychological maladjustment and academic achievement: a cross-cultural study of Japanese, Chinese, and American high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, D S; Chen, C; Fuligni, A J; Stevenson, H W; Hsu, C C; Ko, H J; Kitamura, S; Kimura, S

    1994-06-01

    Psychological maladjustment and its relation to academic achievement, parental expectations, and parental satisfaction were studied in a cross-national sample of 1,386 American, 1,633 Chinese, and 1,247 Japanese eleventh-grade students. 5 indices of maladjustment included measures of stress, depressed mood, academic anxiety, aggression, and somatic complaints. Asian students reported higher levels of parental expectation and lower levels of parental satisfaction concerning academic achievement than their American peers. Nevertheless, Japanese students reported less stress, depressed mood, aggression, academic anxiety, and fewer somatic complaints than did American students. Chinese students reported less stress, academic anxiety, and aggressive feelings than their American counterparts, but did report higher frequencies of depressed mood and somatic complaints. High academic achievement as assessed by a test of mathematics was generally not associated with psychological maladjustment. The only exception was in the United States, where high achievers indicated more frequent feelings of stress than did low achievers.

  17. Relationship of Academic, Physical and Social Self-Concepts of Students with Their Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Asma-Tuz; Arif, Manzoor H.; Yousuf, Muhammad Imran

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationship between self-concept and academic achievement of bachelor degree students. Female students at bachelor were considered the target population. A sample of 1500 students was selected by using two stage cluster sampling technique. An amended form of Self-Descriptive Questionnaire developed by Marsh (1985) was used…

  18. Perceived social support and academic achievement: cross-lagged panel and bivariate growth curve analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Sean P

    2012-04-01

    As students transition to post-secondary education, they experience considerable stress and declines in academic performance. Perceived social support is thought to improve academic achievement by reducing stress. Longitudinal designs with three or more waves are needed in this area because they permit stronger causal inferences and help disentangle the direction of relationships. This study uses a cross-lagged panel and a bivariate growth curve analysis with a three-wave longitudinal design. Participants include 10,445 students (56% female; 12.6% born outside of Canada) transitioning to post-secondary education from ages 15-19. Self-report measures of academic achievement and a generalized measure of perceived social support were used. An increase in average relative standing in academic achievement predicted an increase in average relative standing on perceived social support 2 years later, but the reverse was not true. High levels of perceived social support at age 15 did not protect against declines in academic achievement over time. In sum, perceived social support appears to have no bearing on adolescents' future academic performance, despite commonly held assumptions of its importance.

  19. The Impact of Time Management on Students’ Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, S. N. A. M.; Rusiman, M. S.; Gan, W. S.; Arbin, N.

    2018-04-01

    Time management is very important and it may actually affect individual’s overall performance and achievements. Students nowadays always commented that they do not have enough time to complete all the tasks assigned to them. In addition, a university environment’s flexibility and freedom can derail students who have not mastered time management skills. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the time management and academic achievement of the students. The factor analysis result showed three main factors associated with time management which can be classified as time planning, time attitudes and time wasting. The result also indicated that gender and races of students show no significant differences in time management behaviours. While year of study and faculty of students reveal the significant differences in the time management behaviours. Meanwhile, all the time management behaviours are significantly positively related to academic achievement of students although the relationship is weak. Time planning is the most significant correlated predictor.

  20. Academic Goals, Student Homework Engagement, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Antonio; Regueiro, Bibiana; Núñez, José C; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time management, and the amount of homework done. Lastly, the amount of homework done is positively related to academic achievement. The model was fit using a sample of 535 Spanish students from the last three courses of elementary school (aged 9 to 13). Findings show that: (a) academic achievement was positively associated with the amount of homework completed, (b) the amount of homework completed was related to the homework time management, (c) homework time management was associated with the approach to homework, (d) and the approach to homework, like the rest of the variables of the model (except for the time spent on homework), was related to the student's academic motivation (i.e., academic goals).

  1. Academic goals, student homework engagement, and academic achievement in Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eValle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time management, and the amount of homework done. Lastly, the amount of homework done is positively related to academic achievement. The model was fit using a sample of 535 Spanish students from the last three courses of elementary school (aged 9 to 13. Findings show that: (a academic achievement was positively associated with the amount of homework completed, (b the amount of homework completed was related to the homework time management, (c homework time management was associated with the approach to homework; (d and the approach to homework, like the rest of the variables of the model (except for the time spent on homework, was related to the student's academic motivation (i.e., academic goals.

  2. Alcohol Exposure In Utero and Child Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie von Hinke Kessler Scholder; George L. Wehby; Sarah Lewis; Luisa Zuccolo

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of alcohol exposure in utero on child academic achievement. As well as studying the effect of any alcohol exposure, we investigate the effect of the dose, pattern, and duration of exposure. We use a genetic variant in the maternal alcohol-metabolism gene ADH1B as an instrument for alcohol exposure, whilst controlling for the child's genotype on the same variant. We show that the instrument is unrelated to an extensive range of maternal and paternal characteristics and be...

  3. Objectively measured sedentary time and academic achievement in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luís; Santos, Rute; Mota, Jorge; Pereira, Beatriz; Lopes, Vítor

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between objectively measured total sedentary time and academic achievement (AA) in Portuguese children. The sample comprised of 213 children (51.6% girls) aged 9.46 ± 0.43 years, from the north of Portugal. Sedentary time was measured with accelerometry, and AA was assessed using the Portuguese Language and Mathematics National Exams results. Multilevel linear regression models were fitted to assess regression coefficients predicting AA. The results showed that objectively measured total sedentary time was not associated with AA, after adjusting for potential confounders.

  4. Snooze or Lose: High School Start Times and Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Groen, Jeffrey A.; Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff

    2017-01-01

    Many U.S. high schools start classes before 8:00 A.M., yet research on circadian rhythms suggests that students' biological clocks shift to later in the day as they enter adolescence. Some school districts have moved to later start times for high schools based on the prospect that this would increase students' sleep and academic achievement. This paper examines the effect of high school start times on student learning. We use longitudinal data from the Child Development Supplement to the Pane...

  5. Chronotype, class times, and academic achievement of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Tristan; Refinetti, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies over the years have documented an effect of human chronotypes on physiological and psychological processes. Studies evaluating the impact of an individual's chronotype on his/her academic achievement have indicated that morning chronotypes have an academic advantage over evening chronotypes. However, these studies did not account for the time of day in which the participants were being evaluated. The goal of the present study was to examine whether morning chronotypes do have an academic advantage over evening chronotypes when the time of day of classes and exams is taken into consideration. We obtained morningness-eveningness scores and course grades from 207 university students who took classes (and exams) at different times of the day. We confirmed that morning chronotypes attain better grades than evening chronotypes, although the association is weak (r 2 = 0.02). The difference persisted even after the time of day of classes and exams was taken into consideration. This is probably due to the fact that evening chronotypes are generally more sleep deprived than morning chronotypes as a result of the early schedule of most schools, which can impair their performance both early and late in the day.

  6. Effects of Achievement Motivation, Social Identity, and Peer Group Norms on Academic Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…

  7. The relationship between psychological adjustment and social protection with academic self-concept and academic achievement among high school female students in Rasht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Dadarigashti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study conducted to examine the relationship between psychological adjustment and social protection with academic self-concept and academic achievement among high school female students in Rasht. The research is descriptive correlational. The target population includes all female students studying in Rasht in 2015. By random cluster sampling method and based on the variables, 180 subjects selected. In this study, to collect data, psychological adjustment and social support, academic self-concept and academic achievement questionnaire are used. To test the hypothesis of this research, the parametric statistical Pearson correlation and regression tests are used. Moreover, all statistical operations were analyzed by using SPSS software. The research results showed that the correlation values between psychological adjustment and social support with academic self-concept and academic achievement of high school female students is statistically significant ( 01/0 > p.

  8. Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: pathways to achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, A.; Oort, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective selfregulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals),

  9. Academic Achievement in Early Adolescence: The Influence of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veas, Alejandro; Castejón, Juan-Luis; Gilar, Raquel; Miñano, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the predictive effects of intellectual ability, self-concept, goal orientations, learning strategies, popularity and parent involvement on academic achievement. Hierarchical regression analysis and path analysis were performed among a sample of 1398 high school students (mean age = 12.5; SD =.67) from eight education centers from the province of Alicante (Spain). Cognitive and non-cognitive variables were measured using validated questionnaires, whereas academic achievement was assessed using end-of-term grades obtained by students in nine subjects. The results revealed significant predictive effects of all of the variables. The model proposed had a satisfactory fit, and all of the hypothesized relationships were significant. These findings support the importance of including non-cognitive variables along with cognitive variables when predicting a model of academic achievement.

  10. Academic training and clinical placement problems to achieve nursing competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAHMATI SHARGHI, NARJES; ALAMI, ALI; KHOSRAVAN, SHAHLA; MANSOORIAN, MOHAMMAD REZA; EKRAMI, ALI

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: High quality of care is one of the requirements of nursing which depends on the nursing competency. In this connection, the aim of this research was to determine the problems related to the academic training (nursing' educational program) and clinical practice to achieve competency from the viewpoint of nurses, faculty members, and nursing students. Methods: the study was an analytical cross-sectional one. The sample consisted of the academic staff, the third and the fourth year nursing students and nurses in practice. The instrument of the study was a two-part researcher-made questionnaire with 22 questions in the theoretical- clinical realm to assess  problems related to the theoretical and clinical teaching in nursing, and 23 questions to assess the clinical functions. The questionnaire was validated in terms of both face and content validity. Its reliability, using Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, was 0.72 in the theoretical-clinical and 0.73 in the clinical realm. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were used to analyze the data, using SPSS software. Results: The results of this study indicated that from the participants’ viewpoints, the most important problems in the academic education for nursea to acquire competency were as follows: lack of academic research the clinical period (88.9%), no application of theoretical aspects of the nursing process in practice (85.6%), insufficient knowledgeable and professional educators (81.1%), the use of traditional routine-oriented methods on the wards (75.6%); also insufficient time for performance based on knowledge in relation to  the nurse's workload (86.5%), weakness and usefulness of scientific function encouragement systems in clinic (85.2%), and learnt theoretical subjects not coming into practice in clinical fields after graduation (75.6%). Conclusion: Efforts to reduce the gap between the theoretical and practical (clinical function) knowledge in educational and work environment are

  11. Longitudinal analysis of the effect of academic failure tolerance on academic achievement fluctuation in medical school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Su Jin; Kim, Miran; Chang, Ki Hong

    2016-03-01

    Academic failure tolerance (AFT) is one of the important psychological concepts in education, but its applications in medical education are rare. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of academic failure tolerance on academic achievement fluctuation among medical school students using a longitudinal research design. The subjects were 43 medical students who responded to the AFT test. This study analyzed the longitudinal data of achievement scores up to the 2nd academic year (2012-2013) among students who were divided into academic achievement improvement and decline groups. Comparing the improvement and decline groups' mean academic achievement fluctuation scores demonstrated that behavior and preferred task difficulty showed high scores whereas feeling scores were lower in the improvement group (pacademic failure, the students favored the more difficult subjects and were more assiduous in their studies. This will form an important basis for enhancing academic achievement among medical students.

  12. Relating emotional intelligence to academic achievement among university students in Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace A. Fayombo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between emotional intelligence and academic achievement among 151 undergraduate psychology students at The University of the West Indies (UWI, Barbados, making use of Barchard (2001's Emotional Intelligence Scale and an Academic Achievement Scale. Findings revealed significant positive correlations between academic achievement and six of the emotional intelligence components, and a negative correlation with negative expressivity. The emotional intelligence components also jointly contributed 48% of the variance in academic achievement. Attending to emotions was the best predictor of academic achievement while positive expressivity, negative expressivity and empathic concern were other significant predictors. Emotion-based decision-making, responsive joy and responsive distress did not make any significant relative contribution to academic achievement, indicating that academic achievement is only partially predicted by emotional intelligence. These results were discussed in the context of the influence of emotional intelligence on university students' academic achievement.

  13. Academic self-concept and academic achievement: relations and causal ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Martin, Andrew J

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. A positive self-concept is valued as a desirable outcome in many disciplines of psychology as well as an important mediator to other outcomes. AIMS. The present review examines support for the reciprocal effects model (REM) that posits academic self-concept (ASC) and achievement are mutually reinforcing, each leading to gains in the other - and its extension to other achievement domains. METHOD. We review theoretical, methodological, and empirical support for the REM. Critical features in this research are a theoretical emphasis on multidimensional perspectives that focus on specific components of self-concept and a methodological focus on a construct validity approach to evaluating the REM. RESULTS. Consistent with these distinctions, REM research and a comprehensive meta-analysis show that prior ASC has direct and indirect effects on subsequent achievement, whilst the effects of self-esteem and other non-academic components of self-concept are negligible. We then provide an overview of subsequent support for the generality of the REM for: young children, cross-cultural, health (physical activity), and non-elite (gymnastics) and elite (international swimming championships) sport. CONCLUSION. This research is important in demonstrating that increases in ASC lead to increases in subsequent academic achievement and other desirable educational outcomes. Findings confirm that not only is self-concept an important outcome variable in itself, it also plays a central role in affecting other desirable educational outcomes. Implications for educational practice are discussed. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Positive academic emotions moderate the relationship between self-regulation and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Felicidad T; Bernardo, Allan B I

    2013-06-01

    Research has shown how academic emotions are related to achievement and to cognitive/motivational variables that promote achievement. Mediated models have been proposed to account for the relationships among academic emotions, cognitive/motivational variables, and achievement, and research has supported such mediated models, particularly with negative emotions. The study tested the hypotheses: (1) self-regulation and the positive academic emotions of enjoyment and pride are positive predictors of achievement; and (2) enjoyment and pride both moderate the relationship between self-regulation and achievement. Participants were 1,345 students enrolled in various trigonometry classes in one university. Participants answered the Academic Emotions Questionnaire-Math (Pekrun, Goetz, & Frenzel, 2005) and a self-regulation scale (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991) halfway through their trigonometry class. The students' final grades in the course were regressed to self-regulation, positive emotions, and the interaction terms to test the moderation effects. Enjoyment and pride were both positive predictors of grades; more importantly, both moderated the relationship between self-regulation and grades. For students who report higher levels of both positive emotions, self-regulation was positively associated with grades. However, for those who report lower levels of pride, self-regulation was not related to grades; and, for those who reported lower levels of enjoyment, self-regulation was negatively related to grades. The results are discussed in terms of how positive emotions indicate positive appraisals of task/outcome value, and thus enhance the positive links between cognitive/motivational variables and learning. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  15. School Climate, Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement: Results from a Multi-Informant Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…

  16. Transactional Relationships between Latinos' Friendship Quality and Academic Achievement during the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebanc, Anne M.; Guimond, Amy B.; Lutgen, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether friendship quality, academic achievement, and mastery goal orientation predict each other across the transition to middle school. Participants were 146 Latino students (75 girls) followed from the end of elementary school through the first year of middle school. Measures included positive and negative friendship…

  17. The Effect of Integrating Movement into the Learning Environment of Kindergarten Children on Their Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoval, Ella; Sharir, Tal; Arnon, Michal; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the notion that integrating movement into the learning environment contributes to the academic achievements of kindergarten students. One hundred and sixty 4-6 year-old kindergarten students participated in the study for 145 days, which included pre- and post-intervention tests in language, mathematics, and…

  18. The Effects of Participation in School Instrumental Music Programs on Student Academic Achievement and School Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Kevin O.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether or not students that participated in a school sponsored instrumental music program had higher academic achievement and attendance than students that did not participate in a school sponsor instrumental music program. Units of measurement included standardized test scores and attendance, without taking into consideration…

  19. Motor coordination, working memory, and academic achievement in a normative adolescent sample: testing a mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigoli, D; Piek, J.P.; Kane, R; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement is mediated by working memory (WM) in a normative adolescent sample. Participants included 93 adolescents aged 12-16. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 provided three

  20. Chronic sleep reduction is associated with academic achievement and study concentration in higher education students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Vermeulen, M; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Gordijn, Marijke C M; Hamburger, Hans L; Meijer, Anne M; van Rijn, Karin J; Vlak, Monique; Weysen, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Inadequate sleep impairs cognitive function and has been associated with worse academic achievement in higher education students; however, studies that control for relevant background factors and include knowledge on sleep hygiene are scarce. This study examined the association of chronic sleep

  1. Academic Achievements and Study Habits of College Students of District Pulwama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Younis Illahi; Khandai, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to study the academic achievement and study habits of male and female college students of district Pulwama (J and k). The sample for the study was 410 including 193 male and 217 female college students .which was further divided into different groups of rural-urban dichotomy. For this purpose descriptive survey method was…

  2. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Adolescents: A Self-Organizing Maps Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Chenoll, Maite; Garcia-Massó, Xavier; Morales, Jose; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Solana-Tramunt, Mònica; González, Luis-Millán; Toca-Herrera, José-Luis

    2015-01-01

    The relationship among physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents has been widely studied; however, controversy concerning this topic persists. The methods used thus far to analyse the relationship between these variables have included mostly traditional lineal analysis according to the available literature. The…

  3. Investigating Grit and Its Relations with College Students' Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Hussain, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    We investigated grit and its relations with students' self-regulated learning (SRL) and academic achievement. An ethnically diverse sample of 213 college students completed an online self-report survey that included the Grit Short scale (Duckworth and Quinn "Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2)," 166-174, 2009), seven indicators of…

  4. Presenting the Students' Academic Achievement Causal Model based on Goal Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Ebrahim; Pour-Safar, Ali; Taheri, Mahdokht; Sedighi Pashaky, Abdullah; Asadi Louyeh, Ataollah

    2017-10-01

    Several factors play a role in academic achievement, individual's excellence and capability to do actions and tasks that the learner is in charge of in learning areas. The main goal of this study was to present academic achievement causal model based on the dimensions of goal orientation and learning approaches among the students of Medical Science and Dentistry courses in Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. This study is based on a cross-sectional model. The participants included 175 first and second students of the Medical and Dentistry schools in Guilan University of Medical Sciences selected by random cluster sampling [121 persons (69%) Medical Basic Science students and 54 (30.9%) Dentistry students]. The measurement tool included the Goal Orientation Scale of Bouffard and Study Process Questionnaire of Biggs) and the students' Grade Point Average. The study data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equations modeling. SPSS 14 and Amos were used to analyze the data. The results indicated a significant relationship between goal orientation and learning strategies (P<0.05). In addition, the results revealed that a significant relationship exists between learning strategies[Deep Learning (r=0.37, P<0.05), Surface Learning (r=-0.21,P<0.05)], and academic achievement.The suggested model of research is fitted to the data of the research. Results showed that the students' academic achievement model fits with experimental data, so it can be used in learning principles which lead to students' achievement in learning.

  5. Physical Activity, Fitness, Cognitive Function, and Academic Achievement in Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E; Hillman, Charles H; Castelli, Darla; Etnier, Jennifer L; Lee, Sarah; Tomporowski, Phillip; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N

    2016-06-01

    The relationship among physical activity (PA), fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncertain; thus, this position stand will provide clarity from the available science. The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: 1) among children age 5-13 yr, do PA and physical fitness influence cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function? 2) Among children age 5-13 yr, do PA, physical education (PE), and sports programs influence standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention? This study used primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on, PA, fitness, or PE/sport participation and cognition, learning, brain function/structure, academic achievement, or concentration/attention were included. Two separate searches were performed to identify studies that focused on 1) cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function and 2) standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention. PubMed, ERIC, PsychInfo, SportDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and Embase were searched (January 1990-September 2014) for studies that met inclusion criteria. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria for the first search (cognition/learning/brain), and 73 studies met inclusion criteria for the second search (academic achievement/concentration). Articles were grouped by study design as cross-sectional, longitudinal, acute, or intervention trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed for several important study parameters; therefore, results were synthesized and presented by study design. A majority of the research supports the view that physical fitness, single bouts of PA, and PA interventions benefit children's cognitive functioning. Limited evidence was available concerning the effects of PA on learning

  6. Physical Activity, Fitness, Cognitive Function, and Academic Achievement in Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Hillman, Charles H.; Castelli, Darla; Etnier, Jennifer L.; Lee, Sarah; Tomporowski, Phillip; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.

    2016-01-01

    Background The relation among physical activity (PA), fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncertain; thus, this position stand will provide clarity from the available science. Objective To answer the following questions: (1) among children aged 5-13, do PA and physical fitness influence cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function? (2) among children aged 5-13, do PA, physical education, and sports programs influence standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention? Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on, PA, fitness or physical education (PE)/sport participation and cognition, learning, brain function/structure, academic achievement, or concentration/attention were included. Data Sources Two separate searches were performed to identify studies that focused on (1) cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function; and (2) standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention. PubMed, ERIC, PsychInfo, SportDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and Embase were searched (January 1990- September 2014) for studies that met inclusion criteria. Sixty-four met inclusion criteria for the first search (cognition/learning/brain) and 73 studies met inclusion criteria for the second search (academic achievement/concentration). Study appraisal and synthesis methods Articles were grouped by study design as cross-sectional, longitudinal, acute, or intervention trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed for several important study parameters, therefore results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results A majority of the research supports the view that physical fitness, single bouts of PA, and PA interventions benefit children's cognitive functioning. Limited

  7. Relating emotional intelligence to academic achievement among university students in Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Fayombo, Grace A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between emotional intelligence and academic achievement among 151 undergraduate psychology students at The University of the West Indies (UWI), Barbados, making use of Barchard (2001)'s Emotional Intelligence Scale and an Academic Achievement Scale. Findings revealed significant positive correlations between academic achievement and six of the emotional intelligence components, and a negative correlation with negative expressivity. The emotional intel...

  8. Predictors of Academic Achievement for School-Age Children with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelsey E.; Patterson, Chavis A.; Szabo, Margo M.; Tarazi, Reem A.; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2013-01-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for neurocognitive impairment and poor academic achievement, although there is limited research on factors predicting academic achievement in this population. This study explores the relative contribution to academic achievement of a comprehensive set of factors, such as environmental…

  9. The Effects of Concealing Academic Achievement Information on Adolescents' Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Mo; Li, Juan; Yu, Guoliang; Bi, Yan-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Using an experimental design, the effect of concealing academic achievement information on adolescents' self-concept was examined in the current study. Specifically, adolescents with low academic achievement and adolescents with average to high academic achievement (N = 129) were randomly assigned to different interview contexts wherein…

  10. The Effects of Extracurricular Activities on the Academic Achievement of Seventh and Eighth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sudhir K.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the effects of extracurricular activities on academic achievement of seventh and eighth graders. This study compared the academic achievements of participants and non-participants in Mathematics and Language Arts. The three different measurements used for the academic achievement were TCAP, ThinkLink, and GPA…

  11. The Academic Achievement Gap between African American and White Students: An Exploratory Study on Reading Achievement and Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron-McCoy, La-Monica

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the academic achievement gap between upper elementary African American and White students. This study sought to assess any relationships between whether academic reading, students attitudes toward reading, and academic intrinsic motivation related to ethnicity. This study also sought to assess whether…

  12. Investigation of Academic Procrastination Prevalence and Its Relationship with Academic Self-Regulation and Achievement Motivation among High-School Students in Tehran City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Setareh; Shakoorzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the aim of Investigation of academic procrastination prevalence and its relationship with academic self-regulation and achievement motivation among high-school students in Tehran city. The sample included 624 high school students (312 Boys & 312 Girls) from different areas and regions that selected using…

  13. Statistics anxiety, state anxiety during an examination, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Arendasy, Martin

    2013-12-01

    A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical self-concept) and trait anxiety, as a general disposition to anxiety, influence experiences of anxiety as well as achievement in an examination. Participants were 284 undergraduate psychology students, 225 females and 59 males. Two weeks prior to the examination, participants completed a demographic questionnaire and measures of the STARS, the STAI, self-concept in mathematics, and interest in statistics. At the beginning of the statistics examination, students assessed their present state anxiety by the KUSTA scale. After 25 min, all examination participants gave another assessment of their anxiety at that moment. Students' examination scores were recorded. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the variables in a multivariate context. Statistics anxiety was the only variable related to state anxiety in the examination. Via state anxiety experienced before and during the examination, statistics anxiety had a negative influence on achievement. However, statistics anxiety also had a direct positive influence on achievement. This result may be explained by students' motivational goals in the specific educational setting. The results provide insight into the relationship between students' attitudes, dispositions, experiences of anxiety in the examination, and academic achievement, and give recommendations to instructors on how to support students prior to and in the examination. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Alcohol Exposure In Utero and Child Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie; Wehby, George L; Lewis, Sarah; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2014-05-01

    We examine the effect of alcohol exposure in utero on child academic achievement. As well as studying the effect of any alcohol exposure, we investigate the effect of the dose, pattern , and duration of exposure. We use a genetic variant in the maternal alcohol-metabolism gene ADH1B as an instrument for alcohol exposure, whilst controlling for the child's genotype on the same variant. We show that the instrument is unrelated to an extensive range of maternal and paternal characteristics and behaviours. OLS regressions suggest an ambiguous association between alcohol exposure in utero and children's academic attainment, but there is a strong social gradient in maternal drinking, with mothers in higher socio-economic groups more likely to drink. In stark contrast to the OLS, the IV estimates show negative effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on child educational attainment. These results are very robust to an extensive set of model specifications. In addition, we show that that the effects are solely driven by the maternal genotype, with no impact of the child's genotype.

  15. The Physical Activity Environment and Academic Achievement in Massachusetts Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sarah A; Wright, Catherine M; Boulos, Rebecca; Chomitz, Virginia R; Chui, Kenneth; Economos, Christina D; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2017-12-01

    A supportive school-based physical activity environment (PAE) is integral to children's physical activity behaviors, but less understood is its association with academic achievement. We aimed to assess the association between PAE and academic performance and whether a stronger relationship exists in lower-income schools (LIS) compared to middle-income schools (MIS). Schoolchildren (grades 3rd to 5th) were recruited from 17 Massachusetts public schools. Schools were classified based on geographic characteristics and free/reduced-price lunch (FRPL) eligibility (LIS = 7, Median FRPL = 86%; MIS = 10, Median FRPL = 20%). PAE was measured using a 10-item survey. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to examine associations between PAE and scoring Advanced/Proficient on standardized Math and English Language Arts (ELA) tests. Demographic characteristics differed between LIS (N = 278, 5% non-Hispanic white) and MIS (N = 297, 73% non-Hispanic white). In LIS, PAE was associated with Math (odds ratio = 5.40, 95% CI = 2.52-11.54 p .05). There was no relationship between PAE and MIS test scores (p > .05). Schooltime moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was not associated with test scores (p > .05). A beneficial relationship exists between a high-PAE and test scores among LIS children, suggesting that the PAE may be associated with a more supportive environment and may be more fundamentally important for lower-income students. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  16. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  17. Examining the Academic Achievement-Delinquency Relationship Among Southeast Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Laura

    2017-03-01

    The extent to which poor academic achievement is strongly related to delinquency among Southeast Asian Americans (SEAA) remains unclear; reasons are methodological limitations and aggregated findings for Asian Americans, which mask evidence that SEAA have a higher prevalence of criminality and poor academic performance than other Asian American groups. The present study examines the academic achievement-delinquency relationship in a diverse group of 1,214 SEAA using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to make causal inferences and assess whether poor academic achieving SEAA, after being matched with higher academic achieving SEAA, displayed a higher prevalence of delinquency. Findings showed that, even after matching, poor academic achieving SEAA were still more likely to exhibit delinquent behavior than those who performed academically better. Interventions targeting SEAA communities will need to focus more on improving academic achievement to directly prevent and decrease delinquent behavior.

  18. Two ecological models of academic achievement among diverse students with and without disabilities in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T; McMahon, Susan D; Keys, Christopher B

    2014-01-01

    School experiences can have positive effects on student academic achievement, yet less is known about intermediary processes that contribute to these positive effects. We examined pathways between school experiences and academic achievement among 117 low-income urban students of color, many with disabilities, who transitioned to other schools following a school closure. Using structural equation modeling, we tested two ecological models that examined the relationships among self-reported school experiences, school support, academic self-efficacy, and school-reported academic achievement. The model in which the relationship between school experiences and academic achievement is mediated by both school support and academic self-efficacy, and that takes previous academic achievement into account, was an excellent fit with the data. The roles of contextual and individual factors as they relate to academic achievement, and the implications of these findings, are discussed.

  19. Exercise and Children’s Intelligence, Cognition, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that examine the effects of exercise on children’s intelligence, cognition, or academic achievement were reviewed and results were discussed in light of (a) contemporary cognitive theory development directed toward exercise, (b) recent research demonstrating the salutary effects of exercise on adults’ cognitive functioning, and (c) studies conducted with animals that have linked physical activity to changes in neurological development and behavior. Similar to adults, exercise facilitates children’s executive function (i.e., processes required to select, organize, and properly initiate goal-directed actions). Exercise may prove to be a simple, yet important, method of enhancing those aspects of children’s mental functioning central to cognitive development. PMID:19777141

  20. Sources of Global Academic Self-Efficacy in Academically High-Achieving Females before the Onset of Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafchek, Jennifer; Kronborg, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research applying the four sources of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) to global academic self-efficacy. This qualitative study examined the sources of global academic self-efficacy in a sample of academically high-achieving females who developed disordered eating. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 participants to gain…

  1. Indirect Effects in the Peer Victimization-Academic Achievement Relation: The Role of Academic Self-Concept and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is a concern because victimized youth are more likely to have social, emotional, and academic difficulties. The current study examined the link between peer victimization and academic achievement by exploring the indirect effect of academic self-concept on two variables. The sample consisted of 140 middle school students (40%…

  2. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Students’ Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariha Gull

    2015-08-01

    group before and after intervention (p=.000. It can be concluded from results that cooperative learning activities had a positive effect on academic achievement of students enrolled in the subject of Education. This study is a contribution in knowledge body of teaching methods for social sciences. This had clarified that cooperative learning activities are equally helpful for the subject that was considered truly a lecture subject. The teachers can use this teaching method in their classes.

  3. Ethnic differences in mothering qualities and relations to academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Mills, Britain; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Dyer, Nazly; Oshri, Assaf

    2017-10-01

    Although qualities of mothering behavior have been consistently linked with children's academic outcomes, mothers from different ethnic groups may emphasize different dimensions with their children. The present investigation aims to evaluate and compare the dimensionality of mothering in low-income African American (n = 151) and Mexican American (n = 182) mothers during early childhood and its predictive utility for children's academic achievement. Video-recorded mother-child interactions with children at 2½ and 3½ years of age were rated using 6 mothering quality items from a widely used global rating system. A bifactor measurement model of these 6 items yielded a general sensitive support factor and a specific intrusive-insensitive factor. The bifactor model fit the data significantly better at both time points than either a single-factor or a 2-factor model. Invariance testing supported the stability of the measurement model across the 2 time points. Invariance testing by ethnicity indicated differences in factor loadings as well as mean levels of the specific factor of intrusive-insensitivity. The specific factor reflecting intrusive-insensitive mothering at age 2½ years was associated with poorer subsequent reading achievement for African American but not Mexican American children, suggesting the specific factor reflected qualitatively different parenting constructs for the 2 ethnic groups. Critical examination of what constitutes more optimal parenting yielded both similar and dissimilar characteristics and their relations across culturally different groups of families. Such knowledge should contribute to the development of more effective interventions for ethnically diverse families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Trait complexes and academic achievement: old and new ways of examining personality in educational contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Phillip L; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Although recent research has provided evidence for the predictive validity of personality traits in academic settings, the path to an improved understanding of the nature of personality influences on academic achievement involves a reconceptualization of both criterion and predictor construct spaces. AIMS. For the criterion space, one needs to consider student behaviours beyond grades and level of educational attainment, and include what the student does among other things outside of the classroom. For the predictor space, it is possible to bring some order to the myriad personality constructs that have been developed over the last century, by focusing on common variance among personality and other non-ability traits. METHODS. We review these conceptual issues and several empirical studies. CONCLUSIONS. We demonstrate the possible increments in understanding non-ability determinants of academic achievement that may be obtained by focusing on areas where there is a theoretical convergence between predictor and criterion spaces. 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Maltreatment Related Trauma Symptoms Affect Academic Achievement through Cognitive Functioning: A Preliminary Examination in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Ogata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect could have some deleterious impacts on both intellectual and academic performance of school students. The aim of this study was to examine relationships among child maltreatment, trauma symptoms, cognitive functioning, and academic achievement. Data were collected from child guidance centers, where maltreated children were substantiated, assessed, evaluated, protected, and treated clinically. The selection criteria for subjects included Japanese children (1 who had a history of maltreatment; (2 whose IQs were measured using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children second edition (KABC-II; and (3 whose traumatic stress was evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children alternate version (TSCC-A. Covariance structure analysis showed the model that explains the relations of trauma symptom (measured by TSCC-A on academic achievement (measured by KABC-II as being intervened by cognitive functioning (measured by KABC-II.

  6. The association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: findings from the GOALS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Martin L; De Groot, Renate H; Savelberg, Hans H; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents. Students in Grades 7 and 9 (N = 255) were included. Overall, we found no significant dose-response association between physical activity and academic achievement. However, in Grade 7 total physical activity volume (Total PA) was negatively associated with academic achievement, while moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with both academic achievement and mathematics performance. In contrast, in Grade 9 both Total PA and MVPA were positively associated with mathematics performance. In addition, the overall association between MVPA and academic achievement followed an inverted U-shaped curve. Finally, Total PA was positively associated with executive functioning, while executive functioning in turn mediated the associations between Total PA and both academic achievement and mathematics performance. These results indicate that the association between physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents is complex and might be affected by academic year, physical activity volume and intensity, and school grade.

  7. Social and Emotional Learning and Academic Achievement in Portuguese Schools: A Bibliometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóvão, Ana M; Candeias, Adelinda A; Verdasca, José

    2017-01-01

    Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) is an educational movement that is gaining ground throughout the world. We can define SEL as the capacity to recognize and manage emotions, solve problems effectively, and establish positive relationships with others. Research has demonstrated the significant role of SEL in promoting healthy student development and academic achievement. Extensive research confirms that SEL competencies: can be taught, that they promote positive development and reduce problem behaviors, and that they improve students' academic achievement and citizenship. At the international level, several rigorous studies have identified programs and practices that promote SEL. In Portugal, however, no review has yet been published regarding the implementation of SEL programs. Such a study would elucidate the current panorama of SEL programs in Portugal. This study aims to identify research on SEL programs implemented in Portuguese schools and the relationship of those programs with academic achievement. To this end, we have consulted the following databases: Scientific Repository of Open Access of Portugal (RCAAP), Online Knowledge Library (b-on), and Web of Science (WoS). The criteria were: (a) all time frames; (b) publications in either Portuguese or English; (c) programs that developed socio-emotional competencies in Portuguese schools; (d) academic levels including elementary, middle, and high school and (e) students of regular education. Few publications on SEL programs implemented in Portugal were found, although the recent decade has witnessed an upsurge of interest in the topic, principally that arising from academic research.

  8. Social and Emotional Learning and Academic Achievement in Portuguese Schools: A Bibliometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Cristóvão

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Social and Emotional Learning (SEL is an educational movement that is gaining ground throughout the world. We can define SEL as the capacity to recognize and manage emotions, solve problems effectively, and establish positive relationships with others. Research has demonstrated the significant role of SEL in promoting healthy student development and academic achievement. Extensive research confirms that SEL competencies: can be taught, that they promote positive development and reduce problem behaviors, and that they improve students' academic achievement and citizenship. At the international level, several rigorous studies have identified programs and practices that promote SEL. In Portugal, however, no review has yet been published regarding the implementation of SEL programs. Such a study would elucidate the current panorama of SEL programs in Portugal. This study aims to identify research on SEL programs implemented in Portuguese schools and the relationship of those programs with academic achievement. To this end, we have consulted the following databases: Scientific Repository of Open Access of Portugal (RCAAP, Online Knowledge Library (b-on, and Web of Science (WoS. The criteria were: (a all time frames; (b publications in either Portuguese or English; (c programs that developed socio-emotional competencies in Portuguese schools; (d academic levels including elementary, middle, and high school and (e students of regular education. Few publications on SEL programs implemented in Portugal were found, although the recent decade has witnessed an upsurge of interest in the topic, principally that arising from academic research.

  9. An explanatory model of academic achievement based on aptitudes, goal orientations, self-concept and learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano Pérez, Pablo; Castejón Costa, Juan-Luis; Gilar Corbí, Raquel

    2012-03-01

    As a result of studies examining factors involved in the learning process, various structural models have been developed to explain the direct and indirect effects that occur between the variables in these models. The objective was to evaluate a structural model of cognitive and motivational variables predicting academic achievement, including general intelligence, academic self-concept, goal orientations, effort and learning strategies. The sample comprised of 341 Spanish students in the first year of compulsory secondary education. Different tests and questionnaires were used to evaluate each variable, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to contrast the relationships of the initial model. The model proposed had a satisfactory fit, and all the hypothesised relationships were significant. General intelligence was the variable most able to explain academic achievement. Also important was the direct influence of academic self-concept on achievement, goal orientations and effort, as well as the mediating ability of effort and learning strategies between academic goals and final achievement.

  10. Is crossed laterality associated with academic achievement and intelligence? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Marta; West, Gillian; Vadillo, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Over the last century, sporadic research has suggested that people whose hand, eye, foot, or ear dominances are not consistently right- or left-sided are at special risk of suffering academic difficulties. This phenomenon is known as crossed laterality. Although the bulk of this research dates from 1960's and 1970's, crossed laterality is becoming increasingly popular in the area of school education, driving the creation of several interventions aimed at restoring or consolidating lateral dominance. However, the available evidence is fragmentary. To determine the impact of crossed laterality on academic achievement and intelligence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of articles published since 1900. The inclusion criteria for the review required that studies used one or more lateral preference tasks for at least two specific parts of the body; they included a valid measure of crossed laterality; they measured the impact of crossed laterality on academic achievement or intelligence; and they included participants between 3 and 17 years old. The final sample included 26 articles that covered a total population of 3578 children aged 5 to 12. Taken collectively, the results of these studies do not support the claim that there is a reliable association between crossed laterality and either academic achievement or intelligence. Along with this, we detected important shortcomings in the literature, such as considerable heterogeneity among the variables used to measure laterality and among the tasks utilized to measure the outcomes. The educational implications of these results are discussed.

  11. Developmental cascade models linking peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J; Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan; Zhou, Ying

    2018-03-01

    This study explored the longitudinal relations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement in Chinese primary school students. Participants were N = 945 fourth-grade students (485 boys, 460 girls; M age  = 10.16 years, SD = 2 months) attending elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Three waves of data on peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement were collected from peer nominations, self-reports, and school records, respectively. The results indicated that peer victimization had both direct and indirect effects on later depression and academic achievement. Depression also had both direct and indirect negative effects on later academic achievement, but demonstrated only an indirect effect on later peer victimization. Finally, academic achievement had both direct and indirect negative effects on later peer victimization and depression. The findings show that there are cross-cultural similarities and differences in the various transactions that exist among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Peer victimization directly and indirectly relates to depression and academic achievement. Depression directly and indirectly relates to academic achievement. Academic achievement directly and indirectly relates to depression. What the present study adds? A developmental cascade approach was used to assess the interrelations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement. Academic achievement mediates the relation between peer victimization and depression. Depression is related to peer victimization through academic achievement. Academic achievement directly and indirectly relates to peer victimization. Academic achievement is related to depression through peer victimization. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Parenting styles, adolescent substance use, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A; Rice, J

    1997-01-01

    This article investigates how children and their parents rate their parenting styles, and how this rating is associated with academic achievement, alcohol, and tobacco use. We surveyed students and their parents in two public school districts. A total of 386 matched parent-child pairs from eighth- and ninth-grade students were analyzed for parent and student classification of parents as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or mixed parenting styles. Agreement on parenting styles between parents and children was poor. Students perceived parents as less authoritative, less permissive and more authoritarian than parents considered themselves. High grades were associated with child and parent perception of higher authoritativeness, lower permissiveness, and lower authoritarianism. Child tobacco and alcohol use was associated with child perception of lower authoritativeness, and higher permissiveness while parent perception of parenting style was not associated with child substance use. This study provides further evidence that parenting styles and adolescents' perceptions of them are associated with child achievement and substance use. While we cannot determine whether child or parent perception of parenting style is more accurate, child perception is more strongly associated with grades and substance use than is parent perception. It is likely that parents would benefit from understanding how they are perceived by their children.

  13. Cognitive Ability, Academic Achievement and Academic Self-Concept: Extending the Internal/External Frame of Reference Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model depicts the relationship between achievement and self-concept in specific academic domains. Few efforts have been made to examine concurrent relationships among cognitive ability, achievement, and academic self-concept (ASC) within an I/E model framework. Aim: To simultaneously…

  14. Self-regulation of learning from the student's perspective and it relatedness with academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation of learning is an important concept for understanding and enhancing the learning process. Self-regulation skills are often associated with the student's academic achievements. The paper offers different approaches and models of learning self-regulation and stresses the most important characteristics of the process of learning self-regulation. The empirical research was aimed at establishing the connectedness of some components of self-regulation and academic achievement. The Motivation and Self-regulation of Learning Scale, based on Pintrich's model of learning self-regulation (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 was adapted for our research. The sample included 111 students from two elementary and two secondary schools. The results show that academic achievement is most positively linked with self-efficiency as a motivational factor of self-regulation, and two more factors of self-regulation, cognitive strategies and social factors showed significant correlations with academic achievement. Based on the accepted model of self-regulation of learning and the obtained results relevant pedagogic implications are discussed.

  15. Motor coordination, working memory, and academic achievement in a normative adolescent sample: testing a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P; Kane, Robert; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement is mediated by working memory (WM) in a normative adolescent sample. Participants included 93 adolescents aged 12-16. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 provided three indicators of motor coordination (Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching, and Balance), the WM Index of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV and the N-back paradigm provided two indicators of WM, and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II provided three indicators of academic achievement (Word Reading, Spelling, and Numerical Operations). Structural equation modeling, controlling for verbal comprehension, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and socioeconomic status, suggested that the association between motor coordination and academic achievement may be best understood in terms of a mechanism whereby motor coordination (specifically, Aiming and Catching skills) has an indirect impact on academic outcomes via WM. These findings have important implications for the assessment and treatment of motor coordination and learning difficulties as well as in increasing the understanding of the possible neural mechanisms underpinning the relationship between these areas.

  16. Longitudinal Relationships of Fitness, Physical Activity, and Weight Status With Academic Achievement in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchert, Vivien; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    To examine associations of cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity (PA) and weight status with academic achievement 1 year later. In addition, the mediating role of psychological variables was tested. Longitudinal analyses included 1011 German students (M = 14.1 years, SD = 0.6 years). Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined with the 20 m shuttle run test. Compliance with PA guidelines was assessed through questionnaire. Weight status was based on body mass index percentiles. As proxy of academic achievement students' self-reported grades in Mathematics and German in their midterm report were averaged. Mediation analyses were conducted at follow-up testing general self-efficacy, depressed affect, and attention/hyperactivity problems. High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness predicted higher educational attainment (p = .007), while we found no longitudinal association for PA and weight status (p > .253). However, students being insufficiently physically active at baseline but meet PA guidelines at follow-up showed a significant improvement in educational attainment. The cross-sectional association between PA and academic achievement was mediated by students' general self-efficacy. High fitness in adolescence is associated with higher subsequent academic achievement. The promotion of PA might benefit school performance because of enhanced fitness levels in the long-term and positive influences of PA in the shortterm. The association between weight status and educational attainment remains controversial. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  17. Determining the Effects of LMS Learning Behaviors on Academic Achievement in a Learning Analytic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS, which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this purpose, the participating students’ online learning behaviors in LMS were examined by using learning analytics for 14 weeks, and the relationship between students’ behaviors and their academic achievements was analyzed, followed by an analysis of their views about the influence of LMS on their academic achievement. The present study, in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected, was carried out with the explanatory mixed method. A total of 71 undergraduate students participated in the study. The results revealed that the students used LMSs as a support to face-to-face education more intensively on course days (at the beginning of the related lessons and at nights on course days and that they activated the content elements the most. Lastly, almost all the students agreed that LMSs helped increase their academic achievement only when LMSs included such features as effectiveness, interaction, reinforcement, attractive design, social media support, and accessibility.

  18. Forming of Students’ Academic Achievement Integral Indicator Based on Aggregation Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sakulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the problem to form students’ academic achievement integral indicator using aggregation of ratings of individual disciplines based on expert knowledge.The goal is to improve the objectivity and accuracy of students’ academic achievement integral indicator. The current practice of above-mentioned integral indicator forming faces a number of challenges. And the need to make decisions based on fuzzy and subjective factors is the most important of them. Traditional approaches to forming the students’ academic achievement integral indicator include weighted arithmetic mean as aggregation operators.No additive aggregation operator including arithmetic mean allows us to formalize interdependence or mutual dependence of evaluations. Therefore, traditional approaches cannot be applied to formalize expert knowledge about the mutual dependence of evaluations. Apparatus of fuzzy measures and integrals is suitable for the formalization of such phenomena.An approach to formalization of expert knowledge based on application of fuzzy measures and Choquet integral as an aggregation operator was proposed.Method based on fuzzy measures’ entropy maximization was chosen to identify fuzzy measures under the proposed approach. This method allows us to obtain the least specific fuzzy measure which is limited by means of expert preferences.It is noted that during fuzzy measure identification there may be situations which suggest no solution.To prevent such situations it is necessary to work carefully on expert training of integral indicator formation using fuzzy measures and Choquet integral.Proposed approach to expert knowledge formalization is not so far mentioned in wellknown publications.Experimental formation of integrated academic achievement indicators using this method showed that resulting aggregation operator allows to formalize expert knowledge which is not possible to formalize using traditional approaches.The described approach to

  19. Cognitive ability, academic achievement and academic self-concept: extending the internal/external frame of reference model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S J

    2012-06-01

    Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model depicts the relationship between achievement and self-concept in specific academic domains. Few efforts have been made to examine concurrent relationships among cognitive ability, achievement, and academic self-concept (ASC) within an I/E model framework. To simultaneously examine the influences of domain-specific cognitive ability and grades on domain self-concept in an extended I/E model, including the indirect effect of domain-specific cognitive ability on domain self-concept via grades. Tenth grade respondents (628 male, 452 female) to a national adolescent survey conducted in Taiwan. Respondents completed surveys designed to measure maths and verbal aptitudes. Data on Maths and Chinese class grades and self-concepts were also collected. Statistically significant and positive path coefficients were found between cognitive ability and self-concept in the same domain (direct effect) and between these two constructs via grades (indirect effect). The cross-domain effects of either ability or grades on ASC were negatively significant. Taiwanese 10th graders tend to evaluate their ASCs based on a mix of ability and achievement, with achievement as a mediator exceeding ability as a predictor. In addition, the cross-domain effects suggest that Taiwanese students are likely to view Maths and verbal abilities and achievements as distinctly different. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  20. The Role of Authoritative and Authoritarian Parenting in the Early Academic Achievement of Latino Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonwoo; Calzada, Esther J.; Barajas-Gonzalez, R. Gabriela; Huang, Keng-Yen; Brotman, Laurie M.; Castro, Ashley; Pichardo, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Early academic achievement has been shown to predict high school completion, but there have been few studies of the predictors of early academic success focused on Latino students. Using longitudinal data from 750 Mexican and Dominican American families, this study examined a cultural model of parenting and early academic achievement. While Latino…

  1. Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in a Cohort of Danish School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mikkel P.; Mortensen, Rikke N.; Vardinghus-Nielsen, Henrik; Franch, Jesper; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Bøggild, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Time spent on physical activity in elementary school has been altered to improve core academics. However, little is known about the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement. We examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and investigated the influence of parental socioeconomic status…

  2. Academic Achievement and Personality in University Students Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Brambring, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study compared academic achievement by sighted versus visually impaired students at Polish universities and analyzed potential between-group differences on various personality traits and their impact on academic grades. Although there was no main effect of visual status on academic achievement, there were some significant differences between…

  3. Academic Achievement and Risk Factors for Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Middle School and Early High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendarski, Nardia; Sciberras, Emma; Mensah, Fiona; Hiscock, Harriet

    Examine academic achievement of students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the early high school period and identify potentially modifiable risk factors for low achievement. Data were collected through surveys (adolescent, parent, and teacher) and direct assessment of Australian adolescents (12-15 yr; n = 130) with ADHD in early high school (i.e., US middle and high school grades). Academic achievement outcomes were measured by linking to individual performance on the National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) tests, direct assessment of reading and math, and teacher report of academic competence. Linear regression models examined associations between adolescent, parent/family, and school factors and NAPLAN domain scores. Students with ADHD had lower NAPLAN scores on all domains and fewer met minimum academic standards in comparison with state benchmarks. The poorest results were for persuasive writing. Poor achievement was associated with lower intelligence quotient across all academic domains. Adolescent inattention, bullying, poor family management, male sex, and attending a low socioeconomic status school were associated with lower achievement on specific domains. Students with ADHD are at increased academic risk during the middle school and early high school period. In addition to academic support, interventions targeting modifiable factors including inattention, bullying, and poor family management may improve academic achievement across this critical period.

  4. Intelligence and Academic Achievement of Adolescents with Craniofacial Microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speltz, Matthew L; Wallace, Erin R; Collett, Brent R; Heike, Carrie L; Luquetti, Daniela V; Werler, Martha M

    2017-09-01

    The authors compared the IQ and academic achievement of adolescents with craniofacial microsomia (cases) and unaffected children (controls). Among cases, the authors analyzed cognitive functioning by facial phenotype. The authors administered standardized tests of intelligence, reading, spelling, writing, and mathematics to 142 cases and 316 controls recruited from 26 cities across the United States and Canada. Phenotypic classification was based on integrated data from photographic images, health history, and medical chart reviews. Hearing screens were conducted for all participants. After adjustment for demographics, cases' average scores were lower than those of controls on all measures, but the magnitude of differences was small (standardized effect sizes, -0.01 to -0.3). There was little evidence that hearing status modified case-control group differences (Wald p > 0.05 for all measures). Twenty-five percent of controls and 38 percent of cases were classified as having learning problems (adjusted OR, 1.5; 95 percent CI, 0.9 to 2.4). Comparison of cases with and without learning problems indicated that those with learning problems were more likely to be male, Hispanic, and to come from lower income, bilingual families. Analyses by facial phenotype showed that case-control group differences were largest for cases with both microtia and mandibular hypoplasia (effect sizes, -0.02 to -0.6). The highest risk of cognitive-academic problems was observed in patients with combined microtia and mandibular hypoplasia. Developmental surveillance of this subgroup is recommended, especially in the context of high socioeconomic risk and bilingual families. Given the early stage of research on craniofacial microsomia and neurodevelopment, replication of these findings is needed. Risk, II.

  5. Internet gaming disorder in Lebanon: Relationships with age, sleep habits, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawi, Nazir S; Samaha, Maya; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-03-01

    Background and aims The latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a disorder that needs further research among different general populations. In line with this recommendation, the primary objective of this was to explore the relationships between IGD, sleep habits, and academic achievement in Lebanese adolescents. Methods Lebanese high-school students (N = 524, 47.9% males) participated in a paper survey that included the Internet Gaming Disorder Test and demographic information. The sample's mean average age was 16.2 years (SD = 1.0). Results The pooled prevalence of IGD was 9.2% in the sample. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that IGD was associated with being younger, lesser sleep, and lower academic achievement. While more casual online gamers also played offline, all the gamers with IGD reported playing online only. Those with IGD slept significantly less hours per night (5 hr) compared with casual online gamers (7 hr). The school grade average of gamers with IGD was the lowest among all groups of gamers, and below the passing school grade average. Conclusions These findings shed light on sleep disturbances and poor academic achievement in relation to Lebanese adolescents identified with IGD. Students who are not performing well at schools should be monitored for their IGD when assessing the different factors behind their low academic performance.

  6. Investigating the Impact of Lighting Educational Spaces on Learning and Academic Achievement of Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Gilavand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In modern education, physical space is considered as a dynamic factor in students' educational activities. This study was conducted to investigating the impact of lighting educational spaces on learning and academic achievement of elementary students. Materials and Methods At a cross-sectional study (2015-2016, a total of 210 students were selected randomly as sample of study. Cluster sampling was done by appropriate allocation and questionnaires were randomly divided among students. Data collection tools included Hermance’s achievement motivation questionnaire and researcher-constructed questionnaire (observation checklist to examine the physical parameters of learning environment lighting and interviews with students. Data of study were analyzed using SPSS- 21 software. Results Results of this study showed that lighting educational spaces has a significant impact on learning and academic achievement of elementary school students in Ahvaz, Iran (P

  7. Perceived Academic Control and Academic Emotions Predict Undergraduate University Student Success: Examining Effects on Dropout Intention and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respondek, Lisa; Seufert, Tina; Stupnisky, Robert; Nett, Ulrike E.

    2017-01-01

    The present study addressed concerns over the high risk of university students' academic failure. It examined how perceived academic control and academic emotions predict undergraduate students' academic success, conceptualized as both low dropout intention and high achievement (indicated by GPA). A cross-sectional survey was administered to 883 undergraduate students across all disciplines of a German STEM orientated university. The study additionally compared freshman students (N = 597) vs. second-year students (N = 286). Using structural equation modeling, for the overall sample of undergraduate students we found that perceived academic control positively predicted enjoyment and achievement, as well as negatively predicted boredom and anxiety. The prediction of dropout intention by perceived academic control was fully mediated via anxiety. When taking perceived academic control into account, we found no specific impact of enjoyment or boredom on the intention to dropout and no specific impact of all three academic emotions on achievement. The multi-group analysis showed, however, that perceived academic control, enjoyment, and boredom among second-year students had a direct relationship with dropout intention. A major contribution of the present study was demonstrating the important roles of perceived academic control and anxiety in undergraduate students' academic success. Concerning corresponding institutional support and future research, the results suggested distinguishing incoming from advanced undergraduate students. PMID:28326043

  8. A Research Synthesis of the Associations between Socioeconomic Background, Inequality, School Climate, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Ruth; Moore, Hadass; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2017-01-01

    Educational researchers and practitioners assert that supportive school and classroom climates can positively influence the academic outcomes of students, thus potentially reducing academic achievement gaps between students and schools of different socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Nonetheless, scientific evidence establishing directional…

  9. Neuropsychological and Academic Achievement Correlates of Abnormal WISC-R Verbal-Performance Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger, Robert J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…

  10. Disparities in academic achievement and health: the intersection of child education and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscella, Kevin; Kitzman, Harriet

    2009-03-01

    Recent data suggest that that the United States is failing to make significant progress toward the Healthy People 2010 goal of eliminating health disparities. One missing element from the US strategy for achieving this goal is a focus on gaps in child development and achievement. Academic achievement and education seem to be critical determinants of health across the life span and disparities in one contribute to disparities in the other. Despite these linkages, national policy treats child education and health as separate. Landmark education legislation, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, is due for Congressional reauthorization. It seeks to eliminate gaps in academic child achievement by 2014. It does so by introducing accountability for states, school districts, and schools. In this special article, we review health disparities and contributors to child achievement gaps. We review changes in achievement gaps over time and potential contributors to the limited success of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, including its unfunded mandates and unfounded assumptions. We conclude with key reforms, which include addressing gaps in child school readiness through adequate investment in child health and early education and reductions in child poverty; closing the gap in child achievement by ensuring equity in school accountability standards; and, importantly, ensuring equity in school funding so that resources are allocated on the basis of the needs of the students. This will ensure that schools, particularly those serving large numbers of poor and minority children, have the resources necessary to promote optimal learning.

  11. Association of lifestyle habits and academic achievement in Norwegian adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Tonje H; Torstveit, Monica K

    2014-08-11

    While healthy lifestyle habits are generally assumed to be important for high academic achievement, there has been little research on this topic among adolescents. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the associations between several lifestyle habits and academic achievement in adolescent girls and boys. The study included 2,432 Norwegian adolescents, 15-17 years old. A self-report questionnaire was used to assess dietary-, physical activity-, smoking- and snuffing habits and academic achievement. Logistic regression models were adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and parental education. In both girls and boys, high academic achievement was associated with a regular consumption of breakfast (AOR: 3.30 (2.45-4.45) and AOR: 1.76 (1.32-2.34), respectively) and lunch (AOR: 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and AOR: 1.43 (1.09-1.89), respectively), and in boys, with a regular consumption of dinner (AOR: 1.44 (1.16-1.79)) and a regular meal pattern in general (AOR: 1.50 (1.10 - 2.03)). In both girls and boys, high academic achievement was associated with a high intake of fruit and berries (AOR: 2.09 (1.51-2.88) and AOR: 1.47 (1.04-2.07), respectively), and in girls, with a high intake of vegetables (AOR: 1.82 (1.30-2.53)). In both girls and boys, high academic achievement was associated with a high leisure time physical activity level (AOR: 1.51 (1.10-2.08) and AOR: 1.39 (1.05-1.85), respectively) and use of active commuting (AOR: 1.51 (1.10-2.08) and AOR: 1.72 (1.26-2.35), respectively). In both girls and boys, high academic achievement was associated with a low intake of lemonade (AOR: 0.42 (0.27-0.64) and AOR: 0.67 (0.48-0.94), respectively), and in girls, with a low intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (AOR: 0.47 (0.35- 0.64)) and salty snacks (AOR: 0.63 (0.47-0.85)). Lastly, high academic achievement was inversely associated with smoking and snuffing in both girls (AOR: 0.18 (0.12-0.25) and AOR: 0.25 (0.17-0.37), respectively) and boys (AOR: 0.37 (0.25-0.54) and AOR: 0

  12. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems.

  13. Trait emotional intelligence influences on academic achievement and school behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroveli, Stella; Sánchez-Ruiz, María José

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) refers to individuals' emotion-related self-perceptions (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The children's trait EI sampling domain provides comprehensive coverage of their affective personality. Preliminary evidence shows that the construct has important implications for children's psychological and behavioural adjustment. AIMS. This study investigates the associations between trait EI and school outcomes, such as performance in reading, writing, and maths, peer-rated behaviour and social competence, and self-reported bullying behaviours in a sample of primary school children. It also examines whether trait EI scores differentiate between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 565 children (274 boys and 286 girls) between the ages of 7 and 12 (M((age)) = 9.12 years, SD= 1.27 years) attending three English state primary schools. METHOD. Pupils completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), the Guess Who peer assessment, the Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Bullying Behaviour Scale. Additional data on achievement and SEN were collected from the school archives. RESULTS. As predicted by trait EI theory, associations between trait EI and academic achievement were modest and limited to Year 3 children. Higher trait EI scores were related to more nominations from peers for prosocial behaviours and fewer nominations for antisocial behaviour as well as lower scores on self-reported bulling behaviours. Furthermore, SEN students scored lower on trait EI compared to students without SEN. CONCLUSIONS. Trait EI holds important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Megan M; Cameron, Claire E; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P; Acock, Alan C; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start) were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA) model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics.

  15. Predictors of Early Growth in Academic Achievement: The Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. McClelland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Children’s behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM, and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics.

  16. Stress and academic achievement in students of dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Evaristo-Chiyong, Teresa; Departamento Académico de Estomatología Preventiva y Social de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Chein-Villacampa, Sylvia; Departamento Académico de Estomatología Preventiva y Social de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate academic stress and its impact in the academic performance of students of dentistry. Methodology: we worked with a probabilistic sample of 186 dental students who completed the semester 2014-1, stratified by year of study: first (n = 37); second (n = 29); third (n = 44); fourth (n = 36) and fifth (n = 40) and single randomly selected. The measurement of academic stress variable was performed through the SISCO inventory validated questionnaire, which a...

  17. Association between circadian preference and academic achievement: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Natale, Vincenzo; Randler, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The association between circadian preference and academic achievement has been assessed through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The literature searches retrieved 1647 studies; 31 studies, with a total sample size of 27 309 participants, fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. With reference to all these 31 studies, before running the meta-analysis, the sign of the correlation between the investigated variables was set in a way that a positive correlation showed that eveningness was related to worse academic performance. The meta-analysis yielded a small overall effect size of 0.143 (CI [0,129; 0,156]) under a fixed effects model (Z = 20.584, p academic performance, both in school pupils and university students; for the first time, it has been shown that such relationship changes over time, being weaker in university students.

  18. Analysis of the Relation between Academic Procrastination, Academic Rational/Irrational Beliefs, Time Preferences to Study for Exams, and Academic Achievement: A Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinc; Bulus, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between academic rational/irrational beliefs, academic procrastination, and time preferences to study for exams and academic achievement by using the structural equation model. The sample consisted of 281 undergraduate students who filled in questionnaires at the 7-week-long summer course.…

  19. The Relationship Between Academic Achievement, Peer Acceptance, and Social Impact in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Ann Marie Berghout; Draper, Dianne C.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of academic achievement to four categories of social status including popular, rejected, isolated, and amiable, and to the variables of peer acceptance and social impact. Subjects were 145 elementary school children, grades 3 through 6. The children responded to a questionnaire designed to assess peer acceptance as well as rejection. Data consisted of (a) acceptance scores based on the predominance of either acceptance or rejection...

  20. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE TREADMILL WALKING ON COGNITIVE CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive te...

  1. Elementary Students' Effortful Control and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Teacher-Student Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M.; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Berger, Rebecca H.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Southworth, Jody; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between effortful control in kindergarten and academic achievement one year later (N = 301), and whether teacher–student closeness and conflict in kindergarten mediated the association. Parents, teachers, and observers reported on children's effortful control, and teachers reported on their perceived levels of closeness and conflict with students. Students completed the passage comprehension and applied problems subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson tests of achievement, as well as a behavioral measure of effortful control. Analytical models predicting academic achievement were estimated using a structural equation model framework. Effortful control positively predicted academic achievement even when controlling for prior achievement and other covariates. Mediation hypotheses were tested in a separate model; effortful control positively predicted teacher–student closeness and strongly, negatively predicted teacher–student conflict. Teacher–student closeness and effortful control, but not teacher–student conflict, had small, positive associations with academic achievement. Effortful control also indirectly predicted higher academic achievement through its positive effect on teacher–student closeness and via its positive relation to early academic achievement. The findings suggest that teacher–student closeness is one mechanism by which effortful control is associated with academic achievement. Effortful control was also a consistent predictor of academic achievement, beyond prior achievement levels and controlling for teacher–student closeness and conflict, with implications for intervention programs on fostering regulation and achievement concurrently. PMID:28684888

  2. The Flipped Classroom Model and Academic Achievement: A Pre and Posttest Comparison Groups Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Heather Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Student academic achievement is of prime concern in the American education system because academic success (i.e. achievement) has been shown to be a predictor of success in later life and is crystallized in the United States Department of Education's mission statement "...to promote student achievement and preparation for global…

  3. Association between Schoolwide Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports and Academic Achievement: A 9-Year Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Kathleen; Cross, Richard W.; Smolkowski, Keith; Strycker, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term impact of schoolwide positive behavioural interventions and supports (PBIS) on student academic achievement. In this quasi-experimental study, academic achievement data were collected over 9 years. The 21 elementary, middle, and high schools that achieved moderate to high fidelity to the Save & Civil Schools'…

  4. Elementary Students' Effortful Control and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Teacher-Student Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Berger, Rebecca H; Spinrad, Tracy L; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Silva, Kassondra M; Southworth, Jody; Thompson, Marilyn S

    This study evaluated the association between effortful control in kindergarten and academic achievement one year later ( N = 301), and whether teacher-student closeness and conflict in kindergarten mediated the association. Parents, teachers, and observers reported on children's effortful control, and teachers reported on their perceived levels of closeness and conflict with students. Students completed the passage comprehension and applied problems subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson tests of achievement, as well as a behavioral measure of effortful control. Analytical models predicting academic achievement were estimated using a structural equation model framework. Effortful control positively predicted academic achievement even when controlling for prior achievement and other covariates. Mediation hypotheses were tested in a separate model; effortful control positively predicted teacher-student closeness and strongly, negatively predicted teacher-student conflict. Teacher-student closeness and effortful control, but not teacher-student conflict, had small, positive associations with academic achievement. Effortful control also indirectly predicted higher academic achievement through its positive effect on teacher-student closeness and via its positive relation to early academic achievement. The findings suggest that teacher-student closeness is one mechanism by which effortful control is associated with academic achievement. Effortful control was also a consistent predictor of academic achievement, beyond prior achievement levels and controlling for teacher-student closeness and conflict, with implications for intervention programs on fostering regulation and achievement concurrently.

  5. The Relationship between Sleep Quality and Academic Achievement with Migraine Headaches among Alborz Medical Sciences University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sadati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Considering the issue of sleep quality in medical students as a stratum of society who are concerned with human health and its relationship with other psychological variables (in particular academic achievement and headaches seems essential. So, the present study was done to evaluate the relationship between Sleep Quality and academic achievement with migraine headaches. Materials and Methods: The present study was descriptive _ correlation. The population in this study includes all the students in Alborz Medical Sciences University in the academic year of 2014. 256 students (156 females and 100 males who were selected according to research entrance criteria by stratified sampling method; and they answered to the Sleep of Quality Test and Examine Migraine Headaches Symptom Questionnaires. Also, the mean of first term scores were considered as an index of the academic achievement. The data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software. Results: The results showed that there were statistically significant correlation between migraine headaches with academic achievement, Sleep of Quality and substandard mental sleep quality, delay into going to sleep, sleep disorders, taking hypnotic pills, and daily function disorder; and sleep disorders, daily function disorder, academic achievement and taking hypnotic pills could predict and explain 25/6 changes associated to migraine headaches. Conclusion: Those students with inappropriate Sleep of Quality; they experienced more migraine headaches and failure in academic achievements.

  6. Study on personality dimension negative emotionality affecting academic achievement among Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and overseas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagat V

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vidya Bhagat,1 Mainul Haque,2 Nordin Bin Simbak,1 Kamarudin Jaalam3 1Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine and Defense Health, National Defence University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3USM-KLE International Medical Program, Belgaum, Karnataka, India Abstract: Personality dimension negative emotionality is known to be associated with academic achievement. The present study focuses on the influence of negative emotionality (neuroticism on the medical students’ academic achievements. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the negative emotionality scores among the first year Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and India, further to find out the association between negative emotionality and their academic achievements. The current study sample includes 60 first year Malaysian medical students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, and USM-KLE IMP, Belgaum, India. They were selected by convenient sampling technique. The Medico-Psychological questionnaire was used to find out the negative emotionality scores among the students and these scores were compared with academic scores. The data were analyzed using SPSS- 20. Thus, the study result goes with the prediction that there is a significant correlation between academic achievement and negative emotionality. We concluded that negative emotionality has a negative impact on medical student’s academic achievement regardless of the fact whether they study in their own country or overseas. Keywords: academic achievement, negative emotionality, Malay, medical students, Malaysia

  7. The Relationship between Students' Attitudes towards School, Values of Education, Achievement Motivation and Academic Achievement in Gondar Secondary Schools, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnew, Asrat

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between students' attitudes towards school, values of education, achievement motivation and academic achievement. Accordingly, the study adopted a correlation research design. To achieve the objectives of the study, 362 students using systematic sampling technique were taken from grade 9 students of…

  8. The Relationship among Egyptian Adolescents' Perception of Parental Involvement, Academic Achievement, and Achievement Goals: A Mediational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.

    2006-01-01

    A structural equation modelling analysis was used to test the mediating effect of achievement goal factors on the relationship between Egyptian adolescents' perception of parental involvement and academic achievement. The perception of Parental Involvement Scale and Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to a sample of 255 first-year…

  9. Presenting the students’ academic achievement causal model based on goal orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EBRAHIM NASIRI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors play a role in academic achievement, individual’s excellence and capability to do actions and tasks that the learner is in charge of in learning areas. The main goal of this study was to present academic achievement causal model based on the dimensions of goal orientation and learning approaches among the students of Medical Science and Dentistry courses in Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: This study is based on a cross-sectional model. The participants included 175 first and second year students of the Medical and Dentistry schools in Guilan University of Medical Sciences selected by random cluster sampling [121 persons (69% Medical Basic Science students and 54 (30.9% Dentistry students]. The measurement tool included the Goal Orientation Scale of Bouffard and Study Process Questionnaire of Biggs and the students’ Grade Point Average. The study data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equations modeling. SPSS 14 and Amos were used to analyze the data. Results: The results indicated a significant relationship between goal orientation and learning strategies (P<0.05. In addition, the results revealed that a significant relationship exists between learning strategies [Deep Learning (r=0.37, P<0.05, Surface Learning (r=-0.21, P<0.05], and academic achievement. The suggested model of research is fitted to the data of the research. Conclusion: Results showed that the students’ academic achievement model fits with experimental data, so it can be used in learning principles which lead to students’ achievement in learning.

  10. An Analysis of Academic Achievement Policies by the Municipal Boards of Education

    OpenAIRE

    河野, 和清

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the actual situation and tasks of the academic achievement policies by the municipal boards of education, through the survey administered to 765 municipal superintendents of schools. Data from the questionnaire provide interesting results. First, many boards of education implement a variety of academic achievement policies focusing on not only pupil’s academic achievement improvement in itself but also establishing a foundation for the pupil’s acade...

  11. Longitudinal relationship between social skills and academic achievement in a gender perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsen, Ann Margareth

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies found that girls have higher academic achievement than boys in most school subjects. Teachers’ grading of academic achievement seems to be based not only on students’ knowledge but also their social skills, and teachers tend to assess girls as having better social skills than boys. The main aim of this study was to examine through multilevel analysis the extent to which teacher-rated social skills predicted teacher-rated academic achievement in Norwegian, mathematics and Engl...

  12. International note: between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangyang, Liu

    2012-08-01

    The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that academic achievement was largely domain-general in nature. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Academic Dishonesty among Gifted and High-Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    Gifted high school students are essentially absent in the research concerning academic integrity; however, over the past few years, educators of gifted students have noticed an increase in the occurrences of academic dishonesty among students in gifted classrooms (Abilock, 2009). This research may be analyzed to provide some insight into the…

  14. Project Success: Helping Probationary Students Achieve Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    Project Success is designed to help students on academic probation improve their performance so that they can return to good academic standing at their university. This article describes the program so institutions can consider its use in their efforts to address retention issues on their campus. Research that studies the program's effectiveness…

  15. Executive functions, visual-motor coordination, physical fitness and academic achievement: Longitudinal relations in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M

    2018-04-01

    The present longitudinal study included different school readiness factors measured in kindergarten with the aim to predict later academic achievement in second grade. Based on data of N = 134 children, the predictive power of executive functions, visual-motor coordination and physical fitness on later academic achievement was estimated using a latent variable approach. By entering all three predictors simultaneously into the model to predict later academic achievement, significant effects of executive functions and visual-motor coordination on later academic achievement were found. The influence of physical fitness was found to be substantial but indirect via executive functions. The cognitive stimulation hypothesis as well as the automaticity hypothesis are discussed as an explanation for the reported relations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. EXAMINING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SPORTS SCIENCES FACULTY STUDENTS: THE CASE OF FIRAT UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal GÜNDOĞDU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The most emphasised aspect of teaching is student achievement. It is the reason for teaching and the product teaching produces. The potential of a well - qualified workforce with high academic achievement is thought to be the primary factor in the development of a society. This study was designed to examine the academic achievement of students studying at the Sports Sciences Faculty of Fırat University in terms of a set of variables. The entire population was included, and the study was conducted with 684 students (80.1%. A que stionnaire developed by the researchers was used as the data - gathering instrument. The data were evaluated using a statistical package program, and presented as frequency, percentage and means. The Kruskal Wallis and Mann - Whitney U tests were used to analy se the data. This research found that there was a significant relationship between the students’ academic achievement scores and their age, gender, mothers' state of employment, place of residence, departments, year of study and type of education (p<0.05.

  17. The mediating role of cognitive ability on the relationship between motor proficiency and early academic achievement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoret, Geneviève; Bigras, Nathalie; Duval, Stéphanie; Lemay, Lise; Tremblay, Tania; Lemire, Julie

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motor proficiency and academic achievement in 7 years-old children. A mediating model in which the relation between motor proficiency and academic achievement is mediated by cognitive ability was tested. Participants included 152 children from the longitudinal study Jeunes enfants et leurs milieux de vie (Young Children and their Environments). Motor proficiency was evaluated with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT2), cognitive ability with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and academic achievement with the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II (WIAT II). Results showed that motor proficiency, cognitive ability and academic achievement were positively correlated with each other. A structural equation modeling analysis revealed that motor proficiency had a positive effect on academic achievement through an indirect path via cognitive ability. These results highlight the fundamental importance of motor skills in children's academic achievement in early school years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Neighborhood Context and School Climate in School-Level Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Linda D; McMahon, Susan D; Jason, Leonard A

    2018-03-30

    In recent years, the quality of education available to children has become increasingly dependent on the social and economic demographics of neighborhoods in which the children live. This study assesses the role of community violence in explaining the relation between socio-economic status (SES) and academic outcomes and the potential of positive school climate to promote academic achievement. With a sample of 297 Chicago public elementary schools, we examine community-level and school-level data and use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping to illustrate how school academic achievement coincides with neighborhood economics and crime statistics. Results support the hypothesized mediation, such that lower SES was associated with lower academic achievement, and violent crime partially mediated this relation. School climate was positively associated with academic achievement, and student safety significantly moderated the relation between SES and academic achievement. Implications for theory, research, and intervention are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  19. Self-concept and academic achievement: a meta-analysis of longitudinal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-10-01

    The relation between self-concept and academic achievement was examined in 39 independent and longitudinal samples through the integration of meta-analysis and path analysis procedures. For relations with more than 3 independent samples, the mean observed correlations ranged from .20 to .27 between prior self-concept and subsequent academic achievement and from .19 to .25 between prior academic achievement and subsequent self-concept. Globality/specificity of self-concept was the only significant moderating factor in the relation between (a) prior self-concept and subsequent academic achievement and (b) prior academic achievement and subsequent self-concept. As high self-concept is related to high academic performance and vice-versa, intervention programs that combine self-enhancement and skill development should be integrated. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Academic achievement in first-year Portuguese college students: the role of academic preparation and learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Paula; Guisande, Adelina M; Almeida, Leandro S; Páramo, Fernanda M

    2009-06-01

    This paper analyses the role of academic preparation and learning strategies in the prediction of first-year Portuguese college students' academic achievement, considering students' sex and academic field attended. A sample of 445 first-year college students (68.5% female) from the University of Minho (25.8% enrolled in economics, 35.3% in science/technology, and 38.9% in humanities degrees) participated in the study. Students answered a questionnaire on learning strategies in the classroom at the end of the first semester, which consisted of 44 items organized in five dimensions: comprehensive approach, surface approach, personal competency perceptions, intrinsic motivation, and organization of study activities. Academic achievement (grade point average at the end of first year) and academic preparation (students' higher education access mark) were obtained through the academic records of the university. Results showed that academic preparation was the strongest predictor of first-year academic achievement, and only marginal additional variance was explained by learning strategies as assessed by the self-reported questionnaire. There were sex and academic field differences, but these variables do not seem strong enough to affect the results, although the different percentages of variance captured by each model and the different weights associated to higher education access mark, stimulate the use of these and/or other personal and contextual variables when analysing the phenomenon.

  1. The Effectiveness of Multiple Intelligence Applications on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp Yurt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of multiple intelligence applications on academic achievement in Turkey. Accordingly, findings of independent research studies aimed to find out effectiveness of multiple intelligence applications are gathered in a meta-analysis. Total of 71 studies, 66 dissertations and 7 articles were included in the meta-analysis meeting the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis calculations resulted that the multiple intelligence applications have a large and positive effect on academic achievement. It was also revealed that the effect of multiple intelligence applications vary by application period. Thus, as the application period increases, the effect of multiple intelligence application also increases. On the other side, effectiveness of the applications does not vary by; the type of the course, level of the class and the type of the research. Some suggestions made according to the research findings.

  2. [Relationships between regulation strategies, emotional and behavioral engagement, and academic achievement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Takatoyo; Ito, Takamichi; Tanaka, Kenshiro

    2016-10-01

    This study examined relationships among regulation strategies, emotional and behavioral engagement, and academic achievement. Regulation strategies included metacognitive and motivational regulation strategies. Motivational regulation strategies have three subtypes: autonomous regulation strategies, cooperative strategies, and performance strategies. A self-reported survey was administered to 199 undergraduates from four universities, and an examination was conducted three months after the survey. Path analysis showed that use of metacognitive strategies was positively correlated with test scores, mainly through behavioral engagement. Moreover, use of autonomous regulation strategies was positively correlated with emotional engagement. Emotional engagement was positively correlated with test scores via behavioral engagement. On the other hand, use of performance strategies was negatively correlated with emotional engagement. Use of cooperative strategies was not correlated with engagement. These results indicate that each regulation strategy has a different function in learning, and that engagement mediates the relationships between various regulation strategies and academic achievement.

  3. It Feels Good to Learn Where I Belong: School Belonging, Academic Emotions, and Academic Achievement in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Un Fong; Chen, Wei-Wen; Zhang, Jingqi; Liang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between school belonging, academic emotions, and academic achievement in Macau adolescents. A survey of 406 junior high school students in Macau was used to collect information on the extent to which these students felt accepted and respected in their schools (school belonging), the emotions they experienced…

  4. Academic Self-Concept and Academic Achievement of African American Students Transitioning from Urban to Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, La Shawn Catrice

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement in African American students who have experienced geographic mobility was the focus of this study. Specifically, this study used quantitative methods to assess African American students from counties in Iowa to obtain information about the students' relocation from urban to…

  5. The relation between perceived parental involvement and academic achievement: the roles of Taiwanese students' academic beliefs and filial piety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Ho, Hsiu-Zu

    2012-01-01

    The excellent academic performance among East-Asian students has drawn international attention from educators and psychologists. However, the process that underlies student academic achievement for this particular group has rarely been documented. The present study examines how the relation between perceived parental involvement and Taiwanese students' academic achievement is mediated by student academic beliefs (i.e., beliefs about effort, academic self-concept, and perceived control). The study further explores whether this mediating effect varies with types of filial piety. Participants were 468 first-year students from colleges and universities in Taiwan. Multiple-group mediating models were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicated that, for the Taiwanese sample, students' academic beliefs mediated the relation between perceived parental involvement and academic achievement. Furthermore, the mediational effect was significant for the reciprocal filial type, but not for the authoritarian filial type. The importance of the quality of the parent-child relationship and the internalization process related to children's assumptions of their parents' educational values indicate the need for a contextual view when examining predictors of student academic achievement.

  6. Self-Concept, Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement: Strategies for Maintaining Self-Esteem in Students Experiencing Academic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Francisco; Almeida, Leandro S.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research into the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement shows that despite differences in academic self-evaluation, students' global self-representations do not differ as a result of their grades at school. In this study, we will analyse the strategies that underachievers used to maintain their self-esteem at an…

  7. The Role of Perceived Parental Autonomy Support in Academic Achievement of Asian and Latino American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying Hong; Yau, Jenny; Bonner, Patricia; Chiang, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Driven by an overarching conceptual framework adapted from Self-Determination Theory, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of perceived parental academia autonomy support vs. academic planning control on the interrelated variables of adolescents' self-esteem, academic motivation, and academic achievement, using…

  8. Academic and Social Achievement Goals: Their Additive, Interactive, and Specialized Effects on School Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Aims: Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and…

  9. Collective Responsibility, Academic Optimism, and Student Achievement in Taiwan Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that collective efficacy, faculty trust in students and parents, and academic emphasis together formed a single latent school construct, called academic optimism. In the U.S., academic optimism has been proven to be a powerful construct that could effectively predict student achievement even after controlling for…

  10. Faculty Sense of Academic Optimism and Its Relationship to Students' Achievement in Well Performing High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromartie, Michael Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the organizational characteristics and behaviors that contribute to sustaining a culture of academic optimism as a mechanism of student achievement. While there is a developing research base identifying both the individual elements of academic optimism as well as the academic optimism construct itself as…

  11. Determinants of Individual Academic Achievement - Group Selectivity Effects Have Many Dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwick, Th.

    2013-01-01

    This paper measures determinants of individual academic achievements. In addition to an extensive list of individual characteristics, skills obtained during study and socio-economic background factors, many dimensions of selectivity into academic study subjects are shown to drive individual academic

  12. Determinants of individual academic achievement - Group selectivity effects have many dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwick, Th.

    2013-01-01

    This paper measures determinants of individual academic achievements. In addition to an extensive list of individual characteristics, skills obtained during study and socio-economic background factors, many dimensions of selectivity into academic study subjects are shown to drive individual academic

  13. Exploring the relations among physical fitness, executive functioning, and low academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, A.G.M.; Hartman, E.; Kostons, D.; Visscher, C.; Bosker, R.J.

    Physical fitness seems to be related to academic performance, at least when taking the role of executive functioning into account. This assumption is highly relevant for the vulnerable population of low academic achievers because their academic performance might benefit from enhanced physical

  14. Physically Active Math and Language Lessons Improve Academic Achievement : A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J,; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Doolaard, Simone; Bosker, Roel J.; Visscher, Chris

    OBJECTIVES: Using physical activity in the teaching of academic lessons is a new way of learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an innovative physically active academic intervention ("Fit & Vaardig op School" [F&V]) on academic achievement of children. METHODS: Using

  15. Visuospatial processing in adolescents with critical congenital heart disease: Organization, integration, and implications for academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean Jaworski, Jessica L; White, Matthew T; DeMaso, David R; Newburger, Jane W; Bellinger, David C; Cassidy, Adam R

    2018-05-01

    Among the most significant factors affecting quality of life in individuals with critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) are neurodevelopmental challenges, including deficits in visuospatial processing and academic achievement. Few studies have compared outcomes across CCHD subgroups, despite their significant differences in anatomy/physiology and medical/surgical courses. This study compared visuospatial processing abilities using the Developmental Scoring System for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (DSS-ROCF) across groups of adolescents with CCHD (d-transposition of the great arteries [TGA, n = 139], Tetralogy of Fallot [TOF, n = 68], single-ventricle cardiac anatomy requiring the Fontan operation [SVF, n = 145]) and a group of healthy controls (CTR, n = 111), and examined the validity of visuospatial processing in predicting concurrent academic outcomes. The CCHD subgroups were found to differ in Organization, ps academic skills, all CCHD groups scored lower than the CTR group, ps ≤ .007; however, the CCHD groups were not different from each other, ps > .23. The regression results showed that the DSS-ROCF Style rating (reflecting integration) accounted for a small yet statistically significant portion of unique variance in "assembled" academic outcomes, over and above the variance already accounted for by DSS-ROCF Organization, p increase their risk for academic underachievement.

  16. Postsecondary academic achievement and first-episode psychosis: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Laurence; Rousseau, Jacqueline; Fortier, Pierre; Mottard, Jean-Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Postsecondary academic achievement as an area of functional recovery for young adults living with mental illness has received little research attention. This study had three purposes: to compare rates of participation, performance, and satisfaction in postsecondary education between young adults with first-episode psychosis and closely matched young adults; to identify characteristics associated with academic participation; and to explore the processes associated with educational experiences. One hundred young adults ages 18 to 30 participated in the study. Quantitative data on academic engagement, performance, and satisfaction, and qualitative data (n = 52) on academic experiences were integrated through pattern analyzes. Young adults with psychosis were significantly less likely to be engaged in postsecondary education. No difference appeared for the extent of engagement, but performance and satisfaction were lower among participants with psychosis. Participants engaged in reflexive decision making to access postsecondary education and to maintain adequate academic performance. Strategies used by successful students with mental illness were identified. Assessment and intervention focused on educational needs and skills should become landmark practices for psychiatric rehabilitation practitioners, including occupational therapists. © CAOT 2015.

  17. The impact of interactive engagement methods on students' academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Hofman, Adriaan; Winnips, Koos; Beetsma, Yta

    2014-01-01

    Interactive engagement (IE) is a process that promotes students' conceptual understanding through activities, combined with immediate feedback from peers and/or instructors. The present study investigates the impact of IE on students' academic performance, using the comprehensive model of

  18. Healthy lifestyle behaviours are positively and independently associated with academic achievement: An analysis of self-reported data from a nationally representative sample of Canadian early adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate E.; Davison, Colleen M.; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The lifestyle behaviours of early adolescents, including diet, physical activity, sleep, and screen usage, are well established contributors to health. These behaviours have also been shown to be associated with academic achievement. Poor academic achievement can additionally contribute to poorer health over the lifespan. This study aims to characterize the associations between health behaviours and self-reported academic achievement. Methods Data from the 2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (n = 28,608, ages 11–15) were analyzed. Students provided self-report of academic achievement, diet, physical activity, sleep duration, recreational screen time usage, height, weight, and socioeconomic status. Multi-level logistic regression was used to assess the relationship of lifestyle behaviours and body weight status with academic achievement while considering sex, age, and socioeconomic status as potential confounders. Results All health behaviours exhibited independent associations with academic achievement. Frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, breakfast and dinner with family and regular physical activity were positively associated with higher levels of academic achievement, while frequent consumption of junk food, not meeting sleep recommendations, and overweight and obesity were negatively associated with high academic achievement. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that lifestyle behaviours are associated with academic achievement, potentially identifying these lifestyle behaviours as effective targets to improve academic achievement in early adolescents. These findings also justify investments in school-based health promotion initiatives. PMID:28753617

  19. Healthy lifestyle behaviours are positively and independently associated with academic achievement: An analysis of self-reported data from a nationally representative sample of Canadian early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin L; Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate E; Davison, Colleen M; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    The lifestyle behaviours of early adolescents, including diet, physical activity, sleep, and screen usage, are well established contributors to health. These behaviours have also been shown to be associated with academic achievement. Poor academic achievement can additionally contribute to poorer health over the lifespan. This study aims to characterize the associations between health behaviours and self-reported academic achievement. Data from the 2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (n = 28,608, ages 11-15) were analyzed. Students provided self-report of academic achievement, diet, physical activity, sleep duration, recreational screen time usage, height, weight, and socioeconomic status. Multi-level logistic regression was used to assess the relationship of lifestyle behaviours and body weight status with academic achievement while considering sex, age, and socioeconomic status as potential confounders. All health behaviours exhibited independent associations with academic achievement. Frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, breakfast and dinner with family and regular physical activity were positively associated with higher levels of academic achievement, while frequent consumption of junk food, not meeting sleep recommendations, and overweight and obesity were negatively associated with high academic achievement. The present findings demonstrate that lifestyle behaviours are associated with academic achievement, potentially identifying these lifestyle behaviours as effective targets to improve academic achievement in early adolescents. These findings also justify investments in school-based health promotion initiatives.

  20. Healthy lifestyle behaviours are positively and independently associated with academic achievement: An analysis of self-reported data from a nationally representative sample of Canadian early adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Faught

    Full Text Available The lifestyle behaviours of early adolescents, including diet, physical activity, sleep, and screen usage, are well established contributors to health. These behaviours have also been shown to be associated with academic achievement. Poor academic achievement can additionally contribute to poorer health over the lifespan. This study aims to characterize the associations between health behaviours and self-reported academic achievement.Data from the 2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (n = 28,608, ages 11-15 were analyzed. Students provided self-report of academic achievement, diet, physical activity, sleep duration, recreational screen time usage, height, weight, and socioeconomic status. Multi-level logistic regression was used to assess the relationship of lifestyle behaviours and body weight status with academic achievement while considering sex, age, and socioeconomic status as potential confounders.All health behaviours exhibited independent associations with academic achievement. Frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, breakfast and dinner with family and regular physical activity were positively associated with higher levels of academic achievement, while frequent consumption of junk food, not meeting sleep recommendations, and overweight and obesity were negatively associated with high academic achievement.The present findings demonstrate that lifestyle behaviours are associated with academic achievement, potentially identifying these lifestyle behaviours as effective targets to improve academic achievement in early adolescents. These findings also justify investments in school-based health promotion initiatives.

  1. Longitudinal follow-up of academic achievement in children with autism from age 2 to 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Bal, Vanessa H; Lord, Catherine

    2018-03-01

    This study examined early predictors of and changes in school-age academic achievement and class placement in children referred for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at age 2. Of 111 ASD referrals, 74 were diagnosed with ASD at age 18. Regression analyses were performed to identify age 3 predictors of achievement in arithmetic, passage comprehension, word reading, and spelling at ages 9 and 18. Linear Mixed Models were used to examine predictors of academic growth between ages 9 and 18. Academic skills varied widely at 9 and 18, but were mostly commensurate with or higher than expected given cognitive levels. However, 22% (age 9) and 32% (age 18) of children with average/above average IQ showed below/low average achievement in at least one academic domain. Children who remained in general education/inclusion classrooms had higher achievement than those who moved to special education classrooms. Stronger cognitive skills at age 3 and 9 predicted better academic achievement and faster academic growth from age 9 to 18. Parent participation in intervention by age 3 predicted better achievement at age 9 and 18. Many children with ASD achieve basic academic skills commensurate with or higher than their cognitive ability. However, more rigorous screening for learning difficulties may be important for those with average cognitive skills because a significant minority show relative academic delays. Interventions targeting cognitive skills and parent participation in early treatment may have cascading effects on long-term academic development. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Test Anxiety and Academic Performance among Undergraduates: The Moderating Role of Achievement Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Anthony Gbenro; Balogun, Shyngle Kolawole; Onyencho, Chidi Victor

    2017-02-13

    This study investigated the moderating role of achievement motivation in the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Three hundred and ninety three participants (192 males and 201 females) selected from a public university in Ondo State, Nigeria using a purposive sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to measures of test anxiety and achievement motivation. Three hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results showed that test anxiety had a negative impact on academic performance (β = -.23; p academic performance (β = .38; p academic performance (β = .10; p < .01). These findings suggest that university management should design appropriate psycho-educational interventions that would enhance students' achievement motivation.

  3. Gender Differences in Academic Achievement: Is Writing an Exception to the Gender Similarities Hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Scheiber, Caroline; Hajovsky, Daniel B; Schwartz, Bryanna; Kaufman, Alan S

    2015-01-01

    The gender similarities hypothesis by J. S. Hyde ( 2005 ), based on large-scale reviews of studies, concludes that boys and girls are more alike than different on most psychological variables, including academic skills such as reading and math (J. S. Hyde, 2005 ). Writing is an academic skill that may be an exception. The authors investigated gender differences in academic achievement using a large, nationally stratified sample of children and adolescents ranging from ages 7-19 years (N = 2,027). Achievement data were from the conormed sample for the Kaufman intelligence and achievement tests. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause, and multigroup mean and covariance structure models were used to test for mean differences. Girls had higher latent reading ability and higher scores on a test of math computation, but the effect sizes were consistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. Conversely, girls scored higher on spelling and written expression, with effect sizes inconsistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. The findings remained the same after controlling for cognitive ability. Girls outperform boys on tasks of writing.

  4. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  5. Health and academic achievement: cumulative effects of health assets on standardized test scores among urban youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickovics, Jeannette R; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  6. From Guide to Practice: Improving Your After School Science Program to Increase Student Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous science organizations, such as NASA, offer educational outreach activities geared towards after school. For some programs, the primary goal is to grow students' love of science. For others, the programs are also intended to increase academic achievement. For those programs looking to support student learning in out-of-school time environments, aligning the program with learning during the classroom day can be a challenge. The Institute for Education Sciences, What Works Clearinghouse, put together a 'Practice Guide' for maximizing learning time beyond the regular school day. These practice guides provide concrete recommendations for educators supported by research. While this guide is not specific to any content or subject-area, the recommendations provided align very well with science education. After school science is often viewed as a fun, dynamic environment for students. Indeed, one of the recommendations to ensure time is structured according to students' needs is to provide relevant and interesting experiences. Given that our after school programs provide such creative environments for students, what other components are needed to promote increased academic achievement? The recommendations provided to academic achievement, include: 1. Align Instruction, 2. Maximize Attendance and Participation, 3. Adapt Instruction, 4. Provide Engaging Experiences, and 5. Evaluate Program. In this session we will examine these five recommendations presented in the Practice Guide, discuss how these strategies align with science programs, and examine what questions each program should address in order to provide experiences that lend themselves to maximizing instruction. Roadblocks and solutions for overcoming challenges in each of the five areas will be presented. Jessica Taylor will present this research based on her role as an author on the Practice Guide, 'Improving Academic Achievement in Out-of-School Time' and her experience working in various informal science

  7. Cluster (school) RCT of ParentCorps: impact on kindergarten academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther J; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Palamar, Joseph J; Petkova, Eva

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of an early childhood, family-centered, school-based intervention on children's kindergarten academic achievement. This was a cluster (school) randomized controlled trial with assessments from pre-kindergarten (pre-k) entry through the end of kindergarten. The setting was 10 public elementary schools with 26 pre-k classes in 2 school districts in urban disadvantaged neighborhoods serving a largely black, low-income population. Participants were 1050 black and Latino, low-income children (age 4; 88% of pre-k population) enrolled in 10 schools over 4 years. Universal intervention aimed to promote self-regulation and early learning by strengthening positive behavior support and effective behavior management at home and school, and increasing parent involvement in education. Intervention included after-school group sessions for families of pre-k students (13 2-hour sessions; co-led by pre-k teachers) and professional development for pre-k and kindergarten teachers. The outcome measures were standardized test scores of kindergarten reading, writing, and math achievement by independent evaluators masked to intervention condition (primary outcome); developmental trajectories of teacher-rated academic performance from pre-k through kindergarten (secondary outcome). Relative to children in control schools, children in intervention schools had higher kindergarten achievement test scores (Cohen's d = 0.18, mean difference = 2.64, SE = 0.90, P = .03) and higher teacher-rated academic performance (Cohen's d = 0.25, mean difference = 5.65, SE = 2.34, P = .01). Early childhood population-level intervention that enhances both home and school environments shows promise to advance academic achievement among minority children from disadvantaged, urban neighborhoods.

  8. Relationship of weight status, physical activity and screen time with academic achievement in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Marina, Raquel

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of weight status, physical activity and screen time with academic achievement in Chilean adolescents. The present cross-sectional study included 395 adolescents. The International Obesity Task Force cut-off points were used to define the weight status. Physical activity was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and screen time was assessed using several questions about television, videogame and computer use. Academic achievement was measured using the mean of the grades obtained in mathematics and language subjects. In both genders, adolescents with obesity and excessive screen time earned worse grades compared to their non-obese peers and their peers that complied with screen time recommendations. The logistic regression analysis showed that adolescents with obesity, classified with medium-low physical activity and excessive screen time recommendations (excess ≥2h/day) are less likely to obtain high academic achievement (boys: OR=0.26; girls: OR=0.23) compared to their non-obese peers, high levels of physical activity and those who comply with the current screen time recommendations. Similar results were observed in adolescents with obesity and classified with medium-low physical activity (boys: OR=0.46; girls: OR=0.33) or excessive screen time (boys: OR=0.35; girls: OR=0.36) compared to adolescents with high levels of physical activity and those who complied with the screen time recommendations, respectively. This study shows that when combined, obesity, low-medium levels of physical activity and excessive screen time might be related to poor academic achievement. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Academic-Based and Aerobic-Only Movement Breaks: Are There Differential Effects on Physical Activity and Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Alicia L; Fettrow, Elizabeth; Erwin, Heather; Ahn, Soyeon; Farook, Minnah

    2018-02-23

    This study investigated the academic achievement and physical activity differences between types of activity breaks implemented in elementary school classrooms. This study evaluated whether there was a difference between the impact of purely aerobic-based movement breaks and the impact of academic-based breaks on children's academic achievement outcomes. Participants included 460 children in 3rd grade through 5th grade at 4 elementary schools. There were 176 children in the schools that engaged in academic-based breaks and 284 in the schools that engaged in aerobic-only breaks. Schools were randomly assigned at the school level to implement either aerobic movement breaks with academic content infused within the breaks ("academic-based breaks") or aerobic-only movement breaks without the addition of academic material ("aerobic-only breaks") for approximately 10 min of activity per day. Math and reading achievement as well as children's step counts were measured before and after the intervention. A mixed-effects (multilevel-growth) model, in which the repeated measures of individuals nested within a classroom are analyzed, was used to answer all posited research questions. Small to moderate effect sizes (ES) indicating gains in reading achievement (ES = .13) and steps (ES = .33) were found for classrooms that used aerobic-only movement breaks compared with those that used academic-based breaks. The type of movement breaks that are implemented in classrooms may have differential outcomes for children's achievement and activity levels. Results from the present study indicate that children who were given aerobic-only movement breaks had slightly larger gains in reading achievement and physical activity levels than children who were given academic-based breaks.

  10. Exploring the relations among physical fitness, executive functioning, and low academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, A G M; Hartman, E; Kostons, D; Visscher, C; Bosker, R J

    2018-03-01

    Physical fitness seems to be related to academic performance, at least when taking the role of executive functioning into account. This assumption is highly relevant for the vulnerable population of low academic achievers because their academic performance might benefit from enhanced physical fitness. The current study examined whether physical fitness and executive functioning are independent predictors of low mathematics and spelling achievement or whether the relation between physical fitness and low achievement is mediated by specific executive functions. In total, 477 students from second- and third-grade classes of 12 primary schools were classified as either low or average-to-high achievers in mathematics and spelling based on their scores on standardized achievement tests. Multilevel structural equation models were built with direct paths between physical fitness and academic achievement and added indirect paths via components of executive functioning: inhibition, verbal working memory, visuospatial working memory, and shifting. Physical fitness was only indirectly related to low achievement via specific executive functions, depending on the academic domain involved. Verbal working memory was a mediator between physical fitness and low achievement in both domains, whereas visuospatial working memory had a mediating role only in mathematics. Physical fitness interventions aiming to improve low academic achievement, thus, could potentially be successful. The mediating effect of executive functioning suggests that these improvements in academic achievement will be preceded by enhanced executive functions, either verbal working memory (in spelling) or both verbal and visuospatial working memory (in mathematics). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement of Zahedan Medical Sciences Students in 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Azizollah Arbabisarjou; Sadegh Zare; Mahnaz Shahrakipour; Gholamreza Ghoreishinia

    2016-01-01

    Students with higher self-efficacy utilize higher tendency, endeavor, and strength in performing academic tasks and feel ensure of their ability, thus self-efficacy can influence their academic achievement. Current study was conducted aiming at investigating relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement of students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. It is a descriptive – analytical research on 190 students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences during 2015 – 2016. ...

  12. A Study of the Relationship between Building Conditions and Student Academic Achievement in Pennsylvania's High School

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Sean

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school building conditions and student academic achievement in Pennsylvania's high schools. Research questions analyzed by step-wise multiple regression were: (a) Is there a relationship between overall school building conditions and student academic achievement in Pennsylvania's high schools when socio-economic status (SES) is held constant?; (b) Is there a relationship between the cosmetic conditions of school facilities and student academic ...

  13. Predictors of Academic Achievement among Physical Education and Sports Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ertuğrul Şahin; Resul Çekin; İlknur Yazıcılar Özçelik

    2018-01-01

    Although a number of studies have attempted to determine the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of students’ academic performance, there are few studies in the literature that examine the correlates of academic achievement for physical education and sports undergraduate students. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the academic achievement of first-year physical education and sports students and their sociodemographics, attitudes towards the teaching profe...

  14. The Efficacy of Motivation Management Training for Students' Academic Achievement and Self-Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazan Hasanzadeh; Leyla Vatandoust

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of motivation management training for students' academic achievement and self-concept. The pretest–posttest quasi-experimental study used a cluster random sampling method to select subjects for the experimental (20 subjects) and control (20 subjects) groups. posttest was conducted with both groups to determine the effect of the training. An academic achievement and academic self-concept questionnaire (grade point average requirement) was used for the pretest a...

  15. Exploring the long-term associations between adolescents’ music training and academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Luiz, Carlos dos; Mónico, Lisete S.; Almeida, Leandro S.; Coimbra, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    There is a positive relationship between learning music and academic achievement, although doubts remain regarding the mechanisms underlying this association. This research analyses the academic performance of music and non-music students from seventh to ninth grade. The study controls for socioeconomic status, intelligence, motivation and prior academic achievement. Data were collected from 110 adolescents at two time points, once when the students were between 11 and 14 years old in the sev...

  16. Teacher behavior with peer-rejected students: Associations with peer status and academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, M.M.H.G.; Mainhard, M.T.; Boor-Klip, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Rejection by peers puts students at risk for limited academic achievement. The present study first explored teacher behavior and then examined the role of teacher behavior in changes in peer liking status as well as academic achievement for 228 peer-rejected students (Mage = 10.47). Frequency and

  17. The Mediating Role of School Motivation in Linking Student Victimization and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Dempsey, Allison G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of student school motivation in linking student victimization experiences and academic achievement among a nationally representative sample of students in 10th grade. Structural equation modeling supported that there were significant associations between student victimization and academic achievement for high…

  18. Correlates of Academic Procrastination and Mathematics Achievement of University Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsola, Mojeed Kolawole; Tella, Adedeji; Tella, Adeyinka

    2007-01-01

    Procrastination is now a common phenomenon among students, particularly those at the higher level. And this is doing more harm to their academic achievement than good. Therefore, this study examined the correlates between academic procrastination and mathematics achievement among the university mathematics undergraduate students. The study used a…

  19. Longitudinal Relationship between Social Skills and Academic Achievement in a Gender Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Ann Margareth

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies found that girls have higher academic achievement than boys in most school subjects. Teachers' grading of academic achievement seems to be based not only on students' knowledge but also their social skills, and teachers tend to assess girls as having better social skills than boys. The main aim of this study was to examine through…

  20. International Note: Between-Domain Relations of Chinese High School Students' Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangyang, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that…

  1. Post-Formalist Explanation of Academic Achievement: Exploring the Contribution of John Ogbu and Joe Kincheloe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    The present paper attempts to interrogate the existing approach to understand academic achievement in the mainstream educational psychology. The paper explores the persistent question of "why academic achievement gap" in the modern society from the cultural ecological and postformalist framework of John Ogbu and Joe Kincheloe…

  2. Parental Encouragement in Relation to Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Barathi, C.

    2016-01-01

    Parental Encouragement refers to the general process undertaken by the parents to initiative and directs the behaviour of the children towards high academic achievement. The present study aims to probe the relationship between Parental Encouragement and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students. Survey method was employed and the…

  3. Disentangling the relationship between children’s motor ability, executive function and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Fabienne; Benzing, Valentin; Jäger, Katja; Conzelmann, Achim; Roebers, Claudia M.; Pesce, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Even though positive relations between children’s motor ability and their academic achievement are frequently reported, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Executive function has indeed been proposed, but hardly tested as a potential mediator. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the mediating role of executive function in the relationship between motor ability and academic achievement, also investigating the individual contribution of specific motor abilities to the hypothesized mediated linkage to academic achievement. At intervals of ten weeks, 236 children aged between 10 and 12 years were tested in terms of their motor ability (t1: cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, motor coordination), core executive functions (t2: updating, inhibition, shifting), and academic achievement (t3: mathematics, reading, spelling). Structural equation modelling revealed executive function to be a mediator in the relation between motor ability and academic achievement, represented by a significant indirect effect. In separate analyses, each of the three motor abilities were positively related to children’s academic achievement. However, only in the case of children’s motor coordination, the mediation by executive function accounted for a significance percentage of variance of academic achievement data. The results provide evidence in support of models that conceive executive function as a mechanism explaining the relationship that links children’s physical activity-related outcomes to academic achievement and strengthen the advocacy for quality physical activity not merely focused on health-related physical fitness outcomes, but also on motor skill development and learning. PMID:28817625

  4. Homework and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Gökhan; Sentürk, Cihad; Cigerci, Fatih Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of homework assignments on students' academic achievement. This meta-analysis sought an answer to the research question: "What kind of effect does homework assignment have on students' academic achievement levels?" In this research, meta-analysis was adopted to determine the…

  5. Disentangling the relationship between children's motor ability, executive function and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mirko; Egger, Fabienne; Benzing, Valentin; Jäger, Katja; Conzelmann, Achim; Roebers, Claudia M; Pesce, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Even though positive relations between children's motor ability and their academic achievement are frequently reported, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Executive function has indeed been proposed, but hardly tested as a potential mediator. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the mediating role of executive function in the relationship between motor ability and academic achievement, also investigating the individual contribution of specific motor abilities to the hypothesized mediated linkage to academic achievement. At intervals of ten weeks, 236 children aged between 10 and 12 years were tested in terms of their motor ability (t1: cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, motor coordination), core executive functions (t2: updating, inhibition, shifting), and academic achievement (t3: mathematics, reading, spelling). Structural equation modelling revealed executive function to be a mediator in the relation between motor ability and academic achievement, represented by a significant indirect effect. In separate analyses, each of the three motor abilities were positively related to children's academic achievement. However, only in the case of children's motor coordination, the mediation by executive function accounted for a significance percentage of variance of academic achievement data. The results provide evidence in support of models that conceive executive function as a mechanism explaining the relationship that links children's physical activity-related outcomes to academic achievement and strengthen the advocacy for quality physical activity not merely focused on health-related physical fitness outcomes, but also on motor skill development and learning.

  6. Children's Shyness, Peer Acceptance, and Academic Achievement in the Early School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2017-01-01

    In this two-wave longitudinal study, concurrent and longitudinal relations among teacher-reported shyness, peer acceptance, and academic achievement were examined (Ns = 162 and 155; and Ms[subscript age] = 6.09 and 7.07 years). Concurrently, at both times, shyness was negatively related to peer acceptance and academic achievement, and peer…

  7. Impact of Socio-Emotional Adjustment on Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls in Jammu and Kashmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…

  8. The effect of self-regulated learning on academic achievement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of self-regulated learning on academic achievement of secondary school physics students. ... The study was carried out in Onitsha education zone of Nigeria with a population of 12,104 science students. A sample of 60 ... Keywords: self-regulated learning, academic achievement in physics, learning physics ...

  9. The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Mediating the Relationship between Emerging Adulthood and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Farukh; Hanafi, Zahyah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Academic achievement of students can be fostered and improved if they learn to apply emotional intelligence in their emerging adulthood. The core objective of this research is to test the relationship between emerging adulthood and academic achievement by taking emotional intelligence as a mediator. Methodology: The sample comprises 90…

  10. Motivational Factors in Continuing Education an Academic Achievement of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei Ling; Pang, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between motivational factors in continuing education and academic achievement of adult learners. The study is conducted due to a lack of research pertaining to academic achievement among adult learners particularly in Malaysia. Methodology: A random sample of 150 part-time adult…

  11. School Segregation and Racial Academic Achievement Gaps. CEPA Working Paper No. 15-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is clear that racial segregation is linked to academic achievement gaps, the mechanisms underlying this link have been debated since Coleman published his eponymous 1966 report. In this paper, I examine 16 distinct measures of segregation to determine which is most strongly associated with academic achievement gaps. I find very clear…

  12. The Chinese High School Student's Stress in the School and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 466 Chinese high school students, we examined the relationships between Chinese high school students' stress in the school and their academic achievements. Regression mixture modelling identified two different classes of the effects of Chinese high school students' stress on their academic achievements. One class contained 87% of…

  13. Longitudinal Analysis of Chinese High School Student's Stress in School and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In previous research, few studies have examined the effects of adolescents' stress in school on the change rates of their academic achievement. In the present study, we seek to examine the longitudinal relationships between adolescents' stress in school and the change rates of their academic achievement. The results indicated that for those whose…

  14. Academic Stress in an Achievement Driven Era: Time and School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowka, Karyn Anne Kowalski

    2014-01-01

    Whether academic achievement is defined as passing a state-mandated test for graduation or earning "A's" in a rigorous course load and having a resume full of extra-curricular accomplishments, the pressure to achieve is pervading public education, creating a culture of competition and causing academic stress. A culture of competition…

  15. Academic Achievement as a Moderator of Genetic Influences on Alcohol Use in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kretsch, Natalie; Harden, K. Paige; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests a link between academic performance and alcohol use during adolescence, but the degree to which this association reflects actual protective effects continues to be debated. We investigated the role of genetic factors in the association between academic achievement and adolescent alcohol use and whether achievement might…

  16. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  17. Effects of Identity Processing Styles on Academic Achievement of First Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabi, Joseph; Payne, Jarrod

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Academic achievement of first year university students in the international arena, as well as in South Africa, has been a point of concern for all stakeholders because of high failure and dropout rates. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of identity processing styles on academic achievement in first year university…

  18. Active Learning Strategies and Academic Achievement among Some Psychology Undergraduates in Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Adebisi Fayombo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the active learning strategies (discussion, video clips, game show, role– play, five minute paper, clarification pauses, and small group) and academic achievement among a sample of 158 undergraduate psychology students in The University of the West Indies (UWI), Barbados. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlations between active learning strategies and students’ academic achievement; so also the activ...

  19. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  20. Analysis of Relationships among Burnout, Academic Achievement, and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Erdinç; Duru, Sibel; Balkis, Murat

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among burnout, academic achievement, and self-regulation with two structural models. The participants were 383 undergraduates with different majors in a university in the western part of Turkey. The results showed that academic achievement was negatively associated with three dimensions of burnout and was…

  1. Physical Activity, Self-Regulation, and Early Academic Achievement in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Derek R.; McClelland, Megan M.; Loprinzi, Paul; Trost, Stewart G.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated whether active play during recess was associated with self-regulation and academic achievement in a prekindergarten sample. A total of 51 children in classes containing approximately half Head Start children were assessed on self-regulation, active play, and early academic achievement. Path…

  2. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Sockalingam (Nachamma); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem

  3. What Happens to the Fish's Achievement in a Little Pond? A Simultaneous Analysis of Class-Average Achievement Effects on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stäbler, Franziska; Dumont, Hanna; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have demonstrated that students who are taught in a group of students with higher average achievement benefit in terms of their achievement. However, there is also evidence showing that being surrounded by high-achieving students has a negative effect on students' academic self-concept, also known as the big-fish--little-pond…

  4. Understanding the Phenomenon of Overcoming Academic Challenges and Failure to Achieve Academic Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Sam

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of 10 adults who had experienced academic challenges during their studies, yet were able to return to academic studies and complete one or more graduate degrees. The participants were separated into two groups. "Group A" participants experienced academic failure and were asked to withdraw from their…

  5. ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR EMOTIONAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Kalita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study an attempt was made to know the relationship between personality factor emotional stability and academic achievement of the high school students of South Kamrup district of Assam, India. Students were randomly selected from different high schools of the selected area. A sample of 400(both boys and girls students was selected and Cattell’s Jr. High School Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ was administered to them and record of academic achievement was collected from the school record. Subsequently the data were subjected to statistical analysis with the help of percentage analysis and x2. Results indicated a significant relationship between emotional stability and academic achievement of high school students of South kamrup district, Assam, India. The study also depicted that high level of emotional stability leads to high academic achievement and low emotional stability leads to low level of academic achievement.

  6. Adiposity and Physical Activity Are Not Related to Academic Achievement in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Monique M.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Newton, Robert; Sothern, Melinda; Webber, Larry S.; Davis, Allison B.; Williamson, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hypotheses that in elementary school students: 1) adiposity and academic achievement are negatively correlated and 2) physical activity and academic achievement are positively correlated. Method Participants were 1963 children in fourth through sixth grades. Adiposity was assessed by calculating body mass index (BMI) percentile and percent body fat and academic achievement with statewide standardized tests in four content areas. Socioeconomic status and age were control variables. A subset of participants (n = 261) wore an accelerometer for three days to provide objective measurement of physical activity. Additionally, the association between weight status and academic achievement was examined by comparing children who could be classified as “extremely obese” and the rest of the sample, as well as comparing children who could be classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese. Extreme obesity was defined as >= 1.2 times the 95th percentile. Results Results indicated that there were no significant associations between adiposity or physical activity and achievement in students. No academic achievement differences were found between children with BMI percentiles within the extreme obesity range and those who did not fall within the extreme obesity classification. Additionally, no academic achievement differences were found for children with BMI percentiles within the normal weight, overweight, or obese ranges. Conclusion These results do not support the hypotheses that increased adiposity is associated with decreased academic achievement or that greater physical activity is related to improved achievement. However, these results are limited by methodological weaknesses, especially the use of cross-sectional data. PMID:22617499

  7. Health as a Predictor of Students' Academic Achievement: A 3-Level Longitudinal Study of Finnish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkkinen, Jaana; Lindfors, Pirjo; Kinnunen, Jaana; Finell, Eerika; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Karvonen, Sakari; Rimpelä, Arja

    2017-12-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between students' health and their academic achievements, but whether health of classmates and schoolmates impacts individual students' school achievement is less known. We studied these effects on students in lower secondary school in Finland. Students (seventh grade, age 12-13 years, N = 7779, 123 schools, 565 classes) participated in a classroom survey measuring health (externalizing and internalizing problems, daily health complaints, and long-term illness) and academic achievement. Academic achievement when leaving school (15-16 years) was obtained from the Finnish national application register on upper secondary education. Three-level (student, class, and school) multilevel regression analyses were executed. All health variables predicted academic achievement at leaving school at the student level and externalizing and internalizing problems at the class level; better health predicted better achievement. Students' health at the school level was not related to academic achievement. The effect of class-level health on academic achievement was as strong as the effect of student-level health. Both student and classmates' health at the beginning of lower secondary school contribute to academic achievement when leaving school. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  8. Adiposity and physical activity are not related to academic achievement in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Monique M; Martin, Corby K; Han, Hongmei; Newton, Robert; Sothern, Melinda; Webber, Larry S; Davis, Allison B; Williamson, Donald A

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the hypotheses that in elementary school students: (1) adiposity and academic achievement are negatively correlated and (2) physical activity and academic achievement are positively correlated. Participants were 1963 children in fourth to sixth grades. Adiposity was assessed by calculating body mass index (BMI) percentile and percent body fat and academic achievement with statewide standardized tests in 4 content areas. Socioeconomic status and age were control variables. A subset of participants (n = 261) wore an accelerometer for 3 days to provide objective measurement of physical activity. In addition, the association between weight status and academic achievement was examined by comparing children who could be classified as "extremely obese" and the rest of the sample, as well as comparing children who could be classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese. Extreme obesity was defined as ≥1.2 times the 95th percentile. The results indicated that there were no significant associations between adiposity or physical activity and achievement in students. No academic achievement differences were found between children with BMI percentiles within the extreme obesity range and those who did not fall within the extreme obesity classification. In addition, no academic achievement differences were found for children with BMI percentiles within the normal weight, overweight, or obese ranges. These results do not support the hypotheses that increased adiposity is associated with decreased academic achievement or that greater physical activity is related to improved achievement. However, these results are limited by methodological weaknesses, especially the use of cross-sectional data.

  9. How do parent expectations promote child academic achievement in early elementary school? A test of three mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin-Presnal, John; Bierman, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    Using a longitudinal mediation framework and a low-income sample, this study had 2 aims: (a) to model bidirectional associations between parent academic expectations and child academic outcomes from first through fifth grade, and (b) to explore 3 mediators of parental influence: parent involvement in child schooling, child learning behaviors, and child perceived academic competence. Participants included 356 children and their caregivers (89% mothers) recruited from Head Start centers (58% European American, 25% African American, 17% Latino). At each time point (grades 1, 2, 3, 5), parents rated their academic expectations, teachers rated parent involvement and child learning behaviors, and children rated their self-perceptions of their academic competence. Bidirectional longitudinal associations emerged between parent academic expectations and child academic outcomes. Child learning behaviors mediated this association from first to third grade, whereas child perceived academic competence mediated from second to fifth grade. Parallel cross-lagged models replicated these findings with child academic outcomes assessed using a test of reading achievement and teacher ratings of academic performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Relationship between attainment of recommended physical activity guidelines and academic achievement: undergraduate students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Stock, Christiane

    2014-07-14

    We assessed and compared by gender, students' achievement of recommended guidelines of four PA forms, and the association between guideline achievement of each of the four PA forms and students' academic performance. Data (2009-2010) comprised 3,271 students (11 faculties) at Assiut University, Egypt. A self-administered questionnaire measured: moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), muscle-strengthening PA; five socio-demographic variables (gender, age, year of study, father's education, living arrangements during semester); self-rated health; and, academic performance. We compared the levels of four PA forms, socio-demographic variables, and academic performance by gender. Binary logistic regression examined the factors associated with achieving the guidelines of the four PA forms. Linear regression examined the association between frequency of four PA forms and level of academic performance. Nearly equal proportions of males and females (37%, 36%) achieved the MPA guidelines. Significantly more males achieved the VPA, MVPA, and muscle strengthening PA guidelines. Father's education was positively associated with achieving all four PA guidelines (with each increasing educational achievement of the father, student's odds of achieving PA guidelines increased by 7-9%). Students living with their parents or room mates off campus were more likely to achieve the VPA and MVPA guidelines. Students who achieved VPA and MVPA guidelines were more likely to report better academic performance. For all PA forms (except MPA), increasing academic achievement was positively associated with increasing frequency of PA, but standardised Beta (0.05-0.07) suggested a modest correlation between academic achievement and PA frequency. The linear association between frequency of PA and academic achievement, and the finding that the proportions of students who achieved the recommended levels of several forms of PA were below half of the sample call for higher

  11. Scaffolded Code-switching: A resource for achieving academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to establish whether code-switching is still common practice in rural Limpopo as it was 16 years ago (McCabe, 1996) and if so, to suggest ways to use it as a resource to aid comprehension of English and to explicitly teach cognitive skills and academic literacy. Many rural South African schools have ...

  12. Academic achievement and creative thinking in Souh African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess whether the capacity for creative thinking among medical students is related to academic advancement. Design, setting, subjects, outcome measures. A timed word association test standardised and scored to assess the tendency for creative thinking was administered to 22 development programme ...

  13. Motives behind students' academic achievement and participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This difference shows that the students have different types of motivation in academic work and sports activities. The school implements a curriculum which is designed according to the State policy regarding training and education. It prepares for degrees which offer employment opportunities. In these conditions, students ...

  14. Coexisting Disorders and Academic Achievement among Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Sulak, Tracey N.; Fearon, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children with reported high rates of coexisting or comorbid disorders. As ADHD has been associated with academic underachievement, the current study examines this association in view of the presence of coexisting disorders. The purpose of the current study is to…

  15. Video Game Strategies as Predictors of Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlen, Karla R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between strategies students use to overcome challenges in both video games and homework assignments, and whether or not these are predictors of academic performance in school. Data were collected through an online survey of students, primarily in middle and high school, assessing both…

  16. Study on personality dimension negative emotionality affecting academic achievement among Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Vidya; Haque, Mainul; Simbak, Nordin Bin; Jaalam, Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Personality dimension negative emotionality is known to be associated with academic achievement. The present study focuses on the influence of negative emotionality (neuroticism) on the medical students’ academic achievements. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the negative emotionality scores among the first year Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and India, further to find out the association between negative emotionality and their academic achievements. The current study sample includes 60 first year Malaysian medical students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, and USM-KLE IMP, Belgaum, India. They were selected by convenient sampling technique. The Medico-Psychological questionnaire was used to find out the negative emotionality scores among the students and these scores were compared with academic scores. The data were analyzed using SPSS- 20. Thus, the study result goes with the prediction that there is a significant correlation between academic achievement and negative emotionality. We concluded that negative emotionality has a negative impact on medical student’s academic achievement regardless of the fact whether they study in their own country or overseas. PMID:27354836

  17. Study on personality dimension negative emotionality affecting academic achievement among Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Vidya; Haque, Mainul; Simbak, Nordin Bin; Jaalam, Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Personality dimension negative emotionality is known to be associated with academic achievement. The present study focuses on the influence of negative emotionality (neuroticism) on the medical students' academic achievements. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the negative emotionality scores among the first year Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and India, further to find out the association between negative emotionality and their academic achievements. The current study sample includes 60 first year Malaysian medical students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, and USM-KLE IMP, Belgaum, India. They were selected by convenient sampling technique. The Medico-Psychological questionnaire was used to find out the negative emotionality scores among the students and these scores were compared with academic scores. The data were analyzed using SPSS- 20. Thus, the study result goes with the prediction that there is a significant correlation between academic achievement and negative emotionality. We concluded that negative emotionality has a negative impact on medical student's academic achievement regardless of the fact whether they study in their own country or overseas.

  18. Self-Efficacy, Achievement Motivation, and Academic Progress of Students with Learning Disabilities: A Comparison with Typical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Seyed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Many factors including self-efficacy and achievement motivation can affect children’s academic progress. Studies have shown that socioeconomic status can affect people’s life, education, and vocation. However, not many studies looked at the relations between the intrinsic factors and socioeconomic status, and between these 2 categories and students’ academic progress in children with learning disabilities. Thus, the present study aimed at examining self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and academic progress of students with learning disabilities compared with typical students and looking for any possible relation between these variables and socioeconomic status (parental education and occupation. Methods This was a cross sectional study, which included 34 students with learning disabilities and 32 typical students matched on age, gender, and school grade. The participants answered Sherer et al.’s self-efficacy scale (1982 and Herman’s achievement motivation questionnaire (2000. Students’ academic progress was evaluated based on the descriptive scores in the first semester. Findings Scores of children with learning disabilities in self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and academic progress were significantly lower than those of matched controls (P<0.0001. Results revealed moderate positive correlations between academic progress and different levels of self-efficacy (rs = 0.441, P<0.0001, N = 66; and between academic progress and achievement motivation (rs = 0.645, P<0.0001, N = 66. The results of the correlation analysis demonstrated weak to moderate positive correlations between academic progress and parental education (rs = 0.39, P = 0.001, academic progress and father’s occupation (rs = 0.323, P = 0.008, achievement motivation and parental education (rs = .34, p = 0.009, N = 66, and finally achievement motivation and father’s occupation (rs = 0.285, P = 0.02, N = 66. Conclusions Lower levels of self-efficacy and

  19. The Relationship between Sex Role Stereotypical Beliefs, Self Efficacy, Academic Engagement and Academic Achievement: In the Case of Tana Hiq Secondary School Students, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnew, Asrat

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the relationship between sex role stereotypical beliefs, self-efficacy, academic engagement and academic achievement in Tana Hiq Secondary School. This research was also examining the predictive effects of sex role stereotypical beliefs, self-efficacy and academic engagement on academic achievement of…

  20. Academic achievement in school-aged children with active epilepsy: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Das, Krishna B; Chin, Richard F C; Aylett, Sarah E; Burch, Victoria; Gillberg, Christopher; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R

    2014-12-01

    To provide population-based data on the performance of school-aged children with epilepsy on measures of academic achievement and factors associated with this performance after controlling for IQ. Eighty-five (74%) of 115 children with "active" epilepsy (experienced a seizure in the past year and/or on antiepileptic drugs [AEDs]) underwent psychological assessment including measures of IQ, aspects of working memory and processing speed. Sixty-five of the 85 were able to complete subtests on the Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition (WRAT-4). Paired sample t-tests were conducted to compare subtest scores. Factors associated with academic performance after controlling for IQ were examined using linear regression. Seventy-two percent of the children, who could complete subtests on the WRAT-4, displayed "low achievement" (1 standard deviation [SD] below test mean) and 42% displayed "underachievement" (1 SD below assessed IQ) on at least one of the four WRAT-4 subtests. The mean scores on the Math Computation subtest and Sentence Comprehension subtest were significantly lower than scores on the Word Reading (p academic achievement are common in school-aged children with "active" epilepsy. Much of the difficulties can be attributed to lowered global cognition. However, specific cognitive deficits, younger onset of first seizure, and school attendance difficulties may contribute to difficulties independent of global cognition. There is a need to screen all children with "active" epilepsy for difficulties in school achievement, to identify contributory factors and to identify efficacious interventions for ameliorating such difficulties. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. The impact of epilepsy on academic achievement in children with normal intelligence and without major comorbidities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo, S W; Ong, L C; Low, W Y; Lai, P S M

    2017-10-01

    To systematically examine published literature which assessed the prevalence of academic difficulties in children with epilepsy (CWE) of normal intelligence, and its associating factors. A search was conducted on five databases for articles published in English from 1980 till March 2015. Included were studies who recruited children (aged 5-18 years), with a diagnosis or newly/recurrent epilepsy, an intelligent quotient (IQ) of ≥70 or attending regular school, with or without a control group, which measured academic achievement using a standardised objective measure, and published in English. Excluded were children with learning difficulties, intellectual disabilities (IQachievement" whist only two studies used the IQ-achievement discrepancy definition of "underachievement". Fourteen studies (70%) reported that CWE had significantly lower academic achievement scores compared to healthy controls, children with asthma or reported norms. The remaining six studies (30%) did not report any differences. CWE had stable academic achievement scores over time (2-4 years), even among those whose seizure frequency improved. Higher parental education and children with higher IQ, and had better attention or had a positive attitude towards epilepsy, were associated with higher academic achievement score. Older children were found to have lower academic achievement score. In CWE of normal intelligence, the majority of published literature found that academic achievement was lower than controls or reported norms. The high percentages of low achievement in CWE, especially in the older age group, and the stability of scores even as seizure frequency improved, highlights the need for early screening of learning problems, and continued surveillance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An ecological study of food desert prevalence and 4th grade academic achievement in new york state school districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frndak, Seth E

    2014-12-02

    This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4(th) grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Core of Data), and food desert data (USDA Food Desert Atlas). Multiple regression models assessed the percentage of variation in achievement scores explained by food desert variables, after controlling for additional predictors. The proportion of individuals living in food deserts significantly explained 4th grade achievement scores, after accounting for additional predictors. School districts with higher proportions of individuals living in food desert regions demonstrated lower 4th grade achievement across science, English and math. Food deserts appear to be related to academic achievement at the school district level among urban and suburban regions. Further research is needed to better understand how food access is associated with academic achievement at the individual level. Significance for public healthThe prevalence of food deserts in the United States is of national concern. As poor nutrition in United States children continues to spark debate, food deserts are being evaluated as potential sources of low fruit and vegetable intake and high obesity rates. Cognitive development and IQ have been linked to nutrition patterns, suggesting that children in food desert regions may have a disadvantage academically. This research evaluates if an ecological relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level can be demonstrated. Results suggest that food desert prevalence may relate to poor academic performance at the school district level. Significant variation in

  3. Early academic achievement in children with isolated clefts: a population-based study in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Kate Jane; Copley, Lynn P; Setakis, Efrosini; Charman, Susan C; Deacon, Scott A; Dearden, Lorraine; van der Meulen, Jan H

    2017-11-02

    We used national data to study differences in academic achievement between 5-year-old children with an isolated oral cleft and the general population. We also assessed differences by cleft type. Children born in England with an oral cleft were identified in a national cleft registry. Their records were linked to databases of hospital admissions (to identify additional anomalies) and educational outcomes. Z-scores (signed number of SD actual score is above national average) were calculated to make outcome scores comparable across school years and across six assessed areas ( personal development, communication and language, maths, knowledge of world, physical development and creative development ). 2802 children without additional anomalies, 5 years old between 2006 and 2012, were included. Academic achievement was significantly below national average for all six assessed areas with z-scores ranging from -0.24 (95% CI -0.32 to -0.16) for knowledge of world to -0.31 (-0.38 to -0.23) for personal development . Differences were small with only a cleft lip but considerably larger with clefts involving the palate. 29.4% of children were documented as having special education needs (national rate 9.7%), which varied according to cleft type from 13.2% with cleft lip to 47.6% with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Compared with national average, 5-year-old children with an isolated oral cleft, especially those involving the palate, have significantly poorer academic achievement across all areas of learning. These outcomes reflect results of modern surgical techniques and multidisciplinary approach. Children with a cleft may benefit from extra academic support when starting school. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Predictors of cultural capital on science academic achievement at the 8th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misner, Johnathan Scott

    The purpose of the study was to determine if students' cultural capital is a significant predictor of 8th grade science achievement test scores in urban locales. Cultural capital refers to the knowledge used and gained by the dominant class, which allows social and economic mobility. Cultural capital variables include magazines at home and parental education level. Other variables analyzed include socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language learners (ELL). This non-experimental study analyzed the results of the 2011 Eighth Grade Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The researcher analyzed the data using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The researcher concluded that the addition of cultural capital factors significantly increased the predictive power of the model where magazines in home, gender, student classified as ELL, parental education level, and SES were the independent variables and science achievement was the dependent variable. For alpha=0.05, the overall test for the model produced a R2 value of 0.232; therefore the model predicted 23.2% of variance in science achievement results. Other major findings include: higher measures of home resources predicted higher 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement; males were predicted to have higher 2011 NAEP 8 th grade science achievement; classified ELL students were predicted to score lower on the NAEP eight grade science achievement; higher parent education predicted higher NAEP eighth grade science achievement; lower measures of SES predicted lower 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement. This study contributed to the research in this field by identifying cultural capital factors that have been found to have statistical significance on predicting eighth grade science achievement results, which can lead to strategies to help improve science academic achievement among underserved populations.

  5. The Reciprocal Relations between Self-Concept, Motivation and Achievement: Juxtaposing Academic Self-Concept and Achievement Goal Orientations for Mathematics Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…

  6. Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement: The Mediator Role of Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Doménech-Betoret

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there is considerable evidence to support the direct effects of self-efficacy beliefs on academic achievement, very few studies have explored the motivational mechanism that mediates the self-efficacy–achievement relationship, and they are necessary to understand how and why self-efficacy affects students' academic achievement. Based on a socio-cognitive perspective of motivation, this study examines the relationships among academic self-efficacy, students' expectancy-value beliefs, teaching process satisfaction, and academic achievement. Its main aim is to identify some motivational-underlying processes through which students' academic self-efficacy affects student achievement and satisfaction. Student achievement and satisfaction are two of the most important learning outcomes, and are considered key indicators of education quality. The sample comprises 797 Spanish secondary education students from 36 educational settings and three schools. The scales that referred to self-efficacy and expectancy-value beliefs were administered at the beginning of the course, while student satisfaction and achievement were measured at the end of the course. The data analysis was conducted by structural equation modeling (SEM. The results revealed that students' expectancy-value beliefs (Subject value, Process expectancy, Achievement expectancy, Cost expectancy played a mediator role between academic self-efficacy and the achievement/satisfaction relationship. These results provided empirical evidence to better understand the mechanism that mediates self-efficacy–achievement and efficacy–course satisfaction relationships. The implications of these findings for teaching and learning in secondary education are discussed.

  7. Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement: The Mediator Role of Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Betoret, Fernando; Abellán-Roselló, Laura; Gómez-Artiga, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Although there is considerable evidence to support the direct effects of self-efficacy beliefs on academic achievement, very few studies have explored the motivational mechanism that mediates the self-efficacy-achievement relationship, and they are necessary to understand how and why self-efficacy affects students' academic achievement. Based on a socio-cognitive perspective of motivation, this study examines the relationships among academic self-efficacy, students' expectancy-value beliefs, teaching process satisfaction, and academic achievement. Its main aim is to identify some motivational-underlying processes through which students' academic self-efficacy affects student achievement and satisfaction. Student achievement and satisfaction are two of the most important learning outcomes, and are considered key indicators of education quality. The sample comprises 797 Spanish secondary education students from 36 educational settings and three schools. The scales that referred to self-efficacy and expectancy-value beliefs were administered at the beginning of the course, while student satisfaction and achievement were measured at the end of the course. The data analysis was conducted by structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that students' expectancy-value beliefs (Subject value, Process expectancy, Achievement expectancy, Cost expectancy) played a mediator role between academic self-efficacy and the achievement/satisfaction relationship. These results provided empirical evidence to better understand the mechanism that mediates self-efficacy-achievement and efficacy-course satisfaction relationships. The implications of these findings for teaching and learning in secondary education are discussed.

  8. Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement: The Mediator Role of Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Betoret, Fernando; Abellán-Roselló, Laura; Gómez-Artiga, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Although there is considerable evidence to support the direct effects of self-efficacy beliefs on academic achievement, very few studies have explored the motivational mechanism that mediates the self-efficacy–achievement relationship, and they are necessary to understand how and why self-efficacy affects students' academic achievement. Based on a socio-cognitive perspective of motivation, this study examines the relationships among academic self-efficacy, students' expectancy-value beliefs, teaching process satisfaction, and academic achievement. Its main aim is to identify some motivational-underlying processes through which students' academic self-efficacy affects student achievement and satisfaction. Student achievement and satisfaction are two of the most important learning outcomes, and are considered key indicators of education quality. The sample comprises 797 Spanish secondary education students from 36 educational settings and three schools. The scales that referred to self-efficacy and expectancy-value beliefs were administered at the beginning of the course, while student satisfaction and achievement were measured at the end of the course. The data analysis was conducted by structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that students' expectancy-value beliefs (Subject value, Process expectancy, Achievement expectancy, Cost expectancy) played a mediator role between academic self-efficacy and the achievement/satisfaction relationship. These results provided empirical evidence to better understand the mechanism that mediates self-efficacy–achievement and efficacy–course satisfaction relationships. The implications of these findings for teaching and learning in secondary education are discussed. PMID:28769839

  9. The Impact of School Climate and School Identification on Academic Achievement: Multilevel Modeling with Student and Teacher Data

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Sophie; Reynolds, Katherine J.; Lee, Eunro; Subasic, Emina; Bromhead, David

    2017-01-01

    School climate is a leading factor in explaining student learning and achievement. Less work has explored the impact of both staff and student perceptions of school climate raising interesting questions about whether staff school climate experiences can add “value” to students' achievement. In the current research, multiple sources were integrated into a multilevel model, including staff self-reports, student self-reports, objective school records of academic achievement, and socio-economic d...

  10. Association between physical fitness and academic achievement in a cohort of Danish school pupils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Porsborg; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Vardinghus-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Time spent on physical activity in elementary school has been altered to improve core academics. However, little is known about the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement. We examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement......) ). Academic achievement was measured 1 school year later through a series of mandatory exams within the humanities, sciences, and all obligatory defined exams. Parental income and education were drawn from nationwide registers. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association. RESULTS...... max (95% Cl:0.03 to 0.09) for boys. The effect size of the defined exams was 0.09 grad/VO2 max (95% Cl:0.06 to 0.11) for girls and 0.06 grad/VO2 max (95% Cl:0.03 to 0.08) for boys. CONCLUSION: We found a statistically significant positive association between physical fitness and academic achievement...

  11. Chronic Childhood Trauma, Mental Health, Academic Achievement, and School-Based Health Center Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D

    2017-09-01

    Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities. Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if research was related to childhood trauma's effects, mental health care disparities, SBHC mental health services, or SBHC impact on academic achievement. Eight studies show a significant risk of mental health disorders and poor academic achievement when exposed to childhood trauma. Seven studies found significant disparities in pediatric mental health care in the US. Nine studies reviewed SBHC mental health service access, utilization, quality, funding, and impact on school achievement. Exposure to chronic childhood trauma negatively impacts school achievement when mediated by mental health disorders. Disparities are common in pediatric mental health care in the United States. SBHC mental health services have some showed evidence of their ability to reduce, though not eradicate, mental health care disparities. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  12. The Effects of War on Syrian Refugees' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, Ömer Gökhan; Kara, Ömer Tugrul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the effects of war on Syrian students' academic success. No one can deny the fact that wars have direct and indirect effects on children. Besides, no one can deny the fact that not only soldiers are targets in wars, but also children, women, and even old people are, who altogether make a society.…

  13. Testing a Model of the Relationship of Demographic, Affective, and Fitness Variables to Academic Achievement among Non-Science Majors at an Independent University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Andrew Martin

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self

  14. Academic Self-Concept and Academic Self-Efficacy: Self-Beliefs Enable Academic Achievement of Twice-Exceptional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Clare Wen; Neihart, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have reported that twice-exceptional (2e) students were vulnerable in psychological traits and exhibited low-academic self-concept and academic self-efficacy. Such vulnerability may cause their academic failures. This study applied interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), a qualitative approach to investigate the perceptions of…

  15. Cumulative risk over the early life course and its relation to academic achievement in childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsdottir, Laufey Dís; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Thorisdottir, Ingibjorg Eva; Allegrante, John P; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2017-03-01

    Early-life risk factors, such as family disruption, maltreatment, and poverty, can negatively impact children's scholastic abilities; however, most previous studies have relied on cross-sectional designs and retrospective measurement. This study investigated the relation between cumulative risk factors during the early life course and subsequent academic achievement in a cohort of children and adolescents. Data for this study were based on registry-data material from the LIFECOURSE study of 1151 children from the 2000 birth cohort in Reykjavik, Iceland, assembled in 2014-2016. Multiple lifetime risk factors, including maternal smoking during pregnancy, parent's disability status, being born to a young mother, number of children in the household, family income, number of visits to school nurses, and reports of maltreatment, were assessed. Latent class analysis and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were used to predict academic achievement in the 4th and 7th grades. Individuals with no risk factors reported the highest average academic achievement in the 4th (M=66 points, SD=17) and 7th grades (M=67 points, SD=15). There was a significant main effect for 4th-grade risk factors and academic achievement (F [7, 1146]=12.06, pachievement scores in 7th grade (F [7, 1146]=15.08, pacademic achievement at both grade levels. We conclude that academic achievement declines in proportion to the number of risk factors in early life. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Schools, School Quality and Academic Achievement: Evidence from the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Bacolod, Marigee; Tobias, Justin

    2005-01-01

    A broad literature seeks to assess the importance of schools, proxies for school quality, and family background on children's achievement growth using the education production function. Using rich data from the Philippines, we introduce and estimate a model that imposes little structure on the relationship between intake achievement and follow-up achievement and evaluate school performance based on this estimated relationship. Our methods nest typical value added specifications that use test ...

  17. Development of brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity and the relationship to formal math academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haist, Frank; Wazny, Jarnet H; Toomarian, Elizabeth; Adamo, Maha

    2015-02-01

    A central question in cognitive and educational neuroscience is whether brain operations supporting nonlinguistic intuitive number sense (numerosity) predict individual acquisition and academic achievement for symbolic or "formal" math knowledge. Here, we conducted a developmental functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of nonsymbolic numerosity task performance in 44 participants including 14 school age children (6-12 years old), 14 adolescents (13-17 years old), and 16 adults and compared a brain activity measure of numerosity precision to scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math index of math academic achievement. Accuracy and reaction time from the numerosity task did not reliably predict formal math achievement. We found a significant positive developmental trend for improved numerosity precision in the parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus specifically. Controlling for age and overall cognitive ability, we found a reliable positive relationship between individual math achievement scores and parietal lobe activity only in children. In addition, children showed robust positive relationships between math achievement and numerosity precision within ventral stream processing areas bilaterally. The pattern of results suggests a dynamic developmental trajectory for visual discrimination strategies that predict the acquisition of formal math knowledge. In adults, the efficiency of visual discrimination marked by numerosity acuity in ventral occipital-temporal cortex and hippocampus differentiated individuals with better or worse formal math achievement, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that two different brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity acuity may contribute to individual differences in math achievement and that the contribution of these systems differs across development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. An Examination of the Relationship among Learning Disability, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Academic Self-Efficacy, Effort, Self-Awareness and Academic Achievement in Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner, Stacey A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between academic self-efficacy, effort, self-awareness, and achievement in college aged students with LD and/or ADHD. Participants included thirty, fourteen were male and seventeen were female, undergraduate students that have been diagnosed with a LD and/or ADHD. The students were selected…

  19. Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance: Longitudinal Models of Reciprocal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Marsh, Herbert W; Murayama, Kou; Goetz, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement in Mathematics (PALMA) longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents' development in mathematics (Grades 5-9; N = 3,425 German students; mean starting age = 11.7 years; representative sample). Structural equation modeling showed that positive emotions (enjoyment, pride) positively predicted subsequent achievement (math end-of-the-year grades and test scores), and that achievement positively predicted these emotions, controlling for students' gender, intelligence, and family socioeconomic status. Negative emotions (anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, hopelessness) negatively predicted achievement, and achievement negatively predicted these emotions. The findings were robust across waves, achievement indicators, and school tracks, highlighting the importance of emotions for students' achievement and of achievement for the development of emotions. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. The relationship between autonomous motivation and autonomy support in medical students' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feri, Rose; Soemantri, Diantha; Jusuf, Anwar

    2016-12-29

    This study applied self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the relationship between students' autonomous motivation and tutors' autonomy support in medical students' academic achievement. This was a cross-sectional study. Out of 204 students in a fundamental medical science course, 199 participated in the study. Data was collected using two questionnaires: the Learning Self-Regulation and Learning Climate Questionnaires. The score of the course assessment was the measure of academic achievement. Data was analyzed and reported with descriptive and inferential statistics (mean, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis). Mean score (±standard deviation) of the autonomous motivation, tutors' autonomy support, and academic achievement were 5.48±0.89, 5.22±0.92, and 5.22±0.92. Multiple regression results reported students' autonomous motivation was associated with improvement of students' academic achievement (β=15.2, p=0.004). However, augmentation of tutors' autonomy support was not reflected in the improvement of students' academic achievement (β = -12.6, p = 0.019). Both students' autonomous motivation and tutors' autonomy support had a contribution of about 4.2% students' academic achievement (F = 4.343, p = 0.014, R 2 = 0.042). Due to the unique characteristic of our medical students' educational background, our study shows that tutors' autonomy support is inconsistent with students' academic achievement. However, both autonomous motivation and support are essential to students' academic achievement. Further study is needed to explore students' educational background and self-regulated learning competence to improve students' academic achievement.

  1. The relationship between autonomous motivation and autonomy support in medical students’ academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemantri, Diantha; Jusuf, Anwar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study applied self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the relationship between students’ autonomous motivation and tutors’ autonomy support in medical students’ academic achievement. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Out of 204 students in a fundamental medical science course, 199 participated in the study. Data was collected using two questionnaires: the Learning Self-Regulation and Learning Climate Questionnaires. The score of the course assessment was the measure of academic achievement. Data was analyzed and reported with descriptive and inferential statistics (mean, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis).  Results Mean score (±standard deviation) of the autonomous motivation, tutors’ autonomy support, and academic achievement were 5.48±0.89, 5.22±0.92, and 5.22±0.92. Multiple regression results reported students’ autonomous motivation was associated with improvement of students’ academic achievement (β=15.2, p=0.004). However, augmentation of tutors’ autonomy support was not reflected in the improvement of students’ academic achievement (β = -12.6, p = 0.019). Both students’ autonomous motivation and tutors’ autonomy support had a contribution of about 4.2% students’ academic achievement (F = 4.343, p = 0.014, R2 = 0.042). Conclusions Due to the unique characteristic of our medical students’ educational background, our study shows that tutors’ autonomy support is inconsistent with students’ academic achievement. However, both autonomous motivation and support are essential to students’ academic achievement. Further study is needed to explore students’ educational background and self-regulated learning competence to improve students’ academic achievement.               PMID:28035054

  2. Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance: Longitudinal Models of Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Marsh, Herbert W.; Murayama, Kou; Goetz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement in Mathematics (PALMA) longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents' development in mathematics (Grades 5-9; N = 3,425 German students; mean starting…

  3. Influence of Family Background on Academic Achievement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that family structure, parents‟ occupation and educational level of parents, did not have significant influence on students‟ achievement in biology. Based on the findings, the paper concludes that family background did not have much influence on students‟ achievement in science (biology) as against ...

  4. Friend Effects and Racial Disparities in Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Flashman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in achievement are a persistent fact of the US educational system. An often cited but rarely directly studied explanation for these disparities is that adolescents from different racial and ethnic backgrounds are exposed to different peers and have different friends. In this article I identify the impact of friends on racial and ethnic achievement disparities. Using data from Add Health and an instrumental variable approach, I show that the achievement characteristics of youths’ friends drive friend effects; adolescents with friends with higher grades are more likely to increase their grades compared to those with lower-achieving friends. Although these effects do not differ across race/ethnicity, given differences in friendship patterns, if black and Latino adolescents had friends with the achievement characteristics of white students, the GPA gap would be 17 to 19 percent smaller. Although modest, this effect represents an important and often overlooked source of difference among black and Latino youth.

  5. Pharmacotherapy and academic achievement among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Brak, Victor

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the association of pharmacological treatments and academic achievement among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results examining the association of pharmacological treatments and academic achievement among children with ADHD are mixed. Our objective was to examine this association using structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques, which may be considered more sophisticated and advanced over traditional regression techniques. To achieve the purpose, we employed a sample of children with ADHD derived from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data. The ECLS-K provides a large, community-based, nationally representative sample of children to examine across time with respect to academic achievement outcomes. The present study reveals a statistically nonsignificant association between pharmacological treatment and academic achievement among children with ADHD. These results derived from a large, community-based, nationally representative sample, using SEM techniques, may be considered highly generalizable.

  6. Parental involvement, adolescents' self-determined learning and academic achievement in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Cai, Tianji

    2017-02-01

    Self-determined learning is essential to academic success. The motivational resources development model argues that parents promote academic success in their children indirectly by nurturing self-determined learner. In this study, applying a structural equation modelling and using data collected from 8th graders in Zhuhai, China (n = 1009) in 2012, we aim to answer 2 research questions: (a) What forms of parental involvement are highly correlated with self-determined learning and (b) Can self-determined learning fully mediate the relationship between parental involvement and students' academic performance? We find that parental leisure involvement is positively and significantly associated with the development of self-determined learning, which in turn is significantly and positively correlated with academic achievement. Parental provision of structure or parental academic assistance is not significantly associated with students' self-regulation and students' academic achievement. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Academic Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in Predicting Academic Achievement in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Baris

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether academic motivation and academic self-regulated learning predicted students' GPAs in the Early Childhood Education Department. The study participants consisted of 166 early childhood education majors enrolled in the 2014 spring semester at Georgia Southern University, USA. Data were gathered using…

  8. The efficacy of cognitive interventions for improving cognitive performance and academic achievement in children after cancer treatment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Susan M; Hutchinson, Amanda D

    2018-01-01

    Academic decline has been reported in children after cancer treatment, believed to be as a result of cognitive impairment. Cognitive interventions may improve both the present and future outcomes for children after cancer treatment by improving cognitive and/or academic performance. This review aimed to examine the efficacy of cognitive interventions in children who had received cancer treatment. A systematic search of the PsycInfo and PubMed databases was conducted in May 2015 to identify studies in which cognitive interventions were conducted with children who had undergone cancer treatment and were under the age of 21. Cognitive or academic outcomes needed to be reported pre- and post-intervention to meet the inclusion criteria. Eleven studies were included in this review. Computerized and home-based cognitive interventions were found to be most successful at improving cognitive skills. However, few cognitive interventions assessed academic achievement specifically. Future cognitive intervention research studies should include measures of academic achievement outcomes, because academic achievement and cognitive outcomes may differ. Future research regarding the effectiveness of early, home-based and computerized intervention is warranted.

  9. Self-regulated Learning Behavior of College Students of Art and Their Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cuixin

    This study focuses on the relationship between self-regulated learning behavior and their academic achievement of college students of art. The results show that for students of art, the involvements in self-efficacy, intrinsic value and cognitive strategies are closely tied to their performance in the examination. However, test anxiety, as a negative emotional factor is negatively correlated with academic performance. And among the five variables, self-efficacy has the strongest influence on students of art's academic performance.

  10. A quasi-experimental study of maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Iliadou, Anastasia; Lambe, Mats; Hultman, Christina M.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is associated with lower academic achievement in offspring. The current study, which was based on all births in Sweden from 1983 through 1991, explored the possible causal processes underlying the association between SDP and offspring school grades and a standardized assessment of mathematic proficiency at age 15. The analyses compared relatives who varied in their exposure to SDP and who varied in their genetic relatedness. Although SDP was statistically associated with academic achievement when comparing unrelated individuals, the results suggest that SDP does not cause poorer academic performance, as full siblings differentially exposed to SDP did not differ in their academic scores. The pattern of results suggests that genetic factors shared by parents and their offspring explain significant variance in why offspring opposed to SDP have lower levels of academic achievement. Nevertheless, SDP impacts pregnancy-related outcomes. Reducing SDP, therefore, remains a major public health issue. PMID:20331655

  11. Achievement emotions and academic performance: longitudinal models of reciprocal effects

    OpenAIRE

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Marsh, Herbert, W.; Murayama, Kou; Goetz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the PALMA longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents’ development in mathematics (grades 5-9; N=3,425 German students; mean starting age=11.7 years; representative sample). Structural equation modeling showed that positive emotions (enjoyment, pride) positively predicted subsequent achievement (math end-of-the-year grades and test scores), and that achievem...

  12. The remote, the mouse, and the no. 2 pencil: the household media environment and academic achievement among third grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Robinson, Thomas N

    2005-07-01

    Media can influence aspects of a child's physical, social, and cognitive development; however, the associations between a child's household media environment, media use, and academic achievement have yet to be determined. To examine relationships among a child's household media environment, media use, and academic achievement. During a single academic year, data were collected through classroom surveys and telephone interviews from an ethnically diverse sample of third grade students and their parents from 6 northern California public elementary schools. The majority of our analyses derive from spring 2000 data, including academic achievement assessed through the mathematics, reading, and language arts sections of the Stanford Achievement Test. We fit linear regression models to determine the associations between variations in household media and performance on the standardized tests, adjusting for demographic and media use variables. The household media environment is significantly associated with students' performance on the standardized tests. It was found that having a bedroom television set was significantly and negatively associated with students' test scores, while home computer access and use were positively associated with the scores. Regression models significantly predicted up to 24% of the variation in the scores. Absence of a bedroom television combined with access to a home computer was consistently associated with the highest standardized test scores. This study adds to the growing literature reporting that having a bedroom television set may be detrimental to young elementary school children. It also suggests that having and using a home computer may be associated with better academic achievement.

  13. Parent praise to toddlers predicts fourth grade academic achievement via children's incremental mindsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Sorhagen, Nicole S; Gripshover, Sarah J; Dweck, Carol S; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C

    2018-03-01

    In a previous study, parent-child praise was observed in natural interactions at home when children were 1, 2, and 3 years of age. Children who received a relatively high proportion of process praise (e.g., praise for effort and strategies) showed stronger incremental motivational frameworks, including a belief that intelligence can be developed and a greater desire for challenge, when they were in 2nd or 3rd grade (Gunderson et al., 2013). The current study examines these same children's (n = 53) academic achievement 1 to 2 years later, in 4th grade. Results provide the first evidence that process praise to toddlers predicts children's academic achievement (in math and reading comprehension) 7 years later, in elementary school, via their incremental motivational frameworks. Further analysis of these motivational frameworks shows that process praise had its effect on fourth grade achievement through children's trait beliefs (e.g., believing that intelligence is fixed vs. malleable), rather than through their learning goals (e.g., preference for easy vs. challenging tasks). Implications for the socialization of motivation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Parenting, Peer Relationships, Academic Self-efficacy, and Academic Achievement: Direct and Mediating Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Anna; Cristina Richaud, María; Malonda, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyze the relation between authoritative and permissive parenting styles with the kinds of adolescent peer relationships (attachment, victimization, or aggression), and of the latter ones, in turn, with academic self-efficacy, and academic performance, in three waves that range from the early-mid adolescence to late adolescence. Five hundred Spanish adolescents, of both sexes, participated in a three-wave longitudinal study in Valencia, Spain. In the first wave, adolescents were either in the third year of secondary school or the fourth year of secondary school. The mean age in the first wave was 14.70 ( SD = 0.68; range = 13-16 years). Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (Schaefer, 1965; Samper et al., 2006), Peer Attachment (from the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment by Armsden and Greenberg, 1987), Victimization (from the Kit at School, Buhs et al., 2010), Physical and Verbal Aggression Scale (Caprara and Pastorelli, 1993; Del Barrio et al., 2001), items of academic self-efficacy, and items of academic performance were administered. Structural equations modeling-path analysis was employed to explore the proposed models. The results indicated that parenting styles relate to the way the adolescents develops attachments to their peers and to academic self-efficacy. The mother's permissive style is an important positive predictor of aggressive behavior and a negative predictor of attachment to their peers. At the end, peer relations and academic self-efficacy are mediator variables between parenting styles and academic performance.

  15. Financial Aid Tipping Points: An Analysis of Aid and Academic Achievement at a California Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, Elizabeth; Hoffman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between financial aid awards and measures of student academic achievement. Financial aid and academic records for 11,956 students attending an urban California community college were examined and analyzed using simultaneous linear regression and two-way factorial ANOVAs. Findings revealed a…

  16. The Effects of Religious Commitment on the Academic Achievement of Urban and Other Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the 1992 National Education Longitudinal Survey, this study examined the effects of student religious commitment on academic achievement. Results indicate that very religious urban and non-urban children performed better on most academic measures than their less religious counterparts, even when controlling for race, gender, and…

  17. PERSONALITY TRAITS RELATED TO "STRESS TOLERANCE" AS DETERMINANTS OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUETHE, JAMES L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS INVESTIGATION WAS TO ISOLATE PERSONALITY TRAITS THAT ARE RELATED TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT INDEPENDENT OF CORRELATIONS WITH INTELLECTUAL CAPACITY AS MEASURED BY THE SCHOLASTIC APTITUDE TEST, ACADEMIC RANK AS A HIGH SCHOOL SENIOR, AND TEACHER RECOMMENDATIONS. THIS RESEARCH CENTERED ON THE CAPACITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL COLLEGE…

  18. A Study on Academic Achievement and Personality of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna, V. D.; Ganesha Bhata, H. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study is concerned with the Academic Achievement and Personality of 300 students of secondary schools of Mandya city. The Raven's Standard Progress Matrices was used to obtain the Academic Scores and Eysenk Personality Inventory was used to collect data regarding their Personality. Result reflects that there is negligible positive…

  19. Longitudinal Associations of Student-Teacher Relationships and Behavioural and Emotional Strengths on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sointu, Erkko T.; Savolainen, Hannu; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Lambert, Matthew C.

    2017-01-01

    Positive student-teacher relationships are related to students' academic achievement and behavioural and emotional adjustment. How a student's behavioural and emotional strengths are associated with these relationships and how the relationships influence students' academic performance remains unknown. We examined this framework using a…

  20. On the interplay between academic achievement and educational identity : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, Eleonora Ioana; Negru-Subtirica, Oana; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Opre, Adrian; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present three-wave longitudinal study provides empirical evidence for the mechanisms of the bright and dark sides of identity development in the academic context. First, we investigated the patterns of stability and change in educational identity and academic achievement among adolescents.

  1. The Role of Academic Motivation in Predicting Preservice EFL Teachers' Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkagaç, Senay; Öz, Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the possible relationship between academic motivation and academic achievement among preservice English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers. A total of 200 university students enrolled in an EFL teacher education program at a major state university voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected using…

  2. Sports Involvement and Academic Achievement: A Study of Malaysian University Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Chun Cheng; Yusof, Aminuddin; Shah, Parilah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Factors that influence the academic achievement of Malaysian university athletes were investigated using 156 field hockey players from several universities. The relationship between team subculture, parental influence, the learning environment, support systems, financial aid, training factors, academic assistance, socialization, and stress level…

  3. Relationships between Learning Approach, Procrastination and Academic Achievement amongst First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saele, Rannveig Grøm; Dahl, Tove Irene; Sørlie, Tore; Friborg, Oddgeir

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences in student learning influence academic performance, and two aspects influencing the learning process are the particular learning approach the students use and procrastination behaviour. We examined the relationships between learning approaches, procrastination and academic achievement (measured 1 year later as the grade…

  4. The Relationship between Student Attendance and Academic Achievement in a Selected South Dakota High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research available on the relationship between student attendance and academic achievement in secondary school. This quantitative, non-experimental study, conducted within a South Dakota high school of students in grades 9-12 during the years 2006-2012, examined the relationship between student attendance and academic achievement…

  5. Early Parenting Beliefs and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Ling, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated the association between parenting style and children's academic achievement, but the specific mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The development of skills that lay the foundation for academic success might be found in early parent-child interactions that foster language competence. Early negative…

  6. Perceived Social Support and Academic Achievement: Cross-Lagged Panel and Bivariate Growth Curve Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    As students transition to post-secondary education, they experience considerable stress and declines in academic performance. Perceived social support is thought to improve academic achievement by reducing stress. Longitudinal designs with three or more waves are needed in this area because they permit stronger causal inferences and help…

  7. Academic Achievement of Elementary Students: A Comparison Study of Student Athletes versus Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Kimberly Renee

    2013-01-01

    The place of sports in academic institutions has been analyzed at length for several years. However most studies focus on the participation of high school and university students in school sports. Very little research exists to suggest a positive or negative correlation between academic achievement and participation in interscholastic sports at…

  8. Examining Perceived Control Level and Instability as Predictors of First-Year College Students' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Hall, Nathan C.; Guay, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the intraindividual level and instability of perceived academic control (PC) among first-year college students, and their predictive effects on academic achievement. Two studies were conducted measuring situational (state) PC on different schedules: Study 1 (N = 242) five times over a 6-month period and…

  9. Influence of Parenting Styles on the Adjustment and Academic Achievement of Traditional College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Bartholomae, Suzanne; McKenry, Patrick C.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between parenting styles and academic achievement and adjustment of traditional college freshmen (N=101). Multiple regression models indicate that authoritative parenting style was positively related to student's academic adjustment. Self-esteem was significantly predictive of social, personal-emotional, goal…

  10. Degrees of Resilience: Profiling Psychological Resilience and Prospective Academic Achievement in University Inductees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, John F.; McKenna, Jim; Dominey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    University inductees may be increasingly vulnerable to stressors during transition into higher education (HE), requiring psychological resilience to achieve academic success. This study aimed to profile inductees' resilience and to investigate links to prospective end of year academic outcomes. Scores for resilience were based on a validated…

  11. The Relation between Time Management Skills and Academic Achievement of Potential Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemaloglu, Necati; Filiz, Sevil

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the time management skills and academic achievement of students who are potential teachers studying in faculties of education. The research was conducted in the 2007-08 academic term among 849 graduate students in the Faculty of Education at Gazi University. The "Time Management…

  12. Children's Sleep and Academic Achievement: The Moderating Role of Effortful Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Tao, Chun; Spinrad, Tracy; Doane, Leah D.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Southworth, Jody

    2017-01-01

    Poor sleep is thought to interfere with children's learning and academic achievement (AA). However, existing research and theory indicate there are factors that may mitigate the academic risk associated with poor sleep. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of children's effortful control (EC) on the relation between sleep…

  13. Work Valence as a Predictor of Academic Achievement in the Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik; Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study asserts a theoretical model of academic and work socialization within the family setting. The presumed associations between parents' work valences, children's work valences and valence perceptions, and children's academic interest and achievement are tested. The results suggest that children's perceptions of parents mediate the…

  14. Correlations between radiological technology graduates academic achievement and their obtainment of a license

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myeong Hwan; Kwon, Deok Moon; Seo, Soo Kyo

    2006-01-01

    The study analyzed the correlations between variables like characteristics related to admission, academic achievement, obtainment of a radiological technology license. A majority of participants were from Daegu and academic high schools. Many participants were accepted by general admission selection, and their reason to apply to Daegu Health College was high graduate employment. Their selection for the academic program was made by their parents and themselves. Those who took the same course twice held 35.1%, and those who got an academic warning took 8.5%. The degree of participants' academic achievement showed somewhat low, and they had difficulty in taking their major courses. The average grade for admission was lower in a following selection order: college graduates, general, special, and rural areas. The admission selections and taking science courses in high school showed little significant correlations with obtainment of a radiological technology license. However, the obtainment of the license had significant correlations with retaking the same course, getting an academic warning, and the degree of academic achievement. The results also revealed that the obtainment of the license had little significant correlations with a part-time job experience, having a boy/girlfriend, and student club participation, but it had significant correlations with accommodations and study club participation. In conclusion, it is important to point out that radiological technology graduates' obtainment of a license is closely related with the degree of their academic achievement and their college life

  15. Associations among Academic Achievement, Attention, and Adrenocortical Reactivity in Caribbean Village Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Durbrow, Eric H.; Adam, Emma; Gunnar, Megan; Bozoky, Ingrid K.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined associations among academic achievement problems, attention problems, and cortisol levels in 86 children (ages 5 to 12) in St. Vincent, the West Indies. Findings revealed that morning cortisol levels were more elevated at school than at home. Attention problems contributed negatively to academic scores. Children with the most…

  16. Gender Disparity Analysis in Academic Achievement at Higher Education Preparatory Schools: Case of South Wollo, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Amogne Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Gender is among the determinant factors affecting students' academic achievement. This paper tried to investigate the impact of gender on academic performance of preparatory secondary school students based on 2014 EHEECE result. Ex post facto research design was used. To that end, data were collected from 3243 students from eight purposively…

  17. The Association between Personal Characteristics and Educational Experiences with Academic Achievement among the Students Zanjan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    befrin MohammdZade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Learning Strategies includes overt and covert behaviors, which are associated with success in learning. On the other hand, training students who are able to live in environments with diverse values, rapid technological changes, and developments in the socio-cultural complex is one of the unique challenges to a university administrator. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the association of personal characteristics and educational experiences of the students of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences with their academic achievements. Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on the students of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences during 2014-2015 academic year. Students were selected through random stratified sampling based on gender and discipline (N=352. The research tool was the college students’ experiences questionnaire (CSEQ. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. Results: All three dimensions of college students’ experiences, including perceptions of quality of environment, quality of effort, and social integration are significant anticipators of their academic achievements respectively and predict 0.415 of achievements variances. Conclusion: Taking into account the personal characteristics and educational experiences of college students for their academic achievements in medical universities is essential. In spite of the impact of academic environments ranging from individuals and facilities for college students, improving these factors contribute to better communication between students and faculty members and.

  18. The Contribution of School-Related Parental Monitoring, Self-Determination, and Self-Efficacy to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affuso, Gaetana; Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of school-related parental monitoring (SR-PM), self-determined motivation, and academic self-efficacy to academic achievement across time. The authors hypothesized that SR-PM would affect academic achievement indirectly via its effects on self-determined motivation and academic self-efficacy…

  19. Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Academic Achievement: a Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dong Jun; So, Wi-Young; Jeong, Taikyeong Ted

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol consumption among adolescents is a serious public health problem in South Korea. Our study examined the relationship between alcohol consumption and academic achievement in Korean adolescents. In 2011, 75,643 students from seventh to twelfth grade participated in the Seventh Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-VII). We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the associations between alcohol consumption, frequency of severe alcohol intoxication, and academic achievement for both girls and boys. Compared to non-drinkers, the odds of achieving average or higher academic performance significantly decreased for both boys and girls with increasing number of days per month with reported alcohol consumption (p≤0.008). Further, odds of achieving average or higher academic performance significantly decreased with increasing amounts of alcohol consumed compared to non-drinkers (p≤0.026). Additionally, the odds of achieving average or higher academic performance according to the frequency of severe alcohol intoxication were only significantly decreased for 1-2 days per month of severe intoxication (pacademic achievement in Korea. To improve academic achievement, we recommend interventions that reduce alcohol consumption among adolescents. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  20. Addressing Reading Instruction to the Issue of Essential Academic Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Mufrihah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oral presentation and reading skill were the academic success indicators of undergraduate students; however, the majority of students in their first semester encountered the reading-related problem and presentation-related problem. Thereby, aims of this study were to increase the reading skill of college students, involving them in constructing of new knowledge and improving their oral presentation skill. Classroom action research was the method of this study and Ebbut Cycle Model as the research design. Nineteen undergraduate students who were enrolled in the first semester participated as respondent and a variety of data were collected through observation, anecdotal record, interview, and the mark of assignment. In the last cycle, it could be asserted that nearly all of respondents could deliver the classroom presentation properly which was prepared from new knowledge construction and group discussion.

  1. Is Alcohol Consumption Associated with Poor Academic Achievement in University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Stock, Christiane; Mills, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Background: We assessed associations between educational achievement and alcohol consumption. Methods: We employed five alcohol consumption measures (length of time of and amount consumed during most recent drinking occasion, frequency of alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking, problem drinking); and three educational achievement indicators (students’ subjective importance of achieving good grades, students’ appraisal of their academic performance in comparison with peers, students’ actual module mark). Results: Males were positively associated with all five alcohol consumption measures. Age was negatively associated with three alcohol consumption measures. While students´ importance of good grades was negatively associated with three alcohol consumption measures, academic performance in comparison with peers was negatively associated with heavy episodic drinking. Actual module mark was not associated with any alcohol consumption measure. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption showed negative associations with motivation for and subjectively achieved academic performance. University alcohol prevention activities might have positive impact on students’ academic success. PMID:24319558

  2. Socioeconomic status, physical fitness, self-concept, attitude toward physical education, and academic achievement of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktop, Abdurrahman

    2010-04-01

    The goal was to analyze the physical fitness, self-concept, attitudes toward physical education, and academic achievement of Turkish elementary school children by socioeconomic status. 198 (101 boys, 97 girls) students from Grades 7 and 8 completed the Children's Attitude Inventory towards Physical Education, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-concept Scale, and Eurofit Physical Fitness Test Battery. Significant differences were found between the groups of Low and High socioeconomic status (SES) in terms of physical fitness and academic achievement. While the Low SES group had higher mean scores on physical fitness, mean academic achievements of the High SES group were higher. Mean differences in height, self-concept, and children's attitudes toward physical education by socioeconomic status were not statistically significant. Particular attention should be paid to physical fitness in children of high socioeconomic status and the academic achievement of children with low socioeconomic status.

  3. The GOALS Study: The association between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 26 April). The GOALS Study: The association between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in adolescents. Presentation at the Learning & Cognition meeting, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  4. First selection, then influence : Developmental differences in friendship dynamics regarding academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, Mariola Claudia; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian; Veenstra, René

    This study concerns peer selection and influence dynamics in early adolescents' friendships regarding academic achievement. Using longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), both selection and influence processes were investigated for students' average grades and their cluster-specific grades

  5. The association between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 24 March). The association between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in adolescents. Presentation at the ICO Introduction course, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  6. Relationship between motor coordination, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Higashionna

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings stress that it is essential to accurately identify motor coordination impairments and the interventions that would consider motor coordination problems related to cognitive abilities and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  7. A Review of the Relationship between Parental Involvement and Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Shute

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between parental involvement (PI and academic achievement, with special focus on the secondary school (middle and high school level. The results first present how individual PI variables correlate with academic achievement and then move to more complex analyses of multiple variables on the general construct described in the literature. Several PI variables with correlations to academic achievement show promise: (a communication between children and parents about school activities and plans, (b parents holding high expectations/aspirations for their children's schooling, and (c parents employing an authoritative parenting style. We end the results section by discussing the findings in light of the limitations of nonexperimental research and the different effects of children's versus parents' perspectives on academic achievement.

  8. Longitudinal Associations Between Childhood Obesity and Academic Achievement: Systematic Review with Focus Group Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Booth, Josephine N; McGeown, Sarah; Niven, Ailsa; Sproule, John; Saunders, David H; Reilly, John J

    2017-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to review the evidence on longitudinal associations between child and adolescent obesity and academic achievement and to provide perceptions of adolescents with obesity and their parents on this topic. Synthesis of 31 studies (from 17 cohorts) suggested that relationships between obesity and academic achievement are not well established, except for adolescent girls' maths attainment, potentially mediated by both weight-related bullying and executive cognitive functions. Focus groups with adolescent girls with obesity confirmed experiences of psychosocial distress at school particularly during Physical Education. Adolescents perceived that obesity was not related to academic achievement directly, but by their attitude to school. Interventions are warranted to promote psychosocial wellbeing and cognitive abilities linked to academic achievement in adolescent girls with obesity. Physical Education should be a positive experience for children and adolescents with obesity.

  9. Academic Achievement and Perceived Peer Support among Turkish Students: Gender and Preschool Education Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat BURSAL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the academic achievement and perceived peer support levels of 4th-8th grade Turkish elementary and middle school students at low socio-economic status. Factorial design analyses were used to test the statistical effects of gender and preschool education variables on the dependent variables. The findings indicated that while girls performed a higher general academic achievement in school courses than boys, the perceived peer support levels were similar for both groups. On the other hand, although no significant effect of preschool education was detected on academic achievement, students who had completed preschool education were found to have significantly higher perceived peer support scores than their peers. Similar to findings of studies from non-Western contexts, no significant relationship was found between the Turkish students’ academic achievement and perceived peer support levels.

  10. Cooperative Learning: Does It Improve the Academic Achievement of Students with Handicaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateyama-Sniezek, Karen M.

    1990-01-01

    The article reviews the research on effects of cooperative learning on the academic achievement of students with handicaps. Findings of the 12 studies meeting the selection criteria were inconsistent. (Author/DB)

  11. The Effect of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Binnur; Kanadli, Sedat

    2017-01-01

    Problem Statement: Self-regulated learning strategies (cognitive, metacognitive, resource management, and motivational strategies) influence students' academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and motivation. Reviewing the national literature about self-regulated learning strategies, studies have indicated both significant and insignificant…

  12. On the interplay between academic achievement and educational identity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Eleonora Ioana; Negru-Subtirica, Oana; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Opre, Adrian; Meeus, Wim

    2016-02-01

    The present three-wave longitudinal study provides empirical evidence for the mechanisms of the bright and dark sides of identity development in the academic context. First, we investigated the patterns of stability and change in educational identity and academic achievement among adolescents. Second, we examined the reciprocal associations between identity processes (i.e., commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment) and academic achievement. The main results of the study highlighted that academic achievement predicts the manner in which adolescents deal with their identity issues in the academic context. Thus, high academic achievement leads to high levels of commitment (identity synthesis), while low academic achievement leads to high levels of reconsideration of commitment (identity confusion). This unidirectional pattern of effects applied equally to adolescent boys and girls, early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescents, and to adolescents attending theoretical and vocational schools. Practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  14. Cooperative learning and academic achievement: why does groupwork work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Slavin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Four major theoretical perspectives on achievement effects of cooperative learning are reviewed: Motivational, social cohesion, developmental, and cognitive elaboration. Evidence from practical classroom research primarily supports the motivational perspective, which emphasizes the use of group goals and individual accountability for group success. However, there are conditions under which methods derived from all four theoretical perspectives contribute to achievement gain. This chapter reconciles these perspectives in a unified theory of cooperative learning effects.

  15. The Relation of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors, and Academic Achievement Is Mediated by Fitness and Bedtime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syväoja, Heidi J; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kallio, Jouni; Hakonen, Harto; Kulmala, Janne; Hillman, Charles H; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the associations of subjectively and objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior with academic achievement. We further examined whether aerobic fitness, obesity, and bedtime mediate these associations. This study included 970 children aged 9-15 years (52.3% girls) from 9 schools throughout Finland. Register-based academic achievement [grade point average (GPA)] as well as self-reported and accelerometer-measured PA/sedentary behavior were assessed during spring 2013. Aerobic fitness (assessed via a maximal shuttle run test), body composition (assessed via bioimpedance analysis), and self-reported bedtime were collected. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the associations. Standardized regression coefficients are presented. Self-reported PA had a direct positive [β = 0.084; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.023 to 0.145] and an indirect positive association with GPA through higher aerobic fitness (β = 0.061; 95% CI, 0.033 to -0.087). Accelerometer-based PA was not associated with GPA. Self-reported screen time had an indirect negative association with GPA through later bedtime (β = -0.071; 95% CI, -0.096 to -0.035) and lower aerobic fitness (β = -0.039; 95% CI, -0.059 to 0.019). Nonscreen sedentary time had a direct positive (β = 0.193; 95% CI, 0.101 to -0.289) and an indirect negative association with GPA through lower aerobic fitness (β = -0.040; 95% CI, -0.063 to -0.016). Participating in PA, avoiding excessive screen time, and going to bed earlier may benefit academic achievement.

  16. Science homework with video directions for parents: The impact on parental involvement and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Kathy L.

    The benefits of effective parental involvement in education have been well documented and can be far reaching. When educators make an effort to involve families, parental involvement can be even more meaningful. Homework is a commonly practiced and accepted connection between school and home and affords parents many opportunities to interact with their children on educational endeavors. However, parental involvement may be limited because educators do not reach out to parents, parents feel their children do not need their help, or parents are unfamiliar with the content and therefore unable to help. The purpose of this study was too develop and implement a tool to enhance parental involvement and academic achievement of fourth grade science students. The tool used in this study was a weekly science video to be viewed by parents when it accompanied science homework assignments. To begin, the researcher created six science videos for parents to watch that supplemented weekly homework assignments. Consequently, the researcher set up treatment and comparison groups to test the effectiveness of the supplemental videos in terms of parental involvement and academic achievement. A mixed methods approach was used to collect data from parents and students throughout the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data was collected throughout this study from both parents and students. Additionally, data was collected from a variety of sources including baseline, midpoint, and endpoint surveys; scores on homework assignments; and focus group interview sessions with parents and students. Data analysis revealed an overall positive impact on parental involvement and academic achievement when the videos were utilized.

  17. Relationships among fitness, obesity, screen time and academic achievement in Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Noriteru; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Okita, Koichi; Ishihara, Toru; Sagawa, Masato; Yamatsu, Koji

    2016-09-01

    Students who study intensively in one of Japan's 'cram schools' and/or spend excess time on electronic devices such as video games are in a sedentary state much of the time, and this may affect their physical fitness. We investigated whether there are relationships among obesity, physical fitness and academic achievement in Japanese students after controlling for socioeconomic and behavioral confounding factors. The data of 315 students (152 females [48%], 163 males [52%]; 12-13yrs old) were analyzed. Academic achievement was assessed by the total grade points on eight school subjects (GP8). Students with a body mass index at or above the 85th percentile of each gender were classified as the overweight/obese group. Physical fitness was evaluated by the total score on eight fitness tests. Socioeconomic and behavioral confounders including the mother's educational background, household income, cram school utilization and time spent on video games/mobile phones were used as covariates. The GP8 of the overweight/obese students was significantly lower than that of the normal weight students (27.2 vs. 29.0 points, respectively). After adjusting for the confounders, the physical fitness score was found to be a significant factor for determinants of GP8 in boys (β=0.324), but not in girls. The obesity status was a factor for GP8 in the girls (β=-0.160) but not in the boys. These results suggest that physical fitness in boys and obesity status in girls could be important factors not only for health status but also for academic achievement, independent of socioeconomic and behavioral backgrounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlations between Academic Achievement and Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students Experiencing Integrated Curriculum Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Yeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program in their first semester of the new curriculum were recruited to complete the Zung's Anxiety and Depression Scale twice to examine their levels of anxiety and depression. Their academic achievement ratings in the four blocks of the first semester of the new curriculum were collected. The results indicated that no significant correlation was found between academic achievement and global anxiety and depression. However, by dividing the medical students into low, moderate and high level anxiety or depression groups, those who had poorer academic achievement in the first learning block were more likely to have higher levels of depression in the first psychologic assessment. Among the medical students who were in the high anxiety level group in the first psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the low anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had better academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the moderate anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the second learning block. Among the medical students who were in the high depression level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe depression had poorer academic achievement in the fourth

  19. The potential for using gamification in academic libraries in order to increase student engagement and achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential benefits of using gamification techniques to increase student engagement with library resources. It outlines the link between student use of library resources and academic achievement, and suggests that gamification has to potential to increase usage of resources, which may also increase academic achievement. Some early findings from an implementation of a gamification project, Lemontree, are also discussed in which students reported increased usage of libra...

  20. Academic and social achievement goals: Their additive, interactive, and specialized effects on school functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D

    2016-03-01

    Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and social achievement goals in outcome variables relevant to academic (achievement, effort/persistence), social (peer relationship satisfaction, loneliness), and socio-academic (cooperative learning, competitive learning, socially regulated, and self-regulated learning) functioning. A total of 356 Indonesian high-school students (mean age = 16 years; 36% girls) participated in the study. A self-report survey comprising items drawn from pre-existing instruments was administered to measure distinct dimensions of achievement goals and outcomes under focus. Regression analysis was performed to examine additive, interactive, and specialized effects of achievement goals on outcomes. Aligned with the hierarchical model of goal relationships (Wentzel, 2000, Contemp. Educ. Psychol., 25, 105), academic and social achievement goals bore additive effects on most outcomes. Findings also revealed a specialized effect on academic achievement and notable interactive effects on cooperative learning. In general, mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were more adaptive than their avoidance counterparts. The effects of social development goals were positive, whereas those of social demonstration-approach goals were mixed. Contrary to prior findings, social demonstration-avoidance goals did not appear to be inimical for school functioning. Findings underscore the importance of both academic and social achievement goals in day-to-day school functioning and the need to consider the meaning of goals and the coordination of multiple goals from cultural lenses. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.